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Sample records for undertake effective anti-bullying

  1. What Are the Perceptions of Administrators and Clinicians on an Effective Anti-Bully Prevention Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringas, Mary Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative case study examined the effective elements of a successful anti-bullying program through clinician and administrator perceptions. Previous studies have examined resources and interventions as curricular strategies, with some studies reflecting interventions as comprehensive programs; however, most studies do not provide…

  2. A meta-analysis of the effect of school-based anti-bullying programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunhee; Kim, Chun-Ja; Kim, Dong Hee

    2015-06-01

    Bullying is a serious public health problem, and many studies have examined the effect of school-based anti-bullying programs. However, these programs and those outcomes are complex, broad, and diverse. Research is needed into the optimal strategies for these comprehensive programs, which consider both the effectiveness and cost of programs. We performed a meta-analysis of 13 studies using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software package to calculate effect size (ES) and the Q statistic. We conducted subgroup analyses to examine the differences based on student grade level, program duration, and program strategy. The pooled ES calculation indicated that school-based anti-bullying programs have a small to moderate effect on victimization. The results of the Q test indicated significant heterogeneity across studies of victimization (Q = 39.625; I (2) = 69.7%; p bullying (p bullying programs should include training in emotional control, peer counseling, and the establishment of a school policy on bullying. © The Author(s) 2013.

  3. The Effect of an Experiential, Adventure-Based "Anti-Bullying Initiative" on Levels of Resilience: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beightol, Jesse; Jevertson, Jenn; Gray, Sky; Carter, Susan; Gass, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of an experiential, adventure-based "Anti-Bullying Initiative" on levels of resilience. The goal of this initiative was to create a more positive, caring, and safe learning environment for all students at a local elementary school in Santa Fe, New Mexico. Activities were designed to…

  4. Differential effects of the KiVa anti-bullying program on popular and unpopular bullies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garandeau, Claire F.; Lee, Ihno A.; Salmivalli, Christina

    2014-01-01

    This study utilized data from the evaluation of the Finnish KiVa program in testing the prediction that school bullies' high perceived popularity would impede the success of anti-bullying interventions. Multiple-group structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses were conducted on a subsample of 911

  5. Content analysis of school anti-bullying policies: a comparison between New Zealand and Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Louise; McGee, Rob; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Williams, Sheila

    2011-12-01

    To undertake a detailed analysis of the content of anti-bullying policies in schools in New Zealand (NZ) and Victoria, Australia. The content of anti-bullying policies from 253 NZ schools and 93 Victorian schools were analysed in terms of definitions of bullying behaviour; reporting, recording and responding to bullying incidents; communicating and evaluating the policy; and outlining strategies for preventing bullying. There was a wide range in 'policy scores' between schools, and Victorian schools scored higher on nearly every area compared with NZ schools. In both regions, definitions rarely included bullying on the grounds of homophobia, religion or disability; or bullying between adults and students. Policies also lacked detail about the responsibilities of non-teaching staff in dealing with bullying, and rarely described follow-up after a bullying incident. Few policies explained how the policy would be evaluated, and many failed to mention preventive strategies. This study highlights some important areas that are deficient in NZ and Victorian school anti-bullying policies, and emphasises the need for guidance on how schools can develop an effective anti-bullying policy. Having more comprehensive anti-bullying policies will give schools a much better chance of reducing bullying.

  6. The Effectiveness of “Undercover Anti-Bullying Teams” as Reported by Participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Winslade

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of archival data retrieved from a school counselor’s careful recording of student responses during the conducting of 35 “undercover anti-bullying teams” reveals a highly positive qualitative account of the success of these teams. A targeted, non-punitive, restorative process calls forth peer influence to transform the bullying relation in a short time-frame. The bullies are involved in the transformation and the victim is never required to confront the bullies. Student responses show that participants value the chance to help a peer, take up the responsibility of stopping bullying responsibly, and victims are happy with the results.

  7. Anti-Bullying/Harassment Legislation and Educator Perceptions of Severity, Effectiveness, and School Climate: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Heather E.; Nickerson, Amanda B.

    2017-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we examined a matched sample of 924 educators' perceptions of severity of bullying and harassment and school climate prior to (Wave 1 n = 435) and following (Wave 2 n = 489) the implementation of New York's anti-bullying and harassment legislation, the Dignity for All Students Act (DASA). Alignment with DASA mandates…

  8. KiVa Anti-Bullying Program in Italy: Evidence of Effectiveness in a Randomized Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocentini, Annalaura; Menesini, Ersilia

    2016-11-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the KiVa anti-bullying program in Italy through a randomized control trial of students in grades 4 and 6. The sample involved 2042 students (51 % female; grade 4, mean age = 8.85; ds = 0.43; grade 6, mean age = 10.93; ds = 0.50); 13 comprehensive schools were randomly assigned into intervention (KiVa) or control (usual school provision) conditions. Different outcomes (bullying, victimization, pro-bullying attitudes, pro-victim attitudes, empathy toward victims), analyses (longitudinal mixed model with multiple-item scales; longitudinal prevalence of bullies and victims using Olweus' single question), and estimates of effectiveness (Cohen's d; odds ratios) were considered in order to compare the Italian results with those from other countries. Multilevel models showed that KiVa reduced bullying and victimization and increased pro-victim attitudes and empathy toward the victim in grade 4, with effect sizes from 0.24 to 0.40. In grade 6, KiVa reduced bullying, victimization, and pro-bullying attitudes; the effects were smaller as compared to grade 4, yet significant (d ≥ 0.20). Finally, using Olweus dichotomous definition of bullies and victims, results showed that the odds of being a victim were 1.93 times higher for a control student than for a KiVa student in grade 4. Overall, the findings provide evidence of the effectiveness of the program in Italy; the discussion will focus on factors that influenced successfully the transportability of the KiVa program in Italy.

  9. A Multilevel, Statewide Investigation of School District Anti-Bullying Policy Quality and Student Bullying Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, Amy L.; Cousin, Molly; Borowsky, Iris W.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although nearly all states in the United States require school districts to adopt anti-bullying policies, little research examines the effect of these policies on student bullying and health. Using a statewide sample, we investigated associations between the quality of school district anti-bullying policies and student bullying…

  10. Do Anti-Bullying Laws Reduce Youth Violence?

    OpenAIRE

    Sabia, Joseph J.; Bass, Brittany

    2015-01-01

    This study is the first to comprehensively examine the effect of state anti-bullying laws (ABLs) on youth violence. Using data from a variety of sources – including the Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, Uniform Crime Reports, and newly collected data on school shootings – we find that the enforcement of strict, comprehensive school district anti-bullying policies is associated with a 7 to 13 percent reduction in school violence and an 8 to 12 percent reduction in bullying. Our results also show th...

  11. Creating an Anti-Bullying Culture in Secondary Schools: Characteristics to Consider When Constructing Appropriate Anti-Bullying Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Joseph R.; Augustine, Sharon Murphy

    2015-01-01

    Bullying in schools is a tremendous challenge that many secondary educators are attempting to address within their school environments. However, educators are often unsure of the attributes of an effective anti-bullying program; thus, they tend to create programs on a "trial and error" basis. This article provides an overview of the…

  12. The Support Group Approach in the Dutch Kiva Anti-Bullying Programme: Effects on Victimisation, Defending and Well-Being at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, Rozemarijn; Steglich, Christian; Veenstra, René

    2016-01-01

    Background: School bullying is a wide-spread problem with severe consequences for victims, bullies and bystanders. Schools are strongly encouraged to implement both schoolwide, preventive interventions and reactive measures to handle existing bullying situations. In the Dutch implementation of the KiVa anti-bullying programme, pervasive-bullying…

  13. Efektivitas Layanan Informasi Menggunakan Media Animasi Meningkatkan Sikap Anti Bullying Peserta Didik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirnayenti Mirnayenti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Individual attitudes can occur because of social interaction. Some learners anyone dared to oppose, silent and engaged in acts of bullying, so that the necessary efforts to improve anti-bullying stance. The attitude of the students towards bullying that can be seen in the journal cases BK teacher / school counselor. One of the efforts made in improving the anti bullying learners with information services. This study aimed to test the effectiveness of media information services using animation to enhance the anti-bullying attitudes of learners. This study uses quantitative methods. This research is a Quasi Experiment with pretest-posttest control group design. The study population was students of SMPN 13 Padang as EG and SMP 12 Padang as CG and samples selected using purposive sampling technique. The research instrument used Likert Scale models, then analyzed using the t-test with SPSS version 17. The findings of this study are: (1 there is a significant difference between anti bullying learners EG before and after following the service information using animation media, (2 there is a difference between the attitude of anti-bullying learners KK before and after following the service information without the use of animation media , (3 there is a difference in attitude differences anti bullying learners CG given treatment information services using animation media, with families given treatment information services without the use of animation media. Based on the above findings, we can conclude that the service information using animation media effectively improve anti-bullying attitudes of learners.

  14. Structural Liberalism and Anti-Bullying Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaught, Sabina E.

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the legal, semantic, and material implications of Massachusetts' anti-bullying law through an analytic framework of structural liberalism. Specifically, this article asks how the law produces categories of fit and unfit subjects of the state through raced and gendered practices of individualism, paternalism, meliorism,…

  15. Anti-bullying Policies and Disparities in Bullying: A State-Level Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Flores, Javier E; Cavanaugh, Joseph E; Onwuachi-Willig, Angela; Ramirez, Marizen R

    2017-08-01

    Recent research suggests that anti-bullying laws may be effective in reducing risk of bullying victimization among youth, but no research has determined whether these laws are also effective in reducing disparities in bullying. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effectiveness of anti-bullying legislation in reducing disparities in sex- and weight-based bullying and cyberbullying victimization. Data on anti-bullying legislation were obtained from the U.S. Department of Education, which commissioned a systematic review of 16 key components of state laws in 2011. States were also categorized based on whether their legislation enumerated protected groups and, if so, which groups were enumerated. These policy variables from 28 states were linked to individual-level data on bullying and cyberbullying victimization from students in 9th through 12th grade participating in the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System study (N=79,577). Analyses were conducted in 2016. There was an absence of any kind of moderating effect of anti-bullying legislation on weight-based disparities in bullying and cyberbullying victimization. Only state laws with high compliance to Department of Education enumeration guidelines were associated with lower sex-based disparities in bullying victimization. Anti-bullying policies were not associated with lower weight-based disparities in bullying and cyberbullying victimization among youth, and only one form of policies (high compliance to Department of Education enumeration guidelines) was associated with lower sex-based disparities in bullying victimization. Results therefore suggest that anti-bullying legislation requires further refinement to protect youth who are vulnerable to bullying victimization. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Inclusive anti-bullying policies and reduced risk of suicide attempts in lesbian and gay youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Keyes, Katherine M

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate whether anti-bullying policies that are inclusive of sexual orientation are associated with a reduced prevalence of suicide attempts among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths. A total of 31,852 11th-grade public school students (1,413 lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals; 4.4%) in Oregon completed the Oregon Healthy Teens survey in 2006-2008. The independent variable was the proportion of school districts in the 34 counties participating in the Oregon Healthy Teens survey that adopted anti-bullying policies inclusive of sexual orientation. The outcome measure was any self-reported suicide attempt in the past 12 months. We stratified results by sexual orientation. Lesbian and gay youths living in counties with fewer school districts with inclusive anti-bullying policies were 2.25 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-4.49) more likely to have attempted suicide in the past year compared with those living in counties where more districts had these policies. Inclusive anti-bullying policies were significantly associated with a reduced risk for suicide attempts among lesbian and gay youths, even after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics (sex, race/ethnicity) and exposure to peer victimization (odds ratio, .18; 95% CI, .03-.92). In contrast, anti-bullying policies that did not include sexual orientation were not associated with lower suicide attempts among lesbian and gay youths (odds ratio, .38; 95% CI, .02-7.33). Inclusive anti-bullying policies may exert protective effects for the mental health of lesbian and gay youths, including reducing their risk for suicide attempts. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Teacher factors contributing to dosage of the KiVa anti-bullying program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Lauren E; Hubbard, Julie A; Bookhout, Megan K; Grassetti, Stevie N; Smith, Marissa A; Morrow, Michael T

    2017-12-01

    The KiVa Anti-Bullying Program (KiVa) seeks to meet the growing need for anti-bullying programming through a school-based, teacher-led intervention for elementary school children. The goals of this study were to examine how intervention dosage impacts outcomes of KiVa and how teacher factors influence dosage. Participants included 74 teachers and 1409 4th- and 5th-grade students in nine elementary schools. Teachers and students completed data collection at the beginning and end of the school year, including measures of bullying and victimization, correlates of victimization (depression, anxiety, peer rejection, withdrawal, and school avoidance), intervention cognitions/emotions (anti-bullying attitudes, and empathy toward victims), bystander behaviors, and teacher factors thought to relate to dosage (self-efficacy for teaching, professional burnout, perceived principal support, expected effectiveness of KiVa, perceived feasibility of KiVa). The dosage of KiVa delivered to classrooms was measured throughout the school year. Results highlight dosage as an important predictor of change in bullying, victimization, correlates of victimization, bystander behavior, and intervention cognitions/emotions. Of the teacher factors, professional burnout uniquely predicted intervention dosage. A comprehensive structural equation model linking professional burnout to dosage and then to child-level outcomes demonstrated good fit. Implications for intervention design and implementation are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. TEACHERS' KNOWLEDGE OF BULLYING AND THEIR ANTI-BULLYING ATTITUDE

    OpenAIRE

    Yzedin Hajdaraj

    2017-01-01

    It has been shown that bullying is a serious problem in schools. Teachers are the ones who play an important role in stopping bullying in schools. It is essential to understand what teachers know about bullying, what their attitude towards it is and how they implement the anti-bullying policy. The attitudes of teachers and the culture they nurture will influence which anti-bullying strategies they will use which can benefit the school. In this context, based on the literature review, this pap...

  19. Peer Victimization and Anxiety in Genetically Vulnerable Youth: The Protective Roles of Teachers' Self-Efficacy and Anti-Bullying Classroom Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimond, Fanny-Alexandra; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel

    2015-08-01

    Many victimized youngsters are at risk of developing internalizing problems, and this risk seems to be especially pronounced when they are genetically vulnerable for these problems. It is unclear, however, whether protective features of the school environment such as anti-bullying classroom policies and teacher's perceived self-efficacy in handling bullying situations can mitigate these negative outcomes. Using a genetically informed design based on twins, this study examined the potential moderating role of classroom anti-bullying policies and teachers' perceived self-efficacy in handling bullying situations in regard to the additive and interactive effects of peer victimization and genetic vulnerability on anxiety symptoms. To this end, 208 monozygotic and same-sex dizygotic twins (120 girls) rated their level of anxiety and peer victimization in grade 6 (mean age = 12.1 years, SD = 2.8). Teachers rated their self-efficacy in handling bullying situations and the extent of anti-bullying classroom policies. Multilevel regressions revealed triple interactions showing that genetic disposition for anxiety predicted actual anxiety for twins who were highly victimized by their peers, but only when their teachers had low perceived self-efficacy in handling bullying situations or when anti-bullying classroom rules were absent or rarely enforced. In contrast, for victimized youth with teachers who perceive themselves as effective or in classrooms where anti-bullying classroom policies were strongly enforced, genetic disposition for anxiety was not associated with actual anxiety symptoms. Anti-bullying programs should continue to promote teachers' involvement, as well as the enforcement of anti-bullying classroom policies, in order to diminish peer victimization and its related consequences.

  20. Teachers' Perspectives about an Anti-Bullying Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Robin Rawlings; Maldonado, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Bullying has become a nationwide concern at the K-12 level. Guided by the theoretical framework of social learning theory, this study explored the perceptions of secondary education teachers about the bully-proofing program in place at one target middle school. Despite the target middle school's anti-bullying program, the incidence of bullying had…

  1. TEACHERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF ANTI-BULLYING INTERVENTIONS AND THE TYPES OF BULLYING EACH INTERVENTION PREVENTS

    OpenAIRE

    EMMA ELISE ROBERTS

    2011-01-01

    Teachers have a central role in the management and prevention of bullying within schools and are in turn involved in the implementation of anti-bullying interventions (Kochenderfer-Ladd & Pelletier, 2008). Therefore an assessment of teachers’ attitudes towards bullying interventions is needed to determine how helpful they perceived interventions to be. This study investigated teachers’ attitudes towards anti-bullying interventions and the types of bullying they perceived the interventions wou...

  2. A Descriptive Analysis of Louisiana Public School Districts' Anti-Bullying Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Brandy Elise Robinson

    2013-01-01

    The researcher proposed to determine the expansiveness of Louisiana's public school districts' anti-bullying policies. Specifically, student codes of conduct and board polices were analyzed to determine the extent to which schools define, outline reporting procedures, keep written records of, investigate, and render disciplinary sanctions against…

  3. Resilience to Bullying: Towards an Alternative to the Anti-Bullying Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brian; Woodcock, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    Anti-bullying strategies are significant approaches addressing bullying in schools, however their capacity to produce a reduction in bullying behaviour is open to question. This article examined a resilience-based approach to bullying. One hundred and five primary and high school students were surveyed using several standardised instruments. The…

  4. A Content Analysis of School Anti-Bullying Policies in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Noel; Smith, Peter K.

    2016-01-01

    This original study presents a content analysis of 100 primary and post-primary school anti-bullying policies in Northern Ireland using a 36-item scoring scheme. Overall schools had 52% of the items in their policies. Most schools included reference to physical, verbal, relational, material and cyberbullying but a minority mentioned racist,…

  5. Sacred Shock: Student Actors on Anti-Bullying Improvisation and Impact of Self-Rehearsal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Sharlene Elinor

    2017-01-01

    This article describes responses of a group of adolescent student actors and actor alumni involved in anti-bullying skits arising from a critical case study of the Tolerance Troupe from a small rural and suburban borough in Pennsylvania. Seventeen active members and 19 actor alumni participated in semi-structured interviews focusing on what the…

  6. Considering Mindfulness Techniques in School-based Anti-bullying Programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mairead Foody

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Schools have a duty of care to all students and to directly prevent and intervene with bullying amongst children and adolescents. The emergence of cyberbullying escalates this responsibility as the strategies that have become appropriate at national levels for bullying do not always parallel over to online environments. The impact on mental health is the most obvious concern for those responsible for reducing bullying, however, input from psychologists and mental health professionals is scant and often limited on this topic. This paper outlines what bullying is and the devastating impact it can have on the mental health of those involved. It will outline the most common anti-bullying initiatives as well as the current psychological and educational techniques, which could also be used to alleviate distress associated with bullying involvement. We will focus specifically on the role of mindfulness techniques and argue for more of such exercises to be included in whole-school bullying programmes. We conclude by arguing the need to investigate components relevant to both mindfulness and anti-bullying programmes (e.g., empathy, perspective-taking as active ingredients for reducing the impact of bullying on mental health.

  7. Reading Partridge's "The Goblet Club" as an Integral Part of a Secondary School's Anti-Bullying Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wet, Corene

    2017-01-01

    Notwithstanding legislation and individual schools' codes of conduct prohibiting bullying, bullying is an escalating problem in South African schools. It seems as if existing anti-bullying policies, programmes and intervention strategies are failing to address the scourge. Bibliotherapy has been identified as a way to strengthen schools' existing…

  8. Tackling acute cases of school bullying in the KiVa anti-bullying program: a comparison of two approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garandeau, Claire F; Poskiparta, Elisa; Salmivalli, Christina

    2014-08-01

    Whether cases of bullying should be handled in a direct, condemning mode or in a manner that does not involve blaming the perpetrator is a controversial issue among school professionals. This study compares the effectiveness of a Confronting Approach where the bully is openly told that his behavior must cease immediately to a Non-Confronting Approach where the adult shares his concern about the victim with the bully and invites him to provide suggestions on what could improve the situation. We analysed 339 cases of bullying involving 314 children from grades 1 to 9 (mean age = 11.95). Cases were handled in 65 schools as part of the implementation of the KiVa anti-bullying program. In each school, a team of three teachers addressed cases coming to their attention by organizing discussions with the bullies using either a Confronting or a Non-Confronting Approach; schools were randomly assigned to one of the two conditions. Victims reported that bullying stopped in 78 % of the cases. Logistic regression analyses indicated that neither approach was overall more effective than the other, controlling for grade level, duration of victimization and type of aggression. The Confronting Approach worked better than the Non-Confronting Approach in secondary school (grades 7 to 9), but not in primary school (grades 1 to 6). The Confronting Approach was more successful than the Non-Confronting Approach in cases of short-term victimization, but not in cases of long-term victimization. The type of aggression used did not moderate the effectiveness of either approach.

  9. JET Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, B.E.

    1987-03-01

    The paper presents the progress report of the Joint European Torus (JET) Joint Undertaking, 1986. The report contains a survey of the scientific and technical achievements on JET during 1986; the more important articles referred to in this survey are reproduced as appendices to this Report. The last section discusses developments which might improve the overall performance of the machine. (U.K.)

  10. Effects of Periodic Task-Specific Test Feedback on Physical Performance in Older Adults Undertaking Band-Based Resistance Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuichi Hasegawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of periodic task-specific test feedback on performance improvement in older adults undertaking community- and home-based resistance exercises (CHBRE. Fifty-two older adults (65–83 years were assigned to a muscular perfsormance feedback group (MPG, n=32 or a functional mobility feedback group (FMG, n=20. Both groups received exactly the same 9-week CHBRE program comprising one community-based and two home-based sessions per week. Muscle performance included arm curls and chair stands in 30 seconds, while functional mobility was determined by the timed up and go (TUG test. MPG received fortnightly test feedback only on muscle performance and FMG received feedback only on the TUG. Following training, there was a significant (P<0.05 interaction for all performance tests with MPG improving more for the arm curls (MPG 31.4%, FMG 15.9% and chair stands (MPG 33.7%, FMG 24.9% while FMG improved more for the TUG (MPG-3.5%, FMG-9.7%. Results from this nonrandomized study suggest that periodic test feedback during resistance training may enhance task-specific physical performance in older persons, thereby augmenting reserve capacity or potentially reducing the time required to recover functional abilities.

  11. Public Undertakings and Imputability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard

    2013-01-01

    exercised by the State, imputability to the State, and the State’s fulfilment of the Market Economy Investor Principle. Furthermore, it is examined whether, in the absence of imputability, public undertakings’ market behaviour is subject to the Market Economy Investor Principle, and it is concluded...... that this is not the case. Lastly, it is discussed whether other legal instruments, namely competition law, public procurement law, or the Transparency Directive, regulate public undertakings’ market behaviour. It is found that those rules are not sufficient to mend the gap created by the imputability requirement. Legal......In this article, the issue of impuability to the State of public undertakings’ decision-making is analysed and discussed in the context of the DSBFirst case. DSBFirst is owned by the independent public undertaking DSB and the private undertaking FirstGroup plc and won the contracts in the 2008...

  12. Improving anti-bullying laws and policies to protect youth from weight-based victimization: parental support for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, R M; Suh, Y; Li, X

    2017-04-01

    Weight-based bullying is a prevalent problem among youth with overweight and obesity, but remains neglected in existing policy-level strategies to address youth bullying. Parental support is an influential catalyst motivating political will for policy decisions affecting youth, but has received limited research attention. To assess levels of, and predictors of, parental support for school-based policies and state/federal legal measures to address weight-based bullying in 2014 and 2015. Identical online questionnaires were completed by two independent national samples of parents in 2014 and 2015 (N = 1804). Parental support for all policy actions was high (at least 81%) and significantly increased from 2014 to 2015 for legal measures that would a) require state anti-bullying laws to add protections against weight-based bullying, and b) enact a federal anti-bullying law that includes weight-based bullying. These findings can inform policy discourse about remedies for youth bullying, and suggest that parental support for improved legal protections against weight-based bullying is present, consistent, and strong. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  13. Middle School Students' Perceptions of Bullying and the Effects of an Anti-Bullying Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ann M.

    2013-01-01

    The problem of bullying in schools is an issue of national importance. Research points to an abundance of negative impacts on students involved in bullying and require the attention of adults to address and resolve bullying incidents between students. This study, giving credence to the voices of eighth graders in one central Massachusetts middle…

  14. Estimation of skin, organ and effective doses of patients who undertake head CT scan in 4 medical radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahreyni Toosi, M.T.; Khalilpour, M.

    2007-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. CT was first introduced into clinical practice in 1972, and has since grown into one of the predominant diagnostic procedures. In this work we have estimated patient dose arising from CT examination of brain in four hospitals in Mashhad. Organ and effective doses were estimated for 123 patients who underwent CT examination of brain. 'ImPACT' version 0.99w was used to estimate organ and effective dose. ESD of same patients were measured by TLD-100. Brain examinations were performed with fixed kV, mA and T (slice thickness) for each scanner. The CT Scanners investigated in this study were GE HiLight, Siemens Somatom AR-T, Somatom Balance and Shimadzu SCT. Summary of our findings are as follows: Application of 'ImPACT' software enabled us to compute Bone marrow (red), Brain, Thyroid and effective doses of all patients. Table 1 shows the average organ dose (Brain, Bone marrow (red), Thyroid), mean effective dose and mean ESD were measured by TLD for each patients. Patients, who were scanned by Siemens Somatom AR-T, received maximum organ dose (brain) equal to 25.64 mGy and minimum organ dose equal to 0.21 mGy was delivered to thyroid of patients who were scanned by GE HiLight Scanner. Our average effective dose (0.54 ± 0.02 mSv) is smaller than the corresponding value (0.75 ± 0.03 mSv) obtained by Peter F. Caracappa (M.Sc dissertation submitted to the Faculty of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York April 2004). Scanning by Siemens Somatom AR-T, gave rise to maximum ESD (equal to 16.22 mGy). On the other hand minimum ESD (5.51 mGy) was achieved when patients were scanned by GE HiLight machine. ESD values and organ doses acquired in this work by two different methods, TLD measurement and computing by 'ImPACT' software; are in good agreement and this is an indication of the accuracy and validity of both sets of results.

  15. Accounting Systems for New Public Sector Undertakings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accounting Systems for New Public Sector Undertakings Management: A Case Study. ... African Journal of Finance and Management ... It concludes that the current accounting systems such as financial accounting, cost accounting and reporting systems are not suitable for the effective and efficient management.

  16. Jet Joint Undertaking. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    The scientific, technical, experimental and theoretical investigations related to JET tokamak are presented. The JET Joint Undertaking, Volume 2, includes papers presented at: the 15th European Conference on controlled fusion and plasma heating, the 15th Symposium on fusion technology, the 12th IAEA Conference on plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research, the 8th Topical Meeting on technology of fusion. Moreover, the following topics, concerning JET, are discussed: experience with wall materials, plasma performance, high power ion cyclotron resonance heating, plasma boundary, results and prospects for fusion, preparation for D-T operation, active gas handling system and remote handling equipment

  17. VIRTUAL ANTI-BULLYING VILLAGE PROJECT FOR COPING WITH BULLYING AND CYBERBULLYING WITHIN A 3D VIRTUAL LEARNING ENVIRONMENT: EVALUATION RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorit Olenik Shemesh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study aims to evaluate the implementation of a unique educational project- The Virtual Anti-Bullying Village for Kids and Teens (ABV4KIDS that was designed and operated by the European Commission. A 3D virtual environment as an innovative, international project for adolescents, focused on knowledge acquisition and new ways of coping with bullying and cyberbullying. Sixty seventh graders-Israeli adolescents-completed five questionnaires before and after the project to assess its impacts regarding cyberbullying and socio-emotional variables. They evaluated the project as important, enjoyable, and increasing their knowledge about cyberbullying, but expressed a need for more practical tools for coping. At the end of the project, the control group reported more cyberbullying experiences, as well as a decrease in social support, whereas the research group reported no changes in cyberbullying experiences and in socio-emotional aspects.

  18. Presentation and management of school bullying and the impact of anti-bullying strategies for pupils: a self-report survey in London schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynor, S; Wylie, A

    2012-09-01

    To investigate differences in the presentation and management of bullying in two London boroughs, one with high levels of deprivation and the other with low levels of deprivation; and to explore pupils' views on successful approaches to tackle bullying. Problems associated with bullying in childhood can manifest with mental disorders, depression and poorer perceived health in adulthood. However, despite the recent development of anti-bullying policies within schools, bullying remains a significant issue for many pupils. An original self-report survey was undertaken to investigate this important area. A web-based questionnaire was undertaken with pupils from year 8 (aged 12-13 years) at four secondary schools in London. The study was approved by King's College London Research Ethics Committee. In total, 304 pupils completed the questionnaire, 55% of whom were affected by bullying at their school. Deprivation had no impact on the prevalence of pupils involved in a bullying culture. School membership is the most important independent factor for determining bullying. Policy could be aimed at changing pupils' views on dealing with bullying, and it is vital that policies and practices around bullying are active and alive and do not become 'file fodder'. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effectiveness of Policy Interventions for School Bullying: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, William

    2017-01-01

    Objective Bullying threatens the mental and educational well-being of students. Although anti-bullying policies are prevalent, little is known about their effectiveness. This systematic review evaluates the methodological characteristics and summarizes substantive findings of studies examining the effectiveness of school bullying policies. Method Searches of 11 bibliographic databases yielded 489 studies completed since January 1, 1995. Following duplicate removal and double-independent screening based on a priori inclusion criteria, 21 studies were included for review. Results Substantially more educators perceive anti-bullying policies to be effective rather than ineffective. Whereas several studies show that the presence or quality of policies is associated with lower rates of bullying among students, other studies found no such associations between policy presence or quality and reductions in bullying. Consistent across studies, this review found that schools with anti-bullying policies that enumerated protections based on sexual orientation and gender identity were associated with better protection of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) students. Specifically, LGBTQ students in schools with such policies reported less harassment and more frequent and effective intervention by school personnel. Findings are mixed regarding the relationship between having an anti-bullying policy and educators’ responsiveness to general bullying. Conclusions Anti-bullying policies might be effective at reducing bullying if their content is based on evidence and sound theory and if they are implemented with a high level of fidelity. More research is needed to improve on limitations among extant studies. PMID:28344750

  20. Correlation Between the Efficiency of Machinery and Equipment and the Productivity of Workers and its Effect on the Performance of a Metallurgical Undertaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulawik, A.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the example of procedure of life and objectify work effectiveness analysis in metallurgical enterprise were presented. Besides, on the example of chosen units of metallurgical enterprise, results of analysis - based on methodic proposed in the article - were discussed.

  1. Effects and safety of GnRH-a as a luteal support in women undertaking assisted reproductive technology procedures: follow-up results for pregnancy, delivery, and neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weiqin; Zhuang, Yanyan; Pan, Yanping; Xia, Fei

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the effects and safety of gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue (GnRH-a) as an addition to progesterone luteal support in women who underwent in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection-embryo transfer (IVF/ICSI-ET) and achieved a clinical pregnancy. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 214 patients who underwent IVF/ICSI-ET procedures with standard long mid-luteal protocol, of which 123 received GnRH-a-free protocol and 91 received GnRH-a-added protocol. The patients' pregnancy and delivery course, and their neonates' status at birth and growth/development after birth were statistically compared. There was no significant difference between both study groups regarding embryo risks and maternal complications during early pregnancy. as well as fetal risks during the middle and late stages and neonate risks during birth, except that the twin pregnancies of the GnRH-a-added group had a considerably greater male/female ratio, and a significantly higher rate of premature delivery and low birth weight than those of the GnRH-a-free group. In addition, there was no significant difference in neonate risks within 2 years after birth between both cohorts. With precautions taken to control the number of implanted embryos and reduce the incidence of twinning pregnancy, the addition of GnRH-a to luteal support is relatively safe and effective.

  2. An evaluation of a drama program to enhance social relationships and anti-bullying at elementary school: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joronen, Katja; Konu, Anne; Rankin, H Sally; Astedt-Kurki, Päivi

    2012-03-01

    Drama, theater and role-playing methods are commonly used in health promotion programs, but evidence of their effectiveness is limited. This paper describes the development, implementation and evaluation of a school-based drama program to enhance social relationships and decrease bullying at school in children in grades 4-5 (mean age of 10.4 years). Students (n = 190) were recruited from two primary schools with similar demographics and socio-economics in the Southern Finland and purposively allocated either to an intervention group or a control group. The drama program included classroom drama sessions, follow-up activities at home and three parents' evenings concerning issues of social well being during the school year September 2007-May 2008. Data on social relationships in the class room and experiences of bullying were obtained before and after the program using self-completed questionnaire from the same students (n = 134). The response rate was 71%. No differences in socio-demographics existed between intervention group and control group at pretest. The positive effect on social relationships resulting from the intervention approached statistical significance (p = 0.065). Moreover, the positive effect was found to be statistically significant in the high-intensity intervention classes (p = 0.011). Bullying victimization decreased 20.7 percentage units from pretest (58.8%) to posttest (38.1%) in the intervention group (p drama and theater methods in the classroom may improve children's social relationships at school.

  3. JET joint undertaking. Annual report 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    This document is intended for information only and should not be used as a technical reference. After an introductive part on the controlled nuclear fusion research and an historical survey of the JET project, are presented: the JET joint undertaking (members of council and committee...) with its administration (finance, personnel, external relations), and the scientific and technical department with its divisions for systems (experimental, magnet, plasma, assembly, power supplies, control and data acquisition, and site and building). In appendix is described the Euratom fusion research programme

  4. The support group approach in the Dutch KiVa anti-bullying programme : Effects on victimisation, defending and well-being at school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, Rozemarijn; Steglich, Christian; Veenstra, René

    Background: School bullying is a wide-spread problem with severe consequences for victims, bullies and bystanders. Schools are strongly encouraged to implement both schoolwide, preventive interventions and reactive measures to handle existing bullying situations. In the Dutch implementation of the

  5. Stand by Me: The Effects of a Police Anti-Bullying Presentation on South Korean High School Students' Attitudes about Bullying and Willingness to Intervene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loui, Kenny

    2017-01-01

    Upon assuming the presidency of the Republic of Korea in 2013, Park Geun-hye announced her administration's priority to address the country's "Four Social Evils"--sexual violence, domestic violence, school bullying, and unsafe food products. As part of this initiative, the ROK national government urged police officers to implement…

  6. Students Collaborating to Undertake Tracking Efforts for Sturgeon(SCUTES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Students Collaborating to Undertake Tracking Efforts for Sturgeon (SCUTES) is a collaboration between NOAA Fisheries, sturgeon researchers, and teachers/educators in...

  7. Best practice in undertaking and reporting health technology assessments : Working Group 4 report

    OpenAIRE

    Busse, R.; Orvain, J.; Velasco, M.; Perleth, M.; Drummond, M.; Gurtner, F.; Jorgensen, T.; Jovell, A.; Malone, J.; Ruther, A; Wild, C.

    2002-01-01

    [Executive Summary] The aim of Working Group 4 has been to develop and disseminate best practice in undertaking and reporting assessments, and to identify needs for methodologic development. Health technology assessment (HTA) is a multidisciplinary activity that systematically examines the technical performance, safety, clinical efficacy, and effectiveness, cost, costeffectiveness, organizational implications, social consequences, legal, and ethical considerations of the application of a heal...

  8. Non-financial reporting, CSR frameworks and groups of undertakings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabó, Dániel Gergely; Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2017-01-01

    The recently adopted Directive on non-financial reporting (Directive 2014/95/EU) and several CSR frameworks are based on the assumption that groups of undertakings adopt, report and implement one group policy. This is a very important but also rather unique approach to groups. This article first...

  9. Using an undertaker's data to assess changing patterns of mortality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key informant interviews were done to support the undertaker's data and determine how families bear the burden of burying deceased relatives. Despite a disproportionate increase in deaths in certain age categories and evidence of worsening poverty, funerals remain large and elaborate affairs. Keywords: AIDS, burial ...

  10. Original article Personality determinants of motivation to undertake vocational training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Godlewska-Werner

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Recently, at a time of frequent changes in the economic and socio-economic circumstances, knowledge acquired in the course of formal education is insufficient. Especially, the education system is still criticized for a lack of flexibility and strong resistance to change. Therefore, regular participation in various forms of training is required. Employee education and training are becoming an optimal answer to complex business challenges. The aim of this study was to determine which personality traits are responsible for the strength of motivation to undertake vocational training and other educational forms. Participants and procedure The study included 104 staff members of Polish companies (60 women and 44 men. The study used Cattell’s 16 PF Questionnaire and the scales of readiness to undertake training and further education as a measure of the strength of motivation (Kawecka, Łaguna & Tabor, 2010. Results The study showed that openness to change and tension (primary traits had the greatest impact on the intention and planning to take vocational training. Additionally, the intention and planning to take vocational training were found to be associated with mindedness, independence, self-control, and anxiety (secondary traits. Such traits as rule-consciousness [G], social-boldness [H], abstractedness [M], and apprehension [O] (primary traits, were important in some aspects, which could constitute a background for further research and discussion of the results. Conclusions The obtained results lead to the conclusion that some of the individual differences in personality determine the motivation to undertake vocational training.

  11. Anti-bullying intervention: implementation and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmivalli, C.; Kaukiainen, A.; Voeten, M.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Background. The participant role approach represents a view of bullying as a group process in which bystanders often encourage the bullying or silently witness it, while little support is given to the victim (e.g. Salmivalli, Lagerspetz, Björkqvist, Österman, & Kaukiainen, 1996). There is a

  12. Changes in the functions of undertakings in electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberlack, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    For the electricity supply industry also it is necessary, by means of more intensive publicity work, to achieve the general realisation that neither new laws nor intervention of the state are required for dealing in the interests of the consumer with the problems arising, from great changes in all fields of business enterprise. It is more important for the electricity supply undertakings (EVU), by means of executive power and the administration of justice, to be put a position to carry out in the most efficient manner the functions entrusted to them by the Federal Government under the Power Supply Law and the energy programme. (orig.) [de

  13. An undertaking planning game for the electricity supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troescher, H.

    1977-01-01

    Planning games have been found satisfactory in many field in political and economic life. In particular the more convenient access to electronic calculators has made a contrinution to their wider use. It is therefore surprising that the first planning game which has become known for the electricity supply industry was first published in the year 1975. This is the planning game for the Bernischen Kraftwerke AG, which is based on a simplified model of a small electricity supply undertaking (EVU). This planning game was adapted in the RWE to the conditions in larger EVU and a few additional model components were added. Besides the general points of view on planning games for EVU the author deals with the extended planning game which is termed in the article PEW. (orig.) [de

  14. The exclusion of 'public undertakings' from the re-use of public sector information regime

    OpenAIRE

    Ricolfi, M.; Drexl, J.; van Eechoud, M.; Salmeron, M.; Sappa, C.; Tziavos, P.; Valero, J.; Pavoni, F.; Patrito, P.

    2011-01-01

    Should public undertakings be covered by the PSI Directive? The definitions of public sector bodies and bodies governed by public law, to which the PSI Directive applies, are currently taken from the public procurement Directives and public undertakings are not covered by these definitions. Should public undertakings be considered as public sector bodies in the meaning of the Directive? Are there public undertakings holding "interesting" PSI? Are there different definitions of national legisl...

  15. 42 CFR 137.165 - Are Self-Governance Tribes required to undertake annual audits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Operational Provisions Audits and Cost Principles § 137.165 Are Self-Governance Tribes required to undertake...-Governance Tribes must undertake annual audits pursuant to the Single Audit Act, 31 U.S.C. 7501 et seq. ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are Self-Governance Tribes required to undertake...

  16. Who should be undertaking population-based surveys in humanitarian emergencies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiegel Paul B

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Timely and accurate data are necessary to prioritise and effectively respond to humanitarian emergencies. 30-by-30 cluster surveys are commonly used in humanitarian emergencies because of their purported simplicity and reasonable validity and precision. Agencies have increasingly used 30-by-30 cluster surveys to undertake measurements beyond immunisation coverage and nutritional status. Methodological errors in cluster surveys have likely occurred for decades in humanitarian emergencies, often with unknown or unevaluated consequences. Discussion Most surveys in humanitarian emergencies are done by non-governmental organisations (NGOs. Some undertake good quality surveys while others have an already overburdened staff with limited epidemiological skills. Manuals explaining cluster survey methodology are available and in use. However, it is debatable as to whether using standardised, 'cookbook' survey methodologies are appropriate. Coordination of surveys is often lacking. If a coordinating body is established, as recommended, it is questionable whether it should have sole authority to release surveys due to insufficient independence. Donors should provide sufficient funding for personnel, training, and survey implementation, and not solely for direct programme implementation. Summary A dedicated corps of trained epidemiologists needs to be identified and made available to undertake surveys in humanitarian emergencies. NGOs in the field may need to form an alliance with certain specialised agencies or pool technically capable personnel. If NGOs continue to do surveys by themselves, a simple training manual with sample survey questionnaires, methodology, standardised files for data entry and analysis, and manual for interpretation should be developed and modified locally for each situation. At the beginning of an emergency, a central coordinating body should be established that has sufficient authority to set survey standards

  17. Undertaking cause-specific mortality measurement in an unregistered population: an example from Tigray Region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godefay, Hagos; Abrha, Atakelti; Kinsman, John; Myléus, Anna; Byass, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The lack of adequate documentation of deaths, and particularly their cause, is often noted in African and Asian settings, but practical solutions for addressing the problem are not always clear. Verbal autopsy methods (interviewing witnesses after a death) have developed rapidly, but there remains a lack of clarity as to how these methods can be effectively applied to large unregistered populations. This paper sets out practical details for undertaking a representative survey of cause-specific mortality in a population of several million, taking Tigray Region in Ethiopia as a prototype. Sampling was designed around an expected level of maternal mortality ratio of 400 per 100,000 live births, which needed measuring within a 95% confidence interval of approximately ±100. Taking a stratified cluster sample within the region at the district level for logistic reasons, and allowing for a design effect of 2, this required a population of around 900,000 people, equating to six typical districts. Since the region is administered in six geographic zones, one district per zone was randomly selected. The survey was implemented as a two-stage process: first, to trace deaths that occurred in the sampled districts within the preceding year, and second to follow them up with verbal autopsy interviews. The field work for both stages was undertaken by health extension workers, working in their normally assigned areas. Most of the work was associated with tracing the deaths, rather than undertaking the verbal autopsy interviews. This approach to measuring cause-specific mortality in an unregistered Ethiopian population proved to be feasible and effective. Although it falls short of the ideal situation of continuous civil registration and vital statistics, a survey-based strategy of this kind may prove to be a useful intermediate step on the road towards full civil registration and vital statistics implementation.

  18. Undertaking cause-specific mortality measurement in an unregistered population: an example from Tigray Region, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagos Godefay

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The lack of adequate documentation of deaths, and particularly their cause, is often noted in African and Asian settings, but practical solutions for addressing the problem are not always clear. Verbal autopsy methods (interviewing witnesses after a death have developed rapidly, but there remains a lack of clarity as to how these methods can be effectively applied to large unregistered populations. This paper sets out practical details for undertaking a representative survey of cause-specific mortality in a population of several million, taking Tigray Region in Ethiopia as a prototype. Sampling: Sampling was designed around an expected level of maternal mortality ratio of 400 per 100,000 live births, which needed measuring within a 95% confidence interval of approximately ±100. Taking a stratified cluster sample within the region at the district level for logistic reasons, and allowing for a design effect of 2, this required a population of around 900,000 people, equating to six typical districts. Since the region is administered in six geographic zones, one district per zone was randomly selected. Implementation: The survey was implemented as a two-stage process: first, to trace deaths that occurred in the sampled districts within the preceding year, and second to follow them up with verbal autopsy interviews. The field work for both stages was undertaken by health extension workers, working in their normally assigned areas. Most of the work was associated with tracing the deaths, rather than undertaking the verbal autopsy interviews. Discussion: This approach to measuring cause-specific mortality in an unregistered Ethiopian population proved to be feasible and effective. Although it falls short of the ideal situation of continuous civil registration and vital statistics, a survey-based strategy of this kind may prove to be a useful intermediate step on the road towards full civil registration and vital statistics implementation.

  19. 12 CFR 980.2 - Limitation on Bank authority to undertake new business activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... business activities. 980.2 Section 980.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD NEW FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ACTIVITIES NEW BUSINESS ACTIVITIES § 980.2 Limitation on Bank authority to undertake new business activities. No Bank shall undertake any new business activity except in accordance with the...

  20. The exclusion of 'public undertakings' from the re-use of public sector information regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricolfi, M.; Drexl, J.; van Eechoud, M.; Salmeron, M.; Sappa, C.; Tziavos, P.; Valero, J.; Pavoni, F.; Patrito, P.

    2011-01-01

    Should public undertakings be covered by the PSI Directive? The definitions of public sector bodies and bodies governed by public law, to which the PSI Directive applies, are currently taken from the public procurement Directives and public undertakings are not covered by these definitions. Should

  1. Climate-protection policy: New taxes or corporate undertaking?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pluge, W.

    1996-01-01

    Increasing knowledge of the climatological effects of CO 2 emissions have resulted in the concept of reducing energy consumption, and therefore also CO 2 emissions, by means of taxation. The concepts proposed for this are discussed in this article. It is shown that the concept of CO 2 energy taxes is based on a series of pseudo-plausibilities. The German gas industry's voluntary commitment is illustrated as the most suitable instrument for efficient reduction of CO 2 emissions. (orig.) [de

  2. Undertaking safe medicine administration with children: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentin, Jayne; Green, Michelle; Smith, Joanna

    2016-07-08

    This is the first of two articles that aim to provide children's nurses with an opportunity to develop their skills and knowledge of medicines management when caring for children and young people. This first article outlines the principles of effective medicines management including the pharmacology language required to accurately read prescriptions, the way children respond to medicines, managing risk, including the concept of human error, and working in partnership with children, young people and families. The second article, to be published in September, will focus on numeracy and calculation skills, identified as an important risk factor associated with medication errors in children.

  3. Undertaking safe medicine administration with children part 2: essential numeracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentin, Jayne; Green, Michelle; Smith, Joanna

    2016-09-12

    This is the second of two articles which aim to provide children's nurses with an opportunity to develop their knowledge and skills of medicines management when caring for children and young people. The first article considered the processes associated with effective medicines management, including the concept of human error. This article addresses essential numeracy and calculation skills that have been identified as an important risk factor associated with medication errors in children. The range of activities throughout the article will help you develop and practise numeracy skills, with the answers for each activity at the end of the article.

  4. Should we undertake surveillance for HCC in patients with NAFLD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Ramy; Bugianesi, Elisabetta

    2018-02-01

    The pandemic of obesity and its related complications is rapidly changing the epidemiology of many types of cancer, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming a major cause of HCC, with a steadily rising trend compared to viral or alcohol-induced chronic hepatitis. The much greater prevalence of the underlying liver disease in the general population and the chance of HCC occurrence in non-cirrhotic liver are the most worrisome aspects of HCC in NAFLD. Effective screening programmes are currently hampered by limited knowledge of the pathways of carcinogenesis and a lack of tools able to stratify the risk of HCC in the NAFLD population. Hence, poor surveillance has prevented the development of an adequate treatment for NAFLD-related HCC. Systemic and hepatic molecular mechanisms involved in hepatocarcinogenesis, as well as potential early markers of HCC are being extensively investigated. This review describes the current clinical impact of HCC in NAFLD and discusses the most important unmet needs for its effective management. Copyright © 2017 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE RULES ON COMPETITION GOVERNING UNDERTAKINGS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad – Teodor Florea

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns the general rules on competition between undertakings in the EU. The author paid attention primarly to matters on the prohibition of agreements that aim to distort or impair competition on the internal market. Moreover, he examined in detail the matter concerning the regulation and interdiction of the abuse of a dominant position. The work also reviews doctrinal opinions, as well as the jurisprudential solutions in the area. The author’s concern to summarize and develop the conditions for the implementation of each of the two legal mechanisms is worth noting: the prohibition of agreements between undertakings and the abuse of a dominant position. The essential considerations taken into account by the Court of Justice of the European Union in settling a case whose subject consisted of assessing the manner in which an undertaking reflected on competition on the internal market were selected at the end of the work.

  6. Who Assists the Faculty? The Need for Mentorship Programs for Faculty Undertaking Global Education Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Yasmin; London, Chad; Carston, Cathy; Salyers, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the expectations, motivations, and experiences of Canadian faculty members undertaking development and implementation of global education initiatives (GEI) for students in the form of exchange and study abroad programs, supervised practical coursework, and experiential learning in international settings. Findings revealed that…

  7. The Complexities of Supporting Asian International Pre-Service Teachers as They Undertake Practicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner-Lane, Rebecca; Tangen, Donna; Campbell, Marilyn

    2009-01-01

    Increasing numbers of Asian international students are choosing to undertake their tertiary studies in English-speaking countries. For universities, international students are an important source of revenue. However, Asian international students face multiple challenges in adapting to a foreign culture, understanding the expectations of their…

  8. 31 CFR 248.5 - Exception to requirement of undertaking of indemnity Form 2244.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exception to requirement of... POSSESSIONS Action to Be Taken by Claimants § 248.5 Exception to requirement of undertaking of indemnity Form... and agents, of and from any and all liability, loss, expense, claim, and demand whatsoever, arising in...

  9. Assisted reproductive technologies in Ghana : Transnational undertakings, local practices and ‘more affordable’ IVF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, T.

    The article sketches the origins and development of IVF in Ghana as a highly transnational undertaking. Movements are from and to Africa, involving human beings (providers and users), and also refer to other entities such as technologies, skills and knowledge. None of these movements are paid for

  10. Be my guest! Challenges and practical solutions of undertaking interviews with children in the home setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coad, Jane; Gibson, Faith; Horstman, Maire; Milnes, Linda; Randall, Duncan; Carter, Bernie

    2015-12-01

    This article aims to share critical debate on undertaking interviews with children in the home setting and draws on the authors' extensive research fieldwork. The article focuses on three key processes: planning entry to the child's home, conducting the interviews and exiting the field. In planning entry, we include children's engagement and issues of researcher gender. In conducting the interviews, we consider issues such as the balance of power, the importance of building a rapport, the voluntary nature of consent and the need for a flexible interview structure. Finally, we address exiting from the child's home with sensitivity at the end of the interview and/or research study. Undertaking research in the child's home provides a known and familiar territory for the child, but it means that the researcher faces a number of challenges that require solutions whilst they are a guest in a child's home. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Create an Anti-Bullying Program with Resources You Have

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Kenneth S.

    2011-01-01

    Bullying has captured the news headlines and the attention of legislators, educators, and special interest advocates over the past three years at a greater rate. High-profile teen suicides have raised questions about the role bullying may have played in student deaths. School administrators and safety officials agree that bullying is a serious…

  12. Anti-bullying interventions in schools: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jorge Luiz da; Oliveira, Wanderlei Abadio de; Mello, Flávia Carvalho Malta de; Andrade, Luciane Sá de; Bazon, Marina Rezende; Silva, Marta Angélica Iossi

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a systematic literature review addressing rigorously planned and assessed interventions intended to reduce school bullying. The search for papers was performed in four databases (Lilacs, Psycinfo, Scielo and Web of Science) and guided by the question: What are the interventions used to reduce bullying in schools? Only case-control studies specifically focusing on school bullying without a time frame were included. The methodological quality of investigations was assessed using the SIGN checklist. A total of 18 papers composed the corpus of analysis and all were considered to have high methodological quality. The interventions conducted in the revised studies were divided into four categories: multi-component or whole-school, social skills training, curricular, and computerized. The review synthesizes knowledge that can be used to contemplate practices and intervention programs in the education and health fields with a multidisciplinary nature.

  13. [Environmental licensing of major undertakings: possible connection between health and environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Missifany; Araújo Neto, Mário Diniz de

    2014-09-01

    The prospect of multidisciplinary assessment that considers the environmental impacts on the health of the population during the implementation of potentially polluting projects is incipient in Brazil. Considering the scenario of major undertakings in the country, broadening the outlook on the health and environment relationship based on social and economic development processes striving for environmentally sustainable projects is a key strategy. This article examines the debate on the relationship between the current development model, the risks, the environment and health and discusses the importance of the participation of the health sector in the environmental licensing procedures, which is the instrument of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Seeking to create more environmentally and socially sustainable territories, the health sector has been looking for opportunities to participate in the licensing processes of major undertakings from the EIA standpoint. Results of research conducted by the Ministry of Health have demonstrated the form of participation in these processes, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses that favor or hinder the increase of preventive actions in public health in the implementation of major undertakings in Brazil.

  14. Researcher or nurse? Difficulties of undertaking semi-structured interviews on sensitive topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Susan

    2014-09-01

    To reflect on the author's personal and professional journey when undertaking semi-structured interviews on sensitive topics with potentially vulnerable people. When discussing care at the end of life, researchers must accept that some participants may become distressed or emotional, depending on their previous experiences. Interviews that involve sensitive topics require careful planning. The semi-structured interviews were conducted as part of the author's PhD study examining the experiences of advance care planning among family caregivers of people with advanced dementia. A reflection on my personal and professional journey when undertaking semi-structured interviews on sensitive topics with potentially vulnerable people. The frustration and tragedy of dementia, as experienced by the family caregivers, were powerful and required the author to exert self-control to avoid being overly sympathetic and offering words of reassurance, agreement and comfort. This blurring of roles between researcher and nurse has implications for all nurse researchers who undertake qualitative interviews, particularly when an intense emotional response is likely. Nurse researchers should plan and prepare for potential blurring of roles during emotional interviews and should never automatically assume that they are sufficiently prepared as a result of their previous experience and nurse training.

  15. Identification of Preferred Sources of Information for Undertaking Studies in the Faculty of Engineering Management at Poznan University of Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Wyrwicka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 2010 a survey has been conducted among first-year students about sources of information which influence the decision of undertaking field studies in Safety Engineering, Management Engineering and Logistics in the Faculty of Engineering Management at Poznan University of Technology. The goal of these analyses is both to assess the effectiveness of promotion and also show trends in the use of diverse channels of information transfer of studies. The results of the investigation show that internet promotion via university and faculty website plays the dominant role but also direct promotion, such as opinion of older friends, is crucial. Furthermore, from year to year the analyses indicate the significant increase of official media and reveal that the prospective students rely on a few sources of information simultaneously.

  16. What factors influence community-dwelling older people’s intent to undertake multifactorial fall prevention programs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill KD

    2014-11-01

    from the theoretical model positively influenced intention to participate in the intervention: personal perception of intervention effectiveness, self-perceived risk of falls, self-perceived risk of injury, and inability to walk up/down steps without a handrail (P<0.05.Conclusion: Multifactorial falls clinic-type interventions are not commonly accessed or considered as intended fall prevention approaches among community-dwelling older people, even among those with falls in the past 12 months. Factors identified as influencing intention to undertake these interventions may be useful in promoting or targeting these interventions. Keywords: falls prevention, falls clinics, older adults, motivation

  17. Non proliferation regimes undertakings: Benefits and limits of synergies in verification technologies and procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Thirty years ago the NPT was entering into force. Therewith, when a State became party to the NPT, it had, in accordance with article III.1 of the Treaty, an undertaking to conclude a Comprehensive Safeguards agreement with the IAEA and accept safeguards verification on source or special fissionable material in all peaceful nuclear activities within its territories in order to verify that such material is not diverted. This multilateral instrument was the foundation stone of the non-proliferation regime and marked the actual birth of internationally accepted measures to verily compliance with politically stringent agreements. Since that time several important multilateral or bilateral instruments on non-proliferation and disarmament have been negotiated and adopted to curb the development and the acquisition of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) most of them since the middle of the eighties and the collapse of the Soviet Union. Amongst the multilateral instruments are the Convention on the Prohibition of Bacteriological Weapon and Toxin Weapons (1972), the Convention on the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (1993), the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (1996), the Strengthening of the IAEA Safeguards and the Additional Protocol (1997), with some still in negotiation like the Protocol of the Convention on the Prohibition of Bacteriological and Toxin Weapons, and some on which negotiation is still a wish like the Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty. Bilateral disarmament agreements between the United States of America and the Russian Federation such as the INF Treaty, START I and II, the agreements on the elimination of excess defence nuclear material as well as the Trilateral Initiative with the IAEA pave the way to nuclear disarmament with the reduction of both the number of nuclear weapons arsenal and the fissile material inventories. The politically stringent undertakings of States that have become parties to those agreements would not be possible without the

  18. Undertaking and writing research that is important, targeted, and the best you can do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Sharynne

    2014-04-01

    Conducting and writing research is a privilege. It is a privilege because researchers can change lives through their findings and can influence public knowledge and debate. It is also a privilege because researchers are reliant on the time and goodwill of participants (and colleagues), and research is often underpinned by funding raised by the public, either through taxes or philanthropic donations. This privilege comes with responsibility. Researchers have a responsibility to undertake research that is important, targeted, and of high quality. This editorial aims to inspire, challenge, and bolster the research efforts of individuals and teams.

  19. Training staff to empower people with long-term conditions to undertake self care activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Mandy

    Self care can help people with long-term conditions take control of their lives. However, their interest and ability to engage with it may fluctuate over the course of an illness and many need support to undertake self care activities. A team of community matrons in NHS South of Tyne and Wear helped to develop and pilot an e-learning tool for staff, to remind them of the importance of self care and give advice on ways to support patients. The tool has since been rolled out to all staff groups.

