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Sample records for understood typical wastes

  1. Atmospheric emissions of typical toxic heavy metals from open burning of municipal solid waste in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Cheng, Ke; Wu, Weidong; Tian, Hezhong; Yi, Peng; Zhi, Guorui; Fan, Jing; Liu, Shuhan

    2017-03-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) contains considerable hazardous components and the widely-distributed open MSW burning in heavily-populated urban areas can cause direct exposure of hazardous materials to citizens. By determining the best available representation of composition-varying and time-varying emission factors with fuzzy mathematics method and S-shape curves, a comprehensive atmospheric emission inventories of 9 typical toxic heavy metals (THMs, e.g. mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), selenium (Se), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and nickel (Ni)) from open MSW burning activities in China is established during the period of 2000-2013 for the first time. Further, the emissions in 2013 are allocated at a high spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5° grid by surrogate indexes. The results show that 9 typical THMs emissions from open MSW burning are estimated at 21.25 t for Hg, 131.52 t for As, 97.12 t for Pb, 10.12 t for Cd, 50.58 t for Cr, 81.95 t for Se, 382.42 t for Cu, 1790.70 t for Zn, and 43.50 t for Ni, respectively. In terms of spatial variation, the majority of emissions are concentrated in relatively developed and densely-populated regions, especially for the eastern, central and southern regions. Moreover, future emissions are also projected for the period of 2015-2030 based on different scenarios of the independent and collaborative effects of control proposals including minimizing waste, improving MSW incineration ratio, and enhancing waste sorting and recycling, etc. The collaborative effect of the above proposals is expected to bring the most effective reduction to THMs emissions from open MSW burning in China except for Hg. The results will be supplementary to all anthropogenic emissions and useful for relevant policy-making and the improvement of urban air quality as well as human health.

  2. Hydrothermal carbonization of typical components of municipal solid waste for deriving hydrochars and their combustion behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yousheng; Ma, Xiaoqian; Peng, Xiaowei; Yu, Zhaosheng

    2017-11-01

    In this work, five typical components were employed as representative pseudo-components to indirectly complete previous established simulation system during hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of municipal solid waste. The fuel characteristics and combustion behavior of HTC-derived hydrochars were evaluated. Results clearly illustrated that the energy ranks of hydrochars were upgraded after HTC. For paper and wood, superior combustion performances of their hydrochars could achieve under suitable conditions. While for food, none positive enrichments on combustion loss rate were observed for hydrochars due to its high solubilization and decomposition under hot compressed water. It was noteworthy that a new weight loss peak was detected for paper and food, suggesting that new compounds were formed. For rubber, the HTC process made the properties of styrene butadiene rubber more close to natural rubber. Therefore, the first peak of hydrochars became significantly intense. While for plastic, only physical changes of polypropylene and polyethylene were observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mineralogical analysis of dust collected from typical recycling line of waste printed circuit boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fangfang; Zhao, Yuemin; Zhang, Tao; Duan, Chenlong; Wang, Lizhang

    2015-09-01

    As dust is one of the byproducts originating in the mechanical recycling process of waste printed circuit boards such as crushing and separating, from the viewpoints of resource reuse and environmental protection, an effective recycling method to recover valuable materials from this kind of dust is in urgent need. In this paper, detailed mineralogical analysis on the dust collected from a typical recycling line of waste printed circuit boards is investigated by coupling several analytical techniques. The results demonstrate that there are 73.1wt.% organic matters, 4.65wt.% Al, 4.55wt.% Fe, 2.67wt.% Cu and 1.06wt.% Pb in the dust, which reveals the dust is worthy of reuse and harmful to environment. The concentration ratios of Fe, Mn and Zn can reach 12.35, 12.33 and 6.67 respectively by magnetic separation. The yield of dust in each size fraction is nonuniform, while the yield of -0.75mm size fraction is up to 51.15wt.%; as the particle size decreases, the content of liberated metals and magnetic materials increase, and metals are mainly in elemental forms. The F, Cl and Br elements combing to C in the dust would make thermal treatment dangerous to the environment. Based on these results, a flowsheet to recycle the dust is proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Chemical properties of heavy metals in typical hospital waste incinerator ashes in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lijuan; Zhang, Fu-Shen; Wang, Kaisheng; Zhu, Jianxin

    2009-03-01

    Incineration has become the main mechanism for hospital waste (HW) disposal in China after the outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in 2003. However, little information is available on the chemical properties of the resulting ashes. In the present study, 22HW ash samples, including 14 samples of bottom ash and eight samples of fly ash, were collected from four typical HW incineration plants located across China. Chemical analysis indicated that the HW ashes contained large amounts of metal salts of Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na with a concentration range of 1.8-315gkg(-1). Furthermore, the ashes contained high concentrations of heavy metals such as Ag, As, Ba, Bi, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Ti, Sb, Sn, Sr, Zn with a vast range of 1.1-121,411mgkg(-1), with higher concentrations found in the fly ash samples. Sequential extraction results showed that Ba, Cr, Ni and Sn are present in the residual fraction, while Cd existed in the exchangeable and carbonate fractions. As, Mn, Zn existed in the Fe-Mn oxide fraction, Pb was present in the Fe-Mn oxide and residual fractions, and Cu was present in the organic matter fraction. Furthermore, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) results indicated that leached amounts of Cd, Cu and Pb from almost all fly ash samples exceeded the USEPA regulated levels. A comparison between the HW ashes and municipal solid waste (MSW) ash showed that both HW bottom ash and fly ash contained higher concentrations of Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ti, and Zn. This research provides critical information for appropriate HW incineration ash management plans.

  5. Production patterns of packaging waste categories generated at typical Mediterranean residential building worksites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González Pericot, N., E-mail: natalia.gpericot@upm.es [Escuela Técnica Superior de Edificación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Calle Juan de Herrera n°6, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Villoria Sáez, P., E-mail: paola.villoria@upm.es [Escuela Técnica Superior de Edificación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Calle Juan de Herrera n°6, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Del Río Merino, M., E-mail: mercedes.delrio@upm.es [Escuela Técnica Superior de Edificación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Calle Juan de Herrera n°6, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Liébana Carrasco, O., E-mail: oscar.liebana@uem.es [Escuela de Arquitectura, Universidad Europea de Madrid, Calle Tajo s/n, 28670 Villaviciosa de Odón (Spain)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • On-site segregation level: 1.80%; training and motivation strategies were not effective. • 70% Cardboard waste: from switches and sockets during the building services stage. • 40% Plastic waste: generated during structures and partition works due to palletizing. • >50% Wood packaging waste, basically pallets, generated during the envelope works. - Abstract: The construction sector is responsible for around 28% of the total waste volume generated in Europe, which exceeds the amount of household waste. This has led to an increase of different research studies focusing on construction waste quantification. However, within the research studies made, packaging waste has been analyzed to a limited extent. This article focuses on the packaging waste stream generated in the construction sector. To this purpose current on-site waste packaging management has been assessed by monitoring ten Mediterranean residential building works. The findings of the experimental data collection revealed that the incentive measures implemented by the construction company to improve on-site waste sorting failed to achieve the intended purpose, showing low segregation ratios. Subsequently, through an analytical study the generation patterns for packaging waste are established, leading to the identification of the prevailing kinds of packaging and the products responsible for their generation. Results indicate that plastic waste generation maintains a constant trend throughout the whole construction process, while cardboard becomes predominant towards the end of the construction works with switches and sockets from the electricity stage. Understanding the production patterns of packaging waste will be beneficial for adapting waste management strategies to the identified patterns for the specific nature of packaging waste within the context of construction worksites.

  6. [Mercury Distribution Characteristics and Atmospheric Mercury Emission Factors of Typical Waste Incineration Plants in Chongqing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhen-ya; Su, Hai-tao; Wang, Feng-yang; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shu-xiao; Yu, Bin

    2016-02-15

    Waste incineration is one of the important atmospheric mercury emission sources. The aim of this article is to explore the atmospheric mercury pollution level of waste incineration industry from Chongqing. This study investigated the mercury emissions from a municipal solid waste incineration plant and a medical waste incineration plant in Chongqing. The exhaust gas samples in these two incineration plants were obtained using USA EPA 30B method. The mercury concentrations in the fly ash and bottom ash samples were analyzed. The results indicated that the mercury concentrations of the municipal solid waste and medical waste incineration plant in Chongqing were (26.4 +/- 22.7) microg x m(-3) and (3.1 +/- 0.8) microg x m(-3) in exhaust gas respectively, (5279.2 +/- 798.0) microg x kg(-1) and (11,709.5 +/- 460.5) microg x kg(-1) in fly ash respectively. Besides, the distribution proportions of the mercury content from municipal solid waste and medical waste in exhaust gas, fly ash, and bottom ash were 34.0%, 65.3%, 0.7% and 32.3%, 67.5%, 0.2% respectively; The mercury removal efficiencies of municipal solid waste and medical waste incineration plants were 66.0% and 67.7% respectively. The atmospheric mercury emission factors of municipal solid waste and medical waste incineration plants were (126.7 +/- 109.0) microg x kg(-1) and (46.5 +/- 12.0) microg x kg(-1) respectively. Compared with domestic municipal solid waste incineration plants in the Pearl River Delta region, the atmospheric mercury emission factor of municipal solid waste incineration plant in Chongqing was lower.

  7. Typical Policy and Strategy for a Country with a Small Amount of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The policy and strategy developed in this annex is an example of what might be established for a country with a small amount of radioactive waste to manage. It is based on the guidance provided in the main part of the report and elements have been selected from it to suit the requirements of a hypothetical country (Xland). In this country, radioactive waste arises from limited use of nuclear R and D facilities, e.g. a research reactor, and from the small scale use of radionuclides in industry and medicine. The country is assumed to have no nuclear power reactors or mining industries producing radioactive waste and no generation of NORM waste. It is assumed that national legislation exists in Xland to provide for protection from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation. It is also assumed that basic information on the radioactive sources and radionuclides in use and approximate estimates of existing and future waste amounts are available. The policy and strategy developed for Xland are simple and straightforward, and reflect the few types and small amounts of radioactive waste that have to be managed. For countries with a greater number of waste types and larger amounts of radioactive waste, additional policy and strategy elements would be needed. The example policy and strategy are only intended as an aid to persons engaged in the development of national policy and strategies on radioactive waste management. In a real situation, they would have to be developed on the basis of the circumstances in that country.

  8. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in e-waste: level and transfer in a typical e-waste recycling site in Shanghai, Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Duan, Yan-Ping; Huang, Fan; Yang, Jing; Xiang, Nan; Meng, Xiang-Zhou; Chen, Ling

    2014-06-01

    Very few data for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were available in the electronic waste (e-waste) as one of the most PBDEs emission source. This study reported concentrations of PBDEs in e-waste including printer, rice cooker, computer monitor, TV, electric iron and water dispenser, as well as dust from e-waste, e-waste dismantling workshop and surface soil from inside and outside of an e-waste recycling plant in Shanghai, Eastern China. The results showed that PBDEs were detected in the majority of e-waste, and the concentrations of ΣPBDEs ranged from not detected to 175 g/kg, with a mean value of 10.8 g/kg. PBDEs were found in TVs made in China after 1990. The mean concentrations of ΣPBDEs in e-waste made in Korea, Japan, Singapore and China were 1.84 g/kg, 20.5 g/kg, 0.91 g/kg, 4.48 g/kg, respectively. The levels of ΣPBDEs in e-waste made in Japan far exceed the threshold limit of RoHS (1.00 g/kg). BDE-209 dominated in e-waste, accounting for over 93%. The compositional patterns of PBDEs congeners resembled the profile of Saytex 102E, indicating the source of deca-BDE. Among the samples of dust and surface soil from a typical e-waste recycling site, the highest concentrations of Σ18PBDEs and BDE-209 were found in dust in e-waste, ranging from 1960 to 340,710 ng/g and from 910 to 320,400 ng/g, which were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than other samples. It suggested that PBDEs released from e-waste via dust, and then transferred to surrounding environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Process assessment associated to microbial community response provides insight on possible mechanism of waste activated sludge digestion under typical chemical pretreatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Aijuan; Zhang, Jiaguang; Varrone, Cristiano

    2017-01-01

    Current studies have employed various chemicals for disintegrating and hydrolyzing microbial cells in waste activated sludge (WAS). However, a comprehensive process assessment over the whole anaerobic digestion process has seldom been proposed. Besides, the characterization of microbial community...... responses to these chemicals is not well understood. In this study, the effects of five typical chemicals: solubilizer (β-cyclodextrin, CD), alkaline (NaOH), peroxide (peracetic-acid, PA), biological (rhamnolipid, RL) and chemical (sodium dodecylsulphate, SDS) surfactants on WAS digestion were examined...... was dominated by microorganisms that anaerobically hydrolyze organics to acids, while that in NaOH and SDS was mainly associated to biogas production. This study proved that the overall performance of WAS digestion was substantially depended on the initial chemical pretreatments, which in turn influenced...

