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Sample records for undertake effective anti-bullying

  1. The Effectiveness of “Undercover Anti-Bullying Teams” as Reported by Participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Winslade

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of archival data retrieved from a school counselor’s careful recording of student responses during the conducting of 35 “undercover anti-bullying teams” reveals a highly positive qualitative account of the success of these teams. A targeted, non-punitive, restorative process calls forth peer influence to transform the bullying relation in a short time-frame. The bullies are involved in the transformation and the victim is never required to confront the bullies. Student responses show that participants value the chance to help a peer, take up the responsibility of stopping bullying responsibly, and victims are happy with the results.

  2. Anti-Bullying/Harassment Legislation and Educator Perceptions of Severity, Effectiveness, and School Climate: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Heather E.; Nickerson, Amanda B.

    2017-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we examined a matched sample of 924 educators' perceptions of severity of bullying and harassment and school climate prior to (Wave 1 n = 435) and following (Wave 2 n = 489) the implementation of New York's anti-bullying and harassment legislation, the Dignity for All Students Act (DASA). Alignment with DASA mandates…

  3. KiVa Anti-Bullying Program in Italy: Evidence of Effectiveness in a Randomized Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocentini, Annalaura; Menesini, Ersilia

    2016-11-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the KiVa anti-bullying program in Italy through a randomized control trial of students in grades 4 and 6. The sample involved 2042 students (51 % female; grade 4, mean age = 8.85; ds = 0.43; grade 6, mean age = 10.93; ds = 0.50); 13 comprehensive schools were randomly assigned into intervention (KiVa) or control (usual school provision) conditions. Different outcomes (bullying, victimization, pro-bullying attitudes, pro-victim attitudes, empathy toward victims), analyses (longitudinal mixed model with multiple-item scales; longitudinal prevalence of bullies and victims using Olweus' single question), and estimates of effectiveness (Cohen's d; odds ratios) were considered in order to compare the Italian results with those from other countries. Multilevel models showed that KiVa reduced bullying and victimization and increased pro-victim attitudes and empathy toward the victim in grade 4, with effect sizes from 0.24 to 0.40. In grade 6, KiVa reduced bullying, victimization, and pro-bullying attitudes; the effects were smaller as compared to grade 4, yet significant (d ≥ 0.20). Finally, using Olweus dichotomous definition of bullies and victims, results showed that the odds of being a victim were 1.93 times higher for a control student than for a KiVa student in grade 4. Overall, the findings provide evidence of the effectiveness of the program in Italy; the discussion will focus on factors that influenced successfully the transportability of the KiVa program in Italy.

  4. Evaluation of Iowa's anti-bullying law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Marizen; Ten Eyck, Patrick; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Onwuachi-Willig, Angela; Cavanaugh, Joseph E

    2016-12-01

    Bullying is the most common form of youth aggression. Although 49 of all 50 states in the U.S. have an anti-bullying law in place to prevent bullying, little is known about the effectiveness of these laws. Our objective was to measure the effectiveness of Iowa's anti-bullying law in preventing bullying and improving teacher response to bullying. Sixth, 8th, and 11th grade children who completed the 2005, 2008 and 2010 Iowa Youth Survey were included in this study (n = 253,000). Students were coded according to exposure to the law: pre-law for 2005 survey data, one year post-law for 2008 data, and three years post-law for 2010 data. The outcome variables were: 1) being bullied (relational, verbal, physical, and cyber) in the last month and 2) extent to which teachers/adults on campus intervened with bullying. Generalized linear mixed models were constructed with random effects. The odds of being bullied increased from pre-law to one year post-law periods, and then decreased from one year to three years post-law but not below 2005 pre-law levels. This pattern was consistent across all bullying types except cyberbullying. The odds of teacher intervention decreased 11 % (OR = 0.89, 95 % CL = 0.88, 0.90) from 2005 (pre-law) to 2010 (post-law). Bullying increased immediately after Iowa's anti-bullying law was passed, possibly due to improved reporting. Reductions in bullying occurred as the law matured. Teacher response did not improve after the passage of the law.

  5. A Multilevel, Statewide Investigation of School District Anti-Bullying Policy Quality and Student Bullying Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, Amy L.; Cousin, Molly; Borowsky, Iris W.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although nearly all states in the United States require school districts to adopt anti-bullying policies, little research examines the effect of these policies on student bullying and health. Using a statewide sample, we investigated associations between the quality of school district anti-bullying policies and student bullying…

  6. Evaluation of Iowa?s anti-bullying law

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, Marizen; Ten Eyck, Patrick; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Onwuachi-Willig, Angela; Cavanaugh, Joseph E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Bullying is the most common form of youth aggression. Although 49 of all 50 states in the U.S. have an anti-bullying law in place to prevent bullying, little is known about the effectiveness of these laws. Our objective was to measure the effectiveness of Iowa?s anti-bullying law in preventing bullying and improving teacher response to bullying. Methods Sixth, 8th, and 11th grade children who completed the 2005, 2008 and 2010 Iowa Youth Survey were included in this study (n?=?253,0...

  7. Do Anti-Bullying Laws Reduce Youth Violence?

    OpenAIRE

    Sabia, Joseph J.; Bass, Brittany

    2015-01-01

    This study is the first to comprehensively examine the effect of state anti-bullying laws (ABLs) on youth violence. Using data from a variety of sources – including the Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, Uniform Crime Reports, and newly collected data on school shootings – we find that the enforcement of strict, comprehensive school district anti-bullying policies is associated with a 7 to 13 percent reduction in school violence and an 8 to 12 percent reduction in bullying. Our results also show th...

  8. Creating an Anti-Bullying Culture in Secondary Schools: Characteristics to Consider When Constructing Appropriate Anti-Bullying Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Joseph R.; Augustine, Sharon Murphy

    2015-01-01

    Bullying in schools is a tremendous challenge that many secondary educators are attempting to address within their school environments. However, educators are often unsure of the attributes of an effective anti-bullying program; thus, they tend to create programs on a "trial and error" basis. This article provides an overview of the…

  9. Efektivitas Layanan Informasi Menggunakan Media Animasi Meningkatkan Sikap Anti Bullying Peserta Didik

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    Mirnayenti Mirnayenti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Individual attitudes can occur because of social interaction. Some learners anyone dared to oppose, silent and engaged in acts of bullying, so that the necessary efforts to improve anti-bullying stance. The attitude of the students towards bullying that can be seen in the journal cases BK teacher / school counselor. One of the efforts made in improving the anti bullying learners with information services. This study aimed to test the effectiveness of media information services using animation to enhance the anti-bullying attitudes of learners. This study uses quantitative methods. This research is a Quasi Experiment with pretest-posttest control group design. The study population was students of SMPN 13 Padang as EG and SMP 12 Padang as CG and samples selected using purposive sampling technique. The research instrument used Likert Scale models, then analyzed using the t-test with SPSS version 17. The findings of this study are: (1 there is a significant difference between anti bullying learners EG before and after following the service information using animation media, (2 there is a difference between the attitude of anti-bullying learners KK before and after following the service information without the use of animation media , (3 there is a difference in attitude differences anti bullying learners CG given treatment information services using animation media, with families given treatment information services without the use of animation media. Based on the above findings, we can conclude that the service information using animation media effectively improve anti-bullying attitudes of learners.

  10. Structural Liberalism and Anti-Bullying Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaught, Sabina E.

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the legal, semantic, and material implications of Massachusetts' anti-bullying law through an analytic framework of structural liberalism. Specifically, this article asks how the law produces categories of fit and unfit subjects of the state through raced and gendered practices of individualism, paternalism, meliorism,…

  11. Anti-bullying Policies and Disparities in Bullying: A State-Level Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Flores, Javier E; Cavanaugh, Joseph E; Onwuachi-Willig, Angela; Ramirez, Marizen R

    2017-08-01

    Recent research suggests that anti-bullying laws may be effective in reducing risk of bullying victimization among youth, but no research has determined whether these laws are also effective in reducing disparities in bullying. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effectiveness of anti-bullying legislation in reducing disparities in sex- and weight-based bullying and cyberbullying victimization. Data on anti-bullying legislation were obtained from the U.S. Department of Education, which commissioned a systematic review of 16 key components of state laws in 2011. States were also categorized based on whether their legislation enumerated protected groups and, if so, which groups were enumerated. These policy variables from 28 states were linked to individual-level data on bullying and cyberbullying victimization from students in 9th through 12th grade participating in the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System study (N=79,577). Analyses were conducted in 2016. There was an absence of any kind of moderating effect of anti-bullying legislation on weight-based disparities in bullying and cyberbullying victimization. Only state laws with high compliance to Department of Education enumeration guidelines were associated with lower sex-based disparities in bullying victimization. Anti-bullying policies were not associated with lower weight-based disparities in bullying and cyberbullying victimization among youth, and only one form of policies (high compliance to Department of Education enumeration guidelines) was associated with lower sex-based disparities in bullying victimization. Results therefore suggest that anti-bullying legislation requires further refinement to protect youth who are vulnerable to bullying victimization. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Multilevel, Statewide Investigation of School District Anti-Bullying Policy Quality and Student Bullying Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, Amy L; Cousin, Molly; Borowsky, Iris W

    2017-03-01

    Although nearly all states in the United States require school districts to adopt anti-bullying policies, little research examines the effect of these policies on student bullying and health. Using a statewide sample, we investigated associations between the quality of school district anti-bullying policies and student bullying involvement and adjustment. School district anti-bullying policies (N = 208) were coded for their quality based on established criteria. District-level data were combined with student reports of bullying involvement, emotional distress, and school connectedness from a state surveillance survey of 6th, 9th, and 12th grade students (N = 93,437). Results indicated that policy quality was positively related to bullying victimization. Furthermore, students reporting frequent perpetration/victimization who also attended districts with high-quality policies reported more emotional distress and less school connectedness compared with students attending districts with low quality policies. Although statistically significant, the magnitude of these associations was small. Having a high-quality school district anti-bullying policy is not sufficient to reduce bullying and protect bullying-involved young people. Future studies examining policy implementation will inform best practices in bullying prevention. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  13. Resilience to Bullying: Towards an Alternative to the Anti-Bullying Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brian; Woodcock, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    Anti-bullying strategies are significant approaches addressing bullying in schools, however their capacity to produce a reduction in bullying behaviour is open to question. This article examined a resilience-based approach to bullying. One hundred and five primary and high school students were surveyed using several standardised instruments. The…

  14. A Content Analysis of School Anti-Bullying Policies in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Noel; Smith, Peter K.

    2016-01-01

    This original study presents a content analysis of 100 primary and post-primary school anti-bullying policies in Northern Ireland using a 36-item scoring scheme. Overall schools had 52% of the items in their policies. Most schools included reference to physical, verbal, relational, material and cyberbullying but a minority mentioned racist,…

  15. LEARNING MODEL OF SCHOOL-BASED ANTI BULLYING INTERVENTION IN EAP (ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES SETTINGS

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    Ririn Ambarini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bilingual learning can be integrated in any subjects in school. One of the subject is Guidance and Couseling subject that provides opportunities for students to develop their social skills and communication. Today, the phenomenon of bullying often occurs in every aspect of life, and one of them is in educational institutions such as schools. School should be a place to establish a positive attitude and character, but the fact the school becomes the scene of bullying practices. The research question is how the bilingual learning of school-based anti bullying intervension integrated with Guidance and Counseling materials by using English for Academic Purposes settings is. This qualitative study used descriptive qualitative method that aims to understand the process and the outcome of bilingual learning process from the viewpoint or perspective of the participants. This research takes the view that since people are instruments, the objects of the research together with the researcher herself, their active involvement in the process is the key to any sustainable efforts. This research is aslo supposed to identify the students‘ understanding of the school-based anti bullying materials that are implemented in EAP settings. The impact of thus program implementation is certainly expected as the strategies to minimize the impacts that will occur in bullying behavior by the integration of anti-bullying bilingual learning model through guidance and counseling materials.

  16. Considering Mindfulness Techniques in School-based Anti-bullying Programmes

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    Mairead Foody

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Schools have a duty of care to all students and to directly prevent and intervene with bullying amongst children and adolescents. The emergence of cyberbullying escalates this responsibility as the strategies that have become appropriate at national levels for bullying do not always parallel over to online environments. The impact on mental health is the most obvious concern for those responsible for reducing bullying, however, input from psychologists and mental health professionals is scant and often limited on this topic. This paper outlines what bullying is and the devastating impact it can have on the mental health of those involved. It will outline the most common anti-bullying initiatives as well as the current psychological and educational techniques, which could also be used to alleviate distress associated with bullying involvement. We will focus specifically on the role of mindfulness techniques and argue for more of such exercises to be included in whole-school bullying programmes. We conclude by arguing the need to investigate components relevant to both mindfulness and anti-bullying programmes (e.g., empathy, perspective-taking as active ingredients for reducing the impact of bullying on mental health.

  17. Jet Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, B.E.; O'Hara, G.W.; Pollard, I.E.

    1988-07-01

    The paper presents the Jet Joint Undertaking annual report 1987. A description is given of the JET and Euratom and International Fusion Programmes. The technical status of JET is outlined, including the development and improvements made to the system in 1987. The results of JET Operation in 1987 are described within the areas of: density effects, temperature improvements, energy confinement studies and other material effects. The contents also contain a summary of the future programme of JET. (U.K.)

  18. Reading Partridge's "The Goblet Club" as an Integral Part of a Secondary School's Anti-Bullying Programme

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    De Wet, Corene

    2017-01-01

    Notwithstanding legislation and individual schools' codes of conduct prohibiting bullying, bullying is an escalating problem in South African schools. It seems as if existing anti-bullying policies, programmes and intervention strategies are failing to address the scourge. Bibliotherapy has been identified as a way to strengthen schools' existing…

  19. The long-term effects of undertaking a research course on clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, Rangeley; Joyce, Arthurs

    2004-03-01

    Purpose. The aim of the study was to examine the students perceptions of the long-term effectiveness of the English National Board (ENB) 870 course (Understanding and Application of Research). Method. Both quantitative and qualitative strategies examined four objectives focusing on: research utilisation, usefulness of the course in the "real world", factors affecting research use and student support. A total sample comprised all 315 students from 1995 to 1998. Data were collected by postal questionnaires and by two focus group interviews. The responding sample of nurses, midwives and health visitors, all with a minimum of one years practice since completing the course totaled 145, achieving a response rate of 45%. Results. Evidence identified that practitioners were using research at a variety of levels to inform everyday practice. The skills developed in the course had transferred well to real life practice and a critical, confident, proactive approach within and across professional boundaries was demonstrated. A generally supportive culture was identified in the workplace but a lack of time and staff had prevented optimum utilisation of the new skills. A much more positive approach to research-based care was reported and many respondents stated that they had become more autonomous, accountable and better practitioners.

  20. Public Undertakings and Imputability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the issue of impuability to the State of public undertakings’ decision-making is analysed and discussed in the context of the DSBFirst case. DSBFirst is owned by the independent public undertaking DSB and the private undertaking FirstGroup plc and won the contracts in the 2008...... Oeresund tender for the provision of passenger transport by railway. From the start, the services were provided at a loss, and in the end a part of DSBFirst was wound up. In order to frame the problems illustrated by this case, the jurisprudence-based imputability requirement in the definition of State aid...... in Article 107(1) TFEU is analysed. It is concluded that where the public undertaking transgresses the control system put in place by the State, conditions for imputability are not fulfilled, and it is argued that in the current state of law, there is no conditional link between the level of control...

  1. Improving anti-bullying laws and policies to protect youth from weight-based victimization: parental support for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, R M; Suh, Y; Li, X

    2017-04-01

    Weight-based bullying is a prevalent problem among youth with overweight and obesity, but remains neglected in existing policy-level strategies to address youth bullying. Parental support is an influential catalyst motivating political will for policy decisions affecting youth, but has received limited research attention. To assess levels of, and predictors of, parental support for school-based policies and state/federal legal measures to address weight-based bullying in 2014 and 2015. Identical online questionnaires were completed by two independent national samples of parents in 2014 and 2015 (N = 1804). Parental support for all policy actions was high (at least 81%) and significantly increased from 2014 to 2015 for legal measures that would a) require state anti-bullying laws to add protections against weight-based bullying, and b) enact a federal anti-bullying law that includes weight-based bullying. These findings can inform policy discourse about remedies for youth bullying, and suggest that parental support for improved legal protections against weight-based bullying is present, consistent, and strong. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  2. JET Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, B.E.

    1987-03-01

    The paper presents the progress report of the Joint European Torus (JET) Joint Undertaking, 1986. The report contains a survey of the scientific and technical achievements on JET during 1986; the more important articles referred to in this survey are reproduced as appendices to this Report. The last section discusses developments which might improve the overall performance of the machine. (U.K.)

  3. JET Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, B.E.; Lallia, P.; O'Hara, G.W.; Pollard, I.E.

    1987-06-01

    The paper presents the annual report of the Joint European Torus (JET) Joint Undertaking, 1986. The report is divided into two parts: a part on the scientific and technical programme of the project, and a part setting out the administration and organisation of the Project. The first part includes: a summary of the main features of the JET apparatus, the JET experimental programme, the position of the Project in the overall Euratom programme, and how JET relates to other large fusion devices throughout the world. In addition, the technical status of JET is described, as well as the results of the JET operations in 1986. The final section of the first part outlines the proposed future programme of JET. (U.K.)

  4. Price Undertakings, VERs, and Foreign Direct Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Ishikawa, Jota; Miyagiwa, Kaz

    2006-01-01

    We compare the relative effect of a voluntary export restraint (VER) and a price undertaking on foreign firms' incentive to engage in FDI. We emphasize foreign rivalry as a determinant of FDI. We show, in a model that has two foreign firms competing with a home firm in the home country, that a price undertaking induces more FDI than a VER. The home country government, operating under the constraint to protect the home firm, is generally better off settling an antidumping case with a VER than ...

  5. Estimation of skin, organ and effective doses of patients who undertake head CT scan in 4 medical radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahreyni Toosi, M.T.; Khalilpour, M.

    2007-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. CT was first introduced into clinical practice in 1972, and has since grown into one of the predominant diagnostic procedures. In this work we have estimated patient dose arising from CT examination of brain in four hospitals in Mashhad. Organ and effective doses were estimated for 123 patients who underwent CT examination of brain. 'ImPACT' version 0.99w was used to estimate organ and effective dose. ESD of same patients were measured by TLD-100. Brain examinations were performed with fixed kV, mA and T (slice thickness) for each scanner. The CT Scanners investigated in this study were GE HiLight, Siemens Somatom AR-T, Somatom Balance and Shimadzu SCT. Summary of our findings are as follows: Application of 'ImPACT' software enabled us to compute Bone marrow (red), Brain, Thyroid and effective doses of all patients. Table 1 shows the average organ dose (Brain, Bone marrow (red), Thyroid), mean effective dose and mean ESD were measured by TLD for each patients. Patients, who were scanned by Siemens Somatom AR-T, received maximum organ dose (brain) equal to 25.64 mGy and minimum organ dose equal to 0.21 mGy was delivered to thyroid of patients who were scanned by GE HiLight Scanner. Our average effective dose (0.54 ± 0.02 mSv) is smaller than the corresponding value (0.75 ± 0.03 mSv) obtained by Peter F. Caracappa (M.Sc dissertation submitted to the Faculty of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York April 2004). Scanning by Siemens Somatom AR-T, gave rise to maximum ESD (equal to 16.22 mGy). On the other hand minimum ESD (5.51 mGy) was achieved when patients were scanned by GE HiLight machine. ESD values and organ doses acquired in this work by two different methods, TLD measurement and computing by 'ImPACT' software; are in good agreement and this is an indication of the accuracy and validity of both sets of results.

  6. VIRTUAL ANTI-BULLYING VILLAGE PROJECT FOR COPING WITH BULLYING AND CYBERBULLYING WITHIN A 3D VIRTUAL LEARNING ENVIRONMENT: EVALUATION RESEARCH

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    Dorit Olenik Shemesh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study aims to evaluate the implementation of a unique educational project- The Virtual Anti-Bullying Village for Kids and Teens (ABV4KIDS that was designed and operated by the European Commission. A 3D virtual environment as an innovative, international project for adolescents, focused on knowledge acquisition and new ways of coping with bullying and cyberbullying. Sixty seventh graders-Israeli adolescents-completed five questionnaires before and after the project to assess its impacts regarding cyberbullying and socio-emotional variables. They evaluated the project as important, enjoyable, and increasing their knowledge about cyberbullying, but expressed a need for more practical tools for coping. At the end of the project, the control group reported more cyberbullying experiences, as well as a decrease in social support, whereas the research group reported no changes in cyberbullying experiences and in socio-emotional aspects.

  7. Jet Joint Undertaking. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    The scientific, technical, experimental and theoretical investigations related to JET tokamak are presented. The JET Joint Undertaking, Volume 2, includes papers presented at: the 15th European Conference on controlled fusion and plasma heating, the 15th Symposium on fusion technology, the 12th IAEA Conference on plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research, the 8th Topical Meeting on technology of fusion. Moreover, the following topics, concerning JET, are discussed: experience with wall materials, plasma performance, high power ion cyclotron resonance heating, plasma boundary, results and prospects for fusion, preparation for D-T operation, active gas handling system and remote handling equipment

  8. The Effectiveness of Policy Interventions for School Bullying: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, William

    2017-01-01

    Objective Bullying threatens the mental and educational well-being of students. Although anti-bullying policies are prevalent, little is known about their effectiveness. This systematic review evaluates the methodological characteristics and summarizes substantive findings of studies examining the effectiveness of school bullying policies. Method Searches of 11 bibliographic databases yielded 489 studies completed since January 1, 1995. Following duplicate removal and double-independent screening based on a priori inclusion criteria, 21 studies were included for review. Results Substantially more educators perceive anti-bullying policies to be effective rather than ineffective. Whereas several studies show that the presence or quality of policies is associated with lower rates of bullying among students, other studies found no such associations between policy presence or quality and reductions in bullying. Consistent across studies, this review found that schools with anti-bullying policies that enumerated protections based on sexual orientation and gender identity were associated with better protection of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) students. Specifically, LGBTQ students in schools with such policies reported less harassment and more frequent and effective intervention by school personnel. Findings are mixed regarding the relationship between having an anti-bullying policy and educators’ responsiveness to general bullying. Conclusions Anti-bullying policies might be effective at reducing bullying if their content is based on evidence and sound theory and if they are implemented with a high level of fidelity. More research is needed to improve on limitations among extant studies. PMID:28344750

  9. Tackling acute cases of school bullying in the KiVa anti-bullying program : A comparison of two approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garandeau, Claire F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/380715066; Poskiparta, Elisa; Salmivalli, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Whether cases of bullying should be handled in a direct, condemning mode or in a manner that does not involve blaming the perpetrator is a controversial issue among school professionals. This study compares the effectiveness of a Confronting Approach where the bully is openly told that his behavior

  10. An evaluation of a drama program to enhance social relationships and anti-bullying at elementary school: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joronen, Katja; Konu, Anne; Rankin, H Sally; Astedt-Kurki, Päivi

    2012-03-01

    Drama, theater and role-playing methods are commonly used in health promotion programs, but evidence of their effectiveness is limited. This paper describes the development, implementation and evaluation of a school-based drama program to enhance social relationships and decrease bullying at school in children in grades 4-5 (mean age of 10.4 years). Students (n = 190) were recruited from two primary schools with similar demographics and socio-economics in the Southern Finland and purposively allocated either to an intervention group or a control group. The drama program included classroom drama sessions, follow-up activities at home and three parents' evenings concerning issues of social well being during the school year September 2007-May 2008. Data on social relationships in the class room and experiences of bullying were obtained before and after the program using self-completed questionnaire from the same students (n = 134). The response rate was 71%. No differences in socio-demographics existed between intervention group and control group at pretest. The positive effect on social relationships resulting from the intervention approached statistical significance (p = 0.065). Moreover, the positive effect was found to be statistically significant in the high-intensity intervention classes (p = 0.011). Bullying victimization decreased 20.7 percentage units from pretest (58.8%) to posttest (38.1%) in the intervention group (p social relationships at school.

  11. Breast cancer pulmonary metastasis is increased in mice undertaking spontaneous physical training in the running wheel; a call for revising beneficial effects of exercise on cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeda, Marta; Przyborowski, Kamil; Proniewski, Bartosz; Zakrzewska, Agnieszka; Kaczor, Dawid; Stojak, Marta; Buczek, Elzbieta; Nieckarz, Zenon; Zoladz, Jerzy A; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Chlopicki, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    It has been repeatedly shown that regular aerobic exercise exerts beneficial effects on incidence and progression of cancer. However, the data regarding effects of exercise on metastatic dissemination remain conflicting. Therefore, in the present study the possible preventive effects of voluntary wheel running on primary tumor growth and metastases formation in the model of spontaneous pulmonary metastasis were analyzed after orthotopic injection of 4T1 breast cancer cells into mammary fat pads of female Balb/C mice. This study identified that in the mice injected with 4T1 breast cancer cells and running on the wheels (4T1 ex) the volume and size of the primary tumor were not affected, but the number of secondary nodules formed in the lungs was significantly increased compared to their sedentary counterparts (4T1 sed). This effect was associated with decreased NO production in the isolated aorta of exercising mice (4T1 ex), suggesting deterioration of endothelial function that was associated with lower platelet count without their overactivation. This was evidenced by comparable selectin P, active GPIIb/IIIa expression, fibrinogen and vWF binding on the platelet surface. In conclusion, voluntary wheel running appeared to impair, rather than improve endothelial function, and to promote, but not decrease metastasis in the murine orthotopic model of metastatic breast cancer. These results call for revising the notion of the persistent beneficial effects of voluntary exercise on breast cancer progression, though further studies are needed to elucidate mechanisms involved in pro-metastatic effects of voluntary exercise.

  12. Correlation Between the Efficiency of Machinery and Equipment and the Productivity of Workers and its Effect on the Performance of a Metallurgical Undertaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulawik, A.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the example of procedure of life and objectify work effectiveness analysis in metallurgical enterprise were presented. Besides, on the example of chosen units of metallurgical enterprise, results of analysis - based on methodic proposed in the article - were discussed.

  13. Effects and safety of GnRH-a as a luteal support in women undertaking assisted reproductive technology procedures: follow-up results for pregnancy, delivery, and neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weiqin; Zhuang, Yanyan; Pan, Yanping; Xia, Fei

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the effects and safety of gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue (GnRH-a) as an addition to progesterone luteal support in women who underwent in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection-embryo transfer (IVF/ICSI-ET) and achieved a clinical pregnancy. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 214 patients who underwent IVF/ICSI-ET procedures with standard long mid-luteal protocol, of which 123 received GnRH-a-free protocol and 91 received GnRH-a-added protocol. The patients' pregnancy and delivery course, and their neonates' status at birth and growth/development after birth were statistically compared. There was no significant difference between both study groups regarding embryo risks and maternal complications during early pregnancy. as well as fetal risks during the middle and late stages and neonate risks during birth, except that the twin pregnancies of the GnRH-a-added group had a considerably greater male/female ratio, and a significantly higher rate of premature delivery and low birth weight than those of the GnRH-a-free group. In addition, there was no significant difference in neonate risks within 2 years after birth between both cohorts. With precautions taken to control the number of implanted embryos and reduce the incidence of twinning pregnancy, the addition of GnRH-a to luteal support is relatively safe and effective.

  14. JET joint undertaking. Annual report 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    This document is intended for information only and should not be used as a technical reference. After an introductive part on the controlled nuclear fusion research and an historical survey of the JET project, are presented: the JET joint undertaking (members of council and committee...) with its administration (finance, personnel, external relations), and the scientific and technical department with its divisions for systems (experimental, magnet, plasma, assembly, power supplies, control and data acquisition, and site and building). In appendix is described the Euratom fusion research programme

  15. Stand by Me: The Effects of a Police Anti-Bullying Presentation on South Korean High School Students' Attitudes about Bullying and Willingness to Intervene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loui, Kenny

    2017-01-01

    Upon assuming the presidency of the Republic of Korea in 2013, Park Geun-hye announced her administration's priority to address the country's "Four Social Evils"--sexual violence, domestic violence, school bullying, and unsafe food products. As part of this initiative, the ROK national government urged police officers to implement…

  16. Students Collaborating to Undertake Tracking Efforts for Sturgeon(SCUTES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Students Collaborating to Undertake Tracking Efforts for Sturgeon (SCUTES) is a collaboration between NOAA Fisheries, sturgeon researchers, and teachers/educators in...

  17. 31 CFR 248.4 - Undertaking of indemnity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Undertaking of indemnity. 248.4 Section 248.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL... in the circumstances set forth below, a corporate surety authorized by the Secretary of the Treasury...

  18. Using an undertaker's data to assess changing patterns of mortality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key informant interviews were done to support the undertaker's data and determine how families bear the burden of burying deceased relatives. Despite a disproportionate increase in deaths in certain age categories and evidence of worsening poverty, funerals remain large and elaborate affairs. Keywords: AIDS, burial ...

  19. Non-financial reporting, CSR frameworks and groups of undertakings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabó, Dániel Gergely; Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2017-01-01

    The recently adopted Directive on non-financial reporting (Directive 2014/95/EU) and several CSR frameworks are based on the assumption that groups of undertakings adopt, report and implement one group policy. This is a very important but also rather unique approach to groups. This article first...... shows how the Directive as well as a few CSR frameworks intend to be implemented in groups and next it discusses potential barriers to do so. Even though company law does not always facilitate the adoption, communication and implementation of a group CSR policy, it may not in practice be a problem to do...... so. However, it is shown that doing so may have unforeseen consequences for the parent undertaking. To avoid them, it is recommended to make adjustments to the implementation of the group policy....

  20. Original article Personality determinants of motivation to undertake vocational training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Godlewska-Werner

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Recently, at a time of frequent changes in the economic and socio-economic circumstances, knowledge acquired in the course of formal education is insufficient. Especially, the education system is still criticized for a lack of flexibility and strong resistance to change. Therefore, regular participation in various forms of training is required. Employee education and training are becoming an optimal answer to complex business challenges. The aim of this study was to determine which personality traits are responsible for the strength of motivation to undertake vocational training and other educational forms. Participants and procedure The study included 104 staff members of Polish companies (60 women and 44 men. The study used Cattell’s 16 PF Questionnaire and the scales of readiness to undertake training and further education as a measure of the strength of motivation (Kawecka, Łaguna & Tabor, 2010. Results The study showed that openness to change and tension (primary traits had the greatest impact on the intention and planning to take vocational training. Additionally, the intention and planning to take vocational training were found to be associated with mindedness, independence, self-control, and anxiety (secondary traits. Such traits as rule-consciousness [G], social-boldness [H], abstractedness [M], and apprehension [O] (primary traits, were important in some aspects, which could constitute a background for further research and discussion of the results. Conclusions The obtained results lead to the conclusion that some of the individual differences in personality determine the motivation to undertake vocational training.

  1. Organization of multinational undertakings in the nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yajima, Masayuki

    1982-01-01

    Various proposals have been put forward to establish multinational undertakings for enrichment, fuel fabrication, reprocessing, spent fuel storage and waste management. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the legal, institutional framework aspects of multinational undertakings in the field of nuclear fuel cycle. The selection of the appropriate bodies representing the interest of participating countries would largely depend on the object or role of multinational undertakings. Regarding the principle of formation, URENCO is a much informative model of formation, which distinguishes the equity participation at national level and multinational level. The allocation of service between equity participants and non-equity participants depends on the objective of establishing business. Some priority in service allocation should be given to equity participants, and the participants having non-proliferation objective may require service allocation to avoid proliferation risk. The degree of achieving non-proliferation goal is related to the scope of participation. The experience in the field of nuclear energy seems to suggest that the concept of two-tiered decisionmaking structure is generally accepted. Various legal instruments appropriate to constitute multinational fuel cycle arrangement were examined, referring to the precedents and experience. (Kako, I.)

  2. Changes in the functions of undertakings in electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberlack, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    For the electricity supply industry also it is necessary, by means of more intensive publicity work, to achieve the general realisation that neither new laws nor intervention of the state are required for dealing in the interests of the consumer with the problems arising, from great changes in all fields of business enterprise. It is more important for the electricity supply undertakings (EVU), by means of executive power and the administration of justice, to be put a position to carry out in the most efficient manner the functions entrusted to them by the Federal Government under the Power Supply Law and the energy programme. (orig.) [de

  3. An undertaking planning game for the electricity supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troescher, H.

    1977-01-01

    Planning games have been found satisfactory in many field in political and economic life. In particular the more convenient access to electronic calculators has made a contrinution to their wider use. It is therefore surprising that the first planning game which has become known for the electricity supply industry was first published in the year 1975. This is the planning game for the Bernischen Kraftwerke AG, which is based on a simplified model of a small electricity supply undertaking (EVU). This planning game was adapted in the RWE to the conditions in larger EVU and a few additional model components were added. Besides the general points of view on planning games for EVU the author deals with the extended planning game which is termed in the article PEW. (orig.) [de

  4. Supporting students undertaking the Specialist Practitioner Qualification in District Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginger, Tracey; Ritchie, Georgina

    2017-11-02

    The ever-evolving role of the Specialist Practitioner Qualified District Nurse (SPQDN) presents an increasing number of challenges for Practice Teachers and mentors in preparing SPQDN students for the elevated level clinical and transformational leadership necessary to ensure high-quality patient care. The daily challenges of clinical practice within the community nursing setting in addition to undertaking educational interventions in the clinical arena demand that a structured approach to supervision and mentorship is crucial. Employing learning plans to assess individual students learning needs, prepare plans for educational developments and interventions and evaluate a student's progress can be a helpful tool in aiding the learning journey for both the SPQDN student and Practice Teacher or mentor. This article examines how and why a structured learning plan may be used in supporting learning and competency in achieving the necessary level of practice to meet the requirements of the SPQDN.

  5. Who should be undertaking population-based surveys in humanitarian emergencies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiegel Paul B

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Timely and accurate data are necessary to prioritise and effectively respond to humanitarian emergencies. 30-by-30 cluster surveys are commonly used in humanitarian emergencies because of their purported simplicity and reasonable validity and precision. Agencies have increasingly used 30-by-30 cluster surveys to undertake measurements beyond immunisation coverage and nutritional status. Methodological errors in cluster surveys have likely occurred for decades in humanitarian emergencies, often with unknown or unevaluated consequences. Discussion Most surveys in humanitarian emergencies are done by non-governmental organisations (NGOs. Some undertake good quality surveys while others have an already overburdened staff with limited epidemiological skills. Manuals explaining cluster survey methodology are available and in use. However, it is debatable as to whether using standardised, 'cookbook' survey methodologies are appropriate. Coordination of surveys is often lacking. If a coordinating body is established, as recommended, it is questionable whether it should have sole authority to release surveys due to insufficient independence. Donors should provide sufficient funding for personnel, training, and survey implementation, and not solely for direct programme implementation. Summary A dedicated corps of trained epidemiologists needs to be identified and made available to undertake surveys in humanitarian emergencies. NGOs in the field may need to form an alliance with certain specialised agencies or pool technically capable personnel. If NGOs continue to do surveys by themselves, a simple training manual with sample survey questionnaires, methodology, standardised files for data entry and analysis, and manual for interpretation should be developed and modified locally for each situation. At the beginning of an emergency, a central coordinating body should be established that has sufficient authority to set survey standards

  6. Undertaking qualitative health research in social virtual worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElhinney, Evelyn; Cheater, Francine M; Kidd, Lisa

    2014-06-01

    This paper discusses the methodological challenges of using the 3D social virtual world Second Life for research and offers some solutions on a range of research issues including research ethics committee approval, gaining consent, recruitment of sample, data collection and engagement with 'in - world culture'. The attraction of social virtual worlds to researchers is their ability to mimic the physical world, as they, are seen as 'places' where people have a feeling of presence (being there) and social presence (being there with others) through the use of a 'customisable' avatar (digital self-representation). Emerging research demonstrating the persuasive nature of avatars on health behaviours through virtual worlds, online games and the 3D web has increased the use of and interest in these areas for delivering health information, advice and support. However, conducting research can be challenging in a 3D world where people are represented as anonymous avatars in an environment unlike any other online media. 25 semi-structured interviews were conducted in Second Life from September 2011-June 2012. Nurses wishing to undertake research in social virtual worlds should spend time in-world to acquire technical skills and gain an understanding of the culture of the world. Our experience of an interview-based study in virtual worlds indicates that researchers require several virtual world technical skills to create innovative tools to recruit, gain consent and collect data and an understanding of in-world culture, language and social norms to increase the chances of successful research. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. An investigation of nurse educator's perceptions and experiences of undertaking clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Angela; Taylor, Cathy

    2008-11-01

    Educational policy (DOH, 1999. Making a difference: strengthening the nursing, midwifery and health visiting contribution to health and healthcare. Department of Health, London; UKCC, 1999. Fitness for Practice. United Kingdom Central Council for Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting, London; Nursing and Midwifery Council, 2006. Standards to support learning and assessment in practice. Nursing and Midwifery Council, London) and current nursing literature (Griscti, O., Jacono, B., Jacono, J., 2005. The nurse educator's clinical role. Journal of Advanced Nursing 50 (1), 84-92; Owen, S., Ferguson, K., Baguley, I., 2005. The clinical activity of mental health nurse lecturers. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing 12, 310-316), place increasing emphasis on nurse educators undertaking clinical practice to facilitate their clinical confidence and competence. This study investigated nurse educators' perceptions and experiences of undertaking clinical practice. A qualitative design and descriptive, exploratory approach were used. A purposive sample of 11 nurse educators in one nursing department, took part in two focus group interviews, one with 5 and the other with 6 respondents, to identify and discuss their perceptions and experiences of undertaking clinical practice. A process of thematic content analysis revealed three broad themes relating to the meaning and importance of clinical practice, perceived benefits and barriers which are examined and discussed. The paper concludes that despite policy recommendations, barriers highlighted in this study such as insufficient time, heavy workload and a lack of valuing of the clinical role have been raised over the past few decades. The effect of undertaking clinical practice, particularly on the quality of teaching is argued to be valuable armoury in the battle to secure sufficient resources to support engagement in clinical practice. Financial and organisational commitment; valuing of clinical practice and research

  8. Undertaking cause-specific mortality measurement in an unregistered population: an example from Tigray Region, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagos Godefay

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The lack of adequate documentation of deaths, and particularly their cause, is often noted in African and Asian settings, but practical solutions for addressing the problem are not always clear. Verbal autopsy methods (interviewing witnesses after a death have developed rapidly, but there remains a lack of clarity as to how these methods can be effectively applied to large unregistered populations. This paper sets out practical details for undertaking a representative survey of cause-specific mortality in a population of several million, taking Tigray Region in Ethiopia as a prototype. Sampling: Sampling was designed around an expected level of maternal mortality ratio of 400 per 100,000 live births, which needed measuring within a 95% confidence interval of approximately ±100. Taking a stratified cluster sample within the region at the district level for logistic reasons, and allowing for a design effect of 2, this required a population of around 900,000 people, equating to six typical districts. Since the region is administered in six geographic zones, one district per zone was randomly selected. Implementation: The survey was implemented as a two-stage process: first, to trace deaths that occurred in the sampled districts within the preceding year, and second to follow them up with verbal autopsy interviews. The field work for both stages was undertaken by health extension workers, working in their normally assigned areas. Most of the work was associated with tracing the deaths, rather than undertaking the verbal autopsy interviews. Discussion: This approach to measuring cause-specific mortality in an unregistered Ethiopian population proved to be feasible and effective. Although it falls short of the ideal situation of continuous civil registration and vital statistics, a survey-based strategy of this kind may prove to be a useful intermediate step on the road towards full civil registration and vital statistics implementation.

  9. The exclusion of 'public undertakings' from the re-use of public sector information regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricolfi, M.; Drexl, J.; van Eechoud, M.; Salmeron, M.; Sappa, C.; Tziavos, P.; Valero, J.; Pavoni, F.; Patrito, P.

    2011-01-01

    Should public undertakings be covered by the PSI Directive? The definitions of public sector bodies and bodies governed by public law, to which the PSI Directive applies, are currently taken from the public procurement Directives and public undertakings are not covered by these definitions. Should

  10. 12 CFR 980.2 - Limitation on Bank authority to undertake new business activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... business activities. 980.2 Section 980.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD NEW FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ACTIVITIES NEW BUSINESS ACTIVITIES § 980.2 Limitation on Bank authority to undertake new business activities. No Bank shall undertake any new business activity except in accordance with the...

  11. 20 CFR 703.304 - Filing of Agreement and Undertaking; deposit of security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the amount fixed by the Office, or deposit negotiable securities under §§ 703.306 and 703.307 in that... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of Agreement and Undertaking; deposit... REGULATIONS Authorization of Self-Insurers § 703.304 Filing of Agreement and Undertaking; deposit of security...

  12. Antidumping duties, undertakings and foreign direct investment in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belderbos, R.A.; Vandenbussche, H.; Veugelers, R.

    2004-01-01

    We study the effects of EU antidumping policy when foreign firms can ‘jump’ antidumping duties through foreign direct investment (FDI) in the EU. We show that duty jumping or duty pre-empting FDI occurs if the EU administration has broader objectives than protecting EU industry's profitability and

  13. Climate-protection policy: New taxes or corporate undertaking?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pluge, W.

    1996-01-01

    Increasing knowledge of the climatological effects of CO 2 emissions have resulted in the concept of reducing energy consumption, and therefore also CO 2 emissions, by means of taxation. The concepts proposed for this are discussed in this article. It is shown that the concept of CO 2 energy taxes is based on a series of pseudo-plausibilities. The German gas industry's voluntary commitment is illustrated as the most suitable instrument for efficient reduction of CO 2 emissions. (orig.) [de

  14. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE RULES ON COMPETITION GOVERNING UNDERTAKINGS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad – Teodor Florea

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns the general rules on competition between undertakings in the EU. The author paid attention primarly to matters on the prohibition of agreements that aim to distort or impair competition on the internal market. Moreover, he examined in detail the matter concerning the regulation and interdiction of the abuse of a dominant position. The work also reviews doctrinal opinions, as well as the jurisprudential solutions in the area. The author’s concern to summarize and develop the conditions for the implementation of each of the two legal mechanisms is worth noting: the prohibition of agreements between undertakings and the abuse of a dominant position. The essential considerations taken into account by the Court of Justice of the European Union in settling a case whose subject consisted of assessing the manner in which an undertaking reflected on competition on the internal market were selected at the end of the work.

  15. Assisted reproductive technologies in Ghana : Transnational undertakings, local practices and ‘more affordable’ IVF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, T.

    The article sketches the origins and development of IVF in Ghana as a highly transnational undertaking. Movements are from and to Africa, involving human beings (providers and users), and also refer to other entities such as technologies, skills and knowledge. None of these movements are paid for

  16. The Costs and Benefits of Undertaking Adult Education Courses from the Perspective of the Individual

    Science.gov (United States)

    AONTAS The National Adult Learning Organisation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the costs and benefits of undertaking adult education courses from the perspective of the individual, using three different case studies. This will give a snapshot of the benefits and the types of costs incurred by three adult learners. Three individuals were contacted by Aontas and were asked if they would be…

  17. 20 CFR 703.205 - Filing of Agreement and Undertaking; deposit of security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...— (1) Deposit with the Branch indemnity bonds or letters of credit in the amount fixed by the Office... and payable from the proceeds of the deposited security; (b) Give security in the amount fixed in the... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of Agreement and Undertaking; deposit...

  18. Anti-bullying interventions in schools: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jorge Luiz da; Oliveira, Wanderlei Abadio de; Mello, Flávia Carvalho Malta de; Andrade, Luciane Sá de; Bazon, Marina Rezende; Silva, Marta Angélica Iossi

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a systematic literature review addressing rigorously planned and assessed interventions intended to reduce school bullying. The search for papers was performed in four databases (Lilacs, Psycinfo, Scielo and Web of Science) and guided by the question: What are the interventions used to reduce bullying in schools? Only case-control studies specifically focusing on school bullying without a time frame were included. The methodological quality of investigations was assessed using the SIGN checklist. A total of 18 papers composed the corpus of analysis and all were considered to have high methodological quality. The interventions conducted in the revised studies were divided into four categories: multi-component or whole-school, social skills training, curricular, and computerized. The review synthesizes knowledge that can be used to contemplate practices and intervention programs in the education and health fields with a multidisciplinary nature.

  19. An Anti-Bullying Training Course for Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgeway, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Workplace bullying is a phenomenon that is currently affecting as many as 70% of the workforce in the United States (Lutgen-Sandvic & McDermott, 2011). This phenomenon decreases morale, increases turn-over, and could soon lead to massive and costly litigation. In response to this I have proposed a two hour training course meant to educate workers…

  20. Modifying Anti-Bullying Programs to Include Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskauskas, Juliana; Modell, Scott

    2011-01-01

    "Bullying" is defined as any aggressive behavior with the intent to harm that involves a real or perceived power imbalance. Bullying is identified as one of the most predominant problems faced by children in the United States education system, as well as one of the most significant health risks to children. Exactly how prevalent this issue is…

  1. The qualitative interview and challenges for clinicians undertaking research: a personal reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on my doctoral experience the aim of this article is to present my transition from practitioner to novice researcher and the challenges I encountered when undertaking qualitative in-depth interviews. The contents of my research diary were coded for words, sentences and paragraphs and were then grouped into themes and subsequently organised into concepts and categories. The analysis identified one core category: 'changing states: learning to become a researcher'. The related categories included 'guessing responses', 'confusing boundaries' and 'revealing hidden concepts'. These concepts provide a description of how I learnt to become a researcher and became a changed state. The paper provides practitioners with practical examples of my transition from practitioner to novice researcher. I offer some tips for practitioners who wish to undertake research in their clinical role.

  2. [Environmental licensing of major undertakings: possible connection between health and environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Missifany; Araújo Neto, Mário Diniz de

    2014-09-01

    The prospect of multidisciplinary assessment that considers the environmental impacts on the health of the population during the implementation of potentially polluting projects is incipient in Brazil. Considering the scenario of major undertakings in the country, broadening the outlook on the health and environment relationship based on social and economic development processes striving for environmentally sustainable projects is a key strategy. This article examines the debate on the relationship between the current development model, the risks, the environment and health and discusses the importance of the participation of the health sector in the environmental licensing procedures, which is the instrument of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Seeking to create more environmentally and socially sustainable territories, the health sector has been looking for opportunities to participate in the licensing processes of major undertakings from the EIA standpoint. Results of research conducted by the Ministry of Health have demonstrated the form of participation in these processes, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses that favor or hinder the increase of preventive actions in public health in the implementation of major undertakings in Brazil.

  3. Identification of Preferred Sources of Information for Undertaking Studies in the Faculty of Engineering Management at Poznan University of Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Wyrwicka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 2010 a survey has been conducted among first-year students about sources of information which influence the decision of undertaking field studies in Safety Engineering, Management Engineering and Logistics in the Faculty of Engineering Management at Poznan University of Technology. The goal of these analyses is both to assess the effectiveness of promotion and also show trends in the use of diverse channels of information transfer of studies. The results of the investigation show that internet promotion via university and faculty website plays the dominant role but also direct promotion, such as opinion of older friends, is crucial. Furthermore, from year to year the analyses indicate the significant increase of official media and reveal that the prospective students rely on a few sources of information simultaneously.

  4. EU program fuel cells in 2012 - FCH JU Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking; EU-program braensleceller 2012 - FCH JU Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridell, Bengt

    2013-03-15

    An EU activity in fuel cell and hydrogen field are gathered since 2008 in a so called JU, Joint Undertaking, or as it is also referred to as JTI Joint Technology Initiative. The program will run 2008 - 2013 and covers in total 940 MEUR of which the EU Commission is funding 470 MEUR. The activities of the FCH JU are governed by a Governing Board which has 12 members, five from the Commission, one of the research group and 5 from the Industrial Group. The current agreement for the FCH JU / JTI is coming to an end, and the sixth and final call was released in January 2013 with the deadline of 22 May 2013. Funding from the Commission is made through the Seventh Framework Programme FP7, which ends in 2013. Next the Eighth Framework Programme called Horizon 2020 shall continue for the years 2014 - 2020. Five of the six calls are completed. From the four first calls there are 61 projects started which 6 have been completed. From the fifth announcement is further 27 projects selected for negotiation with the Commission and they will start soon. It is now working intensively to plan Horizon 2020. There are plans to continue the new FCH JU but nothing is decided either for this or for the budget for Horizon 2020. If the FCH Joint Undertaking shall continue in its present form as a Joint Undertaking it will require clear long-term commitments from the private sector and also from the Member States. Another issue is that the long-term research should also get space it has not been the case in the present FCH JU. There are several Swedish participants in the projects and in the working groups of the program. There are Swedish participants in 11 of the 68 projects launched so far. It is in the areas of Stationary systems, Transportation and Early Markets. Project manager for the project FCGEN is Volvo Technology AB. FCH JU has its own website, www.fch-ju.eu, which opened in 2010 when the organization of the program was taken over from the Commission to permanent organisation

  5. What factors influence community-dwelling older people’s intent to undertake multifactorial fall prevention programs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill KD

    2014-11-01

    from the theoretical model positively influenced intention to participate in the intervention: personal perception of intervention effectiveness, self-perceived risk of falls, self-perceived risk of injury, and inability to walk up/down steps without a handrail (P<0.05.Conclusion: Multifactorial falls clinic-type interventions are not commonly accessed or considered as intended fall prevention approaches among community-dwelling older people, even among those with falls in the past 12 months. Factors identified as influencing intention to undertake these interventions may be useful in promoting or targeting these interventions. Keywords: falls prevention, falls clinics, older adults, motivation

  6. Non proliferation regimes undertakings: Benefits and limits of synergies in verification technologies and procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Thirty years ago the NPT was entering into force. Therewith, when a State became party to the NPT, it had, in accordance with article III.1 of the Treaty, an undertaking to conclude a Comprehensive Safeguards agreement with the IAEA and accept safeguards verification on source or special fissionable material in all peaceful nuclear activities within its territories in order to verify that such material is not diverted. This multilateral instrument was the foundation stone of the non-proliferation regime and marked the actual birth of internationally accepted measures to verily compliance with politically stringent agreements. Since that time several important multilateral or bilateral instruments on non-proliferation and disarmament have been negotiated and adopted to curb the development and the acquisition of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) most of them since the middle of the eighties and the collapse of the Soviet Union. Amongst the multilateral instruments are the Convention on the Prohibition of Bacteriological Weapon and Toxin Weapons (1972), the Convention on the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (1993), the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (1996), the Strengthening of the IAEA Safeguards and the Additional Protocol (1997), with some still in negotiation like the Protocol of the Convention on the Prohibition of Bacteriological and Toxin Weapons, and some on which negotiation is still a wish like the Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty. Bilateral disarmament agreements between the United States of America and the Russian Federation such as the INF Treaty, START I and II, the agreements on the elimination of excess defence nuclear material as well as the Trilateral Initiative with the IAEA pave the way to nuclear disarmament with the reduction of both the number of nuclear weapons arsenal and the fissile material inventories. The politically stringent undertakings of States that have become parties to those agreements would not be possible without the

  7. Undertaking and writing research that is important, targeted, and the best you can do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Sharynne

    2014-04-01

    Conducting and writing research is a privilege. It is a privilege because researchers can change lives through their findings and can influence public knowledge and debate. It is also a privilege because researchers are reliant on the time and goodwill of participants (and colleagues), and research is often underpinned by funding raised by the public, either through taxes or philanthropic donations. This privilege comes with responsibility. Researchers have a responsibility to undertake research that is important, targeted, and of high quality. This editorial aims to inspire, challenge, and bolster the research efforts of individuals and teams.

  8. Training staff to empower people with long-term conditions to undertake self care activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Mandy

    Self care can help people with long-term conditions take control of their lives. However, their interest and ability to engage with it may fluctuate over the course of an illness and many need support to undertake self care activities. A team of community matrons in NHS South of Tyne and Wear helped to develop and pilot an e-learning tool for staff, to remind them of the importance of self care and give advice on ways to support patients. The tool has since been rolled out to all staff groups.

  9. The development of power generation by electricity supply undertakings and industries in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cura, H.

    1998-01-01

    Following the events of recent years - the opening up of the east, efforts to stimulate international competition - the Western European electricity industry is strongly on the move. In spite of the non-uniformity of the electricity supply structures in the individual countries, the trend towards liberalization of the electricity market is characterized by different forms of expression. Against this background, this paper provides a review of the status and prospects of electricity demand developments and of primary energy supply. It considers the consequences which thereby arise for the power plant inventory of electricity supply undertakings and industries. (orig.) [de

  10. Co-founding ant queens prevent disease by performing prophylactic undertaking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pull, Christopher D; Cremer, Sylvia

    2017-10-13

    Social insects form densely crowded societies in environments with high pathogen loads, but have evolved collective defences that mitigate the impact of disease. However, colony-founding queens lack this protection and suffer high rates of mortality. The impact of pathogens may be exacerbated in species where queens found colonies together, as healthy individuals may contract pathogens from infectious co-founders. Therefore, we tested whether ant queens avoid founding colonies with pathogen-exposed conspecifics and how they might limit disease transmission from infectious individuals. Using Lasius niger queens and a naturally infecting fungal pathogen Metarhizium brunneum, we observed that queens were equally likely to found colonies with another pathogen-exposed or sham-treated queen. However, when one queen died, the surviving individual performed biting, burial and removal of the corpse. These undertaking behaviours were performed prophylactically, i.e. targeted equally towards non-infected and infected corpses, as well as carried out before infected corpses became infectious. Biting and burial reduced the risk of the queens contracting and dying from disease from an infectious corpse of a dead co-foundress. We show that co-founding ant queens express undertaking behaviours that, in mature colonies, are performed exclusively by workers. Such infection avoidance behaviours act before the queens can contract the disease and will therefore improve the overall chance of colony founding success in ant queens.

  11. Reasons why specialist doctors undertake rural outreach services: an Australian cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Belinda G; McGrail, Matthew R; Stoelwinder, Johannes U

    2017-01-07

    The purpose of the study is to explore the reasons why specialist doctors travel to provide regular rural outreach services, and whether reasons relate to (1) salaried or private fee-for-service practice and (2) providing rural outreach services in more remote locations. A national cross-sectional study of specialist doctors from the Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life (MABEL) survey in 2014 was implemented. Specialists providing rural outreach services self-reported on a 5-point scale their level of agreement with five reasons for participating. Chi-squared analysis tested association between agreement and variables of interest. Of 567 specialists undertaking rural outreach services, reasons for participating include to grow the practice (54%), maintain a regional connection (26%), provide complex healthcare (18%), healthcare for disadvantaged people (12%) and support rural staff (6%). Salaried specialists more commonly participated to grow the practice compared with specialists in fee-for-service practice (68 vs 49%). This reason was also related to travelling further and providing outreach services in outer regional/remote locations. Private fee-for-service specialists more commonly undertook outreach services to provide complex healthcare (22 vs 14%). Specialist doctors undertake rural outreach services for a range of reasons, mainly to complement the growth and diversity of their main practice or maintain a regional connection. Structuring rural outreach around the specialist's main practice is likely to support participation and improve service distribution.

  12. Building confidence: an exploration of nurses undertaking a postgraduate biological science course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wissen, Kim; McBride-Henry, Karen

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the impact of studying biological science at a postgraduate level and how this impacted on nursing practice. The term biological sciences in this research encompasses elements of physiology, genetics, biochemistry and pathophysiology. A qualitative research study was designed, that involved the dissemination of a pre- and post-course semi-structured questionnaire for a biological science course, as part of a Master of Nursing programme at a New Zealand University, thus exploring the impact of undertaking a postgraduate biological sciences course. The responses were analysed into themes, based on interpretive concepts. The primary themes revealed improvement in confidence as: confidence in communication, confidence in linking nursing theoretical knowledge to practice and confidence in clinical nursing knowledge. This study highlights the need to privilege clinically-derived nursing knowledge, and that confidence in this nursing knowledge and clinical practice can be instilled through employing the model of theory-guided practice.

  13. The effects of national energy policy on the electricity supply undertakings of the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCollam, W. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The oil crisis in 1973 led to the adoption of a comprehensive American energy policy in order to reduce the dependence of the USA on foreign energy sources. The present government has introduced measures in the form of draft legislation entitled 'The National Energy Strategy', which will increase efficiency, improve the environment and promote the utilization of domestic energy sources including nuclear power. This draft statute, together with competing proposals, are at present being discussed controversially in the public domain. (orig.) [de

  14. The Level of Anxiety and Depression in Dialysis Patients Undertaking Regular Physical Exercise Training - a Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioletta Dziubek

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a six-month physical training undertaken by haemodialysis (HD patients, on the depression and anxiety. Methods: Patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD were recruited from the dialysis station at the Department of Nephrology and Transplantation Medicine in Wroclaw. Physical training took place at the beginning of the first 4-hours of dialysis, three times a week for six months. A personal questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI were used in the study. Results: A total of 28 patients completed the study: 20 were randomised to endurance training and 8 were randomised to resistance training. Statistical analysis of depression and anxiety at the initial (t1 and final examination (t2 indicated a significant reduction in depression and anxiety, particularly anxiety as a trait (X2 in the whole study group. The change in anxiety as a state correlated with the disease duration, duration of dialysis and the initial level of anxiety as a state (t1X1. The change in anxiety as a trait significantly correlated with age and the initial level of anxiety (t1X2. Conclusions: Undertaking physical training during dialysis by patients with ESRD is beneficial in reducing their levels of anxiety and depression. Both resistance and endurance training improves mood, but only endurance training additionally results in anxiety reduction.

  15. Exploring the role of social interactions and supports in overcoming accessibility barriers while undertaking health tours in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Arnab; Harata, Noboru; Kiyoshi, Takami; Ohmori, Nobuaki

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the phenomenon of companionship as an adaptation strategy to counter the existing barriers to health care access in developing nations. Companionship is argued to be an outcome of "inter" and "intra" household collaboration to offer diverse supports in addition to altruism. The analysis of the household survey conducted in West Bengal, India, exhibited different patterns of health care tours and the associated dependencies. In addition to support in terms of mobility while traveling and companionship while waiting for the opportunity, support in terms of refuge is also found to be essential, especially for the poor while they undertake regional tours. Causal models focusing on aggregated general health tours and specific regional tours were estimated separately to comprehend the implicit social interactions and their effects on the patient as well as the companions. The research demonstrated that accessibility barriers affect not only the ill, but also those associated with them and at times adversely. Segregation of regional tours illustrated the gaps, which instigated such tours and also might aid in health infrastructure planning as a whole.