  20. Benefits and barriers for registered nurses undertaking post-graduate diplomas in paediatric nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Anne; Copnell, Beverley

    2002-02-01

    This paper presents one aspect of a larger study identifying key influences on curriculum redesign and development of a post-graduate diploma in advanced clinical nursing. The focus is on paediatric intensive care and general paediatric streams. Data presented here relate to registered nurses' perceptions of benefits and barriers when undertaking this post-graduate diploma. As well as interviews and focus group discussions with a number of nurses, data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire, A total of 885 surveys were distributed to nurses working in paediatric areas in five hospitals in Victoria, Australia. Of these, 391 were completed (response rate 44%). One hundred and thirty (33%) had post-registration or post-graduate paediatric qualifications. Perceived benefits of undertaking the post-graduate diploma mainly related to an increase in knowledge and experience and improvement of employment opportunities. Perceived barriers mainly related to financial and professional issues such as cost of the course, loss of salary, the lack of direct remuneration on completion of the course and a lack of promotional opportunities. It was of concern that several nurses expressed a belief that paediatric qualifications were unnecessary and that many believed their employers did not value the qualification. Several recommendations are suggested to address the main barriers. These include more flexibility in the provision of such courses and opportunities for financial assistance. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Level of Anxiety and Depression in Dialysis Patients Undertaking Regular Physical Exercise Training--a Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziubek, Wioletta; Kowalska, Joanna; Kusztal, Mariusz; Rogowski, Łukasz; Gołębiowski, Tomasz; Nikifur, Małgorzata; Szczepańska-Gieracha, Joanna; Zembroń-Łacny, Agnieszka; Klinger, Marian; Woźniewski, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a six-month physical training undertaken by haemodialysis (HD) patients, on the depression and anxiety. Patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) were recruited from the dialysis station at the Department of Nephrology and Transplantation Medicine in Wroclaw. Physical training took place at the beginning of the first 4-hours of dialysis, three times a week for six months. A personal questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were used in the study. A total of 28 patients completed the study: 20 were randomised to endurance training and 8 were randomised to resistance training. Statistical analysis of depression and anxiety at the initial (t1) and final examination (t2) indicated a significant reduction in depression and anxiety, particularly anxiety as a trait (X2) in the whole study group. The change in anxiety as a state correlated with the disease duration, duration of dialysis and the initial level of anxiety as a state (t1X1). The change in anxiety as a trait significantly correlated with age and the initial level of anxiety (t1X2). Undertaking physical training during dialysis by patients with ESRD is beneficial in reducing their levels of anxiety and depression. Both resistance and endurance training improves mood, but only endurance training additionally results in anxiety reduction. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Exploring the role of social interactions and supports in overcoming accessibility barriers while undertaking health tours in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Arnab; Harata, Noboru; Kiyoshi, Takami; Ohmori, Nobuaki

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the phenomenon of companionship as an adaptation strategy to counter the existing barriers to health care access in developing nations. Companionship is argued to be an outcome of "inter" and "intra" household collaboration to offer diverse supports in addition to altruism. The analysis of the household survey conducted in West Bengal, India, exhibited different patterns of health care tours and the associated dependencies. In addition to support in terms of mobility while traveling and companionship while waiting for the opportunity, support in terms of refuge is also found to be essential, especially for the poor while they undertake regional tours. Causal models focusing on aggregated general health tours and specific regional tours were estimated separately to comprehend the implicit social interactions and their effects on the patient as well as the companions. The research demonstrated that accessibility barriers affect not only the ill, but also those associated with them and at times adversely. Segregation of regional tours illustrated the gaps, which instigated such tours and also might aid in health infrastructure planning as a whole.

  3. Does undertaking an intercalated BSc influence first clinical year exam results at a London medical school?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howman, Mary; Jones, Melvyn

    2011-02-03

    Intercalated BScs (iBScs) are an optional part of the medical school curriculum in many Universities. Does undertaking an iBSc influence subsequent student performance? Previous studies addressing this question have been flawed by iBSc students being highly selected. This study looks at data from medical students where there is a compulsory iBSc for non-graduates. Our aim was to see whether there was any difference in performance between students who took an iBSc before or after their third year (first clinical year) exams. A multivariable analysis was performed to compare the third year results of students at one London medical school who had or had not completed their iBSc by the start of this year (n = 276). A general linear model was applied to adjust for differences between the two groups in terms of potential confounders (age, sex, nationality and baseline performance). The results of third year summative exams for 276 students were analysed (184 students with an iBSc and 92 without). Unadjusted analysis showed students who took an iBSc before their third year achieved significantly higher end of year marks than those who did not with a mean score difference of 4.4 (0.9 to 7.9 95% CI, p = 0.01). (overall mean score 238.4 "completed iBSc" students versus 234.0 "not completed", range 145.2 - 272.3 out of 300). There was however a significant difference between the two groups in their prior second year exam marks with those choosing to intercalate before their third year having higher marks. Adjusting for this, the difference in overall exam scores was no longer significant with a mean score difference of 1.4 (-4.9 to +7.7 95% CI, p = 0.66). (overall mean score 238.0 " completed iBSc" students versus 236.5 "not completed"). Once possible confounders are controlled for (age, sex, previous academic performance) undertaking an iBSc does not influence third year exam results. One explanation for this confounding in unadjusted results is that students who do better

  4. The capabilities and scope-of-practice requirements of advanced life support practitioners undertaking critical care transfers: A Delphi study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Venter

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Critical care transfers (CCT refer to the high level of care given during transport (via ambulance, helicopter or fixed-wing aircraft of patients who are of high acuity. In South Africa (SA, advanced life support (ALS paramedics undertake CCTs. The scope of ALS in SA has no extended protocol regarding procedures or medications in terms of dealing with these CCTs. Aim. The aim of this study was to obtain the opinions of several experts in fields pertaining to critical care and transport and to gain consensus on the skills and scope-of-practice requirements of paramedics undertaking CCTs in the SA setting. Methods. A modified Delphi study consisting of three rounds was undertaken using an online survey platform. A heterogeneous sample (n=7, consisting of specialists in the fields of anaesthesiology, emergency medicine, internal medicine, critical care, critical care transport and paediatrics, was asked to indicate whether, in their opinion, selected procedures and medications were needed within the scope of practice of paramedics undertaking CCTs. Results. After three rounds, consensus was obtained in 70% (57/81 of procedures and medications. Many of these items are not currently within the scope of paramedics’ training. The panel felt that paramedics undertaking these transfers should have additional postgraduate training that is specific to critical care. Conclusion. Major discrepancies exist between the current scope of paramedic practice and the suggested required scope of practice for CCTs. An extended scope of practice and additional training should be considered for these practitioners.

  5. Technology transfer in the hydropower industry: An analysis of Chinese dam developers’ undertakings in Europe and Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirchherr, Julian; Matthews, Nathanial

    2018-01-01

    Technology transfer is essential for transitioning to a low carbon economy which can include hydropower. Chinese dam developers allegedly dominate the global hydropower industry. Studies have been carried out on technology transfer in their undertakings in Africa and Asia. However, such work is

  6. A systematic scoping review of the evidence for consumer involvement in organisations undertaking systematic reviews: focus on Cochrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Richard F; Norman, Gill; Golder, Su; Griffith, Polly

    2016-01-01

    Cochrane is the largest international producer of systematic reviews of clinical trial evidence. We looked for published evidence that reports where consumers (patients and the public) have been involved in Cochrane systematic reviews, and also in reviews published by other organisations.We found 36 studies that reported about consumer involvement either in individual systematic reviews, or in other organisations. The studies showed that consumers were involved in reviews in a range of different ways: coordinating and producing reviews, making reviews more accessible, and spreading the results of reviews ("knowledge transfer"). The most common role was commenting on reviews ("peer reviewing"). Consumers also had other general roles, for example in educating people about evidence or helping other consumers. There were some interesting examples of new ways of involving consumers. The studies showed that most consumers came from rich and English speaking countries. There was little evidence about how consumer involvement had changed the reviews ("impact"). The studies found that consumer involvement needed to be properly supported.In future we believe that more research should be done to understand what kind of consumer involvement has the best impact; that more review authors should report how consumers have been involved; and that consumers who help with reviews should come from more varied backgrounds. Background Cochrane is the largest international producer of systematic reviews, and is committed to consumer involvement in the production and dissemination of its reviews. The review aims to systematically scope the evidence base for consumer involvement in organisations which commission, undertake or support systematic reviews; with an emphasis on Cochrane. Methods In June 2015 we searched six databases and other sources for studies of consumer involvement in organisations which commission, undertake or support systematic reviews, or in individual systematic

  7. Verifying compliance with nuclear non-proliferation undertakings: IAEA safeguards agreements and additional protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-06-01

    This report provides background information on safeguards and explains procedures for States to conclude Additional Protocols to comprehensive Safeguards Agreements with the IAEA. Since the IAEA was founded in 1957, its safeguards system has been an indispensable component of the nuclear non-proliferation regime and has facilitated peaceful nuclear cooperation. In recognition of this, the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) makes it mandatory for all non-nuclear-weapon States (NNWS) party to the Treaty to conclude comprehensive safeguards agreements with the IAEA, and thus allow for the application of safeguards to all their nuclear material. Under Article III of the NPT, all NNWS undertake to accept safeguards, as set forth in agreements to be negotiated and concluded with the IAEA, for the exclusive purpose of verification of the fulfilment of the States' obligations under the NPT. In May 1997, the IAEA Board of Governors approved the Model Additional Protocol to Safeguards Agreements (reproduced in INFCIRC/540(Corr.)) which provided for an additional legal authority. In States that have both a comprehensive safeguards agreement and an additional protocol in force, the IAEA is able to optimize the implementation of all safeguards measures available. In order to simplify certain procedures under comprehensive safeguards agreements for States with little or no nuclear material and no nuclear material in a facility, the IAEA began making available, in 1971, a 'small quantities protocol' (SQP), which held in abeyance the implementation of most of the detailed provisions of comprehensive safeguards agreements for so long as the State concerned satisfied these criteria. The safeguards system aims at detecting and deterring the diversion of nuclear material. Such material includes enriched uranium, plutonium and uranium-233, which could be used directly in nuclear weapons. It also includes natural uranium and depleted uranium, the latter of which is

  8. Effects of an emotional literacy intervention for students identified with bullying behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowler, Claire; Frederickson, Norah

    2013-12-01

    The effectiveness of a 12-week, small group emotional literacy (EL) intervention in reducing bullying behaviour in school was evaluated. Participants were 50 primary school pupils identified through peer nomination as engaging in bullying behaviours. The intervention was implemented in schools already engaged with a universal social and emotional learning initiative, including an anti-bullying component. Within schools, participants were randomly assigned to an intervention or a wait-list comparison group. Response to the intervention was found to be dependent on baseline levels of EL. Only children whose baseline level was low showed a significant reduction in peer-rated bullying behaviour. No effect of the intervention was detected on victimisation or adjustment scores, although positive changes in adjustment were associated with increased EL.

  9. Farmers Prone to Drought Risk: Why Some Farmers Undertake Farm-Level Risk-Reduction Measures While Others Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrehiwot, Tagel; van der Veen, Anne

    2015-03-01

    This research investigates farmers' cognitive perceptions of risk and the behavioral intentions to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures. It has been observed that people who are susceptible to natural hazards often fail to act, or do very little, to protect their assets or lives. To answer the question of why some people show adaptive behavior while others do not, a socio-psychological model of precautionary adaptation based on protection motivation theory and trans-theoretical stage model has been applied for the first time to areas of drought risk in the developing countries cultural context. The applicability of the integrated model is explored by means of a representative sample survey of smallholder farmers in northern Ethiopia. The result of the study showed that there is a statistically significant association between farmer's behavioral intention to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures and the main important protection motivation model variables. High perceived vulnerability, severity of consequences, self-efficacy, and response efficacy lead to higher levels of behavioral intentions to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures. For farmers in the action stage, self-efficacy and response efficacy were the main motivators of behavioral intention. For farmers in the contemplative stage, self-efficacy and cost appear to be the main motivators for them to act upon risk reduction, while perceived severity of consequences and cost of response actions were found to be important for farmers in the pre-contemplative stage.

  10. The Effects of a Skill-Based Intervention for Victims of Bullying in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luiz da Silva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study’s objective was to verify whether improved social and emotional skills would reduce victimization among Brazilian 6th grade student victims of bullying. The targets of this intervention were victimized students; a total of 78 victims participated. A cognitive-behavioral intervention based on social and emotional skills was held in eight weekly sessions. The sessions focused on civility, the ability to make friends, self-control, emotional expressiveness, empathy, assertiveness, and interpersonal problem-solving capacity. Data were analyzed through Poisson regression models with random effects. Pre- and post-analyses reveal that intervention and comparison groups presented significant reduced victimization by bullying. No significant improvement was found in regard to difficulties in practicing social skills. Victimization reduction cannot be attributed to the program. This study contributes to the incipient literature addressing anti-bullying interventions conducted in developing countries and highlights the need for approaches that do not exclusively focus on the students’ individual aspects.

  11. The Effects of a Skill-Based Intervention for Victims of Bullying in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Jorge Luiz; de Oliveira, Wanderlei Abadio; Braga, Iara Falleiros; Farias, Marilurdes Silva; da Silva Lizzi, Elisangela Aparecida; Gonçalves, Marlene Fagundes Carvalho; Pereira, Beatriz Oliveira; Silva, Marta Angélica Iossi

    2016-10-26

    This study's objective was to verify whether improved social and emotional skills would reduce victimization among Brazilian 6th grade student victims of bullying. The targets of this intervention were victimized students; a total of 78 victims participated. A cognitive-behavioral intervention based on social and emotional skills was held in eight weekly sessions. The sessions focused on civility, the ability to make friends, self-control, emotional expressiveness, empathy, assertiveness, and interpersonal problem-solving capacity. Data were analyzed through Poisson regression models with random effects. Pre- and post-analyses reveal that intervention and comparison groups presented significant reduced victimization by bullying. No significant improvement was found in regard to difficulties in practicing social skills. Victimization reduction cannot be attributed to the program. This study contributes to the incipient literature addressing anti-bullying interventions conducted in developing countries and highlights the need for approaches that do not exclusively focus on the students' individual aspects.

  12. Cancer patients undertaking bone scans in a department of Nuclear Medicine have significant stress related to the examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sioka, C.; Manetou, M.; Dimakopoulos, N.; Christidi, S.; Kouraklis, G.

    2005-01-01

    Bone scanning is a standard screening procedure for evaluation of metastases in cancer patient. In addition to the staging procedures, bone scan is a valuable test for deciding palliative therapeutic options in selected patients. The aim of this study was to investigate if patients with cancer who were undertaking routine bone scans had any stress related to the test. We asked 83 consecutive patients with various types of cancer if they had anxiety just prior to undergoing the test. Overall, we found that 53 (64%) patients had increased anxiety related to the examination and 30 (36%) patients did not. Among the 53 patients who were anxious about the bone scan, 32 were concerned about the results of the examination, 13 worried about the effects of the radiation, 4 were anxious for both results/radiation, and 4 patients had stress but could not specify the reason. Among the 32 patients who were concerned about the results of the examination, 15 were having their first bone scans, while 17 had already undergone the procedure before. Among the 13 patients who were mainly concerned about the risks of the radiation exposure during the test, 9 were having bone scans for the first time. Out of the 4 patients who feared both the results and radiation, 3 were having bone scans for the first time and 1 had it for several times. Finally, out of the 4 patients who had anxiety about the test but could not identify the reason, 3 were having bone scans for the first time and one had the test before but was claustrophobic. Our findings indicate that most patients (64%) with cancer who underwent a routine bone scan to check for metastatic disease had intense stress related either to the results or the side effects of the examination. However, there were more patients who were concerned about the results of the test rather than the effects of radiation. Among the patients who feared the effects of radioactivity most were having the test for the first time. A previous study in a

  13. Identifying potential academic leaders: Predictors of willingness to undertake leadership roles in an academic department of family medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David; Krueger, Paul; Meaney, Christopher; Antao, Viola; Kim, Florence; Kwong, Jeffrey C

    2016-02-01

    To identify variables associated with willingness to undertake leadership roles among academic family medicine faculty. Web-based survey. Bivariate and multivariable analyses (logistic regression) were used to identify variables associated with willingness to undertake leadership roles. Department of Family and Community Medicine at the University of Toronto in Ontario. A total of 687 faculty members. Variables related to respondents' willingness to take on various academic leadership roles. Of all 1029 faculty members invited to participate in the survey, 687 (66.8%) members responded. Of the respondents, 596 (86.8%) indicated their level of willingness to take on various academic leadership roles. Multivariable analysis revealed that the predictors associated with willingness to take on leadership roles were as follows: pursuit of professional development opportunities (odds ratio [OR] 3.79, 95% CI 2.29 to 6.27); currently holding at least 1 leadership role (OR 5.37, 95% CI 3.38 to 8.53); a history of leadership training (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.25 to 2.78); the perception that mentorship is important for one's current role (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.40 to 3.60); and younger age (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.95 to 0.99). Willingness to undertake new or additional leadership roles was associated with 2 variables related to leadership experiences, 2 variables related to perceptions of mentorship and professional development, and 1 demographic variable (younger age). Interventions that support opportunities in these areas might expand the pool and strengthen the academic leadership potential of faculty members.

  14. Decree No. 67/77 of 6 May establishing a National Uranium Undertaking as a public body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This Decree, promulgated on 29 March 1977, sets up a National Uranium Undertaking (ENU). The ENU Statute which is attached to the Decree lays down that its main purpose is to prospect for and inventory uranium deposits, to explore known deposits, to set up facilities for recovery and treatment of uranium ores, and finally, to market the products obtained. The ENU has taken over the work which, until now, had been carried out in that field by the Junta de Energia Nuclear and it is placed under the authority of the Minister of Industry and Technology. (NEA) [fr

  15. Collaborative Action Research: A Democratic Undertaking or a Web of Collusion and Compliance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marion; Stanley, Grant

    2010-01-01

    Raising standards in education has been the mantra for educational stakeholders in England for the past two decades and has informed national, regional and local agendas for school improvement. In the relentless pursuit of finding solutions to pedagogical problems, action research has been promoted as an effective strategy. Informed by an…

  16. The Influence of Work-Integrated Learning on Motivation to Undertake Graduate Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegwaard, Karsten E.; McCurdy, Susan

    2014-01-01

    There has been concern around the lack of postgraduate qualified scientists and engineers (e.g., Gago et al., 2004; Koslow, 2005; Lovitts & Nelson, 2000). However, to be effective in increasing the number of science postgraduates, a greater understanding of why students go on to do graduate studies must be developed. Presented here is a study…

  17. Fusion for Energy: The European joint undertaking for ITER and the development of fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diegele, E.

    2009-01-01

    Materials development in nuclear fusion for in-vessel components, i.e. for breeder blankets and divertors, has a history of more than two decades. It is the specific in-service and loading conditions and the consequentially required properties in combination with safety standards and social-economic demands that create a unique set of specifications. Objectives of Fusion for Energy (F4E) include: 1) To provide Europe's contribution to the ITER international fusion energy project; 2) To implement the Broader Approach agreement between Euratom and Japan; 3) To prepare for the construction and demonstration of fusion reactors (DEMO). Consequently, activities in F4E focus on structural materials for the first generations of breeder blankets, i.e. ITER Test Blanket Modules (TBM) and DEMO, whereas a Fusion Materials Topical Group implemented under EFDA coordinates R and D on physically based modelling of irradiation effects and R and D in the longer term (new and /or higher risk materials). The paper focuses on martensitic-ferritic steels and (i) reviews briefly the challenges and the rationales for the decisions taken in the past, (ii) analyses the status of the main activities of development and qualification, (iii) indicates unresolved issues, and (iv) outlines future strategies and needs and their implications. Due to the exposure to intense high energy neutron flux, the main issue for breeder materials is high radiation resistance. The First Wall of a breeder blanket should survive 3-5 full power years or, respectively in terms of irradiation damage, typically 50-70 dpa for DEMO and double figures for a power plant. Even though the objective is to have the materials and key fabrication technologies needed for DEMO fully developed and qualified within the next two decades, a major part of the task has to be completed much earlier. Tritium breeding test blanket modules will be installed in ITER with the objective to test DEMO relevant technologies in fusion

  18. A participative model for undertaking and evaluating scientific communication in Earth Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Astorina, Alba; Tomasoni, Irene

    2015-04-01

    Public communication of Science and Technology (PCST) is an integral part of the mission of the Italian National Research Council (CNR) and widely carried out among the scientific community. Recently it has also become a research field investigating practices, channels, tools and models of public engagement and their impact on the relation between Science and Society. Understanding such aspects is increasingly considered relevant for an effective and aware outreach. Within this context, CNR has adopted some innovative communication approaches addressed to different publics, such as stakeholders, users, media, young people and the general public, using participative methodologies. Besides being practices of communication promoting the scientific culture, such initiatives aim at understanding the models at the basis of the relationship between the scientific community and the public. To what extent do scientists put their communication and involvement strategies in discussion? Do they use to have a real exchange with their publics in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the participatory techniques they adopt in communicating and disseminating their activities? In this paper we present a case study of a communication and educational proposal recently developed by CNR in order to promote a mutual exchange between Education/School and Research, that are the most important actors in the production and the revision of the scientific knowledge. The proposal brings an ongoing CNR research project (its steps, subjects, tools, activities, costs etc) in classrooms, making use of interactive Earth Sciences workshops conducted directly by researchers. The ongoing CNR project shared with students studies Innovative Methodologies of Earth Observation supporting the Agricultural sector in Lombardy. It aims at exploiting the Aerospace Earth Observation (EO) tools to develop dedicated agricultural downstream services that will bring added economic value and benefits for Lombardy

  19. Do progressive goverments undertake different debt burdens? Partisan vs. electoral cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. García-Sánchez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Public debt has traditionally been explained mainly by two political factors: a progressive ideology and the electoral cycle. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how these two factors influence the behavior of Spanish local governments as regards indebtedness, and also how indebtedness is influenced by the interaction of ideology and the electoral cycle.Different dependence models were estimated using panel data methodology based on a sample comprised of Spanish provincial capitals and towns with populations over 50,000, for a total of 148 town councils. The time frame corresponds to the fiscal years 1988 to 2008, inclusive. The results show that in an electoral year all politicians behave opportunistically, giving rise to an important increase in public debt in relation to municipal revenue, although progressive incumbents incur three times more debt than those of the opposite ideology. Moreover, the presence of conservative parties in government has tended to significantly attenuate this behavior in years prior to elections, whereas progressive or left-wing parties have not. It must also be noted that partisan and electoral business cycles have been mitigated since 2002, when the Budgetary Stability Law came into effect, imposing limits on the debt of subnational administrations.The empirical evidence obtained points to the need to perfect internal and external control mechanisms in order to avoid a breakdown in the stability policy and the risk of debt becoming untenable, thus achieving greater budgetary discipline.RESUMENEl nivel de endeudamiento público ha sido explicado mediante dos factores políticos, principalmente, la ideología progresista y el ciclo electoral. El objetivo de este trabajo es evidenciar como influyen ambos factores en el comportamiento de los municipios españoles en relación con la deuda que estos asumen dada su capacidad, y como este esfuerzo se ve influenciado por la interacción entre los ciclos partidista y

  20. JET Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, B.E.; Kupschus, P.

    1984-09-01

    The report is in sections, as follows. (1) Introduction and summary. (2) A brief description of the origins of the JET Project within the EURATOM fusion programme and the objectives and aims of the device. The basic JET design and the overall philosophy of operation are explained and the first six months of operation of the machine are summarised. The Project Team Structure adopted for the Operation Phase is set out. Finally, in order to set JET's progress in context, other large tokamaks throughout the world and their achievements are briefly described. (3) The activities and progress within the Operation and Development Department are set out; particularly relating to its responsibilities for the operation and maintenance of the tokamak and for developing the necessary engineering equipment to enhance the machine to full performance. (4) The activities and progress within the Scientific Department are described; particularly relating to the specification, procurement and operation of diagnostic equipment; definition and execution of the programme; and the interpretation of experimental results. (5) JET's programme plans for the immediate future and a broad outline of the JET Development Plan to 1990 are given. (author)

  1. JET Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, B.E.

    1988-03-01

    The paper is a JET progress report 1987, and covers the fourth full year of JET's operation. The report contains an overview summary of the scientific and technical advances during the year, and is supplemented by appendices of detailed contributions of the more important JET articles published during 1987. The document is aimed at specialists and experts engaged in nuclear fusion and plasma physics, as well as the general scientific community. (U.K.)

  2. JET Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, B.E.

    1986-03-01

    This is an overview summary of the scientific and technical advances at JET during the year 1985, supplemented by appendices of detailed contributions (in preprint form) of eight of the more important JET articles produced during that year. It is aimed not only at specialists and experts but also at a more general scientific community. Thus there is a brief summary of the background to the project, a description of the basic objectives of JET and the principle design features of the machine. The new structure of the Project Team is also explained. Developments and future plans are included. Improvements considered are those which are designed to overcome certain limitations encountered generally on Tokamaks, particularly those concerned with density limits, with plasma MHD behaviour, with impurities and with plasma transport. There is also a complete list of articles, reports and conference papers published in 1985 - there are 167 such items listed. (UK)

  3. JET joint undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    JET began operations on 25 June 1983. This annual report contains administrative information and a general review of scientific and technical developments. Among them are vacuum systems, toroidal and poloidal field systems, power supplies, neutral beam heating, radiofrequency heating, remote handling, tritium handling, control and data acquisition systems and diagnostic systems

  4. A prospective phase II randomized study of deferasirox to prevent iatrogenic iron overload in patients undertaking induction/consolidation chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Glen A; Morris, Kirk L; Subramonpillai, Elango; Curley, Cameron; Butler, Jason; Durrant, Simon

    2013-06-01

    This prospective randomized phase II study aimed to determine the safety and efficacy of deferasirox in preventing iatrogenic iron overload in patients receiving induction/consolidation chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) ize. Serum ferritin, transferrin saturation and CRP were measured pre-, mid- and post- each chemotherapy cycle. Patients were randomized to receive either therapy with deferasirox vs. no deferasirox therapy once serum ferritin increased to >500 μg/l. The trial was stopped prematurely due to excess gastrointestinal (GI) and infectious toxicity demonstrable in the deferasirox arm, after 10 patients had been randomized to deferasirox and 6 patients to the control arm. Overall, deferasirox was poorly tolerated, with median maximum tolerated dose only 13·8 mg/kg/d and no patient able to tolerate doses >20 mg/kg/d. Median duration of deferasirox therapy was only 72 d (range 19-130 d), with 9/10 patients requiring unplanned dose interruptions and 4/10 patients unable to continue the drug predominantly due to GI effects. Although all 3 treatment-related deaths occurred in the deferasirox arm (P = 0·25), median overall survival was similar between treatment arms. Use of deferasirox to prevent iatrogenic iron overload in AML patients undertaking induction/consolidation is poorly tolerated and appears to be associated with excess GI and infectious toxicity. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Nurses on the move: evaluation of a program to assist international students undertaking an accelerated Bachelor of Nursing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibold, Carmel; Rolls, Colleen; Campbell, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on an evaluation of a Teaching and Learning Enhancement Scheme (TALES) program designed to meet the unique need of the 2005 cohort of international nursing students undertaking an accelerated Bachelor of Nursing (BN) program at the Victorian campus of Australian Catholic University (ACU) National. The program involved a team approach with three academic mentors and the international students working together to produce satisfactory learning outcomes through fortnightly meetings and provision of additional assistance including compiling a portfolio, reflective writing, English, including colloquial English and pronunciation, as well as familiarisation with handover and abbreviations common in the clinical field, general communication, assistance with preparing a resume and participation in simulated interviews. This relatively small group of international students (20) confirmed the findings of other studies from other countries of international nursing students' in terms of concerns in regard to studying in a foreign country, namely English proficiency, communication difficulties, cultural differences and unfamiliarity with the health care environment. The assistance provided by the program was identified by the completing students as invaluable in helping them settle into study and successfully complete the theoretical and clinical components of the course.

  6. Bio-based Industries Joint Undertaking: The catalyst for sustainable bio-based economic growth in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengal, Philippe; Wubbolts, Marcel; Zika, Eleni; Ruiz, Ana; Brigitta, Dieter; Pieniadz, Agata; Black, Sarah

    2018-01-25

    This article discusses the preparation, structure and objectives of the Bio-based Industries Joint Undertaking (BBI JU). BBI JU is a public-private partnership (PPP) between the European Commission (EC) and the Bio-based Industries Consortium (BIC), the industry-led private not-for-profit organisation representing the private sectors across the bio-based industries. The model of the public-private partnership has been successful as a new approach to supporting research and innovation and de-risking investment in Europe. The BBI JU became a reality in 2014 and represents the largest industrial and economic cooperation endeavour financially ever undertaken in Europe in the area of industrial biotechnologies. It is considered to be one of the most forward-looking initiatives under Horizon 2020 and demonstrates the circular economy in action. The BBI JU will be the catalyst for this strategy to mobilise actors across Europe including large industry, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), all types of research organisations, networks and universities. It will support regions and in doing so, the European Union Member States and associated countries in the implementation of their bioeconomy strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. DETERMINATION OF THE URGENCY OF UNDERTAKING LAND CONSOLIDATION WORKS IN THE VILLAGES OF THE SŁAWNO MUNICIPALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Leń

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The object of the paper is to analyze the spatial structure of land and identification of the needs of consolidation works and exchange of land in the villages of the Sławno municipality, lying in the district of Opoczno, in the Łódzkie Voivodship. The authors use the method of zero unitarisation for the purposes of determining the order of undertaking consolidation works and exchange of land in the area of research. The basis for calculation is the database of 19 factors (x1–x19 characteristic for the listed five groups of issues, describing each of the following villages. The obtained results, in a form of synthetic meter for each village, allowed creating the hierarchy of the urgency of carrying out consolidation works. The problem of excessive fragmentation of farms, constituting the collections of a certain number of parcels, in a broader sense, is one of the elements that prevent the acceleration of reforms by conversion of the Land and Buildings Register (EGiB in a full valuable real estate cadastre in Poland. The importance of the problem is highlighted by the fact that there are ecological grounds in the study area, significant from the point of view of environmental protection.

  8. Chinese Anti-Cancer Association as a non-governmental organization undertakes systematic cancer prevention work in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Cancer has become the first leading cause of death in the world, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Facing the increasing trend of cancer incidence and mortality, China issued and implemented “three-early (early prevention, early diagnosis and early treatment)” national cancer prevention plan. As the main body and dependence of social governance, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) take over the role of government in the field of cancer prevention and treatment. American Cancer Society (ACS) made a research on cancer NGOs and civil society in cancer control and found that cancer NGOs in developing countries mobilize civil society to work together and advocate governments in their countries to develop policies to address the growing cancer burden. Union for International Cancer Control (UICC), Cancer Council Australia (CCA), and Malaysian cancer NGOs are the representatives of cancer NGOs in promoting cancer control. Selecting Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (CACA) as an example in China, this article is to investigate how NGOs undertake systematic cancer prevention work in China. By conducting real case study, we found that, as a NGO, CACA plays a significant role in intensifying the leading role of government in cancer control, optimizing cancer outcomes, decreasing cancer incidence and mortality rates and improving public health. PMID:26361412

  9. Building capacity to use and undertake research in health organisations: a survey of training needs and priorities among staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Helen; Fulop, Naomi J

    2016-12-07

    Efforts to improve healthcare and population health depend partly on the ability of health organisations to use research knowledge and participate in its production. We report the findings of a survey conducted to prioritise training needs among healthcare and public health staff, in relation to the production and implementation of research, across an applied health research collaboration. A questionnaire survey using a validated tool, the Hennessy-Hicks Training Needs Assessment Questionnaire. Participants rated 25 tasks on a five-point scale with regard to both their confidence in performing the task, and its importance to their role. A questionnaire weblink was distributed to a convenience sample of 35 healthcare and public health organisations in London and South East England, with a request that they cascade the information to relevant staff. 203 individuals responded, from 20 healthcare and public health organisations. None. Training needs were identified by comparing median importance and performance scores for each task. Individuals were also invited to describe up to three priority areas in which they require training. Across the study sample, evaluation; teaching; making do with limited resources; coping with change and managing competing demands were identified as key tasks. Assessing the relevance of research and learning about new developments were the most relevant research-related tasks. Participants' training priorities included evaluation; finding, appraising and applying research evidence; and data analysis. Key barriers to involvement included time and resources, as well as a lack of institutional support for undertaking research. We identify areas in which healthcare and public health professionals may benefit from support to facilitate their involvement in and use of applied health research. We also describe barriers to participation and differing perceptions of research between professional groups. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited

  10. An investigation in to the impact of acquisition location on error type and rate when undertaking panoramic radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughlin, A; Drage, N; Greenall, C; Farnell, D J J

    2017-11-01

    Panoramic radiography is a common radiographic examination carried out in the UK. This study was carried out to determine if acquisition site has an impact on image quality. An image quality audit was carried out in South Wales across a number of dental and general radiology settings. The image quality was assessed retrospectively against national standards. A total of 174 radiographs were assessed from general radiology departments and 141 from dental radiology units. Chi-squared analysis was used to investigate whether there were differences in the grading between dental radiology units and general radiology departments. Differences between the two settings in terms of the number of errors in the radiographs was analysed using the Mann-Whitney test. Chi-squared analysis was used to see if there were differences between the types of errors in the two clinical settings. There was a significant association (p = 0.021) between the quality of the radiograph grading and type of radiology department. However when excellent and diagnostically acceptable radiographs were grouped together there was no significant difference between the two clinical settings. Although the vast majority of radiographs were diagnostic (89% for general radiology and 92% for dental radiology units), neither reached the required standards. The most common errors were patient positioning errors (54.6% radiographs affected) and preparation/instructional errors (47.9% radiographs affected). Errors in panoramic radiography are relatively high and further instruction to staff undertaking these procedures is required to ensure the targets are reached. Copyright © 2017 The College of Radiographers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Resumption of menstruation and pituitary response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone in functional hypothalamic amenorrhea subjects undertaking estrogen replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Z Q; Xu, J J; Lin, J F

    2013-11-01

    Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) refers to a functional menstrual disorder with various causes and presentations. Recovery of menstrual cyclicity is common in long-term follow-up but the affecting factors remain unknown. To explore factors affecting the menstrual resumption and to evaluate the pituitary response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in FHA. Thirty cases with FHA were recruited. All subjects were put on continuous 1 mg/day estradiol valerate orally and followed up monthly. Recovery was defined as the occurrence of at least three consecutive regular cycles. Responder referred to those who recovered within two years of therapy. Gonadotropin response to the 50 μg GnRH challenge was tested every three months. Nineteen (63.3%) subjects recovered with a mean time to recovery of 26.8 months. Time to recovery was negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI) before and by amenorrhea. Twentyone cases had undertaken therapy for more than two years and 10 of them recovered. BMI before and by amenorrhea were negatively correlated with the recovery. Significant increase of serum luteinizing hormone (LH) and LH response to GnRH were noted after recovery. Menstrual resumption was common in FHA undertaking estrogen replacement therapy (ERT). The likelihood of recovery was affected by their BMI before and by amenorrhea but not by the weight gain during therapy. Low serum LH and attenuated LH response to GnRH were the main features of pituitary deficiency in FHA. The menstrual resumption in FHA was accompanied by the recovery of serum LH and the LH response to GnRH.

  12. Ministerial Decree of 15 February 1974 establishing the inventory of qualified experts and physicians authorized to undertake the health physics and medical supervision of protection against ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    This Decree was made in implementation of DPR No. 185 of 13 February 1964 and provides for the legal and administrative acknowledgment of experts and physicians who are required to undertake supervision of protection against the hazards of ionizing radiations. (NEA) [fr

  13. Policies and Programming for Safer Schools: Are "Anti-Bullying" Approaches Impeding Education for Peacebuilding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickmore, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Prevailing anti-violence practices in public schools, especially in the context of recently increased emphasis on bullying, often allocate more resources to surveillance and control than to facilitation of healthy relationships or conflict/ peace learning. This policy emphasis increases the risks of marginalization and reduces opportunities for…

  14. Attacking Bullying; an Examination of Anti-Bullying Legislation and Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toso, Tamara Marrella

    2012-01-01

    Bullying is a major threat to school safety and appears to be increasing at alarming rates. Leaders throughout the entire school community need to understand the implications and ramifications of bullying on both the student who bullies and students who are bullied. This imperative mission calls for transformational leaders, armed with strong…

  15. Considering Mindfulness Techniques in School-Based Anti-Bullying Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foody, Mairéad; Samara, Muthanna

    2018-01-01

    Schools have a duty of care to all students and to directly prevent and intervene with bullying amongst children and adolescents. The emergence of cyberbullying escalates this responsibility as the strategies that have become appropriate at national levels for bullying do not always parallel over to online environments. The impact on mental health…

  16. Online and Offline Bullying of Autistic Youth: Anti-Bullying Strategies, Reporting, and Technological Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Scott Michael

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation investigated cyber- and face-to-face bullying of autistic youth (aged 13-18). Autism represents a neurological-developmental disability that affects language and communication, socialization, sensory processing, motor coordination, and thinking around planning, self-regulation, and self-reflection. Prior studies indicate that…

  17. The Problem Trap: Implications of Policy Archaeology Methodology for Anti-Bullying Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    James Scheurich argues that practices of policy--normalized over time through repetition--serve three purposes. They structure social problems for which policy is designed to address; construct certain people, implicitly or explicitly, as problem individuals; and shape policy solutions. Following Foucault, he offers what he calls Policy…

  18. Perceptions of Middle School Teachers about an Anti-Bullying Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Robin; Maldonado, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, K-12 schools throughout the United States have garnered nationwide attention because of bullying problems. Bullying impacts schools in various ways: student performance and self-regard, and it creates an environment of hostility in schools. Many factors contribute to the problem, including socioeconomic status, low self-esteem,…

  19. Outcomes of Anti-Bullying Intervention for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Linda; Jones, Robert S. P.; Hastings, Richard P.

    2010-01-01

    Although existing research is scarce, evidence suggests that children and adults with intellectual disabilities may be at increased risk of being bullied (as they are for maltreatment generally) and possibly more likely than those without disabilities to also engage in bullying behavior. Despite significant clinical interest in bullying, we could…

  20. Ministerial Decree of 12 May 1980 authorising Agip Nucleare S.p.a. in Rome to undertake health physics and medical supervision of protection against ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Section 83 of Decree No. 185 of 13 February 1964 on protection against ionizing radiation provides that institutions previously authorised by the Minister of Labour and Social Security may, on condition that they are adequately equipped for such services, be authorised to undertake health physics and medical supervision of personnel. This Decree accordingly authorises the Agip Nucleare Company to carry out this work. (NEA) [fr

  1. Bullying effect on student’s performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Resende Oliveira

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to measure the effect of bullying in math scores of students in the 6th grade of public (Nansel et al., 2001. school in the city of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil with the use of data from a survey by Joaquim Nabuco Foundation in 2013. The methodology applied is Propensity Score Matching (PSM in order to compare students who reported having suffered bullying with a control group, consisting of students who did not suffer bullying. Specifically, we aim to understand the role of social emotional skills and their potential influence on bullying. The results suggest that bullying has a negative impact on performance in mathematics and that social emotional skills can help students deal with bullying. Several econometric techniques were used to circumvent endogeneity problems. To identify personality traits, we use a factor model that also serves to correct for prediction error bias. The sensitivity analysis indicated potential problems of omitted variables. The results indicate that anti-bullying programs should take into account social emotional skills. JEL classification: I21, I28, J24, Keywords: Bullying, Propensity Score Matching, Impact evaluation, Personality traits, Mathematics

  2. Making choices in health: WHO guide to cost effectiveness analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tan Torres Edejer, Tessa

    2003-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXI PART ONE: METHODS COST-EFFECTIVENESS FOR GENERALIZED ANALYSIS 1. 2. What is Generalized Cost-Effectiveness Analysis? . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Undertaking...

  3. The process of undertaking a quantitative dissertation for a taught M.Sc: Personal insights gained from supporting and examining students in the UK and Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, Gill; Brennan, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article discusses the roles of the student and the supervisor in the process of undertaking and writing a dissertation, a potentially daunting process. Results: The authors have supervised and examined students within 20 institutions and the personal insights gained result in the guidance provided within this article. Conclusion: The authors conclude that much can be done by students working with their supervisors, to improve progress in both performing and writing up the dissertation. Taking account of these factors will ease the dissertation process and move students progressively towards the production of a well-written dissertation

  4. Neuroendocrine and immune responses undertake different fates following tryptophan or methionine dietary treatment: tales from a teleost model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azeredo, Rita; Machado, M.; Afonso, A.

    2017-01-01

    cells proliferation. Differently, tryptophan effects on inflammatory transcripts suggested an inhibitory mode of action. This, together with a high production of brain monoamine and cortisol levels, suggests that tryptophan might mediate regulatory mechanisms of neuroendocrine and immune systems...... the immunomodulatory effect of these amino acids on the inflammatory and neuroendocrine responses in juveniles of European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax. To achieve this, goal fish were fed for 14 days methionine and tryptophan-supplemented diets (MET and TRP, respectively, 2x dietary requirement level) or a control......, brain monoamines, plasma cortisol, and immune-related gene expression showed distinct and sometimes opposite patterns regarding the effects of dietary amino acids. While neuroendocrine intermediates were not affected by any dietary treatment at the end of the feeding trial, both supplemented diets led...

  5. Neuroendocrine and Immune Responses Undertake Different Fates following Tryptophan or Methionine Dietary Treatment: Tales from a Teleost Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Azeredo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Methionine and tryptophan appear to be fundamental in specific cellular pathways involved in the immune response mechanisms, including stimulation of T-regulatory cells by tryptophan metabolites or pro-inflammatory effects upon methionine supplementation. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of these amino acids on the inflammatory and neuroendocrine responses in juveniles of European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax. To achieve this, goal fish were fed for 14 days methionine and tryptophan-supplemented diets (MET and TRP, respectively, 2× dietary requirement level or a control diet meeting the amino acids requirement levels (CTRL. Fish were sampled for immune status assessment and the remaining fish were challenged with intraperitoneally injected inactivated Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida and sampled either 4 or 24 h post-injection. Respiratory burst activity, brain monoamines, plasma cortisol, and immune-related gene expression showed distinct and sometimes opposite patterns regarding the effects of dietary amino acids. While neuroendocrine intermediates were not affected by any dietary treatment at the end of the feeding trial, both supplemented diets led to increased levels of plasma cortisol after the inflammatory insult, while brain monoamine content was higher in TRP-fed fish. Peripheral blood respiratory burst was higher in TRP-fed fish injected with the bacteria inoculum but only compared to those fed MET. However, no changes were detected in total antioxidant capacity. Complement factor 3 was upregulated in MET-fed fish but methionine seemed to poorly affect other genes expression patterns. In contrast, fish fed MET showed increased immune cells numbers both before and after immune challenge, suggesting a strong enhancing effect of methionine on immune cells proliferation. Differently, tryptophan effects on inflammatory transcripts suggested an inhibitory mode of action. This, together

  6. Altered Preconception Fatty Acid Intake Is Associated with Improved Pregnancy Rates in Overweight and Obese Women Undertaking in Vitro Fertilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa J. Moran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal preconception diet is proposed to affect fertility. Prior research assessing the effect of altering the fatty acid profile on female fertility is conflicting. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of preconception maternal diet, specifically fatty acid profile, on pregnancies and live births following in vitro fertilisation (IVF. Forty-six overweight and obese women undergoing IVF were randomised to a diet and physical activity intervention (intervention or standard care (control. Outcome measures included pregnancy, live birth and pre-study dietary intake from food frequency questionnaire. Twenty pregnancies (n = 12/18 vs. n = 8/20, p = 0.12 and 12 live births (n = 7/18 vs. n = 5/20, p = 0.48 occurred following the intervention with no differences between the treatment groups. On analysis adjusted for BMI and smoking status, women who became pregnant had higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA intake (p = 0.03, specifically omega-6 PUFA and linoleic acid (LA (p = 0.045 with a trend for an elevated intake of omega-3 PUFA (p = 0.06. There were no dietary differences for women who did or did not have a live birth. Maternal preconception PUFA, and specifically omega-6 and LA intake, are associated with improved pregnancy rates in overweight and obese women undergoing IVF. This has implications for optimising fertility through preconception nutrition.

  7. The cost-effectiveness of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program: Results from a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, Linda; Svensson, Mikael

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to bullying affects around 3-5 percent of adolescents in secondary school and is related to various mental health problems. Many different anti-bullying programmes are currently available, but economic evaluations are lacking. The aim of this study is to identify the cost effectiveness of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program (OBPP). We constructed a decision-tree model for a Swedish secondary school, using a public payer perspective, and retrieved data on costs and effects from the published literature. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis to reflect the uncertainty in the model was conducted. The base-case analysis showed that using the OBPP to reduce the number of victims of bullying costs 131,250 Swedish kronor (€14,470) per victim spared. Compared to a relevant threshold of the societal value of bullying reduction, this indicates that the programme is cost-effective. Using a relevant willingness-to-pay threshold shows that the OBPP is a cost-effective intervention. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Obstacles to researching the researchers: a case study of the ethical challenges of undertaking methodological research investigating the reporting of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Joanne E; Herbison, G Peter; Roth, Paul; Paul, Charlotte

    2010-03-21

    Recent cohort studies of randomised controlled trials have provided evidence of within-study selective reporting bias; where statistically significant outcomes are more likely to be more completely reported compared to non-significant outcomes. Bias resulting from selective reporting can impact on meta-analyses, influencing the conclusions of systematic reviews, and in turn, evidence based clinical practice guidelines.In 2006 we received funding to investigate if there was evidence of within-study selective reporting in a cohort of RCTs submitted to New Zealand Regional Ethics Committees in 1998/99. This research involved accessing ethics applications, their amendments and annual reports, and comparing these with corresponding publications. We did not plan to obtain informed consent from trialists to view their ethics applications for practical and scientific reasons. In November 2006 we sought ethical approval to undertake the research from our institutional ethics committee. The Committee declined our application on the grounds that we were not obtaining informed consent from the trialists to view their ethics application. This initiated a seventeen month process to obtain ethical approval. This publication outlines what we planned to do, the issues we encountered, discusses the legal and ethical issues, and presents some potential solutions. Methodological research such as this has the potential for public benefit and there is little or no harm for the participants (trialists) in undertaking it. Further, in New Zealand, there is freedom of information legislation, which in this circumstance, unambiguously provided rights of access and use of the information in the ethics applications. The decision of our institutional ethics committee defeated this right and did not recognise the nature of this observational research. Methodological research, such as this, can be used to develop processes to improve quality in research reporting. Recognition of the potential

  9. Rapid realist review of the evidence: achieving lasting change when mental health rehabilitation staff undertake recovery-oriented training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Melanie; Bhanbhro, Sadiq; Cook, Sarah; Killaspy, Helen

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the factors contributing to lasting change in practice following a recovery-based training intervention for inpatient mental health rehabilitation staff. Staff training may help nurses and other staff groups in inpatient mental health rehabilitative settings to increase their recovery-oriented practice. There are no published reviews on the effectiveness of such training and few long-term evaluations. This review informed a realist evaluation of a specific intervention (GetREAL). Rapid realist review methodology was used to generate and prioritize programme theories. ASSIA, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Medline, PsycINFO, Scopus, Web of Science and grey literature searches were performed in September 2014-March 2015 with no date restrictions. Stakeholders suggested further documents. GetREAL project documentation was consulted. Programme theory development took place iteratively with literature identification. Stakeholders validated and prioritized emerging programme theories and the prioritized theories were refined using literature case studies. Fifty-one relevant documents fed into 49 programme theories articulating seven mechanisms for lasting change. Prioritized mechanisms were: staff receptiveness to change; and staff feeling encouraged, motivated and supported by colleagues and management to change. Seven programme theories were prioritized and refined using data from four case studies. Lasting change can be facilitated by collaborative action planning, regular collaborative meetings, appointing a change agent, explicit management endorsement and prioritization and modifying organizational structures. Conversely, a challenging organizational climate, or a prevalence of 'change fatigue', may block change. Pre-intervention exploration may help identify any potential barriers to embedding recovery in the organizational culture. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Using Social Cognitive Theory to Explain the Intention of Final-year Pharmacy Students to Undertake a Higher Degree in Pharmacy Practice Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Stephen R; Moles, Rebekah J; Krass, Ines; Kritikos, Vicki S

    2016-08-25

    Objective. To develop and test a conceptual model that hypothesized student intention to undertake a higher degree in pharmacy practice research (PPR) would be increased by self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and the social influence of faculty members. Methods. Cross-sectional surveys were completed by 387 final-year pharmacy undergraduates enrolled in 2012 and 2013. Structural equation modeling was used to explore relationships between variables and intention. Results. Fit indices were good. The model explained 55% of the variation in intention. As hypothesized, faculty social influence increased self-efficacy and indirectly increased outcome expectancy and intention. Conclusion. To increase pharmacy students' orientation towards a career in PPR, faculty members could use their social influence by highlighting PPR in their teaching.

  11. Effectiveness and sustainability of the ViSC Social Competence Program to prevent cyberbullying and cyber-victimization: Class and individual level moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradinger, Petra; Yanagida, Takuya; Strohmeier, Dagmar; Spiel, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether the general anti-bullying program ViSC sustainably prevents cyberbullying and cyber-victimization. A longitudinal randomized control group design was used to examine (i) program effectiveness immediately after a 1 year implementation phase and (ii) sustainable program effects 6 months later taking several moderators on the class level (class climate and ethnic diversity) and on the individual level (gender, age, internet usage, traditional bullying/victimization) into account. Effectiveness (e.g., the change between waves 2 and 1) was examined in 2,042 students (47.6% girls), aged 11.7 years (SD = 0.88) enrolled in 18 schools and 103 classes. Sustainability (e.g., the change between waves 3 and 2) was examined in a sub-sample of 6 schools and 35 classes comprising 659 students. The self-assessment multiple-item scales showed longitudinal and multiple group invariance. Factor scores were extracted to compute difference scores for effectiveness (Posttest minus Pretest) and sustainability (Follow-up test minus Posttest) for cyberbullying and cyber-victimization. Multilevel Modeling was applied to examine (i) the effectiveness and (ii) the sustainability of the ViSC intervention controlling for several individual and class level variables. Controlling for covariates, it was demonstrated that the ViSC program is effective in preventing cyberbullying and cyber-victimization and that the effects are sustainable after 6 months. The consequences for cyberbullying prevention are discussed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The Effectiveness of Cyberprogram 2.0 on Conflict Resolution Strategies and Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaigordobil, Maite; Martínez-Valderrey, Vanesa

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, the problem of youth violence has been a cause of increasing concern for educational and mental health professionals worldwide. The main objective of the study was to evaluate experimentally the effects of an anti-bullying/cyberbullying program (Cyberprogram 2.0; Pirámide Publishing, Madrid, Spain) on conflict resolution strategies and self-esteem. A randomly selected sample of 176 Spanish adolescents aged 13-15 years (93 experimental, 83 control) was employed. The study used a repeated measures pretest-posttest design with a control group. Before and after the program (19 one-hour sessions), two assessment instruments were administered: the questionnaire for measuring conflict management message styles and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale. The analyses of covariance of the posttest scores confirmed that the program stimulated an increase of cooperative conflict resolution strategies, a decrease in aggressive and avoidant strategies, and an increase of self-esteem. The change was similar in both sexes. The study provides evidence of the effectiveness of Cyberprogram 2.0 to improve the capacity for conflict resolution and self-esteem. The discussion focuses on the importance of implementing programs to promote socioemotional development and to prevent violence. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Conditions and Motivations to Undertake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flor Ángela Marulanda Valencia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at deepening in the analysis of motivations shown by a group of entrepreneurs in Medellin, Antioquia. It also describes the different perceptions about the enablers and obstacles for the development of entrepreneurship in appropriate environments to promote it. It was found that independence was the principal motivation for entrepreneurship and that the city offered the most favourable environment to foster it. Additionally, it was found that the most important obstacle to develop it was the difficulties to access a bank credit.

  14. 'You have to be mindful of whose story it is': the challenges of undertaking life story work with people with dementia and their family carers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Jane; Ryan, Tony; Ingleton, Christine; Clarke, Amanda

    2015-03-01

    Life story work is increasingly being used with people with dementia; this work offers a critical appraisal of some challenges that may be faced in practice. An in-depth case study analysis was undertaken to understand the experiences of people with dementia, family carers and care staff in using life story work in an NHS Mental Health and Social Care Trust. Data collection included semi-structured interviews, observation, conversations and field notes. Private memories were sometimes recalled by the person with dementia that were not for inclusion in any written product; enabling the person with dementia to tell their own life story could be a challenge; quality of the life story books was variable and; at times, life story work may be overused with the person with dementia. Services should not be deterred from undertaking life story work with people with dementia, but there is a need to adopt a planned approach to its implementation that includes facilitation, education and supervision. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  15. A comparison of classroom and online asynchronous problem-based learning for students undertaking statistics training as part of a Public Health Masters degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, N; Verstegen, D M L; Tan, F E S; O'Connor, S J

    2013-05-01

    This case-study compared traditional, face-to-face classroom-based teaching with asynchronous online learning and teaching methods in two sets of students undertaking a problem-based learning module in the multilevel and exploratory factor analysis of longitudinal data as part of a Masters degree in Public Health at Maastricht University. Students were allocated to one of the two study variants on the basis of their enrolment status as full-time or part-time students. Full-time students (n = 11) followed the classroom-based variant and part-time students (n = 12) followed the online asynchronous variant which included video recorded lectures and a series of asynchronous online group or individual SPSS activities with synchronous tutor feedback. A validated student motivation questionnaire was administered to both groups of students at the start of the study and a second questionnaire was administered at the end of the module. This elicited data about student satisfaction with the module content, teaching and learning methods, and tutor feedback. The module coordinator and problem-based learning tutor were also interviewed about their experience of delivering the experimental online variant and asked to evaluate its success in relation to student attainment of the module's learning outcomes. Student examination results were also compared between the two groups. Asynchronous online teaching and learning methods proved to be an acceptable alternative to classroom-based teaching for both students and staff. Educational outcomes were similar for both groups, but importantly, there was no evidence that the asynchronous online delivery of module content disadvantaged part-time students in comparison to their full-time counterparts.

  16. School Bullies' Intention to Change Behavior Following Teacher Interventions: Effects of Empathy Arousal, Condemning of Bullying, and Blaming of the Perpetrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garandeau, Claire F; Vartio, Annina; Poskiparta, Elisa; Salmivalli, Christina

    2016-11-01

    This study examines how bullies' perceptions of how they were treated by a teacher (or other school personnel) during discussions aimed at putting an end to bullying influenced their intention to change their behavior. After each discussion, which took place as part of the implementation of an anti-bullying program, bullies anonymously reported the extent to which they felt that the teacher aroused their empathy for the victim, condemned their behavior, or blamed them. Half of the schools implementing the program were instructed to handle these discussions in a confrontational way-telling the bully that his behavior is not tolerated-while the other half were instructed to use a non-confronting approach. Schools were randomly assigned to one of the two approaches. A total of 341 cases (188 in primary and 153 in secondary schools) handled in 28 Finnish schools were analyzed. Regression analyses showed that attempts at making bullies feel empathy for the victim and condemning their behavior both increased bullies' intention to stop. Blaming the bully had no significant effect. Bullies' intention to change was the lowest when both empathy-arousal and condemning behavior were low. The effects of empathy arousal were stronger when condemning the behavior was low (and vice versa), suggesting that teachers tackling bullying should make sure to use at least one of these strategies. When choosing not to raise the child's empathy, clear reprobation of the behavior is key.