  10. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in e-waste: Level and transfer in a typical e-waste recycling site in Shanghai, Eastern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yue; Duan, Yan-Ping, E-mail: duanyanping@tongji.edu.cn; Huang, Fan; Yang, Jing; Xiang, Nan; Meng, Xiang-Zhou; Chen, Ling

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • PBDEs were detected in the majority of e-waste. • PBDEs were found in TVs made in China after 1990. • The levels of ΣPBDEs in e-waste made in Japan far exceed the threshold limit of RoHS. • The inappropriate recycling and disposal of e-waste is an important source of PBDEs. - Abstract: Very few data for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were available in the electronic waste (e-waste) as one of the most PBDEs emission source. This study reported concentrations of PBDEs in e-waste including printer, rice cooker, computer monitor, TV, electric iron and water dispenser, as well as dust from e-waste, e-waste dismantling workshop and surface soil from inside and outside of an e-waste recycling plant in Shanghai, Eastern China. The results showed that PBDEs were detected in the majority of e-waste, and the concentrations of ΣPBDEs ranged from not detected to 175 g/kg, with a mean value of 10.8 g/kg. PBDEs were found in TVs made in China after 1990. The mean concentrations of ΣPBDEs in e-waste made in Korea, Japan, Singapore and China were 1.84 g/kg, 20.5 g/kg, 0.91 g/kg, 4.48 g/kg, respectively. The levels of ΣPBDEs in e-waste made in Japan far exceed the threshold limit of RoHS (1.00 g/kg). BDE-209 dominated in e-waste, accounting for over 93%. The compositional patterns of PBDEs congeners resembled the profile of Saytex 102E, indicating the source of deca-BDE. Among the samples of dust and surface soil from a typical e-waste recycling site, the highest concentrations of Σ{sub 18}PBDEs and BDE-209 were found in dust in e-waste, ranging from 1960 to 340,710 ng/g and from 910 to 320,400 ng/g, which were 1–2 orders of magnitude higher than other samples. It suggested that PBDEs released from e-waste via dust, and then transferred to surrounding environment.

  11. The chemical/physical and microbiological characteristics of typical bath and laundry waste waters. [waste water reclamation during manned space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypes, W. D.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Chemical/physical and microbiological characteristics are studied of typical bath and laundry waters collected during a 12 day test in which the untreated waste waters were reused for toilet flush. Most significant changes were found for ammonia, color, methylene blue active substances, phosphates, sodium, sulfates, total organic carbon, total solids, and turbidity in comparison with tap water baseline. The mean total number of microorganisms detected in the waste waters ranged from 1 million to 10 to the 7th power cells/m1 and the mean number of possible coliforms ranged from 10 to the 5th power to 1 million. An accumulation of particulates and an objectible odor were detected in the tankage used during the 12 day reuse of the untreated waste waters. The combined bath and laundry waste waters from a family of four provided 91 percent of the toilet flush water for the same family.

  12. Incineration of a typical LWR combustible waste and analysis of the resulting ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treat, R.L.; Lokken, R.O.; Schliebe, M.J.

    1983-05-01

    In this study 4540 kg (10,000 lb) of simulated nuclear power plant combustion wastes were burned in a controlled-air incinerators. The purpose of this work was to generate ashes suitable for solidification, the products of which will be analyzed to determine if they are suitable for disposal. Two different types of waste were burned: resin and simulated crud, and general trash (paper, plastics, wood, rubber, and cloth). Volume-reduction ratios (unburned waste: ash) were 13:1 and 22:1, respectively. Approximately 20% of the ash was lost due to adherence to incinerator walls and entrainment in the off-gas stream. Losses of the volatile species cesium and iodine were 79% and 100%, respectively. The ashes were not hygroscopic, but they exhibited a pH of 4.6 to 5.0 when water was added. Corrosion of mild steel drums would occur within this pH range. The ashes contained a significant quantity of clinkers haveing lengths as great as 20 cm (8 in.). Most of the clinkers were fully incinerated and easy to crush, suggesting that standard comminuting equipment should be effective in reducing the size of clinkers to allow their solidification with the fine ashes

  13. A mathematical model for the performance assessment of engineering barriers of a typical near surface radioactive waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, Raphaela N.; Rotunno Filho, Otto C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Lab. de Hidrologia e Estudos do Meio Ambiente]. E-mail: otto@hidro.ufrj.br; Ruperti Junior, Nerbe J.; Lavalle Filho, Paulo F. Heilbron [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: nruperti@cnen.gov.br

    2005-07-01

    This work proposes a mathematical model for the performance assessment of a typical radioactive waste disposal facility based on the consideration of a multiple barrier concept. The Generalized Integral Transform Technique is employed to solve the Advection-Dispersion mass transfer equation under the assumption of saturated one-dimensional flow, to obtain solute concentrations at given times and locations within the medium. A test-case is chosen in order to illustrate the performance assessment of several configurations of a multi barrier system adopted for the containment of sand contaminated with Ra-226 within a trench. (author)

  14. Comparative study on copper leaching from waste printed circuit boards by typical ionic liquid acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mengjun; Huang, Jinxiu; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Zhu, Nengming; Wang, Yan-min

    2015-07-01

    Waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) are attracting increasing concerns because the recovery of its content of valuable metallic resources is hampered by the presence of hazardous substances. In this study, we used ionic liquids (IL) to leach copper from WPCBs. [BSO3HPy]OTf, [BSO3HMIm]OTf, [BSO4HPy]HSO4, [BSO4HMim]HSO4 and [MIm]HSO4 were selected. Factors that affect copper leaching rate were investigated in detail and their leaching kinetics were also examined with the comparison of [Bmim]HSO4. The results showed that all six IL acids could successfully leach copper out, with near 100% recovery. WPCB particle size and leaching time had similar influences on copper leaching performance, while IL acid concentration, hydrogen peroxide addition, solid to liquid ratio, temperature, showed different influences. Moreover, IL acid with HSO4(-) was more efficient than IL acid with CF3SO3(-). These six IL acids indicate a similar behavior with common inorganic acids, except temperature since copper leaching rate of some IL acids decreases with its increase. The results of leaching kinetics studies showed that diffusion plays a more important role than surface reaction, whereas copper leaching by inorganic acids is usually controlled by surface reaction. This innovation provides a new option for recovering valuable materials such as copper from WPCBs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Contamination and risk of heavy metals in soils and sediments from a typical plastic waste recycling area in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhenwu; Zhang, Lianzhen; Huang, Qifei; Yang, Yufei; Nie, Zhiqiang; Cheng, Jiali; Yang, Jun; Wang, Yuwen; Chai, Miao

    2015-12-01

    Plastic wastes are increasingly being recycled in many countries. However, available information on the metals released into the environment during recycling processes is rare. In this study, the contamination features and risks of eight heavy metals in soils and sediments were investigated in Wen'an, a typical plastic recycling area in North China. The surface soils and sediments have suffered from moderate to high metal pollution and in particular, high Cd and Hg pollution. The mean concentrations of Cd and Hg were 0.355 and 0.408 mg kg(-1), respectively, in the soils and 1.53 and 2.10 mg kg(-1), respectively, in the sediments. The findings suggested that there is considerable to high potential ecological risks in more than half of the soils and high potential ecological risk in almost all sediments. Although the health risk levels from exposure to soil metals were acceptable for adults, the non-carcinogenic risks to local children exceeded the acceptable level. Source assessment indicated that heavy metals in soils and sediments were mainly derived from inputs from poorly controlled plastic waste recycling operations in this area. The results suggested that the risks associated with heavy metal pollution from plastic waste recycling should be of great concern. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The major components of particles emitted during recycling of waste printed circuit boards in a typical e-waste workshop of South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xinhui; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.; Wang, ZhenZhen; Wang, Xinming; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2010-11-01

    Electronic waste from across the world is dismantled and disposed of in China. The low-tech recycling methods have caused severe air pollution. Air particle samples from a typical workshop of South China engaged in recycling waste printed circuit boards have been analyzed with respect to chemical constituents. This is the first report on the chemical composition of particulate matter (PM) emitted in an e-waste recycling workshop of South China. The results show that the composition of PM from this recycling process was totally different from other emission sources. Organic matter comprised 46.7-51.6% of the PM. The major organic constituents were organophosphates consisting mainly of triphenyl phosphate (TPP) and its methyl substituted compounds, methyl esters of hexadecanoic and octadecanoic acids, levoglucosan and bisphenol A. TPP and bisphenol A were present at 1-5 orders of magnitude higher than in other indoor and outdoor environments throughout the world, which implies that they might be used as potential markers for e-waste recycling. The elemental carbon, inorganic elements and ions had a minor contribution to the PM (<5% each). The inorganic elements were dominated by phosphorus and followed by crustal elements and metal elements Pb, Zn, Sn, and lesser Cu, Sb, Mn, Ni, Ba and Cd. The recycling of printed circuit boards was demonstrated as an important contributor of heavy metal contamination, particularly Cd, Pb and Ni, to the local environment. These findings suggest that this recycling method represents a strong source of PM associated with pollutants to the ambient atmosphere of an e-waste recycling locale.

  17. A safety analysis of food waste-derived animal feeds from three typical conversion techniques in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Jin, Yiying; Shen, Dongsheng

    2015-11-01

    This study was based on the food waste to animal feed demonstration projects in China. A safety analysis of animal feeds from three typical treatment processes (i.e., fermentation, heat treatment, and coupled hydrothermal treatment and fermentation) was presented. The following factors are considered in this study: nutritive values characterized by organoleptic properties and general nutritional indices; the presence of bovine- and sheep-derived materials; microbiological indices for Salmonella, total coliform (TC), total aerobic plate counts (TAC), molds and yeast (MY), Staphylococcus Aureus (SA), and Listeria; chemical contaminant indices for hazardous trace elements such as Cr, Cd, and As; and nitrite and organic contaminants such as aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH). The present study reveals that the feeds from all three conversion processes showed balanced nutritional content and retained a certain feed value. The microbiological indices and the chemical contaminant indices for HCH, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), nitrite, and mercury all met pertinent feed standards; however, the presence of bovine- and sheep-derived materials and a few chemical contaminants such as Pb were close to or might exceed the legislation permitted values in animal feeding. From the view of treatment techniques, all feed retained part of the nutritional values of the food waste after the conversion processes. Controlled heat treatment can guarantee the inactivation of bacterial pathogens, but none of the three techniques can guarantee the absence of cattle- and sheep-derived materials and acceptable levels of certain contaminants. The results obtained in this research and the feedstuffs legislation related to animal feed indicated that food waste-derived feed could be considered an adequate alternative to be used in animal diets, while the feeding action should be changed with the different qualities of the products, such as restrictions on the application

  18. Typical worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Jeffrey A.

    2017-05-01

    Hugh Everett III presented pure wave mechanics, sometimes referred to as the many-worlds interpretation, as a solution to the quantum measurement problem. While pure wave mechanics is an objectively deterministic physical theory with no probabilities, Everett sought to show how the theory might be understood as making the standard quantum statistical predictions as appearances to observers who were themselves described by the theory. We will consider his argument and how it depends on a particular notion of branch typicality. We will also consider responses to Everett and the relationship between typicality and probability. The suggestion will be that pure wave mechanics requires a number of significant auxiliary assumptions in order to make anything like the standard quantum predictions.