  16. The Level of Anxiety and Depression in Dialysis Patients Undertaking Regular Physical Exercise Training--a Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziubek, Wioletta; Kowalska, Joanna; Kusztal, Mariusz; Rogowski, Łukasz; Gołębiowski, Tomasz; Nikifur, Małgorzata; Szczepańska-Gieracha, Joanna; Zembroń-Łacny, Agnieszka; Klinger, Marian; Woźniewski, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a six-month physical training undertaken by haemodialysis (HD) patients, on the depression and anxiety. Patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) were recruited from the dialysis station at the Department of Nephrology and Transplantation Medicine in Wroclaw. Physical training took place at the beginning of the first 4-hours of dialysis, three times a week for six months. A personal questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were used in the study. A total of 28 patients completed the study: 20 were randomised to endurance training and 8 were randomised to resistance training. Statistical analysis of depression and anxiety at the initial (t1) and final examination (t2) indicated a significant reduction in depression and anxiety, particularly anxiety as a trait (X2) in the whole study group. The change in anxiety as a state correlated with the disease duration, duration of dialysis and the initial level of anxiety as a state (t1X1). The change in anxiety as a trait significantly correlated with age and the initial level of anxiety (t1X2). Undertaking physical training during dialysis by patients with ESRD is beneficial in reducing their levels of anxiety and depression. Both resistance and endurance training improves mood, but only endurance training additionally results in anxiety reduction. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Does undertaking an intercalated BSc influence first clinical year exam results at a London medical school?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Melvyn

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intercalated BScs (iBScs are an optional part of the medical school curriculum in many Universities. Does undertaking an iBSc influence subsequent student performance? Previous studies addressing this question have been flawed by iBSc students being highly selected. This study looks at data from medical students where there is a compulsory iBSc for non-graduates. Our aim was to see whether there was any difference in performance between students who took an iBSc before or after their third year (first clinical year exams. Methods A multivariable analysis was performed to compare the third year results of students at one London medical school who had or had not completed their iBSc by the start of this year (n = 276. A general linear model was applied to adjust for differences between the two groups in terms of potential confounders (age, sex, nationality and baseline performance. Results The results of third year summative exams for 276 students were analysed (184 students with an iBSc and 92 without. Unadjusted analysis showed students who took an iBSc before their third year achieved significantly higher end of year marks than those who did not with a mean score difference of 4.4 (0.9 to 7.9 95% CI, p = 0.01. (overall mean score 238.4 "completed iBSc" students versus 234.0 "not completed", range 145.2 - 272.3 out of 300. There was however a significant difference between the two groups in their prior second year exam marks with those choosing to intercalate before their third year having higher marks. Adjusting for this, the difference in overall exam scores was no longer significant with a mean score difference of 1.4 (-4.9 to +7.7 95% CI, p = 0.66. (overall mean score 238.0 " completed iBSc" students versus 236.5 "not completed". Conclusions Once possible confounders are controlled for (age, sex, previous academic performance undertaking an iBSc does not influence third year exam results. One explanation for this

  18. The home as an appropriate setting for women undertaking cervical ripening before the induction of labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Margaret; Lorimer, Karen; Norman, Jane E; Bollapragada, Shrikant S; Norrie, John

    2011-02-01

    to explore women's experiences of cervical ripening using isosorbide mononitrate (IMN) in the home as part of the main randomised controlled trial. qualitative study with semi-structured interviews carried out at three weeks post partum. Interview transcripts were analysed to identify recurrent themes, focusing on why women became involved in the study, their views about both the self-medication and the home setting, and whether they would repeat the experience. the home. twenty women enrolled in the main randomised controlled trial. the study is part of a double-blind randomised controlled trial with 350 patients investigating whether a nitric oxide donor (IMN) used in cervical ripening improves the process of induction of labour. women liked the opportunity to remain at home during the cervical ripening process. Timing and setting were central issues; women hoped that it would hasten labour, while the home was seen as a setting offering freedom, security and reassurance, as opposed to the hospital, seen as constraining. Two women reported problems with IMN but the remainder reported that they would repeat the experience. women were very positive about the opportunity to undertake cervical ripening at home. It is important to explore this setting further for appropriate interventions. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The lived experiences of flemish midwifery students undertaking an internship in Suriname: A phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilde, Curinckx; Marion, Welsh; Marianne, Nieuwenhuijze

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the lived experience of Flemish midwifery students undertaking an internship in Suriname. Hermeneutic phenomenological method as described by van Manen. Seven midwifery students from one University College were selected purposefully for an in-depth interview during their internship abroad within the period October-November 2014. All interviews were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. The study revealed five overarching themes: (1) A time to reconsider the time, (2) a time of connection and disconnection, (3) spatiality for thought and rethinking, (4) a body to undergo or a body to respond and (5) the other(s) among the others. The experience of an internship in Suriname presents itself in each individual as: 'A process of awareness from the self with a main focus on the professional'. Meaning that it was a process of 'disconnection' from their own culture towards 'connection' with another culture. Both, the 'rethinking' of their role as a midwife, as well as, balancing between guarding one's own authenticity by 'responding' or being the friendly stranger through 'undergoing', was noticeably striking. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Assisted reproductive technologies in Ghana: transnational undertakings, local practices and ‘more affordable’ IVF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trudie Gerrits

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article sketches the origins and development of IVF in Ghana as a highly transnational undertaking. Movements are from and to Africa, involving human beings (providers and users, and also refer to other entities such as technologies, skills and knowledge. None of these movements are paid for using public money, neither are they subsidized by international health organizations. Currently, ‘more affordable’ IVF is being introduced into Ghana, on initiative of the first Association of Childless Couples of Ghana (ACCOG, in collaboration with the Belgium based non-profit organization the Walking Egg (tWE, representing another form of transnational networking. The article underlines the scarcity of well-trained embryologists in Ghana, which turns the embryologists’ expertise and skills into a scarce and precious commodity and guarantees this expertise becomes a major challenge for the directors of the private clinics. Next to local Ghanaian couples, the clinics also attend to transnational reproductive travellers, including women and men from neighbouring countries and Ghanaians in the diaspora returning to their country of origin. Their manifold motivations to cross borders and visit the IVF clinics in Ghana provide insight into the structural conditions impeding or facilitating the use of assisted reproductive technologies at different local sites. Transnational movements also include the flow of new procreation practices (such as surrogacy and the use of donor material, which (re-shape existing cultural and societal notions regarding kinship and the importance of blood/genetic ties. Finally, the article lists a number of thematic and theoretical issues which require further exploration and studies.

  1. Factors associated with quality of life in elderly undertaking literacy programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Rodrigues dos Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Increased life expectancy has led to a significant number of elderly enrolling on Youth and Adult Education programs (YAE. These individuals leave inactivity and negative aspects of aging in search of opportunities for social inclusion. Objective: To evaluate the influence of sociodemographic factors and depressive and cognitive symptoms on quality of life (QL of elderly attending the YAE of São Carlos city in São Paulo state. Methods: A descriptive and quantitative study approved by the Research Ethics Committee of São Carlos Federal University was conducted. The sample comprised all elderly undertaking the YAE literacy program in 2012. The instruments used were the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS, WHOQOL-bref and WHOQOL-old, and a sociodemographic instrument. Results: We interviewed 23 elderly, predominantly females (91.3% in the early stages of old age (69.6%. The number of years of YAE study showed no correlation with cognition scores obtained on the MMSE or with QL domains. However, scores on the GDS had a moderate inverse relationship with total scores for the Physical (p<0.01, Sensory Functioning (p<0.05, Independence (p<0.01, Past, Present and Future Activities (p<0.05, Social Participation (p<0.01, and Intimacy (p<0.05 QV domains, and a strong inversely proportional relationship with the Social Relationships QV domain (p<0.01. Scores attained on the MMSE showed a moderate and direct relationship with total scores on the Independence QL domain (p=0.001. Conclusion: Elderly on literacy programs have average quality of life scores. Several QL domains are influenced by depression and cognitive symptoms.

  2. The capabilities and scope-of-practice requirements of advanced life support practitioners undertaking critical care transfers: A Delphi study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Venter

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Critical care transfers (CCT refer to the high level of care given during transport (via ambulance, helicopter or fixed-wing aircraft of patients who are of high acuity. In South Africa (SA, advanced life support (ALS paramedics undertake CCTs. The scope of ALS in SA has no extended protocol regarding procedures or medications in terms of dealing with these CCTs. Aim. The aim of this study was to obtain the opinions of several experts in fields pertaining to critical care and transport and to gain consensus on the skills and scope-of-practice requirements of paramedics undertaking CCTs in the SA setting. Methods. A modified Delphi study consisting of three rounds was undertaken using an online survey platform. A heterogeneous sample (n=7, consisting of specialists in the fields of anaesthesiology, emergency medicine, internal medicine, critical care, critical care transport and paediatrics, was asked to indicate whether, in their opinion, selected procedures and medications were needed within the scope of practice of paramedics undertaking CCTs. Results. After three rounds, consensus was obtained in 70% (57/81 of procedures and medications. Many of these items are not currently within the scope of paramedics’ training. The panel felt that paramedics undertaking these transfers should have additional postgraduate training that is specific to critical care. Conclusion. Major discrepancies exist between the current scope of paramedic practice and the suggested required scope of practice for CCTs. An extended scope of practice and additional training should be considered for these practitioners.

  3. Farmers prone to drought risk : why some farmers undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures while others not?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gidey, T.G.; van der Veen, A.

    2015-01-01

    This research investigates farmers’ cognitive perceptions of risk and the behavioral intentions to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures. It has been observed that people who are susceptible to natural hazards often fail to act, or do very little, to protect their assets or lives. To answer

  4. A Phytase Enzyme-Based Biochemistry Practical Particularly Suited to Students Undertaking Courses in Biotechnology and Environmental Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Angela; Casey, Anne; Walsh, Gary

    2004-01-01

    Courses in introductory biochemistry invariably encompass basic principles of enzymology, with reinforcement of lecture-based material in appropriate laboratory practicals. Students undertaking practical classes are more enthusiastic, and generally display improved performance, when the specific experiments undertaken show direct relevance to…

  5. The Effects of a Skill-Based Intervention for Victims of Bullying in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luiz da Silva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study’s objective was to verify whether improved social and emotional skills would reduce victimization among Brazilian 6th grade student victims of bullying. The targets of this intervention were victimized students; a total of 78 victims participated. A cognitive-behavioral intervention based on social and emotional skills was held in eight weekly sessions. The sessions focused on civility, the ability to make friends, self-control, emotional expressiveness, empathy, assertiveness, and interpersonal problem-solving capacity. Data were analyzed through Poisson regression models with random effects. Pre- and post-analyses reveal that intervention and comparison groups presented significant reduced victimization by bullying. No significant improvement was found in regard to difficulties in practicing social skills. Victimization reduction cannot be attributed to the program. This study contributes to the incipient literature addressing anti-bullying interventions conducted in developing countries and highlights the need for approaches that do not exclusively focus on the students’ individual aspects.

  6. The Effects of a Skill-Based Intervention for Victims of Bullying in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Jorge Luiz; de Oliveira, Wanderlei Abadio; Braga, Iara Falleiros; Farias, Marilurdes Silva; da Silva Lizzi, Elisangela Aparecida; Gonçalves, Marlene Fagundes Carvalho; Pereira, Beatriz Oliveira; Silva, Marta Angélica Iossi

    2016-10-26

    This study's objective was to verify whether improved social and emotional skills would reduce victimization among Brazilian 6th grade student victims of bullying. The targets of this intervention were victimized students; a total of 78 victims participated. A cognitive-behavioral intervention based on social and emotional skills was held in eight weekly sessions. The sessions focused on civility, the ability to make friends, self-control, emotional expressiveness, empathy, assertiveness, and interpersonal problem-solving capacity. Data were analyzed through Poisson regression models with random effects. Pre- and post-analyses reveal that intervention and comparison groups presented significant reduced victimization by bullying. No significant improvement was found in regard to difficulties in practicing social skills. Victimization reduction cannot be attributed to the program. This study contributes to the incipient literature addressing anti-bullying interventions conducted in developing countries and highlights the need for approaches that do not exclusively focus on the students' individual aspects.

  7. Verifying compliance with nuclear non-proliferation undertakings: IAEA safeguards agreements and additional protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-06-01

    This report provides background information on safeguards and explains procedures for States to conclude Additional Protocols to comprehensive Safeguards Agreements with the IAEA. Since the IAEA was founded in 1957, its safeguards system has been an indispensable component of the nuclear non-proliferation regime and has facilitated peaceful nuclear cooperation. In recognition of this, the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) makes it mandatory for all non-nuclear-weapon States (NNWS) party to the Treaty to conclude comprehensive safeguards agreements with the IAEA, and thus allow for the application of safeguards to all their nuclear material. Under Article III of the NPT, all NNWS undertake to accept safeguards, as set forth in agreements to be negotiated and concluded with the IAEA, for the exclusive purpose of verification of the fulfilment of the States' obligations under the NPT. In May 1997, the IAEA Board of Governors approved the Model Additional Protocol to Safeguards Agreements (reproduced in INFCIRC/540(Corr.)) which provided for an additional legal authority. In States that have both a comprehensive safeguards agreement and an additional protocol in force, the IAEA is able to optimize the implementation of all safeguards measures available. In order to simplify certain procedures under comprehensive safeguards agreements for States with little or no nuclear material and no nuclear material in a facility, the IAEA began making available, in 1971, a 'small quantities protocol' (SQP), which held in abeyance the implementation of most of the detailed provisions of comprehensive safeguards agreements for so long as the State concerned satisfied these criteria. The safeguards system aims at detecting and deterring the diversion of nuclear material. Such material includes enriched uranium, plutonium and uranium-233, which could be used directly in nuclear weapons. It also includes natural uranium and depleted uranium, the latter of which is

  8. Verifying compliance with nuclear non-proliferation undertakings: IAEA safeguards agreements and additional protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-04-01

    This report provides background information on safeguards and explains procedures for States to conclude Additional Protocols to comprehensive Safeguards Agreements with the IAEA. Since the IAEA was founded in 1957, its safeguards system has been an indispensable component of the nuclear non-proliferation regime and has facilitated peaceful nuclear cooperation. In recognition of this, the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) makes it mandatory for all non-nuclear-weapon States (NNWS) party to the Treaty to conclude comprehensive safeguards agreements with the IAEA, and thus allow for the application of safeguards to all their nuclear material. Under Article III of the NPT, all NNWS undertake to accept safeguards, as set forth in agreements to be negotiated and concluded with the IAEA, for the exclusive purpose of verification of the fulfilment of the States' obligations under the NPT. In May 1997, the IAEA Board of Governors approved the Model Additional Protocol to Safeguards Agreements (reproduced in INFCIRC/540(Corr.)) which provided for an additional legal authority. In States that have both a comprehensive safeguards agreement and an additional protocol in force, the IAEA is able to optimize the implementation of all safeguards measures available. In order to simplify certain procedures under comprehensive safeguards agreements for States with little or no nuclear material and no nuclear material in a facility, the IAEA began making available, in 1971, a 'small quantities protocol' (SQP), which held in abeyance the implementation of most of the detailed provisions of comprehensive safeguards agreements for so long as the State concerned satisfied these criteria. The safeguards system aims at detecting and deterring the diversion of nuclear material. Such material includes enriched uranium, plutonium and uranium-233, which could be used directly in nuclear weapons. It also includes natural uranium and depleted uranium, the latter of which is

  9. Farmers Prone to Drought Risk: Why Some Farmers Undertake Farm-Level Risk-Reduction Measures While Others Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrehiwot, Tagel; van der Veen, Anne

    2015-03-01

    This research investigates farmers' cognitive perceptions of risk and the behavioral intentions to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures. It has been observed that people who are susceptible to natural hazards often fail to act, or do very little, to protect their assets or lives. To answer the question of why some people show adaptive behavior while others do not, a socio-psychological model of precautionary adaptation based on protection motivation theory and trans-theoretical stage model has been applied for the first time to areas of drought risk in the developing countries cultural context. The applicability of the integrated model is explored by means of a representative sample survey of smallholder farmers in northern Ethiopia. The result of the study showed that there is a statistically significant association between farmer's behavioral intention to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures and the main important protection motivation model variables. High perceived vulnerability, severity of consequences, self-efficacy, and response efficacy lead to higher levels of behavioral intentions to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures. For farmers in the action stage, self-efficacy and response efficacy were the main motivators of behavioral intention. For farmers in the contemplative stage, self-efficacy and cost appear to be the main motivators for them to act upon risk reduction, while perceived severity of consequences and cost of response actions were found to be important for farmers in the pre-contemplative stage.

  10. Cancer patients undertaking bone scans in a department of Nuclear Medicine have significant stress related to the examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sioka, C.; Manetou, M.; Dimakopoulos, N.; Christidi, S.; Kouraklis, G.

    2005-01-01

    Bone scanning is a standard screening procedure for evaluation of metastases in cancer patient. In addition to the staging procedures, bone scan is a valuable test for deciding palliative therapeutic options in selected patients. The aim of this study was to investigate if patients with cancer who were undertaking routine bone scans had any stress related to the test. We asked 83 consecutive patients with various types of cancer if they had anxiety just prior to undergoing the test. Overall, we found that 53 (64%) patients had increased anxiety related to the examination and 30 (36%) patients did not. Among the 53 patients who were anxious about the bone scan, 32 were concerned about the results of the examination, 13 worried about the effects of the radiation, 4 were anxious for both results/radiation, and 4 patients had stress but could not specify the reason. Among the 32 patients who were concerned about the results of the examination, 15 were having their first bone scans, while 17 had already undergone the procedure before. Among the 13 patients who were mainly concerned about the risks of the radiation exposure during the test, 9 were having bone scans for the first time. Out of the 4 patients who feared both the results and radiation, 3 were having bone scans for the first time and 1 had it for several times. Finally, out of the 4 patients who had anxiety about the test but could not identify the reason, 3 were having bone scans for the first time and one had the test before but was claustrophobic. Our findings indicate that most patients (64%) with cancer who underwent a routine bone scan to check for metastatic disease had intense stress related either to the results or the side effects of the examination. However, there were more patients who were concerned about the results of the test rather than the effects of radiation. Among the patients who feared the effects of radioactivity most were having the test for the first time. A previous study in a

  11. Decree No. 67/77 of 6 May establishing a National Uranium Undertaking as a public body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This Decree, promulgated on 29 March 1977, sets up a National Uranium Undertaking (ENU). The ENU Statute which is attached to the Decree lays down that its main purpose is to prospect for and inventory uranium deposits, to explore known deposits, to set up facilities for recovery and treatment of uranium ores, and finally, to market the products obtained. The ENU has taken over the work which, until now, had been carried out in that field by the Junta de Energia Nuclear and it is placed under the authority of the Minister of Industry and Technology. (NEA) [fr

  12. Fusion for Energy: The European joint undertaking for ITER and the development of fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diegele, E.

    2009-01-01

    Materials development in nuclear fusion for in-vessel components, i.e. for breeder blankets and divertors, has a history of more than two decades. It is the specific in-service and loading conditions and the consequentially required properties in combination with safety standards and social-economic demands that create a unique set of specifications. Objectives of Fusion for Energy (F4E) include: 1) To provide Europe's contribution to the ITER international fusion energy project; 2) To implement the Broader Approach agreement between Euratom and Japan; 3) To prepare for the construction and demonstration of fusion reactors (DEMO). Consequently, activities in F4E focus on structural materials for the first generations of breeder blankets, i.e. ITER Test Blanket Modules (TBM) and DEMO, whereas a Fusion Materials Topical Group implemented under EFDA coordinates R and D on physically based modelling of irradiation effects and R and D in the longer term (new and /or higher risk materials). The paper focuses on martensitic-ferritic steels and (i) reviews briefly the challenges and the rationales for the decisions taken in the past, (ii) analyses the status of the main activities of development and qualification, (iii) indicates unresolved issues, and (iv) outlines future strategies and needs and their implications. Due to the exposure to intense high energy neutron flux, the main issue for breeder materials is high radiation resistance. The First Wall of a breeder blanket should survive 3-5 full power years or, respectively in terms of irradiation damage, typically 50-70 dpa for DEMO and double figures for a power plant. Even though the objective is to have the materials and key fabrication technologies needed for DEMO fully developed and qualified within the next two decades, a major part of the task has to be completed much earlier. Tritium breeding test blanket modules will be installed in ITER with the objective to test DEMO relevant technologies in fusion

  13. A participative model for undertaking and evaluating scientific communication in Earth Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Astorina, Alba; Tomasoni, Irene

    2015-04-01

    Public communication of Science and Technology (PCST) is an integral part of the mission of the Italian National Research Council (CNR) and widely carried out among the scientific community. Recently it has also become a research field investigating practices, channels, tools and models of public engagement and their impact on the relation between Science and Society. Understanding such aspects is increasingly considered relevant for an effective and aware outreach. Within this context, CNR has adopted some innovative communication approaches addressed to different publics, such as stakeholders, users, media, young people and the general public, using participative methodologies. Besides being practices of communication promoting the scientific culture, such initiatives aim at understanding the models at the basis of the relationship between the scientific community and the public. To what extent do scientists put their communication and involvement strategies in discussion? Do they use to have a real exchange with their publics in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the participatory techniques they adopt in communicating and disseminating their activities? In this paper we present a case study of a communication and educational proposal recently developed by CNR in order to promote a mutual exchange between Education/School and Research, that are the most important actors in the production and the revision of the scientific knowledge. The proposal brings an ongoing CNR research project (its steps, subjects, tools, activities, costs etc) in classrooms, making use of interactive Earth Sciences workshops conducted directly by researchers. The ongoing CNR project shared with students studies Innovative Methodologies of Earth Observation supporting the Agricultural sector in Lombardy. It aims at exploiting the Aerospace Earth Observation (EO) tools to develop dedicated agricultural downstream services that will bring added economic value and benefits for Lombardy

  14. Verification of pharmacogenetics-based warfarin dosing algorithms in Han-Chinese patients undertaking mechanic heart valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Chen, Chunxia; Li, Bei; Dong, Li; Guo, Yingqiang; Xiao, Xijun; Zhang, Eryong; Qin, Li

    2014-01-01

    To study the performance of pharmacogenetics-based warfarin dosing algorithms in the initial and the stable warfarin treatment phases in a cohort of Han-Chinese patients undertaking mechanic heart valve replacement. We searched PubMed, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure and Wanfang databases for selecting pharmacogenetics-based warfarin dosing models. Patients with mechanic heart valve replacement were consecutively recruited between March 2012 and July 2012. The predicted warfarin dose of each patient was calculated and compared with the observed initial and stable warfarin doses. The percentage of patients whose predicted dose fell within 20% of their actual therapeutic dose (percentage within 20%), and the mean absolute error (MAE) were utilized to evaluate the predictive accuracy of all the selected algorithms. A total of 8 algorithms including Du, Huang, Miao, Wei, Zhang, Lou, Gage, and International Warfarin Pharmacogenetics Consortium (IWPC) model, were tested in 181 patients. The MAE of the Gage, IWPC and 6 Han-Chinese pharmacogenetics-based warfarin dosing algorithms was less than 0.6 mg/day in accuracy and the percentage within 20% exceeded 45% in all of the selected models in both the initial and the stable treatment stages. When patients were stratified according to the warfarin dose range, all of the equations demonstrated better performance in the ideal-dose range (1.88-4.38 mg/day) than the low-dose range (pharmacogenetics-based warfarin dosing regimens performed similarly in our cohort. However, the algorithms of Wei, Huang, and Miao showed a better potential for warfarin prediction in the initial and the stable treatment phases in Han-Chinese patients undertaking mechanic heart valve replacement.

  15. Verification of Pharmacogenetics-Based Warfarin Dosing Algorithms in Han-Chinese Patients Undertaking Mechanic Heart Valve Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Chen, Chunxia; Li, Bei; Dong, Li; Guo, Yingqiang; Xiao, Xijun; Zhang, Eryong; Qin, Li

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the performance of pharmacogenetics-based warfarin dosing algorithms in the initial and the stable warfarin treatment phases in a cohort of Han-Chinese patients undertaking mechanic heart valve replacement. Methods We searched PubMed, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure and Wanfang databases for selecting pharmacogenetics-based warfarin dosing models. Patients with mechanic heart valve replacement were consecutively recruited between March 2012 and July 2012. The predicted warfarin dose of each patient was calculated and compared with the observed initial and stable warfarin doses. The percentage of patients whose predicted dose fell within 20% of their actual therapeutic dose (percentage within 20%), and the mean absolute error (MAE) were utilized to evaluate the predictive accuracy of all the selected algorithms. Results A total of 8 algorithms including Du, Huang, Miao, Wei, Zhang, Lou, Gage, and International Warfarin Pharmacogenetics Consortium (IWPC) model, were tested in 181 patients. The MAE of the Gage, IWPC and 6 Han-Chinese pharmacogenetics-based warfarin dosing algorithms was less than 0.6 mg/day in accuracy and the percentage within 20% exceeded 45% in all of the selected models in both the initial and the stable treatment stages. When patients were stratified according to the warfarin dose range, all of the equations demonstrated better performance in the ideal-dose range (1.88–4.38 mg/day) than the low-dose range (warfarin dose prediction and in the low-dose and the ideal-dose ranges. Conclusions All of the selected pharmacogenetics-based warfarin dosing regimens performed similarly in our cohort. However, the algorithms of Wei, Huang, and Miao showed a better potential for warfarin prediction in the initial and the stable treatment phases in Han-Chinese patients undertaking mechanic heart valve replacement. PMID:24728385

  16. Do progressive goverments undertake different debt burdens? Partisan vs. electoral cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. García-Sánchez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Public debt has traditionally been explained mainly by two political factors: a progressive ideology and the electoral cycle. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how these two factors influence the behavior of Spanish local governments as regards indebtedness, and also how indebtedness is influenced by the interaction of ideology and the electoral cycle.Different dependence models were estimated using panel data methodology based on a sample comprised of Spanish provincial capitals and towns with populations over 50,000, for a total of 148 town councils. The time frame corresponds to the fiscal years 1988 to 2008, inclusive. The results show that in an electoral year all politicians behave opportunistically, giving rise to an important increase in public debt in relation to municipal revenue, although progressive incumbents incur three times more debt than those of the opposite ideology. Moreover, the presence of conservative parties in government has tended to significantly attenuate this behavior in years prior to elections, whereas progressive or left-wing parties have not. It must also be noted that partisan and electoral business cycles have been mitigated since 2002, when the Budgetary Stability Law came into effect, imposing limits on the debt of subnational administrations.The empirical evidence obtained points to the need to perfect internal and external control mechanisms in order to avoid a breakdown in the stability policy and the risk of debt becoming untenable, thus achieving greater budgetary discipline.RESUMENEl nivel de endeudamiento público ha sido explicado mediante dos factores políticos, principalmente, la ideología progresista y el ciclo electoral. El objetivo de este trabajo es evidenciar como influyen ambos factores en el comportamiento de los municipios españoles en relación con la deuda que estos asumen dada su capacidad, y como este esfuerzo se ve influenciado por la interacción entre los ciclos partidista y

  17. JET joint undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    JET began operations on 25 June 1983. This annual report contains administrative information and a general review of scientific and technical developments. Among them are vacuum systems, toroidal and poloidal field systems, power supplies, neutral beam heating, radiofrequency heating, remote handling, tritium handling, control and data acquisition systems and diagnostic systems

  18. JET Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, B.E.; Kupschus, P.

    1984-09-01

    The report is in sections, as follows. (1) Introduction and summary. (2) A brief description of the origins of the JET Project within the EURATOM fusion programme and the objectives and aims of the device. The basic JET design and the overall philosophy of operation are explained and the first six months of operation of the machine are summarised. The Project Team Structure adopted for the Operation Phase is set out. Finally, in order to set JET's progress in context, other large tokamaks throughout the world and their achievements are briefly described. (3) The activities and progress within the Operation and Development Department are set out; particularly relating to its responsibilities for the operation and maintenance of the tokamak and for developing the necessary engineering equipment to enhance the machine to full performance. (4) The activities and progress within the Scientific Department are described; particularly relating to the specification, procurement and operation of diagnostic equipment; definition and execution of the programme; and the interpretation of experimental results. (5) JET's programme plans for the immediate future and a broad outline of the JET Development Plan to 1990 are given. (author)

  19. JET Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, B.E.

    1986-03-01

    This is an overview summary of the scientific and technical advances at JET during the year 1985, supplemented by appendices of detailed contributions (in preprint form) of eight of the more important JET articles produced during that year. It is aimed not only at specialists and experts but also at a more general scientific community. Thus there is a brief summary of the background to the project, a description of the basic objectives of JET and the principle design features of the machine. The new structure of the Project Team is also explained. Developments and future plans are included. Improvements considered are those which are designed to overcome certain limitations encountered generally on Tokamaks, particularly those concerned with density limits, with plasma MHD behaviour, with impurities and with plasma transport. There is also a complete list of articles, reports and conference papers published in 1985 - there are 167 such items listed. (UK)

  20. JET Joint Undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, B.E.

    1988-03-01

    The paper is a JET progress report 1987, and covers the fourth full year of JET's operation. The report contains an overview summary of the scientific and technical advances during the year, and is supplemented by appendices of detailed contributions of the more important JET articles published during 1987. The document is aimed at specialists and experts engaged in nuclear fusion and plasma physics, as well as the general scientific community. (U.K.)

  1. Bio-based Industries Joint Undertaking: The catalyst for sustainable bio-based economic growth in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengal, Philippe; Wubbolts, Marcel; Zika, Eleni; Ruiz, Ana; Brigitta, Dieter; Pieniadz, Agata; Black, Sarah

    2018-01-25

    This article discusses the preparation, structure and objectives of the Bio-based Industries Joint Undertaking (BBI JU). BBI JU is a public-private partnership (PPP) between the European Commission (EC) and the Bio-based Industries Consortium (BIC), the industry-led private not-for-profit organisation representing the private sectors across the bio-based industries. The model of the public-private partnership has been successful as a new approach to supporting research and innovation and de-risking investment in Europe. The BBI JU became a reality in 2014 and represents the largest industrial and economic cooperation endeavour financially ever undertaken in Europe in the area of industrial biotechnologies. It is considered to be one of the most forward-looking initiatives under Horizon 2020 and demonstrates the circular economy in action. The BBI JU will be the catalyst for this strategy to mobilise actors across Europe including large industry, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), all types of research organisations, networks and universities. It will support regions and in doing so, the European Union Member States and associated countries in the implementation of their bioeconomy strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. DETERMINATION OF THE URGENCY OF UNDERTAKING LAND CONSOLIDATION WORKS IN THE VILLAGES OF THE SŁAWNO MUNICIPALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Leń

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The object of the paper is to analyze the spatial structure of land and identification of the needs of consolidation works and exchange of land in the villages of the Sławno municipality, lying in the district of Opoczno, in the Łódzkie Voivodship. The authors use the method of zero unitarisation for the purposes of determining the order of undertaking consolidation works and exchange of land in the area of research. The basis for calculation is the database of 19 factors (x1–x19 characteristic for the listed five groups of issues, describing each of the following villages. The obtained results, in a form of synthetic meter for each village, allowed creating the hierarchy of the urgency of carrying out consolidation works. The problem of excessive fragmentation of farms, constituting the collections of a certain number of parcels, in a broader sense, is one of the elements that prevent the acceleration of reforms by conversion of the Land and Buildings Register (EGiB in a full valuable real estate cadastre in Poland. The importance of the problem is highlighted by the fact that there are ecological grounds in the study area, significant from the point of view of environmental protection.

  3. Barriers for domestic surrogacy and challenges of transnational surrogacy in the context of Australians undertaking surrogacy in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Louise; Blyth, Eric; Hammarberg, Karin

    2014-09-01

    The ethical, social, psychological, legal and financial complexities associated with cross-border travel for reproductive services are gaining attention internationally. Travel abroad for surrogacy, and the transfer of gametes or embryos between countries for use in a surrogacy arrangement, can create conflict in relation to the rights of the parties involved: commissioning parents, surrogates and their families, gamete and embryo donors, and children born as a result of the arrangement. Australian surrogacy laws are restrictive and limit access to domestic surrogacy. Despite the introduction of laws in some Australian jurisdictions that penalise residents entering into international commercial surrogacy arrangements, hundreds of Australians resort to surrogacy arrangements in India and other countries each year. This article discusses legislation, policy and practice as they relate to Australians' use of surrogacy in India. It reviews current surrogacy-related legislation and regulation in Australia and India and existing evidence about the challenges posed by transnational surrogacy, and considers how restrictive Australian legislation may contribute to the number of Australians undertaking surrogacy in India.

  4. Chinese Anti-Cancer Association as a non-governmental organization undertakes systematic cancer prevention work in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Cancer has become the first leading cause of death in the world, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Facing the increasing trend of cancer incidence and mortality, China issued and implemented “three-early (early prevention, early diagnosis and early treatment)” national cancer prevention plan. As the main body and dependence of social governance, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) take over the role of government in the field of cancer prevention and treatment. American Cancer Society (ACS) made a research on cancer NGOs and civil society in cancer control and found that cancer NGOs in developing countries mobilize civil society to work together and advocate governments in their countries to develop policies to address the growing cancer burden. Union for International Cancer Control (UICC), Cancer Council Australia (CCA), and Malaysian cancer NGOs are the representatives of cancer NGOs in promoting cancer control. Selecting Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (CACA) as an example in China, this article is to investigate how NGOs undertake systematic cancer prevention work in China. By conducting real case study, we found that, as a NGO, CACA plays a significant role in intensifying the leading role of government in cancer control, optimizing cancer outcomes, decreasing cancer incidence and mortality rates and improving public health. PMID:26361412

  5. Online and Offline Bullying of Autistic Youth: Anti-Bullying Strategies, Reporting, and Technological Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Scott Michael

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation investigated cyber- and face-to-face bullying of autistic youth (aged 13-18). Autism represents a neurological-developmental disability that affects language and communication, socialization, sensory processing, motor coordination, and thinking around planning, self-regulation, and self-reflection. Prior studies indicate that…

  6. Considering Mindfulness Techniques in School-Based Anti-Bullying Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foody, Mairéad; Samara, Muthanna

    2018-01-01

    Schools have a duty of care to all students and to directly prevent and intervene with bullying amongst children and adolescents. The emergence of cyberbullying escalates this responsibility as the strategies that have become appropriate at national levels for bullying do not always parallel over to online environments. The impact on mental health…

  7. Perceptions of Middle School Teachers about an Anti-Bullying Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Robin; Maldonado, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, K-12 schools throughout the United States have garnered nationwide attention because of bullying problems. Bullying impacts schools in various ways: student performance and self-regard, and it creates an environment of hostility in schools. Many factors contribute to the problem, including socioeconomic status, low self-esteem,…

  8. Using Video Modeling as an Anti-bullying Intervention for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rex, Catherine; Charlop, Marjorie H; Spector, Vicki

    2018-03-07

    In the present study, we used a multiple baseline design across participants to assess the efficacy of a video modeling intervention to teach six children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to assertively respond to bullying. During baseline, the children made few appropriate responses upon viewing video clips of bullying scenarios. During the video modeling intervention, participants viewed videos of models assertively responding to three types of bullying: physical, verbal bullying, and social exclusion. Results indicated that all six children learned through video modeling to make appropriate assertive responses to bullying scenarios. Four of the six children demonstrated learning in the in situ bullying probes. The results are discussed in terms of an intervention for victims of bullying with ASD.

  9. Resumption of menstruation and pituitary response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone in functional hypothalamic amenorrhea subjects undertaking estrogen replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Z Q; Xu, J J; Lin, J F

    2013-11-01

    Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) refers to a functional menstrual disorder with various causes and presentations. Recovery of menstrual cyclicity is common in long-term follow-up but the affecting factors remain unknown. To explore factors affecting the menstrual resumption and to evaluate the pituitary response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in FHA. Thirty cases with FHA were recruited. All subjects were put on continuous 1 mg/day estradiol valerate orally and followed up monthly. Recovery was defined as the occurrence of at least three consecutive regular cycles. Responder referred to those who recovered within two years of therapy. Gonadotropin response to the 50 μg GnRH challenge was tested every three months. Nineteen (63.3%) subjects recovered with a mean time to recovery of 26.8 months. Time to recovery was negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI) before and by amenorrhea. Twentyone cases had undertaken therapy for more than two years and 10 of them recovered. BMI before and by amenorrhea were negatively correlated with the recovery. Significant increase of serum luteinizing hormone (LH) and LH response to GnRH were noted after recovery. Menstrual resumption was common in FHA undertaking estrogen replacement therapy (ERT). The likelihood of recovery was affected by their BMI before and by amenorrhea but not by the weight gain during therapy. Low serum LH and attenuated LH response to GnRH were the main features of pituitary deficiency in FHA. The menstrual resumption in FHA was accompanied by the recovery of serum LH and the LH response to GnRH.

  10. Building capacity to use and undertake research in health organisations: a survey of training needs and priorities among staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Helen; Fulop, Naomi J

    2016-12-07

    Efforts to improve healthcare and population health depend partly on the ability of health organisations to use research knowledge and participate in its production. We report the findings of a survey conducted to prioritise training needs among healthcare and public health staff, in relation to the production and implementation of research, across an applied health research collaboration. A questionnaire survey using a validated tool, the Hennessy-Hicks Training Needs Assessment Questionnaire. Participants rated 25 tasks on a five-point scale with regard to both their confidence in performing the task, and its importance to their role. A questionnaire weblink was distributed to a convenience sample of 35 healthcare and public health organisations in London and South East England, with a request that they cascade the information to relevant staff. 203 individuals responded, from 20 healthcare and public health organisations. None. Training needs were identified by comparing median importance and performance scores for each task. Individuals were also invited to describe up to three priority areas in which they require training. Across the study sample, evaluation; teaching; making do with limited resources; coping with change and managing competing demands were identified as key tasks. Assessing the relevance of research and learning about new developments were the most relevant research-related tasks. Participants' training priorities included evaluation; finding, appraising and applying research evidence; and data analysis. Key barriers to involvement included time and resources, as well as a lack of institutional support for undertaking research. We identify areas in which healthcare and public health professionals may benefit from support to facilitate their involvement in and use of applied health research. We also describe barriers to participation and differing perceptions of research between professional groups. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited

  11. Ministerial Decree of 15 February 1974 establishing the inventory of qualified experts and physicians authorized to undertake the health physics and medical supervision of protection against ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    This Decree was made in implementation of DPR No. 185 of 13 February 1964 and provides for the legal and administrative acknowledgment of experts and physicians who are required to undertake supervision of protection against the hazards of ionizing radiations. (NEA) [fr

  12. Bullying effect on student’s performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Resende Oliveira

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to measure the effect of bullying in math scores of students in the 6th grade of public (Nansel et al., 2001. school in the city of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil with the use of data from a survey by Joaquim Nabuco Foundation in 2013. The methodology applied is Propensity Score Matching (PSM in order to compare students who reported having suffered bullying with a control group, consisting of students who did not suffer bullying. Specifically, we aim to understand the role of social emotional skills and their potential influence on bullying. The results suggest that bullying has a negative impact on performance in mathematics and that social emotional skills can help students deal with bullying. Several econometric techniques were used to circumvent endogeneity problems. To identify personality traits, we use a factor model that also serves to correct for prediction error bias. The sensitivity analysis indicated potential problems of omitted variables. The results indicate that anti-bullying programs should take into account social emotional skills. JEL classification: I21, I28, J24, Keywords: Bullying, Propensity Score Matching, Impact evaluation, Personality traits, Mathematics

  13. Ministerial Decree of 12 May 1980 authorising Agip Nucleare S.p.a. in Rome to undertake health physics and medical supervision of protection against ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Section 83 of Decree No. 185 of 13 February 1964 on protection against ionizing radiation provides that institutions previously authorised by the Minister of Labour and Social Security may, on condition that they are adequately equipped for such services, be authorised to undertake health physics and medical supervision of personnel. This Decree accordingly authorises the Agip Nucleare Company to carry out this work. (NEA) [fr

  14. Making choices in health: WHO guide to cost effectiveness analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tan Torres Edejer, Tessa

    2003-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXI PART ONE: METHODS COST-EFFECTIVENESS FOR GENERALIZED ANALYSIS 1. 2. What is Generalized Cost-Effectiveness Analysis? . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Undertaking...

  15. The process of undertaking a quantitative dissertation for a taught M.Sc: Personal insights gained from supporting and examining students in the UK and Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, Gill; Brennan, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article discusses the roles of the student and the supervisor in the process of undertaking and writing a dissertation, a potentially daunting process. Results: The authors have supervised and examined students within 20 institutions and the personal insights gained result in the guidance provided within this article. Conclusion: The authors conclude that much can be done by students working with their supervisors, to improve progress in both performing and writing up the dissertation. Taking account of these factors will ease the dissertation process and move students progressively towards the production of a well-written dissertation

  16. The cost-effectiveness of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program: Results from a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, Linda; Svensson, Mikael

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to bullying affects around 3-5 percent of adolescents in secondary school and is related to various mental health problems. Many different anti-bullying programmes are currently available, but economic evaluations are lacking. The aim of this study is to identify the cost effectiveness of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program (OBPP). We constructed a decision-tree model for a Swedish secondary school, using a public payer perspective, and retrieved data on costs and effects from the published literature. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis to reflect the uncertainty in the model was conducted. The base-case analysis showed that using the OBPP to reduce the number of victims of bullying costs 131,250 Swedish kronor (€14,470) per victim spared. Compared to a relevant threshold of the societal value of bullying reduction, this indicates that the programme is cost-effective. Using a relevant willingness-to-pay threshold shows that the OBPP is a cost-effective intervention. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Neuroendocrine and Immune Responses Undertake Different Fates following Tryptophan or Methionine Dietary Treatment: Tales from a Teleost Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Azeredo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Methionine and tryptophan appear to be fundamental in specific cellular pathways involved in the immune response mechanisms, including stimulation of T-regulatory cells by tryptophan metabolites or pro-inflammatory effects upon methionine supplementation. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of these amino acids on the inflammatory and neuroendocrine responses in juveniles of European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax. To achieve this, goal fish were fed for 14 days methionine and tryptophan-supplemented diets (MET and TRP, respectively, 2× dietary requirement level or a control diet meeting the amino acids requirement levels (CTRL. Fish were sampled for immune status assessment and the remaining fish were challenged with intraperitoneally injected inactivated Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida and sampled either 4 or 24 h post-injection. Respiratory burst activity, brain monoamines, plasma cortisol, and immune-related gene expression showed distinct and sometimes opposite patterns regarding the effects of dietary amino acids. While neuroendocrine intermediates were not affected by any dietary treatment at the end of the feeding trial, both supplemented diets led to increased levels of plasma cortisol after the inflammatory insult, while brain monoamine content was higher in TRP-fed fish. Peripheral blood respiratory burst was higher in TRP-fed fish injected with the bacteria inoculum but only compared to those fed MET. However, no changes were detected in total antioxidant capacity. Complement factor 3 was upregulated in MET-fed fish but methionine seemed to poorly affect other genes expression patterns. In contrast, fish fed MET showed increased immune cells numbers both before and after immune challenge, suggesting a strong enhancing effect of methionine on immune cells proliferation. Differently, tryptophan effects on inflammatory transcripts suggested an inhibitory mode of action. This, together

  18. Effectiveness and sustainability of the ViSC Social Competence Program to prevent cyberbullying and cyber-victimization: Class and individual level moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradinger, Petra; Yanagida, Takuya; Strohmeier, Dagmar; Spiel, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether the general anti-bullying program ViSC sustainably prevents cyberbullying and cyber-victimization. A longitudinal randomized control group design was used to examine (i) program effectiveness immediately after a 1 year implementation phase and (ii) sustainable program effects 6 months later taking several moderators on the class level (class climate and ethnic diversity) and on the individual level (gender, age, internet usage, traditional bullying/victimization) into account. Effectiveness (e.g., the change between waves 2 and 1) was examined in 2,042 students (47.6% girls), aged 11.7 years (SD = 0.88) enrolled in 18 schools and 103 classes. Sustainability (e.g., the change between waves 3 and 2) was examined in a sub-sample of 6 schools and 35 classes comprising 659 students. The self-assessment multiple-item scales showed longitudinal and multiple group invariance. Factor scores were extracted to compute difference scores for effectiveness (Posttest minus Pretest) and sustainability (Follow-up test minus Posttest) for cyberbullying and cyber-victimization. Multilevel Modeling was applied to examine (i) the effectiveness and (ii) the sustainability of the ViSC intervention controlling for several individual and class level variables. Controlling for covariates, it was demonstrated that the ViSC program is effective in preventing cyberbullying and cyber-victimization and that the effects are sustainable after 6 months. The consequences for cyberbullying prevention are discussed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The Effectiveness of Cyberprogram 2.0 on Conflict Resolution Strategies and Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaigordobil, Maite; Martínez-Valderrey, Vanesa

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, the problem of youth violence has been a cause of increasing concern for educational and mental health professionals worldwide. The main objective of the study was to evaluate experimentally the effects of an anti-bullying/cyberbullying program (Cyberprogram 2.0; Pirámide Publishing, Madrid, Spain) on conflict resolution strategies and self-esteem. A randomly selected sample of 176 Spanish adolescents aged 13-15 years (93 experimental, 83 control) was employed. The study used a repeated measures pretest-posttest design with a control group. Before and after the program (19 one-hour sessions), two assessment instruments were administered: the questionnaire for measuring conflict management message styles and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale. The analyses of covariance of the posttest scores confirmed that the program stimulated an increase of cooperative conflict resolution strategies, a decrease in aggressive and avoidant strategies, and an increase of self-esteem. The change was similar in both sexes. The study provides evidence of the effectiveness of Cyberprogram 2.0 to improve the capacity for conflict resolution and self-esteem. The discussion focuses on the importance of implementing programs to promote socioemotional development and to prevent violence. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Altered Preconception Fatty Acid Intake Is Associated with Improved Pregnancy Rates in Overweight and Obese Women Undertaking in Vitro Fertilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa J. Moran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal preconception diet is proposed to affect fertility. Prior research assessing the effect of altering the fatty acid profile on female fertility is conflicting. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of preconception maternal diet, specifically fatty acid profile, on pregnancies and live births following in vitro fertilisation (IVF. Forty-six overweight and obese women undergoing IVF were randomised to a diet and physical activity intervention (intervention or standard care (control. Outcome measures included pregnancy, live birth and pre-study dietary intake from food frequency questionnaire. Twenty pregnancies (n = 12/18 vs. n = 8/20, p = 0.12 and 12 live births (n = 7/18 vs. n = 5/20, p = 0.48 occurred following the intervention with no differences between the treatment groups. On analysis adjusted for BMI and smoking status, women who became pregnant had higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA intake (p = 0.03, specifically omega-6 PUFA and linoleic acid (LA (p = 0.045 with a trend for an elevated intake of omega-3 PUFA (p = 0.06. There were no dietary differences for women who did or did not have a live birth. Maternal preconception PUFA, and specifically omega-6 and LA intake, are associated with improved pregnancy rates in overweight and obese women undergoing IVF. This has implications for optimising fertility through preconception nutrition.

  1. Altered Preconception Fatty Acid Intake Is Associated with Improved Pregnancy Rates in Overweight and Obese Women Undertaking in Vitro Fertilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Lisa J; Tsagareli, Victoria; Noakes, Manny; Norman, Robert

    2016-01-04

    Maternal preconception diet is proposed to affect fertility. Prior research assessing the effect of altering the fatty acid profile on female fertility is conflicting. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of preconception maternal diet, specifically fatty acid profile, on pregnancies and live births following in vitro fertilisation (IVF). Forty-six overweight and obese women undergoing IVF were randomised to a diet and physical activity intervention (intervention) or standard care (control). Outcome measures included pregnancy, live birth and pre-study dietary intake from food frequency questionnaire. Twenty pregnancies (n = 12/18 vs. n = 8/20, p = 0.12) and 12 live births (n = 7/18 vs. n = 5/20, p = 0.48) occurred following the intervention with no differences between the treatment groups. On analysis adjusted for BMI and smoking status, women who became pregnant had higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake (p = 0.03), specifically omega-6 PUFA and linoleic acid (LA) (p = 0.045) with a trend for an elevated intake of omega-3 PUFA (p = 0.06). There were no dietary differences for women who did or did not have a live birth. Maternal preconception PUFA, and specifically omega-6 and LA intake, are associated with improved pregnancy rates in overweight and obese women undergoing IVF. This has implications for optimising fertility through preconception nutrition.

  2. From science to action: Principles for undertaking environmental research that enables knowledge exchange and evidence-based decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvitanovic, C; McDonald, J; Hobday, A J

    2016-12-01

    Effective conservation requires knowledge exchange among scientists and decision-makers to enable learning and support evidence-based decision-making. Efforts to improve knowledge exchange have been hindered by a paucity of empirically-grounded guidance to help scientists and practitioners design and implement research programs that actively facilitate knowledge exchange. To address this, we evaluated the Ningaloo Research Program (NRP), which was designed to generate new scientific knowledge to support evidence-based decisions about the management of the Ningaloo Marine Park in north-western Australia. Specifically, we evaluated (1) outcomes of the NRP, including the extent to which new knowledge informed management decisions; (2) the barriers that prevented knowledge exchange among scientists and managers; (3) the key requirements for improving knowledge exchange processes in the future; and (4) the core capacities that are required to support knowledge exchange processes. While the NRP generated expansive and multidisciplinary science outputs directly relevant to the management of the Ningaloo Marine Park, decision-makers are largely unaware of this knowledge and little has been integrated into decision-making processes. A range of barriers prevented efficient and effective knowledge exchange among scientists and decision-makers including cultural differences among the groups, institutional barriers within decision-making agencies, scientific outputs that were not translated for decision-makers and poor alignment between research design and actual knowledge needs. We identify a set of principles to be implemented routinely as part of any applied research program, including; (i) stakeholder mapping prior to the commencement of research programs to identify all stakeholders, (ii) research questions to be co-developed with stakeholders, (iii) implementation of participatory research approaches, (iv) use of a knowledge broker, and (v) tailored knowledge management

  3. Obstacles to researching the researchers: a case study of the ethical challenges of undertaking methodological research investigating the reporting of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Joanne E; Herbison, G Peter; Roth, Paul; Paul, Charlotte

    2010-03-21

    Recent cohort studies of randomised controlled trials have provided evidence of within-study selective reporting bias; where statistically significant outcomes are more likely to be more completely reported compared to non-significant outcomes. Bias resulting from selective reporting can impact on meta-analyses, influencing the conclusions of systematic reviews, and in turn, evidence based clinical practice guidelines.In 2006 we received funding to investigate if there was evidence of within-study selective reporting in a cohort of RCTs submitted to New Zealand Regional Ethics Committees in 1998/99. This research involved accessing ethics applications, their amendments and annual reports, and comparing these with corresponding publications. We did not plan to obtain informed consent from trialists to view their ethics applications for practical and scientific reasons. In November 2006 we sought ethical approval to undertake the research from our institutional ethics committee. The Committee declined our application on the grounds that we were not obtaining informed consent from the trialists to view their ethics application. This initiated a seventeen month process to obtain ethical approval. This publication outlines what we planned to do, the issues we encountered, discusses the legal and ethical issues, and presents some potential solutions. Methodological research such as this has the potential for public benefit and there is little or no harm for the participants (trialists) in undertaking it. Further, in New Zealand, there is freedom of information legislation, which in this circumstance, unambiguously provided rights of access and use of the information in the ethics applications. The decision of our institutional ethics committee defeated this right and did not recognise the nature of this observational research. Methodological research, such as this, can be used to develop processes to improve quality in research reporting. Recognition of the potential

  4. Rapid realist review of the evidence: achieving lasting change when mental health rehabilitation staff undertake recovery-oriented training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Melanie; Bhanbhro, Sadiq; Cook, Sarah; Killaspy, Helen

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the factors contributing to lasting change in practice following a recovery-based training intervention for inpatient mental health rehabilitation staff. Staff training may help nurses and other staff groups in inpatient mental health rehabilitative settings to increase their recovery-oriented practice. There are no published reviews on the effectiveness of such training and few long-term evaluations. This review informed a realist evaluation of a specific intervention (GetREAL). Rapid realist review methodology was used to generate and prioritize programme theories. ASSIA, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Medline, PsycINFO, Scopus, Web of Science and grey literature searches were performed in September 2014-March 2015 with no date restrictions. Stakeholders suggested further documents. GetREAL project documentation was consulted. Programme theory development took place iteratively with literature identification. Stakeholders validated and prioritized emerging programme theories and the prioritized theories were refined using literature case studies. Fifty-one relevant documents fed into 49 programme theories articulating seven mechanisms for lasting change. Prioritized mechanisms were: staff receptiveness to change; and staff feeling encouraged, motivated and supported by colleagues and management to change. Seven programme theories were prioritized and refined using data from four case studies. Lasting change can be facilitated by collaborative action planning, regular collaborative meetings, appointing a change agent, explicit management endorsement and prioritization and modifying organizational structures. Conversely, a challenging organizational climate, or a prevalence of 'change fatigue', may block change. Pre-intervention exploration may help identify any potential barriers to embedding recovery in the organizational culture. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Using Social Cognitive Theory to Explain the Intention of Final-year Pharmacy Students to Undertake a Higher Degree in Pharmacy Practice Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Stephen R; Moles, Rebekah J; Krass, Ines; Kritikos, Vicki S

    2016-08-25

    Objective. To develop and test a conceptual model that hypothesized student intention to undertake a higher degree in pharmacy practice research (PPR) would be increased by self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and the social influence of faculty members. Methods. Cross-sectional surveys were completed by 387 final-year pharmacy undergraduates enrolled in 2012 and 2013. Structural equation modeling was used to explore relationships between variables and intention. Results. Fit indices were good. The model explained 55% of the variation in intention. As hypothesized, faculty social influence increased self-efficacy and indirectly increased outcome expectancy and intention. Conclusion. To increase pharmacy students' orientation towards a career in PPR, faculty members could use their social influence by highlighting PPR in their teaching.

  6. Conditions and Motivations to Undertake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flor Ángela Marulanda Valencia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at deepening in the analysis of motivations shown by a group of entrepreneurs in Medellin, Antioquia. It also describes the different perceptions about the enablers and obstacles for the development of entrepreneurship in appropriate environments to promote it. It was found that independence was the principal motivation for entrepreneurship and that the city offered the most favourable environment to foster it. Additionally, it was found that the most important obstacle to develop it was the difficulties to access a bank credit.

  7. A cross sectional observational study of research activity of allied health teams: is there a link with self-reported success, motivators and barriers to undertaking research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenke, Rachel J; Mickan, Sharon; Bisset, Leanne

    2017-02-06

    Team-based approaches to research capacity building (RCB) may be an efficient means to promote allied health research participation and activity. In order to tailor such interventions, a clearer understanding of current patterns of research participation within allied health teams is needed. Different self-report measures exist which evaluate a team's research capacity and participation, as well as associated barriers and motivators. However, it remains unclear how such measures are associated with a team's actual research activity (e.g., journal publications, funding received). In response, this observational study aimed to identify the research activity, self-reported success, and motivations and barriers to undertaking research of eight allied health professional (AHP) teams and to explore whether any relationships exist between the self-reported measures and actual research activity within each team. A total of 95 AHPs from eight teams completed the research capacity and culture survey to evaluate team success, barriers and motivators to undertaking research, and an audit of research activity from January 2013 to August 2014 was undertaken within each team. Kendell's correlation coefficients were used to determine the association between research activity (i.e., number of journal publications, ethically approved projects and funding received) and the self-reported measures. Seven out of eight teams rated their teams as having average success in research and demonstrated some form of research activity including at least two ethically approved projects. Research activity varied between teams, with funding received ranging from $0 to over $100,000, and half the teams not producing any journal publications. Team motivators demonstrated a stronger association with research activity compared to barriers, with the motivator "enhancing team credibility" being significantly associated with funding received. No significant association between self-reported research

  8. Motivations behind "Bullies Then Offenders" versus "Pure Bullies": Further Suggestions for Anti-Bully Education and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Pattie; Tankersley, Merrie; Joenson, Trevor; Hupp, Mikey; Buckley, Jennifer; Redmond-McGowan, Margaret; Zanzinger, Allison; Poirier, Alex; Walsh, Abigail

    2014-01-01

    Cyber-bullying has become increasingly problematic in academic settings including universities and colleges. The bullying literature has been expanding investigation of the bully behaviors and has identified four bully types to include pure offender, pure victim, offender and victim, neither-offender-nor-victim. The majority of research has…

  9. Cost feasibility of a pre-checking medical tourism system for U.S. patients undertaking joint replacement surgery in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haung, Ching-Ying; Wang, Sheng-Pen; Chiang, Chih-Wei

    2010-01-01

    Medical tourism is a relatively recent global economic and political phenomenon that has assumed increasing importance for developing countries, particularly in Asia. In fact, Taiwan possesses a niche for developing medical tourism because many hospitals provide state-of-the-art medicine in all disciplines and many doctors are trained in the United States (US). Among the most common medical procedures outsourced, joint replacements such as total knee replacement (TKR) and total hip replacement (THR) are two surgeries offered to US patients at a lower cost and shorter waiting time than in the US. This paper proposed a pre-checking medical tourism system (PCMTS) and evaluated the cost feasibility of recruiting American clients traveling to Taiwan for joint replacement surgery. Cost analysis was used to estimate the prime costs for each stage in the proposed PCMTS. Sensitivity analysis was implemented to examine how different pricings for medical checking and a surgical operation (MC&SO) and recovery, can influence the surplus per patient considering the PCMTS. Finally, the break-even method was adopted to test the tradeoff between the sunk costs of investment in the PCMTS and the annual surplus for participating hospitals. A novel business plan was built showing that pre-checking stations in medical tourism can provide post-operative care and recovery follow-up. Adjustable pricing for hospital administrators engaged in the PCMTS consisted of two main costs: US$3,700 for MC&SO and US$120 for the hospital stay. Guidelines for pricing were provided to maximize the annual surplus from this plan with different number of patients participating in PCMTS. The maximal profit margin from each American patient undertaking joint surgery is about US$24,315. Using cost analysis, this article might be the first to evaluate the feasibility of PCMTS for joint replacement surgeries. The research framework in this article is applicable when hospital administrators evaluate the

  10. A comparison of classroom and online asynchronous problem-based learning for students undertaking statistics training as part of a Public Health Masters degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, N; Verstegen, D M L; Tan, F E S; O'Connor, S J

    2013-05-01

    This case-study compared traditional, face-to-face classroom-based teaching with asynchronous online learning and teaching methods in two sets of students undertaking a problem-based learning module in the multilevel and exploratory factor analysis of longitudinal data as part of a Masters degree in Public Health at Maastricht University. Students were allocated to one of the two study variants on the basis of their enrolment status as full-time or part-time students. Full-time students (n = 11) followed the classroom-based variant and part-time students (n = 12) followed the online asynchronous variant which included video recorded lectures and a series of asynchronous online group or individual SPSS activities with synchronous tutor feedback. A validated student motivation questionnaire was administered to both groups of students at the start of the study and a second questionnaire was administered at the end of the module. This elicited data about student satisfaction with the module content, teaching and learning methods, and tutor feedback. The module coordinator and problem-based learning tutor were also interviewed about their experience of delivering the experimental online variant and asked to evaluate its success in relation to student attainment of the module's learning outcomes. Student examination results were also compared between the two groups. Asynchronous online teaching and learning methods proved to be an acceptable alternative to classroom-based teaching for both students and staff. Educational outcomes were similar for both groups, but importantly, there was no evidence that the asynchronous online delivery of module content disadvantaged part-time students in comparison to their full-time counterparts.