  17. Motivations for undertaking DNA sequencing-based non-invasive prenatal testing for fetal aneuploidy: a qualitative study with early adopter patients in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Huso; Hallowell, Nina; Griffiths, Sian; Yeung Leung, Tak

    2013-01-01

    A newly introduced cell-free fetal DNA sequencing based non-invasive prenatal testing (DNA-NIPT) detects Down syndrome with sensitivity of 99% at early gestational stage without risk of miscarriage. Attention has been given to its public health implications; little is known from consumer perspectives. This qualitative study aimed to explore women's motivations for using, and perceptions of, DNA-NIPT in Hong Kong. In-depth interviews were conducted with 45 women who had undertaken DNA-NIPT recruited by purposive sampling based on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. The sample included 31 women identified as high-risk from serum and ultrasound based Down syndrome screening (SU-DSS). Thematic narrative analysis examined informed-decision making of the test and identified the benefits and needs. Women outlined a number of reasons for accessing DNA-NIPT: reducing the uncertainty associated with risk probability-based results from SU-DSS, undertaking DNA-NIPT as a comprehensive measure to counteract risk from childbearing especially at advanced age, perceived predictive accuracy and absence of risk of harm to fetus. Accounts of women deemed high-risk or not high-risk are distinctive in a number of respects. High-risk women accessed DNA-NIPT to get a clearer idea of their risk. This group perceived SU-DSS as an unnecessary and confusing procedure because of its varying, protocol-dependent detection rates. Those women not deemed high-risk, in contrast, undertook DNA-NIPT for psychological assurance and to reduce anxiety even after receiving the negative result from SU-DSS. DNA-NIPT was regarded positively by women who chose this method of screening over the routine, less expensive testing options. Given its perceived utility, health providers need to consider whether DNA-NIPT should be offered as part of universal routine care to women at high-risk for fetal aneuploidy. If this is the case, then further development of guidelines and quality assurance will be

  18. Motivations for undertaking DNA sequencing-based non-invasive prenatal testing for fetal aneuploidy: a qualitative study with early adopter patients in Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huso Yi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A newly introduced cell-free fetal DNA sequencing based non-invasive prenatal testing (DNA-NIPT detects Down syndrome with sensitivity of 99% at early gestational stage without risk of miscarriage. Attention has been given to its public health implications; little is known from consumer perspectives. This qualitative study aimed to explore women's motivations for using, and perceptions of, DNA-NIPT in Hong Kong. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In-depth interviews were conducted with 45 women who had undertaken DNA-NIPT recruited by purposive sampling based on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. The sample included 31 women identified as high-risk from serum and ultrasound based Down syndrome screening (SU-DSS. Thematic narrative analysis examined informed-decision making of the test and identified the benefits and needs. Women outlined a number of reasons for accessing DNA-NIPT: reducing the uncertainty associated with risk probability-based results from SU-DSS, undertaking DNA-NIPT as a comprehensive measure to counteract risk from childbearing especially at advanced age, perceived predictive accuracy and absence of risk of harm to fetus. Accounts of women deemed high-risk or not high-risk are distinctive in a number of respects. High-risk women accessed DNA-NIPT to get a clearer idea of their risk. This group perceived SU-DSS as an unnecessary and confusing procedure because of its varying, protocol-dependent detection rates. Those women not deemed high-risk, in contrast, undertook DNA-NIPT for psychological assurance and to reduce anxiety even after receiving the negative result from SU-DSS. CONCLUSIONS: DNA-NIPT was regarded positively by women who chose this method of screening over the routine, less expensive testing options. Given its perceived utility, health providers need to consider whether DNA-NIPT should be offered as part of universal routine care to women at high-risk for fetal aneuploidy. If this is the case, then

  19. "Ensure that you are well aware of the risks you are taking…": actions and activities medical tourists' informal caregivers can undertake to protect their health and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Valorie A; Whitmore, Rebecca; Snyder, Jeremy; Turner, Leigh

    2017-05-22

    When seeking care at international hospitals and clinics, medical tourists are often accompanied by family members, friends, or other caregivers. Such caregiver-companions assume a variety of roles and responsibilities and typically offer physical assistance, provide emotional support, and aid in decision-making and record keeping as medical tourists navigate unfamiliar environments. While traveling abroad, medical tourists' caregiver-companions can find themselves confronted with challenging communication barriers, financial pressures, emotional strain, and unsafe environments. To better understand what actions and activities medical tourists' informal caregivers can undertake to protect their health and safety, 20 interviews were conducted with Canadians who had experienced accompanying a medical tourist to an international health care facility for surgery. Interview transcripts were subsequently used to identify inductive and deductive themes central to the advice research participants offered to prospective caregiver-companions. Advice offered to future caregiver-companions spanned the following actions and activities to protect health and safety: become an informed health care consumer; assess and avoid exposure to identifiable risks; anticipate the care needs of medical tourists and thereby attempt to guard against caregiver burden; become familiar with important logistics related to travel and anticipated recovery timelines; and take practical measures to protect one's own health. Given that a key feature of public health is to use research findings to develop interventions and policies intended to promote health and reduce risks to individuals and populations, the paper draws upon major points of advice offered by study participants to take the first steps toward the development of an informational intervention designed specifically for the health and safety needs of medical tourists' caregiver companions. While additional research is required to finalize

  20. Motivations behind "Bullies Then Offenders" versus "Pure Bullies": Further Suggestions for Anti-Bully Education and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Pattie; Tankersley, Merrie; Joenson, Trevor; Hupp, Mikey; Buckley, Jennifer; Redmond-McGowan, Margaret; Zanzinger, Allison; Poirier, Alex; Walsh, Abigail

    2014-01-01

    Cyber-bullying has become increasingly problematic in academic settings including universities and colleges. The bullying literature has been expanding investigation of the bully behaviors and has identified four bully types to include pure offender, pure victim, offender and victim, neither-offender-nor-victim. The majority of research has…

  1. Gender Doesn't Limit You! A Research-Based Anti-Bullying Program for the Early Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Lindsay; Bigler, Rebecca; Liben, Lynn; Green, Vanessa

    2006-01-01

    In 2006, educators at St. Francis School in Austin, Texas, teamed up with researchers from the Gender and Racial Attitudes Lab at the University of Texas at Austin to examine ways to counteract gender bullying among young children. The project team tested a traditional multicultural technique--using literature to challenge gender…

  2. Undertaking high impact strategies: The role of national efficiency measures in long-term energy and emission reduction in steel making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Tengfang; Karali, Nihan; Sathaye, Jayant

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Evaluate long-term effects of national energy efficiency in steel making. • Use bottom-up optimization for projection in China, India and the U.S. • The effects include changes in steel production, energy use, emissions, and costs. • Three emission targets induce different structural changes and investments. • Projected energy and CO 2 intensity declines in each country from 2010 to 2050. - Abstract: In this paper, we applied bottom-up linear optimization modeling to analyze long-term national impacts of implementing energy efficiency measures on energy savings, CO 2 -emission reduction, production, and costs of steel making in China, India, and the U.S. We first established two base scenarios representing business-as-usual steel production for each country from 2010 to 2050; Base scenario (in which no efficiency measure is available) and Base-E scenario (in which efficiency measures are available), and model scenarios representing various emission-reduction targets that affects production, annual energy use and costs with the goal of cost minimization. A higher emission-reduction target generally induces larger structural changes and increased investments in nation-wide efficiency measures, in addition to autonomous improvement expected in the Base scenario. Given the same emission-reduction target compared to the base scenario, intensity of annual energy use and emissions exhibits declining trends in each country from year 2010 to 2050. While a higher emission-reduction target result in more energy reduction from the base scenario, such reduction can become more expensive to achieve. The results advance our understanding of long-term effects of national energy efficiency applications under different sets of emission-reduction targets for steel sectors in the three major economies, and provide useful implications for high impact strategies to manage production structures, production costs, energy use, and emission reduction in steel making

  3. Report and recommendations to the Minister regarding the environmental assessment report for Polsky Energy Corporation's proposed undertaking Brooklyn Energy Centre, Queens County, Nova Scotia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beanlands, G.; Glover, D.; Beviss, H.

    1993-01-01

    A public consultation review was undertaken to assess the suitability and environmental compatibility of Polsky Energy Corporation's proposal for a wood-fired cogeneration plant in Brooklyn, Nova Scotia. The plant would supply 21.3 MW of power to the provincial utility and steam to a local paper company. Public hearings were held in January 1993 and presentations were received from the project proponent and various intervenors. The concerns identified in the hearing included adequacy of the supply of wood wastes and the percentage of supplementary fuels required; air emissions and water-related effluents; ash disposal; monitoring; noise and traffic; socioeconomic impacts; and decommissioning. The hearing panel, appointed by the Nova Scotia Environmental Control Council, considered all the information received and concluded that the proposed facility will not cause significant or unacceptable risks to the natural and social environments of the surrounding community. This is contingent upon effective monitoring, appropriate guidance by regulatory agencies, and opportunities for continued liaison with the community. Conditions recommended by the panel include no operation of the plant using less than 70% wood as the principal fuel supply; conducting of a fuel audit every two years; reduction of the safety risk associated with the projected increase in truck traffic; continuous monitoring of stack emissions; and a requirement for a decommissioning plan as part of the permitting process. 3 refs., 1 fig

  4. ‘Why do an MPH?’ Motivations and intentions of physicians undertaking postgraduate public health training at the University of Cape Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia E.M. Zweigenthal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Public health (PH approaches underpin the management and transformation of health systems in low- and middle-income countries. Despite the Master of Public Health (MPH rarely being a prerequisite for health service employment in South Africa, many physicians pursue MPH qualifications. Objectives: This study identifies their motivations and career intentions and explored MPH programme strengths and gaps in under- and post-graduate PH training. Design: A cross-sectional study using an online questionnaire was completed by physicians graduating with an MPH between 2000 and 2009 and those enrolled in the programme in 2010 at the University of Cape Town. Results: Nearly a quarter of MPH students were physicians. Of the 65 contactable physicians, 48% responded. They were mid-career physicians who wished to obtain research training (55%, who wished to gain broader perspectives on health (32%, and who used the MPH to advance careers (90% as researchers, policy-makers, or managers. The MPH widened professional opportunities, with 62% changing jobs. They believed that inadequate undergraduate exposure should be remedied by applying PH approaches to clinical problems in community settings, which would increase the attractiveness of postgraduate PH training. Conclusions: The MPH allows physicians to transition from pure clinical to research, policy and/or management work, preparing them to innovate changes for effective health systems, responsive to the health needs of populations. Limited local job options and incentives are important constraining factors. Advocacy for positions requiring qualifications and benchmarking exit competencies of programmes nationally may promote enrolment.

  5. The concept of abusive clauses/unfair terms in contracts concluded between the undertakings, on the one hand, and the consumers, on the other hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea-Teodora Stănescu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Initially, the concept of unfair terms characterized only the contracts concluded between consumers and professionals. Currently, the concept is also incident in other types of contracts. This study only concerns the concept of unfair terms applicable to contracts concluded between consumers and professionals. Main regulations applicable are represented by Law no. 193/2000 on unfair terms in contracts concluded between professionals and consumers and Directive 93/13 / EEC on unfair terms in consumer contracts (interpreted by the ECJ. Scientific work is proposed to set up the concept of unfair terms. In order to do so, several steps are to be followed: 1. determining the scope (contracts on the sale of goods or services concluded between professionals and consumers 2. analysis of unfair terms defining features: (a the absence of negotiation between the contracting parties, (b the presence of a significant imbalance between the rights and obligations of the parties, to the detriment of consumers and (c the breach of good faith 3. the identification of the incident sanctions 4. the highlighting of some procedural features (especially in terms of the effects of court decisions finding the unfairness of a contractual term.

  6. Identifying attachment ruptures underlying severe music performance anxiety in a professional musician undertaking an assessment and trial therapy of Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy (ISTDP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Dianna T; Arthey, Stephen; Abbass, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Kenny has proposed that severe music performance anxiety that is unresponsive to usual treatments such as cognitive-behaviour therapy may be one manifestation of unresolved attachment ruptures in early life. Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy specifically targets early relationship trauma. Accordingly, a trial of Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy with severely anxious musicians was implemented to assess whether resolution of attachment ruptures resulted in clinically significant relief from music performance anxiety. Volunteer musicians participating in a nationally funded study were screened for MPA severity. Those meeting the critical cut-off score on the Kenny Music Performance Anxiety Inventory were offered a trial of Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy. In this paper, we present the theoretical foundations and rationale for the treatment approach, followed by sections of a verbatim transcript and process analysis of the assessment phase of treatment that comprised a 3-h trial therapy session. The 'case' was a professional orchestral musician (male, aged 55) who had suffered severe music performance anxiety over the course of his entire career, which spanned more than 30 years at the time he presented for treatment following his failure to secure a position at audition. The participant was able to access the pain, rage and grief associated with unresolved attachment ruptures with both parents that demonstrated the likely nexus between early attachment trauma and severe music performance anxiety. Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy is a potentially cost-effective treatment for severe music performance anxiety. Further research using designs with higher levels of evidence are required before clinical recommendations can be made for the use of this therapy with this population.

  7. Jet Joint Undertaking. Annual report 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    The Joint European Torus is the largest project in the coordinated fusion programme of the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM). A brief general introduction provides an overview of the planning of the Report. This is followed by a description of JET and the Euratom and International Fusion Programmes, which summarize the main features of the JET apparatus and its experimental programme and explains the position of the Project in the overall Euratom programme. In addition, this relates and compares JET to other large fusion devices throughout the world. The following section reports on the technical status of the machine including: technical changes and achievements during 1989; details of the operational organization of experiments and pulse statistics; and progress on enhancements in machine systems for future operation. This is followed by the results of JET operations in 1990 under various operating conditions, including ohmic heating, radio-frequency (RF) heating, neutral beam (NB) heating and various combined scenarios in different magnetic field configurations; the overall global and local behaviour observed; and the progress towards reactor conditions. In particular, the comparative performance between JET and other tokamaks, in terms of the triple fusion product, shows the substantial achievements made by JET since the start of operations in 1983. The second part of the Report explains the organization and management of the Project and describes the administration of JET. In particular, it sets out the budget situation; contractual arrangements during 1990; and details of the staffing arrangements and complement

  8. Jet joint undertaking. Annual report 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    After a presentation of the Jet and nuclear fusion, the results of Jet operations in 1985 are given: energy confinement, MHD activity and disruptive instabilities, impurities and radiation losses, plasma evolution, plasma boundary phenomena, control of plasma current, position and shape, RF heating. Technical achievements in 1985 are summarized: vacuum systems, first wall, multi-pellet injection for fuelling and re-fuelling, containment of forces during vertical instabilities, magnet systems, safety systems, power supplies, neutral beam heating, radio-frequency heating, remote handling, tritium handling, control and data acquisition, diagnostic systems are implied

  9. Benchmark analysis of railway networks and undertakings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, I.A.; Wiggenraad, P.B.L.; Wolff, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Benchmark analysis of railway networks and companies has been stimulated by the European policy of deregulation of transport markets, the opening of national railway networks and markets to new entrants and separation of infrastructure and train operation. Recent international railway benchmarking

  10. The Challenges Facing Distance Students in Undertaking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the challenges facing distance students in Geography field Practical projects (GFPs) at The Open University of Tanzania (OUT). A random sample size of 19 students who participated in GFP1 in 2009 and 2010 were selected from randomly sampled regional centres of Singida, Dodoma, Njombe, and ...

  11. Jet Joint Undertaking Progress Report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The report sets out an overview of progress on JET during 1992 and with a survey of scientific and technical achievements during 1992 sets these advances in their general context. This summary is specifically cross-referenced to reports and articles prepared and presented by JET staff during 1992. The last section is devoted to future plans and certain developments which might enable enhancements of the machine to further improve its overall performance. The Appendices contain a list of work topics which have been carried out under Task Agreements with various Association Laboratories. In addition, a full list is included of all Articles, Reports and Conference papers published by JET authors in 1992

  12. Jet joint undertaking annual report 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    The 1988 activity report of the Joint European Torus (JET) project, is presented. The report provides an overview of the scientific, technical and administrative status of the program. The background of the project, the description of JET and Euratom and International Fusion Programs are explained. The technical status of the machine is given and it includes: technical changes and achievements during 1988; details of the operational organisation of experiments and pulse statistics; and progress on enhancements in machine systems for future operations. The results of JET operations in 1988, under various conditions of heating and combined scenarios in different magnetic field configurations, are provided. The project budget situation, contractual arrangements, in 1988, and staff complements, are included

  13. Jet Joint Undertaking. Progress report 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    This JET Progress Reports provides an overview summary and puts into context the scientific and technical advances made on JET during 1990. In addition, the Report is supplemented by appendices of contributions (in preprint form) of the more important JET articles published during the year, which set out the details of JET activities

  14. Jet joint undertaking. Progress report 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    A brief introduction and some background information relevant to the Report is first provided. Progress on JET during 1984 is overviewed and, with a survey of scientific and technical achievements during 1984, these advances are set in their general context. This summary is specifically crossreferenced to reports and articles prepared and presented by JET staff during 1985. The more important of these articles, which are of general interest, are reproduced as appendices to this Report. Certain developments are considered, which might enable additional improvements/modifications of the machine to further improve its overall performance. These improvements are considered to overcome certain limitations encountered generally on Tokmaks, particularly concerned with density limits, with plasma MHD behaviour, with impurities and with plasma transport. Some attention has been devoted to methods of surmounting these limitations and these are detailed in this section. In the Appendices, selected articles prepared by JET authors are reproduced in detail, and provide more details of the activities and achievements made on JET during 1985. In addition, a full list is included of all Articles, Reports and Conference papers published in 1985

  15. Undertaking midwifery studies: commencing students' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Mary; Kruger, Gina

    2011-10-01

    to explore the motivations and beliefs of commencing midwifery students against a background of high course demand and high student attrition. a qualitative analysis of student reflective essays. Melbourne, Australia. all commencing midwifery students, in 2008, were invited to participate (n = 41). three primary motivations for choosing midwifery were identified, including: notions of altruism (wanting to help), a fascination with pregnancy and birth, and a view of midwifery as a personally satisfying career. Bachelor of Midwifery programmes attract students with idealised views about midwifery practice. Such views may lead to student disillusionment, tensions with educators and clinicians, and higher rates of student attrition. Students need greater support to examine their views about midwifery practice. More meaningful support may assist the students' successful socialisation into clinical practice. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An Applied Method for Undertaking Phenomenological Explication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    knotted line rather than catching fish. I needed something which would group related material together in an ordered and meaningful fashion, and which ..... being “in pain ... on the inside of my heart and mind.” On another occasion he was strumming his guitar and singing a worship song entitled,. 'Jesus what a beautiful ...

  17. Adventure Education and Resilience Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beightol, Jesse; Jevertson, Jenn; Carter, Susan; Gray, Sky; Gass, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of an experiential, adventure-based program on levels of resilience in fifth-grade Latino students. A mixed methods, quasi-experimental design was used to measure the impact of the Santa Fe Mountain Center's Anti-Bullying Initiative on internal assets commonly associated with resilient individuals. Results indicated…

  18. Quality Books about Bullying in the Young Adult Tradition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Joanne; Hoover, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Anti-bullying experts employ trade books in dealing with contemporary issues facing young people, including bullying. At least three conceptual strands underpin the application of young adult literature (YAL) in such enterprises: (1) reliance on tested voices appealing to young readers; (2) the potential effect of quality YAL on literacy…

  19. Creating the Cougar Watch: Learning to Be Proactive against Bullying in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert W.; Smith, Kayce

    2014-01-01

    Despite reticence from the central office, strong middle level teacher leaders worked together to develop an effective anti-bullying program that addresses a significant need for safety and inclusion for all middle school students. This article describes how one teacher's concerns changed her school's attitude with regard to bullying from assuming…

  20. Assessment of Students' and Teachers' Perceptions of Bullying in the Middle School Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Robert David, II

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is a continuing problem in schools, and can result in physical, psychological, and emotional harm to victims, as well as negatively affecting the school culture for students and teachers. Anti-bullying initiatives have typically focused on zero-tolerance strategies, but these have not been effective in promoting a positive school culture.…

  1. Constructing Bullying in Ontario, Canada: A Critical Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, Sue; Tuters, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    As the prevalence and negative effects of bullying become widely known, people around the world seem desperate to solve the bullying "problem". A sizeable body of research about many aspects of bullying and a plethora of anti-bullying programmes and policies now exist. This critical policy analysis asks: how does Ontario, Canada's…

  2. Youth Court: An Alternative Response to School Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copich, Cindy

    2012-01-01

    Bullying and school violence are critical issues facing 21st century educational leaders. U.S. public schools have been scrambling to develop and implement anti-bullying programs with varying degrees of success. Bullying leads to disruption of learning, and its lasting effects of anxiety, depression, anger, and actual brain damage follow victims…

  3. The development and evaluation of the use of a virtual learning environment (Blackboard 5) to support the learning of pre-qualifying nursing students undertaking a human anatomy and physiology module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Sue M; Weaver, Mike; Voegeli, David; Fitzsimmons, Debs; Knowles, Jess; Harrison, Maureen; Shephard, Kerry

    2006-07-01

    Students commence nurse education with varying levels of understanding of human anatomy and physiology due to a wide range of previous exposure to the topic. All students, however, are required to attain a broad knowledge of this topic prior to qualification. This paper describes the use of a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE), Blackboard 5, and the associated development of appropriate resources aimed at supporting nursing students undertaking a human anatomy and physiology module at Higher Education Level 1. The VLE was used as part of a blended learning approach. The results suggested that the majority of students utilised the VLE throughout the academic year. Opportunities for independent and self-directed learning were available in that students chose when and where to learn. Students generally commented favourably on ease of use and type of resources available. Frequency of use of the VLE, however, did not correlate strongly with the final examination mark achieved. Overall the VLE and the associated available resources appeared useful in supporting student learning and has been adopted for use in subsequent years.

  4. A Lipidomics Approach to Assess the Association Between Plasma Sphingolipids and Verbal Memory Performance in Coronary Artery Disease Patients Undertaking Cardiac Rehabilitation: A C18:0 Signature for Cognitive Response to Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Mahwesh; Herrmann, Nathan; Dinoff, Adam; Mielke, Michelle M; Oh, Paul I; Shammi, Prathiba; Cao, Xingshan; Venkata, Swarajya Lakshmi Vattem; Haughey, Norman J; Lanctôt, Krista L

    2017-01-01

    Early subtle deficits in verbal memory, which may indicate early neural risk, are common in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). While exercise can improve cognition, cognitive response to exercise is heterogeneous. Sphingolipids have been associated with the development and progression of CAD, and impairments in sphingolipid metabolism may play roles in neurodegeneration and in the neural adaptation response to exercise. In this study, change in plasma concentrations of sphingolipids was assessed in relation to change in verbal memory performance and in other cognitive domains among CAD subjects undertaking a 6-month cardiac rehabilitation (CR) program. Patients with CAD (n = 120, mean age = 64±6 y, 84% male, years of education = 16±3) underwent CR with neuropsychological assessments and blood collected at baseline, 3-, and 6-months. Z-scores based on age, gender, and education were combined for verbal memory, visuospatial memory, processing speed, executive function, and global cognition tasks to calculate cognitive domain Z-scores. Plasma sphingolipid concentrations were measured from fasting blood samples using high performance liquid chromatography coupled electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Mixed models were used to identify sphingolipids significantly associated with performance in verbal memory and other cognitive domains, adjusting for potential confounders. A decrease in ceramide C18:0 concentration was significantly associated with improvement in verbal memory performance (b[SE] = -0.51 [0.25], p = 0.04), visuospatial memory (b[SE] = -0.44 [0.22], p = 0.05), processing speed (b[SE] = -0.89 [0.32], p = 0.007), and global cognition (b[SE] = -1.47 [0.59], p = 0.01) over 6 months of CR. Plasma ceramide C18:0 concentrations may be a sensitive marker of cognitive response to exercise in patients with CAD.

  5. Social and environmental assessment: a preliminary data base on population and territory in the undertakings pipelines: a natural gas pipeline GASBEL II; Avaliacao socioambiental - base de dados preliminar sobre populacao e territorio em empreendimentos de dutos - estudo de caso: avaliacao socioambiental GASBEL II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartolini, Marcia; Bach, Vanessa [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ismerio, Marcia [Pallos Consultorias, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Leal, Edna Mara [Camargo Correa Engenharia (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The social environmental assessment consists in an instrument of planning which principal objective is to know the social ambient that will be changed by the PETROBRAS' pipe undertakings, that are planning to be implemented and will be analyzed by the licensers environmental organs. When pipeline projects are planned, their route cross some regions and ecological sensitive areas, therefore, the attitude of consider the social environmental aspects at the planning stage through the use of valuation instruments, anticipating, the potential social and environmental impacts, assumes more importance in integrating management of these undertakings. This presentation has the main objective to stand out the relevance of the social environmental assessment realization as preliminary knowledge base to the undertakings, since the research results developed represents a support of information about the regions where the undertakings install themselves in distinct stages: environmental permits, assembly and construction and operating. The social environmental assessment of the project named GASBEL II is presented as a case study once it allow to observe a gas pipeline transport project to be implemented at different regions and areas. The Pipeline will cross two different federal states, where the local research boarded many communities with different ways and conditions of life, territory use, cultural expressions and other aspects. (author)

  6. Public School Principals' Experiences with Interpreting and Implementing Connecticut's Anti-Bullying Law (Connecticut General Statute Section 10-222d): A Statewide Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRocco, Diana J.; Nestler-Rusack, Donna; Freiberg, Jo Ann

    2007-01-01

    Background: In June 2002, the State of Connecticut General Assembly (CGA) passed Public Act 02-119, An Act Concerning Bullying Behavior in Schools and Concerning the Pledge of Allegiance. Section 1 mandated that each local and regional board of education (school district) develop a policy to address bullying in its schools. Conn. Gen. Statute…

  7. “Ensure that you are well aware of the risks you are taking…”: actions and activities medical tourists’ informal caregivers can undertake to protect their health and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valorie A. Crooks

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When seeking care at international hospitals and clinics, medical tourists are often accompanied by family members, friends, or other caregivers. Such caregiver-companions assume a variety of roles and responsibilities and typically offer physical assistance, provide emotional support, and aid in decision-making and record keeping as medical tourists navigate unfamiliar environments. While traveling abroad, medical tourists’ caregiver-companions can find themselves confronted with challenging communication barriers, financial pressures, emotional strain, and unsafe environments. Methods To better understand what actions and activities medical tourists’ informal caregivers can undertake to protect their health and safety, 20 interviews were conducted with Canadians who had experienced accompanying a medical tourist to an international health care facility for surgery. Interview transcripts were subsequently used to identify inductive and deductive themes central to the advice research participants offered to prospective caregiver-companions. Results Advice offered to future caregiver-companions spanned the following actions and activities to protect health and safety: become an informed health care consumer; assess and avoid exposure to identifiable risks; anticipate the care needs of medical tourists and thereby attempt to guard against caregiver burden; become familiar with important logistics related to travel and anticipated recovery timelines; and take practical measures to protect one’s own health. Conclusion Given that a key feature of public health is to use research findings to develop interventions and policies intended to promote health and reduce risks to individuals and populations, the paper draws upon major points of advice offered by study participants to take the first steps toward the development of an informational intervention designed specifically for the health and safety needs of medical tourists

  8. Undertaking Effective Cross-Language Questionnaire-Based Survey in Illiterate and Semi-Illiterate Rural Communities in the Developing Regions: Case of Communal Cattle Farmers in Vhembe District of Limpopo Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Mavhungu Abel Mafukata

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigated similarities and differences between questionnaire instruments – Source language instrument (untranslated) and target language (translated) instrument employed to gather research data in a cross-cultural background in the developing regions, with special reference to illiterate and semi-illiterate rural communities in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. This paper premises that there are differences of responses between the responses sourced from a source language vers...

  9. Undertaking Effective Cross-Language Questionnaire-Based Survey in Illiterate and Semi-Illiterate Rural Communities in the Developing Regions: Case of Communal Cattle Farmers in Vhembe District of Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavhungu Abel Mafukata

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated similarities and differences between questionnaire instruments – Source language instrument (untranslated and target language (translated instrument employed to gather research data in a cross-cultural background in the developing regions, with special reference to illiterate and semi-illiterate rural communities in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. This paper premises that there are differences of responses between the responses sourced from a source language version questionnaire and that of the translated cross-language version questionnaire. The results of this paper revealed that the majority (60% of the responses differed in both sets of questionnaires while some (40% responses on both sets of questionnaires were similar. The implication is that collecting survey data from a cross-language translated version questionnaire might provide a better and reliable data collection option than collecting survey data from a directly translated – or untranslated version during interviews. The differences appear to be influenced mainly by the socio-demographic factors of the respondents. The noted differences might affect the over-all quality of results of the particular survey. This paper argues that such differences might have implications for the design of policy and strategic intervention measures since such interventions might have emanated from flawed results.

  10. A Study into the Design of a Pre-Laboratory Software Resource in Effectively Assisting in the Chemistry Proficiency of Students of Chinese Origin Undertaking Post 16 Chemistry in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Saskia Katarina Emily; Harrison, Timothy Guy

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study indicates that Chinese origin students completing their pre-university education in a British school have particular difficulties related to sociocultural change, pedagogical differences, affective aspects, cognitive demand and language learning. These are discussed. The use of a pre-laboratory software resource to support…

  11. 36 CFR 800.6 - Resolution of adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Resolution of adverse effects... PROTECTION OF HISTORIC PROPERTIES The section 106 Process § 800.6 Resolution of adverse effects. (a) Continue... the undertaking that could avoid, minimize, or mitigate adverse effects on historic properties. (1...

  12. Impact of Treatment Integrity on Intervention Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryling, Mitch J.; Wallace, Michele D.; Yassine, Jordan N.

    2012-01-01

    Treatment integrity has cogent implications for intervention effectiveness. Understanding these implications is an important, but often neglected, undertaking in behavior analysis. This paper reviews current research on treatment integrity in applied behavior analysis. Specifically, we review research evaluating the relation between integrity…

  13. Trends in the Distribution of Teacher Effectiveness in the Intensive Partnerships for Effective Teaching: Progress Report. Working Paper WR-1036-BMGF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Jennifer L.; Baird, Matthew; Engberg, John; Hunter, Gerald Paul

    2014-01-01

    As part of its effective teaching initiative, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation partnered with three urban school districts across the U.S. and a group of four charter management organizations to undertake a strategic set of human capital reforms. A key objective of the "Intensive Partnerships for Effective Teaching" program was to…

  14. Metropolitan researchers undertaking rural research: benefits and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, L

    1999-08-01

    Can or should metropolitan residents research their rural counterparts and if they do are there inherent pitfalls or benefits? Throughout the history of social and anthropological research there has been debate on the insider-outsider/native-stranger controversy as to who should carry out the field work. This discourse will explore the author's personal experiences in the context of planning a rural health project, entering the field, accessing the informants, interviewing the informants and leaving the field.

  15. Undertaking research on people who lack decision-making capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Richard

    2017-10-02

    The Declaration of Helsinki requires that health care research takes place with the informed consent of those who participate in the study. This approach upholds the autonomy of the participants, but restricts research to subjects who have decision-making capacity. The Mental Capacity Act 2005 introduced safeguards that enable researchers to investigate the care and treatment of people with incapacity, while protecting this vulnerable patient group. These safeguards allow people who lack decision-making capacity to benefit from research findings. In this article, Richard Griffith outlines the requirements that must be met when district nurses conduct research on subjects who lack decision-making capacity.

  16. When Innovation Holds Learning and Undertaking in a Close Embrace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formica, Piero

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Piero Formica considers how new approaches to the notion of the university exemplify the value of creative ignorance in driving entrepreneurship and promoting a new culture of innovation based on blue sky science and open-mindedness. He takes the examples of the Minerva Schools, the Unreasonable Institute and the Singularity…

  17. 31 CFR 248.4 - Undertaking of indemnity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in the circumstances set forth below, a corporate surety authorized by the Secretary of the Treasury... disbursing officer is satisfied as to the identity of the check presented and that any missing portions are...

  18. Jet joint undertaking progress report 1988 volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Joint European Torus (JET) is presented. It covers the fifth year of JET's operation and provides an overview of the scientific and technical advances made on JET. The JET most important articles, published during 1988, are included. The background of JET project, the main objectives and design aspects of the machine are summarized. Most of 1988 was devoted to machine operations: the number of pulses was 4673. The introduction, commissioning and operation of the JET second beam injector is reported. Planned developments on enhancements in the machine for future operations are included

  19. Jet joint undertaking. Progress report 1989. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    The first section of this Report provides a brief introduction and background information relevant to the Report. The second and third sections set out an overview of progress on JET during 1989 and with a survey of scientific and technical achievements during 1989 sets these advances in their general context. This summary is specifically cross-referenced to reports and articles prepared and presented by JET staff during 1989. The more important of these articles, which are of general interest, are reproduced as appendices to this Report. The fourth section is devoted to future plans and certain developments which might enable enhancements of the machine to further improve its overall performance. Some attention has been devoted to methods of surmounting certain limitations and these are detailed in this section. The Appendices contain a list of work topics carried out under Task Agreements with various Association Laboratories, and selected articles prepared by JET authors are reproduced in detail, providing some details of the activities and achievements made on JET during 1989. In addition, a full list is included of all Articles, Reports and Conference papers published by JET authors in 1989

  20. JET Joint Undertaking. Progress report 1991 - volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The ninth JET Progress Report provides an overview summary and puts into context the scientific and technical advances made on JET during 1991. The report contains a brief summary of the background to the project, and describes the basic objectives of JET and the principal design aspects of the machine

  1. The Commission on Employment Conditions, an ambitious undertaking !

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of the year, the Commission on Employment Conditions has had much success in the number and ability of its participants. It has mostly worked on salaries, the only compulsory subject of the 2010 five-yearly review. In the framework of this review, the Commission has analysed the results of the comparison carried out by the OECD (see Echo 104 and 105). Through its research and analysis, the Commission has clearly shown that our salaries are lower than those of the comparators. It is there necessary to adjust the salary grid with a salary catch-up and not an increase. In 20 years, no five-yearly review has ended with a significant catch-up. Today it is essential to inform our colleagues that this subject needs to be dealt with and that measures must be taken to finance it, as is the case for restoring the equilibrium of the Pension Fund and Health Insurance schemes. The Commission has established an argumentation to help our fellow delegates talk about the delicate subject of salary catch-...

  2. The University of Utah Urban Undertaking (U4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J. C.; Mitchell, L.; Bares, R.; Mendoza, D. L.; Fasoli, B.; Bowling, D. R.; Garcia, M. A.; Buchert, M.; Pataki, D. E.; Crosman, E.; Horel, J.; Catharine, D.; Strong, C.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    The University of Utah is leading efforts to understand the spatiotemporal patterns in both emissions and concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHG) and criteria pollutants within urban systems. The urbanized corridor in northern Utah along the Wasatch Front, anchored by Salt Lake City, is undergoing rapid population growth that is projected to double in the next few decades. The Wasatch Front offers multiple advantages as an unique "urban laboratory": urban regions in multiple valleys spanning numerous orders of magnitude in population, each with unique airsheds, well-defined boundary conditions along deserts and tall mountains, strong signals during cold air pool events, seasonal contrasts in pollution, and a legacy of productive partnerships with local stakeholders and governments. We will show results from GHG measurements from the Wasatch Front, including one of the longest running continuous CO2 records in urban areas. Complementing this record are comprehensive meteorological observations and GHG/pollutant concentrations on mobile platforms: light rail, helicopter, and research vans. Variations in the GHG and pollutant observations illustrate human behavior and the resulting "urban metabolism" taking place on hourly, weekly, and seasonal cycles, resulting in a coupling between GHG and criteria pollutants. Moreover, these observations illustrate systematic spatial gradients in GHG and pollutant distributions between and within urban areas, traced to underlying gradients in population, energy use, terrain, and land use. Over decadal time scales the observations reveal growth of the "urban dome" due to expanding urban development. Using numerical models of the atmosphere, we further link concentrations of GHG and air quality-relevant pollutants to underlying emissions at the neighborhood scale as well as urban planning considerations.

  3. Alternative sources of financing entrepreneurial undertakings in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njegomir Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Insufficiency of internal financial resources and limited access to external sources of capital, as one of the key problems, local agricultural producers - entrepreneurs usualy describe with high cost of capital, complicated procedures, lack of transparency in regard to the settlement of credit requests and problems with security of loans. The aim of this study is to analyze the possibilities of facilitating access to increased volume of capital for domestic entrepreneurs in agriculture by using funding sources that are applied in developed economies for financing entrepreneurs. In order to achieve the stated aim, the subject of investigation in this paper is the analysis of alternative sources of financing, which use or increased adoption in Serbia would provide greater availability of capital for agricultural producers and others across the chain of agrobusiness complex and thus the promotion of entrepreneurial activity, and consequently, greater competitiveness and greater income of domestic agricultural producers and others across the chain of agrbusiness indirectly leading to increased economic growth and improvement of the welfare.

  4. Captioned Instructional Video: Effects on Content Comprehension, Vocabulary Acquisition and Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    BavaHarji, Madhubala; Alavi, Zhinoos Kamal; Letchumanan, Krishnaveni

    2014-01-01

    This experimental design study examined the effects of viewing captioned instructional videos on EFL learners' content comprehension, vocabulary acquisition and language proficiency. It also examined the participants' perception of viewing the captioned instructional videos. The 92 EFL students in two classes, who were undertaking the "Tape…

  5. Aquatic organism passage at road-stream crossings—synthesis and guidelines for effectiveness monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Hoffman; Jason B. Dunham; Bruce P. Hansen

    2012-01-01

    Restoration and maintenance of passage for aquatic organisms at road-stream crossings represents a major management priority, involving an investment of hundreds of millions of dollars. This report has been written, in part, for field biologists who will be undertaking and evaluating the effectiveness of aquatic organism passage restoration projects at road-stream...

  6. 23 original article effect of instructions about the method of urine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Oboro VO

    ABSTRACT. A study of 65 children (29males and 36females) and aged between four weeks and 15years with significant bacteriuria was undertaking over a six month period to determine the effects of instruction received about the methods of urine collection and storage on the prevalence of urinary tract infection.

  7. Are screening processes effective instruments and what are the environmental benefits?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eskild Holm; Christensen, Per; Kørnøv, Lone

    2003-01-01

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)is the process by which the effects that proposed projects are likely to have with respect to a number of environmental criteria is evaluated. Screening is an activity carried out in advance of an EIA to determine whether, in fact, it is necessary to undertake...

  8. Effective use of technology in clinical supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Martin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Clinical supervision is integral to continuing professional development of health professionals. With advances in technology, clinical supervision too can be undertaken using mediums such as videoconference, email and teleconference. This mode of clinical supervision is termed as telesupervision. While telesupervision could be useful in any context, its value is amplified for health professionals working in rural and remote areas where access to supervisors within the local work environment is often diminished. While telesupervision offers innovative means to undertake clinical supervision, there remain gaps in the literature in terms of its parameters of use in clinical practice. This article outlines ten evidence-informed, practical tips stemming from a review of the literature that will enable health care stakeholders to use technology effectively and efficiently while undertaking clinical supervision. By highlighting the “how to” aspect, telesupervision can be delivered in the right way, to the right health professional, at the right time.

  9. Promoting Preservice Teachers' Dual Self-Regulation Roles as Learners and as Teachers: Effects of Generic vs. Specific Prompts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramarski, Bracha; Kohen, Zehavit

    2017-01-01

    Researchers have recently suggested that teachers must undertake important dual self-regulation roles if they want to become effective at improving their students' self-regulation. First, teachers need to become proficient at self-regulated learning (SRL) themselves, and then teachers need to learn explicitly how to proactively teach SRL -- termed…

  10. Would Mandatory Attendance Be Effective for Economics Classes?

    OpenAIRE

    JS Armstrong

    2004-01-01

    Romer (1993) suggests that universities should undertake experiments that would test the value of mandatory attendance for economics courses. He presents evidence showing that those who attended his classes received higher grades on his exams and concluded that ^San important part of the relationship [to the course grade] reflects a genuine effect of attendance.^T This conclusion is likely to be welcomed by some economics professors. In this note, I address two issues. First, what does prior ...

  11. Successful Bullying Prevention Programs: Influence of Research Design, Implementation Features, and Program Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryanna Hahn Fox

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bullying prevention programs have been shown to be generally effective in reducing bullying and victimization. However, the effects are relatively small in randomized experiments and greater in quasi-experimental and age-cohort designs. Programs that are more intensive and of longer duration (for both children and teachers are more effective, as are programs containing more components. Several program components are associated with large effect sizes, including parent training or meetings and teacher training. These results should inform the design and evaluation of anti-bullying programs in the future, and a system ofaccreditation of effective programs.

  12. Establishing effective working relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Trish

    2016-02-24

    This article, the second in a series of 11, provides support and offers advice to new and existing mentors and practice teachers to enable them to progress in their role and develop a portfolio of evidence. In particular, the article discusses how to establish effective working relationships and emphasises the importance of the student-mentor or student-practice teacher relationship. It examines the essential qualities, attributes and characteristics of an effective mentor or practice teacher. The article provides learning activities and suggests ways in which mentors and practice teachers can undertake various self-assessments, enabling them to gather relevant evidence to demonstrate how they can meet and maintain the requirements for these roles as stipulated by the Nursing and Midwifery Council.

  13. Micro-negocios asociativos campesinos: análisis económico de un sistema de producción ovina, Región del Maule, Chile Undertaking associative small holding business: economic analysis of the sheep production system, Maule region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Lobos Andrade

    2005-08-01

    the size of the farm (hectares. For the normal price scenario, the VAN (10.8% was estimated at $ 4.12 millions, the TIR at 14.5% and the IVAN at 0.37. The main conclusion suggests that undertaking associative micro-scale enterprise can contribute to improve the life conditions of the small holding, in a better way than the average individual business.

  14. A time to kill when is leadership targeting an effective counterterrorism strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Schliep, Randy D.

    2007-01-01

    lts. This study will argue that leadership targeting may be an effective strategy, but only under specific conditions. It is critical to the security of the United States, for strategic and operational planners, policy makers, and executives, to understand the appropriate environment for undertaking a leadership targeting strategy. This study provides a framework for analyzing the effectiveness of leadership targeting based on critical components of leadership. US Army (USA) author.

  15. The Effect of Shiatsu Massage on Underlying Anxiety in Burn Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Mohaddes Ardabili, Fatemeh; Purhajari, Soybeh; Najafi Ghzeljeh, Tahereh; Haghani, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Burn patients experience high levels of predictable anxiety during dressing changes while anti-anxiety drugs cannot control these anxieties. The nurses can limit the side effects of medications by undertaking complementary therapies. Hand pressure massage was introduced as a technique that can reduce these anxieties. This study aimed to investigate the effect of hand pressure massage using Shiatsu method on underlying anxiety in burn patients. METHODS In an available randomized stu...

  16. Langzeitevaluation des psychologischen Trainings für adipöse Kinder und deren Eltern : TAKE

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, B.; Munsch, S.; Meyer, A. H.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral parent-child-programmes have shown the best effects in treating childhood obesity so far. With TAKE (Training adipöser Kinder und ihrer Eltern) we introduce a psychologically-informed training, that includes physical activity, nutrition and eating behavior but also addresses psychological issues like self-confidence, body image, social and anti-bullying skills. Long-term data from up to 64 month-follow-up showed moderate effects on body-mass index standard deviation score...

  17. Transnationals Becoming English Teachers in Mexico: Effects of Language Brokering and Identity Formation (Transnacionales Convirtiéndose en Docentes de Inglés en México: Efectos de la Mediación Lingüística y la Formación de la Identidad)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablo, Irasema Mora; Rivas, Leonardo Arturo Rivas; Lengeling, M. Martha; Crawford, Troy

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to explore the effects of language brokering upon identity formation within the family unit of students who have lived in the United States for a period of time and have come back to live in Mexico. The participants are six students that are currently undertaking a BA in TESOL (Teaching of English to Speakers of…

  18. Scientific foundation of in-service training for prevention of peer violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Miroslav V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the compatibility of the continuous in-service teacher training for prevention of peer violence and modern scientific knowledge in this area. The first part of the paper summarizes the results of 12 systematic reviews and meta-analyses of the effectiveness of the studies of antibullying programs published since 2000. which relate to the effects of uni-modal and multi-modal programs, and the efficacy of interventions used in anti-bullying programs. The second part of the paper analyses the approved programs of in-service teacher training, in which priority is given to the prevention of violence, abuse and negligence. We analyzed 39 programs of continuous in-service teacher training, and focused on the empirical bases of the programs (researches which confirm the effectiveness of a program and the contents of the training (the level of preventive activity, modality, field, and interventions. The results of the analysis of the programs of continuous in-service training for peer violence prevention are discussed in the context of modern scientific knowledge of effectiveness of anti-bullying programs and of professional development of teachers and counsellors.

  19. The limitation of the Slew Rate, as attenuator of effects of transmission line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez V, Luis Alfonso; Lopez Q, Jose German

    1999-01-01

    Transmission line effects in circuits of all kinds are becoming more notorious due to increased speeds of the signals traveling through them and also because of the circuits, which act upon them. A technique which is ready available to minimize the unwanted effects of transmission line behavior on the part of the circuits and lines involved, is to limit the Slew - Rate of the drivers used throughout. This paper undertakes an analysis of such a technique from the standpoint of frequencies as far as the benefits accrued from the used of slew rate limiting in the presence of transmission line effects

  20. Report on New Sunshine Program-supported undertakings for fiscal 1997. Development of hot water power plant and deep-seated geothermal resources sampling/exploiting technologies; 1997 nendo New Sunshine keikaku hojo jigyo seika hokokusho. Nessui riyo hatsuden plant nado kaihatsu, shinbu chinetsu shigen saishu gijutsu no kaihatsu, shinbu chinetsu shigen seisan gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Reported are the results of researches conducted in fiscal 1997. In the field of PTSD (Pressure, Temperature, Spinner flowmeter, fluid Density) well logging, the high-temperature performance of a memory type PT (Pressure, Temperature) well logger is confirmed in a demonstration test. As for the S-probe, modification is effected for the reduction of the outside diameter from 70mm to 56mm, and tests are conducted in real wells. As for the D-probe, a laboratory test is conducted and then the probe behaves as predicted. In the field of PCT (Pressure, Chemical, Temperature) monitoring, the sampler is subjected to an on-site test in Italy, when water is successfully sampled out of the well. In the field of scale monitoring technique, deep-seated fluid is collected and examined, and the scale deposition rate in the deep-seated fluid is determine. For the study of production control technology with respect to scale prevention and removal, an Mg-Si scale synthesis test is conducted in the temperature range of 100-300degC, and it is found that the solubility of scale decreases with a rise in temperature. 19 refs., 93 figs., 24 tabs.

  1. State Policies on School Climate and Bully Prevention Efforts: Challenges and Opportunities for Deepening State Policy Support for Safe and Civil Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscatelli, Jennifer; Lee, Chiqueena

    2011-01-01

    The National School Climate Center (NSCC) completed a 50-state policy scan on state school climate and anti-bullying policies to better understand the current state policy infrastructure supporting the development of positive school climates. This policy brief examines the current status of school climate and anti-bullying policies in each state,…

  2. From Invisibility to Visibility: A Policy Archaeology of the Introduction of Anti-Transphobic and Anti-Homophobic Bullying Guidelines into the Irish Primary Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Susan

    2017-01-01

    In September 2013, the Department of Education and Skills introduced revised anti-bullying guidelines which made it compulsory for all schools to ensure that their individual anti-bullying policies include a clause on identity-based bullying, specifically referencing transphobic and homophobic bullying. The introduction of these guidelines would…

  3. Sovereign wealth fund investments and the need to undertake socially responsible investment

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Wei

    2017-01-01

    There is an increasing consensus that, beyond financial returns, investors should also consider the environmental and social impacts of their business activities. Major institutional investors currently are entering the realm of socially responsible investment (SRI), which incorporates environmental, social, and governance (ESG) factors into decision-making based on internationally recognized standards and principles. As influential institutional investors, sovereign wealth funds ...

  4. 20 years of leptin: leptin and reproduction: past milestones, present undertakings, and future endeavors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehab, Farid F

    2014-10-01

    The association between leptin and reproduction originated with the leptin-mediated correction of sterility in ob/ob mice and initiation of reproductive function in normal female mice. The uncovering of a central leptin pathway regulating food intake prompted the dissection of neuroendocrine mechanisms involving leptin in the metabolic control of reproduction. The absence of leptin receptors on GnRH neurons incited a search for intermediary neurons situated between leptin-responsive and GnRH neurons. This review addresses the most significant findings that have furthered our understanding of recent progress in this new field. The role of leptin in puberty was impacted by the discovery of neurons that co-express kisspeptin, neurokinin B, and dynorphin and these could act as leptin intermediates. Furthermore, the identification of first-order leptin-responsive neurons in the premammilary ventral nucleus and other brain regions opens new avenues to explore their relationship to GnRH neurons. Central to these advances is the unveiling that agouti-related protein/neuropeptide Y neurons project onto GnRH and kisspeptin neurons, allowing for a crosstalk between food intake and reproduction. Finally, while puberty is a state of leptin sensitivity, mid-gestation represents a state of leptin resistance aimed at building energy stores to sustain pregnancy and lactation. The mechanisms underlying leptin resistance in pregnancy have lagged; however, the establishment of this natural state is significant. Reproduction and energy balance are tightly controlled and backed up by redundant mechanisms that are critical for the survival of our species. It will be the goal of the following decade to shed new light on these complex and essential pathways. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.

  5. Designing and Undertaking a Health Economics Study of Digital Health Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamee, Paul; Murray, Elizabeth; Kelly, Michael P; Bojke, Laura; Chilcott, Jim; Fischer, Alastair; West, Robert; Yardley, Lucy

    2016-11-01

    This paper introduces and discusses key issues in the economic evaluation of digital health interventions. The purpose is to stimulate debate so that existing economic techniques may be refined or new methods developed. The paper does not seek to provide definitive guidance on appropriate methods of economic analysis for digital health interventions. This paper describes existing guides and analytic frameworks that have been suggested for the economic evaluation of healthcare interventions. Using selected examples of digital health interventions, it assesses how well existing guides and frameworks align to digital health interventions. It shows that digital health interventions may be best characterized as complex interventions in complex systems. Key features of complexity relate to intervention complexity, outcome complexity, and causal pathway complexity, with much of this driven by iterative intervention development over time and uncertainty regarding likely reach of the interventions among the relevant population. These characteristics imply that more-complex methods of economic evaluation are likely to be better able to capture fully the impact of the intervention on costs and benefits over the appropriate time horizon. This complexity includes wider measurement of costs and benefits, and a modeling framework that is able to capture dynamic interactions among the intervention, the population of interest, and the environment. The authors recommend that future research should develop and apply more-flexible modeling techniques to allow better prediction of the interdependency between interventions and important environmental influences. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Undertaking an Ecological Approach to Advance Game-Based Learning: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mamta; Foster, Aroutis

    2014-01-01

    Systematic incorporation of digital games in schools is largely unexplored. This case study explored the ecological conditions necessary for implementing a game-based learning course by examining the interaction between three domains (the innovator, the innovation, and the context). From January-April 2012, one in-service teacher learned and…

  7. What factors impact upon a woman’s decision to undertake genetic cancer testing?

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Anne Quinlivan; Julie Anne Quinlivan; Zain eBattikhi; Rodney Waldemar Petersen; Rodney Waldemar Petersen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The advent of human genome project has lead to genetic tests that identify high-risk states for certain cancers. Many are privately marketed on the Internet. Despite the availability of tests, limited data has evaluated factors that lead to test uptake. The aim of the present study was to explore the attitudes of a cohort of new mothers towards uptake of a genetic cancer test with a 50% predictive value of cancer.Methods: A cross-sectional survey was undertaken. The project targ...

  8. Narratives of Choice amongst white Australians who undertake Surrogacy Arrangements in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Damien W

    2016-09-01

    This paper reports on a rhetorical analysis of interviews with fifteen white Australian citizens who had undertaken offshore commercial surrogacy in India. Extending previous research, the findings suggest that genetic relatedness was valorized, and surrogacy constructed as a less tenuous route to family formation. The paper concludes with a discussion of the need for further research on 1) how the contentious nature of offshore commercial surrogacy may prevent full consideration of its ethical implications, 2) the differing belief systems between India and Australia in terms of children as alienable objects, and 3) ongoing consideration of how and when genetic-relatedness is made to matter.

  9. The Perspectives of Students Undertaking Masters' Degrees by Coursework on Career Development Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Shari P.; Tucker, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    Master's degree by coursework students have been identified as a "forgotten" cohort by the Queensland University of Technology (QUT) Careers and Employment service. Traditionally, these students have been included in undergraduate career development activities. Master's degree students are arguably a specialised group due to the advanced…

  10. The Interrelationship of Emotion and Cognition when Students Undertake Collaborative Group Work Online: An Interdisciplinary Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    In order to determine how emotions and cognition are experienced during collaborative group work online students' descriptions of their learning experience were interpreted using a qualitative approach. A common feature of these accounts was reference to difficulties and problems. Four main themes were identified from this data set. Two of the…

  11. Physical Fitness and its Relationship to Depressive Traits in Older Adults Undertaking Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mynor Rodriguez-Hernandez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between physical fitness and levels of depression in older persons involved in physical activity programs in San Ramon, Alajuela. A total of 138 older adults aged 60 to 86 years (67.94 ± 5.26 were assessed on the physical fitness using the SFT and levels of depression were measured using the GDS. Results suggest that about 97.8% of persons tested were within normal parameters and excellent on their physical fitness. Additionally, 86.2% of the cohort was found in a normal stage of depression. In addition, geriatric depression was negatively correlated with physical fitness on variables such as lower body muscle strength and endurance, arm muscle strength endurance, physical agility and dynamic balance, and lower body flexibility (p<0.05.  It is concluded that higher levels of physical fitness are associated with lower depression status in older adults.

  12. Do Motives to Undertake Physical Activity Relate to Physical Activity in Adolescent Boys and Girls?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Kopcakova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Low levels of physical activity (PA during adolescence contribute to obesity and poor health outcomes in adolescence, and these associations endure into adulthood. The aim of this study was to assess the associations between motives for PA and the level of PA among adolescent boys and girls. We obtained data regarding motives for PA and frequency of PA in 2010 via the Health Behavior in School-aged Children cross-sectional study in the Czech and Slovak Republics (n = 9018, mean age = 13.6, 49% boys. Respondents answered questions about their motives for PA and the frequency of their PA. Motives for PA were assessed using 13 items, which were structured in four groups. We explored the association between the motives for PA and sufficient PA using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for age, and separately for boys and girls. “Good child” motives and Achievement motives were significantly associated with sufficient PA among both boys and girls. Health motives were associated with sufficient PA only among boys, and Social motives were associated with sufficient PA only among girls. Motives for PA were associated with the level of PA, and this association was partially gender dependent. These gender differences should be considered in interventions focusing on enhancement of PA.

  13. Do Motives to Undertake Physical Activity Relate to Physical Activity in Adolescent Boys and Girls?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kopcakova, Jaroslava; Veselska, Zuzana Dankulincova; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Kalman, Michal; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2015-01-01

    Low levels of physical activity (PA) during adolescence contribute to obesity and poor health outcomes in adolescence, and these associations endure into adulthood. The aim of this study was to assess the associations between motives for PA and the level of PA among adolescent boys and girls. We

  14. Reflections and Experiences of Student Paramedics Undertaking International Work-Integrated Learning Placements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Paul; Thyer, Liz; Van Nugteren, Ben; Mitchell, Glen; Werner, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    International work-integrated learning (WIL) is increasingly common in health-related programs in Australian universities. Paramedicine programs are beginning to explore international WIL in line with the globalization of paramedicine as a profession and the national higher education emphasis on outward bound learning experiences. Using…

  15. Resolution on procedures for applying for work permits to undertake professional training, 10 October 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    This Resolution contains procedures for applying for professional training work permits. It provides that those foreigners who wish to come to Spain for a limited period of time in order to become fully qualified in Spanish commercial and professional customs while occupying a training work position are eligible to apply for this permit. The permit is not valid for more than 12 months, although in exceptional cases the permit will be extended for an additional six months. After the period of training has ended, the workers may not remain in Spain in order to exercise another activity. Further provisions of the Resolution deal with when and where applications are to be presented, the form of applications and documentation accompanying applications, and notification of decisions on applications, among other things. full text

  16. Do progressive goverments undertake different debt burdens? partisan vs. electoral cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia-Sanchez Isabel-Maria I.M

    2011-01-01

    The empirical evidence obtained points to the need to perfect internal and external control mechanisms in order to avoid a breakdown in the stability policy and the risk of debt becoming untenable, thus achieving greater budgetary discipline.

  17. Challenges to Undertake and Innovate in Colombia: Is the New Problematic of the 21st Century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez Hurtado, Saul Rick; Martinez Martinez, Luz Angela

    2018-01-01

    Entrepreneurship in general brings with it certain challenges and risks, which generate a long learning path before reaching success; Colombia for example, there is a complex panorama, the entrepreneurs are limited, and the entrepreneurship projects are not executed with totality. Therefore, the article's objective is to identify the main factors…

  18. Dodging the Literary Undertaker – Biographic Metafiction in Hanif Kureishi’s The Last Word

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalupský Petr

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hanif Kureishi’s 2014 novel, The Last Word, involves most of the author’s idiosyncratic themes, such as ethnicity, racism, sexual identity, examination of interpersonal relationships and the crucial role of the creative imagination in human life. Its focal concern, however, is to explore the process of writing a literary biography of a living person and the character and dynamics of the relationship between the biographer and his subject - a writer. As such, the novel can be taken as being representative of biographic metafiction, a subcategory of historiographic metafiction, which, following the postmodernist questioning of our ability to know and textually represent historical truth, presents biographic writing critically or even mockingly, rendering its enthusiastic practitioners’ efforts with ironic scepticism. The aim of this article is to present The Last Word as a particular example of biographic metafiction that has all the crucial features of this genre, yet which differs from its predecessors through the complexity and thoroughness of its portrayal of the biographer-biographee relationship.

  19. Undertaking Experiments in Social Sciences: Sequential, Multiple Time Series Designs for Consideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Huy P.; Ngu, Bing H.

    2017-01-01

    In social sciences, the use of stringent methodological approaches is gaining increasing emphasis. Researchers have recognized the limitations of cross-sectional, non-manipulative data in the study of causality. True experimental designs, in contrast, are preferred as they represent rigorous standards for achieving causal flows between variables.…

  20. Explaining the Rise in Danish Vocational Education System Dropouts: The Effect of a Youth Unemployment Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin D.; Park, Do-Yeun

    This project focuses on the impact of Denmark’s Youth Unemployment Program(YUP) enacted in late 1990s on the rise in VET dropout rates. The Youth Unemployment Program targeted unemployed, low-educated youth to strengthen the employment possibilities and to motivate for them to undertake...... an education. If the Youth Unemployment Program incentivized less capable/ambitious students to enter vocational education, it would increase the dropout rates via selection. This project investigates whether the program had an effect on the population characteristics of incoming VET students and the resulting...

  1. Gestión Institucional como Medio de Cumplimiento de la ley Anti Bullying en la Lucha contra la Violencia Escolar y Maltrato entre Iguales Institución Educativa Secundaria “Maria Auxiliadora” Puno, Año Escolar 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Calsín Ramos, Patricia Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    En la investigación titulada:“Gestión institucional como medio de cumplimiento de la Ley Antibulling en la lucha contra la violencia escolar y maltrato entre iguales,en la institución educativa secundaria “María Auxiliadora”, Puno, año escolar 2015”,se utilizó el paradigma cuantitativo, que cuenta con una metodología hipotética - deductiva, utilizando un instrumento y técnica que es la encuesta pre-codificada, y el programa SPSS para el procesamiento estadístico de los cuadros de aná...