  19. Poorly Understood Aspects of Striated Muscle Contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alf Månsson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscle contraction results from cyclic interactions between the contractile proteins myosin and actin, driven by the turnover of adenosine triphosphate (ATP. Despite intense studies, several molecular events in the contraction process are poorly understood, including the relationship between force-generation and phosphate-release in the ATP-turnover. Different aspects of the force-generating transition are reflected in the changes in tension development by muscle cells, myofibrils and single molecules upon changes in temperature, altered phosphate concentration, or length perturbations. It has been notoriously difficult to explain all these events within a given theoretical framework and to unequivocally correlate observed events with the atomic structures of the myosin motor. Other incompletely understood issues include the role of the two heads of myosin II and structural changes in the actin filaments as well as the importance of the three-dimensional order. We here review these issues in relation to controversies regarding basic physiological properties of striated muscle. We also briefly consider actomyosin mutation effects in cardiac and skeletal muscle function and the possibility to treat these defects by drugs.

  20. Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Stock as Affected by Agricultural Wastes in a Typic Haplusult of Owerri, Southeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Uchenna Onwudike

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of saw dust ash (SDA and poultry droppings (PD on soil physico-chemical properties, soil carbon and nitrogen stock and their effects on the growth and yield of okra (Abelmoshus esculentus on a typic haplusult in Owerri, Imo State Southeastern Nigeria. The experiment was a factorial experiment consisted of saw dust ash applied at the rates of 0, 5 and 10 t/ha and poultry droppings applied at the rates of 0, 5 and 10 t/ha. The treatments were laid out in a randomized complete block design and replicated four times. Results showed that plots amended with 10 t/ha PD + 10 t/ha SDA significantly reduced soil bulk density from 1.37 – 1.07 g/cm3, increased soil total porosity from 48.4 – 59.7% and the percentage of soil weight that is water (soil gravimetric moisture content was increased by 68.4%. There were significant improvements on soil chemical properties with plots amended with 10 t/ha PD + 10 t/ha SDA recording the highest values on soil organic carbon, soil total nitrogen and exchangeable bases. Plots amended with 10 t/ha PD + 10 t/ha SDA significantly increased soil carbon stock by 24% and soil nitrogen stock by 49.5% more than other treatments. There was significant increase in the growth of okra when compared to the un-amended soil with application of 10 t/ha PD + 10 t/ha SDA increasing the fresh okra pod yield by 78.5%. Significant positive correlation existed between SCS and organic carbon (r = 0.6128, exchangeable Mg (r= 0.5035, total nitrogen (r = 0.6167 and soil pH (r = 0.5221. SNS correlated positively with organic carbon (r = 0.5834, total nitrogen (r= 0.6101 and soil pH (r = 5150. Therefore applications of these agro-wastes are effective in improving soil properties, increasing soil carbon and nitrogen stock. From the results of the work, application of 10 t/ha PD + 10 t/ha SDA which was the treatment combination that improved soil properties and growth performances of okra than other treatments studied is

  1. Size-dependent distribution and inhalation cancer risk of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at a typical e-waste recycling and an urban site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Pei; Bao, Lian-Jun; Li, Shao-Meng; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2015-05-01

    Atmospheric particle size distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a typical e-waste recycling zone and an urban site (Guangzhou) in southern China featured a unimodal peak in 0.56-1.8 μm for 4-6 ring PAHs but no obvious peak for 2-3 ring PAHs at both sites. The atmospheric deposition fluxes of PAHs were estimated at 5.4 ± 2.3 μg m(-2) d(-1) in the e-waste recycling zone and 3.1 ± 0.6 μg m(-2) d(-1) in Guangzhou. In addition, dry and wet deposition fluxes of PAHs were dominated by coarse (Dp > 1.8 μm) and fine particles (Dp e-waste recycling zone and Guangzhou. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of results from impacts-BRC and impacts codes for typical BRC low-level waste cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, D.W.; Davis, J.P.; Parrish, B.R.; Woford, B.R.

    1988-01-01

    The objectives of this study are: (1) to analyze the changes in IMPACTS-BRC compared to the original code IMPACTS; and (2) to compare calculated doses from IMPACTS and IMPACTS-BRC using AIF/NESP-035 (base case) waste stream data. The IMPACTS-BRC code is intended primarily to evaluate below regulatory concern (BRC) low-level radioactive waste rulemaking/exemption petitions and is specifically identified by NRC staff as the vehicle of choice for evaluating petitions for BRC approval. The intent of modifications to the original code is to ensure that more conservative doses are calculated for BRC waste streams. Previous work using IMPACTS and its companion code INVERSE indicated that a large proportion of compactible trash from BWR's and PWR's plants disposed in EPA style sanitary landfills would result in doses less than 1 mrem/year to the general public and could be de-regulated. Therefore, IMPACTS-BRC and IMPACTS calculations are compared using BWR and PWR waste stream characteristics in this paper

  3. Relation between leaching characteristics of heavy metals and physical properties of fly ashes from typical municipal solid waste incinerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Peng; Li, Hailong; Zhao, Yongchun; Zhang, Junying; Zheng, Chuguang

    2017-09-01

    Due to the alkalinity and high concentration of potentially hazardous heavy metals, fly ash from a municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator is classified as hazardous waste, which should be of particular concern. Physical and chemical characterizations of the contrasted fly ashes were investigated to explore the relation between leaching characteristics of heavy metals and physical properties of fly ashes. The results showed that CaClOH, NaCl, Ca(OH) 2 , KCl and SiO 2 were primary mineral compositions in the MSWI fly ashes, and the particle size distribution of fly ash ranged between 10 μm and 300 μm. The smaller the particle size distribution of fly ash, the larger the BET-specific surface area, which was beneficial to the leaching of heavy metals. As a result of various pores, it easily accumulated heavy metals as well. The leaching tests exhibited a high leachability of heavy metals and the leaching concentration of Pb in almost all of the fly ash samples went far beyond the Standard for Pollution Control on the Landfill Site of Municipal Solid Waste. Thereupon, it is necessary to establish proper disposal systems and management strategies for environmental protection based on the characteristics of MSW incineration (MSWI) fly ash in China.

  4. Spatial characteristics of cadmium in topsoils in a typical e-waste recycling area in southeast China and its potential threat to shallow groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunfa; Luo, Yongming; Deng, Shaopo; Teng, Ying; Song, Jing

    2014-02-15

    Informal electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) recycling often creates secondary sources of cadmium (Cd) pollution. To characterize the total Cd concentration (Cdtotal) in topsoil and evaluate the threat of Cd in topsoils to shallow groundwater, 187 topsoil samples and 12 shallow groundwater samples were collected in a typical e-waste recycling area in southeast China. Soil organic matter content, soil pH and Cdtotal in topsoil, pH and dissolved Cd concentration in shallow groundwater were measured. Cdtotal in the topsoils showed an inverse distribution trend with soil pH in that high Cd concentrations (and low pH values) were found in the surrounding area of the metal recycling industrial park where there were many family-operated e-waste recycling facilities before the industrial park was established and with low concentrations (and high pH values) in other areas, and they had similar spatial correlation structures. Cd accumulation and acidification were synchronous in topsoils, and soil pH was significantly correlated with Cdtotal in topsoils with low to moderate negative correlation coefficient (r=-0.24), indicating that both of them maybe correlated with informal recycling. The shallow groundwater in the surrounding area of the metal recycling industrial park was seriously contaminated by Cd, and topsoil Cd accumulation and acidification in the surrounding area of e-waste recycling sites significantly increase the risk of shallow groundwater contaminated by Cd. Action is urgently required to control Cd accumulation and acidification by improving the recycling operations of e-wastes in order to reduce the risk of Cd leaching from topsoils and shallow groundwater contamination. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Levels and ecological risk assessment of metals in soils from a typical e-waste recycling region in southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weituo; Ding, Lei; Gu, Xiaowen; Luo, Jie; Liu, Yunlang; Guo, Li; Shi, Yi; Huang, Ting; Cheng, Shenggao

    2015-11-01

    Due to the high threat to human health and the ecosystem from metals, the levels and distribution of As, Hg, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Mn, V, Sn, Sb, Li and Be in various layers of soil from an e-waste recycling area in Guiyu, China were investigated. The extent of pollution from the metals in soil was assessed using enrichment factors (EFs) and the Nemerow pollution index (P N ). To determine the metals' integrated potential ecological risks, the potential ecological risk index (RI) was chosen. The concentrations of Hg, Ni, Cu, Cd, Pb, Sn and Sb were mainly enriched in the topsoil. EF values (2-5) of the elements Hg, Co, Ni, Zn, Sn, Li and Be revealed their moderate enrichment status in the topsoil, derived from e-waste recycling activities. P N presented a decreasing trend in different layers in the order topsoil (0-20 cm) > deep soil (100-150 cm) > middle soil (50-100 cm) > shallow soil (20-50 cm). With higher potential ecological risk factor (E(i)), Hg and Cd are the main contributors to the potential ecological risk. With respect to the RI, all the values in soil from the study area exceeded 300, especially for the soil at sites S2, S4, S5, S7 and S8, where RI was greater than 600. Therefore, immediate remediation of the contaminated soil is necessary to prevent the release of metals and potential ecological harm.

  6. Aquatic bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of tetrabromobisphenol-A flame retardant introduced from a typical e-waste recycling site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Lin; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Zhi, Hui; Zhang, Ying; Ren, Zi-He; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2016-07-01

    While the flame retardant chemical, tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A), has been frequently detected in the environment, knowledge regarding its species-specific bioaccumulation and trophic transfer is limited, especially in the highly contaminated sites. In this study, the components of an aquatic food web, including two invertebrates, two prey fish, and one predator fish, collected from a natural pond at an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site in South China were analyzed for TBBP-A, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The aquatic species had TBBP-A concentrations ranging from 350 to 1970 pg/g wet weight, with higher concentrations in the invertebrates relative to the fish species. Field-determined bioaccumulation factors of TBBP-A in the two aquatic invertebrates were nearly or greater than 5000, suggesting that TBBP-A is highly bioaccumulative in the two species. The lipid-normalized concentrations of TBBP-A in the aquatic species were negatively correlated with the trophic levels determined from stable nitrogen isotope (δ(15)N) (r = -0.82, p = 0.09), indicating that this compound experienced trophic dilution in the current food web.