  11. Analysis of the Portuguese legal framework concerning the safeguarding of employees' rights in the event of the transfer of an undertaking or an establishment compliance with the directive 2001/23/CE of 12 march 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sónia de Carvalho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The undertaking, business, or part of an undertaking or business can be transferred to another person or corporation as a result of a merger or a legal transfer, transitory or definitive. As a consequence of the transfer, there is subrogation ex lege of the transferee in the rights and obligations arising from the employment relationship existing on the date of a transfer. This issue is of the utmost importance to accomplish the freedom of the employer negotiate the undertaking and the protection of employees' rights as well. The Portuguese legal framework has been shaped by Directive 77/187/ CEE and subsequently by Directive 2001/23/CE. In this paper, in order to assess the compliance of the legal framework concerning the enshrined in Labor Code with the Directive 2001/23/CE, it will be performed a comparative analysis between both regulations, which will be coordinated with the case law from the Court of Justice and Portuguese Courts. We will conclude that, apart from some issues, the Portuguese labour law regarding the safeguarding of employees' rights in the event of the transfer of an undertaking complies with the Directive 2001/23 /CE and the case law from the Court of Justice.

  12. Understanding Legitimate Teacher Authority in a Cross-Cultural Teaching Context: Pre-Service Chinese Language Teachers Undertaking Teaching Practicum in International Schools in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chun; Gu, Mingyue; Hu, Jingjing

    2015-01-01

    Legitimate teacher authority is fundamental to effective teaching, but is often a thorny issue that teachers need to grapple with when teaching in cross-cultural teaching contexts. By interviewing 18 pre-service Chinese language teachers on their understanding of legitimate teacher authority throughout teaching practicum at international schools…

  13. Undertaking high impact strategies: The role of national efficiency measures in long-term energy and emission reduction in steel making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Tengfang; Karali, Nihan; Sathaye, Jayant

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Evaluate long-term effects of national energy efficiency in steel making. • Use bottom-up optimization for projection in China, India and the U.S. • The effects include changes in steel production, energy use, emissions, and costs. • Three emission targets induce different structural changes and investments. • Projected energy and CO 2 intensity declines in each country from 2010 to 2050. - Abstract: In this paper, we applied bottom-up linear optimization modeling to analyze long-term national impacts of implementing energy efficiency measures on energy savings, CO 2 -emission reduction, production, and costs of steel making in China, India, and the U.S. We first established two base scenarios representing business-as-usual steel production for each country from 2010 to 2050; Base scenario (in which no efficiency measure is available) and Base-E scenario (in which efficiency measures are available), and model scenarios representing various emission-reduction targets that affects production, annual energy use and costs with the goal of cost minimization. A higher emission-reduction target generally induces larger structural changes and increased investments in nation-wide efficiency measures, in addition to autonomous improvement expected in the Base scenario. Given the same emission-reduction target compared to the base scenario, intensity of annual energy use and emissions exhibits declining trends in each country from year 2010 to 2050. While a higher emission-reduction target result in more energy reduction from the base scenario, such reduction can become more expensive to achieve. The results advance our understanding of long-term effects of national energy efficiency applications under different sets of emission-reduction targets for steel sectors in the three major economies, and provide useful implications for high impact strategies to manage production structures, production costs, energy use, and emission reduction in steel making

  14. Report and recommendations to the Minister regarding the environmental assessment report for Polsky Energy Corporation's proposed undertaking Brooklyn Energy Centre, Queens County, Nova Scotia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beanlands, G.; Glover, D.; Beviss, H.

    1993-01-01

    A public consultation review was undertaken to assess the suitability and environmental compatibility of Polsky Energy Corporation's proposal for a wood-fired cogeneration plant in Brooklyn, Nova Scotia. The plant would supply 21.3 MW of power to the provincial utility and steam to a local paper company. Public hearings were held in January 1993 and presentations were received from the project proponent and various intervenors. The concerns identified in the hearing included adequacy of the supply of wood wastes and the percentage of supplementary fuels required; air emissions and water-related effluents; ash disposal; monitoring; noise and traffic; socioeconomic impacts; and decommissioning. The hearing panel, appointed by the Nova Scotia Environmental Control Council, considered all the information received and concluded that the proposed facility will not cause significant or unacceptable risks to the natural and social environments of the surrounding community. This is contingent upon effective monitoring, appropriate guidance by regulatory agencies, and opportunities for continued liaison with the community. Conditions recommended by the panel include no operation of the plant using less than 70% wood as the principal fuel supply; conducting of a fuel audit every two years; reduction of the safety risk associated with the projected increase in truck traffic; continuous monitoring of stack emissions; and a requirement for a decommissioning plan as part of the permitting process. 3 refs., 1 fig

  15. The concept of abusive clauses/unfair terms in contracts concluded between the undertakings, on the one hand, and the consumers, on the other hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea-Teodora Stănescu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Initially, the concept of unfair terms characterized only the contracts concluded between consumers and professionals. Currently, the concept is also incident in other types of contracts. This study only concerns the concept of unfair terms applicable to contracts concluded between consumers and professionals. Main regulations applicable are represented by Law no. 193/2000 on unfair terms in contracts concluded between professionals and consumers and Directive 93/13 / EEC on unfair terms in consumer contracts (interpreted by the ECJ. Scientific work is proposed to set up the concept of unfair terms. In order to do so, several steps are to be followed: 1. determining the scope (contracts on the sale of goods or services concluded between professionals and consumers 2. analysis of unfair terms defining features: (a the absence of negotiation between the contracting parties, (b the presence of a significant imbalance between the rights and obligations of the parties, to the detriment of consumers and (c the breach of good faith 3. the identification of the incident sanctions 4. the highlighting of some procedural features (especially in terms of the effects of court decisions finding the unfairness of a contractual term.

  16. Identifying attachment ruptures underlying severe music performance anxiety in a professional musician undertaking an assessment and trial therapy of Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy (ISTDP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Dianna T; Arthey, Stephen; Abbass, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Kenny has proposed that severe music performance anxiety that is unresponsive to usual treatments such as cognitive-behaviour therapy may be one manifestation of unresolved attachment ruptures in early life. Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy specifically targets early relationship trauma. Accordingly, a trial of Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy with severely anxious musicians was implemented to assess whether resolution of attachment ruptures resulted in clinically significant relief from music performance anxiety. Volunteer musicians participating in a nationally funded study were screened for MPA severity. Those meeting the critical cut-off score on the Kenny Music Performance Anxiety Inventory were offered a trial of Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy. In this paper, we present the theoretical foundations and rationale for the treatment approach, followed by sections of a verbatim transcript and process analysis of the assessment phase of treatment that comprised a 3-h trial therapy session. The 'case' was a professional orchestral musician (male, aged 55) who had suffered severe music performance anxiety over the course of his entire career, which spanned more than 30 years at the time he presented for treatment following his failure to secure a position at audition. The participant was able to access the pain, rage and grief associated with unresolved attachment ruptures with both parents that demonstrated the likely nexus between early attachment trauma and severe music performance anxiety. Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy is a potentially cost-effective treatment for severe music performance anxiety. Further research using designs with higher levels of evidence are required before clinical recommendations can be made for the use of this therapy with this population.

  17. Stop the Bullying: A Handbook for Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Ken

    Noting that bullying in school is a growing concern in Australian communities, this handbook draws upon a 10-year study of bullying in Australian schools and is designed to help educators find out what is happening in their school and develop sound anti-bullying policies. The handbook also provides guidance in working effectively with students to…

  18. Youth Court: An Alternative Response to School Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copich, Cindy

    2012-01-01

    Bullying and school violence are critical issues facing 21st century educational leaders. U.S. public schools have been scrambling to develop and implement anti-bullying programs with varying degrees of success. Bullying leads to disruption of learning, and its lasting effects of anxiety, depression, anger, and actual brain damage follow victims…

  19. Creating the Cougar Watch: Learning to Be Proactive against Bullying in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert W.; Smith, Kayce

    2014-01-01

    Despite reticence from the central office, strong middle level teacher leaders worked together to develop an effective anti-bullying program that addresses a significant need for safety and inclusion for all middle school students. This article describes how one teacher's concerns changed her school's attitude with regard to bullying from assuming…

  20. Jet Joint Undertaking Progress Report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The report sets out an overview of progress on JET during 1992 and with a survey of scientific and technical achievements during 1992 sets these advances in their general context. This summary is specifically cross-referenced to reports and articles prepared and presented by JET staff during 1992. The last section is devoted to future plans and certain developments which might enable enhancements of the machine to further improve its overall performance. The Appendices contain a list of work topics which have been carried out under Task Agreements with various Association Laboratories. In addition, a full list is included of all Articles, Reports and Conference papers published by JET authors in 1992

  1. Jet joint undertaking annual report 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    The Joint European Torus is the largest project in the coordinated programme of the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) which is aimed at proving the feasibility of using nuclear fusion as a source of energy. The Statutes setting up the JET Project include a requirement for an Annual Report to be produced which... 'shall show the current status of the Project, in particular with regard to timetables, cost, performance of the scientific programme and its position in the Euratom Fusion Programme and in the world-wide development of fusion research'. This report is designed to meet this requirement. It provides an overview of the scientific, technical and administrative status of the JET programme which is comprehensible to the average member of the public. Where appropriate, descriptive sections (in italics and boxed) are included to aid the reader's understanding of particular technical terms used thoughout the Report. A more detailed and comprehensive description of the technical and scientific aspects of the JET Project over the period covered by this report can be found in the 1988 JET Progress Report

  2. Jet joint undertaking annual report 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    The 1988 activity report of the Joint European Torus (JET) project, is presented. The report provides an overview of the scientific, technical and administrative status of the program. The background of the project, the description of JET and Euratom and International Fusion Programs are explained. The technical status of the machine is given and it includes: technical changes and achievements during 1988; details of the operational organisation of experiments and pulse statistics; and progress on enhancements in machine systems for future operations. The results of JET operations in 1988, under various conditions of heating and combined scenarios in different magnetic field configurations, are provided. The project budget situation, contractual arrangements, in 1988, and staff complements, are included

  3. JET joint undertaking. Annual report 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The scientific, technical, and administrative status of the JET tokamak program is summarized. The Euratom and international fusion programs are outlined. Main performance results are: volume average electron density = 0.5 (10 20 m -3 ); central electron temperature = 8.0 keV; central ion temperature = 12.5 keV; global energy confinement time = 0.9 sec; and fusion parameter performance parameter (simultaneous temperature, density, and energy confinement time) = 2.0 (10 20 m -3 keV

  4. Jet joint undertaking. Annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    The first part of the Report starts with this section which includes a brief general introduction, provides an overview of the planning of the Report and sets the background to the Project. This is followed by a section on JET and the Euratom and International Fusion Programmes which summarises the main features of the JET apparatus and its experimental programme and explains the position of the Project in the overall Euratom programme. In addition, it explains how JET relates to other large fusion devices throughout the world and holds a pre-eminent position in fusion research. The next section reports on the technical status of the machine. This is followed by a section on the results of JET operations in 1987 which sets out the various operating conditions in terms of ohmic heating, radio-frequency (RF) heating, neutral beam (NB) heating and various combined scenarios in different magnetic field configurations; The overall global and local behaviour observed; and the progress towards breakeven situations. This section concludes with a discussion of future scientific prospects

  5. Jet Joint Undertaking. Progress report 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    This JET Progress Reports provides an overview summary and puts into context the scientific and technical advances made on JET during 1990. In addition, the Report is supplemented by appendices of contributions (in preprint form) of the more important JET articles published during the year, which set out the details of JET activities

  6. Jet Joint Undertaking. Annual report 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    The Joint European Torus is the largest project in the coordinated fusion programme of the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM). A brief general introduction provides an overview of the planning of the Report. This is followed by a description of JET and the Euratom and International Fusion Programmes, which summarize the main features of the JET apparatus and its experimental programme and explains the position of the Project in the overall Euratom programme. In addition, this relates and compares JET to other large fusion devices throughout the world. The following section reports on the technical status of the machine including: technical changes and achievements during 1989; details of the operational organization of experiments and pulse statistics; and progress on enhancements in machine systems for future operation. This is followed by the results of JET operations in 1990 under various operating conditions, including ohmic heating, radio-frequency (RF) heating, neutral beam (NB) heating and various combined scenarios in different magnetic field configurations; the overall global and local behaviour observed; and the progress towards reactor conditions. In particular, the comparative performance between JET and other tokamaks, in terms of the triple fusion product, shows the substantial achievements made by JET since the start of operations in 1983. The second part of the Report explains the organization and management of the Project and describes the administration of JET. In particular, it sets out the budget situation; contractual arrangements during 1990; and details of the staffing arrangements and complement

  7. Jet joint undertaking. Progress report 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    A brief introduction and some background information relevant to the Report is first provided. Progress on JET during 1984 is overviewed and, with a survey of scientific and technical achievements during 1984, these advances are set in their general context. This summary is specifically crossreferenced to reports and articles prepared and presented by JET staff during 1985. The more important of these articles, which are of general interest, are reproduced as appendices to this Report. Certain developments are considered, which might enable additional improvements/modifications of the machine to further improve its overall performance. These improvements are considered to overcome certain limitations encountered generally on Tokmaks, particularly concerned with density limits, with plasma MHD behaviour, with impurities and with plasma transport. Some attention has been devoted to methods of surmounting these limitations and these are detailed in this section. In the Appendices, selected articles prepared by JET authors are reproduced in detail, and provide more details of the activities and achievements made on JET during 1985. In addition, a full list is included of all Articles, Reports and Conference papers published in 1985

  8. The Challenges Facing Distance Students in Undertaking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the challenges facing distance students in Geography field Practical projects (GFPs) at The Open University of Tanzania (OUT). A random sample size of 19 students who participated in GFP1 in 2009 and 2010 were selected from randomly sampled regional centres of Singida, Dodoma, Njombe, and ...

  9. The World of Instruction: Undertaking the Impossible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverty, Megan J.

    2014-01-01

    Throughout history, philosophers have reflected on educational questions. Some of their ideas emerged in defense of, or opposition to, skepticism about the possibility of formal teaching and learning. These philosophers include Plato, Augustine, St Thomas Aquinas, Søren Kierkegaard, Martin Heidegger, and Ludwig Wittgenstein. Together, they…

  10. Electricity market liberalisation: a difficult undertaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graber, W.

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the options available for the implementation of discrimination-free cost allocation for the transport of energy in a liberalised Swiss electricity market. The advantages and disadvantages of two models - the distance-dependent 'path' model and the connection-point model - are discussed. Experience already gained in Germany, England, Finland, Sweden, Norway and Austria is discussed. The structure of the Swiss electricity grid with its seven tiers is looked at. The methods of splitting the transport costs between producers and consumers and also between the various layers of the grid are examined and functions for the matching of load and production are discussed

  11. An Applied Method for Undertaking Phenomenological Explication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    completed PhD dissertation. He details the .... religion such as Eliade (1987) Turner (1979),. Cox (1992); Rambo ... Nguni People', unpublished PhD dissertation, Rhodes. University. ... psychology”, an unpublished research paper presented at.

  12. Jet joint undertaking. Annual report 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    After a presentation of the Jet and nuclear fusion, the results of Jet operations in 1985 are given: energy confinement, MHD activity and disruptive instabilities, impurities and radiation losses, plasma evolution, plasma boundary phenomena, control of plasma current, position and shape, RF heating. Technical achievements in 1985 are summarized: vacuum systems, first wall, multi-pellet injection for fuelling and re-fuelling, containment of forces during vertical instabilities, magnet systems, safety systems, power supplies, neutral beam heating, radio-frequency heating, remote handling, tritium handling, control and data acquisition, diagnostic systems are implied

  13. Public School Principals' Experiences with Interpreting and Implementing Connecticut's Anti-Bullying Law (Connecticut General Statute Section 10-222d): A Statewide Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRocco, Diana J.; Nestler-Rusack, Donna; Freiberg, Jo Ann

    2007-01-01

    Background: In June 2002, the State of Connecticut General Assembly (CGA) passed Public Act 02-119, An Act Concerning Bullying Behavior in Schools and Concerning the Pledge of Allegiance. Section 1 mandated that each local and regional board of education (school district) develop a policy to address bullying in its schools. Conn. Gen. Statute…

  14. A Lipidomics Approach to Assess the Association Between Plasma Sphingolipids and Verbal Memory Performance in Coronary Artery Disease Patients Undertaking Cardiac Rehabilitation: A C18:0 Signature for Cognitive Response to Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Mahwesh; Herrmann, Nathan; Dinoff, Adam; Mielke, Michelle M; Oh, Paul I; Shammi, Prathiba; Cao, Xingshan; Venkata, Swarajya Lakshmi Vattem; Haughey, Norman J; Lanctôt, Krista L

    2017-01-01

    Early subtle deficits in verbal memory, which may indicate early neural risk, are common in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). While exercise can improve cognition, cognitive response to exercise is heterogeneous. Sphingolipids have been associated with the development and progression of CAD, and impairments in sphingolipid metabolism may play roles in neurodegeneration and in the neural adaptation response to exercise. In this study, change in plasma concentrations of sphingolipids was assessed in relation to change in verbal memory performance and in other cognitive domains among CAD subjects undertaking a 6-month cardiac rehabilitation (CR) program. Patients with CAD (n = 120, mean age = 64±6 y, 84% male, years of education = 16±3) underwent CR with neuropsychological assessments and blood collected at baseline, 3-, and 6-months. Z-scores based on age, gender, and education were combined for verbal memory, visuospatial memory, processing speed, executive function, and global cognition tasks to calculate cognitive domain Z-scores. Plasma sphingolipid concentrations were measured from fasting blood samples using high performance liquid chromatography coupled electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Mixed models were used to identify sphingolipids significantly associated with performance in verbal memory and other cognitive domains, adjusting for potential confounders. A decrease in ceramide C18:0 concentration was significantly associated with improvement in verbal memory performance (b[SE] = -0.51 [0.25], p = 0.04), visuospatial memory (b[SE] = -0.44 [0.22], p = 0.05), processing speed (b[SE] = -0.89 [0.32], p = 0.007), and global cognition (b[SE] = -1.47 [0.59], p = 0.01) over 6 months of CR. Plasma ceramide C18:0 concentrations may be a sensitive marker of cognitive response to exercise in patients with CAD.

  15. Social and environmental assessment: a preliminary data base on population and territory in the undertakings pipelines: a natural gas pipeline GASBEL II; Avaliacao socioambiental - base de dados preliminar sobre populacao e territorio em empreendimentos de dutos - estudo de caso: avaliacao socioambiental GASBEL II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartolini, Marcia; Bach, Vanessa [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ismerio, Marcia [Pallos Consultorias, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Leal, Edna Mara [Camargo Correa Engenharia (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The social environmental assessment consists in an instrument of planning which principal objective is to know the social ambient that will be changed by the PETROBRAS' pipe undertakings, that are planning to be implemented and will be analyzed by the licensers environmental organs. When pipeline projects are planned, their route cross some regions and ecological sensitive areas, therefore, the attitude of consider the social environmental aspects at the planning stage through the use of valuation instruments, anticipating, the potential social and environmental impacts, assumes more importance in integrating management of these undertakings. This presentation has the main objective to stand out the relevance of the social environmental assessment realization as preliminary knowledge base to the undertakings, since the research results developed represents a support of information about the regions where the undertakings install themselves in distinct stages: environmental permits, assembly and construction and operating. The social environmental assessment of the project named GASBEL II is presented as a case study once it allow to observe a gas pipeline transport project to be implemented at different regions and areas. The Pipeline will cross two different federal states, where the local research boarded many communities with different ways and conditions of life, territory use, cultural expressions and other aspects. (author)

  16. “Ensure that you are well aware of the risks you are taking…”: actions and activities medical tourists’ informal caregivers can undertake to protect their health and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valorie A. Crooks

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When seeking care at international hospitals and clinics, medical tourists are often accompanied by family members, friends, or other caregivers. Such caregiver-companions assume a variety of roles and responsibilities and typically offer physical assistance, provide emotional support, and aid in decision-making and record keeping as medical tourists navigate unfamiliar environments. While traveling abroad, medical tourists’ caregiver-companions can find themselves confronted with challenging communication barriers, financial pressures, emotional strain, and unsafe environments. Methods To better understand what actions and activities medical tourists’ informal caregivers can undertake to protect their health and safety, 20 interviews were conducted with Canadians who had experienced accompanying a medical tourist to an international health care facility for surgery. Interview transcripts were subsequently used to identify inductive and deductive themes central to the advice research participants offered to prospective caregiver-companions. Results Advice offered to future caregiver-companions spanned the following actions and activities to protect health and safety: become an informed health care consumer; assess and avoid exposure to identifiable risks; anticipate the care needs of medical tourists and thereby attempt to guard against caregiver burden; become familiar with important logistics related to travel and anticipated recovery timelines; and take practical measures to protect one’s own health. Conclusion Given that a key feature of public health is to use research findings to develop interventions and policies intended to promote health and reduce risks to individuals and populations, the paper draws upon major points of advice offered by study participants to take the first steps toward the development of an informational intervention designed specifically for the health and safety needs of medical tourists

  17. A Study into the Design of a Pre-Laboratory Software Resource in Effectively Assisting in the Chemistry Proficiency of Students of Chinese Origin Undertaking Post 16 Chemistry in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Saskia Katarina Emily; Harrison, Timothy Guy

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study indicates that Chinese origin students completing their pre-university education in a British school have particular difficulties related to sociocultural change, pedagogical differences, affective aspects, cognitive demand and language learning. These are discussed. The use of a pre-laboratory software resource to support…

  18. Impact of Treatment Integrity on Intervention Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryling, Mitch J.; Wallace, Michele D.; Yassine, Jordan N.

    2012-01-01

    Treatment integrity has cogent implications for intervention effectiveness. Understanding these implications is an important, but often neglected, undertaking in behavior analysis. This paper reviews current research on treatment integrity in applied behavior analysis. Specifically, we review research evaluating the relation between integrity…

  19. 36 CFR 65.2 - Effects of designation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... administered as a planning tool. Federal agencies undertaking a project having an effect on a listed or... 2124 of the Tax Reform Act of 1976, the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 and the Tax Treatment... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effects of designation. 65.2...

  20. Workplace Bullying and Employee Outcomes: A Moderated Mediated Model

    OpenAIRE

    Sheehan, M.; McCabe, T J.; Garavan, Thomas.

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between workplace bullying and employee outcomes in a healthcare setting. Drawing on HR process theory, we investigate the mediating role of the perceived effectiveness of implementation of anti-bullying practices on employee outcomes and whether targeted line manager training was a moderator of that relationship. Our multi-level analysis (utilising responses from 1,507 employees within forty-seven hospitals with matched HR Director interviews), finds ...

  1. Trends in the Distribution of Teacher Effectiveness in the Intensive Partnerships for Effective Teaching: Progress Report. Working Paper WR-1036-BMGF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Jennifer L.; Baird, Matthew; Engberg, John; Hunter, Gerald Paul

    2014-01-01

    As part of its effective teaching initiative, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation partnered with three urban school districts across the U.S. and a group of four charter management organizations to undertake a strategic set of human capital reforms. A key objective of the "Intensive Partnerships for Effective Teaching" program was to…

  2. 36 CFR 60.2 - Effects of listing under Federal law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... administered as a planning tool. Federal agencies undertaking a project having an effect on a listed or... buildings may benefit from the investment tax credit provisions of the Revenue Act of 1978. The Economic... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effects of listing under...

  3. Oxidative stress and antioxidants in athletes undertaking regular exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Trent A; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley K; Garg, Manohar L

    2005-04-01

    Exercise has been shown to increase the production of reactive oxygen species to a point that can exceed antioxidant defenses to cause oxidative stress. Dietary intake of antioxidants, physical activity levels, various antioxidants and oxidative stress markers were examined in 20 exercise-trained "athletes" and 20 age- and sex-matched sedentary "controls." Plasma F2-isoprostanes, antioxidant enzyme activities, and uric acid levels were similar in athletes and sedentary controls. Plasma alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene were higher in athletes compared with sedentary controls. Total antioxidant capacity tended to be lower in athletes, with a significant difference between male athletes and male controls. Dietary intakes of antioxidants were also similar between groups and well above recommended dietary intakes for Australians. These findings suggest that athletes who consume a diet rich in antioxidants have elevated plasma alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene that were likely to be brought about by adaptive processes resulting from regular exercise.

  4. JET Joint Undertaking. Progress report 1991 - volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The ninth JET Progress Report provides an overview summary and puts into context the scientific and technical advances made on JET during 1991. The report contains a brief summary of the background to the project, and describes the basic objectives of JET and the principal design aspects of the machine

  5. Jet joint undertaking. Progress report 1989. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    The first section of this Report provides a brief introduction and background information relevant to the Report. The second and third sections set out an overview of progress on JET during 1989 and with a survey of scientific and technical achievements during 1989 sets these advances in their general context. This summary is specifically cross-referenced to reports and articles prepared and presented by JET staff during 1989. The more important of these articles, which are of general interest, are reproduced as appendices to this Report. The fourth section is devoted to future plans and certain developments which might enable enhancements of the machine to further improve its overall performance. Some attention has been devoted to methods of surmounting certain limitations and these are detailed in this section. The Appendices contain a list of work topics carried out under Task Agreements with various Association Laboratories, and selected articles prepared by JET authors are reproduced in detail, providing some details of the activities and achievements made on JET during 1989. In addition, a full list is included of all Articles, Reports and Conference papers published by JET authors in 1989

  6. Alternative sources of financing entrepreneurial undertakings in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njegomir Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Insufficiency of internal financial resources and limited access to external sources of capital, as one of the key problems, local agricultural producers - entrepreneurs usualy describe with high cost of capital, complicated procedures, lack of transparency in regard to the settlement of credit requests and problems with security of loans. The aim of this study is to analyze the possibilities of facilitating access to increased volume of capital for domestic entrepreneurs in agriculture by using funding sources that are applied in developed economies for financing entrepreneurs. In order to achieve the stated aim, the subject of investigation in this paper is the analysis of alternative sources of financing, which use or increased adoption in Serbia would provide greater availability of capital for agricultural producers and others across the chain of agrobusiness complex and thus the promotion of entrepreneurial activity, and consequently, greater competitiveness and greater income of domestic agricultural producers and others across the chain of agrbusiness indirectly leading to increased economic growth and improvement of the welfare.

  7. Jet joint undertaking progress report 1988 volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Joint European Torus (JET) is presented. It covers the fifth year of JET's operation and provides an overview of the scientific and technical advances made on JET. The JET most important articles, published during 1988, are included. The background of JET project, the main objectives and design aspects of the machine are summarized. Most of 1988 was devoted to machine operations: the number of pulses was 4673. The introduction, commissioning and operation of the JET second beam injector is reported. Planned developments on enhancements in the machine for future operations are included

  8. A didactic module for undertaking climate simulation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hantsaridou, A P; Theodorakakos, A Th; Polatoglou, H M [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2005-09-01

    It is a fact that one of the main roles of the university is to present the core concepts in every discipline. However it is often difficult for the students to understand and comprehend the several concepts taught, because of previous lack in relevant knowledge or due to today's information overload. For example, previous research in the physics department in the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece) indicated that the graduate students are often not familiar with those factors that determine the Earth's climate, which is a common everyday subject. In this project we describe a multimedia application appropriate for climate simulation experiments (http://dmod.physics.auth.gr/EBMC.html). The application is based on the energy balance model and is appropriate not only for undergraduates, but also for people with a basic scientific knowledge. We have used this model as part of an undergraduate teaching course. The results indicate that it can be a useful educational tool for understanding the factors that determine the Earth's climate.

  9. Leptin and Reproduction: Past Milestones, Present Undertakings and Future Endeavors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehab, Farid F.

    2014-01-01

    The association between leptin and reproduction originated with the leptin-mediated correction of sterility in ob/ob mice and initiation of reproductive function in normal female mice. The uncovering of a central leptin pathway regulating food intake prompted the dissection of neuroendocrine mechanisms involving leptin in the metabolic control of reproduction. The absence of leptin receptors on GnRH neurons incited a search for intermediary neurons situated between leptin responsive and GnRH neurons. This review addresses the most significant findings that have furthered our understanding of recent progress in this new field. The role of leptin in puberty was impacted by the discovery of neurons that co-express kisspeptin, neurokinin B and dynorphin and that could act as leptin intermediates. Furthermore, the identification of first-order leptin-responsive neurons in the premammilary ventral nucleus and other brain regions opens new avenues to explore their relationship to GnRH neurons. Central to these advances is the unveiling that AgRP/NPY neurons project onto GnRH and kisspeptin neurons, allowing a crosstalk between food intake and reproduction. Finally, whereas puberty is a state of leptin sensitivity, mid-gestation represents a state of leptin resistance aimed at building energy stores to sustain pregnancy and lactation. Mechanisms underlying leptin resistance in pregnancy have lagged, however the establishment of this natural state is significant. Reproduction and energy balance are tightly controlled and backed up by redundant mechanisms that are critical for the survival of our species. It will be the goal of the next decade to shed new light on these complex and essential pathways. PMID:25118207

  10. Development of international undertakings for uranium enrichment. Urenco experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wansink, L.G.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper the so-called 'Troika co-operation' is outlined from the point of view of the three governments involved, namely the United Kingdom, the Federal Republic of Germany and the Netherlands. Their uranium enrichment co-operation is based on the Treaty of Almelo, which entered into force in 1971. Construction and operation of pilot and demonstration plants in the middle of the seventies led to activities on an industrial scale and shortly there will be an expansion to 2000 t SWU/a. This capacity is matched to actual demand secured by contracts inside and outside the Troika countries. Research and development has been carried out independently in each of the three countries and intensive co-operation and exchange of ideas has proved to be very stimulating and fruitful. The gas centrifuge enrichment process has several economic advantages. These relate to opportunities for improvements in productivity, to energy consumption and to the commitment of capital. Moreover, the built-in flexibility of this technology makes it possible for supply and demand to be precisely matched. The project is operated by industry (Urenco and its share-holders). However, the governments supervise and, in particular, exercise responsibilities touching upon the political, industrial and commercial aspects of the collaboration. Despite differences of opinion and divergent interests it has always been possible to find solutions and to take the necessary decisions. The three governments have therefore every reason to be satisfied with the project as it has developed and they see no need to introduce substantial modifications to the original concept. Their co-operation proved the idea of the operation of sensitive nuclear technology on a multinational basis to be feasible. Furthermore, they believe that Urenco makes an important contribution to the essential principle of assured supply. (author)

  11. 20 CFR 726.110 - Filing of agreement and undertaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... other expenses and any accrued penalties imposed by law as the Office may find to be due and payable. (b... payable on account of total disability or death of any of its employee-miners; (2) To furnish medical...

  12. The Commission on Employment Conditions, an ambitious undertaking !

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of the year, the Commission on Employment Conditions has had much success in the number and ability of its participants. It has mostly worked on salaries, the only compulsory subject of the 2010 five-yearly review. In the framework of this review, the Commission has analysed the results of the comparison carried out by the OECD (see Echo 104 and 105). Through its research and analysis, the Commission has clearly shown that our salaries are lower than those of the comparators. It is there necessary to adjust the salary grid with a salary catch-up and not an increase. In 20 years, no five-yearly review has ended with a significant catch-up. Today it is essential to inform our colleagues that this subject needs to be dealt with and that measures must be taken to finance it, as is the case for restoring the equilibrium of the Pension Fund and Health Insurance schemes. The Commission has established an argumentation to help our fellow delegates talk about the delicate subject of salary catch-...

  13. Captioned Instructional Video: Effects on Content Comprehension, Vocabulary Acquisition and Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    BavaHarji, Madhubala; Alavi, Zhinoos Kamal; Letchumanan, Krishnaveni

    2014-01-01

    This experimental design study examined the effects of viewing captioned instructional videos on EFL learners' content comprehension, vocabulary acquisition and language proficiency. It also examined the participants' perception of viewing the captioned instructional videos. The 92 EFL students in two classes, who were undertaking the "Tape…

  14. Assessing the effect of TB-HIV collaborative activities on knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing the effect of TB-HIV collaborative activities on knowledge and perception of TB patients ... Tanzania Journal of Health Research ... which requires to be corrected as soon as possible so as to enable patients to undertake active steps ...

  15. An Analysis of the Effect of External Debt on Crowding-Out of Private ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also, the huge debt and debt service raised future tax expectation and discouraged the private sector from undertaking investment projects. While the accelerator effect was present, the cost of investment goods negatively influenced private investment demand. Availability of credit seemed to have influenced the level of ...

  16. Effective use of technology in clinical supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Martin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Clinical supervision is integral to continuing professional development of health professionals. With advances in technology, clinical supervision too can be undertaken using mediums such as videoconference, email and teleconference. This mode of clinical supervision is termed as telesupervision. While telesupervision could be useful in any context, its value is amplified for health professionals working in rural and remote areas where access to supervisors within the local work environment is often diminished. While telesupervision offers innovative means to undertake clinical supervision, there remain gaps in the literature in terms of its parameters of use in clinical practice. This article outlines ten evidence-informed, practical tips stemming from a review of the literature that will enable health care stakeholders to use technology effectively and efficiently while undertaking clinical supervision. By highlighting the “how to” aspect, telesupervision can be delivered in the right way, to the right health professional, at the right time.

  17. Promoting Preservice Teachers' Dual Self-Regulation Roles as Learners and as Teachers: Effects of Generic vs. Specific Prompts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramarski, Bracha; Kohen, Zehavit

    2017-01-01

    Researchers have recently suggested that teachers must undertake important dual self-regulation roles if they want to become effective at improving their students' self-regulation. First, teachers need to become proficient at self-regulated learning (SRL) themselves, and then teachers need to learn explicitly how to proactively teach SRL -- termed…

  18. Successful Bullying Prevention Programs: Influence of Research Design, Implementation Features, and Program Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryanna Hahn Fox

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bullying prevention programs have been shown to be generally effective in reducing bullying and victimization. However, the effects are relatively small in randomized experiments and greater in quasi-experimental and age-cohort designs. Programs that are more intensive and of longer duration (for both children and teachers are more effective, as are programs containing more components. Several program components are associated with large effect sizes, including parent training or meetings and teacher training. These results should inform the design and evaluation of anti-bullying programs in the future, and a system ofaccreditation of effective programs.

  19. Langzeitevaluation des psychologischen Trainings für adipöse Kinder und deren Eltern : TAKE

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, B.; Munsch, S.; Meyer, A. H.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral parent-child-programmes have shown the best effects in treating childhood obesity so far. With TAKE (Training adipöser Kinder und ihrer Eltern) we introduce a psychologically-informed training, that includes physical activity, nutrition and eating behavior but also addresses psychological issues like self-confidence, body image, social and anti-bullying skills. Long-term data from up to 64 month-follow-up showed moderate effects on body-mass index standard deviation score...

  20. Micro-negocios asociativos campesinos: análisis económico de un sistema de producción ovina, Región del Maule, Chile Undertaking associative small holding business: economic analysis of the sheep production system, Maule region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Lobos Andrade

    2005-08-01

    the size of the farm (hectares. For the normal price scenario, the VAN (10.8% was estimated at $ 4.12 millions, the TIR at 14.5% and the IVAN at 0.37. The main conclusion suggests that undertaking associative micro-scale enterprise can contribute to improve the life conditions of the small holding, in a better way than the average individual business.

  1. Effects of Metric Change on Safety in the Workplace for Selected Occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-21

    to undertake certain types of research regarding the effects of metric con - version. Under the leadership of its research couiittee, the U.S. Metric...Service. At this time there was a growing concern about conditions in the nation’s workplaces -- from Colorado mines to New York City sweatshops ...incidence of worker injury within each occupation was also con - sidered in order to eliminate those occupations that, although they are hazardous

  2. Formal and informal facilitators of learning capability: the moderating effect of learning climate

    OpenAIRE

    ELENA REVILLA

    2006-01-01

    Organizations need to put in practice the most favourable conditions to facilitate learning capability. The different ways of thinking about learning in organizations distinguish two kinds of learning facilitators: formal and informal facilitators. In this paper, we suggest that organizations undertake both types of learning facilitators, but considering that informal facilitators may act as potential moderators of the effects of formal ones. We have focused on one comprehensive informal faci...

  3. Transnationals Becoming English Teachers in Mexico: Effects of Language Brokering and Identity Formation (Transnacionales Convirtiéndose en Docentes de Inglés en México: Efectos de la Mediación Lingüística y la Formación de la Identidad)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablo, Irasema Mora; Rivas, Leonardo Arturo Rivas; Lengeling, M. Martha; Crawford, Troy

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to explore the effects of language brokering upon identity formation within the family unit of students who have lived in the United States for a period of time and have come back to live in Mexico. The participants are six students that are currently undertaking a BA in TESOL (Teaching of English to Speakers of…

  4. Explaining the Rise in Danish Vocational Education System Dropouts: The Effect of a Youth Unemployment Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin D.; Park, Do-Yeun

    This project focuses on the impact of Denmark’s Youth Unemployment Program(YUP) enacted in late 1990s on the rise in VET dropout rates. The Youth Unemployment Program targeted unemployed, low-educated youth to strengthen the employment possibilities and to motivate for them to undertake an educat......This project focuses on the impact of Denmark’s Youth Unemployment Program(YUP) enacted in late 1990s on the rise in VET dropout rates. The Youth Unemployment Program targeted unemployed, low-educated youth to strengthen the employment possibilities and to motivate for them to undertake...... an education. If the Youth Unemployment Program incentivized less capable/ambitious students to enter vocational education, it would increase the dropout rates via selection. This project investigates whether the program had an effect on the population characteristics of incoming VET students and the resulting...

  5. Scientific foundation of in-service training for prevention of peer violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Miroslav V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the compatibility of the continuous in-service teacher training for prevention of peer violence and modern scientific knowledge in this area. The first part of the paper summarizes the results of 12 systematic reviews and meta-analyses of the effectiveness of the studies of antibullying programs published since 2000. which relate to the effects of uni-modal and multi-modal programs, and the efficacy of interventions used in anti-bullying programs. The second part of the paper analyses the approved programs of in-service teacher training, in which priority is given to the prevention of violence, abuse and negligence. We analyzed 39 programs of continuous in-service teacher training, and focused on the empirical bases of the programs (researches which confirm the effectiveness of a program and the contents of the training (the level of preventive activity, modality, field, and interventions. The results of the analysis of the programs of continuous in-service training for peer violence prevention are discussed in the context of modern scientific knowledge of effectiveness of anti-bullying programs and of professional development of teachers and counsellors.

  6. The effects of parental divorce on adolescent girls in South Africa : an exploratory study of current status.

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.A. The alarming increase of single parent families in South Africa is distressing. The rising divorce rate and the crisis surrounding divorce was the motivation for the researcher to undertake this study. Many children in South Africa are disadvantaged by the high divorce rate and much documented evidence proves the extensive sociological and psychological effects which this has on these children. Research has shown over and again that divorce is observed from a child's perspective as be...

  7. Direct Effect of Dielectric Surface Energy on Carrier Transport in Organic Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shujun; Tang, Qingxin; Tian, Hongkun; Zhao, Xiaoli; Tong, Yanhong; Barlow, Stephen; Marder, Seth R; Liu, Yichun

    2018-05-09

    The understanding of the characteristics of gate dielectric that leads to optimized carrier transport remains controversial, and the conventional studies applied organic semiconductor thin films, which introduces the effect of dielectric on the growth of the deposited semiconductor thin films and hence only can explore the indirect effects. Here, we introduce pregrown organic single crystals to eliminate the indirect effect (semiconductor growth) in the conventional studies and to undertake an investigation of the direct effect of dielectric on carrier transport. It is shown that the matching of the polar and dispersive components of surface energy between semiconductor and dielectric is favorable for higher mobility. This new empirical finding may show the direct relationship between dielectric and carrier transport for the optimized mobility of organic field-effect transistors and hence show a promising potential for the development of next-generation high-performance organic electronic devices.

  8. Price vector effects in choice experiments: an empirical test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanley, Nick; Wright, Robert E.; Adamowicz, Wiktor

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates whether the preference and willingness-to-pay estimates obtained from the choice experiment method of estimating non-market values are sensitive to the vector of prices used in the experimental design. We undertake this test in the context of water quality improvements under the European Union's new Water Framework Directive. Using a mixed logit model, which allows for differing scale between the two samples, we find no significant impact of changing the price vector on estimates of preferences or willingness-to-pay. (author) (Choice modelling; Non-market valuation; Design effects; Water Framework Directive)

  9. The Effects of British Television Among Foreign Audience

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the effect of television on international students of Anglia\\ud Ruskin University in terms of English speaking skills, knowledge of British culture, change of\\ud the type of food, and also the change of type of music. Thousands of students enter UK every\\ud year to study. These students, who come from different parts of the world, speak different\\ud languages and also have different culture. It was based on this that the researcher decided to\\ud undertake this study to i...

  10. Effective healthcare process redesign through an interdisciplinary team approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Rita; Huynh, Nathan; Cai, Bo; Vidal, José; Bennett, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare process redesign is a complex and often high risk undertaking. Typically, there is a limited understanding of the baseline process and often inadequate tools by which to assess it. This can be confounded by narrow redesign team expertise that can result in unanticipated and/or unintended redesign consequences. Interdisciplinary research teams of healthcare, biostatistics, engineering and computer science experts provide broad support for a more effective and safer approach to healthcare process redesign. We describe an interdisciplinary research team focused on medication administration process (MAP)redesign and its achievements and challenges.

  11. The effects of disorder and interactions on the Anderson transition in doped graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Yun; Song Hongkang; Feng Shiping

    2011-01-01

    We undertake an exact numerical study of the effects of disorder on the Anderson localization of electronic states in graphene. Analyzing the scaling behaviors of inverse participation ratio and geometrically averaged density of states, we find that the Anderson metal-insulator transition can be introduced by the presence of quenched random disorder. In contrast with the conventional picture of localization, four mobility edges can be observed for the honeycomb lattice with specific disorder strength and impurity concentration. Considering the screening effects of interactions on disorder potentials, the experimental findings of the scale enlargements of puddles can be explained by reviewing the effects of both interactions and disorder.

  12. From Invisibility to Visibility: A Policy Archaeology of the Introduction of Anti-Transphobic and Anti-Homophobic Bullying Guidelines into the Irish Primary Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Susan

    2017-01-01

    In September 2013, the Department of Education and Skills introduced revised anti-bullying guidelines which made it compulsory for all schools to ensure that their individual anti-bullying policies include a clause on identity-based bullying, specifically referencing transphobic and homophobic bullying. The introduction of these guidelines would…

  13. State Policies on School Climate and Bully Prevention Efforts: Challenges and Opportunities for Deepening State Policy Support for Safe and Civil Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscatelli, Jennifer; Lee, Chiqueena

    2011-01-01

    The National School Climate Center (NSCC) completed a 50-state policy scan on state school climate and anti-bullying policies to better understand the current state policy infrastructure supporting the development of positive school climates. This policy brief examines the current status of school climate and anti-bullying policies in each state,…

  14. Report on New Sunshine Program-supported undertakings for fiscal 1997. Development of hot water power plant and deep-seated geothermal resources sampling/exploiting technologies; 1997 nendo New Sunshine keikaku hojo jigyo seika hokokusho. Nessui riyo hatsuden plant nado kaihatsu, shinbu chinetsu shigen saishu gijutsu no kaihatsu, shinbu chinetsu shigen seisan gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Reported are the results of researches conducted in fiscal 1997. In the field of PTSD (Pressure, Temperature, Spinner flowmeter, fluid Density) well logging, the high-temperature performance of a memory type PT (Pressure, Temperature) well logger is confirmed in a demonstration test. As for the S-probe, modification is effected for the reduction of the outside diameter from 70mm to 56mm, and tests are conducted in real wells. As for the D-probe, a laboratory test is conducted and then the probe behaves as predicted. In the field of PCT (Pressure, Chemical, Temperature) monitoring, the sampler is subjected to an on-site test in Italy, when water is successfully sampled out of the well. In the field of scale monitoring technique, deep-seated fluid is collected and examined, and the scale deposition rate in the deep-seated fluid is determine. For the study of production control technology with respect to scale prevention and removal, an Mg-Si scale synthesis test is conducted in the temperature range of 100-300degC, and it is found that the solubility of scale decreases with a rise in temperature. 19 refs., 93 figs., 24 tabs.

  15. Benefits and Barriers for Registered Nurses Undertaking Post-Graduate Diplomas in Paediatric Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Anne; Copnell, Beverley

    2002-01-01

    Responses from 391 of 885 pediatric nurses indicated that 133 had postgraduate qualifications; 70 intended to acquire postgraduate diplomas; 71% believed it enhanced employment opportunities. Barriers were course costs, loss of salary, lack of promotional opportunities, and the perception that employers did not value postgraduate qualifications.…

  16. Undertaking an Ecological Approach to Advance Game-Based Learning: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mamta; Foster, Aroutis

    2014-01-01

    Systematic incorporation of digital games in schools is largely unexplored. This case study explored the ecological conditions necessary for implementing a game-based learning course by examining the interaction between three domains (the innovator, the innovation, and the context). From January-April 2012, one in-service teacher learned and…

  17. Mobil undertake to drill five exploration wells on the perimeter of Touggourt near Hassi Messaoud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The situation of Algeria concerning petroleum industry is exposed here. New exploration wells are forecasted that let suppose mineral resources are still significant. But in the same time financial situation is not so good: export trade decreases and barrel price reduces, these two points contribute to increase the national debt of Algeria, that 's why it is necessary to obtain an echelonment of it

  18. A preliminary study on travel health issues of medical students undertaking electives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmid, John M; Bettiol, Silvana S; Sharples, Nadine

    2003-01-01

    With the inclusion of elective programs, often overseas, in many medical courses, it was decided that a preliminary retrospective analysis of health problems associated with these programs in medical students from the University of Tasmania would be desirable. A questionnaire covering general travel health issues was distributed to all medical students in the University of Tasmania, on return from their elective. They were asked to complete the questionnaire and return it on an anonymous and voluntary basis. In addition, student elective submissions were consulted for information relating to their chosen destination. Results of the study indicate that general practitioners were the most common source of pretravel advice for Tasmanian medical students. Overall, 64% of students experienced some sort of health problem of which travelers' diarrhea was the most common. Most problems were mild and self-limiting, but a number of serious infections were recorded, including acute leptospirosis, paratyphoid, and Staphylococcus aureus cellulitis. Of particular concern were the reports of assault and sexual harassment recorded by several students. Elective programs are an important part of many medical courses. With the widespread destinations chosen by students, it is important that they be given adequate pretravel health advice. Most of the health problems encountered by students from the University of Tasmania were mild, but exposure to serious infections was recorded. It is thus imperative that students take out travel health insurance and that they are counseled on how to avoid dangerous situations while abroad.

  19. What factors impact upon a woman’s decision to undertake genetic cancer testing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Anne Quinlivan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The advent of human genome project has lead to genetic tests that identify high-risk states for certain cancers. Many are privately marketed on the Internet. Despite the availability of tests, limited data has evaluated factors that lead to test uptake. The aim of the present study was to explore the attitudes of a cohort of new mothers towards uptake of a genetic cancer test with a 50% predictive value of cancer.Methods: A cross-sectional survey was undertaken. The project targeted women who had recently given birth at an Australian tertiary referral hospital. Women were asked about a theoretical blood test that detected an increased risk for the development of cancer. Attitudes and knowledge questionnaires were completed. Results: Of 232 consecutive women approached, 32 declined, giving a response rate of 86.2%. Only 63 (31.5% women stated they would have the test. Absence of religious belief, higher level of education, better knowledge of terms used in genetics, an absence of concern over emotional, employment and insurance discrimination and previous acceptance of Down syndrome screening in pregnancy were each associated with significantly higher rate of test uptake in univariate analysis (all pConclusion: Concern over discrimination and having made a prior decision to have genetic testing were the principal factors associated with decision-making.

  20. Off-site expert support for nurses undertaking ECGs in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherburn, Gwyn; Ward, Stephen; Johnston, Glenis; Chisholm, Sally

    One of the aims of the Department of Health is to respond to patient needs by considering how services can be delivered in more innovative ways, including more services being provided in primary care and increased activities being undertaken by nursing staff. These activities may have previously been undertaken by the GPs, or patients would be sent elsewhere, such as the local hospital, for tests/investigations. Some general practices are already using cardiac telemetry while others are awaiting feedback from system users before deciding whether to purchase services from independent providers. However, identifying how generalized results and predicted benefits will apply in a specific practice is not always straightforward. This article aims to assist the decision-making process by providing the results of an audit from eight general practices and two walk-in centres in which the electrocardiograms (ECGs) were already being undertaken by nurses. The results, which are shown for each centre, showed that the frequency of use varied between one and 27 per month, depending upon the practice. As a result of the 373 patients who had an ECG performed in practice, 76 had altered management decisions, 14 were saved hospital referral (11 of these from one walk-in centre), 18 were admitted to an acute hospital (10 from the same walk-in centre), and another 24 were referred to hospital for investigation.

  1. Outbreak of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Peruvian Military Personnel Undertaking Training Activities in the Amazon Basin, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oré, Marianela; Sáenz, Eliana; Cabrera, Rufino; Sanchez, Juan F; De Los Santos, Maxy B; Lucas, Carmen M; Núñez, Jorge H; Edgel, Kimberly A; Sopan, Justino; Fernández, Jorge; Carnero, Andres M; Baldeviano, G Christian; Arrasco, Juan C; Graf, Paul C F; Lescano, Andres G

    2015-08-01

    Military personnel deployed to the Amazon Basin are at high risk for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). We responded to an outbreak among Peruvian Army personnel returning from short-term training in the Amazon, conducting active case detection, lesion sample collection, and risk factor assessment. The attack rate was 25% (76/303); the incubation period was 2-36 weeks (median = 8). Most cases had one lesion (66%), primarily ulcerative (49%), and in the legs (57%). Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identified Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (59/61 = 97%) and L. (V.) guyanensis (2/61 = 3%). Being male (risk ratio [RR] = 4.01; P = 0.034), not wearing long-sleeve clothes (RR = 1.71; P = 0.005), and sleeping in open rooms (RR = 1.80; P = 0.009) were associated with CL. Sodium stibogluconate therapy had a 41% cure rate, less than previously reported in Peru (~70%; P education and other basic prevention measures, trainees in the following year had lower incidence (1/278 = 0.4%; P < 0.001). Basic prevention can reduce CL risk in deployed militaries. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  2. Do Motives to Undertake Physical Activity Relate to Physical Activity in Adolescent Boys and Girls?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kopcakova, Jaroslava; Veselska, Zuzana Dankulincova; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Kalman, Michal; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2015-01-01

    Low levels of physical activity (PA) during adolescence contribute to obesity and poor health outcomes in adolescence, and these associations endure into adulthood. The aim of this study was to assess the associations between motives for PA and the level of PA among adolescent boys and girls. We

  3. Dodging the Literary Undertaker – Biographic Metafiction in Hanif Kureishi’s The Last Word

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalupský Petr

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hanif Kureishi’s 2014 novel, The Last Word, involves most of the author’s idiosyncratic themes, such as ethnicity, racism, sexual identity, examination of interpersonal relationships and the crucial role of the creative imagination in human life. Its focal concern, however, is to explore the process of writing a literary biography of a living person and the character and dynamics of the relationship between the biographer and his subject - a writer. As such, the novel can be taken as being representative of biographic metafiction, a subcategory of historiographic metafiction, which, following the postmodernist questioning of our ability to know and textually represent historical truth, presents biographic writing critically or even mockingly, rendering its enthusiastic practitioners’ efforts with ironic scepticism. The aim of this article is to present The Last Word as a particular example of biographic metafiction that has all the crucial features of this genre, yet which differs from its predecessors through the complexity and thoroughness of its portrayal of the biographer-biographee relationship.

  4. Aiding in crime in carrying out occupation and undertaking everyday tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Igor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available External image of an action aiding a criminal offense often does not indicate its criminal character. Thus, for example, lending blade to a friend can pose help in preparing a holiday lunch, as well as assistance in the commission of a crime. Despite the often ambiguous image of similar behaviors, in the jurisprudence so far there was no dilemma that value-neutral acts may constitute this type of complicity in crime. In recent decades, however, there has been a vivid discussion whether the actions undertaken in the framework of a profession may constitute aiding in the commission of a crime. In this sense, it's been written a number of papers with more or less the original proposals to resolve the issue of criminality of these actions. The author considers the most important understandings on this issue, taking the view that with regard to punishment of actions undertaken in the exercise of professions one should keep the same approach as in other situations, where one aids another in crime independently of the professional activity.

  5. Motivations and Decision-Making Processes of Mainland Chinese Students for Undertaking Master's Programs Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Mobility of mainland Chinese students across national borders has become common worldwide; however, the underlying reasons that motivate these students to pursue postgraduation abroad and why these factors are influential are not sufficiently studied. By analyzing the results of a case study performed at three British universities, we examine the…

  6. The Interrelationship of Emotion and Cognition when Students Undertake Collaborative Group Work Online: An Interdisciplinary Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    In order to determine how emotions and cognition are experienced during collaborative group work online students' descriptions of their learning experience were interpreted using a qualitative approach. A common feature of these accounts was reference to difficulties and problems. Four main themes were identified from this data set. Two of the…

  7. 20 years of leptin: leptin and reproduction: past milestones, present undertakings, and future endeavors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehab, Farid F

    2014-10-01

    The association between leptin and reproduction originated with the leptin-mediated correction of sterility in ob/ob mice and initiation of reproductive function in normal female mice. The uncovering of a central leptin pathway regulating food intake prompted the dissection of neuroendocrine mechanisms involving leptin in the metabolic control of reproduction. The absence of leptin receptors on GnRH neurons incited a search for intermediary neurons situated between leptin-responsive and GnRH neurons. This review addresses the most significant findings that have furthered our understanding of recent progress in this new field. The role of leptin in puberty was impacted by the discovery of neurons that co-express kisspeptin, neurokinin B, and dynorphin and these could act as leptin intermediates. Furthermore, the identification of first-order leptin-responsive neurons in the premammilary ventral nucleus and other brain regions opens new avenues to explore their relationship to GnRH neurons. Central to these advances is the unveiling that agouti-related protein/neuropeptide Y neurons project onto GnRH and kisspeptin neurons, allowing for a crosstalk between food intake and reproduction. Finally, while puberty is a state of leptin sensitivity, mid-gestation represents a state of leptin resistance aimed at building energy stores to sustain pregnancy and lactation. The mechanisms underlying leptin resistance in pregnancy have lagged; however, the establishment of this natural state is significant. Reproduction and energy balance are tightly controlled and backed up by redundant mechanisms that are critical for the survival of our species. It will be the goal of the following decade to shed new light on these complex and essential pathways. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.

  8. Economic motivation of households to undertake private precautionary measures against floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreibich, H.; Christenberger, S.; Schwarze, R.

    2011-02-01

    Flood damage is on the increase due to a combination of growing vulnerability and a changing climate. This trend can be mitigated only through significantly improved flood risk management which, alongside the efforts of public authorities, will include improvements in the mitigation measures adopted by private households. Economically "reasonable" efforts to self-insure and self-protect should be expected from households before the government steps in with publicly-funded relief programmes. To gain a deeper understanding of the benefits of households' precautionary measures, telephone interviews with private home owners were conducted in the Elbe and Danube catchments in Germany after the floods of 2002 and again after the floods in 2005 and 2006. Only detached, solid single-family houses were included in this study, which is based on 759 interviews. In addition, market-based cost assessments were solicited based on a "model building". Expert interviews and a literature review - including catalogues and price lists for building materials and household appliances - were used as back-up information for the cost assessments. The comparison of costs and benefits shows that large investments, such as building a sealed cellar, are only economically efficient if the building is flooded very frequently, that is, if it is located in a high flood risk area. In such areas it would be preferable in economic terms not to build a new house at all - or else to build a house without a cellar. Small investments, however, such as oil tank protection, can prevent serious damage at low cost. Such investments are still profitable even if the building is flooded every 50 years or less on average. It could be argued that these low-cost measures should be made mandatory through the enforcement of building codes. Financial incentives built into insurance contracts coupled with limits set on governmental relief programmes would provide an economic motivation for people to invest in precautionary measures.

  9. Economic motivation of households to undertake private precautionary measures against floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kreibich

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Flood damage is on the increase due to a combination of growing vulnerability and a changing climate. This trend can be mitigated only through significantly improved flood risk management which, alongside the efforts of public authorities, will include improvements in the mitigation measures adopted by private households. Economically "reasonable" efforts to self-insure and self-protect should be expected from households before the government steps in with publicly-funded relief programmes. To gain a deeper understanding of the benefits of households' precautionary measures, telephone interviews with private home owners were conducted in the Elbe and Danube catchments in Germany after the floods of 2002 and again after the floods in 2005 and 2006. Only detached, solid single-family houses were included in this study, which is based on 759 interviews. In addition, market-based cost assessments were solicited based on a "model building". Expert interviews and a literature review – including catalogues and price lists for building materials and household appliances – were used as back-up information for the cost assessments. The comparison of costs and benefits shows that large investments, such as building a sealed cellar, are only economically efficient if the building is flooded very frequently, that is, if it is located in a high flood risk area. In such areas it would be preferable in economic terms not to build a new house at all – or else to build a house without a cellar. Small investments, however, such as oil tank protection, can prevent serious damage at low cost. Such investments are still profitable even if the building is flooded every 50 years or less on average. It could be argued that these low-cost measures should be made mandatory through the enforcement of building codes. Financial incentives built into insurance contracts coupled with limits set on governmental relief programmes would provide an economic motivation for people to invest in precautionary measures.