  2. [Long-term evaluation of a psychological training for obese children and their parents (TAKE)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Binia; Munsch, Simone; Meyer, Andrea H

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral parent-child-programmes have shown the best effects in treating childhood obesity so far. With TAKE (Training adipöser Kinder und ihrer Eltern) we introduce a psychologically-informed training, that includes physical activity, nutrition and eating behavior but also addresses psychological issues like self-confidence, body image, social and anti-bullying skills. Long-term data from up to 64 month-follow-up showed moderate effects on body-mass index standard deviation scores (BMI-SDS), and positive effects on children's psychological wellbeing. Maternal psychopathology predicted the course of BMI-SDS in children. Results underline the importance of psychological treatment for obese children to facilitate weight change and to reduce their psychological vulnerability which in turn may prevent the further development of behavior problems, eating disorders and affective disorders.

  3. Arsenic in the aquatic environment - speciation and biological effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landner, L. [Swedish Environmental Research Group (MFG)

    1998-03-01

    The present report is a contribution to EC Commission`s undertaking to review existing EC provisions on the substances for which Sweden has been granted transitional provisions. The provisions imply that Sweden may maintain more stringent regulations on four substances until the end of 1998. The present report deals with speciation and biological effects of arsenic in three types of aquatic environments - marine water, estuarine or brackish water and freshwater. The similarity between arsenate and phosphate and the interference in phosphorylation reactions is discussed. It is clear that in Scandinavian inland waters the concentration of phosphorous is on average lower than in most inland waters in continental Europe. However, in most inland waters phosphorus is the limiting factor for phytoplankton development and eutrophication, which means that there is a clear risk for detrimental effects in the great majority of inland waters, also eutrophic waters 167 refs, 27 figs, 12 tabs. Exemption Substances Project (Directive 89/677/EEC)

  4. Effects of long-term treatment with angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors in the presence or absence of aspirin: a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teo, Koon K; Yusuf, Salim; Pfeffer, Marc

    2002-01-01

    -Yusuf method to undertake a systematic overview of data for 22060 patients from six long-term randomised trials of ACE inhibitors to assess whether aspirin altered the effects of ACE inhibitor therapy on major clinical outcomes (composite of death, myocardial infarction, stroke, hospital admission......BACKGROUND: Results from a retrospective analysis of the Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD) study suggest that angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors may be less effective in patients receiving aspirin. We aimed to confirm or refute this theory. METHODS: We used the Peto...

  5. School-based interventions to address bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Smith

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Following some background studies on the nature of school bullying, its prevalence, and the negative consequences it can have, this article reviews the history of anti-bullying interventions over the last 30 years. It considers several major programmes in detail, such as the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, KiVa, Steps to Respect, and Friendly Schools. The nature and evaluation of the interventions is discussed, followed by a review of meta-analyses of the programmes effectiveness. Issues considered are the effect at different ages; components of interventions; work with peers; disciplinary methods, non-punitive and restorative approaches; challenges regarding cyberbullying; the role of parents; the role of teachers and teacher training; set menu versus à la carte approaches; sustainability of interventions and societal context. Conclusions show that interventions have had some success, with traditional bullying. However, further progress is needed in strengthening theoretical underpinnings to interventions, and in tackling cyberbullying.

  6. Bullying victimization experiences among middle and high school adolescents: Traditional bullying, discriminatory harassment, and cybervictimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Samantha; Turner, Sarah; Taillieu, Tamara; Fortier, Janique; Afifi, Tracie O

    2018-02-01

    The objectives of the current study were to estimate the prevalence of nine types of bullying victimization among adolescents in Grades 7 to 12, and examine how these experiences vary according to gender and school grade. Data were drawn from the Manitoba Youth Health Survey. The sample size was N = 64 174 and included boys and girls from Grades 7 to 12. Nine types of bullying victimization were assessed. Gender and grade differences were noted with girls being more to likely than boys to report six types of victimization. The odds of bullying victimization were higher in Grades 8 to 12 compared to Grade 7. Effective anti-bullying intervention strategies need to address a range of victimization types and should consider gender and school grade. Interventions should start before Grade 7 and continue until the end of Grade 12. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. A common magnetic origin for the Invar effects in fcc iron-based ferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooley, Chris; Liot, Francois

    2011-03-01

    Using first-principles calculations, in conjunction with Ising magnetism, we undertake a theoretical study to elucidate the origin of the experimentally observed Invar effects in disordered fcc iron-based ferromagnets. First, we show that our theory can account for the Invar effects in iron-nickel alloys, the anomalies being driven by the magnetic contributions to the average free energies. Second, we present evidence indicating that the relationship between thermal expansion and magnetism is essentially the same in all the studied alloys, including those which display the Invar effect and those which do not. Hence we propose that magnetism plays a crucial role in determining whether a system exhibits normal thermal expansion, the Invar effect, or something else. The crucial determining factor is the rate at which the relative orientation of the local magnetic moments of nearest-neighbor iron atoms fluctuates as the system is heated.

  8. Design basis reconstitution for an effective design control program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, A.K.

    1987-01-01

    Configuration management is a new buzz word in the nuclear power industry. Whatever its definition, everyone agrees that the configuration of a nuclear power plant must be managed effectively. In layman's terms, configuration management means that a plant must be built, operated, and maintained in a manner consistent with its design basis. Thus, control of the design basis is the most important element in any configuration management program. Until recently, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) review of design basis focused on the plants that were about to get operating licenses. However, incidents at a few operating nuclear plants and NRC inspections (Safety System Functional Inspection and Safety System Outage Modification Inspection) have indicated weaknesses in older operating plant design basis documentation and design change control programs. Thus, reconstitution of plant design basis has become an important issue. This paper presents the major element of a design basis reconstitution program, which can be an immense undertaking for some of the older operating plants

  9. Toxic effects of phenothiazines on the eye

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. Boet (Dirk)

    1970-01-01

    markdownabstractPublications about the retinotoxic action of phenothiazine derivatives led the author to undertake an ophthalmological investigation in two psychiatric hospitals in The Netherlands. The pharmacological actions of phenothiazine preparations are listed and a survey of the

  10. Radon continuous monitoring in Altamira Cave (northern Spain) to assess user's annual effective dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lario, J.; Sanchez-Moral, S.; Canaveras, J.C.; Cuezva, S.; Soler, V.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, we present the values of radon concentration, measured by continuous monitoring during a complete annual cycle in the Polychromes Hall of Altamira Cave in order to undertake more precise calculations of annual effective dose for guides and visitors in tourist caves. The 222 Rn levels monitored inside the cave ranges from 186 Bq m -3 to 7120 Bq m -3 , with an annual average of 3562 Bq m -3 . In order to more accurately estimate effective dose we use three scenarios with different equilibrium factors (F=0.5, 0.7 and 1.0) together with different dose conversion factors proposed in the literature. Neither effective dose exceeds international recommendations. Moreover, with an automatic radon monitoring system the time remaining to reach the maximum annual dose recommended could be automatically updated

  11. Futures hedging effectiveness under the segmentation of bear/bull energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Chiao-Yi; Lai, Jing-Yi; Chuang, I-Yuan

    2010-01-01

    This article undertakes eight hedging models (Regression, MD-GARCH, BEKK-GARCH, CCC-GARCH, ECM-MD, ECM-BEKK, ECM-CCC, and state space models) to investigate hedging effectiveness of different price scenarios in energy futures markets. Different models have systematically evidenced that hedging effectiveness is higher in an increasing pattern (termed 'bull markets') than in a decreasing pattern (termed 'bear markets') for crude oil and gasoline futures. That is, findings show asymmetric hedging performance between upward and downward price trends consistently from the most popular hedging models in literature. Out-of-sample examination also suggests that the ranking of hedging effectiveness of different hedging models is not parallel in different price patterns across futures contracts, implying that investors should adjust their hedging strategies accordingly. (author)

  12. Effects of earthquake induced rock shear on containment system integrity. Laboratory testing plan development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Read, Rodney S. (RSRead Consulting Inc. (Canada))

    2011-07-15

    This report describes a laboratory-scale testing program plan to address the issue of earthquake induced rock shear effects on containment system integrity. The document contains a review of relevant literature from SKB covering laboratory testing of bentonite clay buffer material, scaled analogue tests, and the development of related material models to simulate rock shear effects. The proposed testing program includes standard single component tests, new two-component constant volume tests, and new scaled analogue tests. Conceptual drawings of equipment required to undertake these tests are presented along with a schedule of tests. The information in this document is considered sufficient to engage qualified testing facilities, and to guide implementation of laboratory testing of rock shear effects. This document was completed as part of a collaborative agreement between SKB and Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) in Canada

  13. Effects of earthquake induced rock shear on containment system integrity. Laboratory testing plan development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, Rodney S.

    2011-07-01

    This report describes a laboratory-scale testing program plan to address the issue of earthquake induced rock shear effects on containment system integrity. The document contains a review of relevant literature from SKB covering laboratory testing of bentonite clay buffer material, scaled analogue tests, and the development of related material models to simulate rock shear effects. The proposed testing program includes standard single component tests, new two-component constant volume tests, and new scaled analogue tests. Conceptual drawings of equipment required to undertake these tests are presented along with a schedule of tests. The information in this document is considered sufficient to engage qualified testing facilities, and to guide implementation of laboratory testing of rock shear effects. This document was completed as part of a collaborative agreement between SKB and Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) in Canada

  14. The effectiveness of clinical guideline implementation strategies--a synthesis of systematic review findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Mathew; Guerin, Michelle; Grimmer-Somers, Karen

    2008-10-01

    To establish the effectiveness of clinical guideline implementation strategies. Data sources/study setting Systematic reviews in full text, English language, 1987-2007, reporting any measure of clinical process change or cost-benefit analysis. Overview of secondary evidence Independent critical appraisal using AMSTAR, primary author undertaking all data extraction using a purpose-built form. Principal findings We identified 144 potential papers, from which 33 systematic reviews were included. These reflected 714 primary studies involving 22 512 clinicians, in a range of health care settings. Implementation strategies were varied, rarely comparable, with variable outcomes. Effective implementation strategies included multifaceted interventions, interactive education and clinical reminder systems. Didactic education and passive dissemination strategies were ineffective. Cost-effectiveness studies were rare. Successful guideline implementation strategies should be multifaceted, and actively engage clinicians throughout the process.

  15. The effect of explicit financial incentives on physician behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, B S; Pitts, M M; Maclean, R; Cangialose, C; Kishel, M; Imai, H; Etchason, J

    2001-05-28

    Managed care organizations use explicit financial incentives to influence physicians' use of resources. This has contributed to concerns regarding conflicts of interest for physicians and adverse effects on the quality of patient care. In light of recent publicized legislative and legal battles about this issue, we reviewed the literature and analyzed studies that examine the effect of these explicit financial incentives on the behavior of physicians. The method used to undertake the literature review followed the approach set forth in the Cochrane Collaboration handbook. Our literature review revealed a paucity of data on the effect of explicit financial incentives. Based on this limited evidence, explicit incentives that place individual physicians at financial risk appear to be effective in reducing physician resource use. However, the empirical evidence regarding the effectiveness of bonus payments on physician resource use is mixed. Similarly, our review revealed mixed effects of the influence of explicit financial incentives on the quality of patient care. The effect of explicit financial incentives on physician behavior is complicated by a lack of understanding of the incentive structure by the managed care organization and the physician. The lack of a universally acceptable definition of quality renders it important that future researchers identify the term explicitly.

  16. Identification and classification of effective factors on realization of entrepreneur government through application of fuzzy TOPSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahideh Bamshad

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is considered as the key factor of economic growth and development in modern day. Entrepreneurship takes place either individually or organizationally and they normally undertake the risk of entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurs experience the most severe conditions when they deal with a government, which is completely unfamiliar with some rules. If a government supports an entrepreneur one with the required characteristics, then entrepreneurship is facilitated largely for both individuals and organizations. This article provides definitions, features and the effective factors on realization of an entrepreneur government with respect to significance of such a government. To this end, a list of factors that may lead to realization of entrepreneur government was derived from previous studies and then the fuzzy TOPSIS method and collected opinions of experts were applied to facilitate the determination of each of these factors. Finally, a list of influential factors was presented with regards to effective factors on realization of entrepreneur government.

  17. A hybrid mode choice model to account for the dynamic effect of inertia over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherchi, Elisabetta; Börjesson, Maria; Bierlaire, Michel

    The influence of habits, giving rise to inertia effect, in the choice process has been intensely debated in the literature. Typically inertia is accounted for by letting the indirect utility functions of the alternatives of the choice situation at time t depend on the outcome of the choice made...... gathered over a continuous period of time, six weeks, to study both inertia and the influence of habits. Tendency to stick with the same alternative is measured through lagged variables that link the current choice with the previous trip made with the same purpose, mode and time of day. However, the lagged...... effect of the previous trips is not constant but it depends on the individual propensity to undertake habitual trips which is captured by the individual specific latent variable. And the frequency of the trips in the previous week is used as an indicator of the habitual behavior. The model estimation...

  18. Opening the Black Box: Exploring the Effect of Transformation on Online Service Delivery in Local Governments

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veenstra, Anne Fleur; Zuurmond, Arre

    To enhance the quality of their online service delivery, many government organizations seek to transform their organization beyond merely setting up a front office. This transformation includes elements such as the formation of service delivery chains, the adoption of a management strategy supporting process orientation and the implementation of enterprise architecture. This paper explores whether undertaking this transformation has a positive effect on the quality of online service delivery, using data gathered from seventy local governments. We found that having an externally oriented management strategy in place, adopting enterprise architecture, aligning information systems to business and sharing activities between processes and departments are positively related to the quality of online service delivery. We recommend that further research should be carried out to find out whether dimensions of organizational development too have an effect on online service delivery in the long term.

  19. The effect of shiatsu massage on underlying anxiety in burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaddes Ardabili, Fatemeh; Purhajari, Soybeh; Najafi Ghzeljeh, Tahereh; Haghani, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Burn patients experience high levels of predictable anxiety during dressing changes while anti-anxiety drugs cannot control these anxieties. The nurses can limit the side effects of medications by undertaking complementary therapies. Hand pressure massage was introduced as a technique that can reduce these anxieties. This study aimed to investigate the effect of hand pressure massage using Shiatsu method on underlying anxiety in burn patients. In an available randomized study, 60 burn patients with underlying pain were enrolled. They were randomly allocated in two groups of hand massage and the control. The anxiety of underlying burn pain before and after the massage was evaluated using Burn Specific Pain Anxiety Scale (BSPAS). The difference for anxiety scores in the hand Shiatsu massage group before and after massage were statistically significant, but in the control group was not significant. Based on our findings, 20 minutes of hand Shiatsu massage in conjunction with analgesic medications can be beneficial to control the anxiety of burn patients.

  20. Molecular mechanisms of anti-aging hormetic effects of mild heat stress on human cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattan, Suresh I S; Eskildsen-Helmond, Yvonne E G; Beedholm, Rasmus

    2004-01-01

    at the levels of maintenance of stress protein profile; reduction in the accumulation of oxidatively and glycoxidatively damaged proteins; stimulation of the proteasomal activities for the degradation of abnormal proteins; improved cellular resistance to ethanol, hydrogenperoxide, and ultraviolet-B rays......In a series of experimental studies we have shown that repetitive mild heat stress has anti-aging hormetic effects on growth and various other cellular and biochemical characteristics of human skin fibroblasts undergoing aging in vitro. We have reported the hormetic effects of repeated challenge...... of cellular responsiveness to mild and severe heat stress. Furthermore, we are also undertaking comparative studies using non-aging immortal cell lines, such as SV40-transformed human fibroblasts, spontaneous osteosarcoma cells, and telomerase-immortalized human bone marrow cells for establishing differences...

  1. Social media as an effective tool for creating and building an employer brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Kaiser

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Social media can be an effective tool for creating and building an effective image of an organisation as a trustworthy employer both inside and outside the company. The author has examined the use of social marketing channels by academic institutions. She asked about the role of this communication tool, undertaking the challenge to use social media as a tool for cross-marketing, employer experience of branding through social media. She has also examined employers’ knowledge of what and on which channels employees and “ambassadors” post about their company. Overwhelmingly, the response was obtained “no”, which shows that social media are a tool used only occasionally if at all.

  2. Impact assessment and cost-effectiveness of m-health application used by community health workers for maternal, newborn and child health care services in rural Uttar Pradesh, India: a study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Prinja, Shankar; Nimesh, Ruby; Gupta, Aditi; Bahuguna, Pankaj; Thakur, Jarnail Singh; Gupta, Madhu; Singh, Tarundeep

    2016-01-01

    Background: An m-health application has been developed and implemented with community health workers to improve their counseling in a rural area of India. The ultimate aim was to generate demand and improve utilization of key maternal, neonatal, and child health services. The present study aims to assess the impact and cost-effectiveness of this project.Methods/design: A pre–post quasi-experimental design with a control group will be used to undertake difference in differences analysis for as...

  3. Does an integrated information technology system provide support for community pharmacists undertaking Discharge Medicines Reviews? An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantzourani, Efthymia; Way, Cheryl M; Hodson, Karen L

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the views of community pharmacists participating in the pilot of a secure online platform in Wales, the Choose Pharmacy application (CPA), with particular interest in the electronic Discharge Advice Letters (e-DALs) and online Discharge Medicines Review (DMR) form. A qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews was adopted. A gatekeeper from National Health Service Wales Informatics Service identified 35 pharmacies, of the 43 pharmacies where the CPA had been implemented, that had completed at least one DMR, and these were therefore invited to an interview. A total of 17 pharmacists were interviewed. Overall, the results were positive and CPA and e-DAL were perceived to facilitate continuity of care between care settings. The design and usability were perceived as good as pharmacists could navigate the CPA without problems; many felt this was due to the level of training they had received. Many pharmacists were happy for other services to be included on the platform due to its ease of use and automatic reimbursement. Several pharmacists felt that communication between primary and secondary care can be further improved as the uptake of e-DAL increases. CPA was found to streamline the completion of online DMR improving continuity of care between primary and secondary sectors, which in turn should improve patient safety on discharge from hospital.

  4. The Influence and Implications of Chinese Culture in the Decision to Undertake Cross-Border Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodycott, Peter; Lai, Ada

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how a family in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) makes decisions on cross-border study. International marketers and managers in higher education turn to research based on Chinese student preferences. However, such research ignores cultural traditions steeped in Confucian ideals of family and the subsequent roles and…

  5. Pacific students undertaking the first year of health sciences at the University of Otago, and factors associated with academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopoaga, Faafetai; Zaharic, Tony; Kokaua, Jesse; Ekeroma, Alec J; Murray, Greg; van der Meer, Jacques

    2013-10-18

    To describe Pacific students in the first year of health sciences at tertiary level, their academic performance, and factors associated with academic outcomes. Routinely collected data for students who enrolled in the Health Sciences First Year (HSFY) programme at the University of Otago between 2007 and 2011, including their school National Certificate in Educational Achievement (NCEA) results were obtained in anonymous form. Descriptive statistics were calculated and regression analyses were undertaken using SAS v9.2 software. A small but increasing number of Pacific students are enrolling in health sciences at tertiary level. Pacific students had poorer performance compared to non-Pacific students in both NCEA and the HSFY programme. Factors associated with academic performance were gender, NCEA results, school decile, accommodation type, ethnicity, international status and disability. Pacific students are under-represented in health sciences and would benefit from better preparation from school. Pacific solutions are required to improve academic outcomes over and above mainstream policy solutions. Tertiary institutions need to engage prospective students earlier to ensure they are well informed of requirements, and are appropriately prepared for study at the tertiary level.

  6. Facilitating knowledge of mental health nurses to undertake physical health interventions: a pre-test/post-test evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemingway, Steve; Clifton, Andrew; Stephenson, John; Edward, Karen-Leigh

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this project was to develop and deliver an evidence-based educational package with a physical and mental health focus to clinicians and other health care workers in mental health settings. For individuals who experience mental disorders, pharmacotherapy is often considered as a first line of treatment. However, owing to adverse drug reactions and pre-existing physical conditions, outcomes for clients/service users may be compromised. Mortality and morbidity rates of people diagnosed with a serious mental illness caused by physical health conditions do not compare favourably with the general population. This paper reports on a physical skills project that was developed in collaboration between the University of Huddersfield and South West Yorkshire Partnership Foundation Trust. Pre-post study design: five workshops were conducted in the fields of intramuscular injections, diabetes, health improvement, oral health and wound care. A total of 180 pairs of questionnaires to assess practitioner and student skills and knowledge were administered to participants before and after workshops. All workshops resulted in a statistically significant improvement in subject skills and knowledge scores (P Mental health nurses are the largest group of registered practitioners working in the mental health setting and thus need to be harnessed to make a positive contribution to the improvement of the physical health status of service users with a serious mental illness. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Nursing as a scientific undertaking and the intersection with science in undergraduate studies: implications for nursing management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Patricia A; Angel, Lyndall

    2011-04-01

    To explore the science-nursing tension and impact for nursing students studying bioscience. Several studies have examined why nursing students struggle to be successful in bioscience subjects. Undeveloped science background and theory-practice gaps are noted as contributing factors. A qualitative study explored the science-nursing tension with 100 Australian Registered Nurses using focus groups and a survey. The survey response rate was 85 from 550. Of survey respondents, 88% viewed nursing as an applied science. An emphasis on procedural skills and task busyness undermines theoretical understanding of care and can be a negative influence upon the student bioscience experience. Practicum mentors confident in scientific knowledge enhance the student experience of bioscience by providing opportunities for integration with practice. Competing philosophies that reinforce the science-nursing tension have an impact upon student endeavours yet the nexus created by practice can be used to activate student curiosity and scientific understanding. Nurse managers need to structure the student practicum to encompass scientific theory applied to practice with equal emphasis on task efficiency. This improves student attitudes to learning bioscience and potentially minimizes the impact of the science-nursing tension on student learning. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Why Start a Higher Degree by Research? An Exploratory Factor Analysis of Motivations to Undertake Doctoral Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Cally; Jayatilaka, Asangi; Ranasinghe, Damith

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increasing numbers of candidates embarking on higher degrees by research (HDRs, e.g., PhD, professional doctorate, practice-based doctorate), we still have limited knowledge about why they are choosing this path. What are the factors that motivate students to embark on research degrees? Given that many of those who succeed in…

  9. Preparing Medical Students to Undertake a Cultural Immersion Experience: Introducing Frameworks for Preparatory and Post-Immersion Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Donna B.; Watson, Rashmi; Hadden, John

    2011-01-01

    Recruiting and retaining practitioners to rural and remote locations is a challenge for many industries including health and education. The medical, nursing and teaching professions have utilized immersion experiences for trainees and students to better prepare them and to address workforce shortages in crosscultural and underserved areas. This…

  10. Using a web-based survey tool to undertake a Delphi study: application for nurse education research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Fenella J; Leslie, Gavin D; Grech, Carol; Latour, Jos M

    2013-11-01

    The Internet is increasingly being used as a data collection medium to access research participants. This paper reports on the experience and value of using web-survey software to conduct an eDelphi study to develop Australian critical care course graduate practice standards. The eDelphi technique used involved the iterative process of administering three rounds of surveys to a national expert panel. The survey was developed online using SurveyMonkey. Panel members responded to statements using one rating scale for round one and two scales for rounds two and three. Text boxes for panel comments were provided. For each round, the SurveyMonkey's email tool was used to distribute an individualized email invitation containing the survey web link. The distribution of panel responses, individual responses and a summary of comments were emailed to panel members. Stacked bar charts representing the distribution of responses were generated using the SurveyMonkey software. Panel response rates remained greater than 85% over all rounds. An online survey provided numerous advantages over traditional survey approaches including high quality data collection, ease and speed of survey administration, direct communication with the panel and rapid collation of feedback allowing data collection to be undertaken in 12 weeks. Only minor challenges were experienced using the technology. Ethical issues, specific to using the Internet to conduct research and external hosting of web-based software, lacked formal guidance. High response rates and an increased level of data quality were achieved in this study using web-survey software and the process was efficient and user-friendly. However, when considering online survey software, it is important to match the research design with the computer capabilities of participants and recognize that ethical review guidelines and processes have not yet kept pace with online research practices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The experience of final year medical students undertaking a general practice run with a distance education component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillis, Steven; Gibbons, Veronique; Lawrenson, Ross

    2010-01-01

    In recognition of the difficulties posed for New Zealand medical students by travel during rural general practice attachments, a system of distance teaching was devised for final year medical students at the Waikato Clinical School. In place of weekly small group teaching using reflection on practice at the central campus led by a tutor, students participated in reflective learning via an electronic web based message board and once weekly brief individual discussion with a tutor. Moodle and Skype, both freeware applications, were used as the methods of facilitating asynchronous and synchronous learning environments. Students experienced significantly less travel time as a result of the innovation. They also reported enthusiasm for the modes of teaching and the technology. A small increase in tutor time commitment was necessary. Distance education initiatives can be undertaken with minimal expense in the general practice setting. The educational opportunities it offers can be similar to, but not identical to small group teaching.

  12. PENGATURAN PRINSIP TRANSFER OF UNDERTAKING PROTECTION OF EMPLOYMENT (TUPE DALAM DUNIA KETENAGAKERJAAN INDONESIA (DIANTARA POTENSI DAN HAMBATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadek Agus Sudiarawan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed identifying the advantages of the regulation of TUPE principles, as well as inhibiting factors for outsourcing companies to apply the TUPE principles after the Decision of the  Constitutional Court Number 27/PUU-IX/ 2011. The research was conducted by using normative-empirical method. The data of the research consisted of primary data and secondary data. All of the collected data were analyzed using qualitative method. The results of this research were presented in a descriptive analysis report. The results of the research indicated he advantages that could be obtained by workers in relation with regulation of the TUPE principles included protection of wages, welfare and working requirements, protection of workers when the company was taken over, protection of workers when there is a change of outsourcing company and regulation of the right to file a lawsuit to the industrial relations court. The inhibiting  factors in the application of the TUPE principles in the  outsourcing companies after the  Decision of Constitutional Court  were the lack of socialization and supervision of the government, various legal loopholes of discrepancies between the implementing regulation and  the Decision of Constitutional Court, uncertainty severance regulation, assumptions that TUPE was a new burden which may disadvantage employers, and the lack of understanding of the workers related to their rights.

  13. Predictors of career progression and obstacles and opportunities for non-EU hospital doctors to undertake postgraduate training in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, Ella; Keegan, Conor; Humphries, Niamh; McAleese, Sara; Thomas, Steve; Normand, Charles; Brugha, Ruairí

    2016-06-30

    The World Health Organization's Global Code on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel urges Member States to observe fair recruitment practices and ensure equality of treatment of migrant and domestically-trained health personnel. However, international medical graduates (IMGs) have experienced difficulties in accessing postgraduate training and in progressing their careers in several destination countries. Ireland is highly dependent on IMGs, but also employs non-European Union (EU) doctors who qualified as doctors in Ireland. However, little is known regarding the career progression of these doctors. In this context, the present study assesses the determinants of career progression of non-EU doctors with particular focus on whether barriers to progression exist for those graduating outside Ireland compared to those who have graduated within. The study utilises quantitative data from an online survey of non-EU doctors registered with the Medical Council of Ireland undertaken as part of the Doctor Migration Project (2011-2013). Non-EU doctors registered with the Medical Council of Ireland were asked to complete an online survey about their recruitment, training and career experiences in Ireland. Analysis was conducted on the responses of 231 non-EU hospital doctors whose first post in Ireland was not permanent. Career progression was analysed by means of binary logistic regression analysis. While some of the IMGs had succeeded in accessing specialist training, many experienced slow or stagnant career progression when compared with Irish-trained non-EU doctors. Key predictors of career progression for non-EU doctors working in Ireland showed that doctors who qualified outside of Ireland were less likely than Irish-trained non-EU doctors to experience career progression. Length of stay as a qualified doctor in Ireland was strongly associated with career progression. Those working in anaesthesia were significantly more likely to experience career progression than those in other specialities. The present study highlights differences in terms of achieving career progression and training for Irish-trained non-EU doctors, compared to those trained elsewhere. However, the findings herein warrant further attention from a workforce planning and policy development perspective regarding Ireland's obligations under the Global Code of hiring, promoting and remunerating migrant health personnel on the basis of equality of treatment with the domestically-trained health workforce.

  14. A study on the reproducibility of cephalometric landmarks when undertaking a three-dimensional (3D) cephalometric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas, José M.; Cibrián, Rosa; Gandia, José L.; Paredes, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Cone Beam Computerized Tomography (CBCT) allows the possibility of modifying some of the diagnostic tools used in orthodontics, such as cephalometry. The first step must be to study the characteristics of these devices in terms of accuracy and reliability of the most commonly used landmarks. The aims were 1- To assess intra and inter-observer reliability in the location of anatomical landmarks belonging to hard tissues of the skull in images taken with a CBCT device, 2- To determine which of those landmarks are more vs. less reliable and 3- To introduce planes of reference so as to create cephalometric analyses appropriated to the 3D reality. Study design: Fifteen patients who had a CBCT (i-CAT®) as a diagnostic register were selected. To assess the reproducibility on landmark location and the differences in the measurements of two observers at different times, 41 landmarks were defined on the three spatial axes (X,Y,Z) and located. 3.690 measurements were taken and, as each determination has 3 coordinates, 11.070 data were processed with SPSS® statistical package. To discover the reproducibility of the method on landmark location, an ANOVA was undertaken using two variation factors: time (t1, t2 and t3) and observer (Ob1 and Ob2) for each axis (X, Y and Z) and landmark. The order of the CBCT scans submitted to the observers (Ob1, Ob2) at t1, t2, and t3, were different and randomly allocated. Multiple comparisons were undertaken using the Bonferroni test. The intra- and inter-examiner ICC´s were calculated. Results: Intra- and inter-examiner reliability was high, both being ICC ≥ 0.99, with the best frequency on axis Z. Conclusions: The most reliable landmarks were: Nasion, Sella, Basion, left Porion, point A, anterior nasal spine, Pogonion, Gnathion, Menton, frontozygomatic sutures, first lower molars and upper and lower incisors. Those with less reliability were the supraorbitals, right zygion and posterior nasal spine. Key words:Cone Beam Computed Tomography, cephalometry, landmark, orthodontics, reliability. PMID:22322503

  15. Wastes treatment: Naskeo undertakes on the way of methanization; Traitement des effluents: Naskeo mise sur la methanisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-09-15

    Naskeo proposes to cleanse the organic effluents of the chemical or pharmaceutical firms by methanization. A process which produces a renewable biogas, directly valorizable at the level of the process of the manufacturer. (O.M.)

  16. Using a Personal Development Plan for Different Purposes: Its Influence on Undertaking Learning Activities and Job Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beausaert, Simon A. J.; Segers, Mien S. R.; Gijselaers, Wim H.

    2011-01-01

    Today, organizations are increasingly implementing assessment tools such as Personal Development Plans. Although the true power of the tool lies in supporting the employee's continuing professional development, organizations implement the tool for various different purposes, professional development purposes on the one hand and promotion/salary…

  17. Determination of the Index of Consumption of Petroleum of the Calcining Kiln of the Ernesto Che Guevara Commander Undertaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarilys Gaínza-Delgado

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results obtained in carrying out the mass and energy balances in the calcining kiln of the company commander Ernesto Che Guevara, for determining the consumption index of petroleum used for obtaining nickel oxide through thermal decomposition of the basic nickel carbonate. It was shown that for a production of basic nickel carbonate of              12 t / h with 69% moisture, it is necessary to feed about 1100 kg / h of fuel, for an consumption index of 91.67 kg of fuel per ton of load.

  18. Undertaking a Collaborative Rapid Realist Review to Investigate What Works in the Successful Implementation of a Frail Older Person's Pathway.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2018-01-25

    We addressed the research question "what factors enable the successful development and implementation of a frail older person\\'s pathway within the acute setting". A rapid realist review (RRR) was conducted by adopting the RAMESES standards. We began with a sample of 232 articles via database searches supplemented with 94 additional records including inputs from a twitter chat and a hospital site visit. Our final sample consisted of 18 documents. Following review and consensus by an expert panel we identified a conceptual model of context-mechanism-(resources)-outcomes. There was overall agreement frailty should be identified at the front door of the acute hospital. Significant challenges identified related to organisational boundaries both within the acute setting and externally, the need to shift outcomes to patient orientated ones, to support staff to sustain the pathway by providing ongoing education and by providing role clarity. RRRs can support research such as the systematic approach to improving care for frail older adults (SAFE) study by producing accounts of what works based on a wide range of sources and innovative engagement with stakeholders. It is evident from our provisional model that numerous factors need to combine and interact to enable and sustain a successful frail older person\\'s pathway.

  19. Is faculty practice valuable? The experience of Western Australian nursing and midwifery academics undertaking faculty clinical practice - A discussion paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Amanda C; Baker, Melanie; Geraghty, Sadie

    2017-09-01

    The faculty clinical practice model provides dedicated time for nursing lecturers and educators in a university school of nursing to work with supervision in the clinical environments for an agreed amount of time each year. Allowing academics to partake in faculty clinical practice this way has been shown to update skills and retain clinical competency. Some nursing and midwifery academics believe it is essential to remain clinically current and up-to-date with professional issues in the clinical environments, whereas other academics believe reading current research maintains clinical competency. This discussion paper will explore the authors' own experiences of faculty clinical practice as an opportunity to enhance their learning. Narrative accounts of time spent in the clinical areas being expressed as invaluable as it allowed the authors to become part of the health professional team, refine clinical skills, gain clinical confidence, and share knowledge. This, in turn, impacted upon the academic's teaching style as well as redefined it by introducing incidents and stories from their experience. It has been concluded by the authors that faculty clinical practice allows academics to increase confidence, encourage leadership skills, and improve their teaching abilities in their clinical area of expertise. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evading the Endgame in an Insurgency Undertaking: The Case of the Lord’s Resistance Army and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    wood to hurt a person. Concealment, on the other hand, refers to achieving protection by blending with the surrounding area through camouflage or...leaders of the insurgency. This may include phone tracking, human intelligence, signal intelligence, and drones , among other methods. The most cost

  1. Determining the effectiveness of conventional and alternative coagulants through effective characterization schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Shahnawaz; Yoon, Yeomin; Amy, Gary; Yoon, Jaekyung

    2004-12-01

    Polymeric forms of metal coagulants in water treatment have become increasingly used due to their wider availability and reduction in cost. These specialized coagulant forms and products are claimed by manufacturers to be superior to conventional coagulants in particulate and/or organic removal with inherent advantages of lower alkalinity consumption and lesser sludge production. However, due to their proprietary nature, little is known about their chemical composition. To determine and understand the effectiveness of these alternative coagulants, a comprehensive study was undertaken to characterize metal coagulants, and to comparatively evaluate them on a well-characterized source water. The objective of this study was to provide a scheme for utilities that could be employed as a screening process and a method of selecting an appropriate coagulant based on raw water characteristics and insight into the coagulatability of the source water. Characterizations of coagulants included: (i) active metal content, (ii) anion content, (iii) acidity, (iv) alkalinity consumption, (v) charge reversal by colloidal titration, and (vi) molecular weight determination. A total of five poly-aluminum chlorides (PACl), along with a conventional coagulant (aluminum sulfate or alum) were evaluated. Results show that through the characterization scheme, an effective coagulant (conventional versus alternative) and coagulant type (among various PACl) can be chosen before undertaking time-consuming bench or pilot-scale evaluation.

  2. Evaluating the effectiveness of a clinical tracking system for undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyers, Vincent L; Carter, Lorraine; Antoniazzi, Clara; Johnson, Susan

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated one commercially available clinical tracking system to determine its appropriateness for use within a school of nursing. Collecting documentation during undergraduate clinical experiences (e.g., type of patient care experience, diagnosis, skills completed, competencies met) is a challenging undertaking for students and faculty. Little research has been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of clinical tracking systems. A convenience sample of students and faculty completed an end-of-course survey that measured their satisfaction with the clinical tracking system. Statistically significant (p utility, technical issues, capacity to identify regulatory body achieved competencies, and usefulness of records generated.There was also a statistically significant (p < .01) difference in overall satisfaction, with faculty much more satisfied with the system than students. The clinical tracking system was found by faculty and students to be user friendly. Faculty overall were more satisfied with the system than students.

  3. Health effects of low level radiation in shipyard workers. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    In order to determine the effects of low-level doses of radiation it was necessary to define an adequate population, to gather and collate data relating to this population and to organize this data in such a manner as to render it suitable for analysis. We have completed much of the groundwork, including the development of data collection systems and the establishment of liaisons with public and private data resources for ascertaining vital status and current address. The major tasks which we now face are two fold: (1) to determine the cause of death for deceased members of the population, and (2) to locate and secure information (occupational, medical and smoking histories) from living members of the population. Once these tasks have been completed we can undertake an analysis of this information to assess the risks of low-level doses of radiation and establish mechanisms through which this population can be followed prospectively

  4. I can do that: the impact of implicit theories on leadership role model effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Crystal L; Burnette, Jeni L; Innella, Audrey N

    2012-02-01

    This research investigates the role of implicit theories in influencing the effectiveness of successful role models in the leadership domain. Across two studies, the authors test the prediction that incremental theorists ("leaders are made") compared to entity theorists ("leaders are born") will respond more positively to being presented with a role model before undertaking a leadership task. In Study 1, measuring people's naturally occurring implicit theories of leadership, the authors showed that after being primed with a role model, incremental theorists reported greater leadership confidence and less anxious-depressed affect than entity theorists following the leadership task. In Study 2, the authors demonstrated the causal role of implicit theories by manipulating participants' theory of leadership ability. They replicated the findings from Study 1 and demonstrated that identification with the role model mediated the relationship between implicit theories and both confidence and affect. In addition, incremental theorists outperformed entity theorists on the leadership task.

  5. The Need of Belonging and Sense of Belonging versus Effectiveness of Coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilczyńska Agnieszka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to describe the dependence between the need for and sense of belonging and symptoms of depression vs. one’s capacity to cope effectively. Using path analysis of our data (N = 178, we found direct patterns, in which both depression symptoms and life satisfaction depend to a considerable degree on the sense of belonging. The belonging need influences, in a direct way, the coping focused on the search for social support. Undertaking active techniques of coping, including confrontation with a stressful situation and its negative controlling impact, depends on having a high level of the sense of belonging. In contrast, individuals who cope by means of taking psychoactive drugs show the symptoms of depression.

  6. The Effect of a Multidisciplinary Regional Educational Programme on the Quality of Colon Cancer Resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheehan-Dare, Gemma E; Marks, Kate M; Tinkler-Hundal, Emma

    2018-01-01

    Mesocolic plane surgery with central vascular ligation produces an oncologically superior specimen following colon cancer resection and appears to be related to optimal outcomes. Aim We aimed to assess whether a regional educational programme in optimal mesocolic surgery led to an improvement...... in the quality of specimens. METHOD: Following an educational programme in the Capital and Zealand areas of Denmark, 686 cases of primary colon cancer resected across six hospitals were assessed by grading the plane of surgery and undertaking tissue morphometry. These were compared to 263 specimens resected...... educational programme in optimal mesocolic surgery improved the oncological quality of colon cancer specimens as assessed by mesocolic planes, however, there was no significant effect on the amount of tissue resected centrally. Surgeons who attempt central vascular ligation continue to produce more radical...

  7. Effectiveness of disinfection with alcohol 70% (w/v of contaminated surfaces not previously cleaned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Uchikawa Graziano

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the disinfectant effectiveness of alcohol 70% (w/v using friction, without previous cleaning, on work surfaces, as a concurrent disinfecting procedure in Health Services. METHOD: An experimental, randomized and single-blinded laboratory study was undertaken. The samples were enamelled surfaces, intentionally contaminated with Serratia marcescens microorganisms ATCC 14756 106 CFU/mL with 10% of human saliva added, and were submitted to the procedure of disinfection WITHOUT previous cleaning. The results were compared to disinfection preceded by cleaning. RESULTS: There was a reduction of six logarithms of the initial microbial population, equal in the groups WITH and WITHOUT previous cleaning (p=0.440 and a residual microbial load ≤ 102 CFU. CONCLUSION: The research demonstrated the acceptability of the practice evaluated, bringing an important response to the area of health, in particular to Nursing, which most undertakes procedures of concurrent cleaning /disinfecting of these work surfaces.

  8. Effectiveness of disinfection with alcohol 70% (w/v of contaminated surfaces not previously cleaned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Uchikawa Graziano

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the disinfectant effectiveness of alcohol 70% (w/v using friction, without previous cleaning, on work surfaces, as a concurrent disinfecting procedure in Health Services. METHOD: An experimental, randomized and single-blinded laboratory study was undertaken. The samples were enamelled surfaces, intentionally contaminated with Serratia marcescens microorganisms ATCC 14756 106 CFU/mL with 10% of human saliva added, and were submitted to the procedure of disinfection WITHOUT previous cleaning. The results were compared to disinfection preceded by cleaning. RESULTS: There was a reduction of six logarithms of the initial microbial population, equal in the groups WITH and WITHOUT previous cleaning (p=0.440 and a residual microbial load ≤ 102 CFU. CONCLUSION: The research demonstrated the acceptability of the practice evaluated, bringing an important response to the area of health, in particular to Nursing, which most undertakes procedures of concurrent cleaning /disinfecting of these work surfaces.

  9. The role of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation in relation to medical radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrimpton, P.C.

    2001-01-01

    In 1955, growing global concerns about ionizing radiation led the General Assembly of the United Nations to establish the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). The mandate of this committee, which presently includes 21 Member States, is to assess and report on the levels and effects of exposure to ionizing radiation. Accordingly, UNSCEAR applies scientific judgement in undertaking comprehensive reviews and evaluations concerning radiation and maintains an independent and neutral position in drawing its conclusions. These are published in authoritative reports to the UN General Assembly, with there having been 14 such substantive reports, with technical annexes, since 1958. The information provided by UNSCEAR assists the General Assembly in making recommendations in relation, for example, to international collaboration in the field of health. Governments and organizations all over the world rely on the committee's evaluations as the scientific basis for estimating radiation risk, establishing radiation protection and safety standards, and regulating radiation sources

  10. An evoked auditory response fMRI study of the effects of rTMS on putative AVH pathways in healthy volunteers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tracy, D K

    2010-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are the most prevalent symptom in schizophrenia. They are associated with increased activation within the temporoparietal cortices and are refractory to pharmacological and psychological treatment in approximately 25% of patients. Low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the temporoparietal cortex has been demonstrated to be effective in reducing AVH in some patients, although results have varied. The cortical mechanism by which rTMS exerts its effects remain unknown, although data from the motor system is suggestive of a local cortical inhibitory effect. We explored neuroimaging differences in healthy volunteers between application of a clinically utilized rTMS protocol and a sham rTMS equivalent when undertaking a prosodic auditory task.

  11. Randomized controlled trial on effectiveness of ultrasonography screening for breast cancer in women aged 40-49 (J-START). Research design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohuchi, Noriaki; Ishida, Takanori; Kawai, Masaaki; Narikawa, Yoko; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Sobue, Tomotaka

    2011-01-01

    In cancer screening, it is essential to undertake effective screening with appropriate methodology, which should be supported by evidence of a reduced mortality rate. At present, mammography is the only method for breast cancer screening with such evidence. However, mammography does not achieve sufficient accuracy in breasts with high density at ages below 50. Although ultrasonography achieves better accuracy in Breast Cancer detection even in dense breasts, the effectiveness has not been verified. We have planned a randomized controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of ultrasonography in women aged 40-49, with a design to study 50,000 women with mammography and ultrasonography (intervention group), and 50,000 controls with mammography only (control group). The participants are scheduled to take second round screening with the same modality 2 years on. The primary endpoints are sensitivity and specificity, and the secondary endpoint is the rate of advanced breast cancers. (author)

  12. Systematic reviews of adverse effects: framework for a structured approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herxheimer Andrew

    2007-07-01

    clinical decisions. Researchers undertaking a systematic review that incorporates adverse effect data should understand the rationale for the suggested methods and be able to implement them in their review.

  13. Assessing ecological effects of radionuclides: data gaps and extrapolation issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline; Gilek, Michael; Sundell-Bergman, Synnoeve; Larsson, Carl-Magnus

    2004-01-01

    By inspection of the FASSET database on radiation effects on non-human biota, one of the major difficulties in the implementation of ecological risk assessments for radioactive pollutants is found to be the lack of data for chronic low-level exposure. A critical review is provided of a number of extrapolation issues that arise in undertaking an ecological risk assessment: acute versus chronic exposure regime; radiation quality including relative biological effectiveness and radiation weighting factors; biological effects from an individual to a population level, including radiosensitivity and lifestyle variations throughout the life cycle; single radionuclide versus multi-contaminants. The specificities of the environmental situations of interest (mainly chronic low-level exposure regimes) emphasise the importance of reproductive parameters governing the demography of the population within a given ecosystem and, as a consequence, the structure and functioning of that ecosystem. As an operational conclusion to keep in mind for any site-specific risk assessment, the present state-of-the-art on extrapolation issues allows us to grade the magnitude of the uncertainties as follows: one species to another > acute to chronic = external to internal = mixture of stressors> individual to population> ecosystem structure to function

  14. Collinear masking effect in visual search is independent of perceptual salience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingling, Li; Lu, Yi-Hui; Cheng, Miao; Tseng, Chia-Huei

    2017-07-01

    Searching for a target in a salient region should be easier than looking for one in a nonsalient region. However, we previously discovered a contradictory phenomenon in which a local target in a salient structure was more difficult to find than one in the background. The salient structure was constructed of orientation singletons aligned to each other to form a collinear structure. In the present study, we undertake to determine whether such a masking effect was a result of salience competition between a global structure and the local target. In the first 3 experiments, we increased the salience value of the local target with the hope of adding to its competitive advantage and eventually eliminating the masking effect; nevertheless, the masking effect persisted. In an additional 2 experiments, we reduced salience of the global collinear structure by altering the orientation of the background bars and the masking effect still emerged. Our salience manipulations were validated by a controlled condition in which the global structure was grouped noncollinearly. In this case, local target salience increase (e.g., onset) or global distractor salience reduction (e.g., randomized flanking orientations) effectively removed the facilitation effect of the noncollinear structure. Our data suggest that salience competition is unlikely to explain the collinear masking effect, and other mechanisms such as contour integration, border formation, or the crowding effect may be prospective candidates for further investigation.

  15. Study protocol: Differential effects of diet and physical activity based interventions in pregnancy on maternal and fetal outcomes - individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis and health economic evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruifrok, Anneloes E; Rogozinska, Ewelina; van Poppel, Mireille N M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pregnant women who gain excess weight are at risk of complications during pregnancy and in the long term. Interventions based on diet and physical activity minimise gestational weight gain with varied effect on clinical outcomes. The effect of interventions on varied groups of women...... based on body mass index, age, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, parity, and underlying medical conditions is not clear. Our individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis of randomised trials will assess the differential effect of diet- and physical activity-based interventions on maternal weight gain...... for publication bias and availability bias in the IPD obtained will be investigated. We will conduct a model-based economic evaluation to assess the cost effectiveness of the interventions to manage weight gain in pregnancy and undertake a value of information analysis to inform future research. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW...

  16. The Influence of Environmental Friendliness on Green Trust: The Mediation Effects of Green Satisfaction and Green Perceived Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As global green trends became more prevalent, green marketing also developed into an important issue. Although prior literature explored the main factors affecting green trust, it was inconclusive as to how environmental friendliness could affect the green trust in green marketing. This study aims to focus on the positive influence of environmental friendliness on green trust, and explore the mediation effects of green satisfaction and green perceived quality. This study undertakes an empirical study by means of questionnaire survey. The respondents are consumers who have experience purchasing green products. This study applies structural equation modeling (SEM to test the hypotheses. The findings of this study indicate that (1 environmental friendliness has a significant positive impact on green satisfaction, green perceived quality, and green trust; (2 both green satisfaction and green perceived quality positively affect green trust; and (3 green satisfaction and green perceived quality partially mediate the positive relationship between environmental friendliness and green trust.

  17. Effective instruction for English learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Margarita; Slavin, Robert; Sánchez, Marta

    2011-01-01

    The fastest-growing student population in U.S. schools today is children of immigrants, half of whom do not speak English fluently and are thus labeled English learners. Although the federal government requires school districts to provide services to English learners, it offers states no policies to follow in identifying, assessing, placing, or instructing them. Margarita Calderón, Robert Slavin, and Marta Sánchez identify the elements of effective instruction and review a variety of successful program models. During 2007-08, more than 5.3 million English learners made up 10.6 percent of the nation's K-12 public school enrollment. Wide and persistent achievement disparities between these English learners and English-proficient students show clearly, say the authors, that schools must address the language, literacy, and academic needs of English learners more effectively. Researchers have fiercely debated the merits of bilingual and English-only reading instruction. In elementary schools, English learners commonly receive thirty minutes of English as a Second Language (ESL) instruction but attend general education classes for the rest of the day, usually with teachers who are unprepared to teach them. Though English learners have strikingly diverse levels of skills, in high school they are typically lumped together, with one teacher to address their widely varying needs. These in-school factors contribute to the achievement disparities. Based on the studies presented here, Calderón, Slavin, and Sánchez assert that the quality of instruction is what matters most in educating English learners. They highlight comprehensive reform models, as well as individual components of these models: school structures and leadership; language and literacy instruction; integration of language, literacy, and content instruction in secondary schools; cooperative learning; professional development; parent and family support teams; tutoring; and monitoring implementation and outcomes

  18. Investigating the Effectiveness of Group Work in Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Sofroniou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Group work permits students to develop a range of critical thinking, analytical and communication skills; effective team work; appreciation and respect for other views, techniques and problem-solving methods, all of which promote active learning and enhance student learning. This paper presents an evaluation of employing the didactic and pedagogical customs of group work in mathematics with the aim of improving student performance as well as exploring students’ perceptions of working in groups. The evaluation of group work was carried out during tutorial time with first year civil engineering students undertaking a mathematics module in their second semester. The aim was to investigate whether group work learning can help students gain a deeper understanding of the module content, develop improved critical and analytical thinking skills and see if this method of pedagogy can produce higher performance levels. The group work sessions were conducted over four weeks whilst studying the topic of integration. Evaluation surveys were collected at the end of the intervention along with an investigation into the examination results from the end of semester examinations. In order to derive plausible and reasonable conclusions, these examination results were compared with an analogous cohort of first year mathematics students, also studying integration in their engineering-based degree. The investigation into the effectiveness of group work showed interesting and encouraging positive outcomes, supported by a combination of qualitative and quantitative analysis.

  19. The effect of default values in regulation matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Seung-cheol; Jung, Won-dea; Ha, Jae-joo; Jin, Young-ho

    1998-01-01

    Both performing and validating a detailed risk analysis of a complex system are costly and time-consuming undertakings. With the increased use of probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) in regulatory decision making, both PRA practitioners (usually, licensees) and regulators have generally favored the use of defaults because they can greatly facilitate the process of performing a PRA in the first place as well as the process of reviewing and verifying the PRA. The use of defaults can also ensure more uniform standards of PRA quality. However, different regulatory agencies differ in their approaches to the use of default values, and the implications of these differences are not yet widely understood. Moreover, large heterogeneity among licensees makes it difficult to set suitable defaults. This paper will focus on the effect of default values on estimates of risk. In particular, the following questions will be explored: ''How should defaults be set?''; and ''What are the implications of choosing different default values?'' Some insights on the effects of different levels of conservatism in setting defaults will be provided. This can help decision makers evaluate the levels of safety likely to result from regulatory decisions

  20. Structural properties and neutron irradiation effects of ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Toyohiko

    1994-01-01

    In high temperature gas-cooled reactors and nuclear fusion reactors being developed at present, various ceramics are to be used in the environment of neutron irradiation for undertaking important functions. The change of the characteristics of those materials by neutron irradiation must be exactly forecast, but it has been known that the response of the materials is different respectively. The production method of ceramics and the resulted structures of ceramics which control their characteristics are explained. The features of covalent bond and ionic bond, the synthesis of powder and the phase change by heating, sintering and sintering agent, and grain boundary phase are described. The smelling of ceramics by neutron irradiation is caused by the formation of the clusters of Frenkel defects and minute spot defects. Its restoration by annealing is explained. The defects remaining in materials after irradiation are the physical defects by flipping atoms cut due to the collision with high energy particles and the chemical defects by nuclear transformation. Some physical defects can be restored, but chemical defects are never restored. The mechanical properties of ceramics and the effect of irradiation on them, and the thermal properties of ceramics and the effect of irradiation on them are reported. (K.I.)

  1. The effect of an intercalated BSc on subsequent academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesan, Nishanthan; Crichton, Siobhan; Sewell, Hannah; Howell, Simon

    2011-10-03

    The choice of whether to undertake an intercalated Bachelor of Science (BSc) degree is one of the most important decisions that students must make during their time at medical school. An effect on exam performance would improve a student's academic ranking, giving them a competitive edge when applying for foundation posts. Retrospective data analysis of anonymised student records. The effects of intercalating on final year exam results, Foundation Programme score, application form score (from white-space questions), quartile rank score, and success with securing Foundation School of choice were assessed using linear and ordered logistic regression models, adjusted for course type, year of graduation, graduate status and baseline (Year 1) performance. The study included 1158 students, with 54% choosing to do an intercalated BSc, and 9.8% opting to do so at an external institution. Doing an intercalated BSc was significantly associated with improved outcome in Year 5 exams (P = 0.004). This was irrespective of the year students chose to intercalate, with no significant difference between those that intercalated after years 2, 3 and 4 (p = 0.3096). There were also higher foundation application scores (P BSc leads to an improvement in subsequent exam results and develops the skills necessary to produce a strong foundation programme application. It also leads to greater success with securing preferred Foundation School posts in students. Differences between internally- and externally-intercalating students may be due to varying course structures or greater challenge in adjusting to a new study environment.

  2. Intravenous immunoglobulin for severe sepsis and septic shock: clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and value of a further randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marta O; Welton, Nicky J; Harrison, David A; Peura, Piia; Shankar-Hari, Manu; Harvey, Sheila E; Madan, Jason; Ades, Anthony E; Rowan, Kathryn M; Palmer, Stephen J

    2014-12-01

    Prior to investing in a large, multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT), the National Institute for Health Research in the UK called for an evaluation of the feasibility and value for money of undertaking a trial on intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) as an adjuvant therapy for severe sepsis/septic shock. In response to this call, this study assessed the clinical and cost-effectiveness of IVIG (using a decision model), and evaluated the value of conducting an RCT (using expected value of information (EVI) analysis). The evidence informing such assessments was obtained through a series of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Further primary data analyses were also undertaken using the Intensive Care National Audit & Research Centre Case Mix Programme Database, and a Scottish Intensive Care Society research study. We found a large degree of statistical heterogeneity in the clinical evidence on treatment effect, and the source of such heterogeneity was unclear. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of IVIG is within the borderline region of estimates considered to represent value for money, but results appear highly sensitive to the choice of model used for clinical effectiveness. This was also the case with EVI estimates, with maximum payoffs from conducting a further clinical trial between £ 137 and £ 1,011 million. Our analyses suggest that there is a need for a further RCT. Results on the value of conducting such research, however, were sensitive to the clinical effectiveness model used, reflecting the high level of heterogeneity in the evidence base.

  3. Cognitive fatigue effects on physical performance: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMorris, Terry; Barwood, Martin; Hale, Beverley J; Dicks, Matt; Corbett, Jo

    2018-05-01

    Recent research has examined the effect that undertaking a cognitively fatiguing task for ≤90 min has on subsequent physical performance. Cognitive fatigue is claimed to affect subsequent physical performance by inducing energy depletion in the brain, depletion of brain catecholamine neurotransmitters or changes in motivation. Observation of the psychophysiology and neurochemistry literature questions the ability of 90 min' cognitive activity to deplete energy or catecholamine resources. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to examine the evidence for cognitive fatigue having an effect on subsequent physical performance. A systematic, meta-analytic review was undertaken. We found a small but significant pooled effect size based on comparison between physical performance post-cognitive fatigue compared to post-control (g = -0.27, SE = -0.12, 95% CI -0.49 to -0.04, Z(10) = -2.283, p  0.10, Τ 2   0.05). Thus, the results are somewhat contradictory. The pooled effect size shows a small but significant negative effect of cognitive fatigue, however tests of heterogeneity show that the results are due to random error. Future research should use neuroscientific tests to ensure that cognitive fatigue has been achieved. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A cost-effectiveness analysis of enalapril maleate in the management of congestive heart failure in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J R; Fletcher, P J

    1996-02-01

    This study is motivated by the results of the SOLVD treatment trial (N Engl J Med 1991; 325: 293-302) which demonstrated the clinical efficacy of enalapril in the treatment of congestive heart failure but did not undertake an economic evaluation of enalapril therapy. To undertake a cost-effectiveness analysis of enalapril maleate versus placebo, in conjunction with conventional treatment, in the management of congestive heart failure in Australia. The published results from the SOLVD treatment trial are used to estimate the increase in survival, and the reduction in the number of hospitalisations, arising from the use of enalapril in the management of congestive heart failure. The costs of enalapril therapy are estimated using Australian data on the drug and non-drug costs of enalapril therapy and the costs of hospitalisation. Enalapril therapy increases mean survival in heart failure patients by 1.68 to 1.80 months. The average additional drug and non-drug cost of enalapril therapy is estimated to be $1890 over a four year period, against which must be offset cost savings from a reduction in hospitalisations of $2060 to $2140. On balance, therefore, enalapril is cost saving, reducing health care costs for a congestive heart failure patient on average by $170 to $250 over a four year period. This value is sensitive to estimates of cost offsets and of improved survival which can result in either a net cost saving with enalapril of approximately $1200 per patient or a net additional cost of up to $3000 per patient (over four years) or greater than $20,000 per life-year saved. The addition of enalapril to conventional management of congestive heart failure in Australia should improve survival and may provide a net reduction in treatment costs compared with conventional management alone.