  7. Measuring treatment costs of typical waste electrical and electronic equipment: A pre-research for Chinese policy making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhui; Dong, Qingyin; Liu, Lili; Song, Qingbin

    2016-11-01

    Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) volume is increasing, worldwide. In 2011, the Chinese government issued new regulations on WEEE recycling and disposal, establishing a WEEE treatment subsidy funded by a levy on producers of electrical and electronic equipment. In order to evaluate WEEE recycling treatment costs and revenue possibilities under the new regulations, and to propose suggestions for cost-effective WEEE management, a comprehensive revenue-expenditure model (REM), were established for this study, including 7 types of costs, 4 types of fees, and one type of revenue. Since TV sets dominated the volume of WEEE treated from 2013 to 2014, with a contribution rate of 87.3%, TV sets were taken as a representative case. Results showed that the treatment cost varied from 46.4RMB/unit to 82.5RMB/unit, with a treatment quantity of 130,000 units to 1,200,000 units per year in China. Collection cost accounted for the largest portion (about 70.0%), while taxes and fees (about 11.0 %) and labor cost (about 7.0 %) contributed less. The average costs for disposal, sales, and taxes had no influence on treatment quantity (TQ). TQ might have an adverse effect on average labor and management costs; while average collection and purchase fees, and financing costs, would vary with purchase price, and the average sales fees and taxes would vary with the sales of dismantled materials and other recycled products. Recycling enterprises could reduce their costs by setting up online and offline collection platforms, cooperating with individual collectors, creating door-to-door collection channels, improving production efficiency and reducing administrative expenditures. The government could provide economic incentives-such as subsidies, low-cost loans, tax cuts and credits-and could also raise public awareness of waste management and environmental protection, in order to capture some of the WEEE currently discarded into the general waste stream. Foreign companies with

  8. Evaluation of two lead-based paint removal and waste stabilization technology combinations on typical exterior surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, A E; Kominsky, J R; Clark, P J

    2001-10-12

    A study was conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of a wet abrasive blasting technology to remove lead-based paint from exterior wood siding and brick substrates as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of two waste stabilization technologies to stabilize the resulting blast media (coal slag and mineral sand) paint debris thereby reducing the leachable lead content. The lead-based paint removal technology effectiveness was determined by the use of an X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrum analyzer (L- and K-shell). The effectiveness of the technologies to stabilize the debris was evaluated through the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP). Wet abrasive blasting effectively removed the lead-based paint coating from both the wood and brick substrates to below the US Department of Housing and Urban Development Guideline (1mg/cm(2)) with no minimal or no damage to the underlying substrates (Pstabilization technologies consistently stabilized the resultant paint debris to achieve a leachable lead content below the RCRA regulatory threshold of <5 mg/l.

  9. Effects of free ammonia on volatile fatty acid accumulation and process performance in the anaerobic digestion of two typical bio-wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xuchuan; Lin, Jia; Zuo, Jiane; Li, Peng; Li, Xiaoxia; Guo, Xianglin

    2017-05-01

    The effect of free ammonia on volatile fatty acid (VFA) accumulation and process instability was studied using a lab-scale anaerobic digester fed by two typical bio-wastes: fruit and vegetable waste (FVW) and food waste (FW) at 35°C with an organic loading rate (OLR) of 3.0kg VS/(m 3 ·day). The inhibitory effects of free ammonia on methanogenesis were observed due to the low C/N ratio of each substrate (15.6 and 17.2, respectively). A high concentration of free ammonia inhibited methanogenesis resulting in the accumulation of VFAs and a low methane yield. In the inhibited state, acetate accumulated more quickly than propionate and was the main type of accumulated VFA. The co-accumulation of ammonia and VFAs led to an "inhibited steady state" and the ammonia was the main inhibitory substance that triggered the process perturbation. By statistical significance test and VFA fluctuation ratio analysis, the free ammonia inhibition threshold was identified as 45mg/L. Moreover, propionate, iso-butyrate and valerate were determined to be the three most sensitive VFA parameters that were subject to ammonia inhibition. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Potential health risk for residents around a typical e-waste recycling zone via inhalation of size-fractionated particle-bound heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Li; Bao, Lian-Jun; Luo, Pei; Wang, Zhao-Yi; Li, Shao-Meng; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2016-11-05

    Health risk of residents dwelling around e-waste recycling zones has been a global concern, but has not been adequately examined. The present study was intended to evaluate the potential health risk of residents through inhalation exposure to size-fractionated particle-bound heavy metals in a typical e-waste recycling zone, South China. Anthropogenic metals (Zn, Se, Pb, Sb, As, and Cd) were predominantly enriched in fine particles (Dp1.8μm). Although the daily inhalation intakes of the target metals were significantly lower than those through food consumption and ingestion of house dust, the hazard quotients of total metals for adults (95% CI: 1.0-5.5) and children (95% CI: 3.0-17) were greater than 1. Moreover, the incremental lifetime cancer risks of five carcinogenic metals (Cr, Co, Ni, As, and Cd) for adults and children were 1.3×10(-3) (95% CI: 4.1×10(-4)-3.0×10(-3)) and 3.9×10(-3) (95% CI: 1.3×10(-3)-8.6×10(-3)), respectively, substantially higher than the acceptable cancer risk range of 10(-6)-10(-4). All these findings suggested that health risks were high for local residents dwelling around the e-waste recycling zone through inhalation exposure to particle-bound heavy metals, for both adults and children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Typical agricultural diffuse herbicide sorption with agricultural waste-derived biochars amended soil of high organic matter content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wei; Zhao, Xuchen; Tysklind, Mats; Hao, Fanghua

    2016-04-01

    Biochar application has been identified as the effective soil amendment and the materials to control the diffuse herbicide pollution. The atrazine was selected as the typical diffuse herbicide pollutant as the dominant proportion in applications. The biochar treated from four types of crops biomass were added to soil with high organic matter content. The basic sorption characteristics of biocahrs from corn cob (CC), corn stalk (CS), soybean straw (SS), rice straw (RS) and corn stalk paralyzed with 5% of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ACS) were analyzed, along with the comparison of the sorption difference of the raw soil and soil amended with biochars at four levels of ratio (0.5%, 1.0%, 3.0% and 5.0%). It was found that the linear distribution isotherm of raw soil was much effective due to the high organic matter background concentration. The addition of five types of biochars under two kinds of initial atrazine concentration (1 mg/L and 20 mg/L) demonstrated the sorption variances. Results showed the soil amended with RS and CS biochar had the biggest removal rate in four regular biochars and the removal rate of the ACS was the biggest. The sorption coefficient and the normalized sorption coefficient from Freundlich modeling presented the isothermal sorption characteristics of atrazine with soil of high organic matter content. The normalized sorption coefficient increased with the equilibrium concentration decreased in the biochar amended soil, which indicated the sorption performance will be better due to the low atrazine concentration in practice. Results showed that biochar amendment is the effective way to prevent leakage of diffuse herbicide loss. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. How Self-Reliance Is Understood: Viewpoints from One Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    Tanzania's 1967 policy of self-reliance (Hultin 1985, p.8). Before looking at the way self-reliance is understood in rural Malawi during a process of development, it may be beneficial to look at some of the tensions between micro and macro forms of development. Leading to Self-Reliance. Development Aid is a term that has ...

  13. How self-reliance is understood: viewpoints from one local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    How self-reliance is understood: viewpoints from one local community in Malawi. ... model that resists dependence on external aid, empowers community development, and provides opportunities to sustain development activity through local initiative, can be employed to increase social capital leading to sustainable growth.

  14. Urachal tumour: case report of a poorly understood carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallarino Luigi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urachal carcinoma is an uncommon neoplasm associated with poor prognosis. Case presentation A 45-year-old man was admitted with complaints of abdominal pain and pollakisuria. A soft mass was palpable under his navel. TC-scan revealed a 11 × 6 cm tumor, which was composed of a cystic lesion arising from the urachus and a solid mass component at the urinary bladder dome. The tumor was removed surgically. Histological examination detected poor-differentiated adenocarcinoma, which had invaded the urinary bladder. The patient has been followed up without recurrence for 6 months. Conclusion The urachus is the embryological remnant of urogenital sinus and allantois. Involution usually happens before birth and urachus is present as a median umbilical ligament. The pathogenesis of urachal tumours is not fully understood. Surgery is the treatment of choice and role of adjuvant treatment is not clearly understood.

  15. Donors in Semiconductors - are they Understood in Electronic Era?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmochowski, Janusz E

    2007-01-01

    The physics of semiconductors and contemporary electronics cannot be understood without impurities. The hydrogen-like shallow donor (and acceptor) state of electron (hole) bound by Coulomb electrostatic force of excess charge of impurity is used to control conductivity of semiconductors and construct semiconductor diodes, transistors and numerous types of semiconductor electronic and optoelectronic devices, including lasers. Recently, surprisingly, the physics of impurity donors appeared to be much reacher. Experimental evidence has been provided for universal existence of other types of electronic states of the same donor impurity: i) mysterious, deep, DX-type state resulting in metastability - slow hysteresis phenomena - understood as two-electron, acceptor-like state of donor impurity, formed upon large lattice distortion or rearrangement around impurity and accompanying capture of second electron, resulting in negative electron correlation energy U; ii) deep, localized, fully symmetric, A1, one-electron donor state of substitutional impurity. The latter state can be formed from the 'ordinary' shallow hydrogen-like state in the process of strong localization of electron by short range, local potential of impurity core, preserving full (A 1 ) symmetry of the substitutional impurity in the host lattice. The 'anticrossing' of the two A 1 (shallow hydrogenic and deep localized) energy levels upon transformation is observed. All types of electronic states of impurity can be universally observed for the same donor impurity and mutual transformation between different states occur upon changing experimental conditions. The knowledge about existence and properties of these n ew , molecular type, donor states in semiconductors seems still await general recognition and positive application in contemporary material and device science and engineering

  16. A review of environmental fate, body burdens, and human health risk assessment of PCDD/Fs at two typical electronic waste recycling sites in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Janet Kit Yan; Wong, Ming H

    2013-10-01

    This paper reviews the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in different environmental media, human body burdens and health risk assessment results at e-waste recycling sites in China. To provide an indication of the seriousness of the pollution levels in the e-waste recycling sites in China, the data are compared with guidelines and available existing data for other areas. The comparison clearly shows that PCDD/Fs derived from the recycling processes lead to serious pollution in different environmental compartments (such as air, soil, sediment, dust and biota) and heavy body burdens. Of all kinds of e-waste recycling operations, open burning of e-waste and acid leaching activities are identified as the major sources of PCDD/Fs. Deriving from the published data, the estimated total exposure doses via dietary intake, inhalation, soil/dust ingestion and dermal contact are calculated for adults, children and breast-fed infants living in two major e-waste processing locations in China. The values ranged from 5.59 to 105.16 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, exceeding the tolerable daily intakes recommended by the WHO (1-4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day). Dietary intake is the most important exposure route for infants, children and adults living in these sites, contributing 60-99% of the total intakes. Inhalation is the second major exposure route, accounted for 12-30% of the total exposure doses of children and adults. In order to protect the environment and human health, there is an urgent need to control and monitor the informal e-waste recycling operations. Knowledge gaps, such as comprehensive dietary exposure data, epidemiological and clinical studies, body burdens of infants and children, and kinetics about PCDD/Fs partitions among different human tissues should be addressed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A review of environmental fate, body burdens, and human health risk assessment of PCDD/Fs at two typical electronic waste recycling sites in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Janet Kit Yan, E-mail: chanjky@hku.hk [School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); Wong, Ming H., E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China)