  10. Sovereign wealth fund investments and the need to undertake socially responsible investment

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Wei

    2017-01-01

    There is an increasing consensus that, beyond financial returns, investors should also consider the environmental and social impacts of their business activities. Major institutional investors currently are entering the realm of socially responsible investment (SRI), which incorporates environmental, social, and governance (ESG) factors into decision-making based on internationally recognized standards and principles. As influential institutional investors, sovereign wealth funds ...

  11. Motivational factors influencing nurses to undertake postgraduate hospital-based education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsella, Danny; Fry, Margaret; Zecchin, Alison

    2018-05-01

    Specialist postgraduate education improves patient health outcomes, and assists in meeting the emerging specialisation of nursing practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the motivational factors that influence nurses' engagement with hospital-based postgraduate education. The research design was descriptive and exploratory, using a survey method. The survey consisted of demographic details, the Participation Reasons Scale (PRS) and open-ended questions. Thirty-four participants (100%) completed the survey. Of the PRS extrinsic and intrinsic factors, Professional Improvement and Development (Factor 1) and Professional Service (Factor 2), both intrinsic factors, ranked the highest. Therefore, this study identified that intrinsic motivation factors influenced engagement with postgraduate specialty programs for early career nurses. These results highlight the importance of intrinsic motivation factors for a nursing workforce and how this can potentially drive behaviour and decision making. A better understanding of motivation factors across a nurse's career could lead to educational strategies that optimise postgraduate program engagement to better support healthcare delivery and a culture of lifelong learning. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Students' Perceptions of Undertaking Workplace Tasks within a Foundation Degree--Health and Social Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurgate, Claire; MacGregor, Janet

    2009-01-01

    Foundation degrees (FDs) involve the fusion of academic and vocational paths in higher education (HE) qualifications; the challenge for academics and employers is the credible assessment of the student's workplace learning. Focusing to the workplace enables participants to learn from their daily routines encountered at work. The challenge is to…

  13. The Age at Which Indigenous Australians Undertake Qualifications: A Descriptive Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Nicholas

    2006-01-01

    Reducing disparities in education outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians is one of the main ways in which the relative disadvantage Indigenous Australians face will be overcome. Relative and absolute participation rates in all forms of education have improved, however they are still unacceptably low. Those Indigenous…

  14. Undertake in agricultural management of the Amazon: the case of family farms of the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Carminati Lima

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The management of agricultural activity has great importance for the development of family farming, considering the aspects of planning, production, control and marketing, as well as entrepreneurship has innovation features for agribusiness activities. This article aims to study the contribution of entrepreneurial strategies used by farmers in the development of family farms. Were addressed in this study social, economic, technological and market factors that influence the management of rural agribusiness. For this study we used the field survey to collect data on 18 family farms who have subscription federal, state or municipal inspection in Cacoal, Rondonia, having as the qualitative research approach. Thus, it was possible to identify the entrepreneurial strategies used by farmers in the management of agribusiness, and identify the marketing contribution, cooperation, technological innovation and control in the productive activity of family farmers. The study also showed that although the challenges of production and marketing are factors that hinder the family agro-industrial production, entrepreneurship has proved important in the development of the activity, providing the farmer new job opportunities and income.

  15. Narratives of Choice amongst white Australians who undertake Surrogacy Arrangements in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Damien W

    2016-09-01

    This paper reports on a rhetorical analysis of interviews with fifteen white Australian citizens who had undertaken offshore commercial surrogacy in India. Extending previous research, the findings suggest that genetic relatedness was valorized, and surrogacy constructed as a less tenuous route to family formation. The paper concludes with a discussion of the need for further research on 1) how the contentious nature of offshore commercial surrogacy may prevent full consideration of its ethical implications, 2) the differing belief systems between India and Australia in terms of children as alienable objects, and 3) ongoing consideration of how and when genetic-relatedness is made to matter.

  16. Do Motives to Undertake Physical Activity Relate to Physical Activity in Adolescent Boys and Girls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopcakova, Jaroslava; Veselska, Zuzana Dankulincova; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Kalman, Michal; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2015-07-08

    Low levels of physical activity (PA) during adolescence contribute to obesity and poor health outcomes in adolescence, and these associations endure into adulthood. The aim of this study was to assess the associations between motives for PA and the level of PA among adolescent boys and girls. We obtained data regarding motives for PA and frequency of PA in 2010 via the Health Behavior in School-aged Children cross-sectional study in the Czech and Slovak Republics (n = 9018, mean age = 13.6, 49% boys). Respondents answered questions about their motives for PA and the frequency of their PA. Motives for PA were assessed using 13 items, which were structured in four groups. We explored the association between the motives for PA and sufficient PA using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for age, and separately for boys and girls. "Good child" motives and Achievement motives were significantly associated with sufficient PA among both boys and girls. Health motives were associated with sufficient PA only among boys, and Social motives were associated with sufficient PA only among girls. Motives for PA were associated with the level of PA, and this association was partially gender dependent. These gender differences should be considered in interventions focusing on enhancement of PA.

  17. Do Motives to Undertake Physical Activity Relate to Physical Activity in Adolescent Boys and Girls?

    OpenAIRE

    Kopcakova, Jaroslava; Dankulincova Veselska, Zuzana; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Kalman, Michal; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2015-01-01

    Low levels of physical activity (PA) during adolescence contribute to obesity and poor health outcomes in adolescence, and these associations endure into adulthood. The aim of this study was to assess the associations between motives for PA and the level of PA among adolescent boys and girls. We obtained data regarding motives for PA and frequency of PA in 2010 via the Health Behavior in School-aged Children cross-sectional study in the Czech and Slovak Republics (n = 9018, mean age = 13.6, 4...

  18. 17 CFR 270.27d-2 - Insurance company undertaking in lieu of segregated trust account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... unassigned surplus, if a stock company, or (ii) unassigned surplus, if a mutual company, at least equal to... amendment thereto pursuant to the Securities Act of 1933 of the registered investment company issuing...

  19. Epistemological Development in First-Year Nursing Students Undertaking Cultural Safety Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Sallie; Fyers, Katrina

    2018-04-01

    The process of teaching cultural safety is emancipatory, focused on wider social relations and the context in which they arise. As teachers of cultural safety, we are interested in the way that ideas are formed, held, and changed. The aim of this research was to examine whether epistemological shifts were demonstrated by nursing students over one semester of cultural safety teaching-learning. NVivo software was used to analyze 34 nursing students' reflective journals, applying a cognitive-developmental framework. The framework comprised three epistemological positions-dualism, relativism, and propositional-and two in-between locations, referred to as stretching. The results showed student movement between early epistemological positions and students' efforts to stretch to new, yet untried, ways of thinking. In the classroom, these shifts may be subtle; thus, paying careful attention to evidence that students are trying out new ways of thinking is essential. Appreciating that these small but significant shifts are perhaps more important than 'aha' moments is crucial. [J Nurs Educ. 2018;57(4):229-232.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Refractive errors in students from Middle Eastern backgrounds living and undertaking schooling in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizoglu, Serap; Junghans, Barbara M; Barutchu, Ayla; Crewther, Sheila G

    2011-01-01

      Environmental factors associated with schooling systems in various countries have been implicated in the rising prevalence of myopia, making the comparison of prevalence of refractive errors in migrant populations of interest. This study aims to determine the prevalence of refractive errors in children of Middle Eastern descent, raised and living in urban Australia but actively maintaining strong ties to their ethnic culture, and to compare them with those in the Middle East where myopia prevalence is generally low.   A total of 354 out of a possible 384 late primary/early secondary schoolchildren attending a private school attracting children of Middle Eastern background in Melbourne were assessed for refractive error and visual acuity. A Shin Nippon open-field NVision-K5001 autorefractor was used to carry out non-cycloplegic autorefraction while viewing a distant target. For statistical analyses students were divided into three age groups: 10-11 years (n = 93); 12-13 years (n = 158); and 14-15 years (n = 102).   All children were bilingual and classified as of Middle Eastern (96.3 per cent) or Egyptian (3.7 per cent) origin. Ages ranged from 10 to 15 years, with a mean of 13.17 ± 0.8 (SEM) years. Mean spherical equivalent refraction (SER) for the right eye was +0.09 ± 0.07 D (SEM) with a range from -7.77 D to +5.85 D. The prevalence of myopia, defined as a spherical equivalent refraction 0.50 D or more of myopia, was 14.7 per cent. The prevalence of hyperopia, defined as a spherical equivalent refraction of +0.75 D or greater, was 16.4 per cent, while hyperopia of +1.50 D or greater was 5.4 per cent. A significant difference in SER was seen as a function of age; however, no significant gender difference was seen.   This is the first study to report the prevalence of refractive errors for second-generation Australian schoolchildren coming from a predominantly Lebanese Middle Eastern Arabic background, who endeavour to maintain their ethnic ties. The relatively low prevalence of myopia is similar to that found for other metropolitan Australian school children but higher than that reported in the Middle East. These results suggest that lifestyle and educational practices may be a significant influence in the progression of myopic refractive errors. © 2010 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2010 Optometrists Association Australia.

  1. Are You "Tilting at Windmills" or Undertaking a Valid Clinical Trial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zariffa, Jose; Kramer, John L.K.

    2011-01-01

    In this review, several aspects surrounding the choice of a therapeutic intervention and the conduct of clinical trials are discussed. Some of the background for why human studies have evolved to their current state is also included. Specifically, the following questions have been addressed: 1) What criteria should be used to determine whether a scientific discovery or invention is worthy of translation to human application? 2) What recent scientific advance warrants a deeper understanding of clinical trials by everyone? 3) What are the different types and phases of a clinical trial? 4) What characteristics of a human disorder should be noted, tracked, or stratified for a clinical trial and what inclusion /exclusion criteria are important to enrolling appropriate trial subjects? 5) What are the different study designs that can be used in a clinical trial program? 6) What confounding factors can alter the accurate interpretation of clinical trial outcomes? 7) What are the success rates of clinical trials and what can we learn from previous clinical trials? 8) What are the essential principles for the conduct of valid clinical trials? PMID:21786433

  2. Undertaking the Assessment of the Work Completed--Comments on Responses to Financial Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahgren-Lange, Ulla

    1986-01-01

    It is proposed that educators may learn more about the experiences of other countries in responding to retrenchment by making direct comparisons between governments, institutions, or departments rather than between broad national situations. This approach is illustrated by a government-level comparative analysis. (MSE)

  3. Designing and Undertaking a Health Economics Study of Digital Health Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamee, Paul; Murray, Elizabeth; Kelly, Michael P; Bojke, Laura; Chilcott, Jim; Fischer, Alastair; West, Robert; Yardley, Lucy

    2016-11-01

    This paper introduces and discusses key issues in the economic evaluation of digital health interventions. The purpose is to stimulate debate so that existing economic techniques may be refined or new methods developed. The paper does not seek to provide definitive guidance on appropriate methods of economic analysis for digital health interventions. This paper describes existing guides and analytic frameworks that have been suggested for the economic evaluation of healthcare interventions. Using selected examples of digital health interventions, it assesses how well existing guides and frameworks align to digital health interventions. It shows that digital health interventions may be best characterized as complex interventions in complex systems. Key features of complexity relate to intervention complexity, outcome complexity, and causal pathway complexity, with much of this driven by iterative intervention development over time and uncertainty regarding likely reach of the interventions among the relevant population. These characteristics imply that more-complex methods of economic evaluation are likely to be better able to capture fully the impact of the intervention on costs and benefits over the appropriate time horizon. This complexity includes wider measurement of costs and benefits, and a modeling framework that is able to capture dynamic interactions among the intervention, the population of interest, and the environment. The authors recommend that future research should develop and apply more-flexible modeling techniques to allow better prediction of the interdependency between interventions and important environmental influences. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Intra-operative digital imaging: assuring the alignment of components when undertaking total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambright, D; Hellman, M; Barrack, R

    2018-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the rate at which the positioning of the acetabular component, leg length discrepancy and femoral offset are outside an acceptable range in total hip arthroplasties (THAs) which either do or do not involve the use of intra-operative digital imaging. A retrospective case-control study was undertaken with 50 patients before and 50 patients after the integration of an intra-operative digital imaging system in THA. The demographics of the two groups were comparable for body mass index, age, laterality and the indication for surgery. The digital imaging group had more men than the group without. Surgical data and radiographic parameters, including the inclination and anteversion of the acetabular component, leg length discrepancy, and the difference in femoral offset compared with the contralateral hip were collected and compared, as well as the incidence of altering the position of a component based on the intra-operative image. Digital imaging took a mean of five minutes (2.3 to 14.6) to perform. Intra-operative changes with the use of digital imaging were made for 43 patients (86%), most commonly to adjust leg length and femoral offset. There was a decrease in the incidence of outliers when using intra-operative imaging compared with not using it in regard to leg length discrepancy (20% versus 52%, p = 0.001) and femoral offset inequality (18% versus 44%, p = 0.004). There was also a difference in the incidence of outliers in acetabular inclination (0% versus 7%, p = 0.023) and version (0% versus 4%, p = 0.114) compared with historical results of a high-volume surgeon at the same centre. The use of intra-operative digital imaging in THA improves the accuracy of the positioning of the components at THA without adding a substantial amount of time to the operation. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100B(1 Supple A):36-43. ©2018 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  5. Do progressive goverments undertake different debt burdens? partisan vs. electoral cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia-Sanchez Isabel-Maria I.M

    2011-01-01

    The empirical evidence obtained points to the need to perfect internal and external control mechanisms in order to avoid a breakdown in the stability policy and the risk of debt becoming untenable, thus achieving greater budgetary discipline.

  6. Towards a chiral effective field theory of nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallik, S.

    2008-01-01

    As a preliminary attempt to formulate an effective theory of nuclear matter, we undertake to calculate the effective pole parameters of nucleon in such a medium. We begin with the virial expansion of these parameters to leading order in nucleon number density in terms of the on-shell NN scattering amplitude. We then proceed to calculate the same parameters in the effective theory, getting a formula for the nucleon mass-shift to leading order, that was known already to give too large a value to be acceptable at normal nuclear density. At this point the virial expansion suggests a modification of this formula, which we carry out following Weinberg's method for the two-nucleon system in the effective theory. The results are encouraging enough to attempt a complete, next-to-leading order calculation of the off-shell nucleon spectral function in nuclear medium. (author)

  7. The effect of current global economic crisis on Danish companies and what we can learn from it

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull; Turcan, Romeo V.

    The paper explores the effects of the current global economic crisis on small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and the responses these SMEs undertake to cope with these effects. In other words, how entrepreneurs respond to the decline in their firm’s performance that is the result of this global...... economic crisis. Two theoretical lenses are identified to guide the understanding of entrepreneurs’ behaviours under crisis decision-making settings: turnaround strategy, and escalating commitment. To explore entrepreneurs’ behaviours under crisis decision-making settings, entrepreneurs of SMEs were...

  8. In or Out: The Effect of Euro Membership on the Exercise of Real Business Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom; Pantzalis, Christos

    2011-01-01

    This empirical study of manufacturing firms (NAICS 33) in the EU15 countries goes beyond the trade statistics that have indicated only a small to negligible effect from the introduction of the Euro and shows that the introduction of the Euro has made Euro firms (firms based in one of the twelve...... Euro countries) more inclined than non-Euro firms (firms based in one of the three non-Euro countries: UK, Sweden and Denmark) to undertake various forms of real actions (exercise real business options) such as to establish alliances / partnerships, to enter new markets / market segments, to switch...

  9. Are screening processes effective instruments and what are the environmental benefits?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Eskild Holm; Christensen, Per; Kørnøv, Lone

    2003-01-01

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)is the process by which the effects that proposed projects are likely to have with respect to a number of environmental criteria is evaluated. Screening is an activity carried out in advance of an EIA to determine whether, in fact, it is necessary to undertake...... a full assessment.The paper discuss the extent of changes due to the screening process, and ask questions like what kind of environmental considerations do the changes reflect? And are they in line with EIA's holistic environmental approach?...

  10. Gestión Institucional como Medio de Cumplimiento de la ley Anti Bullying en la Lucha contra la Violencia Escolar y Maltrato entre Iguales Institución Educativa Secundaria “Maria Auxiliadora” Puno, Año Escolar 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Calsín Ramos, Patricia Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    En la investigación titulada:“Gestión institucional como medio de cumplimiento de la Ley Antibulling en la lucha contra la violencia escolar y maltrato entre iguales,en la institución educativa secundaria “María Auxiliadora”, Puno, año escolar 2015”,se utilizó el paradigma cuantitativo, que cuenta con una metodología hipotética - deductiva, utilizando un instrumento y técnica que es la encuesta pre-codificada, y el programa SPSS para el procesamiento estadístico de los cuadros de aná...

  11. [Long-term evaluation of a psychological training for obese children and their parents (TAKE)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Binia; Munsch, Simone; Meyer, Andrea H

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral parent-child-programmes have shown the best effects in treating childhood obesity so far. With TAKE (Training adipöser Kinder und ihrer Eltern) we introduce a psychologically-informed training, that includes physical activity, nutrition and eating behavior but also addresses psychological issues like self-confidence, body image, social and anti-bullying skills. Long-term data from up to 64 month-follow-up showed moderate effects on body-mass index standard deviation scores (BMI-SDS), and positive effects on children's psychological wellbeing. Maternal psychopathology predicted the course of BMI-SDS in children. Results underline the importance of psychological treatment for obese children to facilitate weight change and to reduce their psychological vulnerability which in turn may prevent the further development of behavior problems, eating disorders and affective disorders.

  12. The importance of normative beliefs to the self-prophecy effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprott, David E; Spangenberg, Eric R; Fisher, Robert

    2003-06-01

    Asking people to predict whether they will undertake a target behavior increases their probability of performing that behavior. Now referred to as the self-prophecy effect, this phenomenon has been demonstrated across several contexts. Although theoretical explanations for the effect have been offered, empirical evidence for proposed accounts is sparse. The current research tests the theoretically relevant precondition for the effect that normative beliefs--evaluations of what is socially desirable or appropriate--underlie manifestation of the self-prophecy effect. Results of 2 experiments for different behaviors indicate that the act of making a prediction is most effective when normative beliefs are strong. Implications of these findings are discussed in relation to theoretical explanations for the effect and successful use of self-prophecy to promote socially desirable behaviors.

  13. School-based interventions to address bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Smith

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Following some background studies on the nature of school bullying, its prevalence, and the negative consequences it can have, this article reviews the history of anti-bullying interventions over the last 30 years. It considers several major programmes in detail, such as the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, KiVa, Steps to Respect, and Friendly Schools. The nature and evaluation of the interventions is discussed, followed by a review of meta-analyses of the programmes effectiveness. Issues considered are the effect at different ages; components of interventions; work with peers; disciplinary methods, non-punitive and restorative approaches; challenges regarding cyberbullying; the role of parents; the role of teachers and teacher training; set menu versus à la carte approaches; sustainability of interventions and societal context. Conclusions show that interventions have had some success, with traditional bullying. However, further progress is needed in strengthening theoretical underpinnings to interventions, and in tackling cyberbullying.

  14. Arsenic in the aquatic environment - speciation and biological effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landner, L [Swedish Environmental Research Group (MFG)

    1998-03-01

    The present report is a contribution to EC Commission`s undertaking to review existing EC provisions on the substances for which Sweden has been granted transitional provisions. The provisions imply that Sweden may maintain more stringent regulations on four substances until the end of 1998. The present report deals with speciation and biological effects of arsenic in three types of aquatic environments - marine water, estuarine or brackish water and freshwater. The similarity between arsenate and phosphate and the interference in phosphorylation reactions is discussed. It is clear that in Scandinavian inland waters the concentration of phosphorous is on average lower than in most inland waters in continental Europe. However, in most inland waters phosphorus is the limiting factor for phytoplankton development and eutrophication, which means that there is a clear risk for detrimental effects in the great majority of inland waters, also eutrophic waters 167 refs, 27 figs, 12 tabs. Exemption Substances Project (Directive 89/677/EEC)

  15. Are Youth Psychopathic Traits Related to Bullying? Meta-analyses on Callous-Unemotional Traits, Narcissism, and Impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geel, Mitch; Toprak, Fatih; Goemans, Anouk; Zwaanswijk, Wendy; Vedder, Paul

    2017-10-01

    In the current manuscript meta-analyses are performed to analyze the relations between three aspects of psychopathy in youth, Callous-Unemotional (CU) traits, Narcissism, and Impulsivity, and bullying behaviors. The databases PsycINFO, MEDLINE, ERIC, Web of Science and Proquest were searched for relevant articles on bullying and CU traits, Narcissism, or Impulsivity in youth under 20 years of age. Two authors each independently screened 842 studies that were found in the literature search. Two authors independently coded ten studies on bullying and CU (N = 4115) traits, six studies on bullying and Narcissism (N = 3376) and 14 studies on bullying and Impulsivity (N = 33,574) that met the inclusion criteria. Significant correlations were found between bullying and CU traits, Narcissism, and Impulsivity. These results were not affected by publication bias. Anti-bullying interventions could potentially benefit from including elements that have been found effective in the treatment of youth psychopathy.

  16. Biomedical effects of low-power laser controlled by electroacupuncture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenchits, Nadezhda I.; Nicolaenko, Andrej A.; Shpilevoj, Boris N.

    1997-12-01

    The methods and technical facilities of testing the biomedical effects caused by the influence of low-power laser radiation in the process of laser therapy are presented. Described studies have been conducted by means of the complex of fireware facilities consisting of the system of electroacupuncture diagnostics (EA) and a system of laser therapy on the basis of multichannel laser and magneto-laser devices. The task of laser therapy was concluded in undertaking acupuncture anaesthetization, achievement of antioedemic and dispersional actions, raising tone of musculus and nervous system, normalization of immunity factors under the control of system EA. The 82 percent to 95 percent agreement of the result of an electroacupuncture diagnostics with clinical diagnoses were achieved.

  17. Bullying victimisation, internalising symptoms, and conduct problems in South African children and adolescents: a longitudinal investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyes, Mark E; Bowes, Lucy; Cluver, Lucie D; Ward, Catherine L; Badcock, Nicholas A

    2014-11-01

    Bullying victimisation has been prospectively linked with mental health problems among children and adolescents in longitudinal studies in the developed world. However, research from the developing world, where adolescents face multiple risks to social and emotional development, has been limited by cross-sectional designs. This is the first longitudinal study of the psychological impacts of bullying victimisation in South Africa. The primary aim was to examine prospective relationships between bullying victimisation and internalising and externalising symptoms in South African youth. Secondary aims were to examine gender and age-related differences in experiences of bullying victimisation. Children and adolescents (10-17 years, 57 % female, n = 3,515) from high HIV-prevalent (>30 %) communities in South Africa were interviewed and followed-up 1 year later (97 % retention). Census enumeration areas were randomly selected from urban and rural sites in two provinces and door-to-door sampling included all households with a resident child/adolescent. Exposure to multiple experiences of bullying victimisation at baseline predicted internalising symptoms and conduct problems 1 year later. Additionally, baseline mental health scores predicted later bullying victimisation, demonstrating bi-directionality of relationships between bullying victimisation and mental health outcomes in this sample. Expected gender differences in physical, verbal, and relational bullying victimisation were evident and predicted declines in bullying victimisation over time were observed. In the developed world, school-based anti-bullying programmes have been shown to be effective in reducing bullying and victimisation. Anti-bullying programmes should be implemented and rigorously evaluated in South Africa, as this may promote improved mental health among South African children and adolescents.

  18. How Effective Leaders Harness the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souba, Wiley; Souba, Matthew

    2018-02-01

    Human beings are fundamentally future oriented. Most of our decisions and undertakings are for the sake of a future to which we are committed or obligated. This future orientation is essential to effective leadership in health care, especially during this time of significant reform, when people are at risk of becoming cynical and disengaged. Conventional thinking holds that our effectiveness as leaders is primarily a function of what we have learned in the past-our knowledge, expertise, and experience. In contrast, the emerging model contends that our effectiveness is also a function of how the future (outcome) of our leadership challenges "shows up" for us. If, despite daunting circumstances, we can "see" an aspired future ahead, we are more likely to commit and engage. Our story of the future becomes the "narrative frame" through which we see and tackle leadership challenges today. Because organizations are fundamentally networks of conversations, an organization's ability to create new language practices is tantamount to its ability to evolve. What makes the future compelling is the embodiment of our deepest convictions and ideals in our image of the future. Because health care reform has challenged the medical profession along the entire spectrum of its traditional values and roles, working toward a unifying vision of the future has been difficult. To enroll others in creating a better future, effective leaders must underscore the purpose and importance of their work and motivate them with inspiring stories.

  19. Effects of earthquake induced rock shear on containment system integrity. Laboratory testing plan development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, Rodney S.

    2011-07-01

    This report describes a laboratory-scale testing program plan to address the issue of earthquake induced rock shear effects on containment system integrity. The document contains a review of relevant literature from SKB covering laboratory testing of bentonite clay buffer material, scaled analogue tests, and the development of related material models to simulate rock shear effects. The proposed testing program includes standard single component tests, new two-component constant volume tests, and new scaled analogue tests. Conceptual drawings of equipment required to undertake these tests are presented along with a schedule of tests. The information in this document is considered sufficient to engage qualified testing facilities, and to guide implementation of laboratory testing of rock shear effects. This document was completed as part of a collaborative agreement between SKB and Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) in Canada

  20. Futures hedging effectiveness under the segmentation of bear/bull energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Chiao-Yi; Lai, Jing-Yi; Chuang, I-Yuan

    2010-01-01

    This article undertakes eight hedging models (Regression, MD-GARCH, BEKK-GARCH, CCC-GARCH, ECM-MD, ECM-BEKK, ECM-CCC, and state space models) to investigate hedging effectiveness of different price scenarios in energy futures markets. Different models have systematically evidenced that hedging effectiveness is higher in an increasing pattern (termed 'bull markets') than in a decreasing pattern (termed 'bear markets') for crude oil and gasoline futures. That is, findings show asymmetric hedging performance between upward and downward price trends consistently from the most popular hedging models in literature. Out-of-sample examination also suggests that the ranking of hedging effectiveness of different hedging models is not parallel in different price patterns across futures contracts, implying that investors should adjust their hedging strategies accordingly. (author)

  1. Futures hedging effectiveness under the segmentation of bear/bull energy markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chiao-Yi [Department of Money and Banking, National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, No. 2, Jhuoyue Rd., Nanzih, Kaohsiung City, 811 (China); Lai, Jing-Yi; Chuang, I-Yuan [Department of Finance, National Chung-Cheng University, No. 168, University Rd., Ming-Hsiung, Chia-Yi 62102. (China)

    2010-03-15

    This article undertakes eight hedging models (Regression, MD-GARCH, BEKK-GARCH, CCC-GARCH, ECM-MD, ECM-BEKK, ECM-CCC, and state space models) to investigate hedging effectiveness of different price scenarios in energy futures markets. Different models have systematically evidenced that hedging effectiveness is higher in an increasing pattern (termed 'bull markets') than in a decreasing pattern (termed 'bear markets') for crude oil and gasoline futures. That is, findings show asymmetric hedging performance between upward and downward price trends consistently from the most popular hedging models in literature. Out-of-sample examination also suggests that the ranking of hedging effectiveness of different hedging models is not parallel in different price patterns across futures contracts, implying that investors should adjust their hedging strategies accordingly. (author)

  2. Radon continuous monitoring in Altamira Cave (northern Spain) to assess user's annual effective dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lario, J.; Sanchez-Moral, S.; Canaveras, J.C.; Cuezva, S.; Soler, V.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, we present the values of radon concentration, measured by continuous monitoring during a complete annual cycle in the Polychromes Hall of Altamira Cave in order to undertake more precise calculations of annual effective dose for guides and visitors in tourist caves. The 222 Rn levels monitored inside the cave ranges from 186 Bq m -3 to 7120 Bq m -3 , with an annual average of 3562 Bq m -3 . In order to more accurately estimate effective dose we use three scenarios with different equilibrium factors (F=0.5, 0.7 and 1.0) together with different dose conversion factors proposed in the literature. Neither effective dose exceeds international recommendations. Moreover, with an automatic radon monitoring system the time remaining to reach the maximum annual dose recommended could be automatically updated

  3. Effects of antenatal diet and physical activity on maternal and fetal outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogozińska, Ewelina; Marlin, Nadine; Jackson, Louise

    2017-01-01

    , Caucasian ethnicity and underlying medical condition(s), by undertaking an individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis. We also evaluated the association of gestational weight gain (GWG) with adverse pregnancy outcomes and assessed the cost-effectiveness of the interventions. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE...... quantified the relationship between weight gain and complications, and undertook a decision-analytic model-based economic evaluation to assess the cost-effectiveness of the interventions. RESULTS: Diet and lifestyle interventions reduced GWG by an average of 0.70 kg (95% CI -0.92 to -0.48 kg; 33 studies......: The differential effects of lifestyle interventions on individual pregnancy outcomes need evaluation. STUDY REGISTRATION: This study is registered as PROSPERO CRD42013003804. FUNDING: The National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment programme....

  4. Effects of earthquake induced rock shear on containment system integrity. Laboratory testing plan development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Read, Rodney S. (RSRead Consulting Inc. (Canada))

    2011-07-15

    This report describes a laboratory-scale testing program plan to address the issue of earthquake induced rock shear effects on containment system integrity. The document contains a review of relevant literature from SKB covering laboratory testing of bentonite clay buffer material, scaled analogue tests, and the development of related material models to simulate rock shear effects. The proposed testing program includes standard single component tests, new two-component constant volume tests, and new scaled analogue tests. Conceptual drawings of equipment required to undertake these tests are presented along with a schedule of tests. The information in this document is considered sufficient to engage qualified testing facilities, and to guide implementation of laboratory testing of rock shear effects. This document was completed as part of a collaborative agreement between SKB and Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) in Canada

  5. The effect of explicit financial incentives on physician behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, B S; Pitts, M M; Maclean, R; Cangialose, C; Kishel, M; Imai, H; Etchason, J

    2001-05-28

    Managed care organizations use explicit financial incentives to influence physicians' use of resources. This has contributed to concerns regarding conflicts of interest for physicians and adverse effects on the quality of patient care. In light of recent publicized legislative and legal battles about this issue, we reviewed the literature and analyzed studies that examine the effect of these explicit financial incentives on the behavior of physicians. The method used to undertake the literature review followed the approach set forth in the Cochrane Collaboration handbook. Our literature review revealed a paucity of data on the effect of explicit financial incentives. Based on this limited evidence, explicit incentives that place individual physicians at financial risk appear to be effective in reducing physician resource use. However, the empirical evidence regarding the effectiveness of bonus payments on physician resource use is mixed. Similarly, our review revealed mixed effects of the influence of explicit financial incentives on the quality of patient care. The effect of explicit financial incentives on physician behavior is complicated by a lack of understanding of the incentive structure by the managed care organization and the physician. The lack of a universally acceptable definition of quality renders it important that future researchers identify the term explicitly.

  6. Opening the Black Box: Exploring the Effect of Transformation on Online Service Delivery in Local Governments

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veenstra, Anne Fleur; Zuurmond, Arre

    To enhance the quality of their online service delivery, many government organizations seek to transform their organization beyond merely setting up a front office. This transformation includes elements such as the formation of service delivery chains, the adoption of a management strategy supporting process orientation and the implementation of enterprise architecture. This paper explores whether undertaking this transformation has a positive effect on the quality of online service delivery, using data gathered from seventy local governments. We found that having an externally oriented management strategy in place, adopting enterprise architecture, aligning information systems to business and sharing activities between processes and departments are positively related to the quality of online service delivery. We recommend that further research should be carried out to find out whether dimensions of organizational development too have an effect on online service delivery in the long term.

  7. Context Effects in Forensic Entomology and Use of Sequential Unmasking in Casework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Melanie S; Wallman, James F

    2016-09-01

    Context effects are pervasive in forensic science, and are being recognized by a growing number of disciplines as a threat to objectivity. Cognitive processes can be affected by extraneous context information, and many proactive scientists are therefore introducing context-minimizing systems into their laboratories. Forensic entomologists are also subject to context effects, both in the processes they undertake (e.g., evidence collection) and decisions they make (e.g., whether an invertebrate taxon is found in a certain geographic area). We stratify the risk of bias into low, medium, and high for the decisions and processes undertaken by forensic entomologists, and propose that knowledge of the time the deceased was last seen alive is the most potentially biasing piece of information for forensic entomologists. Sequential unmasking is identified as the best system for minimizing context information, illustrated with the results of a casework trial (n = 19) using this approach in Victoria, Australia. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  8. Social media as an effective tool for creating and building an employer brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Kaiser

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Social media can be an effective tool for creating and building an effective image of an organisation as a trustworthy employer both inside and outside the company. The author has examined the use of social marketing channels by academic institutions. She asked about the role of this communication tool, undertaking the challenge to use social media as a tool for cross-marketing, employer experience of branding through social media. She has also examined employers’ knowledge of what and on which channels employees and “ambassadors” post about their company. Overwhelmingly, the response was obtained “no”, which shows that social media are a tool used only occasionally if at all.

  9. Scale effects on quasi-steady solid rocket internal ballistic behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greatrix, D. R. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5B2K3 (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    The ability to predict with some accuracy a given solid rocket motor's performance before undertaking one or several costly experimental test firings is important. On the numerical prediction side, as various component models evolve, their incorporation into an overall internal ballistics simulation program allows for new motor firing simulations to take place, which in turn allows for updated comparisons to experimental firing data. In the present investigation, utilizing an updated simulation program, the focus is on quasi-steady performance analysis and scale effects (influence of motor size). The predicted effects of negative/positive erosive burning and propellant/casing deflection, as tied to motor size, on a reference cylindrical-grain motor's internal ballistics, are included in this evaluation. Propellant deflection has only a minor influence on the reference motor's internal ballistics, regardless of motor size. Erosive burning, on the other hand, is distinctly affected by motor scale. (author)

  10. Impact assessment and cost-effectiveness of m-health application used by community health workers for maternal, newborn and child health care services in rural Uttar Pradesh, India: a study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Prinja, Shankar; Nimesh, Ruby; Gupta, Aditi; Bahuguna, Pankaj; Thakur, Jarnail Singh; Gupta, Madhu; Singh, Tarundeep

    2016-01-01

    Background: An m-health application has been developed and implemented with community health workers to improve their counseling in a rural area of India. The ultimate aim was to generate demand and improve utilization of key maternal, neonatal, and child health services. The present study aims to assess the impact and cost-effectiveness of this project.Methods/design: A pre–post quasi-experimental design with a control group will be used to undertake difference in differences analysis for as...

  11. Practical considerations for effective resettlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Lacy Swing

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available There are certain essential elements of resettlement programming benefit both refugees and the states undertaking to receive them. IOM believes that this holds true regardless of the type of resettlement scheme, the destination country or the profile of the refugees being assisted.

  12. Using a Personal Development Plan for Different Purposes: Its Influence on Undertaking Learning Activities and Job Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beausaert, Simon A. J.; Segers, Mien S. R.; Gijselaers, Wim H.

    2011-01-01

    Today, organizations are increasingly implementing assessment tools such as Personal Development Plans. Although the true power of the tool lies in supporting the employee's continuing professional development, organizations implement the tool for various different purposes, professional development purposes on the one hand and promotion/salary…

  13. Group B Streptococcal Disease Worldwide for Pregnant Women, Stillbirths, and Children: Why, What, and How to Undertake Estimates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Joy E; Bianchi-Jassir, Fiorella; Russell, Neal J; Kohli-Lynch, Maya; Tann, Cally J; Hall, Jennifer; Madrid, Lola; Baker, Carol J; Bartlett, Linda; Cutland, Clare; Gravett, Michael G; Heath, Paul T; Ip, Margaret; Le Doare, Kirsty; Madhi, Shabir A; Rubens, Craig E; Saha, Samir K; Schrag, Stephanie; Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, Ajoke; Vekemans, Johan; Seale, Anna C

    2017-11-06

    Improving maternal, newborn, and child health is central to Sustainable Development Goal targets for 2030, requiring acceleration especially to prevent 5.6 million deaths around the time of birth. Infections contribute to this burden, but etiological data are limited. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is an important perinatal pathogen, although previously focus has been primarily on liveborn children, especially early-onset disease. In this first of an 11-article supplement, we discuss the following: (1) Why estimate the worldwide burden of GBS disease? (2) What outcomes of GBS in pregnancy should be included? (3) What data and epidemiological parameters are required? (4) What methods and models can be used to transparently estimate this burden of GBS? (5) What are the challenges with available data? and (6) How can estimates address data gaps to better inform GBS interventions including maternal immunization? We review all available GBS data worldwide, including maternal GBS colonization, risk of neonatal disease (with/without intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis), maternal GBS disease, neonatal/infant GBS disease, and subsequent impairment, plus GBS-associated stillbirth, preterm birth, and neonatal encephalopathy. We summarize our methods for searches, meta-analyses, and modeling including a compartmental model. Our approach is consistent with the World Health Organization (WHO) Guidelines for Accurate and Transparent Health Estimates Reporting (GATHER), published in The Lancet and the Public Library of Science (PLoS). We aim to address priority epidemiological gaps highlighted by WHO to inform potential maternal vaccination. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  14. Looking for Ideas: Observation, Interpretation and Hypothesis-Making by 12-Year-Old Pupils Undertaking Science Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkins, Stephen P.; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    2001-01-01

    Studies English comprehensive secondary school students' interpretation and hypothesis-making while 12 year-old students are observing a bottle ecosystem of brine shrimps without any prior instruction and keeping diaries. Studies students through the task of open-ended diary writing and through small group discussions about the scientific…

  15. Wastes treatment: Naskeo undertakes on the way of methanization; Traitement des effluents: Naskeo mise sur la methanisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-09-15

    Naskeo proposes to cleanse the organic effluents of the chemical or pharmaceutical firms by methanization. A process which produces a renewable biogas, directly valorizable at the level of the process of the manufacturer. (O.M.)

  16. Using a web-based survey tool to undertake a Delphi study: application for nurse education research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Fenella J; Leslie, Gavin D; Grech, Carol; Latour, Jos M

    2013-11-01

    The Internet is increasingly being used as a data collection medium to access research participants. This paper reports on the experience and value of using web-survey software to conduct an eDelphi study to develop Australian critical care course graduate practice standards. The eDelphi technique used involved the iterative process of administering three rounds of surveys to a national expert panel. The survey was developed online using SurveyMonkey. Panel members responded to statements using one rating scale for round one and two scales for rounds two and three. Text boxes for panel comments were provided. For each round, the SurveyMonkey's email tool was used to distribute an individualized email invitation containing the survey web link. The distribution of panel responses, individual responses and a summary of comments were emailed to panel members. Stacked bar charts representing the distribution of responses were generated using the SurveyMonkey software. Panel response rates remained greater than 85% over all rounds. An online survey provided numerous advantages over traditional survey approaches including high quality data collection, ease and speed of survey administration, direct communication with the panel and rapid collation of feedback allowing data collection to be undertaken in 12 weeks. Only minor challenges were experienced using the technology. Ethical issues, specific to using the Internet to conduct research and external hosting of web-based software, lacked formal guidance. High response rates and an increased level of data quality were achieved in this study using web-survey software and the process was efficient and user-friendly. However, when considering online survey software, it is important to match the research design with the computer capabilities of participants and recognize that ethical review guidelines and processes have not yet kept pace with online research practices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Patients with established cancer cachexia lack the motivation and self-efficacy to undertake regular structured exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasley, David; Gale, Nichola; Roberts, Sioned; Backx, Karianne; Nelson, Annmarie; van Deursen, Robert; Byrne, Anthony

    2018-02-01

    Patients with advanced cancer frequently suffer a decline in activities associated with involuntary loss of weight and muscle mass (cachexia). This can profoundly affect function and quality of life. Although exercise participation can maintain physical and psychological function in patients with cancer, uptake is low in cachectic patients who are underrepresented in exercise studies. To understand how such patients' experiences are associated with exercise participation, we investigated exercise history, self-confidence, and exercise motivations in patients with established cancer cachexia, and relationships between relevant variables. Lung and gastrointestinal cancer outpatients with established cancer cachexia (n = 196) completed a questionnaire exploring exercise history and key constructs of the Theory of Planned Behaviour relating to perceived control, psychological adjustment, and motivational attitudes. Patients reported low physical activity levels, and few undertook regular structured exercise. Exercise self-efficacy was very low with concerns it could worsen symptoms and cause harm. Patients showed poor perceived control and a strong need for approval but received little advice from health care professionals. Preferences were for low intensity activities, on their own, in the home setting. Regression analysis revealed no significant factors related to the independent variables. Frequently employed higher intensity, group exercise models do not address the motivational and behavioural concerns of cachectic cancer patients in this study. Developing exercise interventions which match perceived abilities and skills is required to address challenges of self-efficacy and perceived control identified. Greater engagement of health professionals with this group is required to explore potential benefits of exercise. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. PENGATURAN PRINSIP TRANSFER OF UNDERTAKING PROTECTION OF EMPLOYMENT (TUPE DALAM DUNIA KETENAGAKERJAAN INDONESIA (DIANTARA POTENSI DAN HAMBATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadek Agus Sudiarawan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed identifying the advantages of the regulation of TUPE principles, as well as inhibiting factors for outsourcing companies to apply the TUPE principles after the Decision of the  Constitutional Court Number 27/PUU-IX/ 2011. The research was conducted by using normative-empirical method. The data of the research consisted of primary data and secondary data. All of the collected data were analyzed using qualitative method. The results of this research were presented in a descriptive analysis report. The results of the research indicated he advantages that could be obtained by workers in relation with regulation of the TUPE principles included protection of wages, welfare and working requirements, protection of workers when the company was taken over, protection of workers when there is a change of outsourcing company and regulation of the right to file a lawsuit to the industrial relations court. The inhibiting  factors in the application of the TUPE principles in the  outsourcing companies after the  Decision of Constitutional Court  were the lack of socialization and supervision of the government, various legal loopholes of discrepancies between the implementing regulation and  the Decision of Constitutional Court, uncertainty severance regulation, assumptions that TUPE was a new burden which may disadvantage employers, and the lack of understanding of the workers related to their rights.

  19. Undergraduate Confidence When Undertaking Root Canal Treatment and Their Perception of the Quality of Their Endodontic Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Puryer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The General Dental Council expects graduating dentists to be competent at treating pulpal disease. Previous studies have found dental undergraduates to have low levels of confidence with respect to endodontic treatments. The aim of this study was to investigate the confidence of undergraduate dental students at the University of Bristol when performing root canal treatment, and to investigate their perception of the quality of their endodontic education. An anonymous questionnaire, based upon one used in a 2015 study at Cardiff University, was distributed to all (n = 204 undergraduate students in Years 3–5 at the University of Bristol. The results were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software (SPSS. There was a 59% (n = 120 response rate and a significant (p < 0.01 difference in confidence levels for root canal treatments (RCTs completed between these students. All (100% Year-5 students felt confident in completing anterior RCTs, and 91% felt confident in completing posterior RCTs. The majority (93% of Year-4 students felt confident in completing anterior RCTs, and 77% felt confident in completing posterior RCTs. Over one-half (56% of Year-3 students felt confident in anterior RCTs and 17% in posterior RCTs. With respect to the individual stages of RCT (access cavity, cleaning and shaping of root canal system, and obturation/filling, results showed that there was a significant difference (p < 0.01 in confidence levels between year groups. Many students thought the amount of time spent on endodontic teaching and the quality of teaching to be satisfactory. Improvements suggested for future endodontic teaching included higher numbers of staff supervision and additional endodontic practice on extracted teeth before seeing patients. There was a strong association between students’ clinical experience and their levels of confidence when completing RCT. Increasing the amount of clinical experience of RCTs could enhance students’ confidence further.

  20. The Influence and Implications of Chinese Culture in the Decision to Undertake Cross-Border Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodycott, Peter; Lai, Ada

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how a family in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) makes decisions on cross-border study. International marketers and managers in higher education turn to research based on Chinese student preferences. However, such research ignores cultural traditions steeped in Confucian ideals of family and the subsequent roles and…

  1. Evading the Endgame in an Insurgency Undertaking: The Case of the Lord’s Resistance Army and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    the argument, see Michelle Hale Williams, “Grappling with Ethnic Difference in Multicultural Societies,” in The Multicultural Dilemma: Migration...Michelle Hale. “Grappling with Ethnic Difference in Multicultural Societies.” In The Multicultural Dilemma: Migration, Ethnic Politics, and State...Center Ft. Belvoir, Virginia 2. Dudley Knox Library Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, California

  2. Encouraging GPs to undertake screening and a brief intervention in order to reduce problem drinking: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Jørgen; Olivarius, Niels de Fine; Beich, Anders

    1999-01-01

    intervention, problem drinking, randomized controlled trial, family practice, marketing of health services......intervention, problem drinking, randomized controlled trial, family practice, marketing of health services...

  3. [Knowledge of breast cancer risk factors as one of the conditions in undertaking prophylactic treatments among midwives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz-Palus, Grazyna J; Skurzak, Agnieszka

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the knowledge of breast cancer risk factors among midwives on different education level. A diagnostic survey was undertaken with the use of questionnaire technique among 186 persons representing different education level of midwife profession--licentiate students (37.63%), master's degree students (29.03%) and participants of family nursing course (33.33%). The collected data were submitted to statistic analysis and chi2 test was used to check the significance of investigated features. The general knowledge about breast cancer risk factors among persons representing different education level of midwife profession is satisfactory. The stage of education correlates with the level of knowledge about risk factors connected with family transmission, the age influence, menopause time and breast self-examination in the investigated group (p < 0.05).

  4. Undertaking a Collaborative Rapid Realist Review to Investigate What Works in the Successful Implementation of a Frail Older Person's Pathway.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2018-01-25

    We addressed the research question "what factors enable the successful development and implementation of a frail older person\\'s pathway within the acute setting". A rapid realist review (RRR) was conducted by adopting the RAMESES standards. We began with a sample of 232 articles via database searches supplemented with 94 additional records including inputs from a twitter chat and a hospital site visit. Our final sample consisted of 18 documents. Following review and consensus by an expert panel we identified a conceptual model of context-mechanism-(resources)-outcomes. There was overall agreement frailty should be identified at the front door of the acute hospital. Significant challenges identified related to organisational boundaries both within the acute setting and externally, the need to shift outcomes to patient orientated ones, to support staff to sustain the pathway by providing ongoing education and by providing role clarity. RRRs can support research such as the systematic approach to improving care for frail older adults (SAFE) study by producing accounts of what works based on a wide range of sources and innovative engagement with stakeholders. It is evident from our provisional model that numerous factors need to combine and interact to enable and sustain a successful frail older person\\'s pathway.

  5. Nursing as a scientific undertaking and the intersection with science in undergraduate studies: implications for nursing management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Patricia A; Angel, Lyndall

    2011-04-01

    To explore the science-nursing tension and impact for nursing students studying bioscience. Several studies have examined why nursing students struggle to be successful in bioscience subjects. Undeveloped science background and theory-practice gaps are noted as contributing factors. A qualitative study explored the science-nursing tension with 100 Australian Registered Nurses using focus groups and a survey. The survey response rate was 85 from 550. Of survey respondents, 88% viewed nursing as an applied science. An emphasis on procedural skills and task busyness undermines theoretical understanding of care and can be a negative influence upon the student bioscience experience. Practicum mentors confident in scientific knowledge enhance the student experience of bioscience by providing opportunities for integration with practice. Competing philosophies that reinforce the science-nursing tension have an impact upon student endeavours yet the nexus created by practice can be used to activate student curiosity and scientific understanding. Nurse managers need to structure the student practicum to encompass scientific theory applied to practice with equal emphasis on task efficiency. This improves student attitudes to learning bioscience and potentially minimizes the impact of the science-nursing tension on student learning. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Is faculty practice valuable? The experience of Western Australian nursing and midwifery academics undertaking faculty clinical practice - A discussion paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Amanda C; Baker, Melanie; Geraghty, Sadie

    2017-09-01

    The faculty clinical practice model provides dedicated time for nursing lecturers and educators in a university school of nursing to work with supervision in the clinical environments for an agreed amount of time each year. Allowing academics to partake in faculty clinical practice this way has been shown to update skills and retain clinical competency. Some nursing and midwifery academics believe it is essential to remain clinically current and up-to-date with professional issues in the clinical environments, whereas other academics believe reading current research maintains clinical competency. This discussion paper will explore the authors' own experiences of faculty clinical practice as an opportunity to enhance their learning. Narrative accounts of time spent in the clinical areas being expressed as invaluable as it allowed the authors to become part of the health professional team, refine clinical skills, gain clinical confidence, and share knowledge. This, in turn, impacted upon the academic's teaching style as well as redefined it by introducing incidents and stories from their experience. It has been concluded by the authors that faculty clinical practice allows academics to increase confidence, encourage leadership skills, and improve their teaching abilities in their clinical area of expertise. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Determination of the Index of Consumption of Petroleum of the Calcining Kiln of the Ernesto Che Guevara Commander Undertaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarilys Gaínza-Delgado

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results obtained in carrying out the mass and energy balances in the calcining kiln of the company commander Ernesto Che Guevara, for determining the consumption index of petroleum used for obtaining nickel oxide through thermal decomposition of the basic nickel carbonate. It was shown that for a production of basic nickel carbonate of              12 t / h with 69% moisture, it is necessary to feed about 1100 kg / h of fuel, for an consumption index of 91.67 kg of fuel per ton of load.

  8. Are Effective Properties Effective?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Ru; Ingber, Marc S.; Hsiao, S.-C.

    2008-01-01

    The effective moduli (effective Young's modulus, effective Poisson's ratio, effective shear modulus, and effective bulk modulus) of dispersed-phase-reinforced composite materials are determined at the mesoscopic level using three-dimensional parallel boundary element simulations. By comparing the mesoscopic BEM results and the macroscopic results based on effective properties, limitations in the effective property approach have been examined

  9. Perceptions and attitudes of the French about the greenhouse effect; Les francais et l'effet de serre: perceptions et attitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moisan, F. [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, ADEME, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-01-01

    ADEME conducts a yearly survey of a representative sample of the French population in order to assess perceptions of the greenhouse effect and to gauge people's willingness to change everyday activities so as to limit the emission of greenhouse gases. A first series of questions tries to identify how the French perceive and understand phenomena related to the greenhouse effect. Their opinions are collected about the means to fight against this effect and, in particular, about the actions they would be able to undertake personally. The 2002 survey, its major results presented herein, tried to assess the degree of acceptability of definite measures for fighting against the greenhouse effect. This sort of opinion poll should bring to light certain presuppositions underlying people's expectations and perhaps lead us to bear in mind the long term while imagining more ambitious changes in our life-styles. (author)

  10. The Need of Belonging and Sense of Belonging versus Effectiveness of Coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilczyńska Agnieszka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to describe the dependence between the need for and sense of belonging and symptoms of depression vs. one’s capacity to cope effectively. Using path analysis of our data (N = 178, we found direct patterns, in which both depression symptoms and life satisfaction depend to a considerable degree on the sense of belonging. The belonging need influences, in a direct way, the coping focused on the search for social support. Undertaking active techniques of coping, including confrontation with a stressful situation and its negative controlling impact, depends on having a high level of the sense of belonging. In contrast, individuals who cope by means of taking psychoactive drugs show the symptoms of depression.

  11. The Effect of a Multidisciplinary Regional Educational Programme on the Quality of Colon Cancer Resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheehan-Dare, Gemma E; Marks, Kate M; Tinkler-Hundal, Emma

    2018-01-01

    Mesocolic plane surgery with central vascular ligation produces an oncologically superior specimen following colon cancer resection and appears to be related to optimal outcomes. Aim We aimed to assess whether a regional educational programme in optimal mesocolic surgery led to an improvement...... in the quality of specimens. METHOD: Following an educational programme in the Capital and Zealand areas of Denmark, 686 cases of primary colon cancer resected across six hospitals were assessed by grading the plane of surgery and undertaking tissue morphometry. These were compared to 263 specimens resected...... educational programme in optimal mesocolic surgery improved the oncological quality of colon cancer specimens as assessed by mesocolic planes, however, there was no significant effect on the amount of tissue resected centrally. Surgeons who attempt central vascular ligation continue to produce more radical...

  12. Health effects of low level radiation in shipyard workers. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    In order to determine the effects of low-level doses of radiation it was necessary to define an adequate population, to gather and collate data relating to this population and to organize this data in such a manner as to render it suitable for analysis. We have completed much of the groundwork, including the development of data collection systems and the establishment of liaisons with public and private data resources for ascertaining vital status and current address. The major tasks which we now face are two fold: (1) to determine the cause of death for deceased members of the population, and (2) to locate and secure information (occupational, medical and smoking histories) from living members of the population. Once these tasks have been completed we can undertake an analysis of this information to assess the risks of low-level doses of radiation and establish mechanisms through which this population can be followed prospectively

  13. I can do that: the impact of implicit theories on leadership role model effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Crystal L; Burnette, Jeni L; Innella, Audrey N

    2012-02-01

    This research investigates the role of implicit theories in influencing the effectiveness of successful role models in the leadership domain. Across two studies, the authors test the prediction that incremental theorists ("leaders are made") compared to entity theorists ("leaders are born") will respond more positively to being presented with a role model before undertaking a leadership task. In Study 1, measuring people's naturally occurring implicit theories of leadership, the authors showed that after being primed with a role model, incremental theorists reported greater leadership confidence and less anxious-depressed affect than entity theorists following the leadership task. In Study 2, the authors demonstrated the causal role of implicit theories by manipulating participants' theory of leadership ability. They replicated the findings from Study 1 and demonstrated that identification with the role model mediated the relationship between implicit theories and both confidence and affect. In addition, incremental theorists outperformed entity theorists on the leadership task.

  14. Twice random, once mixed: applying mixed models to simultaneously analyze random effects of language and participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Dirk P

    2012-03-01

    Psychologists, psycholinguists, and other researchers using language stimuli have been struggling for more than 30 years with the problem of how to analyze experimental data that contain two crossed random effects (items and participants). The classical analysis of variance does not apply; alternatives have been proposed but have failed to catch on, and a statistically unsatisfactory procedure of using two approximations (known as F(1) and F(2)) has become the standard. A simple and elegant solution using mixed model analysis has been available for 15 years, and recent improvements in statistical software have made mixed models analysis widely available. The aim of this article is to increase the use of mixed models by giving a concise practical introduction and by giving clear directions for undertaking the analysis in the most popular statistical packages. The article also introduces the DJMIXED: add-on package for SPSS, which makes entering the models and reporting their results as straightforward as possible.

  15. Effectiveness of disinfection with alcohol 70% (w/v of contaminated surfaces not previously cleaned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Uchikawa Graziano

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the disinfectant effectiveness of alcohol 70% (w/v using friction, without previous cleaning, on work surfaces, as a concurrent disinfecting procedure in Health Services. METHOD: An experimental, randomized and single-blinded laboratory study was undertaken. The samples were enamelled surfaces, intentionally contaminated with Serratia marcescens microorganisms ATCC 14756 106 CFU/mL with 10% of human saliva added, and were submitted to the procedure of disinfection WITHOUT previous cleaning. The results were compared to disinfection preceded by cleaning. RESULTS: There was a reduction of six logarithms of the initial microbial population, equal in the groups WITH and WITHOUT previous cleaning (p=0.440 and a residual microbial load ≤ 102 CFU. CONCLUSION: The research demonstrated the acceptability of the practice evaluated, bringing an important response to the area of health, in particular to Nursing, which most undertakes procedures of concurrent cleaning /disinfecting of these work surfaces.

  16. Effectiveness of disinfection with alcohol 70% (w/v of contaminated surfaces not previously cleaned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Uchikawa Graziano

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the disinfectant effectiveness of alcohol 70% (w/v using friction, without previous cleaning, on work surfaces, as a concurrent disinfecting procedure in Health Services. METHOD: An experimental, randomized and single-blinded laboratory study was undertaken. The samples were enamelled surfaces, intentionally contaminated with Serratia marcescens microorganisms ATCC 14756 106 CFU/mL with 10% of human saliva added, and were submitted to the procedure of disinfection WITHOUT previous cleaning. The results were compared to disinfection preceded by cleaning. RESULTS: There was a reduction of six logarithms of the initial microbial population, equal in the groups WITH and WITHOUT previous cleaning (p=0.440 and a residual microbial load ≤ 102 CFU. CONCLUSION: The research demonstrated the acceptability of the practice evaluated, bringing an important response to the area of health, in particular to Nursing, which most undertakes procedures of concurrent cleaning /disinfecting of these work surfaces.

  17. Investigation of turbidity effect on exergetic performance of solar ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atiz, Ayhan; Bozkurt, Ismail; Karakilcik, Mehmet; Dincer, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A comprehensive experimental work on a turbidity of the solar pond. • Percentage transmission evaluation of the turbid and clean salty water of the zones. • Exergy analysis of the inner zones for turbid and clean salty water. • Turbidity effect on exergy efficiencies of the solar pond. • The thermal performance assessment by comparing the exergetic efficiencies of the solar pond. - Abstract: The present paper undertakes a study on the exergetic performance assessment of a solar pond and experimental investigation of turbidity effect on the system performance. There are various types of solar energy applications including solar ponds. One of significant parameters to consider in the assessment of solar pond performance is turbidity which is caused by dirty over time (e.g., insects, leaf, dust and wind bringing parts fall down). Thus, the turbidity in the salty water decreases solar energy transmission through the zones. In this study, the samples are taken from the three zones of the solar pond and analyzed using a spectrometer for three months. The transmission aspects of the solar pond are investigated under calm and turbidity currents to help distinguish the efficiencies. Furthermore, the maximum exergy efficiencies are found to be 28.40% for the calm case and 22.27% with turbidity effects for the month of August, respectively. As a result, it is confirmed that the solar pond performance is greatly affected by the turbidity effect

  18. The role of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation in relation to medical radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrimpton, P.C.