  5. Exploring the context for effective clinical governance in infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halton, Kate; Hall, Lisa; Gardner, Anne; MacBeth, Deborough; Mitchell, Brett G

    2017-03-01

    Effective clinical governance is necessary to support improvements in infection control. Historically, the focus has been on ensuring that infection control practice and policy is based on evidence, and that there is use of surveillance and auditing for self-regulation and performance feedback. There has been less exploration of how contextual and organizational factors mediate an infection preventionists (IP's) ability to engage with evidence-based practice and enact good clinical governance. A cross sectional Web-based survey of IPs in Australia and New Zealand was undertaken. Questions focused on engagement in evidence-based practice and perceptions about the context, culture, and leadership within the infection control team and organization. Responses were mapped against dimensions of Scally and Donaldson's clinical governance framework. Three hundred surveys were returned. IPs appear well equipped at an individual level to undertake evidence-based practice. The most serious set of perceived challenges to good clinical governance related to a lack of leadership or active resistance to infection control within the organization. Additional challenges included lack of information technology solutions and poor access to specialist expertise and financial resources. Focusing on strengthening contextual factors at the organizational level that otherwise undermine capacity to implement evidence-based practice is key to sustaining current infection control successes and promoting further practice improvements. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of Welfare Reform on Education Acquisition of Adult Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Dhaval M.; Corman, Hope; Reichman, Nancy E.

    2013-01-01

    Education beyond traditional ages for schooling is an important source of human capital acquisition among adult women. Welfare reform, which began in the early 1990s and culminated in the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act in 1996, promoted work rather than education acquisition for this group. Exploiting variation in welfare reform across states and over time and using relevant comparison groups, we undertake a comprehensive study of the effects of welfare reform on adult women’s education acquisition. We first estimate effects of welfare reform on high school drop-out of teenage girls, both to improve upon past research on this issue and to explore compositional changes that may be relevant for our primary analyses of the effects of welfare reform on education acquisition among adult women. We find that welfare reform significantly reduced the probability that teens from disadvantaged families dropped out of high school, by about 15%. We then estimate the effects of welfare reform on adult women’s school enrollment and conduct numerous specification checks, investigate compositional selection and policy endogeneity, explore lagged effects, stratify by TANF work incentives and education policies, consider alternative comparison groups, and explore the mediating role of work. We find robust and convincing evidence that welfare reform significantly decreased the probability of college enrollment among adult women at risk of welfare receipt, by at least 20%. It also appears to have decreased the probability of high school enrollment among this group, on the same order of magnitude. Future research is needed to determine the extent to which this behavioral change translates to future economic outcomes. PMID:23504449

  7. EFFECTIVE SPECIFIC ACTIVITY OF NATURAL RADIONUCLIDES FOR THE NORM BELONGED TO 238U AND 232TH SERIES BEING IN THE STATE OF DISTURBED RADIOACTIVE EQUILIBRIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Stamat

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Sanitary Rules SR 2.6.1.1292-03 and SR 2.6.6.1169-02 classification of the industrial waste containing naturally occurring radioactive materials is adopted in accordance to the values of their effective specific activity Aeff. In a case of the disturbed equilibrium in 238U and 232Th series it is necessary to take into consideration actual contribution of the separate natural radionuclides of the mentioned series into the value of gamma dose rate of the waste. This will permit to avoid unjustified overestimating or understating of the waste category which prevents as unjustified expenditures on their treating so undertaking of the necessary measures providing radiation safety.

  8. Locomotive biofuel study : preliminary study on the use and the effects of biodiesel in locomotives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Section 404 of the Passenger Rail Investment and Improvement Act (PRIIA), 2008, mandated that the Federal Railroad : Administration (FRA) undertake a Locomotive Biofuel Study to investigate the feasibility of using biofuel blends as locomotive : engi...

  9. Spatial Characterization of Riparian Buffer Effects on Sediment Loads from Watershed Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding all watershed systems and their interactions is a complex, but critical, undertaking when developing practices designed to reduce topsoil loss and chemical/nutrient transport from agricultural fields. The presence of riparian buffer vegetation in agricultural lands...

  10. Urban Effects on Transport and Diffusion of Smokes and Toxic Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garvey, D. M; Klipp, C. L; Chang, S. S; Huynh, G. D; Williamson, C. C

    2004-01-01

    .... The Joint Urban 2003 (JUT) project, a cooperative undertaking to study turbulent transport and diffusion in the atmospheric boundary layer conducted in Oklahoma City in the summer of 2003, afforded the Army Research Laboratory (ARL...

  11. Effects of antenatal diet and physical activity on maternal and fetal outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogozińska, Ewelina; Marlin, Nadine; Jackson, Louise

    2017-01-01

    , Caucasian ethnicity and underlying medical condition(s), by undertaking an individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis. We also evaluated the association of gestational weight gain (GWG) with adverse pregnancy outcomes and assessed the cost-effectiveness of the interventions. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE...... quantified the relationship between weight gain and complications, and undertook a decision-analytic model-based economic evaluation to assess the cost-effectiveness of the interventions. RESULTS: Diet and lifestyle interventions reduced GWG by an average of 0.70 kg (95% CI -0.92 to -0.48 kg; 33 studies......-eclampsia or pregnancy-induced hypertension (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.16) and preterm birth (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.13). There was no significant effect on fetal outcomes. The interventions were not cost-effective. GWG, including adherence to the Institute of Medicine-recommended targets, was not associated...

  12. Cost-effectiveness of improved primary care treatment of depression in women in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siskind, Dan; Araya, Ricardo; Kim, Jane

    2010-10-01

    Low- and middle-income countries lack information on contextualised mental health interventions to aid resource allocation decisions regarding healthcare. To undertake a cost-effectiveness analysis of treatments for depression contextualised to Chile. Using data from studies in Chile, we developed a computer-based Markov cohort model of depression among Chilean women to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of usual care or improved stepped care. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of usual care was I$113 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained, versus no treatment, whereas stepped care had an ICER of I$468 per QALY versus usual care. This compared favourably with Chile's per-capita GDP. Results were most sensitive to variation in recurrent episode coverage, marginally sensitive to cost of treatment, and insensitive to changes in health-state utility of depression and rate of recurrence. Our results suggest that treatments for depression in low- and middle-income countries may be more cost-effective than previously estimated.

  13. Cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in Kenya and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigei, Charles; Odaga, John; Mvundura, Mercy; Madrid, Yvette; Clark, Andrew David

    2015-05-07

    Rotavirus vaccines have the potential to prevent a substantial amount of life-threatening gastroenteritis in young African children. This paper presents the results of prospective cost-effectiveness analyses for rotavirus vaccine introduction for Kenya and Uganda. In each country, a national consultant worked with a national technical working group to identify appropriate data and validate study results. Secondary data on demographics, disease burden, health utilization, and costs were used to populate the TRIVAC cost-effectiveness model. The baseline analysis assumed an initial vaccine price of $0.20 per dose, corresponding to Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance stipulated copay for low-income countries. The incremental cost-effectiveness of a 2-dose rotavirus vaccination schedule was evaluated for 20 successive birth cohorts from the government perspective in both countries, and from the societal perspective in Uganda. Between 2014 and 2033, rotavirus vaccination can avert approximately 60,935 and 216,454 undiscounted deaths and hospital admissions respectively in children under 5 years in Kenya. In Uganda, the respective number of undiscounted deaths and hospital admission averted is 70,236 and 329,779 between 2016 and 2035. Over the 20-year period, the discounted vaccine program costs are around US$ 80 million in Kenya and US$ 60 million in Uganda. Discounted government health service costs avoided are US$ 30 million in Kenya and US$ 10 million in Uganda (or US$ 18 million including household costs). The cost per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted from a government perspective is US$ 38 in Kenya and US$ 34 in Uganda (US$ 29 from a societal perspective). Rotavirus vaccine introduction is highly cost-effective in both countries in a range of plausible 'what-if' scenarios. The involvement of national experts improves the quality of data used, is likely to increase acceptability of the results in decision-making, and can contribute to strengthened national

  14. Effect of welfare and economic performance on good governance outcomes in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    MAMMON, Dawood; RABBANI, Huma

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. The paper undertakes a detailed analysis of economic progress and welfare measures in determining good governance outcomes in Pakistan. There is evidence that inequality stifles the capacity of political, economic and social governance by creating an elite class that protect their economic and political interests and undertake legislation primarily to the benefit of ruling elites. Furthermore our results also suggest that economic development empower the economically and socially ex...

  15. Are biological effects of desert shrubs more important than physical effects on soil microorganisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Naama; Steinberger, Yosef

    2010-01-01

    Vegetation cover plays a major role in providing organic matter and in acting as a physical barrier, with both together contributing to the formation of "fertile islands," which play an active role in prolonging biological activity in desert ecosystems. By undertaking this study, a longterm research, we designed an experiment to separate the two components-the physical and biotic parts of the perennial plants-and to identify the factor that contributes the most to the ecosystem. The study site was located in the northern Negev Desert, Israel, where 50 Hammada scoparia shrubs and 50 artificial plants were randomly marked. Soil samples were collected monthly over 3 years of research at three locations: under the canopy of H. scoparia shrubs, in the vicinity of the artificial plants, and between the shrubs (control). The contribution to microbial activity was measured by evaluation of the microbial community functions in soil. The functional aspects of the microbial community that were measured were CO2 evolution, microbial biomass, microbial functional diversity, and the physiological profile of the community. The results of this study are presented in two ways: (1) according to the three locations/treatments; and (2) according to the phenological situation of the vegetation (annual and perennial plants) in the research field: the growing phase, the drying process, and the absence of annual plants. The only parameters that were found to affect microbial activity were the contribution of the organic matter of perennial shrubs and the growth of vegetation (annual and perennial) during the growing seasons. The physical component was found to have no effect on soil microbial functional diversity, which elucidates the important contribution of the desert shrub in enhancing biological multiplicity and activity.

  16. Effect of meal glycemic load and caffeine consumption on prolonged monotonous driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Christopher; Desbrow, Ben; Hall, Susan; Irwin, Christopher

    2017-11-01

    Monotonous driving involves low levels of stimulation and high levels of repetition and is essentially an exercise in sustained attention and vigilance. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of consuming a high or low glycemic load meal on prolonged monotonous driving performance. The effect of consuming caffeine with a high glycemic load meal was also examined. Ten healthy, non-diabetic participants (7 males, age 51±7yrs, mean±SD) completed a repeated measures investigation involving 3 experimental trials. On separate occasions, participants were provided one of three treatments prior to undertaking a 90min computer-based simulated drive. The 3 treatment conditions involved consuming: (1) a low glycemic load meal+placebo capsules (LGL), (2) a high glycemic load meal+placebo capsules (HGL) and (3) a high glycemic load meal+caffeine capsules (3mgkg -1 body weight) (CAF). Measures of driving performance included lateral (standard deviation of lane position (SDLP), average lane position (AVLP), total number of lane crossings (LC)) and longitudinal (average speed (AVSP) and standard deviation of speed (SDSP)) vehicle control parameters. Blood glucose levels, plasma caffeine concentrations and subjective ratings of sleepiness, alertness, mood, hunger and simulator sickness were also collected throughout each trial. No difference in either lateral or longitudinal vehicle control parameters or subjective ratings were observed between HGL and LGL treatments. A significant reduction in SDLP (0.36±0.20m vs 0.41±0.19m, p=0.004) and LC (34.4±31.4 vs 56.7±31.5, p=0.018) was observed in the CAF trial compared to the HGL trial. However, no differences in AVLP, AVSP and SDSP or subjective ratings were detected between these two trials (p>0.05). Altering the glycemic load of a breakfast meal had no effect on measures of monotonous driving performance in non-diabetic adults. Individuals planning to undertake a prolonged monotonous drive following consumption of a

  17. SET-bullying: presentation of a collaborative project and discussion of its internal and external validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalamandaris, Alexandros-Georgios; Wilmet-Dramaix, Michèle; Eslea, Mike; Ertesvåg, Sigrun Karin; Piette, Danielle

    2016-04-12

    Since the early 1980s, several school based anti-bullying interventions (SBABI) have been implemented and evaluated in different countries. Some meta-analyses have also drawn conclusions on the effectiveness of SBABIs. However, the relationship between time and effectiveness of SBABIs has not been fully studied. For this aim, a collaborative project, SET-Bullying, is established by researchers from Greece, Belgium, Norway and United Kingdom. Its primary objective is to further understand and statistically model the relationship between the time and the sustainability of the effectiveness of SBABI. The secondary objective of SET-Bullying is to assess the possibility of predicting the medium-term or long-term effectiveness using as key information the prior measurement and the short-term effectiveness of the intervention. Researchers and owners of potentially eligible databases were asked to participate in this effort. Two studies have contributed data for the purpose of SET-Bullying. This paper summarizes the main characteristics of the participating studies and provides a high level overview of the collaborative project. It also discusses on the extent to which both study and project characteristics may pose threats to the expected internal and external validity of the potential outcomes of the project. Despite these threats, this work represents the first effort to understand the impact of time on the observed effectiveness of SBABIs and assess its predictability, which would allow for better planning, implementation and evaluation of SBABIs.

  18. Prevention of language problems in children: the effectiveness of an intervention program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis GALLEGO ORTEGA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Language is an essential tool for personal and social development of children and it is perceived as the most important learning that children undertake in the early years of their lives. It is generally accepted that from birth to the age of three-four years old, children achieve a basic repertory of skills in different linguistic dimensions which allow them to communicate effectively with their environment. However, research has shown that phonemic disorders, morphosyntactic dysfunctions and semantic poverty figure prominently in the overall oral language disorders in infancy. In this respect, the review of literature informs us of the abundance of work aimed at rehabiliting the conditions already set in childlike expression, but there are significant gaps in regard to systematic prevention programs to prevent such evolutionary disorders which can become operational because of an early intervention in the field of communication. According to the above, it was developed a research project designed to establish the differential impact of a program to develop language skills in preschoolers. We worked with a sample of 32 children (5 years old in a pretest-posttest design. The data analysis shows that the magnitude of change is significant when comparing the results obtained by the experimental and the control group before and after program implementation. The overall effect of the program allowed to determine its effectiveness to increase language skills in the morph syntactic level.

  19. The latest on the effect of prior exercise on postprandial lipaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraki, Maria I; Sidossis, Labros S

    2013-06-01

    This review examines the effect of prior exercise on postprandial triacylglycerol (pTAG) concentrations, an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Numerous studies have shown that a single bout of exercise reduces pTAG concentrations; however, several modulators such as exercise energy expenditure/deficit, mode of exercise (aerobic/resistance/high intensity/intermittent exercise or combinations), type of meal (moderate or high fat), time frame between exercise and meal and target group may individually or in conjunction influence this effect. On the other hand, at least for aerobic exercise, training reduces pTAG concentrations transiently (~2 days); therefore, exercise sessions should be frequent enough to maintain this clinically significant improvement. For the healthy population, it seems that a subject's preference and ability determine which type of exercise to undertake to attenuate pTAG concentrations; an energy expenditure of ~30 kJ/kg of body mass (or ~2-2.5 MJ) not combined with a corresponding increase in energy intake is required; for resistance or intermittent exercise, for those following a moderate rather than a high-fat diet, and for those with obesity (expressed as kJ/kg of body mass), a smaller energy expenditure is probably sufficient. More studies are needed to investigate dose-response/plateau effects, as well as the threshold of energy expenditure in those with diabetes mellitus and other high-risk populations. Finally, investigation of the underlying mechanisms may be clinically helpful in individualizing the appropriate intervention.

  20. Ten years of effective multilateralism?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hautecouverture, Benjamin

    2013-12-01

    the following one: do the successes of multilateralism and international law provide security assurances or do they mask the flaws of an insufficiently intrusive system? While the U.S. signaled their defiance under the guidance of John Bolton, European thinking settled on a conclusion with the air of a slogan: yes to multilateralism, providing it is effective. This was to be the cornerstone of the policies to undertake and the instruments to implement to forge a global role for the Union. Its originality is based simultaneously in realism and in a refusal to resort to force as the foremost means of action on the international stage. Another way of defining the 2003 Strategy is a skillful compromise between differing positions to banish the Iraqi 'cacophony' as quickly as possible. Ten years on, it is now time for 'impact assessments' and other 'scorecards' of public policies. In the midst of the Eurozone economic crisis, evaluating a strategy of 'effective multilateralism' is not easy. The Union's bi-annual reports on its implementation have recently begun to try to provide a quantitative analysis that is not entirely convincing (for instance, the number of ratifications of such-and-such an instrument with regard to the budget allocated by the EU to facilitate its universalization, over such-and-such a period). Fundamentally, the 2003 Strategy is essentially beyond this kind of analysis even if it can prove useful. The strength of the European approach consists in establishing a long-term willingness to maintain and strengthen collective security tools approved by the greatest possible number of States. Its weakness is to occasionally confront a strategic reality that is as contradictory as it is stubborn. Effective multilateralism is linked to voluntarism and vows. (author)

  1. Effect of a smoking ban and school-based prevention and control policies on adolescent smoking in Spain: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, Iñaki; Díez-Gañán, Lucía; Gandarillas, Ana; Mata, Nelva; Cantero, Jose Luis; Durbán, María

    2012-12-01

    We evaluated the impact of a smoking ban in schools and of school-based smoking prevention and control policies on adolescent smoking. Annual surveys carried out between 2001 and 2005 that were representative of students in the 4th year of secondary education in the Madrid region, with 203 schools and 9127 students participating. The student questionnaire gathered information about personal and family variables. The contextual factors were: the periods before (years 2001-2002) and after the law; and through a survey of school management boards: compliance with the law, policy reflected in the school regulations, existence of complaints against smoking, and undertaking of educational activities regarding smoking. Multilevel logistic regression models were constructed with two dependent variables: current smoking and the proportion giving up smoking. Smoking declined in 2003, the first year after the law came into force (Odds ratio: 0.80; CI 95%: 0.66-0.96), and this decline was maintained in 2005. By contrast, smoking increased in those schools that did not undertake educational programmes regarding smoking (Odds ratio: 1.34; CI 95%: 1.13-1.59), and in those that received complaints about smoking (Odds ratio: 1.12; CI 95%: 0.96-1.29). This association is partly due to the effect of the increase in giving up smoking. The inclusion of contextual variables into the model with the individual factors reduces the variability of smoking between schools by 32.6%. In summary, the coming into force of a law banning smoking in schools, and the implementing of educational policies for the prevention and control of smoking are related to a lower risk of adolescent smoking.

  2. Something old, something new, something borrowed, something blue: a framework for the marriage of health econometrics and cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Jeffrey S; Briggs, Andrew H; Willan, Andrew R

    2002-07-01

    Economic evaluation is often seen as a branch of health economics divorced from mainstream econometric techniques. Instead, it is perceived as relying on statistical methods for clinical trials. Furthermore, the statistic of interest in cost-effectiveness analysis, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio is not amenable to regression-based methods, hence the traditional reliance on comparing aggregate measures across the arms of a clinical trial. In this paper, we explore the potential for health economists undertaking cost-effectiveness analysis to exploit the plethora of established econometric techniques through the use of the net-benefit framework - a recently suggested reformulation of the cost-effectiveness problem that avoids the reliance on cost-effectiveness ratios and their associated statistical problems. This allows the formulation of the cost-effectiveness problem within a standard regression type framework. We provide an example with empirical data to illustrate how a regression type framework can enhance the net-benefit method. We go on to suggest that practical advantages of the net-benefit regression approach include being able to use established econometric techniques, adjust for imperfect randomisation, and identify important subgroups in order to estimate the marginal cost-effectiveness of an intervention. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on human beings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilien, J.L.; Dular, P.; Sabariego, R.; Beauvois, V.; Barbier, P.P.; Lorphevre, R.

    2010-01-01

    Since the early seventies, potential health risks from ELF (Extremely Low frequency electromagnetic Fields) exposure (50 Hz) have been extensively treated in the literature (more than 1000 references registered by WHO (World Health Organisation), 2007). After 30 years of worldwide research, the major epidemiological output is the possible modest increased risk (by a factor 2) of childhood leukaemia in case of a long exposure to an ambient magnetic flux density (B-field) higher than 0.4 μT. However, this fact has not been confirmed by in vivo and in vitro studies. Moreover it has not been validated by any adverse health biological mechanisms neither for adults nor for children. International recommendations (ICNIRP, International Commission on Non-Ionising Radiation Protection) are currently, for general public, not to exceed a B-field of 100 μT (50 Hz) and an E-field of 5 kV/m (50 Hz). Herein, a rough overview of typical values of ELF fields will be presented followed by a brief literature survey on childhood leukaemia and ELF The potential carcinogenic effect of ELF would be linked to electrical disturbances in cell behaviour. The major concern linking child-hood leukaemia and ELF is thus to determine the response of bone marrow cells under ELF fields. With that purpose, transmembrane potential will be targeted and linked to the E-field at that level. This paper is three-folded: (1) the electric interactions between ambient ELF fields and the body are studied both qualitatively and quantitatively. Different sources of internal E-field are analysed and classified according to their potential risk; (2) the hypothesis of contact current is detailed; (3) key actions to undertake are highlighted. Based on the current state of the art and some authors' own developments, this paper proposes simple low cost enhancements of private electrical installations in order to annihilate the major source of potential effects of ELF. (authors)

  4. The effect of acute caffeine ingestion on coincidence anticipation timing in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael J; Tallis, Jason; Wright, Sheila Leddington; Eyre, Emma L J; Bryant, Elizabeth; Langdon, Dominic

    2014-09-01

    This study compared the effect of acute caffeine ingestion on coincidence timing accuracy in younger and older adults. Thirteen young (aged 18-25 years, age: 20 ± 2 years, 7 females, 5 males) and 13 older (aged 61-77 years, age: 68 ± 6 years, 9 females, 3 males) adults, all who were habitual moderate caffeine consumers undertook measures of coincident anticipation timing performance pre- and post-acute caffeine (3 mg/kg) or placebo ingestion administered in a double blind, randomized fashion. Results indicated significant pre-to-post X substance (caffeine vs. placebo) interactions for absolute (P = 0.02, Pη(2) = 0.204) and variable error (P = 0.015, Pη(2) = 0.221). In both cases, error (absolute or variable) improved pre-to-post ingestion in the caffeine condition but not in the placebo condition. There were no significant differences due to age (younger vs. older adults, P > 0.05) in any of the analyses. The results of this study suggest that acute caffeine ingestion positively influence coincidence anticipation timing performance in both younger and older adults, who are moderate habitual caffeine consumers. Such effects might therefore be useful for older adults in enhancing ability to undertake cognitive-perceptual tasks which involve interceptive actions.

  5. ACUTE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT WARM-UP METHODS ON JUMP PERFORMANCE IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Gelen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the acute effects of static stretching and dynamic warm-up exercises on vertical jump performance. Sixty-four children (mean age 13.3 ± 0.5 years were assigned randomly to 3 different warm-up routines on non-consecutive days. The warm-up methods used were 5 minutes of jogging and 5 minutes of static stretching (SS, 5 minutes of jogging and 10 minutes of dynamic exercises (DYN, and finally only 5 minutes of jogging as the control (NS. After each warm-up session, all the children were made to undertake a vertical jump test. Data were analysed using repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVA, and a statistically significant difference between the NS, SS and DYN groups with regards to vertical jump performance was established (p<0.05. Based on these results, static stretching performed after aerobic exercises of mild intensity was found to hinder vertical jump performance, while dynamic warm-up was found to have a positive effect.

  6. Effectiveness of thyroid gland shielding in dental CBCT using a paediatric anthropomorphic phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, A; Davies, J; Horner, K; Theodorakou, C

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of thyroid shielding in dental CBCT examinations using a paediatric anthropomorphic phantom. An ATOM(®) 706-C anthropomorphic phantom (Computerized Imaging Reference Systems Inc., Norfolk, VA) representing a 10-year-old child was loaded with six thermoluminescent dosemeters positioned at the level of the thyroid gland. Absorbed doses to the thyroid were measured for five commercially available thyroid shields using a large field of view (FOV). A statistically significant thyroid gland dose reduction was found using thyroid shielding for paediatric CBCT examinations for a large FOV. In addition, a statistically significant difference in thyroid gland doses was found depending on the position of the thyroid gland. There was little difference in the effectiveness of thyroid shielding when using a lead vs a lead-equivalent thyroid shield. Similar dose reduction was found using 0.25- and 0.50-mm lead-equivalent thyroid shields. Thyroid shields are to be recommended when undertaking large FOV CBCT examinations on young patients.

  7. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Patrick Gonzalez; Zoe Kant; Gilberto Tiepolo; Wilber Sabido; Ellen Hawes; Jenny Henman; Miguel Calmon; Michael Ebinger

    2004-07-10

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas impacts. The research described in this report occurred between July 1, 2002 and June 30, 2003. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: remote sensing for carbon analysis; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  8. The Effect of Strategic Planning Focus and Time on Writing Fluency and Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Marzban

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Following previous studies reporting a beneficial effect for pre-task planning on learners' task performance, the present research takes into account the possible effects of directing learners' attention to meaning and form of language on their written production while they have one- and five-minute strategic planning time. The study randomly categorized 48 intermediate learners of English into six groups and asked them to undertake a narrative task under formfocused, meaningfocused, and unguided planning conditions each with one or five minutes of strategic planning time. Their performances were analyzed by a set of fluency and accuracy measures whose results were put into one-way ANOVA. As for the comparison under one-minute planning condition, formfocused planners outperformed the other two groups in both measures. Similar results were obtained under the five-minute planning condition. The results also showed that five-minute planning condition enhanced the learners' fluency of production more than their accuracy, unlike one-minute planning condition. It is proposed that the formfocused planning condition better promotes writing processes than meaningfocused and unguided planning conditions; besides, the longer the planning time is, the more fluency is fostered whereas the shorter the planning time is, the more accurate the learners' production would be.

  9. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Patrick Gonzalez; Brent Sohngen; Neil Sampson; Mark Anderson; Miguel Calmon; Sean Grimland; Zoe Kant; Dan Morse; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Arlene Olivero; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Jon Winsten; Chris Zganjar

    2007-03-31

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between January 1st and March 31st 2007. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1--carbon inventory advancements; Task 2--emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3--baseline method development; Task 4--third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5--new project feasibility studies; and Task 6--development of new project software screening tool.

  10. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Patrick Gonzalez; Brent Sohngen; Neil Sampson; Mark Anderson; Miguel Calmon; Sean Grimland; Ellen Hawes; Zoe Kant; Dan Morse; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Arlene Olivero; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Jon Winsten; Chris Zganjar

    2006-09-30

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st and July 30th 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  11. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Patrick Gonzalez; Brent Sohngen; Neil Sampson; Mark Anderson; Miguel Calmon; Sean Grimland; Zoe Kant; Dan Morse; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Arlene Olivero; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Jon Winsten; Chris Zganjar

    2006-12-31

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between October 1st and December 31st 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  12. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Jenny Henman; Zoe Kant; Gilberto Tiepolo; Tim Pearson; Neil Sampson; Miguel Calmon

    2005-10-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st , 2005 and June 30th, 2005. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  13. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Jenny Henman; Zoe Kant; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Neil Sampson; Gilberto Tiepolo; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Miguel Calmon

    2006-01-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st , 2005 and June 30th, 2005. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  14. The market effectiveness of electricity reform: A case of carbon emissions trading market of Shenzhen city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongli; Wang, Gang; Zuo, Yi; Fan, Lisha; Xiao, Yao

    2017-03-01

    In the 13th Five-Year Plan, the Chinese government proposed to achieve the national carbon emission trading market established by 2017. The establishment of carbon emission trading market is the most important one in power reform, which helps to promote the power reform and achieve the goal of energy saving and emission reduction. As the bond of connecting environment energy issues and the economic development, carbon emissions trading market has become a hot research topic in the related fields, by market means, it incentive the lower cost subject emissions to undertake more reductions and therefore to benefit, the body of the high cost finished the task by buying quota reduction, to achieve the effect of having the least social total cost. Shenzhen has become the first city in China to start carbon trading pilot formally on June 16, 2013, online trading on June 18. The paper analyzes the market effectiveness of electricity reform in China, which takes carbon emissions trading market of Shenzhen city for example, and gives some suggestions for future development.

  15. Analysis of human factors effects on the safety of transporting radioactive waste materials: Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abkowitz, M.D.; Abkowitz, S.B.; Lepofsky, M.

    1989-04-01

    This report examines the extent of human factors effects on the safety of transporting radioactive waste materials. It is seen principally as a scoping effort, to establish whether there is a need for DOE to undertake a more formal approach to studying human factors in radioactive waste transport, and if so, logical directions for that program to follow. Human factors effects are evaluated on driving and loading/transfer operations only. Particular emphasis is placed on the driving function, examining the relationship between human error and safety as it relates to the impairment of driver performance. Although multi-modal in focus, the widespread availability of data and previous literature on truck operations resulted in a primary study focus on the trucking mode from the standpoint of policy development. In addition to the analysis of human factors accident statistics, the report provides relevant background material on several policies that have been instituted or are under consideration, directed at improving human reliability in the transport sector. On the basis of reported findings, preliminary policy areas are identified. 71 refs., 26 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. APPLICATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF APPROPRIATE TOOLS AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR COST-EFFECTIVE CARBON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Ellen Hawes; Zoe Kant; Miguel Calmon; Patrick Gonzalez; Brad Kreps; Gilberto Tiepolo

    2003-09-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas impacts. The research described in this report occurred between July 1, 2002 and June 30, 2003. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: advanced videography testing; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  17. THE APPLICATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF APPROPRIATE TOOLS AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR COST-EFFECTIVE CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Ellen Hawes; Zoe Kant; Miguel Calmon; Gilberto Tiepolo

    2002-09-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research projects is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas impacts. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: advanced videography testing; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  18. Experimental study of the combined effects of inhalation of radon daughter products and tobacco smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chameaud, J.; Perraud, R.; Chretien, J.; Masse, R.; Lafuma, J.

    1979-01-01

    For 10 years, over 500 lung cancers have been induced in rats by inhalations of radon daughter products at various concentrations and cumulated doses. Considering several points and the dose-effect relationship especially, such cancers can be compared with human cancers. This type of experiments, fully mastered, has made it possible to undertake under good conditions the study of the co-carcinogenic effect of various inhaled pollutants such as tobacco smoke. In a first experiment, 100 rats were exposed to a 4000WLM cumulated dose of radon daughter products, knowing that this level induces some 30% of lung cancers. 50 animals were then administered tobacco smoke by inhalation in a fume box during 5 months (350 h.) In the group inhaling radon only, 17 cancers appeared; in the radon -tobacco group 32 cancers bigger and more invasive were observed. Under the same conditions, tobacco smoke was inhaled by rats previously exposed to lower doses of radon daughter products (2 groups of 30 rats, 500 and 100 WLM respectively). Again, the number of cancers observed was higher that the number of cancers expected if the rats had inhaled radon only. This co-carcinogenic and potentiating action of tobacco was clearly demonstrated. Further experiments are considered in order to determine the processes involved

  19. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Jenny Henman; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Neil Sampson; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Zoe Kant; Miguel Calmon

    2006-04-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between January 1st and March 31st 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  20. The Effects of Relaxation Exercises and Park Walks During Workplace Lunch Breaks on Physiological Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Torrente

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the increasing demands of various occupational interventions, this study aimed at examining the impact of relaxation exercises and park walks during lunch breaks on physiological recovery (i.e., on changes in cortisol excretion and blood pressure. In a four-week randomized controlled trial, 153 knowledge workers in seven companies were allocated to one of three groups: relaxation, park walk, or control. Both intervention groups were required to undertake either a lunchtime relaxation exercise or a park walk on each working day for two consecutive weeks. Data were collected at baseline, during the two-week intervention period, and in the week after the intervention. Mixed-design analyses of variance (ANOVA were conducted. No beneficial intervention effects were observed in cortisol awakening response (CARi or cortisol decline during the day (CDD. Blood pressure decreased significantly in the afternoon at work in each group. This decrease was more pronounced in the park walk group ('d' = .51–.58 than in the relaxation ('d' = .18–.28 and control ('d' = .31–.41 groups. Our study showed that changing knowledge workers’ lunch routines for a short period of time does not affect cortisol excretion, but may lower blood pressure at the end of the working day. This lowered blood pressure also seemed to occur among the controls, suggesting that measuring and keeping track of blood pressure may serve as an intervention. However, longer interventions are needed to achieve stronger and long lasting physiological recovery effects.

  1. The telephone interview is an effective method of data collection in clinical nursing research: a discussion paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musselwhite, Kimberly; Cuff, Laura; McGregor, Lisa; King, Kathryn M

    2007-08-01

    There are varying points of view regarding the advisability and utility of using the telephone to conduct research interviews. When undertaking the Women's Recovery from Sternotomy Study, we found the telephone was an effective mechanism for data collection. Our aim is to identify the advantages and challenges of using the telephone as a mechanism for data collection in clinical nursing research. The potential benefits associated with using telephone interviews as a mechanism of data collection include (a) using economic and human resources efficiently, (b) minimizing disadvantages associated with in-person interviewing, (c) developing positive relationships between researchers and participants, and (d) improving quality of data collection. The potential challenges to telephone interviewing include (a) maintaining participant involvement, (b) maintaining clear communication, (c) communicating with participants who offer extraneous information, (d) encountering participants with health concerns, and (e) communicating with a third party. Telephone interviewing can be an effective method of data collection when interviewers understand the potential benefits as well as challenges. We offer solutions to the identified challenges and make pragmatic recommendations to enhance researcher success based on the current literature and our research practice. Supportive training for interviewers, effective communication between interviewers and with research participants, and standardized telephone follow-up procedures are needed to ensure successful telephone data collection. We have found our 'Manual of Operations' to be an effective tool that assists research assistants to meet the requirements for successful telephone interviewing.

  2. A cost-effectiveness analysis of varenicline for smoking cessation using data from the EAGLES trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Christine L; Pietri, Guilhem

    2018-01-01

    The cost-effectiveness of varenicline has been demonstrated in the US health care setting using the Benefits of Smoking Cessation on Outcomes (BENESCO) model to simulate the lifetime direct costs and consequences of a hypothetical cohort of US adult smokers who make a single attempt to quit. The aim of this study was to undertake an updated cost-effectiveness analysis, using current epidemiology inputs and recently published smoking cessation data from the Evaluating Adverse Events in a Global Smoking Cessation Study (EAGLES), the largest clinical trial of smoking cessation pharmacotherapies conducted to date. BENESCO is a Markov model simulating the effect of a single attempt to quit smoking on four smoking-related diseases: coronary heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive lung disease, and lung cancer. Inputs were updated to include efficacy from EAGLES and newer data for the epidemiology of smoking in the US, the epidemiology and direct treatment costs of the four morbidities, and the costs of the interventions. Analyses compared varenicline, bupropion, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) patch, and placebo with regard to the incidence of smoking-related morbidity, the incidence of smoking-related mortality, and cost-effectiveness at a time horizon from 2 years to lifetime. The study cohort comprised of 18,394,068 US adult smokers who made a single quit attempt during the first year of the model. For varenicline, there were an estimated 319,730 fewer smoking-related morbidities at the lifetime compared with placebo. Similarly, smoking-related mortality decreased by 198,240 subjects when varenicline was compared with placebo. For the same time horizon, varenicline was more effective and less costly, ie, dominant, compared with all comparators in the cost-effectiveness analysis. Based on the BENESCO model, smoking cessation with varenicline results in reduced incidence of smoking-related morbidity and mortality compared with other smoking cessation interventions

  3. Parents' experience of undertaking an intensive cognitive orientation to daily occupational performance (CO-OP) group for children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Michelle; Novak, Iona; Lannin, Natasha; Froude, Elspeth

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of parents of children with cerebral palsy (CP) who participated in an intensive cognitive orientation to daily occupational performance (CO-OP) group program addressing child chosen goals. Participants were six parents of children with CP who participated in a CO-OP upper limb task-specific training program. Parents participated in semi-structured interviews conducted via phone. A grounded theory approach was used. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and coded to identify categories and overarching themes of the parent experience of CO-OP. The theory of CO-OP for children with CP was one of offering a unique and motivating learning experience for both the child and the parent, differing from other therapeutic approaches that families had previously been involved in. Five categories were identified: the unique benefits of CO-OP; the importance of intensity; the child's motivation; challenging the parent role; and the benefits and challenges of therapy within a group context. Parents felt that CO-OP was a worthwhile intervention that leads to achievement of goals involving upper limb function and had the capacity to be transferred to future goals. Intensity of therapy and a child's motivation were identified as important factors in improvements. Further studies using quantitative research methods are warranted to investigate the benefits of CO-OP for children with neurological conditions. Implications for rehabilitation The cognitive orientation to daily occupational performance (CO-OP) is a promising upper limb cognitive motor training intervention for children with cerebral palsy. In a small sample, parents perceived that CO-OP leads to achievement of upper limb goals. Intensity of therapy, the child's motivation and the parents' ability to "step-back" were identified as important to the success of CO-OP.

  4. Conversational Analysis as a Method for Research on Intercultural Learning: A Report on a Project with the Aim of "Learning by Undertaking Research"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Berkenbusch

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Conversational analysis—situated between pragmatic linguistics and qualitative empirical research—is a complex method, which needs a lot of time and dedication. It is necessary to develop a so-called “analytical mentality”. The aim of the project presented in this paper was to develop the theoretical insights and the practical skills of a group of students for this kind of research. They worked together throughout the duration of the project, especially in the collec¬tion of empiric material: i.e. the recording of conversations between foreign and German stu¬dents, the transcription of the material, a group discussion on the data and finally its analysis. This articles aims at showing what students can learn by doing this kind of work, based on examples of the collected empirical material: (1 they will be introduced to the different levels and stages of the research process and have the chance to develop a methodical and methodological competence; (2 their general communicative competences and their special competences of the foreign language will increase, as well as (3 their knowledge of intercultural learning by working with authentic data of intercultural communication. So, for instance, stereotypes and how they have been constructed during the interaction may be analysed and precisely described on a micro-analytical level. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901335

  5. Undertaking a Collaborative Rapid Realist Review to Investigate What Works in the Successful Implementation of a Frail Older Person’s Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éidín Ní Shé

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We addressed the research question “what factors enable the successful development and implementation of a frail older person’s pathway within the acute setting”. A rapid realist review (RRR was conducted by adopting the RAMESES standards. We began with a sample of 232 articles via database searches supplemented with 94 additional records including inputs from a twitter chat and a hospital site visit. Our final sample consisted of 18 documents. Following review and consensus by an expert panel we identified a conceptual model of context-mechanism-(resources-outcomes. There was overall agreement frailty should be identified at the front door of the acute hospital. Significant challenges identified related to organisational boundaries both within the acute setting and externally, the need to shift outcomes to patient orientated ones, to support staff to sustain the pathway by providing ongoing education and by providing role clarity. RRRs can support research such as the systematic approach to improving care for frail older adults (SAFE study by producing accounts of what works based on a wide range of sources and innovative engagement with stakeholders. It is evident from our provisional model that numerous factors need to combine and interact to enable and sustain a successful frail older person’s pathway.

  6. Preparation and certification of two new bulk welding fume reference materials for use in laboratories undertaking analysis of occupational hygiene samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Owen; Musgrove, Darren; Stacey, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Workers can be exposed to fume, arising from welding activities, which contain toxic metals and metalloids. Occupational hygienists need to assess and ultimately minimize such exposure risks. The monitoring of the concentration of particles in workplace air is one assessment approach whereby fume, from representative welding activities, is sampled onto a filter and returned to a laboratory for analysis. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry are generally employed as instrumental techniques of choice for the analysis of such filter samples. An inherent difficulty, however, with inductively coupled plasma-based analytical techniques is that they typically require a sample to be presented for analysis in the form of a solution. The efficiency of the required dissolution step relies heavily upon the skill and experience of the analyst involved. A useful tool in assessing the efficacy of this dissolution step would be the availability and subsequent analysis of welding fume reference materials with stated elemental concentrations and matrices that match as closely as possible the matrix composition of welding fume samples submitted to laboratories for analysis. This article describes work undertaken at the Health and Safety Laboratory to prepare and certify two new bulk welding fume reference materials that can be routinely used by analysts to assess the performance of the digestion procedures they employ in their laboratories.

  7. A Prospective Investigation of Biomechanical Risk Factors for Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome. The Joint Undertaking to Monitor and Prevent ACL Injury (JUMP-ACL) Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-24

    varus were determined during the stance phase. The stance phase was defined as the period between initial ground contact with the force plate until...BW·ht) −0.06 ± 0.03 −0.08 ± 0.05 4.64 .03 Knee extension moment (%BW·ht) −0.21 ± 0.05 −0.23 ± 0.05 4.70 .03 Knee varus moment (%BW·ht) 0.05 ± 0.03...0.69,4.42 6.37 .23 1.54 0.54,4.37 8.09 .42 Knee extension moment (%BW·ht) 2.00 0.79,5.05 6.38 .14 1.69 0.57,5.01 8.80 .34 Knee varus moment

  8. Undertakings executed with oil energy related specialists invited from Japan and the European Union; Nichi EU sekiyu daitai energy kanren senmonka shohei jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    Four energy related specialists were invited from the European Union countries for a period of about three weeks to execute opinion exchange through orientations, corporation visits, and seminars. Discussions were carried out during visits to the following organizations: the Agency of Natural Resources and Energy and the Agency of industrial Science and Technology of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, the New Energy Foundation, the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Engineering Research Association for Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle Power Systems, the Coal Liquefaction PSU Research Center, the Coal Research Institute of Idemitsu Kosan Co. the Central Research Institute of Power Industry, Nippon Steel Corporation, and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, LTD. A Seminar was conducted on the following subjects: a German speaker described the research and development of a hydrogenation liquefying process to manufacture liquid fuel from coal and solid wastes, a coal hydrogenation liquefying technology, a technology to recover fuel and petrochemical materials from chemical and plastics wastes; a British speaker explained the state of R and D on clean coal and the roles of ETSU in England; and a Danish speaker announced the energy policies in Denmark, and the R and D on a plant that uses coal dust combustion under super critical pressure. 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. The International Xenotransplantation Association consensus statement on conditions for undertaking clinical trials of porcine islet products in type 1 diabetes--chapter 2: Source pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurman, Henk-Jan

    2009-01-01

    An islet xenotransplantation product includes live cells from a non-human source, in this study, a pig source. A live product cannot be subjected to conventional disinfection, and therefore the source pig must be depleted of infectious agents that can transmit to the recipient and cause disease. Among other requirements, regulatory guidances specify that donor animals fulfill the designated pathogen-free (DPF) status. Donor pigs fulfilling DPF status are generally bred and maintained in biosecure facilities, where they are shielded from the outside by filtered air, disinfected water, and irradiated food that is certified free of any mammalian protein. All materials are autoclaved upon entry, and personnel enter by shower-in/shower-out, and are wearing special clothes. The operation of such facilities is in compliance with Current Good Manufacturing Practices. To ensure DPF status, pigs are brought into such facilities via Cesarean section, and the source pigs are kept as a closed herd. The DPF status cannot be realized for endogenous viruses, such as porcine endogenous retrovirus. Therefore, regulatory authorities require patient monitoring after xenotransplantation. Considering the infectious pathogen status and necessary regulatory compliance, it is recommended that organ procurement be conducted at the animal facility and that cell manufacturing facilities be located nearby. To enable assessment of as-yet unknown pathogens long after xenotransplantation, regulatory guidances mandate archiving donor materials for at least 50 yr. As this is essentially a public health issue, governmental institutions are urged to be responsible for the archive.

  10. Psychological distress in student nurses undertaking an educational programme with professional registration as a nurse: their perceived barriers and facilitators in seeking psychological support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Andrew E P

    2018-03-06

    The present study adds to the existing international evidence on psychological distress in the student population by focusing on student nurses. It quantitatively assesses psychological distress with comparative norms and investigates service uptake in in a single study. Investigate the level of psychological distress in students and compare this with population norms and highlight potential facilitators and barriers to help seeking. This study recruited N=121 student nurses from one university in a cross sectional design. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, independent t-tests and one-way ANOVA's. The key findings show high levels of psychological distress which is above levels seen in the general population. The main barriers to seeking support was fear of disclosure and the perceived impact on their suitability as a student nurse. The study highlights that high levels of distress identified in the literature are seen in student nurses and that fear of disclosure may account for some not seeking support. The fear of disclosure and low levels of seeking support suggest there is a need for mental health nurses and academics to play a key role in mental health literacy and evidence-based interventions such as mindfulness to combat these issues. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Experiences of persons with spinal cord injury undertaking a physical activity programme as part of the SCIPA 'Full-On' randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, Allyson; Nunnerley, Jo; Mulligan, Hilda; Ahmad Ali, Nordawama; Kensington, Gemma; McVicar, Tim; van Schaik, Olivia

    2018-04-01

    For individuals with spinal cord injury the long term benefits of physical activity are well documented, however the majority of this population report inactivity secondary to participatory barriers. Research investigating physically intensive exercise programs for people with spinal cord injury is limited, with even less attention paid to the experience of the participants. To explore the experiences of persons with spinal cord injury of their participation in the New Zealand arm of the Spinal Cord Injury and Physical Activity (SCIPA) 'Full-On' randomized controlled trial. Eight participants recruited to SCIPA Full-On completed individual virtual video diary interviews three times across the duration of their twelve week Full-On trial. Expectations and highs and lows of the program were recorded via a webcam. The video diary data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed inductively for themes. Three independent themes were identified from the data: the participants' excitement of opportunity to participate in SCIPA Full-On' randomized controlled trial, personal rewards from participation and also the frustrations to participation they experienced. This study provides valuable information on factors that motivate participation in physical activity for individuals with spinal cord injury, within a research setting. The findings highlighted the importance of accessibility and a supportive network which may be a way to provide individuals with spinal cord injury the means to become self-efficacious to participate in community physical activity outside of the research environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Motivations for undertaking: an analysis of differences between men and women; Motivaciones para emprender: un analisis de diferencias entre hombre y mujeres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Fernandez, M.; Romero Fernandez, P. M.; Diaz Carrion, R.

    2012-11-01

    Over the last years, empirical evidence shows that, although the entrepreneurial activity of women has increased, it is still lower than that of their male counterparts. Recent works analyze the factors that explain this difference detailing two main barriers: external (related to the environment) and personal (socio demographic and perceptual aspects). Our purpose is to contribute in order to explain the way these factors determine entrepreneurial behaviour, either creating or transforming an enterprise, and if certain organizational aspects of their previous employment might have direct implications on the transformation or the creation decision too. (Author) 58 refs.

  13. Impact of pharmacists assisting with prescribing and undertaking medication review on oxycodone prescribing and supply for patients discharged from surgical wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, T; Taylor, S E; Hardidge, A; Findakly, D; Aminian, P; Elliott, R A

    2017-10-01

    Overprescribing of oxycodone is a contributor to the epidemic of prescription opioid misuse and deaths. Practice models to optimize oxycodone prescribing and supply need to be evaluated. We explored the impact of pharmacist-assisted discharge prescribing and medication review on oxycodone prescribing and supply for patients discharged from surgical wards. A retrospective audit was conducted on two surgical inpatient wards following a 16-week prospective pre- and post-intervention study. During the pre-intervention period, discharge prescriptions were prepared by hospital doctors and then reviewed by a ward pharmacist (WP) before being dispensed. Post-intervention, prescriptions were prepared by a project pharmacist in consultation with hospital doctors and then reviewed by a WP and dispensed. Proportion of patients who were prescribed, and proportion supplied, oxycodone on discharge; Median amount (milligrams) of oxycodone prescribed and supplied, for patients who were prescribed and supplied at least one oxycodone-containing preparation, respectively. A total of 320 and 341 patients were evaluated pre- and post-intervention, respectively. Pre-intervention, 75.6% of patients were prescribed oxycodone; after WP review, 60.3% were supplied oxycodone (P<.01); the median amount both prescribed and supplied was 100 milligrams/patient. Post-intervention, 68.6% of patients were prescribed oxycodone; after WP review, 57.8% were supplied oxycodone (P<.01); median amount prescribed and supplied was 50 milligrams/patient (difference in amount prescribed and supplied: 50 milligrams, P<.01). WP review of doctor-prepared prescriptions reduced the proportion of patients who were supplied oxycodone but not the amount supplied/patient. Having a pharmacist assist with prescribing reduced the amount of oxycodone supplied. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Decree of 1 August 1981 on examinations for qualified experts and physicians authorised to undertake physical surveillance for protection against radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    English. This Decree of the Minister of labour and Social Affairs of 1 August 1981 concerns the procedure for admission to examinations, for inclusion in the national list, of qualified experts and approved medical practitioners who are competent in radiation protection matters. the Decree replaces a former Decree of 24 June 1978 on the same subjec [fr

  15. Industrial Guidelines for Undertaking a Hard-Core Employment Program: An Analytic Case Study of the Experience of an Urban Industrial Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feifer, Irwin; And Others

    Based on an analytically evaluative case study of a New York City furniture department store's experiences with a Manpower Administration contract, this report deals with the development and progress of the program as analyzed by one investigator through interviews with almost all of the participants in the program. As a result of the study,…

  16. An experiential model of education introduced to improve the confidence of student midwives in undertaking second stage management of the perineum (SSMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Teresa; Coxon, Kirstie

    2018-02-13

    the limited availability of high quality evidence related to second stage management of the perineum (SSMP) combined with a perceived shift in UK practice towards a 'hands off' the perineum/fetal head approach are likely to have impacted significantly on student midwives' understanding of SSMP. This paper presents a classroom based educational session using low fidelity simulation, which was designed in response to student feedback and aimed to improve confidence in this skill. reflective teaching practice, based on evaluation of SSMP teaching. an undergraduate midwifery programme based at an inner city university in London UK. student midwives. the education session based on Kolb's experiential approach to learning appeared to address gaps in the previous teaching which was identified by students. The Classroom setting offered students a supportive setting in which to experiment with different SSMP approaches with a view to personalising care and without compromising safety. although further longitudnal research is needed, the experiential model appears to offer a low resource approach to teaching SSMP and has potential application in other countries. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Side effects are problems that occur when cancer treatment affects healthy tissues or organs. Learn about side effects caused by cancer treatment. Know what signs and symptoms to call your doctor about. Learn about treatments for side effects.

  18. Toward Effective Policies for Innovation Financing in Asia | Page 2 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to help the newly industrializing Asian economies grow and development by proposing policies that promote the long-term viability and competitiveness of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Researchers will undertake a comparative study of innovation financing schemes in Malaysia, Singapore, ...

  19. Effects of Different Strategies Adopted by Rural Women on their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADENIYI

    Keywords: Backyard farming, food security strategies, food security constraints and reduction of meals. Introduction. Rural women play crucial ... and undertake 60-90% of marketing (Fresco. 1998). Despite their contributions to food .... price limit the strategies that can be employed to ensure food security hence, the cycle of ...

  20. Toward Effective Policies for Innovation Financing in Asia | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Researchers will undertake a comparative study of innovation financing schemes in Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan and Thailand. The research will focus on venture capital financing schemes, research and development (R&D) tax incentives, loan and grant programs, capital market rules/regulations, etc. The project will ...

  1. Effect of traffic pollution on photosynthesis | Durrani | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The wet leaves were minced and homogenized before undertaking analysis for different parameters like total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotene content. The results showed that average values of total chlorophyll varied in the range of 0.004-0.019, chlorophyll a and b in the range of 0.009-0.01 and ...

  2. Effect of the Interaction of Veratrum Nigrum with Panax Ginseng on Estrogenic Activity In Vivo and In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying; Ding, Jie; An, Jin-na; Qu, Ya-kun; Li, Xin; Ma, Xiao-ping; Zhang, Yi-min; Dai, Guo-jing; Lin, Na

    2016-01-01

    Panax ginseng (GS) and Veratrum nigrum (VN) are representative of incompatible pairs in “eighteen antagonistic medicaments” that have been recorded in the Chinese medicinal literature for over 2,000 years. However, evidence linking interference effects with combination use is scare. Based on the estrogen-like effect of GS described in our previous studies, we undertake a characterization of the interaction on estrogenic activity of GS and VN using in vivo models of immature and ovariectomized (OVX) mice and in vitro studies with MCF-7 cells for further mechanism. VN decreased the estrogenic efficacy of GS on promoting the development of the uterus and vagina in immature mice, and reversing the atrophy of reproductive tissues in OVX mice. VN interfered with the estrogenic efficacy of GS by decreasing the increase of the serum estradiol and the up-regulation of ERα and ERβ expressions by treatment with GS. And VN antagonized the estrogenic efficacy of GS on promoting the viability of MCF-7 cells and up-regulation of protein and gene expressions of ERs. In conclusion, this study provided evidence that GS and VN decreased effects on estrogenic activity, which might be related to regulation of estrogen secretion and ERs. PMID:27229740

  3. A Simple and Effective Daily Pain Management Method for Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy for Painful Bone Metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Regiane S.; Proctor, Julian W.; Slack, Robert; Marlowe, Ursula; Ashby, Karlotta R.; Schenken, Larry L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The incidence of painful bone metastases increases with longer survival times. Although external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) is an effective palliative treatment, it often requires several days from the start of treatment to produce a measurable reduction in pain scores and a qualitative amelioration of patient pain levels. Meanwhile, the use of analgesics remains the best approach early on in the treatment course. We investigated the role of radiation therapists as key personnel for collecting daily pain scores to supplement assessments by physician and oncology nursing staff and manage pain more effectively during radiation treatment. Methods and Materials: Daily pain scores were obtained by the radiation therapists for 89 patients undertaking a total of 124 courses of EBRT for bone metastases and compared with pretreatment pain scores. The majority of patients (71%) were treated to 30 Gy (range, 20-37.5) in 10 fractions (range, 8-15 fractions). Results: One hundred nineteen treatment courses (96%) were completed. Pain scores declined rapidly to 37.5%, 50%, and 75% of the pretreatment levels by Days 2, 4, and 10, respectively. Pain was improved in 91% of patients with only 4% of worse pain at the end of treatment. Improved pain scores were maintained in 83% of patients at 1-month follow-up, but in 35% of them, the pain was worse than at the end of treatment. Conclusions: Collection of daily pain scores by radiation therapists was associated with an effective reduction in pain scores early on during EBRT of painful osseous metastases.

  4. Can Environmental Regulations Promote Corporate Environmental Responsibility? Evidence from the Moderated Mediating Effect Model and an Empirical Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benhong Peng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Stakeholder theory, a moderated mediating effect model is developed to reach the study objective, revealing an important connection that suggests environmental regulations (ERs influence corporate environmental responsibility (CER (Porter Hypothesis. In building the model, the validity of the questionnaire data was analyzed with factor analysis. By employing a two-step approach, a regression analysis is utilized to discuss the mediating effect of altruistic motivation and moderating effect of green innovation, and a structural equation model is used to explore the interactive mechanism of different variables. It is found that altruistic motivation plays a medium role in the relationship between ERs and CER, and green innovation engages a positive coordination in the relationship. The empirical study identifies factors affecting enterprises’ willingness to undertake environmental responsibility, including environment policies, corporate culture, and personal characters among others. It is also revealed that altruistic motivation is conducive to forming a community interests among enterprises and enhancing their resistance to market risks, which explains and corroborates the Stakeholder theory; and the higher the level of green innovation, the more willing enterprises are to implement environmentally friendly operations.

  5. Coping with the emotional impact of bullying and cyberbullying: How research can inform practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Cowie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite more than two decades of anti-bullying initiatives in schools, children and young people regularly mention relationships within the peer group as the major factor that causes them to feel unsafe at school. The situation is complicated by the fact that these interpersonal safety issues are actually generated by the peer group and often in contexts that are difficult for adults to control. The recent upsurge of cyberbullying is a case in point. Teachers and parents often feel powerless to intervene in the private world that children and young people create for themselves. This article explores the strategies that are commonly recommended for dealing with cyberbullying and examines what research tells us about their effectiveness. The conclusion is that, whatever the value of technological tools for tackling cyberbullying, we cannot avoid the fact that this is also an interpersonal problem. The implication for practice is that we already know many approaches for preventing and reducing cyberbullying and should build on this knowledge rather than treating the issue as something completely new.

  6. Academic mobbing: hidden health hazard at workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Sb

    2010-01-01

    Academic mobbing is a non-violent, sophisticated, 'ganging up' behaviour adopted by academicians to "wear and tear" a colleague down emotionally through unjustified accusation, humiliation, general harassment and emotional abuse. These are directed at the target under a veil of lies and justifications so that they are "hidden" to others and difficult to prove. Bullies use mobbing activities to hide their own weaknesses and incompetence. Targets selected are often intelligent, innovative high achievers, with good integrity and principles. Mobbing activities appear trivial and innocuous on its own but the frequency and pattern of their occurrence over long period of time indicates an aggressive manipulation to "eliminate" the target. Mobbing activities typically progress through five stereotypical phases that begins with an unsolved minor conflict between two workers and ultimately escalates into a senseless mobbing whereby the target is stigmatized and victimized to justify the behaviours of the bullies. The result is always physical, mental, social distress or illness and, most often, expulsion of target from the workplace. Organizations are subjected to great financial loss, loss of key workers and a tarnished public image and reputation. Public awareness, education, effective counselling, establishment of anti-bullying policies and legislations at all levels are necessary to curb academic mobbing. General practitioners (GPs) play an important role in supporting patients subjected to mental and physical health injury caused by workplace bullying and mobbing.