    2013-10-01

    This paper reviews the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in different environmental media, human body burdens and health risk assessment results at e-waste recycling sites in China. To provide an indication of the seriousness of the pollution levels in the e-waste recycling sites in China, the data are compared with guidelines and available existing data for other areas. The comparison clearly shows that PCDD/Fs derived from the recycling processes lead to serious pollution in different environmental compartments (such as air, soil, sediment, dust and biota) and heavy body burdens. Of all kinds of e-waste recycling operations, open burning of e-waste and acid leaching activities are identified as the major sources of PCDD/Fs. Deriving from the published data, the estimated total exposure doses via dietary intake, inhalation, soil/dust ingestion and dermal contact are calculated for adults, children and breast-fed infants living in two major e-waste processing locations in China. The values ranged from 5.59 to 105.16 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, exceeding the tolerable daily intakes recommended by the WHO (1–4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day). Dietary intake is the most important exposure route for infants, children and adults living in these sites, contributing 60–99% of the total intakes. Inhalation is the second major exposure route, accounted for 12–30% of the total exposure doses of children and adults. In order to protect the environment and human health, there is an urgent need to control and monitor the informal e-waste recycling operations. Knowledge gaps, such as comprehensive dietary exposure data, epidemiological and clinical studies, body burdens of infants and children, and kinetics about PCDD/Fs partitions among different human tissues should be addressed. - Highlights: ► PCDD/F levels at e-waste recycling sites in China were reviewed. ► Data on environment and body burden and health risk assessment results were reviewed

  18. A review of environmental fate, body burdens, and human health risk assessment of PCDD/Fs at two typical electronic waste recycling sites in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Janet Kit Yan; Wong, Ming H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in different environmental media, human body burdens and health risk assessment results at e-waste recycling sites in China. To provide an indication of the seriousness of the pollution levels in the e-waste recycling sites in China, the data are compared with guidelines and available existing data for other areas. The comparison clearly shows that PCDD/Fs derived from the recycling processes lead to serious pollution in different environmental compartments (such as air, soil, sediment, dust and biota) and heavy body burdens. Of all kinds of e-waste recycling operations, open burning of e-waste and acid leaching activities are identified as the major sources of PCDD/Fs. Deriving from the published data, the estimated total exposure doses via dietary intake, inhalation, soil/dust ingestion and dermal contact are calculated for adults, children and breast-fed infants living in two major e-waste processing locations in China. The values ranged from 5.59 to 105.16 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, exceeding the tolerable daily intakes recommended by the WHO (1–4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day). Dietary intake is the most important exposure route for infants, children and adults living in these sites, contributing 60–99% of the total intakes. Inhalation is the second major exposure route, accounted for 12–30% of the total exposure doses of children and adults. In order to protect the environment and human health, there is an urgent need to control and monitor the informal e-waste recycling operations. Knowledge gaps, such as comprehensive dietary exposure data, epidemiological and clinical studies, body burdens of infants and children, and kinetics about PCDD/Fs partitions among different human tissues should be addressed. - Highlights: ► PCDD/F levels at e-waste recycling sites in China were reviewed. ► Data on environment and body burden and health risk assessment results were reviewed

  19. Health risk characterization for resident inhalation exposure to particle-bound halogenated flame retardants in a typical e-waste recycling zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Pei; Bao, Lian-Jun; Wu, Feng-Chang; Li, Shao-Meng; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2014-01-01

    Inhalation of pollutants is an important exposure route for causing human health hazards, and inhalation exposure assessment must take into account particle size distribution because particle-bound pollutants are size-dependent. Such information is scarce, particularly for residents dwelling within e-waste recycling zones where abundant atmospheric halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) commonly used in electronic/electrical devices have been widely reported. Atmospheric size-fractioned particle samples were collected using a 10-stage Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor from an e-waste recycling zone in South China. The deposition efficiencies and fluxes of size-fractioned HFRs including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), alternative brominated flame retardants, and Dechlorane Plus in the human respiratory tract were estimated using the International Commission on Radiological Protection deposition model. The majority of HFRs was found to deposit in the head airways, with coarse particles (aerodynamic diameter (Dp) > 1.8 μm) contributing the most (69-91%). Conversely, fine particles (Dp e-waste recycling zone was 44 ng/d (95% confidence interval (CI): 30-65 ng/d), close to those through food consumption in non-e-waste recycling regions. The estimated total hazard quotient of particle-bound HFRs was 5.6 × 10(-4) (95% CI: 3.8 × 10(-4)-8.8 × 10(-4)). In addition, incremental lifetime cancer risk induced by BDE-209 was 1.36 × 10(-10) (95% CI: 7.3 × 10(-11)-2.3 × 10(-10)), much lower than the Safe Acceptable Range (1.0 × 10(-6)-1.0 × 10(-4)) established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. These results indicate that the potential health risk from inhalation exposure to particle-bound HFRs for residents dwelling in the e-waste recycling zone was low.

  20. The assessment of source attribution of soil pollution in a typical e-waste recycling town and its surrounding regions using the combined organic and inorganic dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jie; Qi, Shihua; Xie, Xianming; Gu, X W Sophie; Wang, Jinji

    2017-01-01

    Guiyu is a well-known electronic waste dismantling and recycling town in south China. Concentrations and distribution of the 21 mineral elements and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) collected there were evaluated. Principal component analyses (PCA) applied to the data matrix of PAHs in the soil extracted three major factors explaining 85.7% of the total variability identified as traffic emission, coal combustion, and an unidentified source. By using metallic or metalloid element concentrations as variables, five principal components (PCs) were identified and accounted for 70.4% of the information included in the initial data matrix, which can be denoted as e-waste dismantling-related contamination, two different geological origins, anthropogenic influenced source, and marine aerosols. Combining the 21 metallic and metalloid element datasets with the 16 PAH concentrations can narrow down the coarse source and decrease the unidentified contribution to soil in the present study and therefore effectively assists the source identification process.

  1. Distribution of PCDD/Fs in the fly ash and atmospheric air of two typical hazardous waste incinerators in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tong; Zhan, Ming-Xiu; Lin, Xiao-Qing; Fu, Jian-Ying; Lu, Sheng-Yong; Li, Xiao-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) in the fly ash and atmospheric air of one medical waste incinerator (MWI) and one industrial hazardous waste incinerator (IHWI) plants were characterized. The PCDD/F concentrations of the stack gas (fly ash) produced from MWI and IHWI were 17.7 and 0.7 ng international toxic equivalent (I-TEQ)/Nm(3) (4.1 and 2.5 ng I-TEQ/g), respectively. For workplace air, the total concentrations of PCDD/Fs were 11.32 and 0.28 pg I-TEQ/Nm(3) (819.5 and 15.3 pg/Nm(3)). We assumed that the large differences of PCDD/F concentrations in workplace air were due to the differences in chlorine content of the waste, combustion conditions, and other contamination sources. With respect to the homologue profiles, the concentrations of PCDFs decreased with the increase of the substituted chlorine number for each site. Among all of the PCDD/F congeners, 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF was the most important contributor to the I-TEQ value accounting for ca. 43 % of two sites. The gas/particle partition of PCDD/Fs in the atmosphere of the workplace in the MWI was also investigated, indicating that PCDD/Fs were more associated in the particle phase, especially for the higher chlorinated ones. Moreover, the ratio of the I-TEQ values in particle and gas phase of workplace air was 11.0. At last, the relationship between the distribution of PCDD/Fs in the workplace air and that from stack gas and fly ash was also analyzed and discussed. The high correlation coefficient might be a sign for diffuse gas emissions at transient periods of fumes escaping from the incinerator.

  2. Contribution to the study of maximum levels for liquid radioactive waste disposal into continental and sea water. Treatment of some typical samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittel, R.; Mancel, J.

    1968-10-01

    The most important carriers of radioactive contamination of man are the whole of foodstuffs and not only ingested water or inhaled air. That is the reason why, in accordance with the spirit of the recent recommendations of the ICRP, it is proposed to substitute the idea of maximum levels of contamination of water to the MPC. In the case of aquatic food chains (aquatic organisms and irrigated foodstuffs), the knowledge of the ingested quantities and of the concentration factors food/water permit to determinate these maximum levels, or to find out a linear relation between the maximum levels in the case of two primary carriers of contamination (continental and sea waters). The notion of critical food-consumption, critical radioelements and formula of waste disposal are considered in the same way, taking care to attach the greatest possible importance to local situations. (authors) [fr

  3. Bioaccumulation of short chain chlorinated paraffins in a typical freshwater food web contaminated by e-waste in south china: Bioaccumulation factors, tissue distribution, and trophic transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Runxia; Luo, Xiaojun; Tang, Bin; Chen, Laiguo; Liu, Yu; Mai, Bixian

    2017-03-01

    Short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are under review for inclusion into the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. However, limited information is available on their bioaccumulation and biomagnification in ecosystems, which is hindering evaluation of their ecological and health risks. In the present study, wild aquatic organisms (fish and invertebrates), water, and sediment collected from an enclosed freshwater pond contaminated by electronic waste (e-waste) were analyzed to investigate the bioaccumulation, distribution, and trophic transfer of SCCPs in the aquatic ecosystem. SCCPs were detected in all of the investigated aquatic species at concentrations of 1700-95,000 ng/g lipid weight. The calculated bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) varied from 2.46 to 3.49. The relationship between log BAF and the octanol/water partition coefficient (log K OW ) for benthopelagic omnivorous fish species followed the empirical model of bioconcentration, indicating that bioconcentration plays an important role in accumulation of SCCPs. In contrast, the relationship for the benthic carnivorous fish and invertebrates was not consistent with the empirical model of bioconcentration, implying that the bioaccumulation of SCCPs in these species could be more influenced by other complex factors (e.g., habitat and feeding habit). Preferential distribution in the liver rather than in other tissues (e.g., muscle, gills, skin, and kidneys) was noted for the SCCP congeners with higher log K OW , and bioaccumulation pathway (i.e. water or sediment) can affect the tissue distribution of SCCP congeners. SCCPs underwent trophic dilution in the aquatic food web, and the trophic magnification factor (TMF) values of SCCP congener groups significantly correlated with their corresponding log K OW values (p behavior and fate of SCCPs in aquatic ecosystem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Waste management, waste resource facilities and waste conversion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, waste management concept, waste management system, biomass and bio-waste resources, waste classification, and waste management methods have been reviewed. Waste management is the collection, transport, processing, recycling or disposal, and monitoring of waste materials. A typical waste management system comprises collection, transportation, pre-treatment, processing, and final abatement of residues. The waste management system consists of the whole set of activities related to handling, treating, disposing or recycling the waste materials. General classification of wastes is difficult. Some of the most common sources of wastes are as follows: domestic wastes, commercial wastes, ashes, animal wastes, biomedical wastes, construction wastes, industrial solid wastes, sewer, biodegradable wastes, non-biodegradable wastes, and hazardous wastes.

  5. Is our Universe typical?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurzadyan, V.G.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of typicalness of the Universe - as a dynamical system possessing both regular and chaotic regions of positive measure of phase space, is raised and discussed. Two dynamical systems are considered: 1) The observed Universe as a hierarchy of systems of N graviting bodies; 2) (3+1)-manifold with matter evolving to Wheeler-DeWitt equation in superspace with Hawking boundary condition of compact metrics. It is shown that the observed Universe is typical. There is no unambiguous answer for the second system yet. If it is typical too then the same present state of the Universe could have been originated from an infinite number of different initial conditions the restoration of which is practically impossible at present. 35 refs.; 2 refs

  6. Typical Complexity Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Typical Complexity Numbers. Say. 1000 tones,; 100 Users,; Transmission every 10 msec. Full Crosstalk cancellation would require. Full cancellation requires a matrix multiplication of order 100*100 for all the tones. 1000*100*100*100 operations every second for the ...