    2001-01-01

    In 1955, growing global concerns about ionizing radiation led the General Assembly of the United Nations to establish the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). The mandate of this committee, which presently includes 21 Member States, is to assess and report on the levels and effects of exposure to ionizing radiation. Accordingly, UNSCEAR applies scientific judgement in undertaking comprehensive reviews and evaluations concerning radiation and maintains an independent and neutral position in drawing its conclusions. These are published in authoritative reports to the UN General Assembly, with there having been 14 such substantive reports, with technical annexes, since 1958. The information provided by UNSCEAR assists the General Assembly in making recommendations in relation, for example, to international collaboration in the field of health. Governments and organizations all over the world rely on the committee's evaluations as the scientific basis for estimating radiation risk, establishing radiation protection and safety standards, and regulating radiation sources

  19. Looking back in time: conducting a cohort study of the long-term effects of treatment of adolescent tall girls with synthetic hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruinsma Fiona J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Public health research is an endeavour that often involves multiple relationships, far-reaching collaborations, divergent expectations and various outcomes. Using the Tall Girls Study as a case study, this paper will present and discuss a number of methodological, ethical and legal challenges that have implications for other public health research. Approach The Tall Girls Study was the first study to examine the long-term health and psychosocial effects of oestrogen treatment for tall stature. Results In undertaking this study the research team overcame many hurdles: in maintaining collaboration with treating clinicians and with the women they had treated as girls - groups with opposing points of view and different expectations; using private practice medical records to trace women who had been patients up to forty years earlier; and exploring potential legal issues arising from the collection of data related to treatment. Conclusion While faced with complex challenges, the Tall Girls Study demonstrated that forward planning, ongoing dialogue between all stakeholders, transparency of processes, and the strict adherence to group-developed protocols were keys to maintaining rigour while undertaking pragmatic research. Implications Public health research often occurs within political and social contexts that need to be considered in the planning and conduct of studies. The quality and acceptability of research findings is enhanced when stakeholders are engaged in all aspects of the research process.

  20. Fluence-rate effects on irradiation embrittlement and composition and temperature effects on annealing/reirradiation sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawthorne, J.R.; Hiser, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    Recent MEA investigation on the effect of neutron fluence rate on radiation-induced embrittlement accrual and the contributions of metallurgical variables to postirradiation annealing and re-irradiation behavior are reviewed. Studies of fluence-rate effects involved experiments in the UBR test reactor and separately, radiation sensitivity determinations for the decommissioned Gundremmingen (KRB-A) vessel material. Annealing-reirradiation studies employed 399 0 C and 454 0 C heat treatments. Material composition is shown to play a major role in postirradiation annealing recovery. Results illustrate effects of variable copper and variable nickel contents on recoveray of steel plate having low phosphorus levels. Composition effects on recovery were also observed for prototypic welds depicting high/low copper and high/low nickel contents and three flux types. The welds, in addition, indicate major differences in re-irradiation sensitivity. The UBR investigations revealed a significant difference in fluence rate sensitivity between the ASTM A 302-B reference plate and a submerged-arc (S/A) Linde 80 weld. Studies of the Gundremmingen reactor vessel, representing a joint USA-FRG-UK undertaking revealed an anomaly in strong vs. weak test orientation radiation sensitivity. (orig./HP)

  1. An evoked auditory response fMRI study of the effects of rTMS on putative AVH pathways in healthy volunteers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tracy, D K

    2010-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are the most prevalent symptom in schizophrenia. They are associated with increased activation within the temporoparietal cortices and are refractory to pharmacological and psychological treatment in approximately 25% of patients. Low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the temporoparietal cortex has been demonstrated to be effective in reducing AVH in some patients, although results have varied. The cortical mechanism by which rTMS exerts its effects remain unknown, although data from the motor system is suggestive of a local cortical inhibitory effect. We explored neuroimaging differences in healthy volunteers between application of a clinically utilized rTMS protocol and a sham rTMS equivalent when undertaking a prosodic auditory task.

  2. Randomized controlled trial on effectiveness of ultrasonography screening for breast cancer in women aged 40-49 (J-START). Research design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohuchi, Noriaki; Ishida, Takanori; Kawai, Masaaki; Narikawa, Yoko; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Sobue, Tomotaka

    2011-01-01

    In cancer screening, it is essential to undertake effective screening with appropriate methodology, which should be supported by evidence of a reduced mortality rate. At present, mammography is the only method for breast cancer screening with such evidence. However, mammography does not achieve sufficient accuracy in breasts with high density at ages below 50. Although ultrasonography achieves better accuracy in Breast Cancer detection even in dense breasts, the effectiveness has not been verified. We have planned a randomized controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of ultrasonography in women aged 40-49, with a design to study 50,000 women with mammography and ultrasonography (intervention group), and 50,000 controls with mammography only (control group). The participants are scheduled to take second round screening with the same modality 2 years on. The primary endpoints are sensitivity and specificity, and the secondary endpoint is the rate of advanced breast cancers. (author)

  3. Systematic reviews of adverse effects: framework for a structured approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herxheimer Andrew

    2007-07-01

    clinical decisions. Researchers undertaking a systematic review that incorporates adverse effect data should understand the rationale for the suggested methods and be able to implement them in their review.

  4. Assessing ecological effects of radionuclides: data gaps and extrapolation issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline; Gilek, Michael; Sundell-Bergman, Synnoeve; Larsson, Carl-Magnus

    2004-01-01

    By inspection of the FASSET database on radiation effects on non-human biota, one of the major difficulties in the implementation of ecological risk assessments for radioactive pollutants is found to be the lack of data for chronic low-level exposure. A critical review is provided of a number of extrapolation issues that arise in undertaking an ecological risk assessment: acute versus chronic exposure regime; radiation quality including relative biological effectiveness and radiation weighting factors; biological effects from an individual to a population level, including radiosensitivity and lifestyle variations throughout the life cycle; single radionuclide versus multi-contaminants. The specificities of the environmental situations of interest (mainly chronic low-level exposure regimes) emphasise the importance of reproductive parameters governing the demography of the population within a given ecosystem and, as a consequence, the structure and functioning of that ecosystem. As an operational conclusion to keep in mind for any site-specific risk assessment, the present state-of-the-art on extrapolation issues allows us to grade the magnitude of the uncertainties as follows: one species to another > acute to chronic = external to internal = mixture of stressors> individual to population> ecosystem structure to function

  5. The Effect of Cyberpower on Institutional Development in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J. Knox

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Through analysis of empirical interview data this research undertakes to investigate the ways in which the growing phenomenon of cyberpower – defined as using cyberspace for advantage and influence – is impacting on institutional development in Norway. Exploring this governance challenge through the conceptual framework of complexity, difference and emergence opens space – political or otherwise – for discussion regarding why rapid developments arising from digitalization are transforming the way individuals, organizations, institutions and states behave, relate and make decisions. Cyberpower is creating an uncertain institutional landscape as a dependency vs. vulnerability paradox shapes values, rules and norms. Findings from this thematic analysis of qualitative data reflect this paradox, and suggest that organizations in Norway are in a survival-mode that is blocking collaboration. This occurs as national governance systems, human capacity and cyberpower effects lack synergy making for an uneasy arena where complexity, contestation and emerging challenges frame institutional development. To improve long-term prospects of governing cyberpower effects requires a cross-sectorial conflation of time and human resources. This means consciously taking steps to merge organizational and institutional boundaries through expressive innovative collaborations that foster a shared and holistic agenda. The emerging challenges cyberpower is presenting across multiple domains means further research is recommended to build a richer understanding of the term cyberpower from different perspectives. The investigation recommends investment in building the skills and capacities necessary for the co-creation of new models and strategies for managing the effects of cyberpower.

  6. The Effect of Cyberpower on Institutional Development in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Benjamin J

    2018-01-01

    Through analysis of empirical interview data this research undertakes to investigate the ways in which the growing phenomenon of cyberpower - defined as using cyberspace for advantage and influence - is impacting on institutional development in Norway. Exploring this governance challenge through the conceptual framework of complexity, difference and emergence opens space - political or otherwise - for discussion regarding why rapid developments arising from digitalization are transforming the way individuals, organizations, institutions and states behave, relate and make decisions. Cyberpower is creating an uncertain institutional landscape as a dependency vs. vulnerability paradox shapes values, rules and norms. Findings from this thematic analysis of qualitative data reflect this paradox, and suggest that organizations in Norway are in a survival-mode that is blocking collaboration. This occurs as national governance systems, human capacity and cyberpower effects lack synergy making for an uneasy arena where complexity, contestation and emerging challenges frame institutional development. To improve long-term prospects of governing cyberpower effects requires a cross-sectorial conflation of time and human resources. This means consciously taking steps to merge organizational and institutional boundaries through expressive innovative collaborations that foster a shared and holistic agenda. The emerging challenges cyberpower is presenting across multiple domains means further research is recommended to build a richer understanding of the term cyberpower from different perspectives. The investigation recommends investment in building the skills and capacities necessary for the co-creation of new models and strategies for managing the effects of cyberpower.

  7. The Effect of Cyberpower on Institutional Development in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Benjamin J.

    2018-01-01

    Through analysis of empirical interview data this research undertakes to investigate the ways in which the growing phenomenon of cyberpower – defined as using cyberspace for advantage and influence – is impacting on institutional development in Norway. Exploring this governance challenge through the conceptual framework of complexity, difference and emergence opens space – political or otherwise – for discussion regarding why rapid developments arising from digitalization are transforming the way individuals, organizations, institutions and states behave, relate and make decisions. Cyberpower is creating an uncertain institutional landscape as a dependency vs. vulnerability paradox shapes values, rules and norms. Findings from this thematic analysis of qualitative data reflect this paradox, and suggest that organizations in Norway are in a survival-mode that is blocking collaboration. This occurs as national governance systems, human capacity and cyberpower effects lack synergy making for an uneasy arena where complexity, contestation and emerging challenges frame institutional development. To improve long-term prospects of governing cyberpower effects requires a cross-sectorial conflation of time and human resources. This means consciously taking steps to merge organizational and institutional boundaries through expressive innovative collaborations that foster a shared and holistic agenda. The emerging challenges cyberpower is presenting across multiple domains means further research is recommended to build a richer understanding of the term cyberpower from different perspectives. The investigation recommends investment in building the skills and capacities necessary for the co-creation of new models and strategies for managing the effects of cyberpower. PMID:29867680

  8. Collinear masking effect in visual search is independent of perceptual salience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingling, Li; Lu, Yi-Hui; Cheng, Miao; Tseng, Chia-Huei

    2017-07-01

    Searching for a target in a salient region should be easier than looking for one in a nonsalient region. However, we previously discovered a contradictory phenomenon in which a local target in a salient structure was more difficult to find than one in the background. The salient structure was constructed of orientation singletons aligned to each other to form a collinear structure. In the present study, we undertake to determine whether such a masking effect was a result of salience competition between a global structure and the local target. In the first 3 experiments, we increased the salience value of the local target with the hope of adding to its competitive advantage and eventually eliminating the masking effect; nevertheless, the masking effect persisted. In an additional 2 experiments, we reduced salience of the global collinear structure by altering the orientation of the background bars and the masking effect still emerged. Our salience manipulations were validated by a controlled condition in which the global structure was grouped noncollinearly. In this case, local target salience increase (e.g., onset) or global distractor salience reduction (e.g., randomized flanking orientations) effectively removed the facilitation effect of the noncollinear structure. Our data suggest that salience competition is unlikely to explain the collinear masking effect, and other mechanisms such as contour integration, border formation, or the crowding effect may be prospective candidates for further investigation.

  9. Theorising EIA effectiveness: A contribution based on the Danish system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyhne, Ivar, E-mail: lyhne@plan.aau.dk [Department of Development and Planning, Aalborg University, Aalborg (Denmark); Laerhoven, Frank van [Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Cashmore, Matthew [Department of Development and Planning, Aalborg University, Aalborg (Denmark); Department of Urban and Rural Development, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden); Runhaar, Hens [Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Forest and Nature Conservation Group, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2017-01-15

    Considerable attention has been given to the effectiveness of environmental impact assessment (EIA) since the 1970s. Relatively few research studies, however, have approached EIA as an instrument of environmental governance, and have explored the mechanisms through which EIA influences the behaviour of actors involved in planning processes. Consequently, theory in this area is underspecified. In this paper we contribute to theory-building by analysing the effectiveness of a unique EIA system: the Danish system. In this system the competent authority, instead of the project proponent, undertakes EIA reporting. Additionally, the public, rather than experts, play a central role in quality control and the Danish EIA community is relatively small which influences community dynamics in particular ways. A nation-wide survey and expert interviews were undertaken in order to examine the views of actors involved in EIA on the effectiveness of this anomalous system. The empirical data are compared with similar studies on governance mechanisms in other countries, especially the United Kingdom and the Netherlands, as well as with earlier evaluations of EIA effectiveness in Denmark. The results indicate that the more extensive role attributed to the competent authority may lead to higher EIA effectiveness when this aligns with their interests; the influence of the public is amplified by a powerful complaints system; and, the size of the EIA community appears to have no substantial influence on EIA effectiveness. We discuss how the research findings might enhance our theoretical understanding of the operation and effectiveness of governance mechanisms in EIA. - Highlights: • The effectiveness of the unique Danish EIA system is explored. • Results are compared with similar studies in the Netherlands and the UK. • Findings lead to hypotheses that contribute to theorising EIA effectiveness.

  10. Theorising EIA effectiveness: A contribution based on the Danish system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyhne, Ivar; Laerhoven, Frank van; Cashmore, Matthew; Runhaar, Hens

    2017-01-01

    Considerable attention has been given to the effectiveness of environmental impact assessment (EIA) since the 1970s. Relatively few research studies, however, have approached EIA as an instrument of environmental governance, and have explored the mechanisms through which EIA influences the behaviour of actors involved in planning processes. Consequently, theory in this area is underspecified. In this paper we contribute to theory-building by analysing the effectiveness of a unique EIA system: the Danish system. In this system the competent authority, instead of the project proponent, undertakes EIA reporting. Additionally, the public, rather than experts, play a central role in quality control and the Danish EIA community is relatively small which influences community dynamics in particular ways. A nation-wide survey and expert interviews were undertaken in order to examine the views of actors involved in EIA on the effectiveness of this anomalous system. The empirical data are compared with similar studies on governance mechanisms in other countries, especially the United Kingdom and the Netherlands, as well as with earlier evaluations of EIA effectiveness in Denmark. The results indicate that the more extensive role attributed to the competent authority may lead to higher EIA effectiveness when this aligns with their interests; the influence of the public is amplified by a powerful complaints system; and, the size of the EIA community appears to have no substantial influence on EIA effectiveness. We discuss how the research findings might enhance our theoretical understanding of the operation and effectiveness of governance mechanisms in EIA. - Highlights: • The effectiveness of the unique Danish EIA system is explored. • Results are compared with similar studies in the Netherlands and the UK. • Findings lead to hypotheses that contribute to theorising EIA effectiveness.

  11. The Impact of Interdependencies on the Effectiveness and Efficiency of Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyriakopoulos, Nicholas [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-06-15

    The purpose of Integrated Safeguards is to evaluate a State as a whole and provide credible assurance of the absence of undeclared nuclear activities. The new system is not viewed as an addition to the traditional safeguards system but as a collection of measures to verify the correctness and completeness of the declarations. The broadening of the scope to evaluate the State for the purpose of enhancing non-proliferation introduces uncertainties that affect the performance of the safeguards system. The processes within a State that Integrated Safeguards seeks to monitor are not clearly defined. Neither are the measurement and evaluation systems for the verification of the absence of undeclared activities. A refinement of the existing diversion process model is needed that takes into account the likelihood that a State would undertake a clandestine program. To develop such a model this paper examines the nuclear programs of seven States that have built or attempted to build nuclear weapons and one that is being accused of having one but denies it. Analysis of the factors that are essential in the decision of a State to embark on a nuclear weapons program indicates leads to the identification of certain indicators for clandestine nuclear weapons programs. It identifies the conditions and interdependencies that most likely lead those States to undertake clandestine weapons programs and develops a set of likelihood indicators that can be used in the application of safeguards to a State as a whole. Existence of serious conflicts involving territorial disputes, transparency in the social system, militarization of the State, and democratization of the political process are the common characteristics of those States. Although these are not easily quantifiable indicators, concepts such as fuzzy logic can be used to construct likelihood estimators for the presence of absence of clandestine programs leading to a State-specific safeguards approach adapted to the conditions of

  12. The Influence of Environmental Friendliness on Green Trust: The Mediation Effects of Green Satisfaction and Green Perceived Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As global green trends became more prevalent, green marketing also developed into an important issue. Although prior literature explored the main factors affecting green trust, it was inconclusive as to how environmental friendliness could affect the green trust in green marketing. This study aims to focus on the positive influence of environmental friendliness on green trust, and explore the mediation effects of green satisfaction and green perceived quality. This study undertakes an empirical study by means of questionnaire survey. The respondents are consumers who have experience purchasing green products. This study applies structural equation modeling (SEM to test the hypotheses. The findings of this study indicate that (1 environmental friendliness has a significant positive impact on green satisfaction, green perceived quality, and green trust; (2 both green satisfaction and green perceived quality positively affect green trust; and (3 green satisfaction and green perceived quality partially mediate the positive relationship between environmental friendliness and green trust.

  13. Acute effects of a loaded warm-up protocol on change of direction speed in professional badminton players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Sean J; Turner, Anthony N; Miller, Stuart

    2014-10-01

    It has previously been shown that a loaded warm-up may improve power performances. We examined the acute effects of loaded dynamic warm-up on change of direction speed (CODS), which had not been previously investigated. Eight elite badminton players participated in three sessions during which they performed vertical countermovement jump and CODS tests before and after undertaking the dynamic warm-up. The three warm-up conditions involved wearing a weighted vest (a) equivalent to 5% body mass, (b) equivalent to 10% body mass, and (c) a control where a weighted vest was not worn. Vertical jump and CODS performances were then tested at 15 seconds and 2, 4, and 6 minutes post warm-up. Vertical jump and CODS significantly improved following all warm-up conditions (P badminton players.

  14. Effective instruction for English learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Margarita; Slavin, Robert; Sánchez, Marta

    2011-01-01

    The fastest-growing student population in U.S. schools today is children of immigrants, half of whom do not speak English fluently and are thus labeled English learners. Although the federal government requires school districts to provide services to English learners, it offers states no policies to follow in identifying, assessing, placing, or instructing them. Margarita Calderón, Robert Slavin, and Marta Sánchez identify the elements of effective instruction and review a variety of successful program models. During 2007-08, more than 5.3 million English learners made up 10.6 percent of the nation's K-12 public school enrollment. Wide and persistent achievement disparities between these English learners and English-proficient students show clearly, say the authors, that schools must address the language, literacy, and academic needs of English learners more effectively. Researchers have fiercely debated the merits of bilingual and English-only reading instruction. In elementary schools, English learners commonly receive thirty minutes of English as a Second Language (ESL) instruction but attend general education classes for the rest of the day, usually with teachers who are unprepared to teach them. Though English learners have strikingly diverse levels of skills, in high school they are typically lumped together, with one teacher to address their widely varying needs. These in-school factors contribute to the achievement disparities. Based on the studies presented here, Calderón, Slavin, and Sánchez assert that the quality of instruction is what matters most in educating English learners. They highlight comprehensive reform models, as well as individual components of these models: school structures and leadership; language and literacy instruction; integration of language, literacy, and content instruction in secondary schools; cooperative learning; professional development; parent and family support teams; tutoring; and monitoring implementation and outcomes

  15. A novel database of bio-effects from non-ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Victor; Weller, Steven; Redmayne, Mary

    2018-06-06

    A significant amount of electromagnetic field/electromagnetic radiation (EMF/EMR) research is available that examines biological and disease associated endpoints. The quantity, variety and changing parameters in the available research can be challenging when undertaking a literature review, meta-analysis, preparing a study design, building reference lists or comparing findings between relevant scientific papers. The Oceania Radiofrequency Scientific Advisory Association (ORSAA) has created a comprehensive, non-biased, multi-categorized, searchable database of papers on non-ionizing EMF/EMR to help address these challenges. It is regularly added to, freely accessible online and designed to allow data to be easily retrieved, sorted and analyzed. This paper demonstrates the content and search flexibility of the ORSAA database. Demonstration searches are presented by Effect/No Effect; frequency-band/s; in vitro; in vivo; biological effects; study type; and funding source. As of the 15th September 2017, the clear majority of 2653 papers captured in the database examine outcomes in the 300 MHz-3 GHz range. There are 3 times more biological "Effect" than "No Effect" papers; nearly a third of papers provide no funding statement; industry-funded studies more often than not find "No Effect", while institutional funding commonly reveal "Effects". Country of origin where the study is conducted/funded also appears to have a dramatic influence on the likely result outcome.

  16. The effect of default values in regulation matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Seung-cheol; Jung, Won-dea; Ha, Jae-joo; Jin, Young-ho

    1998-01-01

    Both performing and validating a detailed risk analysis of a complex system are costly and time-consuming undertakings. With the increased use of probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) in regulatory decision making, both PRA practitioners (usually, licensees) and regulators have generally favored the use of defaults because they can greatly facilitate the process of performing a PRA in the first place as well as the process of reviewing and verifying the PRA. The use of defaults can also ensure more uniform standards of PRA quality. However, different regulatory agencies differ in their approaches to the use of default values, and the implications of these differences are not yet widely understood. Moreover, large heterogeneity among licensees makes it difficult to set suitable defaults. This paper will focus on the effect of default values on estimates of risk. In particular, the following questions will be explored: ''How should defaults be set?''; and ''What are the implications of choosing different default values?'' Some insights on the effects of different levels of conservatism in setting defaults will be provided. This can help decision makers evaluate the levels of safety likely to result from regulatory decisions

  17. Effect of Ursodeoxycolicacid in Treatment of Bile Gastritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kazem Nezam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bile gastritis (gastropathy is a kind of gastritis which is caused by reflux of bile contents through duodenum on stomach. It can occur spontaneously without any former gastric surgeries which affect sphincter of pylorus. The positive impact of some certain drugs such as prokinetic agents e.g. metoclopramide, Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs, cholestyramine and sucralfate in treating bile gastritis has been confirmed. This study has been conducted in order to analyze the effect of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA, which is a harmless drug, on patients with the bile gastritis. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, all patients with dyspepsia who were qualified to undertake endoscopy were enrolled and then 60 patients with bile gastritis were selected for the study. The patients were divided into two groups; a group was treated by UDCA, omeprazole and sucralfate and another one was treated with placebo, omeprazole and sucralfate for two weeks. Finally, at the end of the third week of treatment patients were examined.Results: A total of sixty 19-70 year-old patients (Mean: 46 years old included in this study. At the end of the study, there was not found any meaningful difference between the two groups in terms of pain intensity, heartburn intensity, severity of bloating, vomiting and early satiety; however, each group independently showed improvement of the mentioned indices after termination of the treatment (p=0.0005.Conclusion: Adding UDCA to the standard treatment (sucralfate is not clinically effective in curing the bile gastritis.

  18. Investigating the Effectiveness of Group Work in Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Sofroniou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Group work permits students to develop a range of critical thinking, analytical and communication skills; effective team work; appreciation and respect for other views, techniques and problem-solving methods, all of which promote active learning and enhance student learning. This paper presents an evaluation of employing the didactic and pedagogical customs of group work in mathematics with the aim of improving student performance as well as exploring students’ perceptions of working in groups. The evaluation of group work was carried out during tutorial time with first year civil engineering students undertaking a mathematics module in their second semester. The aim was to investigate whether group work learning can help students gain a deeper understanding of the module content, develop improved critical and analytical thinking skills and see if this method of pedagogy can produce higher performance levels. The group work sessions were conducted over four weeks whilst studying the topic of integration. Evaluation surveys were collected at the end of the intervention along with an investigation into the examination results from the end of semester examinations. In order to derive plausible and reasonable conclusions, these examination results were compared with an analogous cohort of first year mathematics students, also studying integration in their engineering-based degree. The investigation into the effectiveness of group work showed interesting and encouraging positive outcomes, supported by a combination of qualitative and quantitative analysis.

  19. Structural properties and neutron irradiation effects of ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Toyohiko

    1994-01-01

    In high temperature gas-cooled reactors and nuclear fusion reactors being developed at present, various ceramics are to be used in the environment of neutron irradiation for undertaking important functions. The change of the characteristics of those materials by neutron irradiation must be exactly forecast, but it has been known that the response of the materials is different respectively. The production method of ceramics and the resulted structures of ceramics which control their characteristics are explained. The features of covalent bond and ionic bond, the synthesis of powder and the phase change by heating, sintering and sintering agent, and grain boundary phase are described. The smelling of ceramics by neutron irradiation is caused by the formation of the clusters of Frenkel defects and minute spot defects. Its restoration by annealing is explained. The defects remaining in materials after irradiation are the physical defects by flipping atoms cut due to the collision with high energy particles and the chemical defects by nuclear transformation. Some physical defects can be restored, but chemical defects are never restored. The mechanical properties of ceramics and the effect of irradiation on them, and the thermal properties of ceramics and the effect of irradiation on them are reported. (K.I.)

  20. The importance of peer effects, cigarette prices and tobacco control policies for youth smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lisa M; Tauras, John A; Ross, Hana

    2005-09-01

    This paper expands the youth cigarette demand literature by undertaking an examination of the determinants of smoking among high school students incorporating the importance of peer effects and allowing cigarette prices (taxes) and tobacco control policies to have a direct effect and an indirect effect (via the peer effect) on smoking behavior. To control for the potential endogeneity of our school-based peer measure we implement a two-stage generalized least squares estimator for a dichotomous dependent variable and implement a series of diagnostic tests. The key finding is that peer effects play a significant role in youth smoking decisions: moving a high-school student from a school where no children smoke to a school where one quarter of the youths smoke is found to increase the probability that the youth smokes by about 14.5 percentage points. The results suggest that there is a potential for social multiplier effects with respect to any exogenous change in cigarette taxes or tobacco control policies.

  1. Making More Effective Use of Moderation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodger, Pauline

    2018-01-01

    Holt Primary School is a village school in which teachers work as a team within a climate of respect and trust. The teachers were fortunate to take part in the Bath Spa TAPS (Teacher Assessment in Primary Science) research project, which also overlapped with undertaking Gold PSQM (Primary Science Quality Mark). As a result, teacher confidence in…

  2. Effectiveness of SCADA Systems in Control of Green Sands Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignaszak Z.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper undertakes an important topic of evaluation of effectiveness of SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition systems, used for monitoring and control of selected processing parameters of classic green sands used in foundry. Main focus was put on process studies of properties of so-called 1st generation molding sands in the respect of their preparation process. Possible methods of control of this processing are presented, with consideration of application of fresh raw materials, return sand (regenerate and water. The studies conducted in one of European foundries were aimed at pointing out how much application of new, automated plant of sand processing incorporating the SCADA systems allows stabilizing results of measurement of selected sand parameters after its mixing. The studies concerned two comparative periods of time, before an implementation of the automated devices for green sands processing (ASMS - Automatic Sand Measurement System and MCM – Main Control Module and after the implementation. Results of measurement of selected sand properties after implementation of the ASMS were also evaluated and compared with testing studies conducted periodically in laboratory.

  3. Exploring the context for effective clinical governance in infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halton, Kate; Hall, Lisa; Gardner, Anne; MacBeth, Deborough; Mitchell, Brett G

    2017-03-01

    Effective clinical governance is necessary to support improvements in infection control. Historically, the focus has been on ensuring that infection control practice and policy is based on evidence, and that there is use of surveillance and auditing for self-regulation and performance feedback. There has been less exploration of how contextual and organizational factors mediate an infection preventionists (IP's) ability to engage with evidence-based practice and enact good clinical governance. A cross sectional Web-based survey of IPs in Australia and New Zealand was undertaken. Questions focused on engagement in evidence-based practice and perceptions about the context, culture, and leadership within the infection control team and organization. Responses were mapped against dimensions of Scally and Donaldson's clinical governance framework. Three hundred surveys were returned. IPs appear well equipped at an individual level to undertake evidence-based practice. The most serious set of perceived challenges to good clinical governance related to a lack of leadership or active resistance to infection control within the organization. Additional challenges included lack of information technology solutions and poor access to specialist expertise and financial resources. Focusing on strengthening contextual factors at the organizational level that otherwise undermine capacity to implement evidence-based practice is key to sustaining current infection control successes and promoting further practice improvements. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. EFFECTIVE SPECIFIC ACTIVITY OF NATURAL RADIONUCLIDES FOR THE NORM BELONGED TO 238U AND 232TH SERIES BEING IN THE STATE OF DISTURBED RADIOACTIVE EQUILIBRIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Stamat

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Sanitary Rules SR 2.6.1.1292-03 and SR 2.6.6.1169-02 classification of the industrial waste containing naturally occurring radioactive materials is adopted in accordance to the values of their effective specific activity Aeff. In a case of the disturbed equilibrium in 238U and 232Th series it is necessary to take into consideration actual contribution of the separate natural radionuclides of the mentioned series into the value of gamma dose rate of the waste. This will permit to avoid unjustified overestimating or understating of the waste category which prevents as unjustified expenditures on their treating so undertaking of the necessary measures providing radiation safety.

  5. Spatial Characterization of Riparian Buffer Effects on Sediment Loads from Watershed Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding all watershed systems and their interactions is a complex, but critical, undertaking when developing practices designed to reduce topsoil loss and chemical/nutrient transport from agricultural fields. The presence of riparian buffer vegetation in agricultural lands...

  6. How effective are energy-efficiency incentive programs? Evidence from Italian homeowners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberini, Anna; Bigano, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate incentives for residential energy upgrades in Italy using data from an original survey of Italian homeowners. In this paper, attention is restricted to heating system replacements, and to the effect of monetary and non-monetary incentives on the propensity to replace the heating equipment with a more efficient one. To get around adverse selection and free riding issues, we ask stated preference questions to those who weren't planning energy efficiency upgrades any time soon. We argue that these persons are not affected by these behaviors. We use their responses to fit an energy-efficiency renovations curve that predicts the share of the population that will undertake these improvements for any given incentive level. This curve is used to estimate the CO_2 emissions saved and their cost-effectiveness. Respondents are more likely to agree to a replacement when the savings on the energy bills are larger and experienced over a longer horizon, and when rebates are offered to them. Reminding the respondents about possible CO_2 emissions reductions (our non-monetary incentive) had little effect. Even under optimistic assumptions, monetary incentives similar to those in the Italian tax credit program are generally not cost-effective.

  7. Cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in Kenya and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigei, Charles; Odaga, John; Mvundura, Mercy; Madrid, Yvette; Clark, Andrew David

    2015-05-07

    Rotavirus vaccines have the potential to prevent a substantial amount of life-threatening gastroenteritis in young African children. This paper presents the results of prospective cost-effectiveness analyses for rotavirus vaccine introduction for Kenya and Uganda. In each country, a national consultant worked with a national technical working group to identify appropriate data and validate study results. Secondary data on demographics, disease burden, health utilization, and costs were used to populate the TRIVAC cost-effectiveness model. The baseline analysis assumed an initial vaccine price of $0.20 per dose, corresponding to Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance stipulated copay for low-income countries. The incremental cost-effectiveness of a 2-dose rotavirus vaccination schedule was evaluated for 20 successive birth cohorts from the government perspective in both countries, and from the societal perspective in Uganda. Between 2014 and 2033, rotavirus vaccination can avert approximately 60,935 and 216,454 undiscounted deaths and hospital admissions respectively in children under 5 years in Kenya. In Uganda, the respective number of undiscounted deaths and hospital admission averted is 70,236 and 329,779 between 2016 and 2035. Over the 20-year period, the discounted vaccine program costs are around US$ 80 million in Kenya and US$ 60 million in Uganda. Discounted government health service costs avoided are US$ 30 million in Kenya and US$ 10 million in Uganda (or US$ 18 million including household costs). The cost per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted from a government perspective is US$ 38 in Kenya and US$ 34 in Uganda (US$ 29 from a societal perspective). Rotavirus vaccine introduction is highly cost-effective in both countries in a range of plausible 'what-if' scenarios. The involvement of national experts improves the quality of data used, is likely to increase acceptability of the results in decision-making, and can contribute to strengthened national

  8. Effect of welfare and economic performance on good governance outcomes in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    MAMMON, Dawood; RABBANI, Huma

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. The paper undertakes a detailed analysis of economic progress and welfare measures in determining good governance outcomes in Pakistan. There is evidence that inequality stifles the capacity of political, economic and social governance by creating an elite class that protect their economic and political interests and undertake legislation primarily to the benefit of ruling elites. Furthermore our results also suggest that economic development empower the economically and socially ex...

  9. Are biological effects of desert shrubs more important than physical effects on soil microorganisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Naama; Steinberger, Yosef

    2010-01-01

    Vegetation cover plays a major role in providing organic matter and in acting as a physical barrier, with both together contributing to the formation of "fertile islands," which play an active role in prolonging biological activity in desert ecosystems. By undertaking this study, a longterm research, we designed an experiment to separate the two components-the physical and biotic parts of the perennial plants-and to identify the factor that contributes the most to the ecosystem. The study site was located in the northern Negev Desert, Israel, where 50 Hammada scoparia shrubs and 50 artificial plants were randomly marked. Soil samples were collected monthly over 3 years of research at three locations: under the canopy of H. scoparia shrubs, in the vicinity of the artificial plants, and between the shrubs (control). The contribution to microbial activity was measured by evaluation of the microbial community functions in soil. The functional aspects of the microbial community that were measured were CO2 evolution, microbial biomass, microbial functional diversity, and the physiological profile of the community. The results of this study are presented in two ways: (1) according to the three locations/treatments; and (2) according to the phenological situation of the vegetation (annual and perennial plants) in the research field: the growing phase, the drying process, and the absence of annual plants. The only parameters that were found to affect microbial activity were the contribution of the organic matter of perennial shrubs and the growth of vegetation (annual and perennial) during the growing seasons. The physical component was found to have no effect on soil microbial functional diversity, which elucidates the important contribution of the desert shrub in enhancing biological multiplicity and activity.

  10. Effect of meal glycemic load and caffeine consumption on prolonged monotonous driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Christopher; Desbrow, Ben; Hall, Susan; Irwin, Christopher

    2017-11-01

    Monotonous driving involves low levels of stimulation and high levels of repetition and is essentially an exercise in sustained attention and vigilance. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of consuming a high or low glycemic load meal on prolonged monotonous driving performance. The effect of consuming caffeine with a high glycemic load meal was also examined. Ten healthy, non-diabetic participants (7 males, age 51±7yrs, mean±SD) completed a repeated measures investigation involving 3 experimental trials. On separate occasions, participants were provided one of three treatments prior to undertaking a 90min computer-based simulated drive. The 3 treatment conditions involved consuming: (1) a low glycemic load meal+placebo capsules (LGL), (2) a high glycemic load meal+placebo capsules (HGL) and (3) a high glycemic load meal+caffeine capsules (3mgkg -1 body weight) (CAF). Measures of driving performance included lateral (standard deviation of lane position (SDLP), average lane position (AVLP), total number of lane crossings (LC)) and longitudinal (average speed (AVSP) and standard deviation of speed (SDSP)) vehicle control parameters. Blood glucose levels, plasma caffeine concentrations and subjective ratings of sleepiness, alertness, mood, hunger and simulator sickness were also collected throughout each trial. No difference in either lateral or longitudinal vehicle control parameters or subjective ratings were observed between HGL and LGL treatments. A significant reduction in SDLP (0.36±0.20m vs 0.41±0.19m, p=0.004) and LC (34.4±31.4 vs 56.7±31.5, p=0.018) was observed in the CAF trial compared to the HGL trial. However, no differences in AVLP, AVSP and SDSP or subjective ratings were detected between these two trials (p>0.05). Altering the glycemic load of a breakfast meal had no effect on measures of monotonous driving performance in non-diabetic adults. Individuals planning to undertake a prolonged monotonous drive following consumption of a

  11. Prevention of language problems in children: the effectiveness of an intervention program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis GALLEGO ORTEGA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Language is an essential tool for personal and social development of children and it is perceived as the most important learning that children undertake in the early years of their lives. It is generally accepted that from birth to the age of three-four years old, children achieve a basic repertory of skills in different linguistic dimensions which allow them to communicate effectively with their environment. However, research has shown that phonemic disorders, morphosyntactic dysfunctions and semantic poverty figure prominently in the overall oral language disorders in infancy. In this respect, the review of literature informs us of the abundance of work aimed at rehabiliting the conditions already set in childlike expression, but there are significant gaps in regard to systematic prevention programs to prevent such evolutionary disorders which can become operational because of an early intervention in the field of communication. According to the above, it was developed a research project designed to establish the differential impact of a program to develop language skills in preschoolers. We worked with a sample of 32 children (5 years old in a pretest-posttest design. The data analysis shows that the magnitude of change is significant when comparing the results obtained by the experimental and the control group before and after program implementation. The overall effect of the program allowed to determine its effectiveness to increase language skills in the morph syntactic level.

  12. Effect of ramadan fasting on body composition and physical performance in female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memari, Amir-Hossein; Kordi, Ramin; Panahi, Nekoo; Nikookar, Laya R; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Akbarnejad, Ali

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Ramadan fasting on body composition, calorie intake and physical performance in young female athletes undertaking training sessions during Ramadan. Twelve voluntary female athletes (15-27 years old) were assigned to the research. A prospective study was conducted to investigate the athletes on four different occasions: one week before Ramadan (T1), the second (T2) and fourth (T3) weeks of Ramadan, and two weeks after the end of Ramadan (T4). Food intake, body composition and physical performance (agility, balance and explosive leg power) were investigated on each occasion. Further, Physical performance was assessed by agility, vertical jump and balance tests. There was a significant main effect for time for body composition indices. A significant decrease was observed in weight (P=0.01) and body mass index (BMI) (P=0.01) in T2 compared with T1, further decrease in weight (Peffect for time for agility performance (P=0.03), but no significant main effect for time was observed for vertical jumping (P=0.1) and balance performance (P=0.3). This study has found that Ramadan fasting could affect the body composition, but not physical performance in female athletes during Ramadan.

  13. Effect of ageing on the calibration of ballistic gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guey, Jason; Rodrigues, S; Pullen, A; Shaw, B; Kieser, D C

    2018-02-27

    Ballistic gelatin is commonly used as a validated surrogate for soft tissue during terminal ballistic testing. However, the effect of a delay between production and testing of a gelatin mould remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine any potential effects of ageing on ballistic gelatin. Depth of penetration (DoP) of 4.5 mm spherical fragment simulating projectiles was ascertained using mixtures of 10%, 11.25% and 20% Type A 250 Bloom ballistic gelatin. Testing was performed daily for 5 days using velocities between 75 and 210 m/s. DoP at day 5 was statistically compared with day 1, and net mass change was recorded daily. No significant difference was found for DoP observed with time in any of the samples (P>0.05). Spearman correlation was excellent in all moulds. The moulds with known standard calibrations remained in calibration throughout the study period. Mass loss of less than 1% was noted in all samples. Mass loss was the only quantifiable measure of changes in the blocks with time, but did not correlate with any changes in DoP. This may provide reassurance when undertaking such testing that an inadvertent delay will not significantly alter the penetration properties of the mould. Future research is recommended to determine any potential effect on the mechanical properties of gelatin at higher velocity impacts and whether the calibration corresponds to an adequate simulation under such conditions. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Ten years of effective multilateralism?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hautecouverture, Benjamin

    2013-12-01

    successes of multilateralism and international law provide security assurances or do they mask the flaws of an insufficiently intrusive system? While the U.S. signaled their defiance under the guidance of John Bolton, European thinking settled on a conclusion with the air of a slogan: yes to multilateralism, providing it is effective. This was to be the cornerstone of the policies to undertake and the instruments to implement to forge a global role for the Union. Its originality is based simultaneously in realism and in a refusal to resort to force as the foremost means of action on the international stage. Another way of defining the 2003 Strategy is a skillful compromise between differing positions to banish the Iraqi 'cacophony' as quickly as possible. Ten years on, it is now time for 'impact assessments' and other 'scorecards' of public policies. In the midst of the Eurozone economic crisis, evaluating a strategy of 'effective multilateralism' is not easy. The Union's bi-annual reports on its implementation have recently begun to try to provide a quantitative analysis that is not entirely convincing (for instance, the number of ratifications of such-and-such an instrument with regard to the budget allocated by the EU to facilitate its universalization, over such-and-such a period). Fundamentally, the 2003 Strategy is essentially beyond this kind of analysis even if it can prove useful. The strength of the European approach consists in establishing a long-term willingness to maintain and strengthen collective security tools approved by the greatest possible number of States. Its weakness is to occasionally confront a strategic reality that is as contradictory as it is stubborn. Effective multilateralism is linked to voluntarism and vows. (author)

  15. Countering bullying at an australian secondary school with students as helpers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, L; Rigby, K

    1999-08-01

    To counter bullying at an Australian coeducational secondary school, staff and students co-operated in developing and implementing appropriate policies and procedures. Questionnaires assessing the incidence of bullying and related attitudes were completed by students in Years 7, 9, 10 and 11 in 1995 and again in 1997. Significant reductions in levels of victimization were recorded for Year 7 students only. Significantly increased support for anti-bullying initiatives was found among senior students (Years 10 and 11). Anti-bullying activities directed and undertaken by students themselves received most approval from peers. Copyright 1999 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents.

  16. Surgical management of bilateral vocal fold paralysis: A cost-effectiveness comparison of two treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naunheim, Matthew R; Song, Phillip C; Franco, Ramon A; Alkire, Blake C; Shrime, Mark G

    2017-03-01

    Endoscopic management of bilateral vocal fold paralysis (BVFP) includes cordotomy and arytenoidectomy, and has become a well-accepted alternative to tracheostomy. However, the costs and quality-of-life benefits of endoscopic management have not been examined with formal economic analysis. This study undertakes a cost-effectiveness analysis of tracheostomy versus endoscopic management of BVFP. Cost-effectiveness analysis. A literature review identified a range of costs and outcomes associated with surgical options for BVFP. Additional costs were derived from Medicare reimbursement data; all were adjusted to 2014 dollars. Cost-effectiveness analysis evaluated both therapeutic strategies in short-term and long-term scenarios. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was used to assess confidence levels regarding the economic evaluation. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio for endoscopic management versus tracheostomy is $31,600.06 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY), indicating that endoscopic management is the cost-effective short-term strategy at a willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of $50,000/QALY. The probability that endoscopic management is more cost-effective than tracheostomy at this WTP is 65.1%. Threshold analysis demonstrated that the model is sensitive to both utilities and cost in the short-term scenario. When costs of long-term care are included, tracheostomy is dominated by endoscopic management, indicating the cost-effectiveness of endoscopic management at any WTP. Endoscopic management of BVFP appears to be more cost-effective than tracheostomy. Though endoscopic cordotomy and arytenoidectomy require expertise and specialized equipment, this model demonstrates utility gains and long-term cost advantages to an endoscopic strategy. These findings are limited by the relative paucity of robust utility data and emphasize the need for further economic analysis in otolaryngology. NA Laryngoscope, 127:691-697, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological

  17. Effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on human beings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilien, J.L.; Dular, P.; Sabariego, R.; Beauvois, V.; Barbier, P.P.; Lorphevre, R.

    2010-01-01

    Since the early seventies, potential health risks from ELF (Extremely Low frequency electromagnetic Fields) exposure (50 Hz) have been extensively treated in the literature (more than 1000 references registered by WHO (World Health Organisation), 2007). After 30 years of worldwide research, the major epidemiological output is the possible modest increased risk (by a factor 2) of childhood leukaemia in case of a long exposure to an ambient magnetic flux density (B-field) higher than 0.4 μT. However, this fact has not been confirmed by in vivo and in vitro studies. Moreover it has not been validated by any adverse health biological mechanisms neither for adults nor for children. International recommendations (ICNIRP, International Commission on Non-Ionising Radiation Protection) are currently, for general public, not to exceed a B-field of 100 μT (50 Hz) and an E-field of 5 kV/m (50 Hz). Herein, a rough overview of typical values of ELF fields will be presented followed by a brief literature survey on childhood leukaemia and ELF The potential carcinogenic effect of ELF would be linked to electrical disturbances in cell behaviour. The major concern linking child-hood leukaemia and ELF is thus to determine the response of bone marrow cells under ELF fields. With that purpose, transmembrane potential will be targeted and linked to the E-field at that level. This paper is three-folded: (1) the electric interactions between ambient ELF fields and the body are studied both qualitatively and quantitatively. Different sources of internal E-field are analysed and classified according to their potential risk; (2) the hypothesis of contact current is detailed; (3) key actions to undertake are highlighted. Based on the current state of the art and some authors' own developments, this paper proposes simple low cost enhancements of private electrical installations in order to annihilate the major source of potential effects of ELF. (authors)

  18. Something old, something new, something borrowed, something blue: a framework for the marriage of health econometrics and cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Jeffrey S; Briggs, Andrew H; Willan, Andrew R

    2002-07-01

    Economic evaluation is often seen as a branch of health economics divorced from mainstream econometric techniques. Instead, it is perceived as relying on statistical methods for clinical trials. Furthermore, the statistic of interest in cost-effectiveness analysis, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio is not amenable to regression-based methods, hence the traditional reliance on comparing aggregate measures across the arms of a clinical trial. In this paper, we explore the potential for health economists undertaking cost-effectiveness analysis to exploit the plethora of established econometric techniques through the use of the net-benefit framework - a recently suggested reformulation of the cost-effectiveness problem that avoids the reliance on cost-effectiveness ratios and their associated statistical problems. This allows the formulation of the cost-effectiveness problem within a standard regression type framework. We provide an example with empirical data to illustrate how a regression type framework can enhance the net-benefit method. We go on to suggest that practical advantages of the net-benefit regression approach include being able to use established econometric techniques, adjust for imperfect randomisation, and identify important subgroups in order to estimate the marginal cost-effectiveness of an intervention. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. The market effectiveness of electricity reform: A case of carbon emissions trading market of Shenzhen city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongli; Wang, Gang; Zuo, Yi; Fan, Lisha; Xiao, Yao

    2017-03-01

    In the 13th Five-Year Plan, the Chinese government proposed to achieve the national carbon emission trading market established by 2017. The establishment of carbon emission trading market is the most important one in power reform, which helps to promote the power reform and achieve the goal of energy saving and emission reduction. As the bond of connecting environment energy issues and the economic development, carbon emissions trading market has become a hot research topic in the related fields, by market means, it incentive the lower cost subject emissions to undertake more reductions and therefore to benefit, the body of the high cost finished the task by buying quota reduction, to achieve the effect of having the least social total cost. Shenzhen has become the first city in China to start carbon trading pilot formally on June 16, 2013, online trading on June 18. The paper analyzes the market effectiveness of electricity reform in China, which takes carbon emissions trading market of Shenzhen city for example, and gives some suggestions for future development.

  20. Experimental study of the combined effects of inhalation of radon daughter products and tobacco smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chameaud, J.; Perraud, R.; Chretien, J.; Masse, R.; Lafuma, J.

    1979-01-01

    For 10 years, over 500 lung cancers have been induced in rats by inhalations of radon daughter products at various concentrations and cumulated doses. Considering several points and the dose-effect relationship especially, such cancers can be compared with human cancers. This type of experiments, fully mastered, has made it possible to undertake under good conditions the study of the co-carcinogenic effect of various inhaled pollutants such as tobacco smoke. In a first experiment, 100 rats were exposed to a 4000WLM cumulated dose of radon daughter products, knowing that this level induces some 30% of lung cancers. 50 animals were then administered tobacco smoke by inhalation in a fume box during 5 months (350 h.) In the group inhaling radon only, 17 cancers appeared; in the radon -tobacco group 32 cancers bigger and more invasive were observed. Under the same conditions, tobacco smoke was inhaled by rats previously exposed to lower doses of radon daughter products (2 groups of 30 rats, 500 and 100 WLM respectively). Again, the number of cancers observed was higher that the number of cancers expected if the rats had inhaled radon only. This co-carcinogenic and potentiating action of tobacco was clearly demonstrated. Further experiments are considered in order to determine the processes involved

  1. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Patrick Gonzalez; Brent Sohngen; Neil Sampson; Mark Anderson; Miguel Calmon; Sean Grimland; Zoe Kant; Dan Morse; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Arlene Olivero; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Jon Winsten; Chris Zganjar

    2007-03-31

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between January 1st and March 31st 2007. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1--carbon inventory advancements; Task 2--emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3--baseline method development; Task 4--third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5--new project feasibility studies; and Task 6--development of new project software screening tool.

  2. Analysis of human factors effects on the safety of transporting radioactive waste materials: Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abkowitz, M.D.; Abkowitz, S.B.; Lepofsky, M.

    1989-04-01

    This report examines the extent of human factors effects on the safety of transporting radioactive waste materials. It is seen principally as a scoping effort, to establish whether there is a need for DOE to undertake a more formal approach to studying human factors in radioactive waste transport, and if so, logical directions for that program to follow. Human factors effects are evaluated on driving and loading/transfer operations only. Particular emphasis is placed on the driving function, examining the relationship between human error and safety as it relates to the impairment of driver performance. Although multi-modal in focus, the widespread availability of data and previous literature on truck operations resulted in a primary study focus on the trucking mode from the standpoint of policy development. In addition to the analysis of human factors accident statistics, the report provides relevant background material on several policies that have been instituted or are under consideration, directed at improving human reliability in the transport sector. On the basis of reported findings, preliminary policy areas are identified. 71 refs., 26 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Patrick Gonzalez; Brent Sohngen; Neil Sampson; Mark Anderson; Miguel Calmon; Sean Grimland; Ellen Hawes; Zoe Kant; Dan Morse; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Arlene Olivero; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Jon Winsten; Chris Zganjar

    2006-09-30

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st and July 30th 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  4. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Jenny Henman; Zoe Kant; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Neil Sampson; Gilberto Tiepolo; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Miguel Calmon

    2006-01-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st , 2005 and June 30th, 2005. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  5. APPLICATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF APPROPRIATE TOOLS AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR COST-EFFECTIVE CARBON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Ellen Hawes; Zoe Kant; Miguel Calmon; Patrick Gonzalez; Brad Kreps; Gilberto Tiepolo

    2003-09-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas impacts. The research described in this report occurred between July 1, 2002 and June 30, 2003. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: advanced videography testing; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  6. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Jenny Henman; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Neil Sampson; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Zoe Kant; Miguel Calmon

    2006-04-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between January 1st and March 31st 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  7. THE APPLICATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF APPROPRIATE TOOLS AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR COST-EFFECTIVE CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Ellen Hawes; Zoe Kant; Miguel Calmon; Gilberto Tiepolo

    2002-09-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research projects is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas impacts. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: advanced videography testing; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  8. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Jenny Henman; Zoe Kant; Gilberto Tiepolo; Tim Pearson; Neil Sampson; Miguel Calmon

    2005-10-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st , 2005 and June 30th, 2005. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  9. Contextual interference effects on the acquisition of skill and strength of the bench press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimo, Marshall A; Zourdos, Michael C; Wilson, Jacob M; Kim, Jeong-Su; Ward, Emery G; Eccles, David W; Panton, Lynn B

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate contextual interference effects on skill acquisition and strength gains during the learning of the bench press movement. Twenty-four healthy, college-aged males and females were stratified to control, high contextual interference (HCI), and low contextual interference (LCI) groups. Treatment groups were provided with written and visual instruction on proper bench press form and practiced the bench press and dart throwing for four weeks. Within each session, LCI performed all bench press sets before undertaking dart-throws. HCI undertook dart-throws immediately following each set of bench press. Control only did testing. Measurements, including one repetition maximum (1RM), checklist scores based on video recordings of participants' 1RM's, and dart-throw test scores were taken at pre-test, 1 week, 2 week, post-test, and retention test. Results were consistent with the basic premise of the contextual interference effect. LCI had significant improvements in percent 1RM and checklist scores during training, but were mostly absent after training (post-test and retention test). HCI had significant improvements in percent 1RM and checklist scores both during and after training. Thus, HCI may augment strength and movement skill on the bench press since proper technique is an important component of resistance exercise movements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Patrick Gonzalez; Zoe Kant; Gilberto Tiepolo; Wilber Sabido; Ellen Hawes; Jenny Henman; Miguel Calmon; Michael Ebinger

    2004-07-10

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas impacts. The research described in this report occurred between July 1, 2002 and June 30, 2003. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: remote sensing for carbon analysis; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  11. Cardiac examination and the effect of dual-processing instruction in a cardiopulmonary simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibbald, Matt; McKinney, James; Cavalcanti, Rodrigo B; Yu, Eric; Wood, David A; Nair, Parvathy; Eva, Kevin W; Hatala, Rose

    2013-08-01

    Use of dual-processing has been widely touted as a strategy to reduce diagnostic error in clinical medicine. However, this strategy has not been tested among medical trainees with complex diagnostic problems. We sought to determine whether dual-processing instruction could reduce diagnostic error across a spectrum of experience with trainees undertaking cardiac physical exam. Three experiments were conducted using a similar design to teach cardiac physical exam using a cardiopulmonary simulator. One experiment was conducted in each of three groups: experienced, intermediate and novice trainees. In all three experiments, participants were randomized to receive undirected or dual-processing verbal instruction during teaching, practice and testing phases. When tested, dual-processing instruction did not change the probability assigned to the correct diagnosis in any of the three experiments. Among intermediates, there was an apparent interaction between the diagnosis tested and the effect of dual-processing instruction. Among relative novices, dual processing instruction may have dampened the harmful effect of a bias away from the correct diagnosis. Further work is needed to define the role of dual-processing instruction to reduce cognitive error. This study suggests that it cannot be blindly applied to complex diagnostic problems such as cardiac physical exam.

  12. Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Side effects are problems that occur when cancer treatment affects healthy tissues or organs. Learn about side effects caused by cancer treatment. Know what signs and symptoms to call your doctor about. Learn about treatments for side effects.

  13. Coping with the emotional impact of bullying and cyberbullying: How research can inform practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Cowie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite more than two decades of anti-bullying initiatives in schools, children and young people regularly mention relationships within the peer group as the major factor that causes them to feel unsafe at school. The situation is complicated by the fact that these interpersonal safety issues are actually generated by the peer group and often in contexts that are difficult for adults to control. The recent upsurge of cyberbullying is a case in point. Teachers and parents often feel powerless to intervene in the private world that children and young people create for themselves. This article explores the strategies that are commonly recommended for dealing with cyberbullying and examines what research tells us about their effectiveness. The conclusion is that, whatever the value of technological tools for tackling cyberbullying, we cannot avoid the fact that this is also an interpersonal problem. The implication for practice is that we already know many approaches for preventing and reducing cyberbullying and should build on this knowledge rather than treating the issue as something completely new.

  14. ACADEMIC MOBBING: HIDDEN HEALTH HAZARD AT WORKPLACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHOO SB

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Academic mobbing is a non-violent, sophisticated, ‘ganging up’ behaviour adopted by academicians to “wear and tear” a colleague down emotionally through unjustified accusation, humiliation, general harassment and emotional abuse. These are directed at the target under a veil of lies and justifications so that they are “hidden” to others and difficult to prove. Bullies use mobbing activities to hide their own weaknesses and incompetence. Targets selected are often intelligent, innovative high achievers, with good integrity and principles. Mobbing activities appear trivial and innocuous on its own but the frequency and pattern of their occurrence over long period of time indicates an aggressive manipulation to “eliminate” the target. Mobbing activities typically progress through five stereotypical phases that begins with an unsolved minor conflict between two workers and ultimately escalates into a senseless mobbing whereby the target is stigmatized and victimized to justify the behaviours of the bullies. The result is always physical, mental, social distress or illness and, most often, expulsion of target from the workplace. Organizations are subjected to great financial loss, loss of key workers and a tarnished public image and reputation. Public awareness, education, effective counselling, establishment of anti-bullying policies and legislations at all levels are necessary to curb academic mobbing. General practitioners (GPs play an important role in supporting patients subjected to mental and physical health injury caused by workplace bullying and mobbing.

  15. Bullying: who does what, when and where? Involvement of children, teachers and parents in bullying behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekkes, M; Pijpers, F I M; Verloove-Vanhorick, S P

    2005-02-01

    Bullying victimization is associated with several health issues. Prevention of bullying is therefore an important goal for health and education professionals. In the present study, 2766 children from 32 Dutch elementary schools participated by completing a questionnaire on bullying behavior, and the involvement of teachers, parents and classmates in bullying incidents. The results of this study show that bullying is still prevalent in Dutch schools. More than 16% of the children aged 9-11 years reported being bullied on a regular basis and 5.5% reported regular active bullying during the current school term. Almost half of the bullied children did not tell their teacher that they were being bullied. When teachers knew about the bullying, they often tried to stop it, but in many cases the bullying stayed the same or even got worse. With regard to active bullying, neither the majority of the teachers nor parents talked to the bullies about their behavior. Our results stress the importance of regular communication between children, parents, teachers and health care professionals with regard to bullying incidents. In addition, teachers need to learn effective ways to deal with bullying incidents. Schools need to adopt a whole-school approach with their anti-bullying interventions.

  16. Academic mobbing: hidden health hazard at workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Sb

    2010-01-01

    Academic mobbing is a non-violent, sophisticated, 'ganging up' behaviour adopted by academicians to "wear and tear" a colleague down emotionally through unjustified accusation, humiliation, general harassment and emotional abuse. These are directed at the target under a veil of lies and justifications so that they are "hidden" to others and difficult to prove. Bullies use mobbing activities to hide their own weaknesses and incompetence. Targets selected are often intelligent, innovative high achievers, with good integrity and principles. Mobbing activities appear trivial and innocuous on its own but the frequency and pattern of their occurrence over long period of time indicates an aggressive manipulation to "eliminate" the target. Mobbing activities typically progress through five stereotypical phases that begins with an unsolved minor conflict between two workers and ultimately escalates into a senseless mobbing whereby the target is stigmatized and victimized to justify the behaviours of the bullies. The result is always physical, mental, social distress or illness and, most often, expulsion of target from the workplace. Organizations are subjected to great financial loss, loss of key workers and a tarnished public image and reputation. Public awareness, education, effective counselling, establishment of anti-bullying policies and legislations at all levels are necessary to curb academic mobbing. General practitioners (GPs) play an important role in supporting patients subjected to mental and physical health injury caused by workplace bullying and mobbing.