  7. ACADEMIC MOBBING: HIDDEN HEALTH HAZARD AT WORKPLACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHOO SB

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Academic mobbing is a non-violent, sophisticated, ‘ganging up’ behaviour adopted by academicians to “wear and tear” a colleague down emotionally through unjustified accusation, humiliation, general harassment and emotional abuse. These are directed at the target under a veil of lies and justifications so that they are “hidden” to others and difficult to prove. Bullies use mobbing activities to hide their own weaknesses and incompetence. Targets selected are often intelligent, innovative high achievers, with good integrity and principles. Mobbing activities appear trivial and innocuous on its own but the frequency and pattern of their occurrence over long period of time indicates an aggressive manipulation to “eliminate” the target. Mobbing activities typically progress through five stereotypical phases that begins with an unsolved minor conflict between two workers and ultimately escalates into a senseless mobbing whereby the target is stigmatized and victimized to justify the behaviours of the bullies. The result is always physical, mental, social distress or illness and, most often, expulsion of target from the workplace. Organizations are subjected to great financial loss, loss of key workers and a tarnished public image and reputation. Public awareness, education, effective counselling, establishment of anti-bullying policies and legislations at all levels are necessary to curb academic mobbing. General practitioners (GPs play an important role in supporting patients subjected to mental and physical health injury caused by workplace bullying and mobbing.

  8. Income inequality and school bullying: multilevel study of adolescents in 37 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgar, Frank J; Craig, Wendy; Boyce, William; Morgan, Antony; Vella-Zarb, Rachel

    2009-10-01

    To examine the association between income inequality and school bullying in an international sample of preadolescents and to test for mediation of this association by the availability of social support from families, peers, and schools. The study used economic data from the 2006 United Nations Development Program Human Development Report and survey data from the 2005/2006 Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) study which included 66,910 11-year-olds in 37 countries. Ecological correlations tested associations between income inequality and bullying among countries. Multilevel linear and ordinal regression analyses tested the effects of income inequality on perceived social support and bullying others at school. Income inequality was associated with rates of bullying among the 37 countries (r = .62). Multilevel analyses indicated that each standard deviation increase in income inequality corresponded with more frequent bullying by males (odds ratio = 1.17) and females (odds ratio = 1.24), less family support and school support but more peer support. Social support from families and schools was associated with less bullying after differences in wealth were taken into account; however, social support did not account for the association between income inequality and bullying. Countries with high income inequality have more school bullying among preadolescents than countries with low income inequality. Further study is needed to understand the mechanisms that account for this association. Findings suggest that adolescents in areas of wide income inequality-not only those in deprived schools and neighborhoods- should be a focus of anti-bullying campaigns.

  9. Effect of industrial pollution on growth of paints (photosynthesis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrani, G.F.; Baloch, M.K.

    2003-01-01

    Plants need to do three functions: maintain their metabolic process; grow in size and reproduce. These processes depend on the photosynthesis that is directly or indirectly affected by man-made pollution that is Industrial discharge that include many toxic elements in air, water and land in Industrialized zones. To analyze the various pigments contained in chloroplast and to investigate the effect of industrial pollution on photosynthesis, sunny, semishady and shady leaves of different trees (30 samples) were collected at varying distances from the industrial area having power plants and other industries and the non-industrial area separately in Wah Cantt. The leaves were washed, dried and homogenized before undertaking analysis for different parameters. The result showed that average values of total chlorophyll varied in the range 21.6 - 35, chlorophyll a, 11-19, chlorophyll b, 15-17 and carotene content in the range of 13-33 mg/g of sample taken depending on the type of plant and distance from the industry. These values were in order of sunny> semishady>shady leaves and were comparatively lower as compared to the values in non-industrial area. The soil and water samples from different sites around the trees under study in industrial and non-industrial area were also analyzed for pH, EC, Cl/sup -1/, SO/sub 4//sup -2/, Pb, Na/sup +1/,K/sup +1/, turbidity and total alkalinity. Based on these analyses, the quality of water and soil samples of the industrial area were found to be satisfactory and within permissible limits. (author)

  10. Effect of magnesium deficiency on bone metabolism in female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Al-Khshab

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study undertakes the deficiency effect of dietary magnesium on bone metabolism and some biochemical parameters in female rats. Experimental diets included control diet (65 mg magnesium / 100 g and the deficient magnesium (3 mg/100g diet. Deionized water was supplied for drinking. Forty six albino female rats were divided into two main groups, the first group included 18 adult female rats, divided into 9 control and 9 animals given magnesium deficient diet. The second group included young female rats divided into two groups, the first group was treated from dams،and included 14 young female rats. They were divided into 7 control and 7 magnesium deficient group. The other one was treated at 28 days old and included 14 young female rats, which were divided into 7 control and 7 magnesium deficient group. Blood samples were obtained at specific times from each group for biochemical parameters: magnesium, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP, albumin, calcium and phosphorus were estimated. At the end of the experimental period, rats were anesthetized and killed. The right femurs were obtained for mineral analysis in bone ash (Ca, Mg. The results of adult female (Mg deficient group showed a significant decrease in magnesium, ALP activity, albumin, calcium (within normal range. Both young female rat groups showed a significant decrease in magnesium, ALP and albumin compared with control group. The mineral analysis in bone ash showed no significant differences in calcium level where a significant decrease in magnesium level was observed compared with the control groups. It was concluded from this study, that magnesium deficiency could be used for detection of osteoporosis and defect of bone formation in adult and young female rats, respectively.

  11. Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Educational Intervention to Improve the Patient Safety Attitudes of Intern Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walpola, Ramesh L; Fois, Romano A; McLachlan, Andrew J; Chen, Timothy F

    2017-02-25

    Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of a face-to-face educational intervention in improving the patient safety attitudes of intern pharmacists. Methods. A patient safety education program was delivered to intern pharmacists undertaking The University of Sydney Intern Training Program in 2014. Their patient safety attitudes were evaluated immediately prior to, immediately after, and three-months post-intervention. Underlying attitudinal factors were identified using exploratory factor analysis. Changes in factor scores were examined using analysis of variance. Results. Of the 120 interns enrolled, 95 (78.7%) completed all three surveys. Four underlying attitudinal factors were identified: attitudes towards addressing errors, questioning behaviors, blaming individuals, and reporting errors. Improvements in all attitudinal factors were evident immediately after the intervention. However, only improvements in attitudes towards blaming individuals involved in errors were sustained at three months post-intervention. Conclusion. The educational intervention was associated with short-term improvements in pharmacist interns' patient safety attitudes. However, other factors likely influenced their attitudes in the longer term.

  12. Genital examination training: assessing the effectiveness of an integrated female and male teaching programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBain, Lynn; Pullon, Susan; Garrett, Sue; Hoare, Kath

    2016-11-22

    Learning to undertake intimate female and male examinations is an important part of medical student training but opportunities to participate in practical, supervised learning in a safe environment can be limited. A collaborative, integrated training programme to provide such learning was developed by two university teaching departments and a specialist sexual health service, utilising teaching associates trained for intimate examinations in a simulated clinical educational setting. The objective of this research was to determine changes in senior medical students' self- reported experience and confidence in performing male and female genital examinations, before and after participating in a new clinical teaching programme. A quasi-experimental mixed methods design, using pre and post programme questionnaires and focus groups, was used to assess the effectiveness of the programme. The students reported greatly improved skill, confidence and comfort levels for both male and female genital examination following the teaching programme. Skill, confidence and comfort regarding male examinations were rated particularly low on the pre-teaching programme self- assessment, but post-programme was rated at similar levels to the female examination. This integrated female-male teaching programme (utilising trained teaching associates as simulated patients in a supervised clinical teaching environment) was successful in increasing senior medical students' skills and levels of confidence in performing genital examinations. There were differences between female and male medical students in their learning. Suggestions for improvement included providing more detailed instruction to some clinical supervisors about their facilitation role in the session.

  13. The influence of salinity on metal uptake and effects in the midge Chironomus maddeni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidwell, Joseph R.; Gorrie, John R.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of different porewater salinities (up to 12 g/L) on the toxicity and bioaccumulation of copper, zinc and lead from metal-spiked sediments was assessed using the midge, Chironomus maddeni. Survival of the larvae was significantly reduced at a porewater salinity of 12 g/L, but no effects were observed at 4 or 8 g/L. Both growth and survival of C. maddeni were reduced after exposure to salt/metal spiked sediments as compared to those exposed to sediments spiked with metals or salt alone. Increased salinity resulted in increased bioaccumulation of copper and zinc, but decreased bioaccumulation of lead. The observed patterns of bioaccumulation were not entirely explained by the modelled free ion activities of the metals, indicating that factors such as osmotic stress, consumption of metal-contaminated sediments or metal interactions may have been important as well. These results highlight the need to consider the influence of existing or potential salinization when undertaking hazard assessments of freshwater systems impacted by contaminants such as trace metals. - Elevated porewater salinity significantly influenced uptake of copper, lead and zinc by midge larvae

  14. Fitness Effects of Network Non-Linearity Induced by Gene Expression Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Christian; Cooper, Tim; Balazsi, Gabor

    2012-02-01

    In the non-equilibrium dynamics of growing microbial cells, metabolic enzymes can create non-linearities in metabolite concentration because of non-linear degradation (utilization): an enzyme can saturate in the process of metabolite utilization. Increasing metabolite production past the saturation point then results in an ultrasensitive metabolite response. If the production rate of a metabolite depends on a second enzyme or other protein-mediated process, uncorrelated gene expression noise can thus cause transient metabolite concentration bursts. Such bursts are physiologically unnecessary and may represent a source of selection against the ultrasensitive switch, especially if the fluctuating metabolic intermediate is toxic. Selection may therefore favor correlated gene expression fluctuations for enzymes in the same pathway, such as by same-operon membership in bacteria. Using a modified experimental lac operon system, we are undertaking a combined theoretical-experimental approach to demonstrate that (i) the lac operon has an implicit ultrasensitive switch that we predict is avoided by gene expression correlations induced by same-operon membership; (ii) bacterial growth rates are sensitive to crossing the ultrasensitive threshold. Our results suggest that correlations in intrinsic gene expression noise are exploited by evolution to ameliorate the detrimental effects of nonlinearities in metabolite concentrations.

  15. The effect of food withdrawal in children with rapid-transit constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearsey, I; Hutson, J M; Southwell, B R

    2016-07-01

    Rapid proximal colonic transit with anorectal holdup is a subtype of chronic constipation linked to food intolerance. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of dietary exclusion as a treatment for constipated children with rapid-transit constipation by scintigraphy. Questionnaires on diet and symptoms were mailed out to 125 children with chronic constipation and rapid proximal colonic transit on nuclear transit study at our institute between 1998 and 2014 years. Patients were given instructions and encouraged to undertake a six-food elimination diet targeting common protein allergens (dairy, wheat, soy, eggs, nuts, seafood). Answers were completed by circling an option or on visual analogue scale. Results were evaluated statistically using GraphPad Prism 6 by a Wilcoxon matched-pairs rank test. P Constipation, abdominal pain and pain on defecation were reduced (p 50 % of families. Dietary exclusion is a promising strategy to treat constipation in children with rapid proximal colonic transit. However, it was hard for many families, demonstrating the need for identifying the cause more specifically and a better set of instructions for the family and/or dietitian to follow.

  16. The effect of Emdogain gel on periodontal healing in replanted monkeys' teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Karen; Sae-Lim, Varawan

    2004-01-01

    We sought to histologically evaluate the effect of Emdogain gel on periodontal healing in monkeys' teeth undergoing delayed replantation. Study design Mature monkey teeth simulating avulsion were endodontically treated before extraction. Negative control teeth (group N = 10 roots) underwent immediate replantation, whereas the rest were bench-dried for 1 hour and treated in one of the following ways before replantation: the positive control teeth (group P = 12 roots) had no further treatment; group C teeth (4 roots) had the periodontal ligament removed; group D teeth (10 roots) were treated with Emdogain gel; group E teeth (6 roots) had the periodontal ligament removed before the application of Emdogain gel; and group F teeth (7 roots) had the periodontal ligament removed, the root surface conditioned, and Emdogain gel applied. Periodontal healing was evaluated after 16 weeks by undertaking histomorphometric analysis. The Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests revealed that group N teeth had a statistically higher occurrence of complete healing than did all other groups, whereas group P was not significantly different in any of the healing categories from D, E, and F, the groups in which Emdogain gel was used. Group C teeth had a significantly higher occurrence of replacement root resorption than did the teeth in groups P and F-but were not significantly different from teeth in groups D and E. Emdogain gel did not appear to significantly reduce replacement resorption in monkeys' teeth that had undergone delayed replantation.

  17. Communication patterns and group composition: implications for patient-centered care team effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreachslin, J L; Hunt, P L; Sprainer, E

    1999-01-01

    To assess how diversity affects team communication and to identify strategies to improve communication and patient care, focus groups of care production team members were held in two case study hospitals that have implemented the patient-centered care model. Results indicate that care production team members generally support patient-centered care as a model that can work effectively in practice, even in an urban environment in which diversity concerns can affect team cohesiveness and communication. Successful implementation of the model, however, requires that hospitals consistently employ management strategies and reward structures that reinforce the value of teamwork and emphasize training and staff development. Key steps that healthcare executives can undertake to improve the performance of care production teams are detailed in this article and center around the following themes: team involvement in process improvement; a heightened emphasis on training (i.e., team and diversity training for all team members, task focused training for nonlicensed care givers; and leadership training for RNs); and the implementation of team-based reward and incentive structures.

  18. An evaluation of the appropriateness and effectiveness of structured reflection for midwifery students in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Louise; Lawler, Denise; Brady, Vivienne; OBoyle, Colm; Deasy, Anna; Muldoon, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    Midwifery students undertaking the undergraduate midwifery education programme in Ireland participate in facilitated reflective sessions that aim to develop their skills of reflecting on and in clinical practice. This paper presents a qualitative evaluation of the appropriateness and effectiveness of the facilitated reflection sessions for pre and post-registration midwifery students in two large Dublin maternity teaching hospitals. The aim was to evaluate structured reflective practice sessions which sought to assist midwifery students to become competent reflective practitioners. Group reflection sessions were conducted weekly in a clinical practice area at the same time each week over one academic year. After the series of structured reflective sessions, midwifery students and facilitating staff were invited to evaluate the reflective process. This evaluation consisted of a self-completion survey to identify the factors that facilitated and impeded student participation in the sessions. Respondents answered a series of questions about the reflective practice sessions and were also invited to enter qualitative data regarding their subjective experiences of the process in free text boxes. The data were then collated into themes by an independent reviewer. The results of the evaluation clearly indicate that midwifery students and facilitators welcomed the opportunity to engage in group reflection sessions as a form of peer support and as a catalyst for learning from clinical practice. Findings suggest that reflective practice can contribute to the development of skilled, self-aware and engaged practitioners. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Glyphosate-based herbicides produce teratogenic effects on vertebrates by impairing retinoic acid signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganelli, Alejandra; Gnazzo, Victoria; Acosta, Helena; López, Silvia L; Carrasco, Andrés E

    2010-10-18

    The broad spectrum herbicide glyphosate is widely used in agriculture worldwide. There has been ongoing controversy regarding the possible adverse effects of glyphosate on the environment and on human health. Reports of neural defects and craniofacial malformations from regions where glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH) are used led us to undertake an embryological approach to explore the effects of low doses of glyphosate in development. Xenopus laevis embryos were incubated with 1/5000 dilutions of a commercial GBH. The treated embryos were highly abnormal with marked alterations in cephalic and neural crest development and shortening of the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis. Alterations on neural crest markers were later correlated with deformities in the cranial cartilages at tadpole stages. Embryos injected with pure glyphosate showed very similar phenotypes. Moreover, GBH produced similar effects in chicken embryos, showing a gradual loss of rhombomere domains, reduction of the optic vesicles, and microcephaly. This suggests that glyphosate itself was responsible for the phenotypes observed, rather than a surfactant or other component of the commercial formulation. A reporter gene assay revealed that GBH treatment increased endogenous retinoic acid (RA) activity in Xenopus embryos and cotreatment with a RA antagonist rescued the teratogenic effects of the GBH. Therefore, we conclude that the phenotypes produced by GBH are mainly a consequence of the increase of endogenous retinoid activity. This is consistent with the decrease of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling from the embryonic dorsal midline, with the inhibition of otx2 expression and with the disruption of cephalic neural crest development. The direct effect of glyphosate on early mechanisms of morphogenesis in vertebrate embryos opens concerns about the clinical findings from human offspring in populations exposed to GBH in agricultural fields.

  20. Technical Progress Report on Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Jenny Henman; Ben Poulter; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Neil Sampson; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Zoe Kant; Miguel Calmon; Gilberto Tiepolo

    2006-06-30

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st and July 30th 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool. Work is being carried out in Brazil, Belize, Chile, Peru and the USA.

  1. The design, effectiveness and acceptability of the arm sleeve for the prevention of body fluid contamination during obstetric procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabukoba, J J; Pearce, J M

    1993-08-01

    1. To design a device that would reduce contamination of staff during obstetric procedures. 2. To undertake clinical trials to assess the effectiveness and acceptability of such a device. A prospective study. The arm sleeve is made of a nonwoven material laminated on polyethylene film making it waterproof. It has an elastomeric cuff with adhesive that ensures a watertight seal between it and the glove. Delivery suite in a teaching hospital. Doctors and midwives were requested to wear the sleeve on top of the standard gown and gloves. Each user was assessed for blood contamination at the end of the procedure and a questionnaire detailing the extent of contamination and the views of the user was completed. Eighty questionnaires were completed. The contamination of arms and hands was 3.8% and 5%, respectively. Eighty-nine percent thought the sleeve had served its purpose and 76% said they would use it regularly. The sleeve is an effective protective device which complements the glove and gown. We recommend that it should be used during all obstetric procedures.

  2. The effect of varying plyometric volume on stretch-shortening cycle capability in collegiate male rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffreys, Mark; De Ste Croix, Mark; Lloyd, Rhodri S; Oliver, Jon L; Hughes, Jonathan

    2017-03-25

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effectiveness of low and high volume plyometric loads on developing stretch shortening cycle capability in collegiate rugby players. A between- group repeated measures design was used. Thirty six subjects (age 20.3 ±1.6 yrs, mass 91.63 ±10.36kg, stature 182.03 ±5.24cm) were randomly assigned to one of three groups, a control group (CG), a low volume plyometric group (LPG) or a high volume plyometric group (HPG). Data were collected from a force plate, and measures of reactive strength index (RSI) and leg stiffness were calculated from jump height, contact time and flight time. A significant between group × time (F = 4.01, P plyometric program. The low volume program elicited the same performance improvement in RSI as a high volume program whilst undertaking a lower dose. This suggests that strength and conditioning coaches may be able to benefit from the ability to develop more time efficient and effective plyometric programs.

  3. Effect of Applied Load and Sliding Speed on Tribological Behavior of TiAl-Based Self-Lubricating Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiyao; Shen, Qiao; Shi, Xiaoliang; Zou, Jialiang; Huang, Yuchun; Zhang, Ao; Yan, Zhao; Deng, Xiaobin; Yang, Kang

    2018-01-01

    This article was dedicated to explore the combined lubrication of silver, MoS2 and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) based on the changes in applied loads and sliding speeds. The results showed that the formed lubricating films played the major role in undertaking the equivalent stress, as well as effectively reduced friction resistance and material loss. It led to small friction coefficient and less wear rate at 1.2 m/s. At 1.2 m/s-16 N, an integrated lubricating film containing Ag, CNTs and MoS2 was continuously formed, which well provided the excellent lubricating property, resulting in lower friction coefficient (0.19) and less wear rate (1.56 × 10-5 mm3/N m). The formation of Ag and CNTs enriched islands acted as the bearing areas and played the major role in resisting friction resistance. Meanwhile, solid lubricant MoS2 was enriched in the lubricating film and effectively protected lubricating film from being destroyed, resulting in small friction coefficient and less wear rate at 1.2 m/s-16 N.

  4. Evaluation of Vipassana Meditation Course Effects on Subjective Stress, Well-being, Self-kindness and Mindfulness in a Community Sample: Post-course and 6-month Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekeres, Roberta A; Wertheim, Eleanor H

    2015-12-01

    Residential Vipassana meditation courses, which teach mindfulness skills, are widely available globally but under-evaluated. This study examined effects of a standardized, community-based Vipassana course, on subjective stress, well-being, self-kindness and trait mindfulness in a community sample. Participants completed self-report measures of these variables at pre-course and post-course (n = 122), and outcomes were compared to a control group of early enrollers (EEs) (n = 50) who completed measures at parallel time points before course commencement. Six-month follow-up was undertaken in the intervention group (n = 90). Findings, including intention-to-complete analyses, suggested positive effects of the Vipassana course in reducing subjective stress and increasing well-being, self-kindness and overall mindfulness (present-moment awareness and non-reaction). Although some reductions in post-course gains were found at follow-up, particularly in stress, follow-up scores still showed improvements compared to pre-course scores. Mindfulness change scores between pre-course and 6-month follow-up were moderately to highly correlated with outcome variable change scores, consistent with the idea that effects of the Vipassana course on stress and well-being operate, at least partially, through increasing mindfulness. The present research underscores the importance of undertaking further investigations into Vipassana courses' effects and applications. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. The effects of ACL injury on knee proprioception: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relph, N; Herrington, L; Tyson, S

    2014-09-01

    It is suggested the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) plays a significant role in knee proprioception, however, the effect of ACL injury on knee proprioception is unclear. Studies utilising the two most common measurement techniques, joint position sense and threshold to detect passive motion, have provided evidence both for and against a proprioceptive deficient following ACL injury. The objective of the study was to undertake a meta-analysis investigating the effects of ACL injury, treated conservatively or by reconstruction, on proprioception of the knee, measured using joint position sense and/or threshold to detect passive movement techniques. Seven databases were searched from their inception to September 2013 using the subject headings 'anterior cruciate ligament, proprioception, postural sway, joint position sense, balance, equilibrium or posture' to identify relevant studies. PRISMA guidelines were followed as much as possible. Studies that investigated the effect of ACL injury on either knee joint kinaesthesia or position sense were included in this review. Two reviewers independently extracted data using a standardised assessment form. Comparisons were made using a fixed effect model with an inverse variance method using Review Manager Software (V5.1). Patients with ACL injury have poorer proprioception than people without such injuries (SMD=0.35°; P=0.001 and SMD=0.38°; P=0.03) when measured using joint position sense and threshold to detect passive motion techniques respectively. Patients had poorer proprioception in the injured than uninjured leg (SMD=0.52°; Pproprioception of people whose ACL was repaired was better than those whose ligament was left unrepaired (SMD=-0.62°; Pproprioception deficits compared to uninjured knees and control groups. Although differences were statistically significant, the clinical significance of findings can be questioned. Clinical practitioners using joint position sense or threshold to detect passive motion

  6. Cost-effectiveness of leucoreduction for prevention of febrile non-haemolytic transfusion reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsantes, Argirios E.; Kyriakou, Elias; Nikolopoulos, Georgios K.; Stylos, Dimitrios; Sidhom, Marlene; Bonovas, Stefanos; Douramani, Panagiota; Kalantzis, Dimitrios; Kokoris, Styliani; Valsami, Serena; Stamoulis, Konstantinos; Politou, Marianna; Foudoulaki-Paparizos, Leontini

    2014-01-01

    Background The cost-effectiveness of universal leucoreduction of blood components remains unclear. When using leucoreduced red blood cells, the decrease in the rate of febrile non-haemolytic transfusion reactions (FNHTR) is the only proven, meaningful clinical benefit, whose relationship to costs can be calculated relatively easily. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of leucoreduction in avoiding FNHTR. Materials and methods Data were obtained from two large tertiary hospitals in Athens, Greece, over a 4-year period (2009–2012). The incidence of FNHTR in patients transfused with leucoreduced or non-leucodepleted red blood cells, the additional cost of leucoreduction and the cost to treat the FNHTR were estimated. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), which is the ratio of the change in costs to the incremental benefits of leucoreduction, was calculated. Results In total, 86,032 red blood cell units were transfused. Of these, 53,409 were leucodepleted and 32,623 were non-leucoreduced. Among patients transfused with leucodepleted units, 25 cases (0.047%) met the criteria for having a FNHTR, while in patients treated with non-leucoreduced components, 134 FNHTR were observed (0.411%). The ICER of leucoreduction was € 6,916 (i.e., the cost to prevent one case of FNHTR). Conclusions Leucoreduction does not have a favourable cost-effectiveness ratio in relation to the occurrence of FNHTR. However, many factors, which could not be easily and accurately assessed, influence the long-term costs of transfusion. It is imperative to undertake a series of large, meticulously designed clinical studies across the entire spectrum of blood transfusion settings, to investigate most of the parameters involved. PMID:24931843

  7. EFFECTS OF THE GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS IN THE BANKING SYSTEM OF KOSOVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrvete Badivuku-Pantina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Financial crises are phenomena that happened before and continue to happen even nowadays. There were many financial crises in the last century, starting with the Great Depression of 1929 and continuing with other financial crisis, and it was believed that people would learn from their previous experiences and would not allow the crisis to happen again. But the financial crisis of 2007, created the impression that no one wanted to learn for the real causes of their occurrence and consequences, often disastrous for countries and the globe, and as such allowed the crisis to be repeated. Effects of the 2007 financial crisis, which originally started in the USA’s mortgage market and which was quickly spread all over the world, even to this date it still continues to have effect on real economies of many states, e.g. Greece. The spread of the crisis was primarily due to globalization and commercial trades among countries. Because of the dependence of economies on one another it was created the domino effect and all the countries were affected from the crisis. As a result, the crisis seems to have revealed the disadvantages of globalization. Finances of the world were shocked and rapid fluctuations were reflected in the stock prices. Kosovo, as a new and small country in the Western Balkans is not much globalized and open which was beneficial in preventing it from being affected from the global financial crisis. Its economy has slightly felt the effect of the crisis because the banking system in Kosovo is not much open to the international financial markets as they operate mostly with their clients’ deposits. The purpose of this research is to assess the implications of the global financial crisis in the banking system of Kosovo, and also to identify the measures that the Central Bank and the Government should undertake in order to protect the economy from external implications.

  8. Cadmium-induced olfactory dysfunction in rainbow trout: Effects of binary and quaternary metal mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dew, William A. [Biological Sciences, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta T1 K 3M4 (Canada); Department of Biology, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario K9 J 7B8 (Canada); Veldhoen, Nik; Carew, Amanda C.; Helbing, Caren C. [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8 P 5C2 Canada (Canada); Pyle, Greg G., E-mail: gregory.pyle@uleth.ca [Biological Sciences, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta T1 K 3M4 (Canada)

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Cadmium impairs the olfactory response of rainbow trout. • Nickel and zinc, but not copper, protect against Cd-induced olfactory dysfunction. • Calcium, sodium, and magnesium also protect against the effect of cadmium. • Protection from cadmium is most likely not due to metallothionein expression. - Abstract: A functioning olfactory response is essential for fish to be able to undertake essential behaviors. The majority of work investigating the effects of metals on the olfactory response of fish has focused on single-metal exposures. In this study we exposed rainbow trout to cadmium, copper, nickel, zinc, or a mixture of these four metals at or below the current Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment guidelines for the protection of aquatic life. Measurement of olfactory acuity using an electro-olfactogram demonstrated that cadmium causes significant impairment of the entire olfactory system, while the other three metals or the mixture of all four metals did not. Binary mixtures with cadmium and each of the other metals demonstrated that nickel and zinc, but not copper, protect against cadmium-induced olfactory dysfunction. Testing was done to determine if the protection from cadmium-induced olfactory dysfunction could be explained by binding competition between cadmium and the other metals at the cell surface, or if the protection could be explained by an up-regulation of an intracellular detoxification pathway, namely metallothionein. This study is the first to measure the effects of binary and quaternary metal mixtures on the olfactory response of fish, something that will aid in future assessments of the effects of metals on the environment.

  9. Effects of impurities on membrane-protein crystallization in different systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kors, Christopher A.; Wallace, Ellen; Davies, Douglas R.; Li, Liang; Laible, Philip D.; Nollert, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The effects of commonly encountered impurities on various membrane-protein crystallization regimes are investigated and it is found that the lipidic cubic phase crystallization methodology is the most robust, tolerating protein contamination levels of up to 50%, with little effect on crystal quality. If generally applicable, this tolerance may be exploited (i) in initial crystallization trials to determine the ‘crystallizability’ of a given membrane-protein and (ii) to subject partially pure membrane-protein samples to crystallization trials. When starting a protein-crystallization project, scientists are faced with several unknowns. Amongst them are these questions: (i) is the purity of the starting material sufficient? and (ii) which type of crystallization experiment is the most promising to conduct? The difficulty in purifying active membrane-protein samples for crystallization trials and the high costs associated with producing such samples require an extremely pragmatic approach. Additionally, practical guidelines are needed to increase the efficiency of membrane-protein crystallization. In order to address these conundrums, the effects of commonly encountered impurities on various membrane-protein crystallization regimes have been investigated and it was found that the lipidic cubic phase (LCP) based crystallization methodology is more robust than crystallization in detergent environments using vapor diffusion or microbatch approaches in its ability to tolerate contamination in the forms of protein, lipid or other general membrane components. LCP-based crystallizations produced crystals of the photosynthetic reaction center (RC) of Rhodobacter sphaeroides from samples with substantial levels of residual impurities. Crystals were obtained with protein contamination levels of up to 50% and the addition of lipid material and membrane fragments to pure samples of RC had little effect on the number or on the quality of crystals obtained in LCP

  10. Systems effectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    Habayeb, A R

    1987-01-01

    Highlights three principal applications of system effectiveness: hardware system evaluation, organizational development and evaluation, and conflict analysis. The text emphasizes the commonality of the system effectiveness discipline. The first part of the work presents a framework for system effectiveness, partitioning and hierarchy of hardware systems. The second part covers the structure, hierarchy, states, functions and activities of organizations. Contains an extended Appendix on mathematical concepts and also several project suggestions.

  11. Rethinking School Bullying: Towards an Integrated Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Roz; Smith, Peter K.

    2011-01-01

    What would make anti-bullying initiatives more successful? This book offers a new approach to the problem of school bullying. The question of what constitutes a useful theory of bullying is considered and suggestions are made as to how priorities for future research might be identified. The integrated, systemic model of school bullying introduced…

  12. December 2012 Policy Update: School Climate and Bully Prevention Trends State-by-State Assessment. School Climate Brief, Number 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellizio, Dan

    2012-01-01

    This December 2012 Brief updates NSCC's 2011 report "State Policies on School Climate and Bully Prevention Efforts: Challenges and Opportunities for Deepening State Policy Support for Safe and Civil School"s (www.schoolclimate.org/climate/papers-briefs.php). This Brief provides a summary of State level: (1) anti-bullying legislation; (2)…

  13. An Evaluation of the Antibullying Program at a Public Suburban High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This project study addressed the problem of harassment, intimidation, and bullying (HIB) at a public suburban high school in the Northeast United States. The study school implemented the Anti-bullying Program in September 2011, yet no evaluation had been conducted on whether the program was meeting its goals. Two conceptual frameworks that drove…

  14. Bullying among Young Children: Strategies for Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Emily; Tamburrino, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Bullying is an increasing problem within childcare facilities, preschool programs, and public schools. As a result, many districts are instituting anti-bullying intervention programs. This article defines bullying and explains the direct and indirect forms it can take. First, it examines research on bullying during the beginning years of school.…

  15. Ways To Minimize Bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Mary Ellen; Parisi, Mary Joy

    This report delineates a series of interventions aimed at minimizing incidences of bullying in a suburban elementary school. The social services staff was scheduled to initiate an anti-bullying incentive in fall 2001 due to the increased occurrences of bullying during the prior year. The target population consisted of third- and fourth-grade…

  16. "Just Be Friends": Exposing the Limits of Educational Bully Discourses for Understanding Teen Girls' Heterosexualized Friendships and Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringrose, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    The present paper explores the conceptual limitations of the bully discourses that ground UK anti-bullying policy frameworks and psychological research literatures on school bullying, suggesting they largely ignore gender, (hetero)sexuality and the social, cultural and subjective dynamics of conflict and aggression among teen-aged girls. To…

  17. Bully Prevention: Tips and Strategies for School Leaders and Classroom Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Elizabeth A.

    This book discusses topics designed to assist school leaders and teachers in creating safe schools. It explains how to develop, implement, and evaluate an anti-bullying program and describes how to teach students to use three methods when dealing with bullies (social skills, assertiveness, and conflict resolution techniques). Seven chapters focus…

  18. Using Young Adult Literature to Provide Case Studies for Discussion of Bullying: An Analysis of the 2014 Pura Belpré Award Winner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Analyzing Meg Medina's young adult novel "Yaqui Delgado Wants to Kick Your Ass" (2013) through the lens of multidisciplinary research on school bullying provides a case study in using young adult literature (YAL) to stimulate high school discussions about bullying. Strategies for using anti-bullying YAL and recommendations of additional…

  19. Influence of Peer Victimization on School Attendance among Senior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    The study therefore recommended that school anti-bullying rules and regulations must be strengthened and diligently enforced by the school authorities in the area. Key words: Peer victimization, Bullying, School Attendance, Students, Counselling. Introduction. Peer victimization or bullying is a conscious, deliberate and ...

  20. University Students' Intentions to Report Cyberbullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozencroft, Kelly; Campbell, Marilyn; Orel, Alexandria; Kimpton, Melanie; Leong, Eliza

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of cyberbullying among university students and less about whether they utilise anti-bullying policies. However, failure to report cyberbullying incidents to authorities would lessen the efficacy of these policies. This study investigated the prevalence of cyberbullying among university students and their…

  1. Get your virtual hands off me! - Developing threatening IVAs using haptic feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedschalk, L.F.; Bosse, T.; Otte, M.; Verheij, B.; Wiering, M.

    2018-01-01

    Intelligent Virtual Agents (IVAs) become widely used for numerous applications, varying from healthcare decision support to communication training. In several of such applications, it is useful if IVAs have the ability to take a negative stance towards the user, for instance for anti-bullying or

  2. Bullying and Zero-Tolerance Policies: The School to Prison Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlowitz, Marvin J.; Frye, Rinda; Jette, Kelli M.

    2017-01-01

    The centrality of zero-tolerance policies as a component of anti-bullying strategies is the focus of this paper. A review of the literature of social justice advocates, journalists, and scholars reveals that zero-tolerance policies tend to push students out of public schools into the criminal justice system in a pattern of institutional racism.…

  3. Help Seeking Amongst Child and Adolescent Victims of Peer-Aggression and Bullying: The Influence of School-Stage, Gender, Victimisation, Appraisal, and Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Simon C.; Boyle, James M. E.; Warden, David

    2004-01-01

    Background: An important element of many anti-bullying programmes is encouraging victims to tell someone about their predicament. Research has already reported prevalence of telling, who/when children tell and efficacy of telling. However, seeking help can be viewed as a coping behaviour, and coping processes such as appraisal and emotion may be…

  4. 76 FR 54746 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... Development Type of Review: New. Title of Collection: Analysis of State Bullying Laws and Policies. OMB... conducting an analysis of bullying laws and policies. Evaluation, Management and Training Associates, Inc. is... anti- bullying laws and policies. The purpose of the study is to describe bullying policy...

  5. Rethinking Safe Schools Approaches for LGBTQ Students: Changing the Questions We Ask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Elizabethe; Smith, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    In this article the authors address the limitations of framing "the problem" of in-school LGBTQ harassment within dominant anti-bullying discourses. They offer a critical sociological framework as an alternative way of understanding the issues of LGBTQ harassment and propose a research agenda in which school culture and gender policing are the…

  6. Sharevision Collaboration between High School Counselors and Athletic Educators to Stop LGBTQ Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lisa Dawn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was twofold: to explore how school counselors and athletic educators experienced implementing the 2010 Massachusetts Anti-bullying law and to explore how participants experienced using the Sharevision structured group reflection process as the format for group discussions. The Sharevision structured group reflection…

  7. Improving the effectiveness of planning EIA (PEIA) in China: Integrating planning and assessment during the preparation of Shenzhen's Master Urban Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Che Xiuzhen; English, Alex; Lu Jia; Chen, Yongqin David

    2011-01-01

    The enactment and implementation of the 2003 EIA Law in China institutionalised the role of plan environmental impact assessment (PEIA). While the philosophy, methodology and mechanisms of PEIA have gradually permeated through the various levels of government with a positive effect on the process and outcome of urban planning, only a few cities in China have so far carried out PEIA as a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)-type procedure. One such case is the southern city of Shenzhen. During the past three decades, Shenzhen has grown from a small town to a large and booming city as China has successfully and rapidly developed its economy by adopting the 'reform and open door' policy. In response to the challenges arising from the generally divergent processes of rapid urbanisation, economic transformation and environment protection, Shenzhen has incrementally adopted the SEA concept in developing the city's Master Urban Plan. As such, this paper reviews the effectiveness of PEIA in three ways: ·as a tool and process for achieving more sustainable and strategic planning; ·to determine the level of integration of SEA within the planning system; and, ·its effectiveness vis-a-vis implementation. The implementation of PEIA within Shenzhen's Master Urban Plan offers important insights into the emergence of innovative practices in undertaking PEIA as well as theoretical contributions to the field, especially in exploring the relationship between PEIA and SEA and highlighting the central role of local governing institutions in SEA development.

  8. Antifatigue Effect of Luteolin-6-C-Neohesperidoside on Oxidative Stress Injury Induced by Forced Swimming of Rats through Modulation of Nrf2/ARE Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-fang Duan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Luteolin-6-C-neohesperidoside (LN is a flavonoid isolated from moso bamboo leaf. This study was performed to evaluate the antifatigue effect of LN on a rat model undergoing the weight-loaded forced swimming test (FST. Briefly, male Sprague-Dawley rats (20–22 weeks old were forced to undertake exhaustive swimming every other day for 3 weeks. Each swimming session was followed by the administration of distilled water, LN (25–75 mg/kg, or ascorbic acid (100 mg/kg 1 h later. Oral administration of LN significantly improved exercise endurance; normalized alterations in energy metabolic markers; and decreased serum lactic acid, lactate dehydrogenase, and blood urea nitrogen levels of rats that underwent FST. Moreover, LN enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant capacity, as measured by enzyme activity assays, RT-PCR, and Western blotting, as well as decreasing the levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, and IL-6 and increasing the level of anti-inflammatory (IL-10 in the liver and skeletal muscle. These results suggested that LN reduces both physical and mental effects of chronic fatigue, probably by attenuating oxidative stress injury and inflammatory responses in the liver and skeletal muscle. This study thus supports the use of LN in functional foods for antifatigue and antioxidant effects.

  9. Towards more effective academic liaison between academics, students and practitioners in the field of public administration and management in the North West Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nealer

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In the light of the changing tertiary education arena in South Africa, the Department of Public Management and Governance in the School for Social and Government Studies of the Arts Faculty, North-West University (NWU had to revisit its policy on macro organisational aspects. Issues such as more effective communication mediums, the merging and alignment of the University’s three campuses, the nature of the ever-increasing competition in the tertiary residential and distance teaching environment, the range, variety and quality of its products and the facilitation and rendering of an improved tertiary teaching service were identified. In this article the typical nature of the intra, inter and extra academic liaison regarding the Department at NWU are highlighted and some recommendations on more effective communication and work procedures as a result of academic liaison are presented. Examples being that academics and practitioners need to meet more frequently, upgrade effective communication media among them and undertake joint research in a more cooperative manner.

  10. Cost-effectiveness of microscopy of urethral smears for asymptomatic Mycoplasma genitalium urethritis in men in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Andrew J; Roberts, Tracy E; Jackson, Louise; Saunders, John; White, Peter J; Birger, Ruthie; Estcourt, Claudia

    2018-01-01

    The objective was to determine whether or not the limited use of urethral microscopy to diagnose asymptomatic and symptomatic non-chlamydial, non-gonococcal urethritis (NCNGU) in men is a cost-effective strategy to avert pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy or infertility in female partners. Outputs from a transmission dynamic model of NCNGU in a population of 16-30 year olds in England simulating the number of consultations, PID cases and patients treated over time amongst others, were used along with secondary data to undertake a cost-effectiveness analysis carried out from a health care provider perspective. The main outcome measure was cost per case of PID averted. A secondary outcome measure was cost per major outcome averted, where a major outcome is a case of symptomatic PID, ectopic pregnancy, or infertility. Offering a limited number of asymptomatic men urethral microscopy was more effective than the current practice of no microscopy in terms of reducing the number of cases of PID with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of £15,700, meaning that an investment of £15,800 is required to avert one case of PID. For major outcomes averted, offering some asymptomatic men urethral microscopy was again found to be more effective than no microscopy, but here an investment of £49,900 is required to avert one major outcome. Testing asymptomatic men for NCNGU in a small number of genitourinary medicine settings in England is not cost-effective, and thus by maintaining the current practice of not offering this patient group microscopy, this continues to make savings for the health care provider.

  11. Long-term cost effectiveness of cardiac secondary prevention in primary care in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Paddy; Murphy, Edel; Smith, Susan M; Cupples, Margaret E; Byrne, Molly; Murphy, Andrew W

    2017-04-01

    While cardiac secondary prevention in primary care is established practice, little is known about its long-term cost effectiveness. This study examines the cost effectiveness of a secondary prevention intervention in primary care in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland over 6 years. An economic evaluation, based on a cluster randomised controlled trial of 903 patients with heart disease, was conducted 4.5 years after the intervention ceased to be delivered. Patients originally randomised to the control received usual practice while those randomised to the intervention received a tailored care package over the 1.5-year delivery period. Data on healthcare costs and quality adjusted life expectancy were used to undertake incremental cost utility analysis. Multilevel regression was used to estimate mean cost effectiveness and uncertainty was examined using cost effectiveness acceptability curves. At 6 years, there was a divergence in the results across jurisdictions. While the probability of the intervention being cost effective in the Republic of Ireland was 0.434, 0.232, 0.180, 0.150, 0.115 and 0.098 at selected threshold values of €5000, €15,000, €20,000, €25,000, €35,000 and €45,000, respectively, all equivalent probabilities for Northern Ireland equalled 1.000. Our findings suggest that the intervention in its current format is likely to be more cost effective than usual general practice care in Northern Ireland, but this is not the case in the Republic of Ireland.

  12. Mentoring Clinical-Year Medical Students: Factors Contributing to Effective Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallatah, Hind I; Soo Park, Yoon; Farsi, Jamila; Tekian, Ara

    2018-01-01

    Theory: Academic mentoring is an effective method of enhancing undergraduate medical student academic performance, research productivity, career planning, and overall satisfaction. Hypotheses: This study investigates the relationship between mentor characteristics and mentee academic performance, with an emphasis on identifying students who need special support. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among fourth-year medical students at King Abdulaziz University Faculty of Medicine undertaking the clinical skills module (CSM) rotation. Mentors included senior and junior faculty members from the Department of Internal Medicine and the Department of Family Medicine. King Abdulaziz University Faculty of Medicine assigned 1 mentor for every 10 medical students. We organized our mentoring program in the following format: (1) an initial group meeting (mentor with all 10 medical students) and (2) subsequent one-on-one meetings (mentor with each mentee alone). We assessed mentor characteristics, student academic performance and satisfaction, and the rate of mentees referred for special support. Results: A total of 184 students completed the CSM rotation. Among these, 90 students responded to the preprogram survey, with 83% reporting that mentoring was important to them. Group meetings and one-on-one meetings were attended by 60% and 49% of all students, respectively. The most frequent type of support required by the participating students was psychological support (12% of mentees). Participation in the mentoring program had no significant effect on student academic performance. Mentor seniority (P = .024) and motivation (P = .002) were significantly associated with the rate of student referral for special support. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that academic mentoring can be effective in enhancing student outcomes and promoting special support for students. Moreover, mentor and mentee motivation were found to be essential elements of a successful

  13. "Further Effects"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinigstein, Steven Michael

    In writing Further Effects, I intended to illustrate the benefits that are to be had from the use of effects - processing, when applied at the compositional level, rather than as a post-compositional afterthought. When effects are used creatively in the compositional stage, they will influence the very nature of a piece. They are capable of expressing rhythmic and metric ideas. They can alter the natural timbre of an instrument. This can be done on levels of abstraction ranging from discreet subtlety to disguise beyond recognition. There is one effect (known as "pitch shift.") that allows an instrument to play pitches that are well outside of its range. In Further Effects, I direct the performers to use a volume pedal (which I view as a tool, rather than an effect) for the broadened creative use of dynamics that it so efficiently grants. The use of an effects processor and volume pedal creates a need for ancillary equipment. An amplifier, cables, and an electric hook-up (a microphone or a pickup) will be required for each instrument. While an amplifier serves to project the processed sound, there must also be a device or method to suppress unprocessed sound. A great deal of thought and work goes into the use of effects; yet I feel it is wasteful to use this musical resource merely as post-compositional decoration.

  14. Thermal Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmage, Sylvia S.; Coutant, Charles C.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the effect of temperature on the biosphere water, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes the effects of temperature on growth, production, and embryonic and larval development. A list of 401 references is also presented. (HM)

  15. Effectiveness of balance training programme in reducing the frequency of falling in established osteoporotic women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikó, Ibolya; Szerb, Imre; Szerb, Anna; Poor, Gyula

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the effect of a 12-month sensomotor balance exercise programme on postural control and the frequency of falling in women with established osteoporosis. Randomized controlled trial where the intervention group was assigned the 12-month Balance Training Programme and the control group did not undertake any intervention beyond regular osteoporosis treatment. A total of 100 osteoporotic women - at least with one osteoporotic fracture - aged 65 years old and above. Balance was assessed in static and dynamic posture both with performance-based measures of balance, such as the Berg Balance Scale and the Timed Up and Go Test, and with a stabilometric computerized platform. Patients in the intervention group completed the 12-month sensomotor Balance Training Programme in an outpatient setting, guided by physical therapists, three times a week, for 30 minutes. The Berg Balance Scale and the Timed Up and Go Test showed a statistically significant improvement of balance in the intervention group ( p = 0.001 and p = 0.005, respectively). Balance tests using the stabilometer also showed a statistically significant improvement in static and dynamic postural balance for osteoporotic women after the completion of the Balance Training Programme. As a consequence, the one-year exercise programme significantly decreased the number of falls in the exercise group compared with the control group. The Balance Training Programme significantly improved the balance parameters and reduced the number of falls in postmenopausal women who have already had at least one fracture in the past.

  16. Identification of the Thickness of Nugget on Worksheet Spot Welding Using Non Destructive Test (NDT) – Effect of Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifa, A.; Baskoro, A. S.; Sugeng, S.; Badruzzaman, B.; Endramawan, T.

    2018-02-01

    Resistance Spot Welding (RSW) is a process of connecting between two worksheet with thermomechanical loading process, RSW is widely used in automotive industry, the quality of splicing spot welding is influenced by several factors. One of the factors at the time of the welding process is pressure. The quality of welding on the nuggets can be determined by undertaking non-destructive testing by using Non Destructive Test (NDT) - Ultrasonic Test. In the NDT test is done by detecting the thickness of the nugget area, the purpose of research conducted to determine the effect of pressure to welding quality with Nugget thickness gauge measurement with Non Destructive Test method and manual measurement with micrometer, Experimental welding process by entering the welding parameters that have been specified and pressure variables 1 -5 bars on the worksheet thickness of 1 mm. The results of testing with NDT show there is addition of thickness in nugget superiority after compare with measurement result of thickness of nugget with micrometer which slightly experience thickness in nugget area, this indicates that the welding results have a connection between worksheet 1 and worksheet 2.

  17. Examining the effect of state anxiety on compensatory and strategic adjustments in the planning of goal-directed aiming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James W; Wilson, Mark R; Skultety, Jessica K; Lyons, James L

    2018-04-01

    The anxiety-perceptual-motor performance relationship may be enriched by investigations involving discrete manual responses due to the definitive demarcation of planning and control processes, which comprise the early and late portions of movement, respectively. To further examine the explanatory power of self-focus and distraction theories, we explored the potential of anxiety causing changes to movement planning that accommodate for anticipated negative effects in online control. As a result, we posed two hypotheses where anxiety causes performers to initially undershoot the target and enable more time to use visual feedback ("play-it-safe"), or fire a ballistic reach to cover a greater distance without later undertaking online control ("go-for-it"). Participants were tasked with an upper-limb movement to a single target under counter-balanced instructions to execute fast and accurate responses (low/normal anxiety) with non-contingent negative performance feedback (high anxiety). The results indicated that the previously identified negative impact of anxiety in online control was replicated. While anxiety caused a longer displacement to reach peak velocity and greater tendency to overshoot the target, there appeared to be no shift in the attempts to utilise online visual feedback. Thus, the tendency to initially overshoot may manifest from an inefficient auxiliary procedure that manages to uphold overall movement time and response accuracy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The chronic effects of fish oil with exercise on postprandial lipaemia and chylomicron homeostasis in insulin resistant viscerally obese men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slivkoff-Clark Karin M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral obesity and insulin resistance are associated with a postprandial accumulation of atherogenic chylomicron remnants that is difficult to modulate with lipid-lowering therapies. Dietary fish oil and exercise are cardioprotective interventions that can significantly modify the metabolism of TAG-rich lipoproteins. In this study, we investigated whether chronic exercise and fish oil act in combination to affect chylomicron metabolism in obese men with moderate insulin resistance. Methods The single blind study tested the effect of fish oil, exercise and the combined treatments on fasting and postprandial chylomicron metabolism. Twenty nine men with metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned to take fish oil or placebo for four weeks, before undertaking an additional 12 week walking program. At baseline and at the end of each treatment, subjects were tested for concentrations of fasting apo B48, plasma lipids and insulin. Postprandial apo B48 and TAG kinetics were also determined following ingestion of a fat enriched meal. Results Combining fish oil and exercise resulted in a significant reduction in the fasting apo B48 concentration, concomitant with attenuation of fasting TAG concentrations and the postprandial TAGIAUC response (p Conclusion Fish oil was shown to independently improve plasma TAG homeostasis but did not resolve hyper-chylomicronaemia. Instead, combining fish oil with chronic exercise reduced the plasma concentration of pro-atherogenic chylomicron remnants; in addition it reduced the fasting and postprandial TAG response in viscerally obese insulin resistant subjects.

  19. A randomized controlled trial exploring the effect of music on agitated behaviours and anxiety in older people with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Marie L; Moyle, Wendy; Shum, David H K; Harrison, Scott D; Murfield, Jenny E

    2010-11-01

    This study, as part of a larger programme of research, sought to investigate the effect that participation in a 40-min live group music programme, involving facilitated engagement with song-singing and listening, three times a week for eight weeks, had on agitation and anxiety in older people with dementia. A randomized cross-over design, with music and reading control groups, was employed. Forty-seven participants with mild-moderate dementia, from two aged care facilities in Queensland, Australia, were recruited. Participants were assessed three times on the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory-Short Form (CMAI-SF) and the Rating Anxiety in Dementia Scale (RAID). A sub-analysis of 24 participants attending ≥50% of music sessions found a significant increase in the frequency of verbal aggression over time, regardless of group (F(2,46) = 3.534, p music programme did not significantly affect agitation and anxiety in older people with dementia. Both the music and reading group activities, however, gave some participants a 'voice' and increased their verbalization behaviour. Agitation was found to be predicted by a number of background factors (namely level of cognitive impairment, length of time in the facility and gender). Future studies would benefit more from in-depth participant assessment prior to study commencement, helping to moderate the influence of low scores, and by undertaking interventions at times when assessed symptoms are most prevalent.

  20. Investigation of landslide potential parameters on Zonguldak-Ereğli Highway and adverse effects of landslides in the region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Eray

    2014-04-01

    Landslides are natural phenomena in the same class of natural disasters as earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, erosion, and volcanic eruptions that adversely affect human lives and property. Owing to their widespread occurrence, landslides are easily visible and able to be partially understood by people witnessing them. Nevertheless, to comprehend the detail of their formation and determine their potential, it is necessary to undertake geodetic, geological, and geophysical measurements in regions prone to landslides. By analyzing these measurements, it is possible to better ascertain those regions predisposed to landslides and thus provide the means to prevent loss of life and property. The city of Zonguldak, situated in the Western Black Sea region of Turkey, has a high occurrence of landslides owing to its harsh topography with rugged and steep slopes and rainfall in almost every season. Furthermore, the diurnal temperature ranging up to 10 °C in all seasons, especially in winter, plays a crucial role in rock disintegration in this region. Other factors damage ground composition and trigger landslides, such as underground mining operations, road construction that collapses rocky hills using explosives, and excavation works in steep terrain for building construction. This study gives a detailed account of the causes and adverse effects of landslides and their parameters through examples of landslide occurrences in the region, together with the results and analyses of two periods of geodetic measurements conducted on the Zonguldak-Ereğli Highway in Ilıksu district.

  1. In vitro effect of Aloe vera, Coriandrum sativum and Ricinus communis fractions on Leishmania infantum and on murine monocytic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondon, Fernanda C M; Bevilaqua, Claudia M L; Accioly, Marina P; Morais, Selene M; Andrade-Junior, Heitor F; Machado, Lyeghyna K A; Cardoso, Roselaine P A; Almeida, Camila A; Queiroz-Junior, Eudson M; Rodrigues, Ana Caroline M

    2011-06-10

    In South America, visceral leishmaniasis is a zoonosis caused by the protozoan species Leishmania infantum (syn. L. chagasi) and is primarily transmitted through the bite of the female Lutzomyia longipalpis. Its main reservoir in urban areas is the dog. The application of control measures recommended by health agencies have not achieved significant results in reducing the incidence of human cases, and the lack of effective drugs to treat dogs resulted in the prohibition of this course of action in Brazil. Therefore, it is necessary to search new alternatives for the treatment of canine and human visceral leishmaniasis. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the in vitro effect of fractions from Aloe vera (aloe), Coriandrum sativum (coriander), and Ricinus communis (castor) on promastigotes and amastigotes of L. infantum and to analyze the toxicity against the murine monocytic cells RAW 264.7. To determine the viability of these substances on 50% parasites (IC50), we used a tetrazolium dye (MTT) colorimetric assay (bromide 3-4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-dephenyltetrazolium), and on amastigotes we performed an in situ ELISA. All fractions were effective against L. infantum promastigotes and did not differ from the positive control pentamidine (p>0.05). However, the R. communis ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions, as well as the C. sativum methanol fraction, were the most effective against amastigotes and did not differ from the positive control amphotericin B (p>0.05). The R. communis ethyl acetate fraction was the least toxic, presenting 83.5% viability of RAW 264.7 cells, which was similar to the results obtained with amphotericin B (p>0.05). Based on these results, we intend to undertake in vivo studies with R. communis ethyl acetate fractions due the high effectiveness against amastigotes and promastigotes of L. infantum and the low cytotoxicity towards murine monocytic cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cost-Effectiveness and Value of Information Analysis of Brief Interventions to Promote Physical Activity in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gc, Vijay Singh; Suhrcke, Marc; Hardeman, Wendy; Sutton, Stephen; Wilson, Edward C F

    2018-01-01

    Brief interventions (BIs) delivered in primary care have shown potential to increase physical activity levels and may be cost-effective, at least in the short-term, when compared with usual care. Nevertheless, there is limited evidence on their longer term costs and health benefits. To estimate the cost-effectiveness of BIs to promote physical activity in primary care and to guide future research priorities using value of information analysis. A decision model was used to compare the cost-effectiveness of three classes of BIs that have been used, or could be used, to promote physical activity in primary care: 1) pedometer interventions, 2) advice/counseling on physical activity, and (3) action planning interventions. Published risk equations and data from the available literature or routine data sources were used to inform model parameters. Uncertainty was investigated with probabilistic sensitivity analysis, and value of information analysis was conducted to estimate the value of undertaking further research. In the base-case, pedometer interventions yielded the highest expected net benefit at a willingness to pay of £20,000 per quality-adjusted life-year. There was, however, a great deal of decision uncertainty: the expected value of perfect information surrounding the decision problem for the National Health Service Health Check population was estimated at £1.85 billion. Our analysis suggests that the use of pedometer BIs is the most cost-effective strategy to promote physical activity in primary care, and that there is potential value in further research into the cost-effectiveness of brief (i.e., <30 minutes) and very brief (i.e., <5 minutes) pedometer interventions in this setting. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effectiveness of a facebook-delivered physical activity intervention for post-partum women: a randomized controlled trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernot, Jocelyn; Olds, Tim; Lewis, Lucy K; Maher, Carol

    2013-05-29

    Physical activity is reduced during the post-partum period. Facebook is frequently used by Australian mothers, and offers flexibility, high levels of engagement and the ability to disseminate information and advice via social contacts. The Mums Step it Up Program is a newly developed 50 day team-based physical activity intervention delivered via a Facebook app. The program involves post-partum women working in teams of 4-8 friends aiming to achieve 10,000 steps per day measured by a pedometer. Women are encouraged to use the app to log their daily steps and undertake social and supportive interactions with their friends and other participants. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of the Mums Step it Up Program. A sample of 126 women up to 12 months post-partum will be recruited through community-based health and family services. Participants will be randomly allocated into one of three groups: control, pedometer only and the Mums Step it Up Program. Assessments will be completed at baseline, 6 weeks and 6 months. The primary outcome (objective physical activity) and the secondary outcomes (sleep quality and quantity, depressive symptoms, weight and quality of life) will be used to determine the effectiveness of the Mums Step it Up Program compared with the control and pedometer only groups. Analyses will be undertaken on an intention-to-treat-basis using random effects mixed modeling. The effect of theorized mediators (physical activity attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control) will also be examined. This study will provide information about the potential of a Facebook app for the delivery of health behavior interventions. If this intervention proves to be effective it will be released on a mass scale and promoted to the general public. Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register: ACTRN12613000069752.