  7. Typicality and reasoning fallacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafir, E B; Smith, E E; Osherson, D N

    1990-05-01

    The work of Tversky and Kahneman on intuitive probability judgment leads to the following prediction: The judged probability that an instance belongs to a category is an increasing function of the typicality of the instance in the category. To test this prediction, subjects in Experiment 1 read a description of a person (e.g., "Linda is 31, bright, ... outspoken") followed by a category. Some subjects rated how typical the person was of the category, while others rated the probability that the person belonged to that category. For categories like bank teller and feminist bank teller: (1) subjects rated the person as more typical of the conjunctive category (a conjunction effect); (2) subjects rated it more probable that the person belonged to the conjunctive category (a conjunction fallacy); and (3) the magnitudes of the conjunction effect and fallacy were highly correlated. Experiment 2 documents an inclusion fallacy, wherein subjects judge, for example, "All bank tellers are conservative" to be more probable than "All feminist bank tellers are conservative." In Experiment 3, results parallel to those of Experiment 1 were obtained with respect to the inclusion fallacy.

  8. How operating room efficiency is understood in a surgical team: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakelian, Erebouni; Gunningberg, Lena; Larsson, Jan

    2011-02-01

    Building surgical teams is one attempt to ensure the health-care system becomes more efficient, but how is 'efficiency' understood or interpreted? The aim was to study how organized surgical team members and their leaders understood operating room efficiency. Qualitative study. A 1100-bed Swedish university hospital. Eleven participants, nine team members from the same team and their two leaders were interviewed. The analysis was performed according to phenomenography, a research approach that aims to discover variations in peoples' understanding of a phenomenon. Seven ways of understanding operating room efficiency were identified: doing one's best from one's prerequisites, enjoying work and adjusting it to the situation, interacting group performing parallel tasks, working with minimal resources to produce desired results, fast work with preserved quality, long-term effects for patient care and a relative concept. When talking about the quality and benefits of delivered care, most team members invoked the patient as the central focus. Despite seven ways of understanding efficiency between the team members, they described their team as efficient. The nurses and assistant nurses were involved in the production and discussed working in a timely manner more than the leaders. The seven ways of understanding operating room efficiency appear to represent both organization-oriented and individual-oriented understanding of that concept in surgical teams. The patient is in focus and efficiency is understood as maintaining quality of care and measuring benefits of care for the patients.

  9. Congenital Vomer Agenesis: A Rare and Poorly Understood Condition Revealed by Cone Beam CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, David Jun; Lenoir, Vincent; Chatelain, Sibylle; Stefanelli, Salvatore; Becker, Minerva

    2018-02-10

    Isolated congenital vomer agenesis is a very rare and poorly understood condition. In the context of dental work-up by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), the explored volume of the facial bones occasionally reveals incidental abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year old Caucasian female who underwent CBCT for the pre-treatment evaluation of primary failure of tooth eruption affecting the permanent right upper and inferior molars. CBCT depicted a large defect of the postero-inferior part of the nasal septum without associated soft tissue abnormality and without cranio-facial malformation or cleft palate. In the absence of a history of trauma, chronic inflammatory sinonasal disease, neoplasia and drug abuse, a posterior nasal septum defect warrants the diagnosis of vomer agenesis. A discussion of this condition and of salient CBCT features is provided.

  10. Poorly understood and often miscategorized congenital umbilical cord hernia: an alternative repair method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İnce, E; Temiz, A; Ezer, S S; Gezer, H Ö; Hiçsönmez, A

    2017-06-01

    Umbilical cord hernia is poorly understood and often miscategorized as "omphalocele minor". Careless clamping of the cord leads to iatrogenic gut injury in the situation of umbilical cord hernia. This study aimed to determine the characteristics and outcomes of umbilical cord hernias. We also highlight an alternative repair method for umbilical cord hernias. We recorded 15 cases of umbilical cord hernias over 10 years. The patients' data were retrospectively reviewed, and preoperative preparation of the newborn, gestational age, birth weight, other associated malformations, surgical technique used, enteral nutrition, and length of hospitalization were recorded. This study included 15 neonates with umbilical cord hernias. The mean gestational age at the time of referral was 38.2 ± 2.1 umbilical cord hernia, the body folds develop normally and form the umbilical ring. The double purse-string technique is easy to apply and produces satisfactory cosmetic results in neonates with umbilical cord hernias.

  11. Testing biochemistry revisited: how in vivo metabolism can be understood from in vitro enzyme kinetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen van Eunen

    Full Text Available A decade ago, a team of biochemists including two of us, modeled yeast glycolysis and showed that one of the most studied biochemical pathways could not be quite understood in terms of the kinetic properties of the constituent enzymes as measured in cell extract. Moreover, when the same model was later applied to different experimental steady-state conditions, it often exhibited unrestrained metabolite accumulation.Here we resolve this issue by showing that the results of such ab initio modeling are improved substantially by (i including appropriate allosteric regulation and (ii measuring the enzyme kinetic parameters under conditions that resemble the intracellular environment. The following modifications proved crucial: (i implementation of allosteric regulation of hexokinase and pyruvate kinase, (ii implementation of V(max values measured under conditions that resembled the yeast cytosol, and (iii redetermination of the kinetic parameters of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase under physiological conditions.Model predictions and experiments were compared under five different conditions of yeast growth and starvation. When either the original model was used (which lacked important allosteric regulation, or the enzyme parameters were measured under conditions that were, as usual, optimal for high enzyme activity, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and some other glycolytic intermediates tended to accumulate to unrealistically high concentrations. Combining all adjustments yielded an accurate correspondence between model and experiments for all five steady-state and dynamic conditions. This enhances our understanding of in vivo metabolism in terms of in vitro biochemistry.

  12. The market of human organs: a window into a poorly understood global business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surman, O S; Saidi, R; Purtilo, R; Simmerling, M; Ko, D; Burke, T F

    2008-03-01

    The global demand for human organs has set the stage for an exploding and poorly understood global business in human organs. Whenever there is demand for a product, the opportunity for business arises. The form that a business takes is dependent on a complex network of inputs and outputs, each affecting the others. Historically, the details of any specific market are drastically underestimated. Nowhere is this truer than in the market of human organs. The drivers, which propel the "goods" of human organs, form a flourishing business. Critical analysis is essential to understanding of the supply and demand sides and to determine the role of government in regulating the industry. Governmental groups have dismissed formation of a regulated market for organ sales. The concept is nonetheless a topic of active discussion, motivated by the suffering of patients in need of organs and exploitation of the victims of human trafficking. Ethical principles have been invoked on each side of the ensuing debate. Theory in the absence of sufficient data is shaky ground for enactment of new policy. The Aristotelian concept of "practical wisdom" and the pragmatism of William James illuminate the importance of scientific investigation as guide to policy formation. How will stakeholders benefit or lose? What impact might be anticipated in regard to organized medicine's social contract? What can we learn about cross-cultural differences and their effect on the global landscape?

  13. How spirituality is understood and taught in New Zealand medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambie, D; Egan, R; Walker, S; MacLeod, R

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this research was to explore how spirituality is currently understood and taught in New Zealand Medical Schools. A mixed methods study was carried out involving interviews (n = 14) and a survey (n = 73). The first stage of the study involved recorded semi-structured interviews of people involved in curriculum development from the Dunedin School of Medicine (n = 14); which then informed a cross-sectional self-reported electronic survey (n = 73). The results indicate that spirituality is regarded by many involved in medical education in New Zealand as an important part of healthcare that may be taught in medical schools, but also that there is little consensus among this group as to what the topic is about. These findings provide a basis for further discussion about including spirituality in medical curricula, and in particular indicate a need to develop a shared understanding of what 'spirituality' means and how it can be taught appropriately. As a highly secular country, these New Zealand findings are significant for medical education in other secular Western countries. Addressing spirituality with patients has been shown to positively impact a range of health outcomes, but how spirituality is taught in medical schools is still developing across the globe.

  14. The vulnerability of family caregivers in relation to vulnerability as understood by nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvimäki, Anneli; Stenbock-Hult, Bettina; Sundell, Eija; Oesch-Börman, Christine

    2017-03-01

    In Finland, the care of older persons is shifting from institutional care to family care. Research shows that family caregivers experience their situation much in the same way as professional nurses. The nurses' experiences have been studied in terms of vulnerability, and the same perspective could deepen our understanding of family caregivers' experiences. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge of the vulnerability of older caregivers taking care of an ageing family member. The research questions were as follows: How do family caregivers experience vulnerability? How do their experiences relate to vulnerability as understood by nurses? The study was done as a secondary analysis of focus group interviews on the experiences and daily life of older family caregivers. Four caregivers had taken part in monthly interviews during a period of 10 months. The interviews were analysed by deductive and inductive content analysis. The results showed that the caregivers saw caregiving as part of being human. They experienced a variety of feelings and moral agony and were harmed physically, mentally and socially. They showed courage, protected themselves and recognised that being a caregiver also was a source of maturing and developing. These results corresponded with the nurses' understanding of vulnerability. Shame, the experience of duty as a burden, worry and loneliness were themes that were found only among the family caregivers. The use of a matrix may have restricted the analysis, but using it in an unconstrained way allowed for new themes to be created. The results indicate a common humanness and vulnerability in professional and family caregiving. They also show that family caregivers need more support both from society and professionals. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  15. Transuranic waste management program waste form development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, W.S.; Crisler, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    To ensure that all technology necessary for long term management of transuranic (TRU) wastes is available, the Department of Energy has established the Transuranic Waste Management Program. A principal focus of the program is development of waste forms that can accommodate the very diverse TRU waste inventory and meet geologic isolation criteria. The TRU Program is following two approaches. First, decontamination processes are being developed to allow removal of sufficient surface contamination to permit management of some of the waste as low level waste. The other approach is to develop processes which will allow immobilization by encapsulation of the solids or incorporate head end processes which will make the solids compatible with more typical waste form processes. The assessment of available data indicates that dewatered concretes, synthetic basalts, and borosilicate glass waste forms appear to be viable candidates for immobilization of large fractions of the TRU waste inventory in a geologic repository

  16. How Global Education Is Understood and to What Extent It Is Implemented in One Educator Preparation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amewu-Sirleaf, Lydia Valentina

    2015-01-01

    This mixed method study investigated the overarching question "how global education is understood and implemented in an educator preparation program in a Colorado university". The sub-questions used to answer the research question are: (1) How is global education/perspective understood and implemented by the faculty; (2) How do students…

  17. Radioactive waste management for reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodger, W.A.

    1974-01-01

    Radioactive waste management practices at nuclear power plants are summarized. The types of waste produced and methods for treating various types of wastes are described. The waste management systems, including simplified flow diagrams, for typical boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors are discussed. (U.S.)

  18. Bioprocessing of low-level radioactive and mixed hazard wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoner, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    Biologically-based treatment technologies are currently being developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to aid in volume reduction and/or reclassification of low-level radioactive and mixed hazardous wastes prior to processing for disposal. The approaches taken to treat low-level radioactive and mixed wastes will reflect the physical (e.g., liquid, solid, slurry) and chemical (inorganic and/or organic) nature of the waste material being processed. Bioprocessing utilizes the diverse metabolic and biochemical characteristics of microorganisms. The application of bioadsorption and bioflocculation to reduce the volume of low-level radioactive waste are strategies comparable to the use of ion-exchange resins and coagulants that are currently used in waste reduction processes. Mixed hazardous waste would require organic as well as radionuclide treatment processes. Biodegradation of organic wastes or bioemulsification could be used in conjunction with radioisotope bioadsorption methods to treat mixed hazardous radioactive wastes. The degradation of the organic constituents of mixed wastes can be considered an alternative to incineration, while the use of bioemulsification may simply be used as a means to separate inorganic and organics to enable reclassification of wastes. The proposed technology base for the biological treatment of low-level radioactive and mixed hazardous waste has been established. Biodegradation of a variety of organic compounds that are typically found in mixed hazardous wastes has been demonstrated, degradative pathways determined and the nutritional requirements of the microorganisms are understood. Accumulation, adsorption and concentration of heavy and transition metal species and transuranics by microorganisms is widely recognized. Work at the INEL focuses on the application of demonstrated microbial transformations to process development

  19. Solid waste as an energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armenski, Slave

    2004-01-01

    The solid wastes as sources of heat and electrical energy were analysed. Typical structure of solid waste and organic products from: municipal solid wastes, industrial wastes and agricultural wastes for some developed countries are presented. Some dates of agricultural wastes for R. Macedonia are presented. The structure and percentage of organic products and energy content of solid wastes are estimated. The quantity of heat from solid wastes depending of the waste mass is presented. The heat quantity of some solid wastes component and the mixed municipal waste is presented. (Original)

  20. Typical errors of ESP users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremina, Svetlana V.; Korneva, Anna A.