  17. Implications and effectiveness of information management while restructuring an organisation

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This research paper undertakes to outline factors of Information Management that organisations should consider when attempting a restructuring process. Conversely, valuable information and knowledge are often mislaid, overlooked or discarded to the eventual detriment of an organisation during the processes of downsizing, rightsizing, restructuring, reorganisation, reengineering, transformation or change. In the global economy organisations are always striving to keep ahead of competition and ...

  18. Toward Effective Policies for Innovation Financing in Asia | Page 2 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Researchers will undertake a comparative study of innovation financing schemes in Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan and Thailand. The research will focus on venture capital financing schemes, research and development (R&D) tax incentives, loan and grant programs, capital market rules/regulations, etc. The project will ...

  19. Developing effective supervisors: Concepts of research | Lee | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The untrained Ph.D. supervisor will copy (or avoid copying) the way that they were supervised themselves. Current literature on Ph.D. supervision focuses either on lists of tasks that the supervisor must undertake or on conceptions of research. There is a need for a conceptual approach to research supervision.

  20. Process, practice and priorities — key lessons learnt undertaking sensitive social reconnaissance research as part of an (UNESCO-IOC) International Tsunami Survey Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zijll de Jong, Shona L.; Dominey-Howes, Dale; Roman, Carolina E.; Calgaro, Emma; Gero, Anna; Veland, Siri; Bird, Deanne K.; Muliaina, Tolu; Tuiloma-Sua, Dawn; Afioga, Taulagi Latu

    2011-07-01

    The 29 September 2009 South Pacific tsunami has had a lasting impact upon local coastal villages and global collaborative research efforts. Locally, the impact of the tsunami is one of the most severe disasters Samoa has experienced in the last several decades. Within one week of the event, 143 people died. Approximately 6000 traumatized men, women and children - terrified of the sea - refused to return to live or work in their rural, coastal villages, which in turn has had broad consequences for humanitarian emergency relief distribution networks and early recovery planning efforts. Researchers came from all over the world to participate in the UNESCO International Oceanographic Commission (IOC) Samoa International Tsunami Survey Team (ITST). Focusing on the need for interdisciplinary research, for the first time, a social impact assessment team (SIT) was expressly invited to participate. Within days of the tsunami, a group of Australian, New Zealand, American, Fijian, and Japanese disaster researchers began to discuss how they might develop a social science reconnaissance research plan using innovative approaches and best practice. This paper presents an overview of challenges faced by the social impact assessment team with a focus on lessons to be learnt from this experience. We discuss the need to clarify project boundaries, develop a core research agenda and project milestones, and develop day-to-day fieldwork work plans and at the same time be sensitive to the emotional needs of the interviewees as well as the researchers. We also make several practical suggestions for future social reconnaissance research with a set of recommendations to support disaster researchers as they plan their own research projects. The inclusion of a social impacts assessment group within a UNESCO-IOC ITST was a valuable response to the increasing need for responsible social research in sensitive topics of post-disaster analysis. Social scientists are aware that disaster social science research should not be a risk to the public, and that misconduct in such work should be avoided as far as possible. We believe that the inclusion of social science experts will revolutionise conceptual, methodological and empirical approaches in future ITSTs. Social scientists will provide unprecedented volumes of high quality information on post-disaster movements, communication and response activities by individuals, communities, private and public sectors — because social scientists are concerned about the integrity of the research process and results. Building upon our experiences, future ITSTs may tap into the potential that social science has to transform ITST's capacity to gather information about disaster preparedness, what tsunami survivors saw, heard and experienced, and to reconstruct the socio-economic and political dynamics of affected communities. This paper contributes to the limited literature that outlines how to develop responsible plans and processes for post-tsunami disaster work; and, it furthers a line of inquiry applicable to a wide variety of hazards, such as flooding, cyclones, earthquakes, bushfires, pandemics and terrorism.

  1. Ethnic Education Should Undertake the Major Historic Task of Ethnic Unity and the Possibility of and Explorations into the Localization of Diversified Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minhui, Qian

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that the choice of cultures by ethnic education was determined by a given form of elitist ideology and a power agency. After the conversion of China's society from a planned economy to a market economy, this elitist ideology and power agency has become diversified and includes the elitist ideology of statism. Empowerment has…

  2. Impact of pharmacists assisting with prescribing and undertaking medication review on oxycodone prescribing and supply for patients discharged from surgical wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, T; Taylor, S E; Hardidge, A; Findakly, D; Aminian, P; Elliott, R A

    2017-10-01

    Overprescribing of oxycodone is a contributor to the epidemic of prescription opioid misuse and deaths. Practice models to optimize oxycodone prescribing and supply need to be evaluated. We explored the impact of pharmacist-assisted discharge prescribing and medication review on oxycodone prescribing and supply for patients discharged from surgical wards. A retrospective audit was conducted on two surgical inpatient wards following a 16-week prospective pre- and post-intervention study. During the pre-intervention period, discharge prescriptions were prepared by hospital doctors and then reviewed by a ward pharmacist (WP) before being dispensed. Post-intervention, prescriptions were prepared by a project pharmacist in consultation with hospital doctors and then reviewed by a WP and dispensed. Proportion of patients who were prescribed, and proportion supplied, oxycodone on discharge; Median amount (milligrams) of oxycodone prescribed and supplied, for patients who were prescribed and supplied at least one oxycodone-containing preparation, respectively. A total of 320 and 341 patients were evaluated pre- and post-intervention, respectively. Pre-intervention, 75.6% of patients were prescribed oxycodone; after WP review, 60.3% were supplied oxycodone (Psupplied was 100 milligrams/patient. Post-intervention, 68.6% of patients were prescribed oxycodone; after WP review, 57.8% were supplied oxycodone (Psupplied was 50 milligrams/patient (difference in amount prescribed and supplied: 50 milligrams, Psupplied oxycodone but not the amount supplied/patient. Having a pharmacist assist with prescribing reduced the amount of oxycodone supplied. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Conversational Analysis as a Method for Research on Intercultural Learning: A Report on a Project with the Aim of "Learning by Undertaking Research"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Berkenbusch

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Conversational analysis—situated between pragmatic linguistics and qualitative empirical research—is a complex method, which needs a lot of time and dedication. It is necessary to develop a so-called “analytical mentality”. The aim of the project presented in this paper was to develop the theoretical insights and the practical skills of a group of students for this kind of research. They worked together throughout the duration of the project, especially in the collec¬tion of empiric material: i.e. the recording of conversations between foreign and German stu¬dents, the transcription of the material, a group discussion on the data and finally its analysis. This articles aims at showing what students can learn by doing this kind of work, based on examples of the collected empirical material: (1 they will be introduced to the different levels and stages of the research process and have the chance to develop a methodical and methodological competence; (2 their general communicative competences and their special competences of the foreign language will increase, as well as (3 their knowledge of intercultural learning by working with authentic data of intercultural communication. So, for instance, stereotypes and how they have been constructed during the interaction may be analysed and precisely described on a micro-analytical level. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901335

  4. UNDERTAKING POSITIVE CONTROL STUDIES AS PART OF DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY TESTING: A REPORT FROM THE ILSI RESEARCH FOUNDATION/RISK SCIENCE INSTITUTE EXPERT WORKING GROUP ON NEURODEVELOPMENTAL ENDPOINTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental neurotoxicity testing involves functional and neurohistological assessments in offspring during and following maternal and/or neonatal exposure. Data from positive control studies are an integral component in developmental neurotoxicity risk assessments. Positive ...

  5. Psychological distress in student nurses undertaking an educational programme with professional registration as a nurse: Their perceived barriers and facilitators in seeking psychological support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, A E P

    2018-05-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Psychological distress is a major health concern, and university student populations are at a risk due to high academic, economic and interpersonal demands at this time. While a number of studies have been conducted looking at distress and service uptake amongst university students, there is a lack of comparative information in the student nurse population. Therefore, this study focuses on level of psychological distress and service uptake in student nurses during their training. Student nurses in training are acknowledged as particularly vulnerable to anxiety and depression. Anxiety and depression can interfere with educational achievement and interfere with working relationships, which are an important aspect of clinical practice. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This study investigates psychological distress and service uptake in student nurses, in a single study, by measuring the level of distress and comparing this with adult nonpatient norms. The key findings suggest high levels of anxiety and depression and poor uptake of support in student nurses. The main barrier to seeking support was the fear of disclosure about their anxiety and/or depression, and feared impact on their suitability to train as a nurse. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Due to the fear of disclosure and low levels of support seeking, mental health nurses and academics have a key role to play in mental health literacy. It seems reasonable, given the key findings, to suggest that interventions be directed at decreasing anxiety and depression such as mindfulness training and other evidence-based strategies. It is recommended that psychological distress needs due attention from higher education sector and those health professionals involved in mental health service provision to support evidence-based strategies that target these issues. Introduction This study adds to the existing international evidence on psychological distress in the student population by focusing on student nurses. It quantitatively assesses psychological distress with comparative norms and investigates service uptake in a single study. Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the level of psychological distress in students and compare this with population norms and highlight potential facilitators and barriers to help seeking. Methods This study recruited N = 121 student nurses from one university in a cross-sectional design. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, independent t tests and one-way ANOVAs. Findings The key findings show high levels of psychological distress, which is above levels seen in the general population. The main barriers to seeking support were fear of disclosure and the perceived impact on their suitability as a student nurse. Discussion The study highlights that high levels of distress identified in the literature are seen in student nurses and that fear of disclosure may account for some not seeking support. Relevance The fear of disclosure and low levels of seeking support suggest there is a need for mental health nurses and academics to play a key role in mental health literacy and evidence-based interventions such as mindfulness to combat these issues. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. A Major Making Undertaking: A New Librarian Transforms A Middle School Library into a Makerspace Aligned to High School Career Endorsements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Sheila F.; Alexander, Bonnie

    2018-01-01

    Learning in makerspaces involves doing, playing, thinking, experimenting, creating, collaborating, mentoring, inquiring, problem-solving, producing, inventing, designing, building, and sharing (Loertscher, Preddy, and Derry 2013). Whatever the character of a makerspace, all makerspaces have the same goal: to actively engage students in open-ended…

  7. Decree of 1 August 1981 on examinations for qualified experts and physicians authorised to undertake physical surveillance for protection against radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    English. This Decree of the Minister of labour and Social Affairs of 1 August 1981 concerns the procedure for admission to examinations, for inclusion in the national list, of qualified experts and approved medical practitioners who are competent in radiation protection matters. the Decree replaces a former Decree of 24 June 1978 on the same subjec [fr

  8. Parents' experience of undertaking an intensive cognitive orientation to daily occupational performance (CO-OP) group for children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Michelle; Novak, Iona; Lannin, Natasha; Froude, Elspeth

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of parents of children with cerebral palsy (CP) who participated in an intensive cognitive orientation to daily occupational performance (CO-OP) group program addressing child chosen goals. Participants were six parents of children with CP who participated in a CO-OP upper limb task-specific training program. Parents participated in semi-structured interviews conducted via phone. A grounded theory approach was used. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and coded to identify categories and overarching themes of the parent experience of CO-OP. The theory of CO-OP for children with CP was one of offering a unique and motivating learning experience for both the child and the parent, differing from other therapeutic approaches that families had previously been involved in. Five categories were identified: the unique benefits of CO-OP; the importance of intensity; the child's motivation; challenging the parent role; and the benefits and challenges of therapy within a group context. Parents felt that CO-OP was a worthwhile intervention that leads to achievement of goals involving upper limb function and had the capacity to be transferred to future goals. Intensity of therapy and a child's motivation were identified as important factors in improvements. Further studies using quantitative research methods are warranted to investigate the benefits of CO-OP for children with neurological conditions. Implications for rehabilitation The cognitive orientation to daily occupational performance (CO-OP) is a promising upper limb cognitive motor training intervention for children with cerebral palsy. In a small sample, parents perceived that CO-OP leads to achievement of upper limb goals. Intensity of therapy, the child's motivation and the parents' ability to "step-back" were identified as important to the success of CO-OP.

  9. Motivations for undertaking: an analysis of differences between men and women; Motivaciones para emprender: un analisis de diferencias entre hombre y mujeres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Fernandez, M.; Romero Fernandez, P. M.; Diaz Carrion, R.

    2012-11-01

    Over the last years, empirical evidence shows that, although the entrepreneurial activity of women has increased, it is still lower than that of their male counterparts. Recent works analyze the factors that explain this difference detailing two main barriers: external (related to the environment) and personal (socio demographic and perceptual aspects). Our purpose is to contribute in order to explain the way these factors determine entrepreneurial behaviour, either creating or transforming an enterprise, and if certain organizational aspects of their previous employment might have direct implications on the transformation or the creation decision too. (Author) 58 refs.

  10. Experiences of persons with spinal cord injury undertaking a physical activity programme as part of the SCIPA 'Full-On' randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, Allyson; Nunnerley, Jo; Mulligan, Hilda; Ahmad Ali, Nordawama; Kensington, Gemma; McVicar, Tim; van Schaik, Olivia

    2018-04-01

    For individuals with spinal cord injury the long term benefits of physical activity are well documented, however the majority of this population report inactivity secondary to participatory barriers. Research investigating physically intensive exercise programs for people with spinal cord injury is limited, with even less attention paid to the experience of the participants. To explore the experiences of persons with spinal cord injury of their participation in the New Zealand arm of the Spinal Cord Injury and Physical Activity (SCIPA) 'Full-On' randomized controlled trial. Eight participants recruited to SCIPA Full-On completed individual virtual video diary interviews three times across the duration of their twelve week Full-On trial. Expectations and highs and lows of the program were recorded via a webcam. The video diary data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed inductively for themes. Three independent themes were identified from the data: the participants' excitement of opportunity to participate in SCIPA Full-On' randomized controlled trial, personal rewards from participation and also the frustrations to participation they experienced. This study provides valuable information on factors that motivate participation in physical activity for individuals with spinal cord injury, within a research setting. The findings highlighted the importance of accessibility and a supportive network which may be a way to provide individuals with spinal cord injury the means to become self-efficacious to participate in community physical activity outside of the research environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 17 CFR 239.42 - Form F-X, for appointment of agent for service of process and undertaking for issuers registering...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., rights offering or business combination. 239.42 Section 239.42 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... tender offer, rights offering or business combination. Form F-X shall be filed with the Commission: (a... in connection with a tender offer, rights offering or business combination. [73 FR 972, Jan. 4, 2008] ...

  12. Undertaking a Collaborative Rapid Realist Review to Investigate What Works in the Successful Implementation of a Frail Older Person’s Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éidín Ní Shé

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We addressed the research question “what factors enable the successful development and implementation of a frail older person’s pathway within the acute setting”. A rapid realist review (RRR was conducted by adopting the RAMESES standards. We began with a sample of 232 articles via database searches supplemented with 94 additional records including inputs from a twitter chat and a hospital site visit. Our final sample consisted of 18 documents. Following review and consensus by an expert panel we identified a conceptual model of context-mechanism-(resources-outcomes. There was overall agreement frailty should be identified at the front door of the acute hospital. Significant challenges identified related to organisational boundaries both within the acute setting and externally, the need to shift outcomes to patient orientated ones, to support staff to sustain the pathway by providing ongoing education and by providing role clarity. RRRs can support research such as the systematic approach to improving care for frail older adults (SAFE study by producing accounts of what works based on a wide range of sources and innovative engagement with stakeholders. It is evident from our provisional model that numerous factors need to combine and interact to enable and sustain a successful frail older person’s pathway.

  13. Using measures of wellbeing for impact evaluation: Proof of concept developed with an Indigenous community undertaking land management programs in northern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Silva; Stoeckl, Natalie; Jarvis, Diane; Addison, Jane; Prior, Sharon; Esparon, Michelle

    2018-05-05

    Combining insights from literature on the Theory of Change, Impact Evaluation, and Wellbeing, we develop a novel approach to assessing impacts. Intended beneficiaries identify and rate factors that are important to their wellbeing, their satisfaction with those factors now, and before an intervention. Qualitative responses to questions about perceived changes and causes of change are linked to quantitative data to draw inferences about the existence and/or importance of impact(s). We use data from 67 Ewamian people, in a case study relating to Indigenous land management, to provide proof of concept. 'Knowing that country is being looked after' and 'Having legal right/access to the country' were identified as important to wellbeing, with perceptions that Native Title determination, declared Indigenous Protected Area and associated land management programs have had a significant and positive impact on them. Further method testing might determine the utility of this approach in a wide range of settings.

  14. Industrial Guidelines for Undertaking a Hard-Core Employment Program: An Analytic Case Study of the Experience of an Urban Industrial Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feifer, Irwin; And Others

    Based on an analytically evaluative case study of a New York City furniture department store's experiences with a Manpower Administration contract, this report deals with the development and progress of the program as analyzed by one investigator through interviews with almost all of the participants in the program. As a result of the study,…

  15. A Prospective Investigation of Biomechanical Risk Factors for Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome. The Joint Undertaking to Monitor and Prevent ACL Injury (JUMP-ACL) Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-24

    tors: Brent Arnold, Shrikant Bangdiwala, Barry Boden, Kenneth Cameron, Thomas DeBerardino, David Keblish, Marjorie King, Robert Sullivan, John Tokish...Clin Biomech. 2007;22:681-688. 24. Shrier I, Ehrmann-Feldman D, Rossignol M, Abenhaim L. Risk fac- tors for development of lower limb pain in

  16. Can Environmental Regulations Promote Corporate Environmental Responsibility? Evidence from the Moderated Mediating Effect Model and an Empirical Study in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benhong Peng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Stakeholder theory, a moderated mediating effect model is developed to reach the study objective, revealing an important connection that suggests environmental regulations (ERs influence corporate environmental responsibility (CER (Porter Hypothesis. In building the model, the validity of the questionnaire data was analyzed with factor analysis. By employing a two-step approach, a regression analysis is utilized to discuss the mediating effect of altruistic motivation and moderating effect of green innovation, and a structural equation model is used to explore the interactive mechanism of different variables. It is found that altruistic motivation plays a medium role in the relationship between ERs and CER, and green innovation engages a positive coordination in the relationship. The empirical study identifies factors affecting enterprises’ willingness to undertake environmental responsibility, including environment policies, corporate culture, and personal characters among others. It is also revealed that altruistic motivation is conducive to forming a community interests among enterprises and enhancing their resistance to market risks, which explains and corroborates the Stakeholder theory; and the higher the level of green innovation, the more willing enterprises are to implement environmentally friendly operations.

  17. A Simple and Effective Daily Pain Management Method for Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy for Painful Bone Metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Regiane S.; Proctor, Julian W.; Slack, Robert; Marlowe, Ursula; Ashby, Karlotta R.; Schenken, Larry L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The incidence of painful bone metastases increases with longer survival times. Although external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) is an effective palliative treatment, it often requires several days from the start of treatment to produce a measurable reduction in pain scores and a qualitative amelioration of patient pain levels. Meanwhile, the use of analgesics remains the best approach early on in the treatment course. We investigated the role of radiation therapists as key personnel for collecting daily pain scores to supplement assessments by physician and oncology nursing staff and manage pain more effectively during radiation treatment. Methods and Materials: Daily pain scores were obtained by the radiation therapists for 89 patients undertaking a total of 124 courses of EBRT for bone metastases and compared with pretreatment pain scores. The majority of patients (71%) were treated to 30 Gy (range, 20-37.5) in 10 fractions (range, 8-15 fractions). Results: One hundred nineteen treatment courses (96%) were completed. Pain scores declined rapidly to 37.5%, 50%, and 75% of the pretreatment levels by Days 2, 4, and 10, respectively. Pain was improved in 91% of patients with only 4% of worse pain at the end of treatment. Improved pain scores were maintained in 83% of patients at 1-month follow-up, but in 35% of them, the pain was worse than at the end of treatment. Conclusions: Collection of daily pain scores by radiation therapists was associated with an effective reduction in pain scores early on during EBRT of painful osseous metastases.

  18. Economic evaluation and cost-effectiveness thresholds: signals to firms and implications for R & D investment and innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, John A; Goldberg, Robert; Golec, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    In this article we describe how reimbursement cost-effectiveness thresholds, per unit of health benefit, whether set explicitly or observed implicitly via historical reimbursement decisions, serve as a signal to firms about the commercial viability of their R&D projects (including candidate products for in-licensing). Traditional finance methods for R&D project valuations, such as net present value analyses (NPV), incorporate information from these payer reimbursement signals to help determine which R&D projects should be continued and which should be terminated (in the case of the latter because they yield an NPV important for reimbursement thresholds to reflect the economic value of the unit of health benefit being considered for reimbursement. Thresholds set too low (below the economic value of the health benefit) will result in R&D investment levels that are too low relative to the economic value of R&D (on the margin). Similarly, thresholds set too high (above the economic value of the health benefit) will result in inefficiently high levels of R&D spending. The US in particular, which represents approximately half of the global pharmaceutical market (based on sales), and which seems poised to begin undertaking cost effectiveness in a systematic way, needs to exert caution in setting policies that explicitly or implicitly establish cost-effectiveness reimbursement thresholds for healthcare products and technologies, such as pharmaceuticals.

  19. Effect of the Interaction of Veratrum Nigrum with Panax Ginseng on Estrogenic Activity In Vivo and In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying; Ding, Jie; An, Jin-na; Qu, Ya-kun; Li, Xin; Ma, Xiao-ping; Zhang, Yi-min; Dai, Guo-jing; Lin, Na

    2016-01-01

    Panax ginseng (GS) and Veratrum nigrum (VN) are representative of incompatible pairs in “eighteen antagonistic medicaments” that have been recorded in the Chinese medicinal literature for over 2,000 years. However, evidence linking interference effects with combination use is scare. Based on the estrogen-like effect of GS described in our previous studies, we undertake a characterization of the interaction on estrogenic activity of GS and VN using in vivo models of immature and ovariectomized (OVX) mice and in vitro studies with MCF-7 cells for further mechanism. VN decreased the estrogenic efficacy of GS on promoting the development of the uterus and vagina in immature mice, and reversing the atrophy of reproductive tissues in OVX mice. VN interfered with the estrogenic efficacy of GS by decreasing the increase of the serum estradiol and the up-regulation of ERα and ERβ expressions by treatment with GS. And VN antagonized the estrogenic efficacy of GS on promoting the viability of MCF-7 cells and up-regulation of protein and gene expressions of ERs. In conclusion, this study provided evidence that GS and VN decreased effects on estrogenic activity, which might be related to regulation of estrogen secretion and ERs. PMID:27229740

  20. Effectiveness of mobile technologies delivering Ecological Momentary Interventions for stress and anxiety: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo Gee, Brendan; Griffiths, Kathleen M; Gulliver, Amelia

    2016-01-01

    Mobile technologies may be suitable for delivering Ecological Momentary Interventions (EMI) to treat anxiety in real-time. This review aims to synthesize evidence on the effectiveness of EMI for treating anxiety conditions. Four databases and the reference lists of previous studies were searched. A total of 1949 abstracts were double screened for inclusion. Sufficient studies were available to undertake a quantitative meta-analysis on EMIs on generalized anxiety symptoms. The 15 randomized trials and randomized controlled trials examined anxiety (n = 7), stress (n = 3), anxiety and stress (n = 2), panic disorder (n = 2), and social phobia (n = 1). Eight EMIs comprised self-monitoring integrated with therapy modules, seven comprised multimedia content, and three comprised self-monitoring only. The quality of studies presented high risk of biases. Meta-analysis (n = 7) demonstrated that EMIs reduced generalized anxiety compared to control and/or comparison groups (Effect Size (ES) = 0.32, 95% CI, 0.12-0.53). Most EMIs targeting stress were reported effective relative to control as were the two EMIs targeting panic disorders. The EMI targeting social phobia was not effective. EMIs have potential in treating both anxiety and stress. However, few high-quality trials have been conducted for specific anxiety disorders. Further trials are needed to assess the value of EMI technologies for anxiety in enhancing existing treatments. This study found a small significant effect of EMI studies on reducing generalized anxiety. Studies on stress demonstrated EMI was effective compared to control, with the small number of studies on panic and social phobia demonstrating mixed results. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Resiliency as a factor protecting youths from risky behaviour: Moderating effects of gender and sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipowski, Mariusz; Lipowska, Małgorzata; Jochimek, Magdalena; Krokosz, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesised that resiliency may protect adolescents against risky behaviours, and that both the practicing of sports, and gender are moderating variables in relationships between resiliency and risky behaviours. The study included 18-year-old pupils from a selection of secondary schools (n = 556). A total of 188 individuals practiced competitive sports and the remaining 368 participants were non-athletes. The participants were examined with the Resiliency Assessment Scale for Children and Adolescents (SPP-18) and with a survey containing questions and statements related to high-risk "experiments with adulthood". Adolescent athletes showed higher levels of resiliency than their peers. The power of the "Determination and Persistence in Action" effect on "Alcohol" scale differed significantly between male athletes and male non-athletes. Only in the athletes groups were higher scores on this scale reflected by lower values on the "Drugs" scale. Moreover, it is possible to observe differences in undertaking risky behaviour between male and female athletes. The analysis of risky sexual behaviour suggests that sport is a risk factor for men, and a protective factor for women. These data suggest that consistent prophylactic and psycho-educative activities, with a special attention to differences between genders, should be provided to all the adolescents, irrespective of their sport performance levels.

  2. Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Educational Intervention to Improve the Patient Safety Attitudes of Intern Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walpola, Ramesh L; Fois, Romano A; McLachlan, Andrew J; Chen, Timothy F

    2017-02-25

    Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of a face-to-face educational intervention in improving the patient safety attitudes of intern pharmacists. Methods. A patient safety education program was delivered to intern pharmacists undertaking The University of Sydney Intern Training Program in 2014. Their patient safety attitudes were evaluated immediately prior to, immediately after, and three-months post-intervention. Underlying attitudinal factors were identified using exploratory factor analysis. Changes in factor scores were examined using analysis of variance. Results. Of the 120 interns enrolled, 95 (78.7%) completed all three surveys. Four underlying attitudinal factors were identified: attitudes towards addressing errors, questioning behaviors, blaming individuals, and reporting errors. Improvements in all attitudinal factors were evident immediately after the intervention. However, only improvements in attitudes towards blaming individuals involved in errors were sustained at three months post-intervention. Conclusion. The educational intervention was associated with short-term improvements in pharmacist interns' patient safety attitudes. However, other factors likely influenced their attitudes in the longer term.

  3. Fitness Effects of Network Non-Linearity Induced by Gene Expression Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Christian; Cooper, Tim; Balazsi, Gabor

    2012-02-01

    In the non-equilibrium dynamics of growing microbial cells, metabolic enzymes can create non-linearities in metabolite concentration because of non-linear degradation (utilization): an enzyme can saturate in the process of metabolite utilization. Increasing metabolite production past the saturation point then results in an ultrasensitive metabolite response. If the production rate of a metabolite depends on a second enzyme or other protein-mediated process, uncorrelated gene expression noise can thus cause transient metabolite concentration bursts. Such bursts are physiologically unnecessary and may represent a source of selection against the ultrasensitive switch, especially if the fluctuating metabolic intermediate is toxic. Selection may therefore favor correlated gene expression fluctuations for enzymes in the same pathway, such as by same-operon membership in bacteria. Using a modified experimental lac operon system, we are undertaking a combined theoretical-experimental approach to demonstrate that (i) the lac operon has an implicit ultrasensitive switch that we predict is avoided by gene expression correlations induced by same-operon membership; (ii) bacterial growth rates are sensitive to crossing the ultrasensitive threshold. Our results suggest that correlations in intrinsic gene expression noise are exploited by evolution to ameliorate the detrimental effects of nonlinearities in metabolite concentrations.

  4. Designing systematic conservation assessments that promote effective implementation: best practice from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Andrew T; Driver, Amanda; Cowling, Richard M; Maze, Kristal; Desmet, Philip G; Lombard, Amanda T; Rouget, Mathieu; Botha, Mark A; Boshoff, Andre F; Castley, J Guy; Goodman, Peter S; Mackinnon, Kathy; Pierce, Shirley M; Sims-Castley, Rebecca; Stewart, Warrick I; von Hase, Amrei

    2006-06-01

    Systematic conservation assessment and conservation planning are two distinct fields of conservation science often confused as one and the same. Systematic conservation assessment is the technical, often computer-based, identification of priority areas for conservation. Conservation planning is composed of a systematic conservation assessment coupled with processes for development of an implementation strategy and stakeholder collaboration. The peer-reviewed conservation biology literature abounds with studies analyzing the performance of assessments (e.g., area-selection techniques). This information alone, however can never deliver effective conservation action; it informs conservation planning. Examples of how to translate systematic assessment outputs into knowledge and then use them for "doing" conservation are rare. South Africa has received generous international and domestic funding for regional conservation planning since the mid-1990s. We reviewed eight South African conservation planning processes and identified key ingredients of best practice for undertaking systematic conservation assessments in a way that facilitates implementing conservation action. These key ingredients include the design of conservation planning processes, skills for conservation assessment teams, collaboration with stakeholders, and interpretation and mainstreaming of products (e.g., maps) for stakeholders. Social learning institutions are critical to the successful operationalization of assessments within broader conservation planning processes and should include not only conservation planners but also diverse interest groups, including rural landowners, politicians, and government employees.

  5. The effect of a multidisciplinary regional educational programme on the quality of colon cancer resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan-Dare, G E; Marks, K M; Tinkler-Hundal, E; Ingeholm, P; Bertelsen, C A; Quirke, P; West, N P

    2018-02-01

    Mesocolic plane surgery with central vascular ligation produces an oncologically superior specimen following colon cancer resection and appears to be related to optimal outcomes. We aimed to assess whether a regional educational programme in optimal mesocolic surgery led to an improvement in the quality of specimens. Following an educational programme in the Capital and Zealand areas of Denmark, 686 cases of primary colon cancer resected across six hospitals were assessed by grading the plane of surgery and undertaking tissue morphometry. These were compared to 263 specimens resected prior to the educational programme. Across the region, the mesocolic plane rate improved from 58% to 77% (P educational programme and continued to produce a high rate of mesocolic plane specimens (68%) with a greater distance between the tumour and the high tie (median for all fresh cases: 113 vs 82 mm) and lymph node yield (33 vs 18) compared to the other hospitals. Three of the other hospitals showed a significant improvement in the plane of surgical resection. A multidisciplinary regional educational programme in optimal mesocolic surgery improved the oncological quality of colon cancer specimens as assessed by mesocolic planes; however, there was no significant effect on the amount of tissue resected centrally. Surgeons who attempt central vascular ligation continue to produce more radical specimens suggesting that such educational programmes alone are not sufficient to increase the amount of tissue resected around the tumour. Colorectal Disease © 2017 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  6. Short-term effects of the prestige oil spill on the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuberogoitia, I.; Iraeta, A.; Azkona, A. [Sociedad de Ciencias Aranzadi, Donostia-San (Spain); Estudios Medioambientales Icarus, Bizkaia (Spain); Sociedad para el Estudio de las Aves Rapaces (SEAR), (Spain); Martinez, J.A. [C/Juan de la Cierva, Alicante (Spain); Zabala, J. [Sociedad para el Estudio de las Aves Rapaces (SEAR), (Spain); Jimenez, B.; Merino, R.; Gomez, G. [Institute of Organic Chemistry, CSIC, Madrid (Spain). Department of Instrumental Analysis and Environmental Chemistry

    2006-10-15

    We have monitored the distribution, population status, breeding success, turnover rate and diet of a Peregrine Falcon population in Bizkaia (North of Spain) since 1997. On the 13th November 2002, the tanker Prestige sunk off La Coruna (NW Spain) causing an oil spill that affected the whole of the Cantabrian Coast and the Southwest of France. The total number of birds affected by the Prestige oil spill was expected to be between 115,000 and 230,000, some of them raptors. The loss of clutches during the incubation period increased significantly and was correlated with the loss of females. Moreover, the turnover rate of the population increased from 21% to 30%. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in the eggs, collected from five nests after they were deserted, ranged from 21.20 ng/g to 461.08 ng/g, values which are high enough to cause the death of the embryos and poisoning of adult birds. The effects of pollution reached inland since some inland-breeding falcons prey on shorebirds that use rivers during their migratory flights. As the Prestige oil spill has clearly resulted in increased rates of adult mortality and reduced fertility, we suggest that the environmental authorities urgently undertake measures aimed at protecting the Peregrine Falcon in Bizkaia. (author)

  7. Potential impacts on groundwater resources of deep CO2 storage: natural analogues for assessing potential chemical effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lions, J.; Gale, I.; May, F.; Nygaard, E.; Ruetters, H.; Beaubien, S.; Sohrabi, M.; Hatzignatiou, D. G.; CO2GeoNet Members involved in the present study Team

    2011-12-01

    Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) is considered as one of the promising options for reducing atmospheric emissions of CO2 related to human activities. One of the main concerns associated with the geological storage of CO2 is that the CO2 may leak from the intended storage formation, migrate to the near-surface environment and, eventually, escape from the ground. This is a concern because such leakage may affect aquifers overlying the storage site and containing freshwater that may be used for drinking, industry and agriculture. The IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme (IEAGHG) recently commissioned the CO2GeoNet Association to undertake a review of published and unpublished literature on this topic with the aim of summarizing 'state of the art' knowledge and identifying knowledge gaps and research priorities in this field. Work carried out by various CO2GeoNet members was also used in this study. This study identifies possible areas of conflict by combining available datasets to map the global and regional superposition of deep saline formations (DSF) suitable for CO2 storage and overlying fresh groundwater resources. A scenario classification is developed for the various geological settings where conflict could occur. The study proposes two approaches to address the potential impact mechanisms of CO2 storage projects on the hydrodynamics and chemistry of shallow groundwater. The first classifies and synthesizes changes of water quality observed in natural/industrial analogues and in laboratory experiments. The second reviews hydrodynamic and geochemical models, including coupled multiphase flow and reactive transport. Various models are discussed in terms of their advantages and limitations, with conclusions on possible impacts on groundwater resources. Possible mitigation options to stop or control CO2 leakage are assessed. The effect of CO2 pressure in the host DSF and the potential effects on shallow aquifers are also examined. The study provides a review of

  8. Placebo Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C. Spencer, MD Steven Karceski, MD The placebo effect Joseph H. Friedman, MD Richard Dubinsky, MD WHAT ... placebo: a “dummy” medication that should have no effect on the condition. Placebos are not only drugs. ...

  9. Enhancing the Effectiveness of Significant Event Analysis: Exploring Personal Impact and Applying Systems Thinking in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowie, Paul; McNaughton, Elaine; Bruce, David; Holly, Deirdre; Forrest, Eleanor; Macleod, Marion; Kennedy, Susan; Power, Ailsa; Toppin, Denis; Black, Irene; Pooley, Janet; Taylor, Audrey; Swanson, Vivien; Kelly, Moya; Ferguson, Julie; Stirling, Suzanne; Wakeling, Judy; Inglis, Angela; McKay, John; Sargeant, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Significant event analysis (SEA) is well established in many primary care settings but can be poorly implemented. Reasons include the emotional impact on clinicians and limited knowledge of systems thinking in establishing why events happen and formulating improvements. To enhance SEA effectiveness, we developed and tested "guiding tools" based on human factors principles. Mixed-methods development of guiding tools (Personal Booklet-to help with emotional demands and apply a human factors analysis at the individual level; Desk Pad-to guide a team-based systems analysis; and a written Report Format) by a multiprofessional "expert" group and testing with Scottish primary care practitioners who submitted completed enhanced SEA reports. Evaluation data were collected through questionnaire, telephone interviews, and thematic analysis of SEA reports. Overall, 149/240 care practitioners tested the guiding tools and submitted completed SEA reports (62.1%). Reported understanding of how to undertake SEA improved postintervention (P systems issues (85/123, 69.1%), while most found the Report Format clear (94/123, 76.4%) and would recommend it (88/123, 71.5%). Most SEA reports adopted a systems approach to analyses (125/149, 83.9%), care improvement (74/149, 49.7), or planned actions (42/149, 28.2%). Applying human factors principles to SEA potentially enables care teams to gain a systems-based understanding of why things go wrong, which may help with related emotional demands and with more effective learning and improvement.

  10. The effect of varying plyometric volume on stretch-shortening cycle capability in collegiate male rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffreys, Mark; De Ste Croix, Mark; Lloyd, Rhodri S; Oliver, Jon L; Hughes, Jonathan

    2017-03-25

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effectiveness of low and high volume plyometric loads on developing stretch shortening cycle capability in collegiate rugby players. A between- group repeated measures design was used. Thirty six subjects (age 20.3 ±1.6 yrs, mass 91.63 ±10.36kg, stature 182.03 ±5.24cm) were randomly assigned to one of three groups, a control group (CG), a low volume plyometric group (LPG) or a high volume plyometric group (HPG). Data were collected from a force plate, and measures of reactive strength index (RSI) and leg stiffness were calculated from jump height, contact time and flight time. A significant between group × time (F = 4.01, P plyometric program. The low volume program elicited the same performance improvement in RSI as a high volume program whilst undertaking a lower dose. This suggests that strength and conditioning coaches may be able to benefit from the ability to develop more time efficient and effective plyometric programs.

  11. Transcriptome-wide effects of inverted SINEs on gene expression and their impact on RNA polymerase II activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajaddod, Mansoureh; Tanzer, Andrea; Licht, Konstantin; Wolfinger, Michael T; Badelt, Stefan; Huber, Florian; Pusch, Oliver; Schopoff, Sandy; Janisiw, Michael; Hofacker, Ivo; Jantsch, Michael F

    2016-10-25

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) represent the most abundant group of non-long-terminal repeat transposable elements in mammalian genomes. In primates, Alu elements are the most prominent and homogenous representatives of SINEs. Due to their frequent insertion within or close to coding regions, SINEs have been suggested to play a crucial role during genome evolution. Moreover, Alu elements within mRNAs have also been reported to control gene expression at different levels. Here, we undertake a genome-wide analysis of insertion patterns of human Alus within transcribed portions of the genome. Multiple, nearby insertions of SINEs within one transcript are more abundant in tandem orientation than in inverted orientation. Indeed, analysis of transcriptome-wide expression levels of 15 ENCODE cell lines suggests a cis-repressive effect of inverted Alu elements on gene expression. Using reporter assays, we show that the negative effect of inverted SINEs on gene expression is independent of known sensors of double-stranded RNAs. Instead, transcriptional elongation seems impaired, leading to reduced mRNA levels. Our study suggests that there is a bias against multiple SINE insertions that can promote intramolecular base pairing within a transcript. Moreover, at a genome-wide level, mRNAs harboring inverted SINEs are less expressed than mRNAs harboring single or tandemly arranged SINEs. Finally, we demonstrate a novel mechanism by which inverted SINEs can impact on gene expression by interfering with RNA polymerase II.

  12. The design, effectiveness and acceptability of the arm sleeve for the prevention of body fluid contamination during obstetric procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabukoba, J J; Pearce, J M

    1993-08-01

    1. To design a device that would reduce contamination of staff during obstetric procedures. 2. To undertake clinical trials to assess the effectiveness and acceptability of such a device. A prospective study. The arm sleeve is made of a nonwoven material laminated on polyethylene film making it waterproof. It has an elastomeric cuff with adhesive that ensures a watertight seal between it and the glove. Delivery suite in a teaching hospital. Doctors and midwives were requested to wear the sleeve on top of the standard gown and gloves. Each user was assessed for blood contamination at the end of the procedure and a questionnaire detailing the extent of contamination and the views of the user was completed. Eighty questionnaires were completed. The contamination of arms and hands was 3.8% and 5%, respectively. Eighty-nine percent thought the sleeve had served its purpose and 76% said they would use it regularly. The sleeve is an effective protective device which complements the glove and gown. We recommend that it should be used during all obstetric procedures.

  13. Technical Progress Report on Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Jenny Henman; Ben Poulter; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Neil Sampson; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Zoe Kant; Miguel Calmon; Gilberto Tiepolo

    2006-06-30

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st and July 30th 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool. Work is being carried out in Brazil, Belize, Chile, Peru and the USA.

  14. Effects of prolonged wakefulness combined with alcohol and hands-free cell phone divided attention tasks on simulated driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iudice, A; Bonanni, E; Gelli, A; Frittelli, C; Iudice, G; Cignoni, F; Ghicopulos, I; Murri, L

    2005-03-01

    Simulated driving ability was assessed following administration of alcohol, at an estimated blood level of 0.05%, and combined prolonged wakefulness, while participants were undertaking divided attention tasks over a hands-free mobile phone. Divided attention tasks were structured to provide a sustained cognitive workload to the subjects. Twenty three young healthy individuals drove 10 km simulated driving under four conditions in a counterbalanced, within-subject design: alcohol, alcohol and 19 h wakefulness, alcohol and 24 h wakefulness, and while sober. Study measures were: simulated driving, self-reported sleepiness, critical flicker fusion threshold (CFFT), Stroop word-colour interference test (Stroop) and simple visual reaction times (SVRT). As expected, subjective sleepiness was highly correlated with both sleep restriction and alcohol consumption. The combination of alcohol and 24 h sustained wakefulness produced the highest driving impairment, significantly beyond the alcohol effect itself. Concurrent alcohol and 19 h wakefulness significantly affected only driving time-to-collision. No significant changes of study measures occurred following alcohol intake in unrestricted sleep conditions. CFFT, SVRT and Stroop results showed a similar trend in the four study conditions. Thus apparently 'safe' blood alcohol levels in combination with prolonged wakefulness resulted in significant driving impairments. In normal sleep conditions alcohol effects on driving were partially counteracted by the concomitant hands-free phone based psychometric tasks. 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Bullying among Young Children: Strategies for Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Emily; Tamburrino, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Bullying is an increasing problem within childcare facilities, preschool programs, and public schools. As a result, many districts are instituting anti-bullying intervention programs. This article defines bullying and explains the direct and indirect forms it can take. First, it examines research on bullying during the beginning years of school.…

  16. University Students' Intentions to Report Cyberbullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozencroft, Kelly; Campbell, Marilyn; Orel, Alexandria; Kimpton, Melanie; Leong, Eliza

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of cyberbullying among university students and less about whether they utilise anti-bullying policies. However, failure to report cyberbullying incidents to authorities would lessen the efficacy of these policies. This study investigated the prevalence of cyberbullying among university students and their…

  17. Perceived Connections between Anti-Social Gateway Behaviors and School Bullying and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grell, Brett Stanley; Meyer, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine and compare opinions of 8th and 9th grade teachers and students regarding the prevalence of anti-social/gateway behaviors in their classrooms, the perceived connection between these behaviors and more traditional forms of bullying, and the potential impact of school-wide anti-bullying programs specifically…

  18. December 2012 Policy Update: School Climate and Bully Prevention Trends State-by-State Assessment. School Climate Brief, Number 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellizio, Dan

    2012-01-01

    This December 2012 Brief updates NSCC's 2011 report "State Policies on School Climate and Bully Prevention Efforts: Challenges and Opportunities for Deepening State Policy Support for Safe and Civil School"s (www.schoolclimate.org/climate/papers-briefs.php). This Brief provides a summary of State level: (1) anti-bullying legislation; (2)…

  19. More than a Safe Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Over the past three decades, much of the conversation about LGBTQ students in schools has centered on safety--anti-bullying policies, the "safe space" of gay-straight alliances, and "safe zones" marked by rainbow-colored stickers on classroom doors. In this article, Michael Sadowski argues that it's time to move beyond safety…

  20. Bullying and Zero-Tolerance Policies: The School to Prison Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlowitz, Marvin J.; Frye, Rinda; Jette, Kelli M.

    2017-01-01

    The centrality of zero-tolerance policies as a component of anti-bullying strategies is the focus of this paper. A review of the literature of social justice advocates, journalists, and scholars reveals that zero-tolerance policies tend to push students out of public schools into the criminal justice system in a pattern of institutional racism.…

  1. Rethinking School Bullying: Towards an Integrated Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Roz; Smith, Peter K.

    2011-01-01

    What would make anti-bullying initiatives more successful? This book offers a new approach to the problem of school bullying. The question of what constitutes a useful theory of bullying is considered and suggestions are made as to how priorities for future research might be identified. The integrated, systemic model of school bullying introduced…

  2. Rethinking Safe Schools Approaches for LGBTQ Students: Changing the Questions We Ask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Elizabethe; Smith, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    In this article the authors address the limitations of framing "the problem" of in-school LGBTQ harassment within dominant anti-bullying discourses. They offer a critical sociological framework as an alternative way of understanding the issues of LGBTQ harassment and propose a research agenda in which school culture and gender policing are the…

  3. Dear Colleague Letter Harassment and Bullying (October 26, 2010). Background, Summary, and Fast Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Dear Colleague Letter (DCL) does the following: (1) Clarifies the relationship between bullying and discriminatory harassment under the civil rights laws enforced by the Department of Education's (ED) Office for Civil Rights (OCR); (2) Explains how student misconduct that falls under an anti-bullying policy also may trigger responsibilities…

  4. Get your virtual hands off me! - Developing threatening IVAs using haptic feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedschalk, L.F.; Bosse, T.; Otte, M.; Verheij, B.; Wiering, M.

    2018-01-01

    Intelligent Virtual Agents (IVAs) become widely used for numerous applications, varying from healthcare decision support to communication training. In several of such applications, it is useful if IVAs have the ability to take a negative stance towards the user, for instance for anti-bullying or

  5. 76 FR 54746 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... Development Type of Review: New. Title of Collection: Analysis of State Bullying Laws and Policies. OMB... conducting an analysis of bullying laws and policies. Evaluation, Management and Training Associates, Inc. is... anti- bullying laws and policies. The purpose of the study is to describe bullying policy...

  6. 76 FR 31943 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ..., Evaluation and Policy Development Type of Review: New. Title of Collection: Analysis of State Bullying Laws... bullying laws and policies. The field data collection portion of the study will involve case studies conducted in 24 school sites nationwide to document state and local implementation of anti-bullying laws and...

  7. School Policies on Bullying and Cyberbullying: Perspectives across Three Australian States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Caitlin; Campbell, Marilyn Anne; Spears, Barbara A; Butler, Des; Cross, Donna; Slee, Phillip; Kift, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite decades of research, bullying in all its forms is still a significant problem within schools in Australia, as it is internationally. Anti-bullying policies and guidelines are thought to be one strategy as part of a whole school approach to reduce bullying. However, although Australian schools are required to have these…

  8. An Evaluation of the Antibullying Program at a Public Suburban High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This project study addressed the problem of harassment, intimidation, and bullying (HIB) at a public suburban high school in the Northeast United States. The study school implemented the Anti-bullying Program in September 2011, yet no evaluation had been conducted on whether the program was meeting its goals. Two conceptual frameworks that drove…

  9. EFFECTS OF THE GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISIS IN THE BANKING SYSTEM OF KOSOVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrvete Badivuku-Pantina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Financial crises are phenomena that happened before and continue to happen even nowadays. There were many financial crises in the last century, starting with the Great Depression of 1929 and continuing with other financial crisis, and it was believed that people would learn from their previous experiences and would not allow the crisis to happen again. But the financial crisis of 2007, created the impression that no one wanted to learn for the real causes of their occurrence and consequences, often disastrous for countries and the globe, and as such allowed the crisis to be repeated. Effects of the 2007 financial crisis, which originally started in the USA’s mortgage market and which was quickly spread all over the world, even to this date it still continues to have effect on real economies of many states, e.g. Greece. The spread of the crisis was primarily due to globalization and commercial trades among countries. Because of the dependence of economies on one another it was created the domino effect and all the countries were affected from the crisis. As a result, the crisis seems to have revealed the disadvantages of globalization. Finances of the world were shocked and rapid fluctuations were reflected in the stock prices. Kosovo, as a new and small country in the Western Balkans is not much globalized and open which was beneficial in preventing it from being affected from the global financial crisis. Its economy has slightly felt the effect of the crisis because the banking system in Kosovo is not much open to the international financial markets as they operate mostly with their clients’ deposits. The purpose of this research is to assess the implications of the global financial crisis in the banking system of Kosovo, and also to identify the measures that the Central Bank and the Government should undertake in order to protect the economy from external implications.

  10. Cancer Care Coordinators to Improve Tamoxifen Persistence in Breast Cancer: How Heterogeneity in Baseline Prognosis Impacts on Cost-Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Nisha; Kvizhinadze, Giorgi; Blakely, Tony

    2016-12-01

    To assess the cost-effectiveness of a cancer care coordinator (CCC) in helping women with estrogen receptor positive (ER+) early breast cancer persist with tamoxifen for 5 years. We investigated the cost-effectiveness of a CCC across eight breast cancer subtypes, defined by progesterone receptor (PR) status, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status, and local/regional spread. These subtypes range from excellent to poorer prognoses. The CCC helped in improving tamoxifen persistence by providing information, checking-in by phone, and "troubleshooting" concerns. We constructed a Markov macrosimulation model to estimate health gain (in quality-adjusted life-years or QALYs) and health system costs in New Zealand, compared with no CCC. Participants were modeled until death or till the age of 110 years. Some input parameters (e.g., the impact of a CCC on tamoxifen persistence) had sparse evidence. Therefore, we used estimates with generous uncertainty and conducted sensitivity analyses. The cost-effectiveness of a CCC for regional ER+/PR-/HER2+ breast cancer (worst prognosis) was NZ $23,400 (US $15,800) per QALY gained, compared with NZ $368,500 (US $248,800) for local ER+/PR+/HER2- breast cancer (best prognosis). Using a cost-effectiveness threshold of NZ $45,000 (US $30,400) per QALY, a CCC would be cost-effective only in the four subtypes with the worst prognoses. There is value in investigating cost-effectiveness by different subtypes within a disease. In this example of breast cancer, the poorer the prognosis, the greater the health gains from a CCC and the better the cost-effectiveness. Incorporating heterogeneity in a cost-utility analysis is important and can inform resource allocation decisions. It is also feasible to undertake in practice. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cost effective decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasinger, Karl

    2012-01-01

    As for any large and complex project, the basis for cost effective decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear power plants is established with the development of the project. Just as its construction, dismantling of a nuclear power plant is similarly demanding. Daily changing situations due to the progress of construction - in the present case progress of dismantling - result in significant logistical challenges for project managers and site supervisors. This will be aggravated by the fact that a considerable amount of the removed parts are contaminated or even activated. Hence, not only occupational health, safety and environmental protection is to be assured, employees, public and environment are to be adequately protected against the adverse effect of radioactive radiation as well. Work progress and not least expenses involved with the undertaking depend on adherence to the planned course of actions. Probably the most frequent cause of deviation from originally planned durations and costs of a project are disruptions in the flow of work. For being enabled to counteract in a timely and efficient manner, all required activities are to be comprehensively captured with the initial planning. The effect initial activities may have on subsequent works until completion must particularly be investigated. This is the more important the larger and more complex the project actually are. Comprehensive knowledge of all the matters which may affect the progress of the works is required in order to set up a suitable work break-down structure; such work break-down structure being indispensable for successful control and monitoring of the project. In building the related organizational structure of the project, all such stakeholders not being direct part of the project team but which may potentially affect the progress of the project are to be considered as well. Cost effective and lost time injury free dismantling of decommissioned nuclear power plants is based on implementing

  12. Systems effectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    Habayeb, A R

    1987-01-01

    Highlights three principal applications of system effectiveness: hardware system evaluation, organizational development and evaluation, and conflict analysis. The text emphasizes the commonality of the system effectiveness discipline. The first part of the work presents a framework for system effectiveness, partitioning and hierarchy of hardware systems. The second part covers the structure, hierarchy, states, functions and activities of organizations. Contains an extended Appendix on mathematical concepts and also several project suggestions.

  13. "Further Effects"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinigstein, Steven Michael

    In writing Further Effects, I intended to illustrate the benefits that are to be had from the use of effects - processing, when applied at the compositional level, rather than as a post-compositional afterthought. When effects are used creatively in the compositional stage, they will influence the very nature of a piece. They are capable of expressing rhythmic and metric ideas. They can alter the natural timbre of an instrument. This can be done on levels of abstraction ranging from discreet subtlety to disguise beyond recognition. There is one effect (known as "pitch shift.") that allows an instrument to play pitches that are well outside of its range. In Further Effects, I direct the performers to use a volume pedal (which I view as a tool, rather than an effect) for the broadened creative use of dynamics that it so efficiently grants. The use of an effects processor and volume pedal creates a need for ancillary equipment. An amplifier, cables, and an electric hook-up (a microphone or a pickup) will be required for each instrument. While an amplifier serves to project the processed sound, there must also be a device or method to suppress unprocessed sound. A great deal of thought and work goes into the use of effects; yet I feel it is wasteful to use this musical resource merely as post-compositional decoration.

  14. Antifatigue Effect of Luteolin-6-C-Neohesperidoside on Oxidative Stress Injury Induced by Forced Swimming of Rats through Modulation of Nrf2/ARE Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-fang Duan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Luteolin-6-C-neohesperidoside (LN is a flavonoid isolated from moso bamboo leaf. This study was performed to evaluate the antifatigue effect of LN on a rat model undergoing the weight-loaded forced swimming test (FST. Briefly, male Sprague-Dawley rats (20–22 weeks old were forced to undertake exhaustive swimming every other day for 3 weeks. Each swimming session was followed by the administration of distilled water, LN (25–75 mg/kg, or ascorbic acid (100 mg/kg 1 h later. Oral administration of LN significantly improved exercise endurance; normalized alterations in energy metabolic markers; and decreased serum lactic acid, lactate dehydrogenase, and blood urea nitrogen levels of rats that underwent FST. Moreover, LN enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant capacity, as measured by enzyme activity assays, RT-PCR, and Western blotting, as well as decreasing the levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, and IL-6 and increasing the level of anti-inflammatory (IL-10 in the liver and skeletal muscle. These results suggested that LN reduces both physical and mental effects of chronic fatigue, probably by attenuating oxidative stress injury and inflammatory responses in the liver and skeletal muscle. This study thus supports the use of LN in functional foods for antifatigue and antioxidant effects.

  15. Antifatigue Effect of Luteolin-6-C-Neohesperidoside on Oxidative Stress Injury Induced by Forced Swimming of Rats through Modulation of Nrf2/ARE Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Fang-Fang; Guo, Ying; Li, Jing-Wan; Yuan, Ke

    2017-01-01

    Luteolin-6-C-neohesperidoside (LN) is a flavonoid isolated from moso bamboo leaf. This study was performed to evaluate the antifatigue effect of LN on a rat model undergoing the weight-loaded forced swimming test (FST). Briefly, male Sprague-Dawley rats (20-22 weeks old) were forced to undertake exhaustive swimming every other day for 3 weeks. Each swimming session was followed by the administration of distilled water, LN (25-75 mg/kg), or ascorbic acid (100 mg/kg) 1 h later. Oral administration of LN significantly improved exercise endurance; normalized alterations in energy metabolic markers; and decreased serum lactic acid, lactate dehydrogenase, and blood urea nitrogen levels of rats that underwent FST. Moreover, LN enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant capacity, as measured by enzyme activity assays, RT-PCR, and Western blotting, as well as decreasing the levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor- α , interleukin-1 β (IL-1 β ), and IL-6 and increasing the level of anti-inflammatory (IL-10) in the liver and skeletal muscle. These results suggested that LN reduces both physical and mental effects of chronic fatigue, probably by attenuating oxidative stress injury and inflammatory responses in the liver and skeletal muscle. This study thus supports the use of LN in functional foods for antifatigue and antioxidant effects.

  16. Improving the effectiveness of planning EIA (PEIA) in China: Integrating planning and assessment during the preparation of Shenzhen's Master Urban Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Che Xiuzhen; English, Alex; Lu Jia; Chen, Yongqin David

    2011-01-01

    The enactment and implementation of the 2003 EIA Law in China institutionalised the role of plan environmental impact assessment (PEIA). While the philosophy, methodology and mechanisms of PEIA have gradually permeated through the various levels of government with a positive effect on the process and outcome of urban planning, only a few cities in China have so far carried out PEIA as a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)-type procedure. One such case is the southern city of Shenzhen. During the past three decades, Shenzhen has grown from a small town to a large and booming city as China has successfully and rapidly developed its economy by adopting the 'reform and open door' policy. In response to the challenges arising from the generally divergent processes of rapid urbanisation, economic transformation and environment protection, Shenzhen has incrementally adopted the SEA concept in developing the city's Master Urban Plan. As such, this paper reviews the effectiveness of PEIA in three ways: ·as a tool and process for achieving more sustainable and strategic planning; ·to determine the level of integration of SEA within the planning system; and, ·its effectiveness vis-a-vis implementation. The implementation of PEIA within Shenzhen's Master Urban Plan offers important insights into the emergence of innovative practices in undertaking PEIA as well as theoretical contributions to the field, especially in exploring the relationship between PEIA and SEA and highlighting the central role of local governing institutions in SEA development.

  17. Health education programs may be as effective as exercise intervention on improving health-related quality of life among Japanese people over 65 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamari, Kotaro; Kawamura, Kenji; Sato, Mitsuya; Harada, Kazuhiro

    2012-09-01

    The current study was aimed to examine the short-term effects of a 3-month health education program on health-related quality of life using the Short-Form 36. Twenty-five Japanese older people aged 65 and older in the health education program were compared with two historical control groups (n = 25 each) undertaking group and resistance exercise interventions and matched by age, sex and body mass index. A series of split-design two-way analyses of variance were conducted for data analysis. Significant improvements were observed in general health and vitality subscales of the Short-Form 36 in the educational program group. Multivariate analyses, adjusted for several confounding factors, revealed that the effects of the three programs were comparable. The findings suggest that a structured 3-month educational program may be as effective as exercise interventions in improving general health and vitality in a community-dwelling Japanese older population. © 2011 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2011 ACOTA.