  4. Cost Effectiveness of Using Array-CGH for Diagnosing Learning Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagoo, G S; Mohammed, S; Barton, G; Norbury, G; Ahn, J W; Ogilvie, C M; Kroese, M

    2015-08-01

    To undertake a cost-effectiveness analysis of using microarray comparative genomic hybridisation (array-CGH) as a first-line test versus as a second-line test for the diagnosis of causal chromosomal abnormalities in patients referred to a NHS clinical genetics service in the U.K. with idiopathic learning disability, developmental delay and/or congenital anomalies. A cost-effectiveness study was conducted. The perspective is that of a U.K. NHS clinical genetics service provider (with respect to both costs and outcomes). A cohort of patients (n = 1590) referred for array-CGH testing of undiagnosed learning disability and developmental delay by a single NHS regional clinical genetics service (South East Thames Regional Genetics Service), were split into a before-and-after design where 742 patients had array-CGH as a second-line test (before group-comparator intervention) and 848 patients had array-CGH as a first-line test (after group-evaluated intervention). The mean costs were calculated from the clinical genetics testing pathway constructed for each patient including the costs of genetic testing undertaken and clinical appointments scheduled. The outcome was the number of diagnoses each intervention produced so that a mean cost-per-diagnosis could be calculated. The cost effectiveness of the two interventions was calculated as an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio to produce an incremental cost-per-diagnosis (in 2013 GBP). Sensitivity analyses were conducted by altering both costs and effects to check the validity of the outcome. The incremental mean cost of testing patients using the first-line testing strategy was -GBP241.56 (95% CIs -GBP256.93 to -GBP226.19) and the incremental mean gain in the percentage diagnoses was 0.39% (95% CIs -2.73 to 3.51%), which equates to an additional 1 diagnosis per 256 patients tested. This cost-effectiveness study comparing these two strategies estimates that array-CGH first-line testing dominates second-line testing because it

  5. Placebo Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the placebo. Some people wonder whether it is fair or ethical to give a placebo treatment to ... carefully done using a placebo, so that the true effect of the treatment can be fully understood. ...

  6. Effective Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Effective Parenting Page Content Article Body Now that our children ... school play and his soccer games. Your Current Parenting Experiences Spend some time thinking about how you ...

  7. Biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, K.R.

    1973-01-01

    Following an introduction into the field of cellular radiation effect considering the most important experimental results, the biological significance of the colony formation ability is brought out. The inactivation concept of stem cells does not only prove to be good, according to the present results, in the interpretation of the pathogenesis of acute radiation effects on moult tissue, it also enables chronicle radiation injuries to be interpreted through changes in the fibrous part of the organs. Radiation therapy of tumours can also be explained to a large extent by the radiation effect on the unlimited reproductiveness of tumour cells. The more or less similar dose effect curves for healthy and tumour tissue in practice lead to intermittent irradiation. The dependence of the intermittent doses and intervals on factors such as Elkind recovery, synchronisation, redistribution, reoxygenation, repopulation and regeneration are reviewed. (ORU/LH) [de

  8. Facebook Effect

    OpenAIRE

    STOICA, Anamaria

    2011-01-01

    This research paper is intended to understand the effects that Facebook, the social networking site has upon us, whether it influences our lives in a good or in a bad way. In order to understand the Facebook Effect we are trying to see how it impacts our lives at economic level,social level, political level, terminology level , psychological level and cultural level . Starting from the question : What does Facebook want? we found several answers consisting in pros and cons of this phenomenon ...

  9. Effective Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Jacob

    To investigate the use of VTLoE as a basis for formal derivation of functional programs with effects. As a part of the process, a number of issues central to effective formal programming are considered. In particular it is considered how to develop a proof system suitable for pratical reasoning......, how to implement this system in the generic proof assistant Isabelle and finally how to apply the logic and the implementation to programming....

  10. Protocol for a systematic review of the effects of schools and school-environment interventions on health: evidence mapping and syntheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitehead Margaret

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schools may have important effects on students' and staff's health. Rather than treating schools merely as sites for health education, 'school-environment' interventions treat schools as settings which influence health. Evidence concerning the effects of such interventions has not been recently synthesised. Methods/design Systematic review aiming to map and synthesise evidence on what theories and conceptual frameworks are most commonly used to inform school-environment interventions or explain school-level influences on health; what effects school-environment interventions have on health/health inequalities; how feasible and acceptable are school-environment interventions; what effects other school-level factors have on health; and through what processes school-level influences affect health. We will examine interventions aiming to promote health by modifying schools' physical, social or cultural environment via actions focused on school policies and practices relating to education, pastoral care and other aspects of schools beyond merely providing health education. Participants are staff and students age 4-18 years. We will review published research unrestricted by language, year or source. Searching will involve electronic databases including Embase, ERIC, PubMed, PsycInfo and Social Science Citation Index using natural-language phrases plus reference/citation checking. Stage 1 will map studies descriptively by focus and methods. Stage 2 will involve additional inclusion criteria, quality assessment and data extraction undertaken by two reviewers in parallel. Evidence will be synthesised narratively and statistically where appropriate (undertaking subgroup analyses and meta-regression and where no significant heterogeneity of effect sizes is found, pooling these to calculate a final effect size. Discussion We anticipate: finding a large number of studies missed by previous reviews; that non-intervention studies of school

  11. The effect of almond consumption on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Muqing; Fu, Jinde; Zhou, Lili; Gao, Hong; Fan, Chenguang; Shao, Jing; Xu, Baohua; Wang, Qirong; Li, Juntao; Huang, Guangwei; Lapsley, Karen; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Chen, C-Y Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Almonds are a healthy tree nut food with high nutrient density. Their consumption has been shown to ameliorate oxidative stress, inflammation, etc. The objective of the study was to examine the effect of almonds on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes. A 10-week crossover, placebo controlled study was conducted. Eight trained male cyclists and two triathletes were randomly assigned to consume 75 g/d whole almonds (ALM) or isocaloric cookies (COK) with equal subject number. They consumed the assigned food for 4 wks and then the alternate food for another 4 wks. They underwent 3 performance tests including 125-min steady status exercise (SS) and 20-min time trial (TT) on an indoor stationary trainer at the start of the study (BL) and at the end of each intervention phase. Venous blood was collected in the morning prior to the performance test for biochemical measurements and finger blood during the test for glucose determination. Carbohydrate and fat oxidation, energy expenditure, and oxygen use were calculated using respiratory gas analysis. ALM increased cycling distance during TT by 1.7 km as compared BL (21.9 vs. 20.2 km, P = 0.053) and COK increased 0.6 km (20.8 vs. 20.2 km, P > 0.05). ALM, but not COK, led to higher CHO and lower fat oxidation and less oxygen consumption during TT than BL (P  0.05) than BL, and a higher total antioxidant capacity than COK (P < 0.05). Whole almonds improved cycling distance and the elements related to endurance performance more than isocaloric cookies in trained athletes as some nutrients in almonds may contribute to CHO reservation and utilization and effective oxygen utilization. The results suggest that almonds can be incorporated into diets of those who undertake exercise training for performance improvement.

  12. Effect of a Hypocretin/Orexin Antagonist on Neurocogniive Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    caudal subdivisions of the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN) of the hypothalamus . Black bars depict group means for undisturbed rats, blue bars for SD rats...study and assessed the response to ALM and ZOL following lesions of the histaminergic tuberomammillary neurons (TMNx) of the posterior hypothalamus ...Report, it was necessary to update the In Vivo Cellular Neurophysiology Laboratory before undertaking the experiments for Task 6 so that we could

  13. Teaching company law to business students::an effective framework

    OpenAIRE

    Madhloom, Omar; Butler, Nicolette

    2015-01-01

    Business students learning company law face a number of unique challenges. Therefore, instructors who teach company law to business students must carefully consider how their courses will meet these unique needs. This article will reflect on the challenges faced by business students studying company law before going on to consider how these challenges can be overcome. This work emphasises the importance of focusing on the learning outcomes of business students undertaking company law and the ...

  14. A systematic review of cost-effectiveness studies of prevention and treatment for eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Long Khanh-Dao; Hay, Phillipa; Mihalopoulos, Cathrine

    2018-04-01

    Eating disorders are serious mental disorders and are associated with substantial economic and social burden. The aim of this study is to undertake a systematic review of the cost-effectiveness studies of both preventive and treatment interventions for eating disorder. Electronic databases (including the Cochrane Controlled Trial Register, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Academic Search Complete, Global Health, CINAHL complete, Health Business Elite, Econlit, Health Policy Reference Center and ERIC) were searched for published cost-effectiveness studies of eating disorder prevention and treatment including papers published up to January 2017. The quality of studies was assessed using the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) checklist. In all, 13 studies met the review inclusion criteria as full cost-effectiveness studies and 8 were published since 2011. The studies included three modelled and one trial-based study focused on prevention, two trial-based and one modelled study for anorexia nervosa treatment and three trial-based studies for bulimia nervosa treatment. The remaining studies targeted binge-eating disorder or non-specific eating disorder treatment. The average percent of CHEERS checklist items reported was 71% (standard deviation 21%). Eating disorder interventions were mainly cost-saving or more effective and more costly compared to comparators; however, some results did not reach statistical significance. In the two studies that achieved 100% CHEERS checklist, one study reported that a cognitive dissonance intervention might be cost-effective for prevention of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa with a 90% participation rate and the second study supported lisdexamfetamine to be cost-effective in the treatment of binge-eating disorder. Insufficient evidence for long-term cost-effectiveness (e.g. over 2 years) was found. Cost-effectiveness studies in eating disorder appear to be increasing in number over the last 6 years. Findings

  15. Genetic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Hiroo

    1975-01-01

    In 1948-1953 a large scale field survey was conducted to investigate the possible genetic effects of A-bomb radiation on over 70,000 pregnancy terminations in the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The indices of possible genetic effect including sex ratio, birth weight, frequency of malformation, stillbirth, neonatal death, deaths within 9 months and anthropometric measurements at 9 months of age for these children were investigated in relation to their parent's exposure status to the A-bomb. There were no detectable genetic effects in this sample, except for a slight change in sex ratio which was in the direction to be expected if exposure had induced sex-linked lethal mutations. However, continued study of the sex ratio, based upon birth certificates in Hiroshima and Nagasaki for 1954-1962, did not confirm the earlier trend. Mortality in these children of A-bomb survivors is being followed using a cohort of 54,000 subjects. No clearly significant effect of parental exposure on survival of the children has been demonstrated up to 1972 (age 17 on the average). On the basis of the regression data, the minimal genetic doubling dose of this type of radiation for mutations resulting in death is estimated at 46 rem for the father and 125 rem for the mother. (auth.)

  16. Treatment Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heckman, James J.; Lopes, Hedibert F.; Piatek, Rémi

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributes to the emerging Bayesian literature on treatment effects. It derives treatment parameters in the framework of a potential outcomes model with a treatment choice equation, where the correlation between the unobservable components of the model is driven by a low-dimensional v...... easily be applied....

  17. Ventilation Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mundt, M.; Mathisen, H. M.; Moser, M.

    Improving the ventilation effectiveness allows the indoor air quality to be significantly enhanced without the need for higher air changes in the building, thereby avoiding the higher costs and energy consumption associated with increasing the ventilation rates. This Guidebook provides easy-to-un...

  18. The effect of foot massage on long-term care staff working with older people with dementia: a pilot, parallel group, randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, Wendy; Cooke, Marie; O'Dwyer, Siobhan T; Murfield, Jenny; Johnston, Amy; Sung, Billy

    2013-02-18

    Caring for a person with dementia can be physically and emotionally demanding, with many long-term care facility staff experiencing increased levels of stress and burnout. Massage has been shown to be one way in which nurses' stress can be reduced. However, no research has been conducted to explore its effectiveness for care staff working with older people with dementia in long-term care facilities. This was a pilot, parallel group, randomized controlled trial aimed at exploring feasibility for a larger randomized controlled trial. Nineteen staff, providing direct care to residents with dementia and regularly working ≥ two day-shifts a week, from one long-term care facility in Queensland (Australia), were randomized into either a foot massage intervention (n=9) or a silent resting control (n=10). Each respective session lasted for 10-min, and participants could receive up to three sessions a week, during their allocated shift, over four-weeks. At pre- and post-intervention, participants were assessed on self-report outcome measures that rated mood state and experiences of working with people with dementia. Immediately before and after each intervention/control session, participants had their blood pressure and anxiety measured. An Intention To Treat framework was applied to the analyses. Individual qualitative interviews were also undertaken to explore participants' perceptions of the intervention. The results indicate the feasibility of undertaking such a study in terms of: recruitment; the intervention; timing of intervention; and completion rates. A change in the intervention indicated the importance of a quiet, restful environment when undertaking a relaxation intervention. For the psychological measures, although there were trends indicating improvement in mood there was no significant difference between groups when comparing their pre- and post- scores. There were significant differences between groups for diastolic blood pressure (p= 0.04, partial η2

  19. The Effects of Sex Education on Psychological Counselling Students in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çuhadaroglu, Alper

    2017-01-01

    Sex education is not included in Turkey's national curriculum and is rarely referenced in school and university curricula. This is even true for those undertaking training in psychological counselling where the need may be great. Only a very few university schools of education offer an elective sex education course. A group of 64 guidance and…

  20. In or Out: The Effect of Euro Membership on the Exercise of Real Business Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Pantzalis, Christos

    2011-01-01

    Euro countries) more inclined than non-Euro firms (firms based in one of the three non-Euro countries: UK, Sweden and Denmark) to undertake various forms of real actions (exercise real business options) such as to establish alliances / partnerships, to enter new markets / market segments, to switch...

  1. Health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahieu, L.

    1998-01-01

    The main objectives of research in the field of health effects at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are: (1) to study cancer mortality and morbidity in nuclear workers in Belgium; (2) to document the feasibility of retrospective cohort studies in Belgium; (3) to participate in the IARC study; (4) to elucidate the mechanisms of the effects of ionizing radiation on the mammalian embryo during the early phases of its development; (5) to assess the genetic risks of material exposure to ionizing radiation; (6) to elucidate the cellular mechanisms leading to brain damage after prenatal irradiation; (7) to advise authorities and to provide the general population with adequate information concerning the health risk arising from radiation exposure. Progress and major achievements in these topical areas for 1997 are reported

  2. Health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahieu, L

    1998-07-01

    The main objectives of research in the field of health effects at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are: (1) to study cancer mortality and morbidity in nuclear workers in Belgium; (2) to document the feasibility of retrospective cohort studies in Belgium; (3) to participate in the IARC study; (4) to elucidate the mechanisms of the effects of ionizing radiation on the mammalian embryo during the early phases of its development; (5) to assess the genetic risks of material exposure to ionizing radiation; (6) to elucidate the cellular mechanisms leading to brain damage after prenatal irradiation; (7) to advise authorities and to provide the general population with adequate information concerning the health risk arising from radiation exposure. Progress and major achievements in these topical areas for 1997 are reported.

  3. Preventing pressure ulcers--Are pressure-redistributing support surfaces effective? A Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Elizabeth; Jammali-Blasi, Asmara; Bell-Syer, Sally; Dumville, Jo; Cullum, Nicky

    2012-03-01

    To undertake a systematic review of the effectiveness of pressure redistributing support surfaces in the prevention of pressure ulcers. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Cochrane Wound Group Specialised Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE and EBSCO CINAHL. The reference sections of included trials were searched for further trials. Randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials, published or unpublished, which assessed the effects of support surfaces in preventing pressure ulcers (of any grade), in any patient group, in any setting compared to any other support surface, were sought. Two reviewers extracted and summarised details of eligible trials using a standardised form and assessed the methodological quality of each trial using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Fifty-three eligible trials were identified with a total of 16,285 study participants. Overall the risk of bias in the included trials was high. Pooled analysis showed that: (i) foam alternatives to the standard hospital foam mattress reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers in people at risk (RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.21-0.74) and Australian standard medical sheepskins prevent pressure ulcers compared to standard care (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.31-0.74). Pressure-redistributing overlays on the operating table compared to standard care reduce postoperative pressure ulcer incidence (RR 0.53, 95% CI 0.33-0.85). While there is good evidence that higher specification foam mattresses, sheepskins, and that some overlays in the operative setting are effective in preventing pressure ulcers, there is insufficient evidence to draw conclusions on the value of seat cushions, limb protectors and various constant low pressure devices. The relative merits of higher-tech constant low pressure and alternating pressure for prevention are unclear. More robust trials are required to address these research gaps. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A mixed-method systematic review to investigate the effect of group singing on health related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagon, Carly; Gale, Nichola; Enright, Stephanie; Mann, Mala; van Deursen, Robert

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the effect of group singing on health related quality of life (HRQoL) for adult, amateur singers with chronic health conditions. A literature search for experimental and observational studies and qualitative studies published before February 2014 was undertaken using the following databases: ASSIA (Proquest), CINAHL (Ebsco), EMBASE (OVID), HMIC (OVID), MEDLINE (OVID), MEDLINE in Process (OVID), OpenGrey, PsycINFO (OVID) and PubMed for Epub ahead of print studies. Social Science searches included: Web of Science, Proquest, and Scopus (Elsevier). The records were screened independently by two reviewers. Studies were critiqued using Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tools. The literature search identified 573 papers, from which 18 were included (5 quantitative, 5 qualitative, 8 mixed-methods studies). These included a variety of patient populations including chronic respiratory disease, neurological conditions and mental health. The quantitative studies lacked consistency: two of the seven controlled studies demonstrated additional HRQoL benefits with singing compared to controls, while three of six uncontrolled studies showed improved HRQoL. Qualitative methods were recorded in variable depth. The qualitative data presented a range of benefits of group singing including increased confidence, increased mood and social support. Few negative effects of singing were reported. This systematic review indicates that group singing interventions may have beneficial effects on HRQoL, anxiety, depression and mood. Studies were heterogeneous with significant methodological limitations, allowing only a weak recommendation for group singing as an intervention for adults with chronic health problems. The undertaking of larger controlled and in-depth qualitative studies is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Effect of Fluid Intake Following Dehydration on Subsequent Athletic and Cognitive Performance: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Danielle; Desbrow, Ben; Irwin, Christopher

    2017-12-01

    The deleterious effects of dehydration on athletic and cognitive performance have been well documented. As such, dehydrated individuals are advised to consume fluid in volumes equivalent to 1.25 to 1.5 L kg -1 body mass (BM) lost to restore body water content. However, individuals undertaking subsequent activity may have limited time to consume fluid. Within this context, the impact of fluid intake practices is unclear. This systematic review investigated the effect of fluid consumption following a period of dehydration on subsequent athletic and cognitive performance. PubMed (MEDLINE), Web of Science (via Thomas Reuters) and Scopus databases were searched for articles reporting on athletic (categorized as: continuous, intermittent, resistance, sport-specific and balance exercise) or cognitive performance following dehydration of participants under control (no fluid) and intervention (fluid intake) conditions. Meta-analytic procedures determined intervention efficacy for continuous exercise performance. Sixty-four trials (n = 643 participants) derived from 42 publications were reviewed. Dehydration decreased BM by 1.3-4.2%, and fluid intake was equivalent to 0.4-1.55 L kg -1 BM lost. Fluid intake significantly improved continuous exercise performance (22 trials), Hedges' g = 0.46, 95% CI 0.32, 0.61. Improvement was greatest when exercise was performed in hotter environments and over longer durations. The volume or timing of fluid consumption did not influence the magnitude of this effect. Evidence indicating a benefit of fluid intake on intermittent (10 trials), resistance (9 trials), sport-specific (6 trials) and balance (2 trials) exercise and on cognitive performance (15 trials) was less apparent and requires further elucidation. Fluid consumption following dehydration may improve continuous exercise performance under heat stress conditions, even when the body water deficit is modest and fluid intake is inadequate for complete rehydration.

  6. Effect of strength and high-intensity training on jumping, sprinting, and intermittent endurance performance in prepubertal soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrete, Carlos; Requena, Bernardo; Suarez-Arrones, Luís; de Villarreal, Eduardo Sáez

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 26-week on-field combined strength and high-intensity training on the physical performance capacity among prepubertal soccer players who were undertaking a competitive phase of training. Twenty-four prepubertal soccer players between the age of 8 and 9 years were randomly assigned to 2 groups: a control (C; n = 13) and an experimental group (S; n = 11). Both groups performed an identical soccer-training program, whereas the S group also performed combined strength and high-intensity training before the soccer-specific training. The 15-m sprint time (seconds), countermovement jump (CMJ) displacement, Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test (Yo-Yo IE), and Sit and Reach flexibility were each measured before (baseline) and after 9 (T2), 18 (T3), and 26 weeks (posttest) of training. There were no significant differences between the groups in any of the variables tested at baseline. After 26 weeks, significant improvements were found in the CMJ (6.72%; effect size [ES] = 0.37), Yo-Yo IE (49.57%, ES = 1.39), and Flexibility (7.26%; ES = 0.37) variables for the S group. Conversely, significant decreases were noted for the CMJ (-10.82%; ES = 0.61) and flexibility (-13.09%; ES = 0.94) variables in the C group. A significant negative correlation was found between 15-m sprint time and CMJ (r = -0.77) and Yo-Yo IE (r = -0.77) in the S group. Specific combined strength and high-intensity training in prepubertal soccer players for 26 weeks produced a positive effect on performance qualities highly specific to soccer. Therefore, we propose modifications to current training methodology for prepubertal soccer players to include strength and high-intensity training for athlete preparation in this sport.

  7. A simulation study on estimating biomarker-treatment interaction effects in randomized trials with prognostic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Bernhard; Ulm, Kurt

    2018-02-20

    To individualize treatment decisions based on patient characteristics, identification of an interaction between a biomarker and treatment is necessary. Often such potential interactions are analysed using data from randomized clinical trials intended for comparison of two treatments. Tests of interactions are often lacking statistical power and we investigated if and how a consideration of further prognostic variables can improve power and decrease the bias of estimated biomarker-treatment interactions in randomized clinical trials with time-to-event outcomes. A simulation study was performed to assess how prognostic factors affect the estimate of the biomarker-treatment interaction for a time-to-event outcome, when different approaches, like ignoring other prognostic factors, including all available covariates or using variable selection strategies, are applied. Different scenarios regarding the proportion of censored observations, the correlation structure between the covariate of interest and further potential prognostic variables, and the strength of the interaction were considered. The simulation study revealed that in a regression model for estimating a biomarker-treatment interaction, the probability of detecting a biomarker-treatment interaction can be increased by including prognostic variables that are associated with the outcome, and that the interaction estimate is biased when relevant prognostic variables are not considered. However, the probability of a false-positive finding increases if too many potential predictors are included or if variable selection is performed inadequately. We recommend undertaking an adequate literature search before data analysis to derive information about potential prognostic variables and to gain power for detecting true interaction effects and pre-specifying analyses to avoid selective reporting and increased false-positive rates.

  8. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring for the Effective Management of Antihypertensive Drug Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Eoin; Dolan, Eamon

    2016-10-01

    This purpose of this article is to review the current recommendations for ambulatory blood pressure measurement (ABPM) and the use of ABPM in assessing treatment. We review current international guidelines and undertake a critical review of evidence supporting the clinical use of ABPM in effectively managing antihypertensive drug treatment. Current guidelines emphasize the diagnostic superiority of ABPM, mainly from the ability of the technique to identify sustained hypertension by allowing for the exclusion of white-coat hypertension and by demonstrating the presence of masked hypertension. ABPM also offers diagnostic insights into nocturnal patterns of blood pressure, such as dipping and nondipping, reverse dipping, and excessive dipping, and the presence of nocturnal hypertension; although less attention is given to the nocturnal behavior of blood pressure in clinical practice, the nocturnal patterns of blood pressure have particular relevance in assessing the response to blood pressure-lowering medication. Surprisingly, although the current guidelines give detailed recommendations on the diagnostic potential and use of ABPM, there are scant recommendations on the benefits and application of the technique for the initiation of blood pressure-lowering therapy in clinical practice and virtually no recommendations on how it might be used to assess the efficacy of drug treatment. In view of a deficiency in the literature on the role of ABPM in assess the efficacy of drug treatment, we put forward proposals to correct this deficiency and guide the prescribing physician on the most appropriate drug administration and dosage over time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Occupational exposure to radiation in the United Kingdom and its contribution to the genetically effective dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binks, W.; Marley, W.G.

    1960-01-01

    It is now the common practice in the United Kingdom for persons who are exposed occupationally to ionizing radiations to be subjected to continuous individual monitoring in order to ensure that the doses that they receive from sources external to the body do not exceed the levels which are regarded as acceptable. In the operation of large-scale monitoring services such as are provided by the Radiological Protection Service (R.P.S.) and by the establishments of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (U.K.A.E.A.) there is no satisfactory alternative to the use of photographic film, bearing in mind such aspects as simplicity, reliability, accuracy, cheapness, ease of postal transmission of the films in the special holders, and availability of a durable record of the dose received. The Radiological Protection Service provides a film badge service which is widely used by industry. This organization also provides film badges for about one-third of the occupationally exposed persons in National Health Service hospitals; for the remaining hospital workers the majority of establishments undertake their own monitoring arrangements. The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority provides its own film badge services for all exposed workers. It is the purpose of this report to summarize the information obtained by the R.P.S. and the U.K.A.E.A. regarding the doses received by occupationally exposed persons. The total genetically effective dose received by the population from occupational exposure is also compared with that received from natural background radiation. This report also summarizes the measurements made by the R.P.S. and the U.K.A.E.A. to check the internal contamination of the body in cases where radioactivity has been ingested or inhaled

  10. Does parental monitoring moderate the relationship between bullying and adolescent nonsuicidal self-injury and suicidal behavior? A community-based self-report study of adolescents in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantzer, Vanessa; Haffner, Johann; Parzer, Peter; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael

    2015-06-24

    Being a victim of bullying in school is clearly linked to various social, emotional, and behavioral problems including self-harm behavior. However, it is not known whether even occasional victimization has similar negative consequences and whether protective factors such as social support may prevent those harmful developments. The present study therefore focuses on the nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal behavior (SB) in victims of bullying and the potentially moderating effect of parental monitoring. In all, a cross-sectional sample of 647 adolescents (mean age 12.8 years) were surveyed concerning bullying experiences, NSSI and SB, and parental monitoring. A total of 14.4% of respondents reported being a victim of frequent bullying in the past few months (with verbal and social bullying playing the most important role), which increased the risks of both NSSI (OR = 11.75) and SB (OR = 6.08). This relationship could also be shown for occasional victims of bullying (35.6%), although to a lesser extent. Parental monitoring had a significant protective effect on SB in victims of occasional bullying. However, parental monitoring did not show any protective effect in victims of repetitive bullying. Victims of bullying show a substantial risk for engaging in self-harm behavior. Therefore, the dissemination of anti-bullying programs in schools would probably also prevent such disorders. Parental participation in school-based prevention may increase its effect; this also matches the results of the present study, showing that parental monitoring may be able to buffer the negative effects of bullying victimization, at least to a certain degree.

  11. Practical assessment on the run – iPads as an effective mobile and paperless tool in physical education and teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roslyn Franklin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the use of iPads in the assessment of predominantly second year Bachelor of Education (Primary/Early Childhood pre-service teachers undertaking a physical education and health unit. Within this unit, practical assessment tasks are graded by tutors in a variety of indoor and outdoor settings. The main barriers for the lecturer or tutor for effective assessment in these contexts include limited time to assess and the provision of explicit feedback for large numbers of students, complex assessment procedures, overwhelming record-keeping and assessing students without distracting from the performance being presented. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate whether incorporating mobile technologies such as iPads to access online rubrics within the Blackboard environment would enhance and simplify the assessment process. Results from the findings indicate that using iPads to access online rubrics was successful in streamlining the assessment process because it provided pre-service teachers with immediate and explicit feedback. In addition, tutors experienced a reduction in the amount of time required for the same workload by allowing quicker forms of feedback via the iPad dictation function. These outcomes have future implications and potential for mobile paperless assessment in other disciplines such as health, environmental science and engineering.

  12. Centers for Disease Control review panel's recommendations on health effects and epidemiological studies of operations at the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina. Public comment and meeting report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-05-01

    Based on the request of the US Department of Energy, the Centers for Disease Control of the US Department of Health and Human Services organized a panel to review the feasibility and usefulness of conducting further epidemiologic studies of delayed health effects around the Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant. The review and recommendations of the panel were documented in a report entitled Epidemiologic Projects Considered Possible to Undertake in Populations Around the Savannah River Plant. On November 30, 1984, the Department of Energy announced in the Federal Register (49 FR 47095) the conduct of a public meeting and a 30-day public comment period between December 1 and December 30, 1984, on the recommendations of the review panel. Based on the requests of individuals and representatives of organizations attending the December 18, 1984, public meetings, the Department of Energy subsequently announced in the Federal Register on December 31, 1984 (49 FR 50767) an extension of the public comment period to January 31, 1985. This report documents the public meeting and comment process, and provides responses to the public comments that were submitted during this process. In addition, this report contains the Department of Energy's position based on the recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control review panel and the public comments. 23 refs., 16 tabs

  13. Religiousness/spirituality do not necessarily matter: Effect on risk perception and adaptive strategies in the semi-arid region of NE Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Célia da Silva Oliveira

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The impact of environmental changes is a major threat to livelihoods, especially for small farmers in semi-arid regions. Therefore, local communities undertake efforts to cope with these new environmental conditions and researchers try to understand the limits of possible adaptive strategies. Religiousness/spirituality are two important factors that can influence environmental awareness and adaptive responses to risks caused by natural phenomena. However, studies addressing the relationship between such factors are either scarce or based on anecdotal information. This article discusses the influence of religiousness/spirituality on the perception of environmental risks by farmers in a rural community in Brazil's northeast region, and their knowledge of adaptive strategies to deal with such concerns. Religiousness/spirituality can positively or negatively influence the perception of risk and knowledge of adaptive strategies when facing environmental uncertainty. We note that dimensions of religiousness/spirituality such as religious history, values/beliefs, commitment, and daily spiritual experiences influence wealth and the sharing of natural perceived risks, as well as adaptive strategies. Based on our results, we conclude that religiousness/spirituality dimensions exert both positive and negative effects on the perception of environmental risks and ways of coping with the impacts of rapid environmental changes.

  14. Social multiplier effects: academics' and practitioners' perspective on the benefits of a tuberculosis operational research capacity-building program in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probandari, Ari; Mahendradhata, Yodi; Widjanarko, Bagoes; Alisjahbana, Bachti

    2017-01-01

    The Tuberculosis Operational Research Group (TORG) implemented a capacity-building model involving academics and practitioners (i.e. clinicians or program staff) in an operational research (OR) team in Indonesia. This study explored academics' and practitioners' perspectives regarding the benefits of participating in a tuberculosis (TB) OR capacity-building program in Indonesia. We conducted a qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with 36 academics and 23 practitioners undertaking the TORG capacity-building program. We asked open-ended questions about their experience of the program. Data were analyzed via content analysis. The findings demonstrated the social multiplier effects of the OR capacity-building program. Both academics and practitioners reported perceived improvements in research knowledge, skills, and experience, and described additional individual- and institutional-level benefits. The individual-level benefits level included improvements in understanding of the TB program, motivation for research and self-satisfaction, the development/enhancement of individual networking, receipt of recognition, and new opportunities. The additional benefits reported at an institutional level included improvement in research curricula, in-house training, and program management and the development/enhancement of institutional partnerships. The program improved not only individuals' capacity for conducting OR but also the quality of the TB program management and public health education. OR should be included in research methodology curricula for postgraduate public health/disease control programs. The capacity-building model, in which academics and program staff collaborated within an OR team, should be promoted.

  15. Short-term effects of floods on Japanese encephalitis in Nanchong, China, 2007-2012: A time-stratified case-crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feifei; Liu, Zhidong; Zhang, Caixia; Jiang, Baofa

    2016-09-01

    This time-stratified case-crossover study aimed to quantify the impact of floods on daily Japanese encephalitis (JE) cases from 2007 to 2012 in Nanchong city of Sichuan Province, China. Using conditional logistic regression analysis, we calculated the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) at different lagged days, adjusting for daily average temperature (AT) and daily average relative humidity (ARH). A total of 370 JE cases were notified during the study period, with the median patient age being 4.2years. The seasonal pattern of JE cases clustered in July and August during the study period. Floods were significantly associated with an increased number of JE cases from lag 23 to lag 24, with the strongest lag effect at lag 23 (OR=2.00, 95% CI: 1.14-3.52). Similarly, AT and ARH were positively associated with daily JE cases from lag 0 to lag 8 and from lag 0 to lag 9, respectively. Floods, with AT and ARH, can be used to forecast JE outbreaks in the study area. Based on the results of this study, recommendations include undertaking control measures before the number of cases increases, especially for regions with similar geographic, climatic, and socio-economic conditions as those in the study area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effective Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverly A. King Miller

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the educational strategies that can be used to support female students of African descent in their persistence in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM education and careers. STEM careers have historically been White male and White female dominated, which has yielded an underrepresentation of those of African descent. Drawing from a grounded qualitative case study, the data used for this article share the responses of Afro-Caribbean females in STEM who have immigrated to the United States from the country of Panama. As Latinas, they are representative of the changing face in the American educational system—bilingual, multicultural, and of African descent. The strategies offered reflect their own teaching practices, their former teachers, or experiences with their children’s teachers. What emerged were descriptions of four strategies and behaviors of effective teachers that align with Ladson-Billings’s culturally relevant pedagogy and Gay’s culturally responsive teaching. Included in the findings are the high standards and expectations embodied by effective teachers that serve to positively inspire their students. Culturally responsive teachers create an atmosphere of learning that supports academic success, conveying their belief in their students’ ability based upon their own reflectivity. As the U.S. educational system continues to become multilingual and multicultural, there is need for strategies for the successful inclusion and progression of students in STEM educational pathways and careers. This will occur as teachers challenge themselves to be the agents of change in the lives of their students.

  17. The efficacy of teachers' responses to incidents of bullying and victimization: The mediational role of moral disengagement for bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campaert, Kristel; Nocentini, Annalaura; Menesini, Ersilia

    2017-09-01

    Teachers respond differently to bullying and victimization. Socio-cognitive and moral domain theory suggest that students process teachers' behavior cognitively and that teachers' responses to incidents of bullying and victimization could affect students' level of moral disengagement. We examined the mediating effect of students' moral disengagement between types of teachers' responses to situations of bullying and victimization and individual bullying using multilevel mediation modelling. Participants were 609 students (50% boys, age M = 11.47, SD = 1.14) of central Italy, nested in 34 classes. Students rated the frequency of self-reported bullying and of teachers' responses to incidents of bullying and victimization on a 5-point Likert scale. Teachers' responses to bullying included non-intervention, mediation, group discussion, and sanctions. Teachers' responses to victimization included non-intervention, mediation, group discussion, and victim support. Results indicated that in the teachers' responses to incidents of bullying model, a significant indirect effect of non-intervention (β = .03; 95%CI [.01, .05]) and of sanctions (β = -.02; 95%CI [-.04, -.01]) on bullying through moral disengagement was found at the individual level. Similarly, in the model on teachers' responses toward victims there was a significant indirect effect through moral disengagement of non-intervention (β = .03; 95%CI [.02, .04]) and victim support (β = -.01; 95%CI [-.02, -.001]). At the class level there were no significant indirect effects. In sum, results indicated that moral disengagement is an important mediator at the individual level and suggest including teachers in anti-bullying interventions with a specific focus on their role for moral development. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Effective Protection or Effective Combat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemberg-Pedersen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    and multilocal character of European border control. This is then elaborated via a critical gaze at several attempts to defi ne how European states have attempted to externalize migration control to other countries in terms of supranational policy drives, ripple and mimicry effects. This then facilitates a more...... nuanced understanding of externalization. Since border control reterritorializes geographic spaces according to the mobility of the people through them, it follows that the EU’s border control, and with it also aspects of the union’s asylum policy, have both biopolitical and geopolitical implications...

  19. Condom effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porche, D J

    1998-01-01

    People who choose not to abstain from sexual intercourse can use barrier contraceptive methods, such as condoms, to reduce their risk of contracting HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Health care providers who provide safer sex education and counseling should provide information on condoms as a way of reducing the risk of HIV/STD transmission. Since latex condoms are regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as medical devices, FDA regulations govern latex condom manufacturing and testing in accordance with stringent national standards. The FDA randomly tests imported condoms according to the same stringent quality control standards as US-produced condoms. Condom effectiveness, however, depends upon their correct and consistent use during every sexual act. Relevant data and guidelines are presented on the correct use of male latex and female polyurethane condoms. Both male latex and female polyurethane condoms can prevent the transmission of HIV and other STDs.

  20. Radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collings, E.W.

    1986-01-01

    An important cause of deterioration in superconducting magnets intended for high-energy physics and fusion-reactor applications is radiation damage. The present chapter deals chiefly with the effects of electron, proton, gamma and neutron irradiation on the properties of stabilized Ti-Nb-base composite superconductors. The authors examine the particle-accelerator environment, electron irradiation of Ti-Nb superconductor, proton irradiation of Ti-Nb superconductor and its stabilizer, and deuteron irradiation of Ti-Nb superconductor. A section discussing the fusion reactor environment in general is presented, and the two principal classes of fusion reactor based on the magnetic-confinement concept, namely the tokamak and the mirrormachine are examined. Also discussed is neutron irradiation of Cu/TiNb composite superconductors and critical current density of neutronirradiated Ti-Nb. Finally, radiation damage to stabilizer and insulating materials is described

  1. Health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahieu, L.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of the research in the field of epidemiology , performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are (1) to study cancer mortality and morbidity in nuclear workers in Belgium; (2) to document the feasibility of retrospective cohort studies in Belgium; (3) to participate in the IARC study. For radiobiology, the main objectives are: (1) to elucidate the mechanisms of the effects of ionizing radiation on the mammalian embryo during the early phase of its development, (2) to assess the genetic risks of maternal exposure to ionizing radiation, (3) to elucidate the mechanisms by which damage to the brain and mental retardation are caused in man after prenatal irradiation. The main achievements in these domains for 1997 are presented

  2. Cost-effectiveness analysis of radon remediation in schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, C.A.; Gray, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Indoor radon is an important source of radiation dosage in the general population and has been recognised as a world-wide environmental and public health challenge. Governments in many Western and Eastern European and North American countries are undertaking active radon-risk reduction policies, including the remediation of existing residential and work place building stocks (1). These endeavours include a priority of remediating school buildings. Epidemiological and technical radon research has produced information which has enabled attention to be turned to specific effectiveness and optimisation questions regarding radon identification and remediation programmes in buildings, including schools. Decision making about policy implementation has been an integral part of these programmes and questions have been raised about the economic implications of the regulations and optimisation strategies for workplace action level policy (2,3). (the action level applied to schools is 400 Bq m -3 ). No previous study has estimated the cost-effectiveness of a radon remediation programme for schools using the methodological framework now considered appropriate in the economic evaluation of health interventions. It is imperative that this should be done, in order that the resources required to obtain health gain from radon remediation in schools can be systematically compared with equivalent data for other health interventions and radon remediation programmes. In this study a cost-effectiveness analysis of radon remediation in schools was undertaken, using the best available national data and information from Northamptonshire on the costs and effectiveness of radon identification and remediation in schools, and the costs and health impact of lung cancer cases. A model based on data from Northamptonshire is presented (where 6.3% of residential stock is over 200 Bq m -3 ). The resultant cost-effectiveness ratio was pound 7,550 per life year gained in pound 1997. Results from the

  3. Effects of potassium channel opener on the kinetics of thallium-201 in in-vitro and in-vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.; Kim, E. J.; Ahn, B. C.; Chae, S. C.; Lee, K. B. [College of Medicine, Kyungpook National Univ., Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, C. K. [Mt. Sinai Medical School, New York (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Potassium channel opener (K-opener) opens membrane ATP-sensitive K{sup +}-channel and induces and increase in potassium efflux from cells. K-openers are powerful smooth muscle relaxants and currently used as antihypertensive, antianginal drugs or bronchodilators in clinic. Pharmacologic potency of newly synthesized K-opener is being evaluated with efflux capacity of preincubated Rb-83 from the isolated aortic vascular tissue preparation. Thallium has similar characteristics to those of rubidium and potassium in vivo. To evaluate the effect of pinacidil (a potent K-opener) on Tl-201 biokinetics, we have performed uptake/washout studies in cultured myocytes, and mice biodistribution study. Primary culture of spontaneous contracting myocytes was undertake from hearts of newborn Sprague-Dawley rat. Different concentration of pinacidil (100nM or 10uM) was co-incubated with Tl-201 in HBSS buffer to evaluate its effect on cellular uptake, or challenged to myocyte preparations pre-incubated with Tl-201 for washout study. Pinacidil was injected into mice simultaneous or 10-min after Tl-201 injection, and organ uptake and whole body retention ratio was measured using gamma counter or dose calibrator. Co-incubation of pinacidil with Tl-201 resulted in a decrease in Tl uptake into myocytes by 1.6 - 2.5 times, and an increase in washout by 1.6 - 3.1 times. Pinacidil injection resulted in mild decrease in blood, heart and liver uptake in mice, bur renal uptake was markedly decreased in a dose dependent manner. These results suggest that the pinacidil Tl-201 kinetics and may potentially affect the interpretation of Tl-201 myocardial imaging.

  4. Vocational and General Education of Girls and Boys in Tunisia: The Effects of Income and Parental Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Siala

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Throughout Tunisia, basic education is compulsory. Children are required to enroll for at least 9 years from age 6. This paper examines gender differences in education choice of upper basic education of youths aged 15–24 in Tunisia. To investigate the factors that influence an individual’s choice between vocational education, general education (secondary and high education and leaving school, the paper estimates a multinomial probit model of education choice. We focus on the impact of household income, parental education, sector of economic activity of father, household size, urban location and region of residence on investments in children. These issues are addressed using data from the 2010 National PopulationEmployment Survey that provided information on educational attainment and vocational training of more than 55,000 youths aged 15-24. The findings of this paper suggest that there are gender differences in education choice. Increases in permanent income contribute more to the probabilities of the two types of education of girls than of boys. Parental education has a positive significant effect on their attitudes towards children education and the impact of mother’s higher education was more important for the education of boys than of girls. While, father’s coefficient estimates show the relative benefit to girls general education. Children whose fathers work in agriculture are at disadvantage. The negative effect on girls’ education was larger than on boys’ at the two streams of education. The coefficient estimates on the manufacturing sector increase the probabilities of receiving general education and decrease the probabilities of undertaking vocational education for both girls and boys.

  5. The effectiveness of a weight loss diet in a group of overweight and obese women with recurrent depressive disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Stefańska

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The research conducted among patients with depression shows that such patients commit a range of nutritional mistakes which may predispose them to the development of many diseases including obesity and its complications. Aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of a balanced weight loss diet in a group of women with recurrent depressive disorders. Material and methods : 60 women suffering from depression, aged 41-64 (mean 52 ±5.3 on a six-month weight loss diet took part in the study. The patients’ nutrition was assessed both in terms of quality and quantity, they were also subjected to anthropometric tests and their body composition was analysed. Results: An average reduction in the women’s body weight was 4.1 ±3.1 kg. The percentage content of the fatty tissue was reduced by 2.5 ±1.1% on average after modification of the nutrition (a statistically significant decrease in the frequency of wheat bread, cream, fat pork and eggs was observed. A considerable reduction in the mean energy value of the diet and a decrease in the total fat supply was also implemented. Conclusions : It seems that the dietary procedure which is aimed at obtaining the most advantageous effects of the reduction in the body mass of obese patients suffering from depression should be based not only on proper selection of food products and reduction in the energy value of the diet, but it should also take into account actions aimed at introducing permanent lifestyle changes including increased motivation of the patients to undertake physical activity.

  6. Is the time between onset of pain and restoration of patency of infarct-related artery shortened in patients with myocardial infarction? The effects of the Kielce Region System for Optimal Management of Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Sadowski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : The importance of delay in the restoration of infarct-related artery patency in patients with myocardial infarction was discussed, and actions were undertaken in the Kielce Region aimed at shortening this time within the System for Optimal Management of Acute Myocardial Infarction. Aim of the research: To evaluate the effectiveness of shortening time delays during transport of patients and diagnostics of myocardial infarction in the Kielce Region. Material and methods: Time delays were analysed in 5,934 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI, hospitalised in cardiology wards with interventional cardiology on 24-hour duty, during the period 2008–2012. Time delays were analysed between the onset of myocardial infarction pain and undertaking treatment – T1 and T2 time – within which a patient with myocardial infarction, after admission to hospital, has intervention performed on infarct-related coronary artery. Results : During the period 2008–2012, the median T1 time was successfully shortened from 355 to 203 min, and the T2 time from 101 to 48 min. Conclusions: The effectiveness of the system was confirmed, and the necessity for further improvement of the system indicated.

  7. Thyroid effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxon, H.; Thomas, S.; Buncher, C.; Book, S.; Hertzberg, V.

    1985-01-01

    Risk coefficients for thyroid disorders have been developed for both 131 I and external x or gamma low-LET radiation. A linear, no-threshold model has been used for thyroid neoplasms. A linear, threshold model has been used for other thyroid disorders. Improvements since the Reactor Safety Study were made possible by relevant new animal and human data. Major changes are as follows. Animal data are used to supplement the human experience where necessary. A specific risk estimate model is used for thyroid neoplasms, which accounts for observed effects of gender and age at exposure on risk. For thyroid cancer, the basis of the risk coefficients is the experience of North Americans following x-irradiation for benign disease in childhood. This recognizes possible differences in susceptibility in people of different heritage. A minimum induction period for thyroid neoplasms following irradiation is used to define periods at risk. An upper bound risk coefficient for cancer induction following exposure to 131 I is based on human experience at relatively low dose exposures. While the overall lifetime risks of death due to thyroid cancer are consistent with projections by the ICRP, BEIR III, and UNSCEAR Reports, the current model permits greater flexibility in determining risk for population subgroups. 88 references, 8 tables

  8. Is transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) a cost-effective treatment in patients who are ineligible for surgical aortic valve replacement? A systematic review of economic evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, James; Mealing, Stuart; Thompson, Juliette; Moat, Neil; Kappetein, Pieter; Piazza, Nicolo; Busca, Rachele; Osnabrugge, Ruben

    2014-05-01

    Health Technology Assessment (HTA) agencies often undertake a review of economic evaluations of an intervention during an appraisal in order to identify published estimates of cost-effectiveness, to elicit comparisons with the results of their own model, and to support local reimbursement decision-making. The aim of this research is to determine whether Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) compared to medical management (MM) is cost-effective in patients ineligible for surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR), across different jurisdictions and country-specific evaluations. A systematic review of the literature from 2007-2012 was performed in the MEDLINE, MEDLINE in-process, EMBASE, and UK NHS EED databases according to standard methods, supplemented by a search of published HTA models. All identified publications were reviewed independently by two health economists. The British Medical Journal (BMJ) 35-point checklist for economic evaluations was used to assess study reporting. To compare results, incremental cost effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were converted to 2012 dollars using purchasing power parity (PPP) techniques. Six studies were identified representing five reimbursement jurisdictions (England/Wales, Scotland, the US, Canada, and Belgium) and different modeling techniques. The identified economic evaluations represent different willingness-to-pay thresholds, discount rates, medical costs, and healthcare systems. In addition, the model structures, time horizons, and cycle lengths varied. When adjusting for differences in currencies, the ICERs ranged from $27K-$65K per QALY gained. Despite notable differences in modeling approach, under the thresholds defined by using either the local threshold value or that recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) threshold value, each study showed that TAVI was likely to be a cost-effective intervention for patients ineligible for SAVR.

  9. Effects of Different Exercise Modalities on Fatigue in Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Androgen Deprivation Therapy: A Year-long Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taaffe, Dennis R; Newton, Robert U; Spry, Nigel; Joseph, David; Chambers, Suzanne K; Gardiner, Robert A; Wall, Brad A; Cormie, Prue; Bolam, Kate A; Galvão, Daniel A

    2017-08-01

    Physical exercise mitigates fatigue during androgen deprivation therapy (ADT); however, the effects of different exercise prescriptions are unknown. To determine the long-term effects of different exercise modes on fatigue in prostate cancer patients undergoing ADT. Between 2009 and 2012, 163 prostate cancer patients aged 43-90 y on ADT were randomised to exercise targeting the musculoskeletal system (impact loading+resistance training; ILRT; n=58), the cardiovascular and muscular systems (aerobic+resistance training; ART; n=54), or to usual care/delayed exercise (DEL; n=51) for 12 mo across university-affiliated exercise clinics in Australia. Supervised ILRT for 12 mo, supervised ART for 6 mo followed by a 6-mo home program, and DEL received a printed booklet on exercise information for 6 mo followed by 6-mo stationary cycling exercise. Fatigue was assessed using the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 36 and vitality using the Short Form-36. Analysis of variance was used to compare outcomes for groups at 6 mo and 12 mo. Fatigue was reduced (p=0.005) in ILRT at 6 mo and 12 mo (∼5 points), and in ART (p=0.005) and DEL (p=0.022) at 12 mo. Similarly, vitality increased for all groups (p≤0.001) at 12 mo (∼4 points). Those with the highest levels of fatigue and lowest vitality improved the most with exercise (p trend exercise modes have comparable effects on reducing fatigue and enhancing vitality during ADT. Patients with the highest levels of fatigue and lowest vitality had the greatest benefits. We compared the effects of different exercise modes on fatigue in men on androgen deprivation therapy. All exercise programs reduced fatigue and enhanced vitality. We conclude that undertaking some form of exercise will help reduce fatigue, especially in those who are the most fatigued. Copyright © 2017 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on serum C-reactive protein: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazidi, Mohsen; Karimi, Ehsan; Rezaie, Peyman; Ferns, Gordon A

    2017-12-01

    To undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies to determine the effect of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) supplementation on serum C-reactive protein (CRP). PubMed-Medline, Web of Science, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar databases were searched (up until May 2016) to identify prospective studies evaluating the impact of CLAs supplementation on serum CRP. Random-effects models meta-analysis was used for quantitative data synthesis. Sensitivity analysis was conducted using the leave-one-out method. Heterogeneity was quantitatively assessed using the I 2 index. Systematic review registration: CRD42016038945. From a total of 85 entries identified via searches, 14 studies were included in the final selection. The meta-analysis indicated a significant increase in serum CRP concentrations following supplementation with CLAs (weighted mean difference [WMD] 0.63 mg/dL, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.13-1.13, N=21 arms, heterogeneity P=.026; I 2 =52.3%). These findings were robust in sensitivity analyses. Random-effects meta-regression revealed that changes in serum CRP levels were independent of the dosage of CLAs supplementation (slope: -0.02; 95% CI: -0.10, 0.12; P=.889) or duration of follow-up (slope: 0.271; 95% CI: -0.05, 0.59; P=.098). This meta-analysis suggests that CLA supplementation is associated with an increase in plasma CRP concentrations and a reduction in serum adiponectin concentrations, which indicates that CLA supplements have a proinflammatory effect. Randomized control trials with larger sample size and a longer follow-up period may be required for future investigations to provide an unequivocal answer. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The effects of elevated levels of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO₃) on the acute power output and time to fatigue of maximally stimulated mouse soleus and EDL muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, M F; Tallis, J; Price, M J; James, R S

    2013-05-01

    This study examined the effects of elevated buffer capacity [~32 mM HCO₃(-)] through administration of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO₃) on maximally stimulated isolated mouse soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles undergoing cyclical length changes at 37 °C. The elevated buffering capacity was of an equivalent level to that achieved in humans with acute oral supplementation. We evaluated the acute effects of elevated [HCO₃(-)] on (1) maximal acute power output (PO) and (2) time to fatigue to 60 % of maximum control PO (TLIM60), the level of decline in muscle PO observed in humans undertaking similar exercise, using the work loop technique. Acute PO was on average 7.0 ± 4.8 % greater for NaHCO₃-treated EDL muscles (P < 0.001; ES = 2.0) and 3.6 ± 1.8 % greater for NaHCO₃-treated SOL muscles (P < 0.001; ES = 2.3) compared to CON. Increases in PO were likely due to greater force production throughout shortening. The acute effects of NaHCO₃ on EDL were significantly greater (P < 0.001; ES = 0.9) than on SOL. Treatment of EDL (P = 0.22; ES = 0.6) and SOL (P = 0.19; ES = 0.9) with NaHCO₃ did not alter the pattern of fatigue. Although significant differences were not observed in whole group data, the fatigability of muscle performance was variable, suggesting that there might be inter-individual differences in response to NaHCO₃ supplementation. These results present the best indication to date that NaHCO₃ has direct peripheral effects on mammalian skeletal muscle resulting in increased acute power output.

  12. Study protocol: differential effects of diet and physical activity based interventions in pregnancy on maternal and fetal outcomes—individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis and health economic evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Pregnant women who gain excess weight are at risk of complications during pregnancy and in the long term. Interventions based on diet and physical activity minimise gestational weight gain with varied effect on clinical outcomes. The effect of interventions on varied groups of women based on body mass index, age, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, parity, and underlying medical conditions is not clear. Our individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis of randomised trials will assess the differential effect of diet- and physical activity-based interventions on maternal weight gain and pregnancy outcomes in clinically relevant subgroups of women. Methods/design Randomised trials on diet and physical activity in pregnancy will be identified by searching the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS, LILACS, Pascal, Science Citation Index, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, and Health Technology Assessment Database. Primary researchers of the identified trials are invited to join the International Weight Management in Pregnancy Collaborative Network and share their individual patient data. We will reanalyse each study separately and confirm the findings with the original authors. Then, for each intervention type and outcome, we will perform as appropriate either a one-step or a two-step IPD meta-analysis to obtain summary estimates of effects and 95% confidence intervals, for all women combined and for each subgroup of interest. The primary outcomes are gestational weight gain and composite adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. The difference in effects between subgroups will be estimated and between-study heterogeneity suitably quantified and explored. The potential for publication bias and availability bias in the IPD obtained will be investigated. We will conduct a model-based economic evaluation to assess the cost effectiveness of the interventions to manage

  13. Effect of Sodium-Glucose Cotransport-2 Inhibitors on Blood Pressure in People With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of 43 Randomized Control Trials With 22 528 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazidi, Mohsen; Rezaie, Peyman; Gao, Hong-Kai; Kengne, Andre Pascal

    2017-05-25

    The sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a class of oral hypoglycemic agents. We undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies to determine the effect of SGLT2 on blood pressure (BP) among individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PubMed-Medline, Web of Science, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar databases were searched to identify trial registries evaluating the impact of SGLT2 on BP. Random-effects models meta-analysis was used for quantitative data synthesis. The meta-analysis indicated a significant reduction in systolic BP following treatment with SGLT2 (weighted mean difference -2.46 mm Hg [95% CI -2.86 to -2.06]). The weighted mean differences for the effect on diastolic BP was -1.46 mm Hg (95% CI -1.82 to -1.09). In these subjects the weighted mean difference effects on serum triglycerides and total cholesterol were -2.08 mg/dL (95% CI -2.51 to -1.64) and 0.77 mg/dL (95% CI 0.33-1.21), respectively. The weighted mean differences for the effect of SGLT2 on body weight was -1.88 kg (95% CI -2.11 to -1.66) across all studies. These findings were robust in sensitivity analyses. Treatment with SGLT2 glucose cotransporter inhibitors therefore has beneficial off-target effects on BP in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and may also be of value in improving other cardiometabolic parameters including lipid profile and body weight in addition to their expected effects on glycemic control. However, our findings should be interpreted with consideration for the moderate statistical heterogeneity across the included studies. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  14. Using US Tuning to Effect: the American Historical Association's Tuning Project and the First Year Research Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    While research has long been recognized as a high impact practice in undergraduate education, much of the scholarship on undergraduate research has focused on students in the final years of their degree. This article describes a study of the ability of first year students to undertake historical research in an introductory level course at a small…

  15. JOINT EFFECT OF THE FRESH AND FERMENTED MILK FORMULA AMONG 6 MONTHS AGED INFANTS, SUFFERING FROM THE FUNCTIONAL DIGESTION DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.N. Elkina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Recurrence of the functional digestion disorders among 6 months aged infants, undertaking artificial feeding, is extremely high. The article reviews the findings on the application of the adapted milk formulas Nutrilak 0–6 and Nutrilak km combination to correct the above said disorders without drug intervention.Key words: functional digestion disorders, 6 months aged infants, adapted fermented milk formulas.

  16. Substituted-Letter and Transposed-Letter Effects in a Masked Priming Paradigm with French Developing Readers and Dyslexics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lete, Bernard; Fayol, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to undertake a behavioral investigation of the development of automatic orthographic processing during reading acquisition in French. Following Castles and colleagues' 2007 study ("Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 97," 165-182) and their lexical tuning hypothesis framework, substituted-letter and…

  17. The Continuing Search to Find a More Effective and Less Intimidating Way to Teach Research Methods in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Existing literature examining the teaching of research methods highlights difficulties students face when developing research competencies. Studies of student-centred teaching approaches have found increased student performance and improved confidence in undertaking research projects. To develop a student-centred approach, it could be beneficial…

  18. The new regulator in town : The effect of Walmart’s sustainability mandate on supplier shareholder value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielens, K.J.P.; Geyskens, Inge; Deleersnyder, Barbara; Nohe, Max

    Suppliers are increasingly forced by dominant retailers to clean up their supply chains. While these retailers argue that their sustainability mandates may translate into profits for suppliers, many suppliers are cynical about these mandates because the onus to undertake the required investments is

  19. Effectiveness of an implementation optimisation intervention aimed at increasing parent engagement in HENRY, a childhood obesity prevention programme - the Optimising Family Engagement in HENRY (OFTEN) trial: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Maria; Burton, Wendy; Cundill, Bonnie; Farrin, Amanda J; Nixon, Jane; Stevens, June; Roberts, Kim; Foy, Robbie; Rutter, Harry; Hartley, Suzanne; Tubeuf, Sandy; Collinson, Michelle; Brown, Julia

    2017-01-24

    trial is planned to determine the practicality of undertaking a definitive trial to robustly evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the optimised intervention on childhood obesity prevention. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02675699 . Registered on 4 February 2016.