    2004-07-01

    The paper presents analysis of the errors made by ESP (English for specific purposes) users which have been considered as typical. They occur as a result of misuse of resources of English grammar and tend to resist. Their origin and places of occurrence have also been discussed.

  1. Solid waste combustion for alpha waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orloff, D.I.

    1981-02-01

    Radioactive waste incinerator development at the Savannah River Laboratory has been augmented by fundamental combustion studies at the University of South Carolina. The objective was to measure and model pyrolysis and combustion rates of typical Savannah River Plant waste materials as a function of incinerator operating conditions. The analytical models developed in this work have been incorporated into a waste burning transient code. The code predicts maximum air requirement and heat energy release as a function of waste type, package size, combustion chamber size, and temperature. Historically, relationships have been determined by direct experiments that did not allow an engineering basis for predicting combustion rates in untested incinerators. The computed combustion rates and burning times agree with measured values in the Savannah River Laboratory pilot (1 lb/hr) and full-scale (12 lb/hr) alpha incinerators for a wide variety of typical waste materials

  2. Is restlessness best understood as a process? Reflecting on four boys’ restlessness during music therapy in kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helle-Valle, Anna; Binder, Per-Einar; Anderssen, Norman; Stige, Brynjulf

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT ADHD can be considered an internationally recognized framework for understanding children’s restlessness. In this context, children’s restlessness is understood as a symptom of neurodevelopmental disorder. However, there are other possible understandings of children’s restlessness. In this article, we explore four boys’ collaborative and creative process as it is described and understood by three adults. The process is framed by a community music therapy project in a Norwegian kindergarten, and we describe four interrelated phases of this process: Exploring musical vitality and cooperation, Consolidating positions, Performing together, and Discovering ripple effects. We discuss these results in relation to seven qualities central to a community music therapy approach: participation, resource orientation, ecology, performance, activism, reflexivity and ethics. We argue that in contrast to a diagnostic approach that entails a focus on individual problems, a community music therapy approach can shed light on adult and systemic contributions to children’s restlessness. PMID:28532331

  3. Destined for indecision? A critical analysis of waste management practices in England from 1996 to 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, T.D.; Shaw, P.J.; Williams, I.D.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Critical analysis of municipal waste management practices and performance in England. • Trends visualised via innovative ternary plots and changes and reasons explored. • Performance 1996–2013 moved slowly away from landfill dominance. • Large variations in %s of waste landfilled, incinerated and recycled/composted. • Progress to resource efficiency slow; affected by poor planning and hostile disputes. - Abstract: European nations are compelled to reduce reliance on landfill as a destination for household waste, and should, in principle, achieve this goal with due recognition of the aims and principles of the waste hierarchy. Past research has predominantly focused on recycling, whilst interactions between changing waste destinies, causes and drivers of household waste management change, and potential consequences for the goal of the waste hierarchy are less well understood. This study analysed Local Authority Collected Waste (LACW) for England, at national, regional and sub-regional level, in terms of the destination of household waste to landfill, incineration and recycling. Information about waste partnerships, waste management infrastructure and collection systems was collected to help identify and explain changes in waste destinies. Since 1996, the proportion of waste landfilled in England has decreased, in tandem with increases in recycling and incineration. At the regional and sub-regional (Local Authority; LA) level, there have been large variations in the relative proportions of waste landfilled, incinerated and recycled or composted. Annual increases in the proportion of household waste incinerated were typically larger than increases in the proportion recycled. The observed changes took place in the context of legal and financial drivers, and the circumstances of individual LAs (e.g. landfill capacity) also explained the changes seen. Where observed, shifts from landfill towards incineration constitute an approach whereby waste

  4. Destined for indecision? A critical analysis of waste management practices in England from 1996 to 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, T.D.; Shaw, P.J.; Williams, I.D., E-mail: idw@soton.ac.uk

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Critical analysis of municipal waste management practices and performance in England. • Trends visualised via innovative ternary plots and changes and reasons explored. • Performance 1996–2013 moved slowly away from landfill dominance. • Large variations in %s of waste landfilled, incinerated and recycled/composted. • Progress to resource efficiency slow; affected by poor planning and hostile disputes. - Abstract: European nations are compelled to reduce reliance on landfill as a destination for household waste, and should, in principle, achieve this goal with due recognition of the aims and principles of the waste hierarchy. Past research has predominantly focused on recycling, whilst interactions between changing waste destinies, causes and drivers of household waste management change, and potential consequences for the goal of the waste hierarchy are less well understood. This study analysed Local Authority Collected Waste (LACW) for England, at national, regional and sub-regional level, in terms of the destination of household waste to landfill, incineration and recycling. Information about waste partnerships, waste management infrastructure and collection systems was collected to help identify and explain changes in waste destinies. Since 1996, the proportion of waste landfilled in England has decreased, in tandem with increases in recycling and incineration. At the regional and sub-regional (Local Authority; LA) level, there have been large variations in the relative proportions of waste landfilled, incinerated and recycled or composted. Annual increases in the proportion of household waste incinerated were typically larger than increases in the proportion recycled. The observed changes took place in the context of legal and financial drivers, and the circumstances of individual LAs (e.g. landfill capacity) also explained the changes seen. Where observed, shifts from landfill towards incineration constitute an approach whereby waste

  5. Pathways for Disposal of Commercially-Generated Tritiated Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, Nancy V. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Environmental Sciences and Biotechnology

    2016-09-26

    From a waste disposal standpoint, tritium is a major challenge. Because it behaves like hydrogen, tritium exchanges readily with hydrogen in the ground water and moves easily through the ground. Land disposal sites must control the tritium activity and mobility of incoming wastes to protect human health and the environment. Consequently, disposal of tritiated low-level wastes is highly regulated and disposal options are limited. The United States has had eight operating commercial facilities licensed for low-level radioactive waste disposal, only four of which are currently receiving waste. Each of these is licensed and regulated by its state. Only two of these sites accept waste from states outside of their specified regional compact. For waste streams that cannot be disposed directly at one of the four active commercial low-level waste disposal facilities, processing facilities offer various forms of tritiated low-level waste processing and treatment, and then transport and dispose of the residuals at a disposal facility. These processing facilities may remove and recycle tritium, reduce waste volume, solidify liquid waste, remove hazardous constituents, or perform a number of additional treatments. Waste brokers also offer many low-level and mixed waste management and transportation services. These services can be especially helpful for small-quantity tritiated-waste generators, such as universities, research institutions, medical facilities, and some industries. The information contained in this report covers general capabilities and requirements for the various disposal/processing facilities and brokerage companies, but is not considered exhaustive. Typically, each facility has extensive waste acceptance criteria and will require a generator to thoroughly characterize their wastes. Then a contractual agreement between the waste generator and the disposal/processing/broker entity must be in place before waste is accepted. Costs for tritiated waste

  6. Pathways for Disposal of Commercially-Generated Tritiated Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halverson, Nancy V.

    2016-01-01

    From a waste disposal standpoint, tritium is a major challenge. Because it behaves like hydrogen, tritium exchanges readily with hydrogen in the ground water and moves easily through the ground. Land disposal sites must control the tritium activity and mobility of incoming wastes to protect human health and the environment. Consequently, disposal of tritiated low-level wastes is highly regulated and disposal options are limited. The United States has had eight operating commercial facilities licensed for low-level radioactive waste disposal, only four of which are currently receiving waste. Each of these is licensed and regulated by its state. Only two of these sites accept waste from states outside of their specified regional compact. For waste streams that cannot be disposed directly at one of the four active commercial low-level waste disposal facilities, processing facilities offer various forms of tritiated low-level waste processing and treatment, and then transport and dispose of the residuals at a disposal facility. These processing facilities may remove and recycle tritium, reduce waste volume, solidify liquid waste, remove hazardous constituents, or perform a number of additional treatments. Waste brokers also offer many low-level and mixed waste management and transportation services. These services can be especially helpful for small-quantity tritiated-waste generators, such as universities, research institutions, medical facilities, and some industries. The information contained in this report covers general capabilities and requirements for the various disposal/processing facilities and brokerage companies, but is not considered exhaustive. Typically, each facility has extensive waste acceptance criteria and will require a generator to thoroughly characterize their wastes. Then a contractual agreement between the waste generator and the disposal/processing/broker entity must be in place before waste is accepted. Costs for tritiated waste

  7. Destined for indecision? A critical analysis of waste management practices in England from 1996 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, T D; Shaw, P J; Williams, I D

    2015-05-01

    European nations are compelled to reduce reliance on landfill as a destination for household waste, and should, in principle, achieve this goal with due recognition of the aims and principles of the waste hierarchy. Past research has predominantly focused on recycling, whilst interactions between changing waste destinies, causes and drivers of household waste management change, and potential consequences for the goal of the waste hierarchy are less well understood. This study analysed Local Authority Collected Waste (LACW) for England, at national, regional and sub-regional level, in terms of the destination of household waste to landfill, incineration and recycling. Information about waste partnerships, waste management infrastructure and collection systems was collected to help identify and explain changes in waste destinies. Since 1996, the proportion of waste landfilled in England has decreased, in tandem with increases in recycling and incineration. At the regional and sub-regional (Local Authority; LA) level, there have been large variations in the relative proportions of waste landfilled, incinerated and recycled or composted. Annual increases in the proportion of household waste incinerated were typically larger than increases in the proportion recycled. The observed changes took place in the context of legal and financial drivers, and the circumstances of individual LAs (e.g. landfill capacity) also explained the changes seen. Where observed, shifts from landfill towards incineration constitute an approach whereby waste management moves up the waste hierarchy as opposed to an attempt to reach the most preferred option(s); in terms of resource efficiency, this practice is sub-optimal. The requirement to supply incinerators with a feedstock over their lifespan reduces the benefits of developing of recycling and waste reduction, although access to incineration infrastructure permits short-term and marked decreases in the proportion of LACW landfilled. We

  8. An overview of in situ waste treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, S.; Hyde, R.A.; Piper, R.B.; Roy, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    In situ technologies are becoming an attractive remedial alternative for eliminating environmental problems. In situ treatments typically reduce risks and costs associated with retrieving, packaging, and storing or disposing-waste and are generally preferred over ex situ treatments. Each in situ technology has specific applications, and, in order to provide the most economical and practical solution to a waste problem, these applications must be understood. This paper presents an overview of thirty different in situ remedial technologies for buried wastes or contaminated soil areas. The objective of this paper is to familiarize those involved in waste remediation activities with available and emerging in situ technologies so that they may consider these options in the remediation of hazardous and/or radioactive waste sites. Several types of in situ technologies are discussed, including biological treatments, containment technologies, physical/chemical treatments, solidification/stabilization technologies, and thermal treatments. Each category of in situ technology is briefly examined in this paper. Specific treatments belonging to these categories are also reviewed. Much of the information on in situ treatment technologies in this paper was obtained directly from vendors and universities and this information has not been verified

  9. Surgeon-level reporting presented by funnel plot is understood by doctors but inaccurately interpreted by members of the public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Ashish; Mehrotra, Prerna; Amawi, Falah; Lund, Jonathan N

    2015-01-01

    Risk-adjusted outcome data for general surgeons practicing in the United Kingdom were published for the first time in 2013 with the aim of increasing transparency, improving standards, and providing the public with information to aid decision making. Most specialties used funnel plots to present their data. We assess the ability of members of the public (MoP), medical students, nonsurgical doctors (NSD), and surgeons to understand risk-adjusted surgical outcome data. A fictitious outcome dataset was created and presented in the form of a funnel plot to 10 participants from each of the aforementioned group. Standard explanatory text was provided. Each participant was given 5 minutes to review the funnel plot and complete a questionnaire. For each question, there was only 1 correct answer. Completion rate was 100% (n = 40). No difference existed between NSD and surgeons. A significant difference for identification of the "worst performing surgeon" was noted between surgeons and MoP (p funnel plot significantly "more difficult" to interpret than surgeons did (p < 0.01) and NSD (p < 0.01). MoP found these data significantly more "difficult to understand" and were less likely to both spot "outliers" and use this data to inform decisions than doctors. Surgeons should be aware that outcome data may require an alternative method of presentation to be understood by MoP. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Modelling object typicality in description logics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a semantic model of typicality of concept members in description logics (DLs) that accords well with a binary, globalist cognitive model of class membership and typicality. The authors define a general preferential semantic...