  18. An exploratory discrete-time multilevel analysis of the effect of social support on the survival of elderly people in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhixin; Jones, Kelvyn; Wang, Wenfei Winnie

    2015-01-01

    This study undertakes a survival analysis of elderly persons in China using Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey 2002–2008. Employing discrete-time multilevel models, we explored the effect of social support on the survival of elderly people in China. This study focuses on objective (living arrangements and received support) and subjective activities (perceived support) of social support, finding that the effect of different activities of social support on the survival of elderly people varies according to the availability of different support resources. Specifically, living with a spouse, financial independence, perceiving care support from any resource is associated with higher survival rates for elderly people. Separate analysis focusing on urban elderly and rural elderly revealed broadly similar results. There is a larger difference between those perceiving care support from family or social service and not perceiving care support in urban areas comparing to those in rural areas. Those who cannot pay medical expenses are the least likely to survive. The higher level of economic development in province has no significant effect on the survival of elderly people for the whole sample model and the elderly people in urban areas; however, there is a negative influence on the survival of the rural elderly people. PMID:25703671

  19. Towards more effective academic liaison between academics, students and practitioners in the field of public administration and management in the North West Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nealer

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In the light of the changing tertiary education arena in South Africa, the Department of Public Management and Governance in the School for Social and Government Studies of the Arts Faculty, North-West University (NWU had to revisit its policy on macro organisational aspects. Issues such as more effective communication mediums, the merging and alignment of the University’s three campuses, the nature of the ever-increasing competition in the tertiary residential and distance teaching environment, the range, variety and quality of its products and the facilitation and rendering of an improved tertiary teaching service were identified. In this article the typical nature of the intra, inter and extra academic liaison regarding the Department at NWU are highlighted and some recommendations on more effective communication and work procedures as a result of academic liaison are presented. Examples being that academics and practitioners need to meet more frequently, upgrade effective communication media among them and undertake joint research in a more cooperative manner.

  20. Cost-effectiveness of microscopy of urethral smears for asymptomatic Mycoplasma genitalium urethritis in men in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Andrew J; Roberts, Tracy E; Jackson, Louise; Saunders, John; White, Peter J; Birger, Ruthie; Estcourt, Claudia

    2018-01-01

    The objective was to determine whether or not the limited use of urethral microscopy to diagnose asymptomatic and symptomatic non-chlamydial, non-gonococcal urethritis (NCNGU) in men is a cost-effective strategy to avert pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy or infertility in female partners. Outputs from a transmission dynamic model of NCNGU in a population of 16-30 year olds in England simulating the number of consultations, PID cases and patients treated over time amongst others, were used along with secondary data to undertake a cost-effectiveness analysis carried out from a health care provider perspective. The main outcome measure was cost per case of PID averted. A secondary outcome measure was cost per major outcome averted, where a major outcome is a case of symptomatic PID, ectopic pregnancy, or infertility. Offering a limited number of asymptomatic men urethral microscopy was more effective than the current practice of no microscopy in terms of reducing the number of cases of PID with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of £15,700, meaning that an investment of £15,800 is required to avert one case of PID. For major outcomes averted, offering some asymptomatic men urethral microscopy was again found to be more effective than no microscopy, but here an investment of £49,900 is required to avert one major outcome. Testing asymptomatic men for NCNGU in a small number of genitourinary medicine settings in England is not cost-effective, and thus by maintaining the current practice of not offering this patient group microscopy, this continues to make savings for the health care provider.

  1. Mentoring Clinical-Year Medical Students: Factors Contributing to Effective Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallatah, Hind I; Soo Park, Yoon; Farsi, Jamila; Tekian, Ara

    2018-01-01

    Theory: Academic mentoring is an effective method of enhancing undergraduate medical student academic performance, research productivity, career planning, and overall satisfaction. Hypotheses: This study investigates the relationship between mentor characteristics and mentee academic performance, with an emphasis on identifying students who need special support. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among fourth-year medical students at King Abdulaziz University Faculty of Medicine undertaking the clinical skills module (CSM) rotation. Mentors included senior and junior faculty members from the Department of Internal Medicine and the Department of Family Medicine. King Abdulaziz University Faculty of Medicine assigned 1 mentor for every 10 medical students. We organized our mentoring program in the following format: (1) an initial group meeting (mentor with all 10 medical students) and (2) subsequent one-on-one meetings (mentor with each mentee alone). We assessed mentor characteristics, student academic performance and satisfaction, and the rate of mentees referred for special support. Results: A total of 184 students completed the CSM rotation. Among these, 90 students responded to the preprogram survey, with 83% reporting that mentoring was important to them. Group meetings and one-on-one meetings were attended by 60% and 49% of all students, respectively. The most frequent type of support required by the participating students was psychological support (12% of mentees). Participation in the mentoring program had no significant effect on student academic performance. Mentor seniority (P = .024) and motivation (P = .002) were significantly associated with the rate of student referral for special support. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that academic mentoring can be effective in enhancing student outcomes and promoting special support for students. Moreover, mentor and mentee motivation were found to be essential elements of a successful

  2. Utilizing data consortia to monitor safety and effectiveness of biosimilars and their innovator products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldziki, Mike; Brown, Jeff; Chan, Hungching; Cheetham, T Craig; Conn, Thomas; Daniel, Gregory W; Hendrickson, Mark; Hilbrich, Lutz; Johnson, Ayanna; Miller, Steven B; Moore, Tom; Motheral, Brenda; Priddy, Sarah A; Raebel, Marsha A; Randhawa, Gurvaneet; Surratt, Penny; Walraven, Cheryl; White, T Jeff; Bruns, Kevin; Carden, Mary Jo; Dragovich, Charlie; Eichelberger, Bernadette; Rosato, Edith; Sega, Todd

    2015-01-01

    The Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act, introduced as part of the Affordable Care Act, directed the FDA to create an approval pathway for biologic products shown to be biosimilar or interchangeable with an FDA-approved innovator drug. These biosimilars will not be chemically identical to the reference agent. Investigational studies conducted with biosimilar agents will likely provide limited real-world evidence of their effectiveness and safety. How do we best monitor effectiveness and safety of biosimilar products once approved by the FDA and used more extensively by patients? To determine the feasibility of developing a distributed research network that will use health insurance plan and health delivery system data to detect biosimilar safety and effectiveness signals early and be able to answer important managed care pharmacy questions from both the government and managed care organizations. Twenty-one members of the AMCP Task Force on Biosimilar Collective Intelligence Systems met November 12, 2013, to discuss issues involved in designing this consortium and to explore next steps. The task force concluded that a managed care biosimilars research consortium would be of significant value. Task force members agreed that it is best to use a distributed research network structurally similar to existing DARTNet, HMO Research Network, and Mini-Sentinel consortia. However, for some surveillance projects that it undertakes, the task force recognizes it may need supplemental data from managed care and other sources (i.e., a "hybrid" structure model). The task force believes that AMCP is well positioned to lead the biosimilar-monitoring effort and that the next step to developing a biosimilar-innovator collective intelligence system is to convene an advisory council to address organizational governance.

  3. The chronic effects of fish oil with exercise on postprandial lipaemia and chylomicron homeostasis in insulin resistant viscerally obese men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slivkoff-Clark Karin M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral obesity and insulin resistance are associated with a postprandial accumulation of atherogenic chylomicron remnants that is difficult to modulate with lipid-lowering therapies. Dietary fish oil and exercise are cardioprotective interventions that can significantly modify the metabolism of TAG-rich lipoproteins. In this study, we investigated whether chronic exercise and fish oil act in combination to affect chylomicron metabolism in obese men with moderate insulin resistance. Methods The single blind study tested the effect of fish oil, exercise and the combined treatments on fasting and postprandial chylomicron metabolism. Twenty nine men with metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned to take fish oil or placebo for four weeks, before undertaking an additional 12 week walking program. At baseline and at the end of each treatment, subjects were tested for concentrations of fasting apo B48, plasma lipids and insulin. Postprandial apo B48 and TAG kinetics were also determined following ingestion of a fat enriched meal. Results Combining fish oil and exercise resulted in a significant reduction in the fasting apo B48 concentration, concomitant with attenuation of fasting TAG concentrations and the postprandial TAGIAUC response (p Conclusion Fish oil was shown to independently improve plasma TAG homeostasis but did not resolve hyper-chylomicronaemia. Instead, combining fish oil with chronic exercise reduced the plasma concentration of pro-atherogenic chylomicron remnants; in addition it reduced the fasting and postprandial TAG response in viscerally obese insulin resistant subjects.

  4. Do beef risk perceptions or risk attitudes have a greater effect on the beef purchase decisions of Canadian consumers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Goddard, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Cluster analysis is applied in this study to group Canadian households by two characteristics, their risk perceptions and risk attitudes toward beef. There are some similarities in demographic profiles, meat purchases, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) media recall between the cluster that perceives beef to be the most risky and the cluster that has little willingness to accept the risks of eating beef. There are similarities between the medium risk perception cluster and the medium risk attitude cluster, as well as between the cluster that perceives beef to have little risk and the cluster that is most willing to accept the risks of eating beef. Regression analysis shows that risk attitudes have a larger impact on household-level beef purchasing decisions than do risk perceptions for all consumer clusters. This implies that it may be more effective to undertake policies that reduce the risks associated with eating beef, instead of enhancing risk communication to improve risk perceptions. Only for certain clusters with higher willingness to accept the risks of eating beef might enhancing risk communication increase beef consumption significantly. The different role of risk perceptions and risk attitudes in beef consumption needs to be recognized during the design of risk management policies.

  5. Investigation of landslide potential parameters on Zonguldak-Ereğli Highway and adverse effects of landslides in the region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Eray

    2014-04-01

    Landslides are natural phenomena in the same class of natural disasters as earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, erosion, and volcanic eruptions that adversely affect human lives and property. Owing to their widespread occurrence, landslides are easily visible and able to be partially understood by people witnessing them. Nevertheless, to comprehend the detail of their formation and determine their potential, it is necessary to undertake geodetic, geological, and geophysical measurements in regions prone to landslides. By analyzing these measurements, it is possible to better ascertain those regions predisposed to landslides and thus provide the means to prevent loss of life and property. The city of Zonguldak, situated in the Western Black Sea region of Turkey, has a high occurrence of landslides owing to its harsh topography with rugged and steep slopes and rainfall in almost every season. Furthermore, the diurnal temperature ranging up to 10 °C in all seasons, especially in winter, plays a crucial role in rock disintegration in this region. Other factors damage ground composition and trigger landslides, such as underground mining operations, road construction that collapses rocky hills using explosives, and excavation works in steep terrain for building construction. This study gives a detailed account of the causes and adverse effects of landslides and their parameters through examples of landslide occurrences in the region, together with the results and analyses of two periods of geodetic measurements conducted on the Zonguldak-Ereğli Highway in Ilıksu district.

  6. Views of Information Technologies Teachers Regarding Effects of Education Received in the University on the Professional Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat BAHÇECİ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available According to Article 43 of the National Education Basic Law No: 1739, teaching is a specialty profession, which undertakes the educational and relevant administration tasks of the government. Preparation to the profession of teaching is provided through general knowledge, special field education, and pedagogical formation. Today, the task of training teachers is undertaken by the relevant Education Faculties and Faculties of Technical Education in the universities (Gizemlikapı, 2012. Do the faculties sustain this duty successfully enough? Is a person, assuming the title of teacher, able to have the basic knowledge about related duty and field? This education plays a very important role especially for a frequently-updated department like Information Technologies. All these questions constitute the main problem of the study. There are numerous faculties which train Information Technologies Teachers in our country. The education provided in these faculties enables the pre-service teachers to get acquainted with and learn their fields and obtain field information. However, the education provided does not always give the same result in every student. The purpose of this study is to measure the contribution of this education, which teachers receive, to the professional life. 36 questionnaire forms were filled by Information Technologies Teachers in Elazığ Province and 29 questionnaire forms were filled by teachers outside of the province via internet. According to findings of the study, it was concluded that the education, which teachers receive in the university, has positive effects on the professional life

  7. The effectiveness of specialist roles in mental health metabolic monitoring: a retrospective cross-sectional comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Brian; Furness, Trentham; Wallace, Elizabeth; Happell, Brenda; Stanton, Robert; Platania-Phung, Chris; Edward, Karen-leigh; Castle, David

    2014-09-02

    People with serious mental illness (SMI) exhibit a high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases. Mental health services have a responsibility to address poor physical health in their consumers. One way of doing this is to conduct metabolic monitoring (MM) of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. This study compares two models of MM among consumers with SMI and describes referral pathways for those at high risk of cardiovascular diseases. A retrospective cross-sectional comparison design was used. The two models were: (1) MM integrated with case managers, and (2) MM integrated with case managers and specialist roles. Retrospective data were collected for all new episodes at two community mental health services (CMHS) over a 12-month period (September 2012 - August 2013). A total of 432 consumers with SMI across the two community mental health services were included in the analysis. At the service with the specialist roles, MM was undertaken for 78% of all new episode consumers, compared with 3% at the mental health service with case managers undertaking the role. Incomplete MM was systemic to both CMHS, although all consumers identified with high risk of cardiovascular diseases were referred to a general practitioner or other community based health services. The specialist roles enabled more varied referral options. The results of this study support incorporating specialist roles over case manager only roles for more effective MM among new episode consumers with SMI.

  8. Effects of training on collagen fibril populations in the suspensory ligament and deep digital flexor tendon of young thoroughbreds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson-Kane, J C; Firth, E C; Parry, D A; Wilson, A M; Goodship, A E

    1998-01-01

    To determine the effect of a specific galloping exercise regimen on collagen fibril mass-average diameters (MAD) in the deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT) and suspensory ligament (SL) of young Thoroughbreds. 12 Thoroughbred fillies, 21 +/- 1 (mean +/- SD) months old. 6 horses underwent a specific 18-month treadmill training program involving galloping exercise. The remaining 6 horses served as controls, undertaking low-volume walking exercise over the same period. Sections were excised from the midpoint of the DDFT and SL, and small strips were dissected from central and peripheral locations for each structure. Fibril diameters were measured from micrographs of transverse ultrathin sections, using a computerized image analysis program. An MAD value was calculated for the central and peripheral regions of the DDFT and SL for each horse. Values for both regions were compared between exercised and control horses. The MAD did not change significantly with exercise for either the DDFT or the SL. Loading of the DDFT as a result of this exercise regimen was not sufficient to stimulate collagen fibril hypertrophy, in keeping with current data that indicate this tendon, compared with the SL and superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT), is subjected to low loads. Microtrauma, in terms of reduction in fibril MAD, may have occurred in the SL at a site different from that sampled. Another possibility is that, between the trot and the gallop, loading of the SL does not increase to the same extent as that of the SDFT.

  9. Examining the effect of state anxiety on compensatory and strategic adjustments in the planning of goal-directed aiming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James W; Wilson, Mark R; Skultety, Jessica K; Lyons, James L

    2018-04-01

    The anxiety-perceptual-motor performance relationship may be enriched by investigations involving discrete manual responses due to the definitive demarcation of planning and control processes, which comprise the early and late portions of movement, respectively. To further examine the explanatory power of self-focus and distraction theories, we explored the potential of anxiety causing changes to movement planning that accommodate for anticipated negative effects in online control. As a result, we posed two hypotheses where anxiety causes performers to initially undershoot the target and enable more time to use visual feedback ("play-it-safe"), or fire a ballistic reach to cover a greater distance without later undertaking online control ("go-for-it"). Participants were tasked with an upper-limb movement to a single target under counter-balanced instructions to execute fast and accurate responses (low/normal anxiety) with non-contingent negative performance feedback (high anxiety). The results indicated that the previously identified negative impact of anxiety in online control was replicated. While anxiety caused a longer displacement to reach peak velocity and greater tendency to overshoot the target, there appeared to be no shift in the attempts to utilise online visual feedback. Thus, the tendency to initially overshoot may manifest from an inefficient auxiliary procedure that manages to uphold overall movement time and response accuracy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification of the Thickness of Nugget on Worksheet Spot Welding Using Non Destructive Test (NDT) - Effect of Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifa, A.; Baskoro, A. S.; Sugeng, S.; Badruzzaman, B.; Endramawan, T.

    2018-02-01

    Resistance Spot Welding (RSW) is a process of connecting between two worksheet with thermomechanical loading process, RSW is widely used in automotive industry, the quality of splicing spot welding is influenced by several factors. One of the factors at the time of the welding process is pressure. The quality of welding on the nuggets can be determined by undertaking non-destructive testing by using Non Destructive Test (NDT) - Ultrasonic Test. In the NDT test is done by detecting the thickness of the nugget area, the purpose of research conducted to determine the effect of pressure to welding quality with Nugget thickness gauge measurement with Non Destructive Test method and manual measurement with micrometer, Experimental welding process by entering the welding parameters that have been specified and pressure variables 1 -5 bars on the worksheet thickness of 1 mm. The results of testing with NDT show there is addition of thickness in nugget superiority after compare with measurement result of thickness of nugget with micrometer which slightly experience thickness in nugget area, this indicates that the welding results have a connection between worksheet 1 and worksheet 2.

  11. Greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This special issue is devoted to the greenhouse effect and reviews the possible climate change by mankind, paleoclimates, climate models, measurement of terrestrial temperature, CO 2 concentration and energy policy

  12. Biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, K.R.

    1973-01-01

    Following an introduction into the field of cellular radiation effect considering the most important experimental results, the biological significance of the colony formation ability is brought out. The inactivation concept of stem cells does not only prove to be good, according to the present results, in the interpretation of the pathogenesis of acute radiation effects on moult tissue, it also enables chronicle radiation injuries to be interpreted through changes in the fibrous part of the organs. Radiation therapy of tumours can also be explained to a large extent by the radiation effect on the unlimited reproductiveness of tumour cells. The more or less similar dose effect curves for healthy and tumour tissue in practice lead to intermittent irradiation. The dependence of the intermittent doses and intervals on factors such as Elkind recovery, synchronisation, redistribution, reoxygenation, repopulation and regeneration are reviewed. (ORU/LH) [de

  13. Effective Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Jacob

    To investigate the use of VTLoE as a basis for formal derivation of functional programs with effects. As a part of the process, a number of issues central to effective formal programming are considered. In particular it is considered how to develop a proof system suitable for pratical reasoning......, how to implement this system in the generic proof assistant Isabelle and finally how to apply the logic and the implementation to programming....

  14. Facebook Effect

    OpenAIRE

    STOICA, Anamaria

    2011-01-01

    This research paper is intended to understand the effects that Facebook, the social networking site has upon us, whether it influences our lives in a good or in a bad way. In order to understand the Facebook Effect we are trying to see how it impacts our lives at economic level,social level, political level, terminology level , psychological level and cultural level . Starting from the question : What does Facebook want? we found several answers consisting in pros and cons of this phenomenon ...

  15. Effective leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Vávrová, Zuzana

    2010-01-01

    In my bachelor thesis I describe problems of effective leadership in organization in relation with organization's objectives filling. I focus here on main principles of leadership process. I characterize process of leadership and personality of leader, who is active executor of this process in organization. The effective leadership is here evaluated mainly from organization theory point of view and in relation with requirements to management, especially its relation with leadership and its de...

  16. Effectiveness of a facebook-delivered physical activity intervention for post-partum women: a randomized controlled trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernot, Jocelyn; Olds, Tim; Lewis, Lucy K; Maher, Carol

    2013-05-29

    Physical activity is reduced during the post-partum period. Facebook is frequently used by Australian mothers, and offers flexibility, high levels of engagement and the ability to disseminate information and advice via social contacts. The Mums Step it Up Program is a newly developed 50 day team-based physical activity intervention delivered via a Facebook app. The program involves post-partum women working in teams of 4-8 friends aiming to achieve 10,000 steps per day measured by a pedometer. Women are encouraged to use the app to log their daily steps and undertake social and supportive interactions with their friends and other participants. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of the Mums Step it Up Program. A sample of 126 women up to 12 months post-partum will be recruited through community-based health and family services. Participants will be randomly allocated into one of three groups: control, pedometer only and the Mums Step it Up Program. Assessments will be completed at baseline, 6 weeks and 6 months. The primary outcome (objective physical activity) and the secondary outcomes (sleep quality and quantity, depressive symptoms, weight and quality of life) will be used to determine the effectiveness of the Mums Step it Up Program compared with the control and pedometer only groups. Analyses will be undertaken on an intention-to-treat-basis using random effects mixed modeling. The effect of theorized mediators (physical activity attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control) will also be examined. This study will provide information about the potential of a Facebook app for the delivery of health behavior interventions. If this intervention proves to be effective it will be released on a mass scale and promoted to the general public. Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register: ACTRN12613000069752.

  17. Cost-Effectiveness and Value of Information Analysis of Brief Interventions to Promote Physical Activity in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gc, Vijay Singh; Suhrcke, Marc; Hardeman, Wendy; Sutton, Stephen; Wilson, Edward C F

    2018-01-01

    Brief interventions (BIs) delivered in primary care have shown potential to increase physical activity levels and may be cost-effective, at least in the short-term, when compared with usual care. Nevertheless, there is limited evidence on their longer term costs and health benefits. To estimate the cost-effectiveness of BIs to promote physical activity in primary care and to guide future research priorities using value of information analysis. A decision model was used to compare the cost-effectiveness of three classes of BIs that have been used, or could be used, to promote physical activity in primary care: 1) pedometer interventions, 2) advice/counseling on physical activity, and (3) action planning interventions. Published risk equations and data from the available literature or routine data sources were used to inform model parameters. Uncertainty was investigated with probabilistic sensitivity analysis, and value of information analysis was conducted to estimate the value of undertaking further research. In the base-case, pedometer interventions yielded the highest expected net benefit at a willingness to pay of £20,000 per quality-adjusted life-year. There was, however, a great deal of decision uncertainty: the expected value of perfect information surrounding the decision problem for the National Health Service Health Check population was estimated at £1.85 billion. Our analysis suggests that the use of pedometer BIs is the most cost-effective strategy to promote physical activity in primary care, and that there is potential value in further research into the cost-effectiveness of brief (i.e., <30 minutes) and very brief (i.e., <5 minutes) pedometer interventions in this setting. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Effective delegation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Li; Hung, Chich-Hsiu

    2008-12-01

    Ninety-seven percent of middle level managers feel they face work overload. The source of this problem may lie in a failure to delegate tasks effectively. If a manager does not effectively delegate, he/she is more likely to report fatigue, stress and depression. Conversely, effectively delegating tasks will improve overall job quality, professional growth in subordinates and cooperation within the team. While it is necessary for managers to delegate tasks effectively, few can be considered to be good natural 'delegators'. Learning and training is necessary for managers to develop the necessary confidence and maturity. This article describes the definitions, purpose and benefits of delegation; factors related to effective delegation; strategies related to successful delegation and skills related to performing cross-cultural delegations. Such issues have seldom been addressed in previous articles. Moreover, nursing implications and suggested applications in nursing practice, education, management and research are mentioned. This article is intended to provide directions to nursing managers and subordinates to promote delegation knowledge and skills.

  19. Protocol for a systematic review of the effects of schools and school-environment interventions on health: evidence mapping and syntheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonell, Chris; Harden, Angela; Wells, Helene; Jamal, Farah; Fletcher, Adam; Petticrew, Mark; Thomas, James; Whitehead, Margaret; Campbell, Rona; Murphy, Simon; Moore, Laurence

    2011-06-09

    Schools may have important effects on students' and staff's health. Rather than treating schools merely as sites for health education, 'school-environment' interventions treat schools as settings which influence health. Evidence concerning the effects of such interventions has not been recently synthesised. Systematic review aiming to map and synthesise evidence on what theories and conceptual frameworks are most commonly used to inform school-environment interventions or explain school-level influences on health; what effects school-environment interventions have on health/health inequalities; how feasible and acceptable are school-environment interventions; what effects other school-level factors have on health; and through what processes school-level influences affect health.We will examine interventions aiming to promote health by modifying schools' physical, social or cultural environment via actions focused on school policies and practices relating to education, pastoral care and other aspects of schools beyond merely providing health education. Participants are staff and students age 4-18 years.We will review published research unrestricted by language, year or source. Searching will involve electronic databases including Embase, ERIC, PubMed, PsycInfo and Social Science Citation Index using natural-language phrases plus reference/citation checking.Stage 1 will map studies descriptively by focus and methods. Stage 2 will involve additional inclusion criteria, quality assessment and data extraction undertaken by two reviewers in parallel. Evidence will be synthesised narratively and statistically where appropriate (undertaking subgroup analyses and meta-regression and where no significant heterogeneity of effect sizes is found, pooling these to calculate a final effect size). We anticipate: finding a large number of studies missed by previous reviews; that non-intervention studies of school effects examine a greater breadth of determinants than are addressed

  20. Treatment Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heckman, James J.; Lopes, Hedibert F.; Piatek, Rémi

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributes to the emerging Bayesian literature on treatment effects. It derives treatment parameters in the framework of a potential outcomes model with a treatment choice equation, where the correlation between the unobservable components of the model is driven by a low-dimensional v......This paper contributes to the emerging Bayesian literature on treatment effects. It derives treatment parameters in the framework of a potential outcomes model with a treatment choice equation, where the correlation between the unobservable components of the model is driven by a low...... to observe the same person in both the treated and untreated states, but it also turns out to be straightforward to implement. Formulae are provided to compute mean treatment effects as well as their distributional versions. A Monte Carlo simulation study is carried out to illustrate how the methodology can...

  1. A combination of traditional learning and e-learning can be more effective on radiological interpretation skills in medical students: a pre- and post-intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salajegheh, Ali; Jahangiri, Alborz; Dolan-Evans, Elliot; Pakneshan, Sahar

    2016-02-03

    The ability to interpret an X-Ray is a vital skill for graduating medical students which guides clinicians towards accurate diagnosis and treatment of the patient. However, research has suggested that radiological interpretation skills are less than satisfactory in not only medical students, but also in residents and consultants. This study investigated the effectiveness of e-learning for the development of X-ray interpretation skills in pre-clinical medical students. Competencies in clinical X-Ray interpretation were assessed by comparison of pre- and post-intervention scores and one year follow up assessment, where the e-learning course was the 'intervention'. Our results demonstrate improved knowledge and skills in X-ray interpretation in students. Assessment of the post training students showed significantly higher scores than the scores of control group of students undertaking the same assessment at the same time. The development of the Internet and advances in multimedia technologies has paved the way for computer-assisted education. As more rural clinical schools are established the electronic delivery of radiology teaching through websites will become a necessity. The use of e-learning to deliver radiology tuition to medical students represents an exciting alternative and is an effective method of developing competency in radiological interpretation for medical students.

  2. Degradation of the river flows and their surroundings under backwater effects of the HPP Iron Gate I - necessary reclamation and rehabilitation measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perisic, M.; Mitrovic-Tutundjic, V.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of ecological problems of the river Danube under backwater effects of the hydroenergetic power plant (HPP) Iron Gate I. Data collected during the period of almost two decades offer possibilities for understanding of the relevant phenomena that define the water quality changes and the state of the ecosystem in this part of the river flow, effects of water purification and consequences of this process connected to high level of anthropogenic influences. This long period enables undertaking urgent measures that are necessary for the system in the context of enormous problems that are becoming more complex as time passed by. Attempts to use analyzed information to change the attitude of the authorities which was based on incorrect prognosis and results of systematic, several decades long investigations of official organizations failed to give positive results till now. Since without adequate knowledge it is impossible to plan protection measures and rehabilitation of the system, and also estimate the damage made by NATO bombing, necessity for applying experience and results tested by relevant professionals from the Danubian and broader region is emphasized. (author)

  3. Teaching company law to business students::an effective framework

    OpenAIRE

    Madhloom, Omar; Butler, Nicolette

    2015-01-01

    Business students learning company law face a number of unique challenges. Therefore, instructors who teach company law to business students must carefully consider how their courses will meet these unique needs. This article will reflect on the challenges faced by business students studying company law before going on to consider how these challenges can be overcome. This work emphasises the importance of focusing on the learning outcomes of business students undertaking company law and the ...

  4. Genetic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Hiroo

    1975-01-01

    In 1948-1953 a large scale field survey was conducted to investigate the possible genetic effects of A-bomb radiation on over 70,000 pregnancy terminations in the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The indices of possible genetic effect including sex ratio, birth weight, frequency of malformation, stillbirth, neonatal death, deaths within 9 months and anthropometric measurements at 9 months of age for these children were investigated in relation to their parent's exposure status to the A-bomb. There were no detectable genetic effects in this sample, except for a slight change in sex ratio which was in the direction to be expected if exposure had induced sex-linked lethal mutations. However, continued study of the sex ratio, based upon birth certificates in Hiroshima and Nagasaki for 1954-1962, did not confirm the earlier trend. Mortality in these children of A-bomb survivors is being followed using a cohort of 54,000 subjects. No clearly significant effect of parental exposure on survival of the children has been demonstrated up to 1972 (age 17 on the average). On the basis of the regression data, the minimal genetic doubling dose of this type of radiation for mutations resulting in death is estimated at 46 rem for the father and 125 rem for the mother. (auth.)

  5. Ventilation Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mundt, M.; Mathisen, H. M.; Moser, M.

    Improving the ventilation effectiveness allows the indoor air quality to be significantly enhanced without the need for higher air changes in the building, thereby avoiding the higher costs and energy consumption associated with increasing the ventilation rates. This Guidebook provides easy-to-un...

  6. Listening Effectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freshour, Frank W.

    1987-01-01

    Research indicates that people spend roughly 45 to 65 percent of their waking moments listening to other persons. To help administrators improve their listening effectiveness, a format to develop a profile of personal listening styles is provided. The strengths and weaknesses of six different listening styles are explored along with ways to…

  7. Effective Consumerism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Mabel

    This module, consisting of materials for use in conducting a consumer education mini-course, deals with effective consumerism. Covered in the individual lessons are the following topics: being prepared with information (sources of consumer information and subscription forms); evaluating warranties and service contracts; evaluating advertising and…

  8. Comparison of Effectiveness between Rifampicin Ofloxin-Minocycline Regimen and Multidrug Therapy-World Health Organization in Multibacillary Leprosy Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octawyana Moestopo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multidrug therapy (MDT which is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO for multibacillary (MB leprosy patients has some side effects; it is given in 12 doses over 12-18 months. Patients who refuse or are contraindicated in undertaking MDT-WHO can be given alternative rifampicin-ofloxacin-minocycline (ROM regimen for 24 months, whose side effects are less but more expensive. This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness between ROM and MDT-WHO regimen in the first 12 months based on the derivation in morphological index (MI of acid-fast bacilli (AFB in MB leprosy patient. Methods: This was an observational analytical study with retrospective cohort method. Data was collected from medical records of MB leprosy patients in the Medical Record Installation and Morbus Hansen Clinic, Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung. The overall derivation in MI in 12 months was assessed according to the type of therapy undertaken by the patient. Data was analyzed by Mann-Whitney U Test. Results: A total of 59 data were selected out of 800 data of new leprosy patients based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Among those, 20 patients were treated by ROM and 39 by MDT-WHO. Derivation of MI occurred among both groups, but ROM regimen had higher percentage (94.83% compared with MDT-WHO regimen (79.57% with p value=0.003 (p <0.05. Conclusions: ROM regimen has better effectiveness than MDT-WHO regimen in the first 12 months in MB leprosy patients.

  9. A systematic review of cost-effectiveness studies of prevention and treatment for eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Long Khanh-Dao; Hay, Phillipa; Mihalopoulos, Cathrine

    2018-04-01

    Eating disorders are serious mental disorders and are associated with substantial economic and social burden. The aim of this study is to undertake a systematic review of the cost-effectiveness studies of both preventive and treatment interventions for eating disorder. Electronic databases (including the Cochrane Controlled Trial Register, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Academic Search Complete, Global Health, CINAHL complete, Health Business Elite, Econlit, Health Policy Reference Center and ERIC) were searched for published cost-effectiveness studies of eating disorder prevention and treatment including papers published up to January 2017. The quality of studies was assessed using the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) checklist. In all, 13 studies met the review inclusion criteria as full cost-effectiveness studies and 8 were published since 2011. The studies included three modelled and one trial-based study focused on prevention, two trial-based and one modelled study for anorexia nervosa treatment and three trial-based studies for bulimia nervosa treatment. The remaining studies targeted binge-eating disorder or non-specific eating disorder treatment. The average percent of CHEERS checklist items reported was 71% (standard deviation 21%). Eating disorder interventions were mainly cost-saving or more effective and more costly compared to comparators; however, some results did not reach statistical significance. In the two studies that achieved 100% CHEERS checklist, one study reported that a cognitive dissonance intervention might be cost-effective for prevention of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa with a 90% participation rate and the second study supported lisdexamfetamine to be cost-effective in the treatment of binge-eating disorder. Insufficient evidence for long-term cost-effectiveness (e.g. over 2 years) was found. Cost-effectiveness studies in eating disorder appear to be increasing in number over the last 6 years. Findings

  10. Health effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahieu, L

    1998-07-01

    The main objectives of research in the field of health effects at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are: (1) to study cancer mortality and morbidity in nuclear workers in Belgium; (2) to document the feasibility of retrospective cohort studies in Belgium; (3) to participate in the IARC study; (4) to elucidate the mechanisms of the effects of ionizing radiation on the mammalian embryo during the early phases of its development; (5) to assess the genetic risks of material exposure to ionizing radiation; (6) to elucidate the cellular mechanisms leading to brain damage after prenatal irradiation; (7) to advise authorities and to provide the general population with adequate information concerning the health risk arising from radiation exposure. Progress and major achievements in these topical areas for 1997 are reported.

  11. Health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahieu, L.

    1998-01-01

    The main objectives of research in the field of health effects at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are: (1) to study cancer mortality and morbidity in nuclear workers in Belgium; (2) to document the feasibility of retrospective cohort studies in Belgium; (3) to participate in the IARC study; (4) to elucidate the mechanisms of the effects of ionizing radiation on the mammalian embryo during the early phases of its development; (5) to assess the genetic risks of material exposure to ionizing radiation; (6) to elucidate the cellular mechanisms leading to brain damage after prenatal irradiation; (7) to advise authorities and to provide the general population with adequate information concerning the health risk arising from radiation exposure. Progress and major achievements in these topical areas for 1997 are reported

  12. Effective interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    This chapter attempts to describe and compare some of the more important nucleon-nucleon interactions that have been used in nuclear structure calculations, and to relate them where possible to the real nucleon-nucleon interaction. Explains that different interactions have been used depending on whether one is fitting to total binding energies and densities with a Hartree Fock (HF) calculation or fitting to spectra and spectroscopic data in a shell model calculation. Examines both types of calculation after two preliminary sections concerned with notation and with the philosophy underlying the use of model spaces and effective interactions. Discusses Skyrme interactions, finite range interactions, small model space, large model space, and the Sussex potential matrix elements. Focuses on the more empirical approaches in which a simple form is chosen for the effective interaction in a given model space and the parameters are deduced from fitting many-body data

  13. "Mass Effect 2": A Case Study in the Design of Game Narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzocchi, Jim; Tanenbaum, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Digital games have matured substantially as a narrative medium in the last decade. However, there is still much work to be done to more fully understand the poetics of story-based-games. Game narrative remains an important issue with significant cultural, economic and scholarly implications. In this article, we undertake a critical analysis of the…

  14. The Effects of Sex Education on Psychological Counselling Students in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çuhadaroglu, Alper

    2017-01-01

    Sex education is not included in Turkey's national curriculum and is rarely referenced in school and university curricula. This is even true for those undertaking training in psychological counselling where the need may be great. Only a very few university schools of education offer an elective sex education course. A group of 64 guidance and…

  15. The Effect of Digital Publishing on Technical Services in University Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Ben

    2013-01-01

    The past decade has brought enormous changes in scholarly communication, leading many libraries to undertake large-scale digital publishing initiatives. However, no study has investigated how technical services departments are changing to support these new services. Using change management as a theoretical framework, the investigator uses content…

  16. Estimation of sensor and weapon system effectiveness during initial ship design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyzer, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Naval ship design is a multi-disciplinary and complex undertaking. Operational requirements, uncertain future threats and scenarios, new technologies and ever reducing budgets increase the necessity for early and accurate decision making support. This paper will present the Concept Development and

  17. Molecular mechanisms of anti-aging hormetic effects of mild heat stress on human cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattan, Suresh I S; Eskildsen-Helmond, Yvonne E G; Beedholm, Rasmus

    2004-01-01

    of cellular responsiveness to mild and severe heat stress. Furthermore, we are also undertaking comparative studies using non-aging immortal cell lines, such as SV40-transformed human fibroblasts, spontaneous osteosarcoma cells, and telomerase-immortalized human bone marrow cells for establishing differences...

  18. Ventilation effectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    Mathisen, Hans Martin; Nielsen, Peter V; Moser, Alfred

    2004-01-01

    Improving the ventilation effectiveness allows the indoor air quality to be significantly enhanced without the need for higher air changes in the building, thereby avoiding the higher costs and energy consumption associated with increasing the ventilation rates. This Guidebook provides easy-to-understand descriptions of the indices used to mesure the performance of a ventilation system and which indices to use in different cases.

  19. Accident prevention programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This study by the Steel Industry Safety and Health Commission was made within the context of the application by undertakings of the principles of accident and disease prevention previously adopted by the said Commission. It puts forward recommendations for the effective and gradual implementation of a programme of action on occupational health and safety in the various departments of an undertaking and in the undertaking as a whole. The methods proposed in this study are likely to be of interest to all undertakings in the metallurgical industry and other industrial sectors

  20. Radiation research contracts: Biological effects of small radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hug, O.

    1959-01-01

    According to its Statute the IAEA has to fulfil a dual function - to help individual countries in solving their specific problems and to undertake tasks in the common interest of all its Member States. With this latter aim in mind the Agency has placed a number of research contracts with national research institutes. The purpose and scope of two of them is described below by the scientists responsible for their execution. The Agency has contributed to this work by putting at the institutes' disposal scientists from its own staff apparatus and financial aid.IAEA placed a research contract concerning the effects of small radiation doses on cells, in particular on nervous cells, with the Pharmacological Institute of the University of Vienna. This Institute appeared well suited to deal with the problem owing to the type of its previous research work. The Director, Prof. Franz Bruecke, and his collaborator Dr. Otto Kraupp, have long been interested in the functioning of the nervous system and in the influence of different drugs upon it. It was particularly fortunate that the electrical properties and functions of cells had been measured by a method specially developed at this Institute. From the above mentioned observations one could expect that instantaneous reactions of cells to radiation would also lead to changes of the electrical status. Consequently, this method is now being applied to the research undertaken for IAEA. Different cells of plants and animals, ranging from algae to muscle fibres of mammals, were chosen as objects. So far changes of potentials-had been observed only during irradiation with very high doses. During these investigations another useful test for small radiation doses was developed, namely the measurement of the through-flow of an artificial blood solution through the blood vessels of an intestinal loop. It was observed that a few seconds after irradiation the flow rate diminishes, and returns to its normal level only when irradiation ends

  1. Radiation research contracts: Biological effects of small radiation doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hug, O

    1959-01-15

    According to its Statute the IAEA has to fulfil a dual function - to help individual countries in solving their specific problems and to undertake tasks in the common interest of all its Member States. With this latter aim in mind the Agency has placed a number of research contracts with national research institutes. The purpose and scope of two of them is described below by the scientists responsible for their execution. The Agency has contributed to this work by putting at the institutes' disposal scientists from its own staff apparatus and financial aid.IAEA placed a research contract concerning the effects of small radiation doses on cells, in particular on nervous cells, with the Pharmacological Institute of the University of Vienna. This Institute appeared well suited to deal with the problem owing to the type of its previous research work. The Director, Prof. Franz Bruecke, and his collaborator Dr. Otto Kraupp, have long been interested in the functioning of the nervous system and in the influence of different drugs upon it. It was particularly fortunate that the electrical properties and functions of cells had been measured by a method specially developed at this Institute. From the above mentioned observations one could expect that instantaneous reactions of cells to radiation would also lead to changes of the electrical status. Consequently, this method is now being applied to the research undertaken for IAEA. Different cells of plants and animals, ranging from algae to muscle fibres of mammals, were chosen as objects. So far changes of potentials-had been observed only during irradiation with very high doses. During these investigations another useful test for small radiation doses was developed, namely the measurement of the through-flow of an artificial blood solution through the blood vessels of an intestinal loop. It was observed that a few seconds after irradiation the flow rate diminishes, and returns to its normal level only when irradiation ends

  2. A cost-effectiveness analysis of a preventive exercise program for patients with advanced head and neck cancer treated with concomitant chemo-radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retèl, Valesca P; Molen, Lisette van der; Hilgers, Frans JM; Rasch, Coen RN; L'Ortye, Annemiek AAMHJ; Steuten, Lotte MG; Harten, Wim H van

    2011-01-01

    Concomitant chemo-radiotherapy (CCRT) has become an indispensable organ, but not always function preserving treatment modality for advanced head and neck cancer. To prevent/limit the functional side effects of CCRT, special exercise programs are increasingly explored. This study presents cost-effectiveness analyses of a preventive (swallowing) exercise program (PREP) compared to usual care (UC) from a health care perspective. A Markov decision model of PREP versus UC was developed for CCRT in advanced head and neck cancer. Main outcome variables were tube dependency at one-year and number of post-CCRT hospital admission days. Primary outcome was costs per quality adjusted life years (cost/QALY), with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) as outcome parameter. The Expected Value of Perfect Information (EVPI) was calculated to obtain the value of further research. PREP resulted in less tube dependency (3% and 25%, respectively), and in fewer hospital admission days than UC (3.2 and 4.5 days respectively). Total costs for UC amounted to €41,986 and for PREP to €42,271. Quality adjusted life years for UC amounted to 0.68 and for PREP to 0.77. Based on costs per QALY, PREP has a higher probability of being cost-effective as long as the willingness to pay threshold for 1 additional QALY is at least €3,200/QALY. At the prevailing threshold of €20,000/QALY the probability for PREP being cost-effective compared to UC was 83%. The EVPI demonstrated potential value in undertaking additional research to reduce the existing decision uncertainty. Based on current evidence, PREP for CCRT in advanced head and neck cancer has the higher probability of being cost-effective when compared to UC. Moreover, the majority of sensitivity analyses produced ICERs that are well below the prevailing willingness to pay threshold for an additional QALY (range from dominance till €45,906/QALY)

  3. The efficacy of teachers' responses to incidents of bullying and victimization: The mediational role of moral disengagement for bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campaert, Kristel; Nocentini, Annalaura; Menesini, Ersilia

    2017-09-01

    Teachers respond differently to bullying and victimization. Socio-cognitive and moral domain theory suggest that students process teachers' behavior cognitively and that teachers' responses to incidents of bullying and victimization could affect students' level of moral disengagement. We examined the mediating effect of students' moral disengagement between types of teachers' responses to situations of bullying and victimization and individual bullying using multilevel mediation modelling. Participants were 609 students (50% boys, age M = 11.47, SD = 1.14) of central Italy, nested in 34 classes. Students rated the frequency of self-reported bullying and of teachers' responses to incidents of bullying and victimization on a 5-point Likert scale. Teachers' responses to bullying included non-intervention, mediation, group discussion, and sanctions. Teachers' responses to victimization included non-intervention, mediation, group discussion, and victim support. Results indicated that in the teachers' responses to incidents of bullying model, a significant indirect effect of non-intervention (β = .03; 95%CI [.01, .05]) and of sanctions (β = -.02; 95%CI [-.04, -.01]) on bullying through moral disengagement was found at the individual level. Similarly, in the model on teachers' responses toward victims there was a significant indirect effect through moral disengagement of non-intervention (β = .03; 95%CI [.02, .04]) and victim support (β = -.01; 95%CI [-.02, -.001]). At the class level there were no significant indirect effects. In sum, results indicated that moral disengagement is an important mediator at the individual level and suggest including teachers in anti-bullying interventions with a specific focus on their role for moral development. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepetit, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    This book speaks about the growth of greenhouse gases content in the atmosphere and try to forecast the different scenarios which may happen. But, in spite of international cooperation and coordinated research programs, nobody owns the answer. So possible future climatic changes depend on the behavior of the concerned actors. A review of energy policy driven by USA, Japan, Sweden, United Kingdom and Federal Republic of Germany is given. Political management of this file and public opinion in front of greenhouse effect are also described. 7 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  5. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring for the Effective Management of Antihypertensive Drug Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Eoin; Dolan, Eamon

    2016-10-01

    This purpose of this article is to review the current recommendations for ambulatory blood pressure measurement (ABPM) and the use of ABPM in assessing treatment. We review current international guidelines and undertake a critical review of evidence supporting the clinical use of ABPM in effectively managing antihypertensive drug treatment. Current guidelines emphasize the diagnostic superiority of ABPM, mainly from the ability of the technique to identify sustained hypertension by allowing for the exclusion of white-coat hypertension and by demonstrating the presence of masked hypertension. ABPM also offers diagnostic insights into nocturnal patterns of blood pressure, such as dipping and nondipping, reverse dipping, and excessive dipping, and the presence of nocturnal hypertension; although less attention is given to the nocturnal behavior of blood pressure in clinical practice, the nocturnal patterns of blood pressure have particular relevance in assessing the response to blood pressure-lowering medication. Surprisingly, although the current guidelines give detailed recommendations on the diagnostic potential and use of ABPM, there are scant recommendations on the benefits and application of the technique for the initiation of blood pressure-lowering therapy in clinical practice and virtually no recommendations on how it might be used to assess the efficacy of drug treatment. In view of a deficiency in the literature on the role of ABPM in assess the efficacy of drug treatment, we put forward proposals to correct this deficiency and guide the prescribing physician on the most appropriate drug administration and dosage over time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A simulation study on estimating biomarker-treatment interaction effects in randomized trials with prognostic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Bernhard; Ulm, Kurt

    2018-02-20

    To individualize treatment decisions based on patient characteristics, identification of an interaction between a biomarker and treatment is necessary. Often such potential interactions are analysed using data from randomized clinical trials intended for comparison of two treatments. Tests of interactions are often lacking statistical power and we investigated if and how a consideration of further prognostic variables can improve power and decrease the bias of estimated biomarker-treatment interactions in randomized clinical trials with time-to-event outcomes. A simulation study was performed to assess how prognostic factors affect the estimate of the biomarker-treatment interaction for a time-to-event outcome, when different approaches, like ignoring other prognostic factors, including all available covariates or using variable selection strategies, are applied. Different scenarios regarding the proportion of censored observations, the correlation structure between the covariate of interest and further potential prognostic variables, and the strength of the interaction were considered. The simulation study revealed that in a regression model for estimating a biomarker-treatment interaction, the probability of detecting a biomarker-treatment interaction can be increased by including prognostic variables that are associated with the outcome, and that the interaction estimate is biased when relevant prognostic variables are not considered. However, the probability of a false-positive finding increases if too many potential predictors are included or if variable selection is performed inadequately. We recommend undertaking an adequate literature search before data analysis to derive information about potential prognostic variables and to gain power for detecting true interaction effects and pre-specifying analyses to avoid selective reporting and increased false-positive rates.

  7. Occupational exposure to radiation in the United Kingdom and its contribution to the genetically effective dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binks, W; Marley, W G

    1960-12-01

    It is now the common practice in the United Kingdom for persons who are exposed occupationally to ionizing radiations to be subjected to continuous individual monitoring in order to ensure that the doses that they receive from sources external to the body do not exceed the levels which are regarded as acceptable. In the operation of large-scale monitoring services such as are provided by the Radiological Protection Service (R.P.S.) and by the establishments of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (U.K.A.E.A.) there is no satisfactory alternative to the use of photographic film, bearing in mind such aspects as simplicity, reliability, accuracy, cheapness, ease of postal transmission of the films in the special holders, and availability of a durable record of the dose received. The Radiological Protection Service provides a film badge service which is widely used by industry. This organization also provides film badges for about one-third of the occupationally exposed persons in National Health Service hospitals; for the remaining hospital workers the majority of establishments undertake their own monitoring arrangements. The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority provides its own film badge services for all exposed workers. It is the purpose of this report to summarize the information obtained by the R.P.S. and the U.K.A.E.A. regarding the doses received by occupationally exposed persons. The total genetically effective dose received by the population from occupational exposure is also compared with that received from natural background radiation. This report also summarizes the measurements made by the R.P.S. and the U.K.A.E.A. to check the internal contamination of the body in cases where radioactivity has been ingested or inhaled.

  8. Differential Effects of Munc18s on Multiple Degranulation-Relevant Trans-SNARE Complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Xu

    Full Text Available Mast cell exocytosis, which includes compound degranulation and vesicle-associated piecemeal degranulation, requires multiple Q- and R- SNAREs. It is not clear how these SNAREs pair to form functional trans-SNARE complexes and how these trans-SNARE complexes are selectively regulated for fusion. Here we undertake a comprehensive examination of the capacity of two Q-SNARE subcomplexes (syntaxin3/SNAP-23 and syntaxin4/SNAP-23 to form fusogenic trans-SNARE complexes with each of the four granule-borne R-SNAREs (VAMP2, 3, 7, 8. We report the identification of at least six distinct trans-SNARE complexes under enhanced tethering conditions: i VAMP2/syntaxin3/SNAP-23, ii VAMP2/syntaxin4/SNAP-23, iii VAMP3/syntaxin3/SNAP-23, iv VAMP3/syntaxin4/SNAP-23, v VAMP8/syntaxin3/SNAP-23, and vi VAMP8/syntaxin4/SNAP-23. We show for the first time that Munc18a operates synergistically with SNAP-23-based non-neuronal SNARE complexes (i to iv in lipid mixing, in contrast to Munc18b and c, which exhibit no positive effect on any SNARE combination tested. Pre-incubation with Munc18a renders the SNARE-dependent fusion reactions insensitive to the otherwise inhibitory R-SNARE cytoplasmic domains, suggesting a protective role of Munc18a for its cognate SNAREs. Our findings substantiate the recently discovered but unexpected requirement for Munc18a in mast cell exocytosis, and implicate post-translational modifications in Munc18b/c activation.

  9. The Effect of Product Safety Courses on the Adoption and Outcomes of LESS Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Paul G; Ross, Sharona B; Choung, Edward; Donn, Natalie; Vice, Michelle; Luberice, Kenneth; Albrink, Michael; Rosemurgy, Alexander S

    2015-01-01

    As technology in surgery evolves, the medical instrument industry is inevitability involved in promoting the use and appropriate (ie, effective and safe) application of its products. This study was undertaken to evaluate industry-supported product safety courses in laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) surgery, by using the metrics of surgeons' adoption of the technique, safety of the procedure, and surgeons' perception of the surgery. LESS surgery courses that involved didactic lectures, operative videos, operation observation, collaborative learning, and simulation, were attended by 226 surgeons. With Florida Hospital Tampa Institutional Review Board approval, the surgeons were queried before and immediately after the course, to assess their attitudes toward LESS surgery. Then, well after the course, the surgeons were contacted, repeatedly if necessary, to complete questionnaires. Before the course, 82% of the surgeons undertook more than 10 laparoscopic operations per month. Immediately after the course, 86% were confident that they were prepared to perform LESS surgery. Months after the course, 77% of the respondents had adopted LESS surgery, primarily cholecystectomy; 59% had added 1 or more trocars in 0-20% of their procedures; and 73% held the opinion that operating room observation was the most helpful learning experience. Complications with LESS surgery were noted 12% of the time. Advantages of the technique were better cosmesis (58%) and patient satisfaction (38%). Disadvantages included risk of complications (37%) and higher technical demand (25%). Seventy-eight percent viewed LESS surgery as an advancement in surgical technique. In multifaceted product safety courses, operating room observation is thought to provide the most helpful instruction for those wanting to undertake LESS surgery. The procedure has been safely adopted by surgeons who frequently perform laparoscopies. The tradeoff is in performing a more difficult technique to obtain better

  10. The Effect of Product Safety Courses on the Adoption and Outcomes of LESS Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Paul G.; Ross, Sharona B.; Choung, Edward; Donn, Natalie; Vice, Michelle; Luberice, Kenneth; Albrink, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: As technology in surgery evolves, the medical instrument industry is inevitability involved in promoting the use and appropriate (ie, effective and safe) application of its products. This study was undertaken to evaluate industry-supported product safety courses in laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) surgery, by using the metrics of surgeons' adoption of the technique, safety of the procedure, and surgeons' perception of the surgery. Methods: LESS surgery courses that involved didactic lectures, operative videos, operation observation, collaborative learning, and simulation, were attended by 226 surgeons. With Florida Hospital Tampa Institutional Review Board approval, the surgeons were queried before and immediately after the course, to assess their attitudes toward LESS surgery. Then, well after the course, the surgeons were contacted, repeatedly if necessary, to complete questionnaires. Results: Before the course, 82% of the surgeons undertook more than 10 laparoscopic operations per month. Immediately after the course, 86% were confident that they were prepared to perform LESS surgery. Months after the course, 77% of the respondents had adopted LESS surgery, primarily cholecystectomy; 59% had added 1 or more trocars in 0–20% of their procedures; and 73% held the opinion that operating room observation was the most helpful learning experience. Complications with LESS surgery were noted 12% of the time. Advantages of the technique were better cosmesis (58%) and patient satisfaction (38%). Disadvantages included risk of complications (37%) and higher technical demand (25%). Seventy-eight percent viewed LESS surgery as an advancement in surgical technique. Conclusion: In multifaceted product safety courses, operating room observation is thought to provide the most helpful instruction for those wanting to undertake LESS surgery. The procedure has been safely adopted by surgeons who frequently perform laparoscopies. The tradeoff is in

  11. Sustainable Effectiveness of Applying Trauma Team Activation in Managing Trauma Patients in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuthisuthimethawee, Prasit; Molloy, Michael S; Ciottone, Gregory R

    2015-09-01

    To determine long term effectiveness of trauma team activation criteria by measuring emergency department length of stay (EDLOS) and 28-day mortality. A 3-year retrospective cohort study conducted in adult trauma patients who met one of the trauma team activation criteria (shock, penetrating torso injury, post traumatic arrest, respiratory rate of less than 12 or more than 30, and pulse rate of more than 120). Specific demographic data, physiologic parameters, EDLOS, injury severity score (ISS), and 28-day mortality were prospectively recorded into the Trauma Registry database. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors affecting mortality. The Institutional Review Board approval was obtained prior to undertaking the project. Two hundred eighty two patients with a mean age of35.1 years old were eligible. The median ISS was 25 (range, 13-30). The median EDLOS was 85 minutes (range, 50-135) and the 28-day mortality rate was 46.5%. The mean age was 31.7 years in the survival group and 38.7 years in the fatal group (p = 0.001). The median ISS was 17 in the survival group and 26 in the fatal group (p = 0.000) and the median EDLOS was 110 minutes in the survival group and 82 minutes in the fatal group (p = 0.034). When compared to data prior to the TTA application, the median time of EDLOS improvedsustainably from 184 to 85 minutes (p = 0.000) and the mortality rate decreased from 66.7% to 46.5% (p = 0.057). The parameters affecting patient mortality were older age, high ISS, and shorter EDLOS. Trauma team activation criteria significantly improved acute trauma care in the emergency department and decreased mortality.

  12. Occupational exposure to radiation in the United Kingdom and its contribution to the genetically effective dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binks, W.; Marley, W.G.

    1960-01-01

    It is now the common practice in the United Kingdom for persons who are exposed occupationally to ionizing radiations to be subjected to continuous individual monitoring in order to ensure that the doses that they receive from sources external to the body do not exceed the levels which are regarded as acceptable. In the operation of large-scale monitoring services such as are provided by the Radiological Protection Service (R.P.S.) and by the establishments of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (U.K.A.E.A.) there is no satisfactory alternative to the use of photographic film, bearing in mind such aspects as simplicity, reliability, accuracy, cheapness, ease of postal transmission of the films in the special holders, and availability of a durable record of the dose received. The Radiological Protection Service provides a film badge service which is widely used by industry. This organization also provides film badges for about one-third of the occupationally exposed persons in National Health Service hospitals; for the remaining hospital workers the majority of establishments undertake their own monitoring arrangements. The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority provides its own film badge services for all exposed workers. It is the purpose of this report to summarize the information obtained by the R.P.S. and the U.K.A.E.A. regarding the doses received by occupationally exposed persons. The total genetically effective dose received by the population from occupational exposure is also compared with that received from natural background radiation. This report also summarizes the measurements made by the R.P.S. and the U.K.A.E.A. to check the internal contamination of the body in cases where radioactivity has been ingested or inhaled

  13. Effective Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverly A. King Miller

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the educational strategies that can be used to support female students of African descent in their persistence in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM education and careers. STEM careers have historically been White male and White female dominated, which has yielded an underrepresentation of those of African descent. Drawing from a grounded qualitative case study, the data used for this article share the responses of Afro-Caribbean females in STEM who have immigrated to the United States from the country of Panama. As Latinas, they are representative of the changing face in the American educational system—bilingual, multicultural, and of African descent. The strategies offered reflect their own teaching practices, their former teachers, or experiences with their children’s teachers. What emerged were descriptions of four strategies and behaviors of effective teachers that align with Ladson-Billings’s culturally relevant pedagogy and Gay’s culturally responsive teaching. Included in the findings are the high standards and expectations embodied by effective teachers that serve to positively inspire their students. Culturally responsive teachers create an atmosphere of learning that supports academic success, conveying their belief in their students’ ability based upon their own reflectivity. As the U.S. educational system continues to become multilingual and multicultural, there is need for strategies for the successful inclusion and progression of students in STEM educational pathways and careers. This will occur as teachers challenge themselves to be the agents of change in the lives of their students.