  20. The forensic analysis of office paper using carbon isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Part 3: Characterizing the source materials and the effect of production and usage on the δ13C values of paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kylie; Benson, Sarah; Roux, Claude

    2013-12-10

    When undertaking any study of the isotope abundance values of a bulk material, consideration should be given to the source materials and how they are combined to reach the final product being measured. While it is demonstrative to measure and record the values of clean papers, such as the results published as part one of this series, the majority of forensic casework samples would have undergone some form of writing or printing process prior to examination. Understanding the effects of these processes on the δ(13)C values of paper is essential for interpretation and comparison with clean samples, for example in cases where printed documents need to be compared to paper from an unprinted suspect ream. This study was undertaken so that the source materials, the effects of the production process and the effects of printing and forensic testing could be observed with respect to 80 gsm white office papers. Samples were taken sequentially from the paper production facility at the Australian Paper Mill (Maryvale, VIC). These samples ranged from raw wood chips through the pulping, whitening and refinement steps to the final formed and packed paper. Cellulose was extracted from each sample to observe both fractionation and mixing steps and their effect on the δ(13)C values. Overall, the mixing steps were observed to have a larger effect on the isotopic values of the bulk materials than any potential fractionation. Printing of papers using toner and inkjet printing processes and forensic testing were observed to have little effect on δ(13)C. These experiments highlighted considerations for sampling and confirmed the need for a holistic understanding of sample history to inform the interpretation of results. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Young people who are being bullied - do they want general practice support?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Emma; Dale, Jeremy; Russell, Rachel; Wolke, Dieter

    2016-08-22

    Childhood bullying is a major risk factor for health, education and social relationships, with effects persisting into adulthood. It affects half of all children at some point, with 10-14 % experiencing bullying that lasts for years. With the advent of cyberbullying, it can happen at all times and places. There have been calls for GPs to take a more active role in identifying and supporting young people who are being bullied. This paper explores young people's and parents' opinions about whether general practice should be involved in identifying and supporting young people who are being bullied. Two hundred six young people (85.9 % female, mean ± sd age 16.2 ± 3.2 years) and 44 parents were recruited through established bullying charity websites and their social media channels to complete an online questionnaire comprising multiple-choice questions and unlimited narrative responses. Questionnaire responses were analysed by age and gender using descriptive statistics. A descriptive analysis of the narrative responses was undertaken and key themes identified. Young people (90.8 %) and parents (88.7 %) thought it was important for GPs to be better able to recognise and help young people who are being bullied. Most recognised the link between bullying and health. The doctor's independence was seen as advantageous. Young people preferred completing a screening questionnaire to disclose experience of being bullied than being asked directly. They expressed concerns about how questions would be asked and whether information would be shared with parents/guardians. Parents were supportive of the use of a screening questionnaire, and most expected their child's disclosure to be shared with them. Young people and parents recruited through anti-bullying websites and social media would welcome greater GP involvement in identifying and supporting young people who are being bullied and their families, provided it is offered in a caring, compassionate and

  2. Aggression between siblings: Associations with the home environment and peer bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippett, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Sibling aggression is a common form of intra-familial aggression, yet has been largely neglected by research. Using an inclusive measure of sibling aggression, this study investigated, firstly, prevalence of sibling aggression and associations with family and household characteristics, and secondly, the relationship between sibling aggression and peer bullying. Participants were 4,237 adolescents from Wave 1 of Understanding Society. Four types of sibling aggression were measured: physical, verbal, stealing and teasing, and combined into composite measures of victimization and perpetration. Regression analysis identified associations with demographic characteristics, family and sibling composition, parent-child relationships and socioeconomic status and explored the link between sibling aggression and involvement in peer bullying. Using a broad definition, sibling aggression was found to be widespread, with 46% of all participants being victimized and 36% perpetrating aggression. Household and family characteristics, including a large family size, male siblings, and financial difficulties were associated with greater rates of sibling aggression. Parenting behavior showed the strongest relationship: harsh parenting increased the risk of sibling aggression while positive parenting protected against it. Sibling aggression was also homotypically related to involvement in peer bullying. Victimization by siblings significantly increased the odds of being a victim of peer bullying, and perpetrators of sibling aggression were more likely to be both peer bullies and bully-victims. Considering the adverse effects of sibling aggression on physical and mental health, the study provides pointers for efforts to reduce the risk of sibling aggression. Furthermore, the link with peer bullying suggests that school anti-bullying efforts should also take account of children's sibling relationships. Aggr. Behav. 41:14-24, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals

  3. INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SPECIAL EVENT HUTTEL 62 By SMA NEGERI 3 JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahidatia Chairunissa Aulia

    2017-07-01

    in conveying the message of anti bully hasn’t done effectively and optimally.

  4. Workplace Bullying in Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Mary; Young, Christopher J; Shepherd, Heather L; Mak, Cindy; Saw, Robyn P M

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent and nature of workplace bullying among General Surgery trainees and consultants in Australia. An online questionnaire survey of General Surgery trainees and consultant surgeons in Australia was conducted between March and May 2012. Prevalence of bullying was measured using both a definition of workplace bullying and the revised Negative Acts Questionnaire (NAQ-R). Sources of bullying were also examined, as well as the barriers and outcomes of formal reporting of bullying. The response rate was 34 % (370/1084) with 41 % (n = 152) of respondents being trainees. Overall, 47 % (n = 173) of respondents reported having been bullied to some degree and 68 % (n = 250) reported having witnessed bullying of surgical colleagues in the last 12 months. The prevalence of bullying was significantly higher in trainees and females, with 64 % of trainees and 57 % of females experiencing some degree of bullying. The majority of respondents (83 %) had experienced at least one negative behavior in the last 12 months, but 38 % experienced at least one negative behavior on a weekly or daily basis. The persistent negative behaviors that represent work-related bullying most commonly experienced were 'having opinions ignored' and 'being exposed to an unmanageable workload.' Consultant surgeons were the most common source of bullying for both trainees and consultants, with administration the next common source. Of those who reported being bullied, only 18 % (n = 32) made a formal complaint. Despite increased awareness and interventions, workplace bullying remains a significant problem within General Surgery in Australia. The findings in this study serve as a baseline for future questionnaires to monitor the effectiveness of implemented anti-bullying interventions.

  5. Effectiveness of physical activity promotion in blood pressure and blood sugar reduction: A community-based intervention study in rural south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subitha Lakshminarayanan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Physical activity of moderate intensity for 30 minutes a day, on most days substantially reduces the risk of many chronic diseases. Aim: To assess the effect of regular physical activity on blood pressure and blood sugar levels in a rural Indian community Settings and Design: This community-based study was carried out in Periakattupalayam and Rangareddipalayam in south India, with 485 subjects, aged 20 to 49 years. Materials and Methods: The study was done in five phases: Awareness campaign, baseline assessment of participants, intervention phase (10 weeks, interim, and final assessment. Physical activity of moderate intensity (brisk walking for 30 minutes on four days / week was promoted by forming 30 small walking groups, in a home-based setting, with professional supervision. Village leaders and Self-Help Group members were the resource people for the promotion of physical activity. Statistical Analysis: Analysis was done by using paired ′t′ test; the ′Intention-to-Treat′ approach was utilized for the interpretation of the findings of the study. Results: Of the 485 subjects, 265 (54.6% complied with walking on more than four days / week, while 156 (32.2% walked on one to four days / week, and 64 (13.2% dropped out during the intervention period. This study has shown that a 10-week intervention to promote physical activity was effective in significantly decreasing the population′s BP by 1.56 / 0.74 mm Hg, fasting blood sugar levels by 2.82 mg%, body weight by 0.17 kg, and BMI by 0.06 kg / m 2 . Conclusions: This study has proved the functional feasibility of enabling people to undertake physical activity in a rural Indian community, and the effectiveness of using physical activity, to significantly reduce the population′s mean BP and blood sugar levels.

  6. Façade insulation retrofitting policy implementation process and its effects on health equity determinants: A realist review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camprubí, Lluís; Malmusi, Davide; Mehdipanah, Roshanak

    2016-01-01

    Fuel poverty and cold housing constitute a significant public health problem. Energy efficiency interventions, such as façade retrofitting, address the problem from a structural and long-term perspective. Despite evidence of the health benefits of insulation, little is known about the political and social contexts that contribute to social inequalities in receiving and experiencing health benefits from these interventions. We used a realist review methodology to better understand the mechanisms that explain how and why variations across different social groups appear in receiving energy efficiency façade retrofitting interventions and in their impact on health determinants. We considered the four stages of the policy implementation framework: public policy approach; policy; receiving intervention and impact on health determinants. We found strong evidence that certain social groups (low-income, renters, elderly) suffering most from fuel poverty, experience more barriers for undertaking a building retrofitting (due to factors such as upfront costs, “presentism” thinking, split incentives, disruption and lack of control), and that some public policies on housing energy efficiency may exacerbate these inequalities. This can be avoided if such policies specifically aim at tackling fuel poverty or social inequities, are completely free to users, target the most affected groups and are adapted to their needs. - Highlights: •Health benefits of housing façade insulation more pronounced in fuel poor groups. •Social groups suffering most from fuel poverty least likely to undergo insulation. •Energy efficiency policies focused solely on CO 2 reduction may increase inequalities. •Split Incentives and “Take-Back” effect show socioeconomic and contextual variability. •Universal policies without targeting increase inequalities in retrofitting uptake.

  7. The effects of 4 weeks of jump training on landing knee valgus and crossover hop performance in female basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, Lee

    2010-12-01

    Female basketball players would appear particularly prone to knee injuries. These injuries have been associated with the nature of the sport, but more specifically with the particular movement strategies adopted. A valgus or abducted position of the knee on landing has been reported to be associated with a number of different knee injuries. Jump-training programs have been reported to improve both landing knee valgus and functional performance. The majority of the jump-training programs have been of 6 weeks' duration, 3 sessions per week often lasting up to 1 hour. For most sports coaches, team conditioners, and athletes, this duration and program length is not acceptable. The aim of this study was to assess if an abridged jump-training program could have similar effects to those previously reported. Fifteen female basketball players had their knee valgus angles assessed during 2 landing tasks, drop jump landing, and when undertaking a jump shot and along with crossover hop distance before and after a progressive jump-training program. The jump-training program lasted 4 weeks, 3 times per week, each session lasting 15 minutes. After training, crossover hop distance showed an average percentage improvement on distance jumped of 73.6% (p = 0.001); the drop jump knee valgus angle in the left leg on average was reduced by 9.8° (p = 0.002), right leg reduced by 12.3° (p = 0.0001); during the jump shot, the knee valgus angle in the left leg showed a mean reduction of 4.5° (p = 0.035), and the right leg was reduced by 4.3° (p = 0.01). The study undertaken achieved comparable results to those previously reported with an abridged program over considerably shortened session duration and training period.

  8. Effect of zinc supplementation on body mass index and serum levels of zinc and leptin in pediatric hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shazly AN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Nabih El-Shazly,1 Soha Abd El-Hady Ibrahim,1 Ghada Mohamed El-Mashad,2 Jehan H Sabry,3 Nashwa Said Sherbini11Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Banha, 2Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Shibin Al Kawm, 3Department of Clinical and Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Banha, Egypt Introduction: Zinc is an essential trace element for human nutrition, and its deficiency is associated with anorexia, poor food efficiency, growth retardation, and impaired neurological and immune systems. The zinc-deficiency rate is particularly high in many disease states, such as with end-stage renal disease patients undertaking hemodialysis. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of zinc supplementation on body mass index (BMI and serum levels of zinc and leptin in pediatric hemodialysis patients. Patients and methods: This was a prospective clinical trial study in which 60 hemodialysis patients were randomly divided into two groups: group I received 50–100 mg zinc sulfate (equivalent to 11–22 mg elemental zinc according to age, sex, and nutritional status of the child; and group II received placebo (cornstarch twice daily for 90 days. Anthropometric measurements were taken, and serum zinc and leptin levels were determined by colorimetric test with 5-Br-3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, at days 0 and 90 of the study. Results: Zinc supplementation resulted in a significant increase in mean serum zinc level and BMI. Serum leptin decreased significantly after supplementation in children under hemodialysis. A significant negative correlation was observed between serum zinc and leptin levels as a result of zinc supplementation. Conclusion: There was an increase in serum zinc level and BMI and decreased serum leptin after zinc supplementation in children under hemodialysis. Keywords: serum zinc, serum leptin

  9. The effectiveness of health impact assessment in influencing decision-making in Australia and New Zealand 2005–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Health Impact Assessment (HIA) involves assessing how proposals may alter the determinants of health prior to implementation and recommends changes to enhance positive and mitigate negative impacts. HIAs growing use needs to be supported by a strong evidence base, both to validate the value of its application and to make its application more robust. We have carried out the first systematic empirical study of the influence of HIA on decision-making and implementation of proposals in Australia and New Zealand. This paper focuses on identifying whether and how HIAs changed decision-making and implementation and impacts that participants report following involvement in HIAs. Methods We used a two-step process first surveying 55 HIAs followed by 11 in-depth case studies. Data gathering methods included questionnaires with follow-up interview, semi-structured interviews and document collation. We carried out deductive and inductive qualitative content analyses of interview transcripts and documents as well as simple descriptive statistics. Results We found that most HIAs are effective in some way. HIAs are often directly effective in changing, influencing, broadening areas considered and in some cases having immediate impact on decisions. Even when HIAs are reported to have no direct effect on a decision they are often still effective in influencing decision-making processes and the stakeholders involved in them. HIA participants identify changes in relationships, improved understanding of the determinants of health and positive working relationships as major and sustainable impacts of their involvement. Conclusions This study clearly demonstrates direct and indirect effectiveness of HIA influencing decision making in Australia and New Zealand. We recommend that public health leaders and policy makers should be confident in promoting the use of HIA and investing in building capacity to undertake high quality HIAs. New findings about the value HIA stakeholders

  10. Centers for Disease Control review panel's recommendations on health effects and epidemiological studies of operations at the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina. Public comment and meeting report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-05-01

    Based on the request of the US Department of Energy, the Centers for Disease Control of the US Department of Health and Human Services organized a panel to review the feasibility and usefulness of conducting further epidemiologic studies of delayed health effects around the Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant. The review and recommendations of the panel were documented in a report entitled Epidemiologic Projects Considered Possible to Undertake in Populations Around the Savannah River Plant. On November 30, 1984, the Department of Energy announced in the Federal Register (49 FR 47095) the conduct of a public meeting and a 30-day public comment period between December 1 and December 30, 1984, on the recommendations of the review panel. Based on the requests of individuals and representatives of organizations attending the December 18, 1984, public meetings, the Department of Energy subsequently announced in the Federal Register on December 31, 1984 (49 FR 50767) an extension of the public comment period to January 31, 1985. This report documents the public meeting and comment process, and provides responses to the public comments that were submitted during this process. In addition, this report contains the Department of Energy's position based on the recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control review panel and the public comments. 23 refs., 16 tabs.

  11. Effects of Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Media ASA Member Toolkit Anesthesia 101 Effects of Anesthesia Explore this page: Effects of Anesthesia How can ... of anesthesia and their side effects? Effects of Anesthesia If you’re having surgery, you most likely ...

  12. Assessment of the Effects of a Novel Herbal Immunomodulator Drug (IMOD on Cytokine Profiles in Experimental Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis: a Preliminary Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolali Malmasi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines play a fundamental role in the regulation of immune responses in remission and/or relapsing of leishmaniasis. Therefore, immunotherapy for the treatment of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL has represented a principle approach in control of the infection. The present research aimed to evaluating the immunotherapeutic potential of a novel herbal immunomodulator drug (IMOD on CVL.Twelve mongrel dogs were intravenously infected with Iranian strain of L. infantum and randomly divided into three groups; 1: negative control (non-infected, 2: immunotherapy with IMOD and 3: positive control (non-treated. Cell proliferation and Th1-/Th2-type cytokines were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC by cell proliferation kit I (MTT and enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot assays, respectively.At the 60 days follow-up assessment, no adverse effects were observed in treated interventional group. Cellular proliferation assay indicated that PBMCs of IMOD group had higher stimulation index (SI than positive control group (p < 0.05. Enhancement of CD4+T cells such as IL-2, IL-4 & IL-10 were detected in negative control group due to in vitro IMOD stimulation 30 days post-treatment. In accordance to decreasing trends of Th1 & Th2 cytokines in positive control group, the mean number of IFN-γ IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 spot forming cells (SFCs down regulated for IMOD group during the study.These data indicate that IMOD had immunomodulatory potential but is not sufficient for total parasitic cure due to balance of Th1/Th2 cytokines. This is a preliminary study and we propose to undertake a series of experiments to evaluate the CVL due to in vitro modulatory effects of IMOD.

  13. Relative Biological Effectiveness of Energetic Heavy Ions for Intestinal Tumorigenesis Shows Male Preponderance and Radiation Type and Energy Dependence in APC{sup 1638N/+} Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suman, Shubhankar; Kumar, Santosh; Moon, Bo-Hyun; Strawn, Steve J.; Thakor, Hemang; Fan, Ziling [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular & Cellular Biology and Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Shay, Jerry W. [Department of Cell Biology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Fornace, Albert J. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular & Cellular Biology and Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Center of Excellence in Genomic Medicine Research (CEGMR), King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Datta, Kamal, E-mail: kd257@georgetown.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular & Cellular Biology and Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: There are uncertainties associated with the prediction of colorectal cancer (CRC) risk from highly energetic heavy ion (HZE) radiation. We undertook a comprehensive assessment of intestinal and colonic tumorigenesis induced after exposure to high linear energy transfer (high-LET) HZE radiation spanning a range of doses and LET in a CRC mouse model and compared the results with the effects of low-LET γ radiation. Methods and Materials: Male and female APC{sup 1638N/+} mice (n=20 mice per group) were whole-body exposed to sham-radiation, γ rays, {sup 12}C, {sup 28}Si, or {sup 56}Fe radiation. For the >1 Gy HZE dose, we used γ-ray equitoxic doses calculated using relative biological effectiveness (RBE) determined previously. The mice were euthanized 150 days after irradiation, and intestinal and colon tumor frequency was scored. Results: The highest number of tumors was observed after {sup 28}Si, followed by {sup 56}Fe and {sup 12}C radiation, and tumorigenesis showed a male preponderance, especially after {sup 28}Si. Analysis showed greater tumorigenesis per unit of radiation (per cGy) at lower doses, suggesting either radiation-induced elimination of target cells or tumorigenesis reaching a saturation point at higher doses. Calculation of RBE for intestinal and colon tumorigenesis showed the highest value with {sup 28}Si, and lower doses showed greater RBE relative to higher doses. Conclusions: We have demonstrated that the RBE of heavy ion radiation-induced intestinal and colon tumorigenesis is related to ion energy, LET, gender, and peak RBE is observed at an LET of 69 keV/μm. Our study has implications for understanding risk to astronauts undertaking long duration space missions.

  14. Effectiveness of home-based cupping massage compared to progressive muscle relaxation in patients with chronic neck pain--a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauche, Romy; Materdey, Svitlana; Cramer, Holger; Haller, Heidemarie; Stange, Rainer; Dobos, Gustav; Rampp, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Chronic neck pain is a major public health problem with very few evidence-based complementary treatment options. This study aimed to test the efficacy of 12 weeks of a partner-delivered home-based cupping massage, compared to the same period of progressive muscle relaxation in patients with chronic non-specific neck pain. Patients were randomly assigned to self-directed cupping massage or progressive muscle relaxation. They were trained and asked to undertake the assigned treatment twice weekly for 12 weeks. Primary outcome measure was the current neck pain intensity (0-100 mm visual analog scale; VAS) after 12 weeks. Secondary outcome measures included pain on motion, affective pain perception, functional disability, psychological distress, wellbeing, health-related quality of life, pressure pain thresholds and adverse events. Sixty one patients (54.1±12.7 years; 73.8%female) were randomized to cupping massage (n = 30) or progressive muscle relaxation (n = 31). After treatment, both groups showed significantly less pain compared to baseline however without significant group differences. Significant effects in favor of cupping massage were only found for wellbeing and pressure pain thresholds. In conclusion, cupping massage is no more effective than progressive muscle relaxation in reducing chronic non-specific neck pain. Both therapies can be easily used at home and can reduce pain to a minimal clinically relevant extent. Cupping massage may however be better than PMR in improving well-being and decreasing pressure pain sensitivity but more studies with larger samples and longer follow-up periods are needed to confirm these results. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01500330.

  15. Effectiveness of Home-Based Cupping Massage Compared to Progressive Muscle Relaxation in Patients with Chronic Neck Pain—A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauche, Romy; Materdey, Svitlana; Cramer, Holger; Haller, Heidemarie; Stange, Rainer; Dobos, Gustav; Rampp, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Chronic neck pain is a major public health problem with very few evidence-based complementary treatment options. This study aimed to test the efficacy of 12 weeks of a partner-delivered home-based cupping massage, compared to the same period of progressive muscle relaxation in patients with chronic non-specific neck pain. Patients were randomly assigned to self-directed cupping massage or progressive muscle relaxation. They were trained and asked to undertake the assigned treatment twice weekly for 12 weeks. Primary outcome measure was the current neck pain intensity (0–100 mm visual analog scale; VAS) after 12 weeks. Secondary outcome measures included pain on motion, affective pain perception, functional disability, psychological distress, wellbeing, health-related quality of life, pressure pain thresholds and adverse events. Sixty one patients (54.1±12.7 years; 73.8%female) were randomized to cupping massage (n = 30) or progressive muscle relaxation (n = 31). After treatment, both groups showed significantly less pain compared to baseline however without significant group differences. Significant effects in favor of cupping massage were only found for wellbeing and pressure pain thresholds. In conclusion, cupping massage is no more effective than progressive muscle relaxation in reducing chronic non-specific neck pain. Both therapies can be easily used at home and can reduce pain to a minimal clinically relevant extent. Cupping massage may however be better than PMR in improving well-being and decreasing pressure pain sensitivity but more studies with larger samples and longer follow-up periods are needed to confirm these results. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01500330 PMID:23762355

  16. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of antiseptic agents for meatal cleaning in the prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasugba, O; Koerner, J; Mitchell, B G; Gardner, A

    2017-03-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are among the most common healthcare-associated infections. Antiseptic cleaning of the meatal area before and during catheter use may reduce the risk of CAUTIs. To undertake a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis of studies investigating the effectiveness of antiseptic cleaning before urinary catheter insertion and during catheter use for prevention of CAUTIs. Electronic databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated and compared across intervention and control groups using DerSimonian-Laird random-effects model. Subgroup analyses were performed. Heterogeneity was estimated using the I 2 statistic. In total, 2665 potential papers were identified; of these, 14 studies were eligible for inclusion. There was no difference in the incidence of CAUTIs when comparing antiseptic and non-antiseptic agents (pooled OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.73-1.10; P=0.31), or when comparing different agents: povidone-iodine vs routine care; povidone-iodine vs soap and water; chlorhexidine vs water; povidone-iodine vs saline; povidone-iodine vs water; and green soap and water vs routine care (P>0.05 for all). Comparison of an antibacterial agent with routine care indicated near significance (P=0.06). There was no evidence of heterogeneity (I 2 =0%; P>0.05). Subgroup analyses showed no difference in the incidence of CAUTIs in terms of country, setting, risk of bias, sex and frequency of administration. There were no differences in CAUTI rates, although methodological issues hamper generalizability of this finding. Antibacterial agents may prove to be significant in a well-conducted study. The present results provide good evidence to inform infection control guidelines in catheter management. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sustainability in Health care by Allocating Resources Effectively (SHARE) 6: investigating methods to identify, prioritise, implement and evaluate disinvestment projects in a local healthcare setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Claire; Allen, Kelly; Brooke, Vanessa; Dyer, Tim; Waller, Cara; King, Richard; Ramsey, Wayne; Mortimer, Duncan

    2017-05-25

    This is the sixth in a series of papers reporting Sustainability in Health care by Allocating Resources Effectively (SHARE) in a local healthcare setting. The SHARE program was established to investigate a systematic, integrated, evidence-based approach to disinvestment within a large Australian health service. This paper describes the methods employed in undertaking pilot disinvestment projects. It draws a number of lessons regarding the strengths and weaknesses of these methods; particularly regarding the crucial first step of identifying targets for disinvestment. Literature reviews, survey, interviews, consultation and workshops were used to capture and process the relevant information. A theoretical framework was adapted for evaluation and explication of disinvestment projects, including a taxonomy for the determinants of effectiveness, process of change and outcome measures. Implementation, evaluation and costing plans were developed. Four literature reviews were completed, surveys were received from 15 external experts, 65 interviews were conducted, 18 senior decision-makers attended a data gathering workshop, 22 experts and local informants were consulted, and four decision-making workshops were undertaken. Mechanisms to identify disinvestment targets and criteria for prioritisation and decision-making were investigated. A catalogue containing 184 evidence-based opportunities for disinvestment and an algorithm to identify disinvestment projects were developed. An Expression of Interest process identified two potential disinvestment projects. Seventeen additional projects were proposed through a non-systematic nomination process. Four of the 19 proposals were selected as pilot projects but only one reached the implementation stage. Factors with potential influence on the outcomes of disinvestment projects are discussed and barriers and enablers in the pilot projects are summarised. This study provides an in-depth insight into the experience of disinvestment

  18. Relative Biological Effectiveness of Energetic Heavy Ions for Intestinal Tumorigenesis Shows Male Preponderance and Radiation Type and Energy Dependence in APC(1638N/+) Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Shubhankar; Kumar, Santosh; Moon, Bo-Hyun; Strawn, Steve J; Thakor, Hemang; Fan, Ziling; Shay, Jerry W; Fornace, Albert J; Datta, Kamal

    2016-05-01

    There are uncertainties associated with the prediction of colorectal cancer (CRC) risk from highly energetic heavy ion (HZE) radiation. We undertook a comprehensive assessment of intestinal and colonic tumorigenesis induced after exposure to high linear energy transfer (high-LET) HZE radiation spanning a range of doses and LET in a CRC mouse model and compared the results with the effects of low-LET γ radiation. Male and female APC(1638N/+) mice (n=20 mice per group) were whole-body exposed to sham-radiation, γ rays, (12)C, (28)Si, or (56)Fe radiation. For the >1 Gy HZE dose, we used γ-ray equitoxic doses calculated using relative biological effectiveness (RBE) determined previously. The mice were euthanized 150 days after irradiation, and intestinal and colon tumor frequency was scored. The highest number of tumors was observed after (28)Si, followed by (56)Fe and (12)C radiation, and tumorigenesis showed a male preponderance, especially after (28)Si. Analysis showed greater tumorigenesis per unit of radiation (per cGy) at lower doses, suggesting either radiation-induced elimination of target cells or tumorigenesis reaching a saturation point at higher doses. Calculation of RBE for intestinal and colon tumorigenesis showed the highest value with (28)Si, and lower doses showed greater RBE relative to higher doses. We have demonstrated that the RBE of heavy ion radiation-induced intestinal and colon tumorigenesis is related to ion energy, LET, gender, and peak RBE is observed at an LET of 69 keV/μm. Our study has implications for understanding risk to astronauts undertaking long duration space missions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Relative Biological Effectiveness of Energetic Heavy Ions for Intestinal Tumorigenesis Shows Male Preponderance and Radiation Type and Energy Dependence in APC1638N/+ Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suman, Shubhankar; Kumar, Santosh; Moon, Bo-Hyun; Strawn, Steve J.; Thakor, Hemang; Fan, Ziling; Shay, Jerry W.; Fornace, Albert J.; Datta, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: There are uncertainties associated with the prediction of colorectal cancer (CRC) risk from highly energetic heavy ion (HZE) radiation. We undertook a comprehensive assessment of intestinal and colonic tumorigenesis induced after exposure to high linear energy transfer (high-LET) HZE radiation spanning a range of doses and LET in a CRC mouse model and compared the results with the effects of low-LET γ radiation. Methods and Materials: Male and female APC 1638N/+ mice (n=20 mice per group) were whole-body exposed to sham-radiation, γ rays, 12 C, 28 Si, or 56 Fe radiation. For the >1 Gy HZE dose, we used γ-ray equitoxic doses calculated using relative biological effectiveness (RBE) determined previously. The mice were euthanized 150 days after irradiation, and intestinal and colon tumor frequency was scored. Results: The highest number of tumors was observed after 28 Si, followed by 56 Fe and 12 C radiation, and tumorigenesis showed a male preponderance, especially after 28 Si. Analysis showed greater tumorigenesis per unit of radiation (per cGy) at lower doses, suggesting either radiation-induced elimination of target cells or tumorigenesis reaching a saturation point at higher doses. Calculation of RBE for intestinal and colon tumorigenesis showed the highest value with 28 Si, and lower doses showed greater RBE relative to higher doses. Conclusions: We have demonstrated that the RBE of heavy ion radiation-induced intestinal and colon tumorigenesis is related to ion energy, LET, gender, and peak RBE is observed at an LET of 69 keV/μm. Our study has implications for understanding risk to astronauts undertaking long duration space missions.

  20. Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on human beings; Effets sur les etres humains des champs electromagnetiques a tres basse frequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilien, J.L.; Dular, P.; Sabariego, R.; Beauvois, V.; Barbier, P.P.; Lorphevre, R. [Universite de Liege, Departement d' Electricite, Electronique et Informatique, Institut Montefiore, Liege (Belgium)

    2010-05-15

    Since the early seventies, potential health risks from ELF (Extremely Low frequency electromagnetic Fields) exposure (50 Hz) have been extensively treated in the literature (more than 1000 references registered by WHO (World Health Organisation), 2007). After 30 years of worldwide research, the major epidemiological output is the possible modest increased risk (by a factor 2) of childhood leukaemia in case of a long exposure to an ambient magnetic flux density (B-field) higher than 0.4 muT. However, this fact has not been confirmed by in vivo and in vitro studies. Moreover it has not been validated by any adverse health biological mechanisms neither for adults nor for children. International recommendations (ICNIRP, International Commission on Non-Ionising Radiation Protection) are currently, for general public, not to exceed a B-field of 100 muT (50 Hz) and an E-field of 5 kV/m (50 Hz). Herein, a rough overview of typical values of ELF fields will be presented followed by a brief literature survey on childhood leukaemia and ELF The potential carcinogenic effect of ELF would be linked to electrical disturbances in cell behaviour. The major concern linking child-hood leukaemia and ELF is thus to determine the response of bone marrow cells under ELF fields. With that purpose, transmembrane potential will be targeted and linked to the E-field at that level. This paper is three-folded: (1) the electric interactions between ambient ELF fields and the body are studied both qualitatively and quantitatively. Different sources of internal E-field are analysed and classified according to their potential risk; (2) the hypothesis of contact current is detailed; (3) key actions to undertake are highlighted. Based on the current state of the art and some authors' own developments, this paper proposes simple low cost enhancements of private electrical installations in order to annihilate the major source of potential effects of ELF. (authors)

  1. The Effects of the Gaelic Athletic Association 15 Training Program on Neuromuscular Outcomes in Gaelic Football and Hurling Players: A Randomized Cluster Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OʼMalley, Edwenia; Murphy, John C; McCarthy Persson, Ulrik; Gissane, Conor; Blake, Catherine

    2017-08-01

    O'Malley, E, Murphy, JC, McCarthy Persson, U, Gissane, C, and Blake, C. The effects of the Gaelic Athletic Association 15 training program on neuromuscular outcomes in Gaelic football and hurling players: A randomized cluster trial. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2119-2130, 2017-Team-based neuromuscular training programs for injury prevention have been tested primarily in female and adolescent athletes in soccer, handball, and basketball with limited research in adult male field sports. This study explored whether the GAA 15, a multifaceted 8-week neuromuscular training program developed by the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA), could improve risk factors for lower limb injury in male Gaelic footballers and hurlers. Four Gaelic sports collegiate teams were randomized into intervention or control groups. Two teams (n = 41), one football and one hurling, were allocated to the intervention, undertaking a 15 minutes program of neuromuscular training exercises at the start of team training sessions, twice weekly for 8 weeks. Two matched teams (n = 37) acted as controls, participating in usual team training. Lower extremity stability (Y-Balance test [YBT]) and jump-landing technique using the Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) were assessed preintervention and postintervention. There were moderate effect sizes in favor of the intervention for right (d = 0.59) and left (d = 0.69) composite YBT scores, with adjusted mean differences between intervention and control of 3.85 ± 0.91% and 4.34 ± 0.92% for right and left legs, respectively (p training (Cohen's d = 0.72, adjusted mean difference 2.49 ± 0.54, p jump-landing technique occurred in collegiate level Gaelic football and hurling players who adopted the GAA 15, when compared with usual training. These findings support application and evaluation of the GAA 15 in other player groups within the Gaelic games playing population.

  2. The effect of selected lifestyle factors and diet on mortality of men with documented physical fitness in the city of Łódź.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smigielski, Janusz; Jegier, Anna; Hanke, Wojciech; Bielecki, Wojciech; Drygas, Wojciech

    2013-08-01

    It is still uncertain if having at least moderate physical fitness is a necessary and sufficient condition for lowering the risk of death. The aforementioned statement constituted the basis for undertaking the study concerning the effect of particular health-related behaviours on the likelihood of survival in subjects with a moderate and high physical fitness. The study sample, i.e. 204 men aged 30-59 years living in Łódź, Poland, was selected within the CINDI WHO Programme and examined over the years 1980-1990 and 2003-2004. In each subject approximate values of one week energy expenditures associated with performing physical exercise of at least moderate intensity (> 1000 kcal/week) were estimated. Physical efficiency in the study group was evaluated basing on the results of the submaximal effort test. Information about selected socio-demographic characteristics, consumption of alcohol, cigarette smoking and diet was gathered. The vital status of the examined sample was checked in 2009. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to identify factors which influence the survival of examined population. The probability of death was more than fourfold higher in the case of individuals who eat "beef or pork meat", as compared to those who consumed these products rarely or never. On the other hand, the subjects who declared regular consumption of yellow cheese had nearly fourfold lower death probability. Current smoking was found to be a significant negative risk factor while moderate consumption of beer a protective one. The level of physical fitness (VO2max) did not significantly influence mortality. The results of the performed analyses indicate negative effect associated with consumption of beef/pork meat and smoking. Furthermore, the data pertaining to the consumption of yellow cheese as a potent protective factor for men's health requires further verification. The possibility that it is some lifestyle proxy rather than a causal factor cannot be

  3. The effect of selected lifestyle factors and diet on mortality of men with documented physical fitness in the city of Łódź

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Śmigielski

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is still uncertain if having at least moderate physical fitness is a necessary and sufficient condition for lowering the risk of death. The aforementioned statement constituted the basis for undertaking the study concerning the effect of particular health-related behaviours on the likelihood of survival in subjects with a moderate and high physical fitness. Materials and Methods: The study sample, i.e. 204 men aged 30-59 years living in Łódź, Poland, was selected within the CINDI WHO Programme and examined over the years 1980-1990 and 2003-2004. In each subject approximate values of one week energy expenditures associated with performing physical exercise of at least moderate intensity (> 1000 kcal/week were estimated. Physical efficiency in the study group was evaluated basing on the results of the submaximal effort test. Information about selected socio-demographic characteristics, consumption of alcohol, cigarette smoking and diet was gathered. The vital status of the examined sample was checked in 2009. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to identify factors which influence the survival of examined population. Results: The probability of death was more than fourfold higher in the case of individuals who eat "beef or pork meat", as compared to those who consumed these products rarely or never. On the other hand, the subjects who declared regular consumption of yellow cheese had nearly fourfold lower death probability. Current smoking was found to be a significant negative risk factor while moderate consumption of beer a protective one. The level of physical fitness (VO2max did not significantly influence mortality. Conclusions: The results of the performed analyses indicate negative effect associated with consumption of beef/pork meat and smoking. Furthermore, the data pertaining to the consumption of yellow cheese as a potent protective factor for men's health requires further verification. The

  4. Comparison of the Effect of Gastric Bypass and Sleeve Gastrectomy on Metabolic Syndrome and its Components in a Cohort: Tehran Obesity Treatment Study (TOTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzin, Maryam; Motamedi, Mohammad Ali Kalantar; Serahati, Sara; Khalaj, Alireza; Arian, Peyman; Valizadeh, Majid; Khalili, Davood; Azizi, Fereidoun; Hosseinpanah, Farhad

    2017-07-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a prevalent counterpart of morbid obesity. With the surgical technique of sleeve gastrectomy (SG) gaining widespread acceptance for weight loss in morbid obese patients, we aimed to undertake a study to compare its effectiveness to gastric bypass (GB) for metabolic control in these patients. A total of 425 patients from a prospectively collected database of morbid obese subjects between 18 and 65 years of age undergoing a primary bariatric procedure from March 2013 to September 2015 were included. Statistical analysis was performed using general estimation equation and propensity scores, and odds ratios were calculated. Three hundred nineteen patients underwent SG and 106 underwent GB. Mean age of the patients was 37.8 ± 11.7, and mean body mass index (BMI) was 44.3 ± 5.9 kg/m 2 . MetS was present in 61.4% of patients and diabetes mellitus in 48.6%. MetS prevalence decreased from 60 and 64% in the SG and GB groups to 16 and 10% at 12 months, respectively. These improvements were consistent throughout the study period in both groups, with no significant difference between the two groups (for all variables: P trend   .05). After propensity score-adjusted analysis, neither surgical technique showed superiority over the other regarding metabolic improvement (OR for MetS resolution: 0.81, 95% CI: 0.49-1.34). In this short-term study with 1-year follow-up, SG showed similar results to GB in terms of weight loss, MetS resolution, and glycemic control in a large Middle Eastern cohort. Long-term studies are needed to further investigate the effectiveness of SG in this regard.

  5. Irradiation and other nuisances synergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafuma, J.

    1978-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative biological effects of radioactive products used in nuclear industry are now well known. Thus, it is possible to undertake researches on the simultaneous effect of radioisotopes and other nuisances [fr

  6. Colossal magnetodielectric effect caused by magnetoelectric effect ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The colossal magnetodielectric effect is reported in Pb(Zr,Ti)O3/Terfenol-D laminate composite under low magnetic field. When the composite is placed in an external a.c. magnetic field, magnetoelectric effect is produced, as a result, the dielectric properties of the Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 is changed, i.e. magnetodielectric effect. Both the ...

  7. Effect of Context on Internal and External Actor’s Perception on COIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    FM 3-24, codifies that experience which is viewed by many nations as an most authentic document for undertaking COIN.2...beautiful mountain ranges, tourism industry and expansive fruit orchards along the Swat River has been a cradle of civilization since the third century BC...emerge in the approach for dealing with it are thus also fundamentally different. Whereas the former considers insurgencies as an existential

  8. Privacy is a process, not a PET: a theory for effective privacy practice

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, A.; Sasse, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Privacy research has not helped practitioners -- who struggle to reconcile users' demands for information privacy with information security, legislation, information management and use -- to improve privacy practice. Beginning with the principle that information security is necessary but not sufficient for privacy, we present an innovative layered framework - the Privacy Security Trust (PST) Framework - which integrates, in one model, the different activities practitioners must undertake for ...

  9. The effects of legal, normative and cultural-cognitiive institutions on innovation in technology alliances

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, E. A.

    2012-01-01

    Adopting an institutional lens, this paper examines the interaction between different levels of legal, normative and cultural-cognitive institutions on the level of innovation associated with the choice of alliance governance mechanism as equity or contractual.\\ud \\ud Using patent data, this paper undertakes multilevel modelling of 314 technology alliance portfolios located in Europe, North America and the Asia-Pacific region.\\ud \\ud Key findings indicate normative and cultural-cognitive inst...

  10. Desigualdades en salud y desigualdades sociales: un abordaje epidemiológico en un municipio urbano de Argentina Inequalities in health and socioeconomics: an epidemiological undertaking in an urban area of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Alazraqui

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Establecer la relación entre algunos indicadores sociales y de salud en el nivel local mediante una combinación de métodos epidemiológicos y de referencias geográficas. MÉTODOS: El trabajo se realizó en los 431 radios censales del municipio de Lanús, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina, en el período comprendido entre enero de 1995 y diciembre de 2002. Se estratificaron los radios censales mediante un estudio por conglomerados o clústeres según sus características demográficas y socioeconómicas, se analizó la distribución de los eventos del proceso de salud-enfermedad-atención mediante su localización geográfica (georreferencias y se comparó la distribución de esos eventos a través de diagramas de caja (box-plot por grupos. La información demográfica y socioeconómica se obtuvo del Censo Nacional de Población y Vivienda de 1991 para cuatro aspectos de la población: características de la vivienda, nivel educacional, nivel de hacinamiento y personas mayores de 65 años que vivían en la vivienda. Los indicadores de salud fueron: la cobertura de vacunación de niños al momento del ingreso escolar, las tasas de embarazo en adolescentes y las tasas de mortalidad por tumores de mama en mujeres mayores de 40 años. RESULTADOS: La mediana del número de adolescentes embarazadas disminuyó a medida que mejoraban las condiciones socioeconómicas (ji2 = 60,7452; P = 4,074 ´ 10-13, mientras que la de la mortalidad por tumores de mama en mujeres mayores de 40 años fue mayor en el estrato con mejores condiciones de vida (ji2 = 12,9766; P = 0,0047. La mediana del número de niños con el esquema de vacunación incompleto al ingreso escolar disminuyó a medida que mejoraban las condiciones socioeconómicas, aunque de manera no significativa (ji2 = 6,3993; P = 0,0937. CONCLUSIONES: La combinación de métodos empleados permitió comprobar la relación existente entre los indicadores sociales y los indicadores del proceso salud-enfermedad-atención, en particular, la tasa de embarazos en adolescentes y la mortalidad por tumores de mama en mujeres mayores de 40 años. Estos resultados son de gran utilidad para diseñar intervenciones específicas dirigidas a reducir desigualdades en el nivel local.OBJECTIVES: To understand how certain socioeconomic factors interact with health indicators at the local level, so that health inequalities may be better addressed. METHODS: Several epidemiological methods were applied to study the 431 census block groups of the Lanús municipality in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, from January 1995 to December 2002. Using a cluster study, the block groups were categorized according to demographic and socioeconomic traits. A spatial distribution analysis was conducted of each health-related event in terms of its geographic location (georeference, and comparisons were drawn using box-plot charting for each group. Four types of demographic and socioeconomic data were gathered from the 1991 National Population and Housing Census: housing adequacy, overcrowding, percentage of persons 65 and older in the household, and level of education. The health indicators studied were vaccination coverage among children entering primary school, teen pregnancy rates, and breast cancer mortality rates in women over 40 years old. RESULTS: Teen pregnancy rates fell as socioeconomic conditions improved (chi2 = 60.7452; P = 4.074 ´ 10-13. In contrast, the breast cancer mortality rate among women over 40 was higher among those with a better standard of living (chi2 = 12.9766; P = 0.0047. Although the average number of children with incomplete vaccination schedules at school entry decreased with improved socioeconomic conditions, the difference was not statistically significant (chi2 = 6.3993; P = 0.0937. CONCLUSIONS: The combined methodologies confirmed the correlation between socioeconomic factors and health indicators, especially regarding teen pregnancy and breast cancer mortality rates. The results should be extremely helpful in designing interventions aimed at reducing health inequalities at the local level.

  11. Decree-Law No. 48568 of 4 September 1968 - Competence of the J.E.N. to undertake scientific and technical inspections of private or public bodies involved in nuclear research or nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-01-01

    Under this Decree-Law, the Junta de Energia Nuclear (JEN) is empowered to inspect on a regular basis all establishments and installations involved in nuclear activities. These inspections are made to ensure that the installations are operated safely and efficiently and that radiation protection measures are properly applied. (NEA) [fr

  12. MotoStudent, un paradigma de emprendimiento y educación no formal en la universidad = MotoStudent, a paradigm of undertake and non-formal education in the university

    OpenAIRE

    Merino, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Resumen Muchas instituciones de educación superior de todo el mundo llevan tiempo dinamizando sus enseñanzas a fin de transmitir a sus egresados las nuevas competencias que demanda la sociedad del siglo XXI. Afortunadamente en España también existe una fuerte apuesta por la flexibilización de la educación superior, que se materializa en iniciativas tales como la competición internacional MotoStudent. Palabras clave: Emprendimiento, universidad relacional, competiciones, reconocimiento acadé...

  13. First update of the International Xenotransplantation Association consensus statement on conditions for undertaking clinical trials of porcine islet products in type 1 diabetes--Chapter 5: recipient monitoring and response plan for preventing disease transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denner, Joachim; Tönjes, Ralf R; Takeuchi, Yasu; Fishman, Jay; Scobie, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Xenotransplantation of porcine cells, tissues, and organs may be associated with the transmission of porcine microorganisms to the human recipient. A previous, 2009, version of this consensus statement focused on strategies to prevent transmission of porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs). This version addresses potential transmission of all porcine microorganisms including monitoring of the recipient and provides suggested approaches to the monitoring and prevention of disease transmission. Prior analyses assumed that most microorganisms other than the endogenous retroviruses could be eliminated from donor animals under appropriate conditions which have been called "designated pathogen-free" (DPF) source animal production. PERVs integrated as proviruses in the genome of all pigs cannot be eliminated in that manner and represent a unique risk. Certain microorganisms are by nature difficult to eliminate even under DPF conditions; any such clinically relevant microorganisms should be included in pig screening programs. With the use of porcine islets in clinical trials, special consideration has to be given to the presence of microorganisms in the isolated islet tissue to be used and also to the potential use of encapsulation. It is proposed that microorganisms absent in the donor animals by sensitive microbiological examination do not need to be monitored in the transplant recipient; this will reduce costs and screening requirements. Valid detection assays for donor and manufacturing-derived microorganisms must be established. Special consideration is needed to preempt potential unknown pathogens which may pose a risk to the recipient. This statement summarizes the main achievements in the field since 2009 and focus on issues and solutions with microorganisms other than PERV. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The International Xenotransplantation Association consensus statement on conditions for undertaking clinical trials of porcine islet products in type 1 diabetes--chapter 1: Key ethical requirements and progress toward the definition of an international regulatory framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, Emanuele; Tallacchini, Mariachiara; Flanagan, Enda B; Pierson, Richard N; Sykes, Megan; Vanderpool, Harold Y

    2009-01-01

    The outstanding results recently obtained in islet xenotransplantation suggest that porcine islet clinical trials may soon be scientifically appropriate. Before the initiation of such clinical studies, however, it is essential that a series of key ethical and regulatory conditions are satisfied. As far as ethics is concerned, the fundamental requirements have been previously reported in a position paper of the Ethics Committee of the International Xenotransplantation Association. These include aspects related to the selection of adequately informed, appropriate recipients; animal breeding and welfare; safety issues and the need for a favorable risk/benefit assessment based on strong efficacy data in relevant xenotransplantation studies in the primate. As most diabetic patients are not at risk of short-term mortality without islet transplantation, only a small subset of patients could currently be considered for any type of islet transplant. However, there are potential advantages to xenotransplantation that could result in a favorable benefit-over-harm determination for islet xenotransplantation in this subpopulation and ultimately in a broader population of diabetic patients. With regard to regulatory aspects, the key concepts underlying the development of the regulatory models in existence in the United States, Europe and New Zealand are discussed. Each of these models provides an example of a well-defined regulatory approach to ensure the initiation of well-regulated and ethically acceptable clinical islet xenotransplantation trials. At this stage, it becomes apparent that only a well-coordinated international effort such as that initiated by the World Health Organization, aimed at harmonizing xenotransplantation procedures according to the highest ethical and regulatory standards on a global scale, will enable the initiation of clinical xenotransplantation trials under the best auspices for its success and minimize any risk of failure.

  15. The International Xenotransplantation Association consensus statement on conditions for undertaking clinical trials of porcine islet products in type 1 diabetes--chapter 7: Informed consent and xenotransplantation clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderpool, Harold Y

    2009-01-01

    This essay explores the meaning and implications of informed consent in xenotransplantation clinical trials from both ethically justifiable and international perspectives. In international and national codes and guidelines involving human subject research and in the laws of many nations, the informed consent of research subjects is obligatory. Its moral foundations include and also extend beyond respect for individual persons as autonomous agents in Western nations. Axioms regarding the value of human life and duties to protect innocent and vulnerable persons from harm, duress, and deceit underlie Western individualism and are broadly shared in many non-Western cultures. Accents on family and/or community consent in China and other nations are compatible with individual consent as long as family and community consent supplement, rather than replace, individual consent. Reflecting its moral foundations, informed consent in medical research is rightly characterized as "voluntary" or "freely given" informed consent because it encompasses researchers' disclosure and subjects' comprehension of all the relevant information about the protocol that reasonable persons would want to know in order to freely and affirmatively enroll in the research. The interplay between these conceptual foundations of informed consent and the realities of xenotransplantation research defines what the nature and functions of consent should be in xenotransplantation clinical trials. Because these trials involve a complex body of medical information, numerous procedures, numerous risks (associated with failure rates, immunosuppression, xenogeneic infections, and so on) and the subject's obligation to abide by extensive national and international precautionary guidelines, informed consent should be enacted as an organized, sequential, thoughtfully paced, jargon-free process of communication. The features and functions of consent forms or consent documents should accord with this process. Rather than being virtually equated with informed consent, consent documents should be utilized as templates of relevant, essential, and understandable information that contribute to comprehension and voluntary enrollment. In xenotransplantation clinical research, the consenting process must cover a large number of topics, including treatment choices, participation information, study procedures, information about risks associated with immunosuppression, xenogeneic infections, discomforts, and other matters. In addition, due to infectious risks, subjects are obliged to 10 post-protocol responsibilities. Two of the three unique moral issues regarding informed consent in xenotransplantation trials involve what to do to minimize post-protocol infectious risks and what to do about international and national guidelines that affirm the subject's right to withdraw from participation in medical research at any time. The third moral issue centers on issues involving the enrollment of children and mentally incapacitated adults. The other chapters in this consensus statement demonstrate that, morally and logically, favorable harm-benefit determinations precede considerations of informed consent. When these harm-benefit assessments are favorable enough to warrant the onset of clinical trials, informed consent emerges as a pivotal moral precondition for these trials.

  16. First update of the International Xenotransplantation Association consensus statement on conditions for undertaking clinical trials of porcine islet products in type 1 diabetes--Chapter 3: Porcine islet product manufacturing and release testing criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayat, Gina R; Gazda, Lawrence S; Hawthorne, Wayne J; Hering, Bernhard J; Hosking, Peter; Matsumoto, Shinichi; Rajotte, Ray V

    2016-01-01

    In the 2009 IXA consensus, the requirements for the quality and control of manufacturing of porcine islet products were based on the U.S. regulatory framework where the porcine islet products fall within the definition of somatic cell therapy under the statutory authority of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). In addition, porcine islet products require pre-market approval as a biologic product under the Public Health Services Act and they meet the definition of a drug under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act). Thus, they are subject to applicable provisions of the law and as such, control of manufacturing as well as reproducibility and consistency of porcine islet products, safety of porcine islet products, and characterization of porcine islet products must be met before proceeding to clinical trials. In terms of control of manufacturing as well as reproducibility and consistency of porcine islet products, the manufacturing facility must be in compliance with current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) guidelines appropriate for the initiation of Phase 1/2 clinical trials. Sponsors intending to conduct a Phase 1/2 trial of islet xenotransplantation products must be able to demonstrate the safety of the product through the establishment of particular quality assurance and quality control procedures. All materials (including animal source and pancreas) used in the manufacturing process of the porcine islet products must be free of adventitious agents. The final porcine islet product must undergo tests for the presence of these adventitious agents including sterility, mycoplasma (if they are cultured), and endotoxin. Assessments of the final product must include the safety specifications mentioned above even if the results are not available until after release as these data would be useful for patient diagnosis and treatment if necessary. In addition, a plan of action must be in place for patient notification and treatment in case the sterility culture results are positive. In terms of the characterization of porcine islet products and product release criteria, the information on the porcine islet products should be acquired from a sample of the final product to be used for transplantation and must include the morphology of the islets, specific identity, purity, viability, and potency of the product. In addition, information on the quantity of the islet products should also be provided in a standardized fashion and this should be in terms of islet equivalents and/or cell numbers. The current consensus was created to provide guidelines that manufacturing facilities may find helpful in the manufacture of and the release criteria for porcine islet products including encapsulated islets and combined islet products. Our intent with the above recommendations is to provide a framework for individual porcine islet manufacturing facilities to ensure a high level of safety for the initiation of Phase 1/2 clinical trials on porcine islet xenotransplantation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. How does the outcome of research training fellowships funded via the NHS compare with that from competitively funded fellowships from the MRC and other charities: a cross-sectional retrospective survey of trainees undertaking research training in the West Midlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybury, Charlotte; Morgan, Matthew David; Smith, Russell; Harper, Lorraine

    2018-01-23

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of research training funded via the National Health Service (NHS) on medical trainees compared with traditional clinical research training fellowships (CRTFs). Online survey of 221 clinical trainees who had completed a period of research during their clinical training between 2009 and 2015 in the West Midlands. Research outcomes. Overall response rate was 59%, of whom 72 participants were funded by CRTFs and 51 funded by the NHS. Although participants with CRTFs were more likely to be awarded a higher degree compared with those on NHS-administered funding (66/72 CRTFs and 37/51 NHS, P=0.005), similar proportions of NHS-funded and CRTF-funded participants entered clinical lecturer posts on completing initial research training (8/51 NHS and 16/72 CRTF, P=0.37). 77% of participants had three or more publications (CRTF 57 and NHS 39, P=0.72). 57 participants had completed clinical training; similar proportions of CRTF-funded and NHS-funded trainees had research included in their consultant contract (12/22 NHS and 14/26 CRTF, P=0.96) or were appointed to academic posts (3 of 25 NHS funded and 6 of 32 CRTF, P>0.05). 95% of participants would recommend to colleagues and 82% of participants felt the research experience improved their provision of clinical care with no difference between CRTF-funded and NHS-funded participants (P=0.49). Continuing to participate in clinical work during the research reduced reports of trainee difficulty on returning to clinical work (23/108 continued clinical work vs 12/22 no clinical work, P=0.001). Research training funded by the NHS provides a quality experience and contributes to the clinical academic capacity within the UK. More needs to be done to support NHS participants to successfully achieve a higher degree. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Alternative Antiviral Strategies for the Treatment of HBeAg-Positive and HBeAg-Negative Chronic Hepatitis B in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermingham, Sarah L; Hughes, Ralph; Fenu, Elisabetta; Sawyer, Laura M; Boxall, Elizabeth; T Kennedy, Patrick; Dusheiko, Geoff; Hill-Cawthorne, Grant; Thomas, Howard

    2015-09-01

    Seven drugs are licensed for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in the United Kingdom. Which initial treatment, secondary therapy, and whether antivirals should be given alone or in combination are questions of considerable uncertainty. The aim of this model was to undertake a comprehensive economic evaluation of all antiviral treatments for CHB to recommend the most cost-effective therapeutic sequence. We developed a probabilistic Markov model to compare the cost-effectiveness of all clinically relevant antiviral treatment sequences for nucleos(t)ide-naive adults with hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg)-positive or HBeAg-negative CHB. Relative rates of HBeAg seroconversion and viral suppression were obtained from a network meta-analysis. Data on mortality, antiviral drug resistance, durability of response, adverse events, and costs were obtained from published literature. Results are reported in terms of lifetime costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and expected net benefit. In the base-case analysis, pegylated interferon alpha-2a (peg-IFN α-2a) followed by tenofovir disoproxil fumarate was most effective and cost-effective in HBeAg-positive patients, with a cost of £7488 per QALY gained compared with no treatment. In HBeAg-negative patients, peg-IFN α-2a followed by entecavir was most effective and cost-effective, with a cost of £6981 per QALY gained. The model was robust to a wide range of sensitivity analyses. Peg-IFN α-2a followed by tenofovir disoproxil fumarate or entecavir is the most effective antiviral treatment strategy for people with both variants of CHB. At a cost of less than £10,000 per QALY gained, these sequences are considered cost-effective in England and Wales. The results of this analysis were used to inform 2013 National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guideline recommendations. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The prevention of workplace bullying as a question of human resource management: measures adopted and underlying organizational factors

    OpenAIRE

    Salin, Denise

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study has been to analyze measures adopted to counteract workplace bullying from the perspective of human resource management. First, the kind of measures that are adopted to prevent bullying were examined. Second, factors affecting the extent of such measures were explored. The introduction of written anti-bullying policies and the provision of information were found to be the most common measures adopted. The policies strongly emphasized the role of supervisors and the immed...

  20. An Exploration of How Programme Leaders in Higher Education Can Be Prepared and Supported to Discharge Their Roles and Responsibilities Effectively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Jo; Bowyer, Jan; Rendell, Catherine; Hammond, Angela; Korek, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Background: Within Higher Education in the United Kingdom (UK), programme leaders are under increased pressure to be more productive and are expected to undertake a complex range of demanding activities. However, perceptions of the role through the lens of the programme leader have not been explored sufficiently. Clearly, a university's ability to…