  14. Comparative effectiveness research (CER): a summary of AHRQ's CER on therapies for rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oderda, Gary M; Balfe, Lisa M

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the U.S. government has designated funding of several large-scale initiatives for comparative effectiveness research (CER) in health care. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 apportioned more than $1 billion to support CER programs administered by the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). CER is generally defined as the undertaking of original research or systematic reviews of published literature in order to compare the benefits and risks of different approaches to preventing, diagnosing, or treating diseases. These approaches may include diagnostic tests, medications, medical devices, and surgeries. The overall goals of CER are to support informed health care decisions by patients, clinicians, payers, and policy makers and to apply its evidence to ultimately improve the quality, effectiveness, and efficiency of health care. To (a) provide managed care professionals with general definitions of CER, specifically as it is administered by AHRQ; (b) discuss the importance of CER to clinical and managed care pharmacists; and (c) summarize key methods and findings from AHRQ's 2007 comparative effectiveness review on therapies for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). As supported by AHRQ, CER is conducted in order to synthesize comprehensive evidence on the comparative benefits and harms of treatment interventions. The findings from comparative effectiveness reviews can thus contribute to informing therapeutic strategies and treatment decisions. In 2007, a multitude of RA treatment options and studies motivated AHRQ to commission a systematic comparative effectiveness review. Conducted by investigators at the RTI-University of North Carolina Evidence-Based Practice Center, the review included comparisons of synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), biologic agents, synthetic DMARDs versus biologic agents, and various

  15. Stimulation of the pedunculopontine nucleus area in Parkinson's disease: effects on speech and intelligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Serge; Ferraye, Murielle; Espesser, Robert; Fraix, Valérie; Maillet, Audrey; Guirchoum, Jennifer; Layani-Zemour, Deborah; Ghio, Alain; Chabardès, Stéphan; Pollak, Pierre; Debû, Bettina

    2014-10-01

    patients, speech impairment following pedunculopontine nucleus area stimulation is a possible outcome that should be considered before undertaking such surgery. Deleterious effects could be dependent on electrode insertion in this brainstem structure, more than on current spread to nearby structures involved in speech control. The effect of deep brain stimulation on speech in patients with Parkinson's disease remains a challenging and exploratory research area. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Explanation of Bullying Management Strategies Based on Teachers' Self-Efficacy: Mediating Role of Teachers' Beliefs and Attitudes about Students Bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Beiramy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on theoretical and empirical literature, the mediator factors such as teachers' beliefs and attitudes about the bullying of students can play an important role in explaining and predicting management of bullying through perceived self-efficacy of teachers. Based on this approach, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect on teachers' perceived self-efficacy in behavior management and bullying management strategies considering the mediating role of teachers' beliefs and attitudes. The research method was descriptive and correlational that was performed using the path analysis method. In order to implement reaserch, 207 (70 males, 137 females of primary school teachers were selected by cluster sampling method and data was collected through teachers' self-efficacy questionnaire, the social behavior of students and classroom behavior management strategies. Findings of f path analysis indicate that the direct effect of self-efficacy on normative beliefs (0/15 and the direct effects of normative beliefs (0/29 and avoidance (0/19 on bullying management strategies are positive and significant p<0/05 other findings showed that teachers' beliefs and attitudes about bullying have a mediator role in the relationship between self-efficacy and strategies to manage bullying, as perceived self-efficacy of teachers in classroom behavior management can explain in total 16% of the variance in bullying management strategies and the tested model has been a good-fitting with theoretical model of research. The results show that in order to design a successful anti-bullying programs, in addition to teachers' self-efficacy, their beliefs and attitudes also need to be considered in managing and deal with bullying.

  17. Religiousness/spirituality do not necessarily matter: Effect on risk perception and adaptive strategies in the semi-arid region of NE Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Célia da Silva Oliveira

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The impact of environmental changes is a major threat to livelihoods, especially for small farmers in semi-arid regions. Therefore, local communities undertake efforts to cope with these new environmental conditions and researchers try to understand the limits of possible adaptive strategies. Religiousness/spirituality are two important factors that can influence environmental awareness and adaptive responses to risks caused by natural phenomena. However, studies addressing the relationship between such factors are either scarce or based on anecdotal information. This article discusses the influence of religiousness/spirituality on the perception of environmental risks by farmers in a rural community in Brazil's northeast region, and their knowledge of adaptive strategies to deal with such concerns. Religiousness/spirituality can positively or negatively influence the perception of risk and knowledge of adaptive strategies when facing environmental uncertainty. We note that dimensions of religiousness/spirituality such as religious history, values/beliefs, commitment, and daily spiritual experiences influence wealth and the sharing of natural perceived risks, as well as adaptive strategies. Based on our results, we conclude that religiousness/spirituality dimensions exert both positive and negative effects on the perception of environmental risks and ways of coping with the impacts of rapid environmental changes.

  18. Centers for Disease Control review panel's recommendations on health effects and epidemiological studies of operations at the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina. Public comment and meeting report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-05-01

    Based on the request of the US Department of Energy, the Centers for Disease Control of the US Department of Health and Human Services organized a panel to review the feasibility and usefulness of conducting further epidemiologic studies of delayed health effects around the Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant. The review and recommendations of the panel were documented in a report entitled Epidemiologic Projects Considered Possible to Undertake in Populations Around the Savannah River Plant. On November 30, 1984, the Department of Energy announced in the Federal Register (49 FR 47095) the conduct of a public meeting and a 30-day public comment period between December 1 and December 30, 1984, on the recommendations of the review panel. Based on the requests of individuals and representatives of organizations attending the December 18, 1984, public meetings, the Department of Energy subsequently announced in the Federal Register on December 31, 1984 (49 FR 50767) an extension of the public comment period to January 31, 1985. This report documents the public meeting and comment process, and provides responses to the public comments that were submitted during this process. In addition, this report contains the Department of Energy's position based on the recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control review panel and the public comments. 23 refs., 16 tabs

  19. Short-term effects of floods on Japanese encephalitis in Nanchong, China, 2007-2012: A time-stratified case-crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feifei; Liu, Zhidong; Zhang, Caixia; Jiang, Baofa

    2016-09-01

    This time-stratified case-crossover study aimed to quantify the impact of floods on daily Japanese encephalitis (JE) cases from 2007 to 2012 in Nanchong city of Sichuan Province, China. Using conditional logistic regression analysis, we calculated the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) at different lagged days, adjusting for daily average temperature (AT) and daily average relative humidity (ARH). A total of 370 JE cases were notified during the study period, with the median patient age being 4.2years. The seasonal pattern of JE cases clustered in July and August during the study period. Floods were significantly associated with an increased number of JE cases from lag 23 to lag 24, with the strongest lag effect at lag 23 (OR=2.00, 95% CI: 1.14-3.52). Similarly, AT and ARH were positively associated with daily JE cases from lag 0 to lag 8 and from lag 0 to lag 9, respectively. Floods, with AT and ARH, can be used to forecast JE outbreaks in the study area. Based on the results of this study, recommendations include undertaking control measures before the number of cases increases, especially for regions with similar geographic, climatic, and socio-economic conditions as those in the study area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of living near a new urban motorway on the travel behaviour of local residents in deprived areas: Evidence from a natural experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Louise; Prins, Richard; Crawford, Fiona; Sahlqvist, Shannon; Ogilvie, David

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of a new motorway built through deprived neighbourhoods on travel behaviour in residents. This natural experiment comprised a longitudinal cohort (n=365) and two cross-sectional samples (baseline n=980; follow-up n=978) recruited in 2005 and 2013. Adults from one of three study areas - surrounding the new motorway (South), an existing motorway (East), or no motorway (North) - completed a previous day travel record. Adjusted two-part regression models examined associations between exposure and outcome. Compared to the North, cohort participants in the South were more likely to undertake travel by any mode (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.0-4.2) at follow-up. Within the South study area, cohort participants living closer to a motorway junction were more likely to travel by any mode at follow-up (OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.1-19.7), and cross-sectional participants living closer were more likely to use a car at follow-up (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.1-10.7), compared to those living further away. Overall, the new motorway appeared to promote travel and car use in those living nearby, but did not influence active travel. This may propagate socioeconomic inequalities in non-car owners. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. The radiation-induced inactivation of microorganisms in non-aqueous suspension: The effect of selective alcohols and paraffins on the radiation sensitivity of aerated Bacillus pumilus spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, G.P.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of model compounds comprising alcohols and paraffins on the radiation sensitivity of B. pumilus spores has been studied with the aim of understanding the radiation-induced inactivation of microorganisms when suspended in non-aqueous medium. This study is a prerequisite to the undertaking of radiation sterilization of non-aqueous pharmaceuticals. Spores of B. pumilus E601 mounted on kaolin powder were suspended in the appropriate organic agent and gamma irradiated under oxic conditions. Spores suspended in paraffins displayed increased radiation response over that for aerated buffered suspensions. Values of inactivation constant ranged between 2 x and 5 x that for buffer. Less pronounced modification of response was obtained for the alcohols. The results reveal a marked tendency for response to increase with decreasing polarity of the supending fluid. The partial miscibility of the alcohols in water enabled the examining of the transition from the response characteristic of aerated buffered suspensions to those of the spores in pure organic liquids. (orig./MG) [de

  2. Radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collings, E.W.

    1986-01-01

    An important cause of deterioration in superconducting magnets intended for high-energy physics and fusion-reactor applications is radiation damage. The present chapter deals chiefly with the effects of electron, proton, gamma and neutron irradiation on the properties of stabilized Ti-Nb-base composite superconductors. The authors examine the particle-accelerator environment, electron irradiation of Ti-Nb superconductor, proton irradiation of Ti-Nb superconductor and its stabilizer, and deuteron irradiation of Ti-Nb superconductor. A section discussing the fusion reactor environment in general is presented, and the two principal classes of fusion reactor based on the magnetic-confinement concept, namely the tokamak and the mirrormachine are examined. Also discussed is neutron irradiation of Cu/TiNb composite superconductors and critical current density of neutronirradiated Ti-Nb. Finally, radiation damage to stabilizer and insulating materials is described

  3. Health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahieu, L.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of the research in the field of epidemiology , performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are (1) to study cancer mortality and morbidity in nuclear workers in Belgium; (2) to document the feasibility of retrospective cohort studies in Belgium; (3) to participate in the IARC study. For radiobiology, the main objectives are: (1) to elucidate the mechanisms of the effects of ionizing radiation on the mammalian embryo during the early phase of its development, (2) to assess the genetic risks of maternal exposure to ionizing radiation, (3) to elucidate the mechanisms by which damage to the brain and mental retardation are caused in man after prenatal irradiation. The main achievements in these domains for 1997 are presented

  4. Condom effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porche, D J

    1998-01-01

    People who choose not to abstain from sexual intercourse can use barrier contraceptive methods, such as condoms, to reduce their risk of contracting HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Health care providers who provide safer sex education and counseling should provide information on condoms as a way of reducing the risk of HIV/STD transmission. Since latex condoms are regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as medical devices, FDA regulations govern latex condom manufacturing and testing in accordance with stringent national standards. The FDA randomly tests imported condoms according to the same stringent quality control standards as US-produced condoms. Condom effectiveness, however, depends upon their correct and consistent use during every sexual act. Relevant data and guidelines are presented on the correct use of male latex and female polyurethane condoms. Both male latex and female polyurethane condoms can prevent the transmission of HIV and other STDs.

  5. Cost-effectiveness analysis of radon remediation in schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, C.A.; Gray, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Indoor radon is an important source of radiation dosage in the general population and has been recognised as a world-wide environmental and public health challenge. Governments in many Western and Eastern European and North American countries are undertaking active radon-risk reduction policies, including the remediation of existing residential and work place building stocks (1). These endeavours include a priority of remediating school buildings. Epidemiological and technical radon research has produced information which has enabled attention to be turned to specific effectiveness and optimisation questions regarding radon identification and remediation programmes in buildings, including schools. Decision making about policy implementation has been an integral part of these programmes and questions have been raised about the economic implications of the regulations and optimisation strategies for workplace action level policy (2,3). (the action level applied to schools is 400 Bq m -3 ). No previous study has estimated the cost-effectiveness of a radon remediation programme for schools using the methodological framework now considered appropriate in the economic evaluation of health interventions. It is imperative that this should be done, in order that the resources required to obtain health gain from radon remediation in schools can be systematically compared with equivalent data for other health interventions and radon remediation programmes. In this study a cost-effectiveness analysis of radon remediation in schools was undertaken, using the best available national data and information from Northamptonshire on the costs and effectiveness of radon identification and remediation in schools, and the costs and health impact of lung cancer cases. A model based on data from Northamptonshire is presented (where 6.3% of residential stock is over 200 Bq m -3 ). The resultant cost-effectiveness ratio was pound 7,550 per life year gained in pound 1997. Results from the

  6. Radiological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Environmental monitoring in the vicinity of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant has been shown the radiation dose to the public from plant operation to be quite small. Calculations from the reported release rates yield 0.2 mrem whole body dose and 0.6 mrem skin dose for the calendar quarter of maximum release. Radioactivity discharges to the Chesapeake Bay have resulted in detectable concentrations of /sup 110m/Ag, 58 Co, and 60 Co in sediments and shellfish. The area yielding samples with detectable concentrations of plant effluents extends for roughly six miles up and down the western shore, with maximum values found at the plant discharge area. The radiation dose to an individual eating 29 doz oysters and 15 doz crabs (5 kg of each) taken from the plant discharge area would be about 4/1000 mrem whole body dose and 0.2 mrem gastrointestinal tract dose (about 0.007% and 0.5% of the applicable guidelines, respectively.) Comparison of these power plant-induced doses with the fluctuations in natural radiation dose already experienced by the public indicates that the power plant effects are insignificant. The natural variations are tens of times greater than the maximum doses resulting from Calvert Cliffs Power Plant. Although operations to date provide an insufficient basis to predict radiological impact of the Calvert Cliffs Plant over its operational lifetime, available data indicate that the plant should continue to operate with insignificant radiological impact, well within all applicable guidelines

  7. Thyroid effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxon, H.; Thomas, S.; Buncher, C.; Book, S.; Hertzberg, V.

    1985-01-01

    Risk coefficients for thyroid disorders have been developed for both 131 I and external x or gamma low-LET radiation. A linear, no-threshold model has been used for thyroid neoplasms. A linear, threshold model has been used for other thyroid disorders. Improvements since the Reactor Safety Study were made possible by relevant new animal and human data. Major changes are as follows. Animal data are used to supplement the human experience where necessary. A specific risk estimate model is used for thyroid neoplasms, which accounts for observed effects of gender and age at exposure on risk. For thyroid cancer, the basis of the risk coefficients is the experience of North Americans following x-irradiation for benign disease in childhood. This recognizes possible differences in susceptibility in people of different heritage. A minimum induction period for thyroid neoplasms following irradiation is used to define periods at risk. An upper bound risk coefficient for cancer induction following exposure to 131 I is based on human experience at relatively low dose exposures. While the overall lifetime risks of death due to thyroid cancer are consistent with projections by the ICRP, BEIR III, and UNSCEAR Reports, the current model permits greater flexibility in determining risk for population subgroups. 88 references, 8 tables

  8. Effective Factors in Severity of Traffic Accident-Related Traumas; an Epidemiologic Study Based on the Haddon Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumi, Kambiz; Forouzan, Arash; Barzegari, Hassan; Asgari Darian, Ali; Rahim, Fakher; Zohrevandi, Behzad; Nabi, Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Traffic accidents are the 8(th) cause of mortality in different countries and are expected to rise to the 3(rd) rank by 2020. Based on the Haddon matrix numerous factors such as environment, host, and agent can affect the severity of traffic-related traumas. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effective factors in severity of these traumas based on Haddon matrix. In the present 1-month cross-sectional study, all the patients injured in traffic accidents, who were referred to the ED of Imam Khomeini and Golestan Hospitals, Ahvaz, Iran, during March 2013 were evaluated. Based on the Haddon matrix, effective factors in accident occurrence were defined in 3 groups of host, agent, and environment. Demographic data of the patients and data regarding Haddon risk factors were extracted and analyzed using SPSS version 20. 700 injured people with the mean age of 29.66 ± 12.64 years (3-82) were evaluated (92.4% male). Trauma mechanism was car-pedestrian in 308 (44%) of the cases and car-motorcycle in 175 (25%). 610 (87.1%) cases were traffic accidents and 371 (53%) occurred in the time between 2 pm and 8 pm. Violation of speed limit was the most common violation with 570 (81.4%) cases, followed by violation of right-of-way in 57 (8.1%) patients. 59.9% of the severe and critical injuries had occurred on road accidents, while 61.3% of the injuries caused by traffic accidents were mild to moderate (p accidents (p severity of traffic accident-related traumas were age over 50, not using safety tools, and undertaking among host-related factors; insufficient environment safety, road accidents and time between 2 pm and 8 pm among environmental factors; and finally, rollover, car-pedestrian, and motorcycle-pedestrian accidents among the agent factors.

  9. Effects of potassium channel opener on the kinetics of thallium-201 in in-vitro and in-vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.; Kim, E. J.; Ahn, B. C.; Chae, S. C.; Lee, K. B.; Kim, C. K.

    1997-01-01

    Potassium channel opener (K-opener) opens membrane ATP-sensitive K + -channel and induces and increase in potassium efflux from cells. K-openers are powerful smooth muscle relaxants and currently used as antihypertensive, antianginal drugs or bronchodilators in clinic. Pharmacologic potency of newly synthesized K-opener is being evaluated with efflux capacity of preincubated Rb-83 from the isolated aortic vascular tissue preparation. Thallium has similar characteristics to those of rubidium and potassium in vivo. To evaluate the effect of pinacidil (a potent K-opener) on Tl-201 biokinetics, we have performed uptake/washout studies in cultured myocytes, and mice biodistribution study. Primary culture of spontaneous contracting myocytes was undertake from hearts of newborn Sprague-Dawley rat. Different concentration of pinacidil (100nM or 10uM) was co-incubated with Tl-201 in HBSS buffer to evaluate its effect on cellular uptake, or challenged to myocyte preparations pre-incubated with Tl-201 for washout study. Pinacidil was injected into mice simultaneous or 10-min after Tl-201 injection, and organ uptake and whole body retention ratio was measured using gamma counter or dose calibrator. Co-incubation of pinacidil with Tl-201 resulted in a decrease in Tl uptake into myocytes by 1.6 - 2.5 times, and an increase in washout by 1.6 - 3.1 times. Pinacidil injection resulted in mild decrease in blood, heart and liver uptake in mice, bur renal uptake was markedly decreased in a dose dependent manner. These results suggest that the pinacidil Tl-201 kinetics and may potentially affect the interpretation of Tl-201 myocardial imaging

  10. What factors influence the effectiveness of financial incentives on long-term natural resource management practice change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Swann

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Financial incentives are used by natural resource management organisations to encourage landholders to adopt sustainable practices where the outcomes on a farm scale may be negative or marginal. There is a growing body of research aimed at understanding why landholders do or do not agree to participate in financial incentive programs, however research that considers when and how financial incentives work to bring about long-term behaviour change is relatively immature. The purpose of this review is to answer the question ‘What factors influence the effectiveness of financial incentives on long-term natural resource management practice change?’ In synthesising the evidence, it was found that there are numerous characteristics of the practice change itself, along with the program design and implementation, which are important to understand long-term behaviour change. These include whether inexpensive maintenance or long-term funding is available; whether the changes are relatively simple to sustain; whether the program involves structural changes; whether there is land use rigidity; and whether the changes have resulting environmental benefits that are highly observable. Additionally, it is advisable for programs that use financial incentives to include the following program features: ongoing extension support and a focus on building relationship and trust; flexibility in how the practice change is applied; active landholder involvement from planning to evaluation; and contract length that is appropriate for the complexity of the NRM practice. These characteristics can be used to guide policy makers in their natural resource management investment decisions. There is a clear need for greatly increased monitoring and evaluation of existing programs, both during the program and after its conclusion, in order to more fully understand its long-term impacts and ultimate effectiveness. Finally, landholders undertaking a practice change generally

  11. Conformation evolution of oil contaminants onto aluminum oxide surface in aqueous solution: The effect of surface coverage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Wenkun; Liu, Haitao, E-mail: xwk584523412@126.com; Sun, Yazhou; Fu, Hongya; Liang, Yingchun

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • The dynamic conformational change of oil contaminations, at various surface coverages onto perfect α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) surface in aqueous solution is given. • The effect of surface coverage of oil molecules on the driving forces for the conformational change of oil contaminations is described. • The effect of interfacial water on the conformational change and even detachment of oil contaminations is considered. - Abstract: The microscopic conformational change process of oil contaminants adhered onto perfect α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0001) surface in aqueous solution was investigated by using all-atom classic molecular dynamics simulations. The change in removal mechanism of oil contaminants induced by surface coverage (surface area per molecule) was emphatically explored. Our simulation results strongly reveal that the increase in oil surface coverage induces an evident difference in microscopic detachment processes of oil contaminants. At a low surface coverage, oil contaminants can be thoroughly detached from solid surface. The whole detachment process could be divided into multi stages, including conformational change of oil contaminants on solid surface, dynamic motion of those in bulk solution and rapid migration of those from bulk solution to air/water interface. With surface coverage increasing, water diffusion becomes the key to induce conformational change and promote the detachment of oil contaminants. When oil surface coverage exceeds a threshold value, oil contaminants also undertake an evident conformational change process exhibiting typical characteristics but an incomplete detachment process occurs. All findings of the present study are helpful for the interpretation of the removal mechanism of oil contaminants on solid surface.

  12. Evaluation of the effects of rehabilitation exercise on cerebral infarction with 99Tcm-ECD SPECT brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Ningyi; Lu Xianping; Liu Xingguang; Xiao Xiuhong; Xu Jianxing

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the therapeutic effects of motor therapy on hemiplegia with SPECT brain perfusion imaging. Methods: The study population consisted of 59 patients with cerebral infarction, and all patients were treated with motor therapy. Among them, 30 cases were assigned to undertake single bridging exercise and 29 cases passive exercise. SPECT brain perfusion imaging was performed before and after motor therapy under the same condition, and the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) changes were compared and analysed with visual and semi-quantitative methods; in addition, the relationship between rCBF changes and scores of Fugl-Meyer or Barthel index were also analysed. Results: After motor therapy, various degrees of radioactivity increase were compared with the pretreatment radioactivity hypoperfusion in patients with cerebral infarction, and showed that motor therapy could evidently improve rCBF of regional hypoperfusion. The posttreatment rCBF was higher than the pretreatment level (P<0.01), and the rCBF of group of single bridging was higher than that of passive exercise group. And the changes of rCBF were all significant after motor therapy. In addition, the variation of the rCBF after motor therapy was positively correlated with the variation of Fugl-Meyer and Barthel score. Conclusions: SPECT brain perfusion imaging can serve as a useful method for evaluating the effectiveness of motor therapy in cerebral infarction rehabilitation. The single bridging exercise and the passive exercise are both beneficial to brain rehabilitation, but the former improves the rCBF in lesions better than the later does

  13. The effectiveness of a weight loss diet in a group of overweight and obese women with recurrent depressive disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Stefańska

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The research conducted among patients with depression shows that such patients commit a range of nutritional mistakes which may predispose them to the development of many diseases including obesity and its complications. Aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of a balanced weight loss diet in a group of women with recurrent depressive disorders. Material and methods : 60 women suffering from depression, aged 41-64 (mean 52 ±5.3 on a six-month weight loss diet took part in the study. The patients’ nutrition was assessed both in terms of quality and quantity, they were also subjected to anthropometric tests and their body composition was analysed. Results: An average reduction in the women’s body weight was 4.1 ±3.1 kg. The percentage content of the fatty tissue was reduced by 2.5 ±1.1% on average after modification of the nutrition (a statistically significant decrease in the frequency of wheat bread, cream, fat pork and eggs was observed. A considerable reduction in the mean energy value of the diet and a decrease in the total fat supply was also implemented. Conclusions : It seems that the dietary procedure which is aimed at obtaining the most advantageous effects of the reduction in the body mass of obese patients suffering from depression should be based not only on proper selection of food products and reduction in the energy value of the diet, but it should also take into account actions aimed at introducing permanent lifestyle changes including increased motivation of the patients to undertake physical activity.

  14. Evaluation of Simulation Models that Estimate the Effect of Dietary Strategies on Nutritional Intake: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieger, Jessica A; Johnson, Brittany J; Wycherley, Thomas P; Golley, Rebecca K

    2017-05-01

    Background: Dietary simulation modeling can predict dietary strategies that may improve nutritional or health outcomes. Objectives: The study aims were to undertake a systematic review of simulation studies that model dietary strategies aiming to improve nutritional intake, body weight, and related chronic disease, and to assess the methodologic and reporting quality of these models. Methods: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guided the search strategy with studies located through electronic searches [Cochrane Library, Ovid (MEDLINE and Embase), EBSCOhost (CINAHL), and Scopus]. Study findings were described and dietary modeling methodology and reporting quality were critiqued by using a set of quality criteria adapted for dietary modeling from general modeling guidelines. Results: Forty-five studies were included and categorized as modeling moderation, substitution, reformulation, or promotion dietary strategies. Moderation and reformulation strategies targeted individual nutrients or foods to theoretically improve one particular nutrient or health outcome, estimating small to modest improvements. Substituting unhealthy foods with healthier choices was estimated to be effective across a range of nutrients, including an estimated reduction in intake of saturated fatty acids, sodium, and added sugar. Promotion of fruits and vegetables predicted marginal changes in intake. Overall, the quality of the studies was moderate to high, with certain features of the quality criteria consistently reported. Conclusions: Based on the results of reviewed simulation dietary modeling studies, targeting a variety of foods rather than individual foods or nutrients theoretically appears most effective in estimating improvements in nutritional intake, particularly reducing intake of nutrients commonly consumed in excess. A combination of strategies could theoretically be used to deliver the best improvement in outcomes. Study quality was moderate to

  15. Vocational and General Education of Girls and Boys in Tunisia: The Effects of Income and Parental Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Siala

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Throughout Tunisia, basic education is compulsory. Children are required to enroll for at least 9 years from age 6. This paper examines gender differences in education choice of upper basic education of youths aged 15–24 in Tunisia. To investigate the factors that influence an individual’s choice between vocational education, general education (secondary and high education and leaving school, the paper estimates a multinomial probit model of education choice. We focus on the impact of household income, parental education, sector of economic activity of father, household size, urban location and region of residence on investments in children. These issues are addressed using data from the 2010 National PopulationEmployment Survey that provided information on educational attainment and vocational training of more than 55,000 youths aged 15-24. The findings of this paper suggest that there are gender differences in education choice. Increases in permanent income contribute more to the probabilities of the two types of education of girls than of boys. Parental education has a positive significant effect on their attitudes towards children education and the impact of mother’s higher education was more important for the education of boys than of girls. While, father’s coefficient estimates show the relative benefit to girls general education. Children whose fathers work in agriculture are at disadvantage. The negative effect on girls’ education was larger than on boys’ at the two streams of education. The coefficient estimates on the manufacturing sector increase the probabilities of receiving general education and decrease the probabilities of undertaking vocational education for both girls and boys.

  16. Is the time between onset of pain and restoration of patency of infarct-related artery shortened in patients with myocardial infarction? The effects of the Kielce Region System for Optimal Management of Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Sadowski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : The importance of delay in the restoration of infarct-related artery patency in patients with myocardial infarction was discussed, and actions were undertaken in the Kielce Region aimed at shortening this time within the System for Optimal Management of Acute Myocardial Infarction. Aim of the research: To evaluate the effectiveness of shortening time delays during transport of patients and diagnostics of myocardial infarction in the Kielce Region. Material and methods: Time delays were analysed in 5,934 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI, hospitalised in cardiology wards with interventional cardiology on 24-hour duty, during the period 2008–2012. Time delays were analysed between the onset of myocardial infarction pain and undertaking treatment – T1 and T2 time – within which a patient with myocardial infarction, after admission to hospital, has intervention performed on infarct-related coronary artery. Results : During the period 2008–2012, the median T1 time was successfully shortened from 355 to 203 min, and the T2 time from 101 to 48 min. Conclusions: The effectiveness of the system was confirmed, and the necessity for further improvement of the system indicated.

  17. Is Accelerated Partner Therapy (APT) a cost-effective alternative to routine patient referral partner notification in the UK? Preliminary cost-consequence analysis of an exploratory trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Tracy E; Tsourapas, Angelos; Sutcliffe, Lorna; Cassell, Jackie; Estcourt, Claudia

    2012-02-01

    To undertake a cost-consequence analysis to assess two new models of partner notification (PN), known as Accelerated Partner Therapy (APT Hotline and APT Pharmacy), as compared with routine patient referral PN, for sex partners of people with chlamydia, gonorrhoea and non-gonococcal urethritis. Comparison of costs and outcomes alongside an exploratory trial involving two genitourinary medicine clinics and six community pharmacies. Index patients selected the PN method (APT Hotline, APT Pharmacy or routine PN) for their partners. Clinics and pharmacies recorded cost and resource use data including duration of consultation and uptake of treatment pack. Cost data were collected prospectively for two out of three interventions, and data were synthesised and compared in terms of effectiveness and costs. Routine PN had the lowest average cost per partner treated (approximately £46) compared with either APT Hotline (approximately £54) or APT Pharmacy (approximately £53) strategies. The cost-consequence analysis revealed that APT strategies were more costly but also more effective at treating partners compared to routine PN. The hotline strategy costs more than both the alternative PN strategies. If we accept that strategies which identify and treat partners the fastest are likely to be the most effective in reducing reinfection and onward transmission, then APT Hotline appears an effective PN strategy by treating the highest number of partners in the shortest duration. Whether the additional benefit is worth the additional cost cannot be determined in this preliminary analysis. These data will be useful for informing development of future randomised controlled trials of APT.

  18. The effects of elevated levels of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO₃) on the acute power output and time to fatigue of maximally stimulated mouse soleus and EDL muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, M F; Tallis, J; Price, M J; James, R S

    2013-05-01

    This study examined the effects of elevated buffer capacity [~32 mM HCO₃(-)] through administration of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO₃) on maximally stimulated isolated mouse soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles undergoing cyclical length changes at 37 °C. The elevated buffering capacity was of an equivalent level to that achieved in humans with acute oral supplementation. We evaluated the acute effects of elevated [HCO₃(-)] on (1) maximal acute power output (PO) and (2) time to fatigue to 60 % of maximum control PO (TLIM60), the level of decline in muscle PO observed in humans undertaking similar exercise, using the work loop technique. Acute PO was on average 7.0 ± 4.8 % greater for NaHCO₃-treated EDL muscles (P < 0.001; ES = 2.0) and 3.6 ± 1.8 % greater for NaHCO₃-treated SOL muscles (P < 0.001; ES = 2.3) compared to CON. Increases in PO were likely due to greater force production throughout shortening. The acute effects of NaHCO₃ on EDL were significantly greater (P < 0.001; ES = 0.9) than on SOL. Treatment of EDL (P = 0.22; ES = 0.6) and SOL (P = 0.19; ES = 0.9) with NaHCO₃ did not alter the pattern of fatigue. Although significant differences were not observed in whole group data, the fatigability of muscle performance was variable, suggesting that there might be inter-individual differences in response to NaHCO₃ supplementation. These results present the best indication to date that NaHCO₃ has direct peripheral effects on mammalian skeletal muscle resulting in increased acute power output.

  19. Is transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) a cost-effective treatment in patients who are ineligible for surgical aortic valve replacement? A systematic review of economic evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, James; Mealing, Stuart; Thompson, Juliette; Moat, Neil; Kappetein, Pieter; Piazza, Nicolo; Busca, Rachele; Osnabrugge, Ruben

    2014-05-01

    Health Technology Assessment (HTA) agencies often undertake a review of economic evaluations of an intervention during an appraisal in order to identify published estimates of cost-effectiveness, to elicit comparisons with the results of their own model, and to support local reimbursement decision-making. The aim of this research is to determine whether Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) compared to medical management (MM) is cost-effective in patients ineligible for surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR), across different jurisdictions and country-specific evaluations. A systematic review of the literature from 2007-2012 was performed in the MEDLINE, MEDLINE in-process, EMBASE, and UK NHS EED databases according to standard methods, supplemented by a search of published HTA models. All identified publications were reviewed independently by two health economists. The British Medical Journal (BMJ) 35-point checklist for economic evaluations was used to assess study reporting. To compare results, incremental cost effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were converted to 2012 dollars using purchasing power parity (PPP) techniques. Six studies were identified representing five reimbursement jurisdictions (England/Wales, Scotland, the US, Canada, and Belgium) and different modeling techniques. The identified economic evaluations represent different willingness-to-pay thresholds, discount rates, medical costs, and healthcare systems. In addition, the model structures, time horizons, and cycle lengths varied. When adjusting for differences in currencies, the ICERs ranged from $27K-$65K per QALY gained. Despite notable differences in modeling approach, under the thresholds defined by using either the local threshold value or that recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) threshold value, each study showed that TAVI was likely to be a cost-effective intervention for patients ineligible for SAVR.

  20. Effect of organic additives on the mitigation of volatility of 1-nitro-3,3'-dinitroazetidine (TNAZ): Next generation powerful melt cast able high energy material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talawar, M.B.; Singh, Alok; Naik, N.H.; Polke, B.G.; Gore, G.M.; Asthana, S.N.; Gandhe, B.R.

    2006-01-01

    1-Nitro-3,3'-dinitroazetidine (TNAZ) was synthesized based on the lines of reported method. Thermolysis studies on synthesized and characterized TNAZ using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and hyphenated TG-FT-IR techniques were undertaken to generate data on decomposition pattern. FT-IR of decomposition products of TNAZ revealed the evolution of oxides of nitrogen and HCN containing species suggesting the cleavage of C/N-NO 2 bond accompanied with the collapse of ring structure. The effect of incorporation of 15% additives namely, 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (AT), 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole (DAT), carbohydrazide (CHZ), 5,7-dinitrobenzofuroxan (DNBF), bis (2,2-dinitropropyl) succinate (BNPS), triaminoguanidinium nitrate (TAGN), 2,4,6-trinitrobenzoic acid (TNBA) and nitroguanidine (NQ) on the volatility of TNAZ was investigated by undertaking thermogravimetric analysis. The TG pattern brings out the potential of BNPS and TAGN as additives to mitigate the volatility of TNAZ. The influence of additives on thermal decomposition of pattern of TNAZ was also investigated by DSC. The DSC results indicated that the additives did not have appreciable effect on the melting point of TNAZ. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies were carried out to investigate the effect of additives on morphology of TNAZ. This paper also discusses the possible mechanism involved in between the TNAZ and TAGN and BNPS. It appears that the formation of charge transfer complex formation between the TNAZ and TAGN/BNPS. The effect of addition of high explosives such as CL-20, HMX and RDX on thermo-physical characteristics of TNAZ is also reported in this paper

  1. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on serum C-reactive protein: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazidi, Mohsen; Karimi, Ehsan; Rezaie, Peyman; Ferns, Gordon A

    2017-12-01

    To undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies to determine the effect of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) supplementation on serum C-reactive protein (CRP). PubMed-Medline, Web of Science, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar databases were searched (up until May 2016) to identify prospective studies evaluating the impact of CLAs supplementation on serum CRP. Random-effects models meta-analysis was used for quantitative data synthesis. Sensitivity analysis was conducted using the leave-one-out method. Heterogeneity was quantitatively assessed using the I 2 index. Systematic review registration: CRD42016038945. From a total of 85 entries identified via searches, 14 studies were included in the final selection. The meta-analysis indicated a significant increase in serum CRP concentrations following supplementation with CLAs (weighted mean difference [WMD] 0.63 mg/dL, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.13-1.13, N=21 arms, heterogeneity P=.026; I 2 =52.3%). These findings were robust in sensitivity analyses. Random-effects meta-regression revealed that changes in serum CRP levels were independent of the dosage of CLAs supplementation (slope: -0.02; 95% CI: -0.10, 0.12; P=.889) or duration of follow-up (slope: 0.271; 95% CI: -0.05, 0.59; P=.098). This meta-analysis suggests that CLA supplementation is associated with an increase in plasma CRP concentrations and a reduction in serum adiponectin concentrations, which indicates that CLA supplements have a proinflammatory effect. Randomized control trials with larger sample size and a longer follow-up period may be required for future investigations to provide an unequivocal answer. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Effect of Sodium-Glucose Cotransport-2 Inhibitors on Blood Pressure in People With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of 43 Randomized Control Trials With 22 528 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazidi, Mohsen; Rezaie, Peyman; Gao, Hong-Kai; Kengne, Andre Pascal

    2017-05-25

    The sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a class of oral hypoglycemic agents. We undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies to determine the effect of SGLT2 on blood pressure (BP) among individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PubMed-Medline, Web of Science, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar databases were searched to identify trial registries evaluating the impact of SGLT2 on BP. Random-effects models meta-analysis was used for quantitative data synthesis. The meta-analysis indicated a significant reduction in systolic BP following treatment with SGLT2 (weighted mean difference -2.46 mm Hg [95% CI -2.86 to -2.06]). The weighted mean differences for the effect on diastolic BP was -1.46 mm Hg (95% CI -1.82 to -1.09). In these subjects the weighted mean difference effects on serum triglycerides and total cholesterol were -2.08 mg/dL (95% CI -2.51 to -1.64) and 0.77 mg/dL (95% CI 0.33-1.21), respectively. The weighted mean differences for the effect of SGLT2 on body weight was -1.88 kg (95% CI -2.11 to -1.66) across all studies. These findings were robust in sensitivity analyses. Treatment with SGLT2 glucose cotransporter inhibitors therefore has beneficial off-target effects on BP in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and may also be of value in improving other cardiometabolic parameters including lipid profile and body weight in addition to their expected effects on glycemic control. However, our findings should be interpreted with consideration for the moderate statistical heterogeneity across the included studies. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  3. Young people who are being bullied - do they want general practice support?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Emma; Dale, Jeremy; Russell, Rachel; Wolke, Dieter

    2016-08-22

    Childhood bullying is a major risk factor for health, education and social relationships, with effects persisting into adulthood. It affects half of all children at some point, with 10-14 % experiencing bullying that lasts for years. With the advent of cyberbullying, it can happen at all times and places. There have been calls for GPs to take a more active role in identifying and supporting young people who are being bullied. This paper explores young people's and parents' opinions about whether general practice should be involved in identifying and supporting young people who are being bullied. Two hundred six young people (85.9 % female, mean ± sd age 16.2 ± 3.2 years) and 44 parents were recruited through established bullying charity websites and their social media channels to complete an online questionnaire comprising multiple-choice questions and unlimited narrative responses. Questionnaire responses were analysed by age and gender using descriptive statistics. A descriptive analysis of the narrative responses was undertaken and key themes identified. Young people (90.8 %) and parents (88.7 %) thought it was important for GPs to be better able to recognise and help young people who are being bullied. Most recognised the link between bullying and health. The doctor's independence was seen as advantageous. Young people preferred completing a screening questionnaire to disclose experience of being bullied than being asked directly. They expressed concerns about how questions would be asked and whether information would be shared with parents/guardians. Parents were supportive of the use of a screening questionnaire, and most expected their child's disclosure to be shared with them. Young people and parents recruited through anti-bullying websites and social media would welcome greater GP involvement in identifying and supporting young people who are being bullied and their families, provided it is offered in a caring, compassionate and

  4. Workplace Bullying in Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Mary; Young, Christopher J; Shepherd, Heather L; Mak, Cindy; Saw, Robyn P M

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent and nature of workplace bullying among General Surgery trainees and consultants in Australia. An online questionnaire survey of General Surgery trainees and consultant surgeons in Australia was conducted between March and May 2012. Prevalence of bullying was measured using both a definition of workplace bullying and the revised Negative Acts Questionnaire (NAQ-R). Sources of bullying were also examined, as well as the barriers and outcomes of formal reporting of bullying. The response rate was 34 % (370/1084) with 41 % (n = 152) of respondents being trainees. Overall, 47 % (n = 173) of respondents reported having been bullied to some degree and 68 % (n = 250) reported having witnessed bullying of surgical colleagues in the last 12 months. The prevalence of bullying was significantly higher in trainees and females, with 64 % of trainees and 57 % of females experiencing some degree of bullying. The majority of respondents (83 %) had experienced at least one negative behavior in the last 12 months, but 38 % experienced at least one negative behavior on a weekly or daily basis. The persistent negative behaviors that represent work-related bullying most commonly experienced were 'having opinions ignored' and 'being exposed to an unmanageable workload.' Consultant surgeons were the most common source of bullying for both trainees and consultants, with administration the next common source. Of those who reported being bullied, only 18 % (n = 32) made a formal complaint. Despite increased awareness and interventions, workplace bullying remains a significant problem within General Surgery in Australia. The findings in this study serve as a baseline for future questionnaires to monitor the effectiveness of implemented anti-bullying interventions.

  5. Investigating the effectiveness of technologies applied to assist seniors: A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Pouria; Ghapanchi, Amir Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a number of Information and Communication Technologies have emerged with the aim to provide innovative and efficient ways to help seniors in their daily life and to reduce the cost of healthcare. Studies have been conducted to introduce an assistive technology to support seniors and to investigate the acceptance of these assistive technologies; however, research illustrating the effectiveness of assistive technologies is scant. This study undertakes a systematic literature review of ScienceDirect, PubMed, ProQuest and IEEE Explore databases to investigate current empirical studies on the assistive technologies applied in aged care. Our systematic review of an initial set of 2035 studies published from 2000 to 2014 examines the role of assistive technologies in seniors' daily lives, from enhancements in their mobility to improvements in the social connectedness and decreases in readmission to hospitals. This study found eight key issues in aged care that have been targeted by researchers from different disciplines (e.g., ICT, health and social science), namely, dependent living, fall risk, chronic disease, dementia, social isolation, depression, poor well-being, and poor medication management. This paper also identified the assistive technologies that have been proposed to overcome those problems, and we categorised these assistive technologies into six clusters, namely, general ICT, robotics, telemedicine, sensor technology, medication management applications, and video games. In addition, we analyzed the effectiveness of the identified technologies and noted that some technologies can change and enhance seniors' daily lives and relieve their problems. Our analysis showed a significant growth in the number of publications in this area in the past few years. It also showed that most of the studies in this area have been conducted in North America. Assistive technologies are a reality and can be applied to improve quality of life, especially among older age

  6. Cost effective decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear power plants; Kosteneffizienz bei Stilllegung und Rueckbau von Kernkraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasinger, Karl [AREVA NP GmbH, Offenbach (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    As for any large and complex project, the basis for cost effective decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear power plants is established with the development of the project. Just as its construction, dismantling of a nuclear power plant is similarly demanding. Daily changing situations due to the progress of construction - in the present case progress of dismantling - result in significant logistical challenges for project managers and site supervisors. This will be aggravated by the fact that a considerable amount of the removed parts are contaminated or even activated. Hence, not only occupational health, safety and environmental protection is to be assured, employees, public and environment are to be adequately protected against the adverse effect of radioactive radiation as well. Work progress and not least expenses involved with the undertaking depend on adherence to the planned course of actions. Probably the most frequent cause of deviation from originally planned durations and costs of a project are disruptions in the flow of work. For being enabled to counteract in a timely and efficient manner, all required activities are to be comprehensively captured with the initial planning. The effect initial activities may have on subsequent works until completion must particularly be investigated. This is the more important the larger and more complex the project actually are. Comprehensive knowledge of all the matters which may affect the progress of the works is required in order to set up a suitable work break-down structure; such work break-down structure being indispensable for successful control and monitoring of the project. In building the related organizational structure of the project, all such stakeholders not being direct part of the project team but which may potentially affect the progress of the project are to be considered as well. Cost effective and lost time injury free dismantling of decommissioned nuclear power plants is based on implementing

  7. The Continuing Search to Find a More Effective and Less Intimidating Way to Teach Research Methods in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Existing literature examining the teaching of research methods highlights difficulties students face when developing research competencies. Studies of student-centred teaching approaches have found increased student performance and improved confidence in undertaking research projects. To develop a student-centred approach, it could be beneficial…

  8. Substituted-Letter and Transposed-Letter Effects in a Masked Priming Paradigm with French Developing Readers and Dyslexics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lete, Bernard; Fayol, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to undertake a behavioral investigation of the development of automatic orthographic processing during reading acquisition in French. Following Castles and colleagues' 2007 study ("Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 97," 165-182) and their lexical tuning hypothesis framework, substituted-letter and…

  9. The new regulator in town : The effect of Walmart’s sustainability mandate on supplier shareholder value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielens, K.J.P.; Geyskens, Inge; Deleersnyder, Barbara; Nohe, Max

    Suppliers are increasingly forced by dominant retailers to clean up their supply chains. While these retailers argue that their sustainability mandates may translate into profits for suppliers, many suppliers are cynical about these mandates because the onus to undertake the required investments is

  10. Effectiveness of an implementation optimisation intervention aimed at increasing parent engagement in HENRY, a childhood obesity prevention programme - the Optimising Family Engagement in HENRY (OFTEN) trial: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Maria; Burton, Wendy; Cundill, Bonnie; Farrin, Amanda J; Nixon, Jane; Stevens, June; Roberts, Kim; Foy, Robbie; Rutter, Harry; Hartley, Suzanne; Tubeuf, Sandy; Collinson, Michelle; Brown, Julia

    2017-01-24

    trial is planned to determine the practicality of undertaking a definitive trial to robustly evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the optimised intervention on childhood obesity prevention. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02675699 . Registered on 4 February 2016.

  11. Effects of dual-task balance training on postural performance in patients with Multiple Sclerosis: a double-blind, randomized controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monjezi, Saeideh; Negahban, Hossein; Tajali, Shirin; Yadollahpour, Nava; Majdinasab, Nastaran

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the effects of dual-task balance training on postural performance in patients with multiple sclerosis as compared with single-task balance training. Double-blind, pretest-posttest, randomized controlled pilot trial. Local Multiple Sclerosis Society. A total of 47 patients were randomly assigned to two equal groups labeled as single-task training and dual-task training groups. All patients received supervised balance training sessions, 3 times per week for 4 weeks. The patients in the single-task group performed balance activities, alone. However, patients in dual-task group practiced balance activities while simultaneously performing cognitive tasks. The 10-Meter Walk Test and Timed Up-and-Go under single-task and dual-task conditions, in addition to Activities-specific Balance Confidence, Berg Balance Scale, and Functional Gait Assessment were assessed pre-, and post intervention and also 6-weeks after the end of intervention. Only 38 patients completed the treatment plan. There was no difference in the amount of improvement seen between the two study groups. In both groups there was a significant effect of time for dual-10 Meter Walk Test (F 1, 36 =11.33, p=0.002) and dual-Timed Up-and-Go (F 1, 36 =14.27, p=0.001) but not for their single-tasks. Moreover, there was a significant effect of time for Activities-specific Balance Confidence, Berg Balance Scale, and Functional Gait Assessment ( Ppilot study did not show more benefits from undertaking dual-task training than single-task training. A power analysis showed 71 patients per group would be needed to determine whether there was a clinically relevant difference for dual-task gait speed between the groups.

  12. Effects of Different Exercise Modalities on Fatigue in Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Androgen Deprivation Therapy: A Year-long Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taaffe, Dennis R; Newton, Robert U; Spry, Nigel; Joseph, David; Chambers, Suzanne K; Gardiner, Robert A; Wall, Brad A; Cormie, Prue; Bolam, Kate A; Galvão, Daniel A

    2017-08-01

    Physical exercise mitigates fatigue during androgen deprivation therapy (ADT); however, the effects of different exercise prescriptions are unknown. To determine the long-term effects of different exercise modes on fatigue in prostate cancer patients undergoing ADT. Between 2009 and 2012, 163 prostate cancer patients aged 43-90 y on ADT were randomised to exercise targeting the musculoskeletal system (impact loading+resistance training; ILRT; n=58), the cardiovascular and muscular systems (aerobic+resistance training; ART; n=54), or to usual care/delayed exercise (DEL; n=51) for 12 mo across university-affiliated exercise clinics in Australia. Supervised ILRT for 12 mo, supervised ART for 6 mo followed by a 6-mo home program, and DEL received a printed booklet on exercise information for 6 mo followed by 6-mo stationary cycling exercise. Fatigue was assessed using the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 36 and vitality using the Short Form-36. Analysis of variance was used to compare outcomes for groups at 6 mo and 12 mo. Fatigue was reduced (p=0.005) in ILRT at 6 mo and 12 mo (∼5 points), and in ART (p=0.005) and DEL (p=0.022) at 12 mo. Similarly, vitality increased for all groups (p≤0.001) at 12 mo (∼4 points). Those with the highest levels of fatigue and lowest vitality improved the most with exercise (p trend fatigue and enhancing vitality during ADT. Patients with the highest levels of fatigue and lowest vitality had the greatest benefits. We compared the effects of different exercise modes on fatigue in men on androgen deprivation therapy. All exercise programs reduced fatigue and enhanced vitality. We conclude that undertaking some form of exercise will help reduce fatigue, especially in those who are the most fatigued. Copyright © 2017 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effectiveness of physical activity promotion in blood pressure and blood sugar reduction: A community-based intervention study in rural south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subitha Lakshminarayanan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Physical activity of moderate intensity for 30 minutes a day, on most days substantially reduces the risk of many chronic diseases. Aim: To assess the effect of regular physical activity on blood pressure and blood sugar levels in a rural Indian community Settings and Design: This community-based study was carried out in Periakattupalayam and Rangareddipalayam in south India, with 485 subjects, aged 20 to 49 years. Materials and Methods: The study was done in five phases: Awareness campaign, baseline assessment of participants, intervention phase (10 weeks, interim, and final assessment. Physical activity of moderate intensity (brisk walking for 30 minutes on four days / week was promoted by forming 30 small walking groups, in a home-based setting, with professional supervision. Village leaders and Self-Help Group members were the resource people for the promotion of physical activity. Statistical Analysis: Analysis was done by using paired ′t′ test; the ′Intention-to-Treat′ approach was utilized for the interpretation of the findings of the study. Results: Of the 485 subjects, 265 (54.6% complied with walking on more than four days / week, while 156 (32.2% walked on one to four days / week, and 64 (13.2% dropped out during the intervention period. This study has shown that a 10-week intervention to promote physical activity was effective in significantly decreasing the population′s BP by 1.56 / 0.74 mm Hg, fasting blood sugar levels by 2.82 mg%, body weight by 0.17 kg, and BMI by 0.06 kg / m 2 . Conclusions: This study has proved the functional feasibility of enabling people to undertake physical activity in a rural Indian community, and the effectiveness of using physical activity, to significantly reduce the population′s mean BP and blood sugar levels.

  14. Façade insulation retrofitting policy implementation process and its effects on health equity determinants: A realist review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camprubí, Lluís; Malmusi, Davide; Mehdipanah, Roshanak

    2016-01-01

    Fuel poverty and cold housing constitute a significant public health problem. Energy efficiency interventions, such as façade retrofitting, address the problem from a structural and long-term perspective. Despite evidence of the health benefits of insulation, little is known about the political and social contexts that contribute to social inequalities in receiving and experiencing health benefits from these interventions. We used a realist review methodology to better understand the mechanisms that explain how and why variations across different social groups appear in receiving energy efficiency façade retrofitting interventions and in their impact on health determinants. We considered the four stages of the policy implementation framework: public policy approach; policy; receiving intervention and impact on health determinants. We found strong evidence that certain social groups (low-income, renters, elderly) suffering most from fuel poverty, experience more barriers for undertaking a building retrofitting (due to factors such as upfront costs, “presentism” thinking, split incentives, disruption and lack of control), and that some public policies on housing energy efficiency may exacerbate these inequalities. This can be avoided if such policies specifically aim at tackling fuel poverty or social inequities, are completely free to users, target the most affected groups and are adapted to their needs. - Highlights: •Health benefits of housing façade insulation more pronounced in fuel poor groups. •Social groups suffering most from fuel poverty least likely to undergo insulation. •Energy efficiency policies focused solely on CO_2 reduction may increase inequalities. •Split Incentives and “Take-Back” effect show socioeconomic and contextual variability. •Universal policies without targeting increase inequalities in retrofitting uptake.

  15. Effect of zinc supplementation on body mass index and serum levels of zinc and leptin in pediatric hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shazly AN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Nabih El-Shazly,1 Soha Abd El-Hady Ibrahim,1 Ghada Mohamed El-Mashad,2 Jehan H Sabry,3 Nashwa Said Sherbini11Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Banha, 2Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Shibin Al Kawm, 3Department of Clinical and Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Banha, Egypt Introduction: Zinc is an essential trace element for human nutrition, and its deficiency is associated with anorexia, poor food efficiency, growth retardation, and impaired neurological and immune systems. The zinc-deficiency rate is particularly high in many disease states, such as with end-stage renal disease patients undertaking hemodialysis. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of zinc supplementation on body mass index (BMI and serum levels of zinc and leptin in pediatric hemodialysis patients. Patients and methods: This was a prospective clinical trial study in which 60 hemodialysis patients were randomly divided into two groups: group I received 50–100 mg zinc sulfate (equivalent to 11–22 mg elemental zinc according to age, sex, and nutritional status of the child; and group II received placebo (cornstarch twice daily for 90 days. Anthropometric measurements were taken, and serum zinc and leptin levels were determined by colorimetric test with 5-Br-3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, at days 0 and 90 of the study. Results: Zinc supplementation resulted in a significant increase in mean serum zinc level and BMI. Serum leptin decreased significantly after supplementation in children under hemodialysis. A significant negative correlation was observed between serum zinc and leptin levels as a result of zinc supplementation. Conclusion: There was an increase in serum zinc level and BMI and decreased serum leptin after zinc supplementation in children under hemodialysis. Keywords: serum zinc, serum leptin

  16. Effect of eccentric isokinetic strengthening in the rehabilitation of patients with knee osteoarthritis: Isogo, a randomized trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Femorotibial knee osteoarthritis is associated with muscle weakness in the lower limbs, particularly in the quadriceps, which results in disease progression. The interest of having muscular strengthening as part of the therapeutic arsenal for the medical treatment of knee osteoarthritis is now well established. The functional disability induced by knee osteoarthritis manifests itself principally when walking, notably downhill, during which the muscles are called upon to contract eccentrically. We can therefore think that eccentric muscular strengthening could bring a functional benefit that is superior to concentric muscular strengthening. Methods/Design This is a prospective, randomized, bicenter, parallel-group, international study. Eighty patients aged from 40 to 75 years old, suffering from medical-stage knee osteoarthritis, will undertake 6 weeks of isokinetic muscular strengthening. Randomization determines the mode of muscular strengthening: either exclusively eccentric or exclusively concentric. The principal objective is to demonstrate the superiority of the improvement in the quadriceps isokinetic torque after isokinetic muscular strengthening by the eccentric mode compared to the concentric mode. The following parameters are also evaluated: the variations in the level of pain, the parameters of walking (maximum speed over 10 and 200 meters, analysis on a computerized Gaitrite™ treadmill), static equilibrium (on a FUSYO™ force platform), and the functional status of the patient using the Western Ontario and MacMaster Universities osteoarthritis index (WOMAC) questionnaire after the strengthening period and at 6 months. Discussion A better knowledge of the most effective mode of muscular strengthening is needed to optimize the functional benefits to the patients. In case of superiority in terms of efficacy of the eccentric mode, the latter could be given priority in the rehabilitation treatment of knee osteoarthritis patients. Trial

  17. The effects of 4 weeks of jump training on landing knee valgus and crossover hop performance in female basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, Lee

    2010-12-01

    Female basketball players would appear particularly prone to knee injuries. These injuries have been associated with the nature of the sport, but more specifically with the particular movement strategies adopted. A valgus or abducted position of the knee on landing has been reported to be associated with a number of different knee injuries. Jump-training programs have been reported to improve both landing knee valgus and functional performance. The majority of the jump-training programs have been of 6 weeks' duration, 3 sessions per week often lasting up to 1 hour. For most sports coaches, team conditioners, and athletes, this duration and program length is not acceptable. The aim of this study was to assess if an abridged jump-training program could have similar effects to those previously reported. Fifteen female basketball players had their knee valgus angles assessed during 2 landing tasks, drop jump landing, and when undertaking a jump shot and along with crossover hop distance before and after a progressive jump-training program. The jump-training program lasted 4 weeks, 3 times per week, each session lasting 15 minutes. After training, crossover hop distance showed an average percentage improvement on distance jumped of 73.6% (p = 0.001); the drop jump knee valgus angle in the left leg on average was reduced by 9.8° (p = 0.002), right leg reduced by 12.3° (p = 0.0001); during the jump shot, the knee valgus angle in the left leg showed a mean reduction of 4.5° (p = 0.035), and the right leg was reduced by 4.3° (p = 0.01). The study undertaken achieved comparable results to those previously reported with an abridged program over considerably shortened session duration and training period.

  18. Effects of Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Policymakers Media ASA Member Toolkit Anesthesia 101 Effects of Anesthesia Explore this page: Effects of Anesthesia ... the types of anesthesia and their side effects? Effects of Anesthesia If you’re having surgery, you ...

  19. Centers for Disease Control review panel's recommendations on health effects and epidemiological studies of operations at the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina. Public comment and meeting report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-05-01

    Based on the request of the US Department of Energy, the Centers for Disease Control of the US Department of Health and Human Services organized a panel to review the feasibility and usefulness of conducting further epidemiologic studies of delayed health effects around the Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant. The review and recommendations of the panel were documented in a report entitled Epidemiologic Projects Considered Possible to Undertake in Populations Around the Savannah River Plant. On November 30, 1984, the Department of Energy announced in the Federal Register (49 FR 47095) the conduct of a public meeting and a 30-day public comment period between December 1 and December 30, 1984, on the recommendations of the review panel. Based on the requests of individuals and representatives of organizations attending the December 18, 1984, public meetings, the Department of Energy subsequently announced in the Federal Register on December 31, 1984 (49 FR 50767) an extension of the public comment period to January 31, 1985. This report documents the public meeting and comment process, and provides responses to the public comments that were submitted during this process. In addition, this report contains the Department of Energy's position based on the recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control review panel and the public comments. 23 refs., 16 tabs.

  20. Effect of the silvicultural treatment on canopy properties, litter and seed production in beech coppices under conversion to high forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cutini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. is widely distributed in Italy where it covers 1035103 ha, mainly concentrated in the mountainous areas at altitudes above 900 m. The major part is represented by high forest often issued from the conversion of coppice woods, which in the past was the silvicultural system most widely applied mainly to provide fire wood. The social changes occurred in the second half of the last century –fire wood market crisis and the increasing importance of environmental issues- enhanced the conversion into high forest of large areas previously managed as coppice by means of different silvicultural treatments and practices. Nevertheless, the environmental benefits of this choice were not adequately investigated. Results of annual measurements (1992-2009 made in a beech coppice stand aged 65 are here reported. The study area is located on the Alpe di Catenaia, a pre-Apennine outcrop close to Arezzo (Central Italy. Variables strictly related to stand productivity and dynamics such as annual litter and seed production, leaf area index (LAI and transmittance (PAR were measured in the research area of Buca Zamponi to estimate the effects of two theses, natural evolution (TEST and conversion into high forest (DIR. Three thinnings were undertaken in the latter thesis in 1972, 1987 and 2002. Additional theses of natural evolution (CONTR and advance seed cutting (TS were added in 2002 in a nearby study area (Eremo della Casella. Results showed the high productivity of coppice stands, under conversion to high forest, with mean values of annual total litter, leaf litter and leaf area index of 5 Mg ha-1, 3 Mg ha-1 and 6 m2m-2, respectively. These findings confirm both the prompt response of beech to intensive thinning cycles and the reliability of undertaking coppice conversion into high forest. Furthermore, the positive trend observed in the ecological parameters and the high consistency of leaf fraction, highlight the still juvenile