  11. On typical properties of Hilbert space operators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisner, T.; Mátrai, T.

    2013-01-01

    We study the typical behavior of bounded linear operators on infinite-dimensional complex separable Hilbert spaces in the norm, strong-star, strong, weak polynomial and weak topologies. In particular, we investigate typical spectral properties, the problem of unitary equivalence of typical

  12. Conflict Prevalence in Primary School and How It Is Understood to Affect Teaching and Learning in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Afia Amponsaa Opoku-Asare

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Verbal and non-verbal interactions that occur daily between teachers and headteachers, teachers and pupils, and among pupils can generate conflict that may adversely affect teaching, learning, and schooling effectiveness. Little attention is, however, paid to the quality of relationships that exists between teachers and pupils, among teachers, among pupils, between teachers and their school heads, and between schools and their local communities. This study sought to investigate conflict prevalence in Ghana’s primary schools, and how relationship conflict is understood to affect teaching and learning at the level of headteachers as administrators, teachers as classroom managers, and pupils as learners, and direct beneficiaries of primary education. Using data gathered via interview, questionnaire administration, and observation in 30 public primary schools in 10 circuits of one district of Ashanti Region, the findings revealed a high prevalence of fighting, heckling, bullying, and other forms of relationship conflict among pupils; strained teacher–pupil relations due to insolence, indiscipline, and use of offensive language; and teacher–parent arguments and quarrels due to harsh punishment and verbal assault of pupils. Teacher–pupil conflicts may extend to teachers excluding the affected pupils from teaching and learning activities, denying them the rights to ask and answer questions, and have their class exercises marked, leading to lowered pupil self-esteem, reduced concentration during lessons, and passive involvement in learning activities, which could result in truancy and school dropout. Strengthening guidance mechanisms and encouraging peer mediation could significantly curb conflict in school environments and thereby raise educational standards in the district.

  13. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boegly, W.J.; Alexander, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    A literature review on studies concerning radioactive wastes is presented. Literature on radioactive wastes available from the National Technical Information Service, Washington, DC, was not included in the review. Studies were reviewed that dealt with general programs for radioactive wastes; isolation of radioactive wastes; waste management; waste storage; environmental transport; transportation; risk assessment; and remedial action are reviewed

  14. Waste Sites - Municipal Waste Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Municipal Waste Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Waste Management Municipal Waste Program. The sub-facility types related to Municipal Waste...

  15. Solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The article drawn up within the framework of 'the assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' provides an overview of solid waste management, and assesses future wastes volume and waste disposal issues.In particular it addresses the following concerns: - Long term projections of solid waste arisings (i.e. domestic, industrial, such commercial wastes, vehicle types, construction waste, waste oils, hazardous toxic wastes and finally hospital and clinical wastes) are described. - Appropriate disposal routes, and strategies for reducing volumes for final disposal - Balance between municipal and industrial solid waste generation and disposal/treatment and - environmental impacts (aesthetics, human health, natural environment )of existing dumps, and the potential impact of government plans for construction of solid waste facilities). Possible policies for institutional reform within the waste management sector are proposed. Tables provides estimations of generation rates and distribution of wastes in different regions of Lebanon. Laws related to solid waste management are summarized

  16. Waste management - sewage - special wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The 27 papers represent a cross-section of the subject waste management. Particular attention is paid to the following themes: waste avoidance, waste product utilization, household wastes, dumping technology, sewage sludge treatments, special wastes, seepage from hazardous waste dumps, radioactive wastes, hospital wastes, purification of flue gas from waste combustion plants, flue gas purification and heavy metals, as well as combined sewage sludge and waste product utilization. The examples given relate to plants in Germany and other European countries. 12 papers have been separately recorded in the data base. (DG) [de

  17. A Typical Verification Challenge for the GRID

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, Jan Cornelis; Bal, H. E.; Brim, L.; Leucker, M.

    2008-01-01

    A typical verification challenge for the GRID community is presented. The concrete challenge is to implement a simple recursive algorithm for finding the strongly connected components in a graph. The graph is typically stored in the collective memory of a number of computers, so a distributed

  18. Shipment and Disposal of Solidified Organic Waste (Waste Type IV) to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amico, E. L; Edmiston, D. R.; O'Leary, G. A.; Rivera, M. A.; Steward, D. M.

    2006-01-01

    In April of 2005, the last shipment of transuranic (TRU) waste from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site to the WIPP was completed. With the completion of this shipment, all transuranic waste generated and stored at Rocky Flats was successfully removed from the site and shipped to and disposed of at the WIPP. Some of the last waste to be shipped and disposed of at the WIPP was waste consisting of solidified organic liquids that is identified as Waste Type IV in the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC) document. Waste Type IV waste typically has a composition, and associated characteristics, that make it significantly more difficult to ship and dispose of than other Waste Types, especially with respect to gas generation. This paper provides an overview of the experience gained at Rocky Flats for management, transportation and disposal of Type IV waste at WIPP, particularly with respect to gas generation testing. (authors)

  19. Some typical solid propellant rocket motors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandbergen, B.T.C.

    2013-01-01

    Typical Solid Propellant Rocket Motors (shortly referred to as Solid Rocket Motors; SRM's) are described with the purpose to form a database, which allows for comparative analysis and applications in practical SRM engineering.

  20. Waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, E.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter formation of wastes and basic concepts of non-radioactive waste management are explained. This chapter consists of the following parts: People in Peril; Self-regulation of nature as a guide for minimizing and recycling waste; The current waste management situation in the Slovak Republic; Categorization and determination of the type of waste in legislative of Slovakia; Strategic directions waste management in the Slovak Republic.

  1. Conditioned place preference successfully established in typically developing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah T Hiller

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Affective processing, known to influence attention, motivation and emotional regulation is poorly understood in young children, especially for those with neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by language impairments. Here we faithfully adapt a well-established animal paradigm used for affective processing, conditioned place preference for use in typically developing children between the ages of 30-55 months. Children displayed a conditioned place preference, with an average 2.4 fold increase in time spent in the preferred room. Importantly, associative learning as assessed with conditioned place preference was not correlated with scores on the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, indicating that conditioned place preference can be used with children with a wide range of cognitive skills.

  2. Prediction and typicality in multiverse cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhar, Feraz

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of a fundamental theory that precisely predicts values for observable parameters, anthropic reasoning attempts to constrain probability distributions over those parameters in order to facilitate the extraction of testable predictions. The utility of this approach has been vigorously debated of late, particularly in light of theories that claim we live in a multiverse, where parameters may take differing values in regions lying outside our observable horizon. Within this cosmological framework, we investigate the efficacy of top-down anthropic reasoning based on the weak anthropic principle. We argue contrary to recent claims that it is not clear one can either dispense with notions of typicality altogether or presume typicality, in comparing resulting probability distributions with observations. We show in a concrete, top-down setting related to dark matter, that assumptions about typicality can dramatically affect predictions, thereby providing a guide to how errors in reasoning regarding typicality translate to errors in the assessment of predictive power. We conjecture that this dependence on typicality is an integral feature of anthropic reasoning in broader cosmological contexts, and argue in favour of the explicit inclusion of measures of typicality in schemes invoking anthropic reasoning, with a view to extracting predictions from multiverse scenarios. (paper)

  3. Los Alamos Waste Management Cost Estimation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matysiak, L.M.; Burns, M.L.

    1994-03-01

    This final report completes the Los Alamos Waste Management Cost Estimation Project, and includes the documentation of the waste management processes at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for hazardous, mixed, low-level radioactive solid and transuranic waste, development of the cost estimation model and a user reference manual. The ultimate goal of this effort was to develop an estimate of the life cycle costs for the aforementioned waste types. The Cost Estimation Model is a tool that can be used to calculate the costs of waste management at LANL for the aforementioned waste types, under several different scenarios. Each waste category at LANL is managed in a separate fashion, according to Department of Energy requirements and state and federal regulations. The cost of the waste management process for each waste category has not previously been well documented. In particular, the costs associated with the handling, treatment and storage of the waste have not been well understood. It is anticipated that greater knowledge of these costs will encourage waste generators at the Laboratory to apply waste minimization techniques to current operations. Expected benefits of waste minimization are a reduction in waste volume, decrease in liability and lower waste management costs

  4. Life-cycle assessment of municipal solid wastes: Development of the WASTED model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, R.; Warith, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the Waste Analysis Software Tool for Environmental Decisions (WASTED) model. This model provides a comprehensive view of the environmental impacts of municipal solid waste management systems. The model consists of a number of separate submodels that describe a typical waste management process: waste collection, material recovery, composting, energy recovery from waste and landfilling. These submodels are combined to represent a complete waste management system. WASTED uses compensatory systems to account for the avoided environmental impacts derived from energy recovery and material recycling. The model is designed to provide solid waste decision-makers and environmental researchers with a tool to evaluate waste management plans and to improve the environmental performance of solid waste management strategies. The model is user-friendly and compares favourably with other earlier models

  5. Storage and disposal of radioactive waste as glass in canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel, J.E.

    1978-12-01

    A review of the use of waste glass for the immobilization of high-level radioactive waste glass is presented. Typical properties of the canisters used to contain the glass, and the waste glass, are described. Those properties are used to project the stability of canisterized waste glass through interim storage, transportation, and geologic disposal

  6. Home is to be understood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie; Werner Hansen, Siv

    2018-01-01

    situation in Denmark is, as in many other countries at the moment, complex. On the one hand laws and regulations are concurrently tightened concerning residency permits, boarder control, and possession of belongings. On the other hand a nationwide humanitarian (non-political) network of citizens who have...... engages with the current societal issue of migration by instigating a co-creation experiment, which aims to convert the museum’s vision (defined by values such as ‘community’, ‘participation’, ‘responsibility’ and ‘change’) into practice. In particular, we address how the museum creates a space...... and visual ethnography (Pink, 2013; Rose, 2012) from the process of initiating and planning of the project and including visual material from the launch of the exhibition. References: Bishop, C. (2006). The Social turn: Collaboration and Its Discontents, Artforum http...

  7. How flares can be understood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severny, A.B.

    1977-01-01

    Specific features of the flare phenomenon which are important for understanding of flares are the following: (1) Fine structure of visible emission of flares, especially at the very beginning and in the pre-flare active region. This structure can be seen also in later stages of development as bright points, some of which exist from the flare beginning (Babin's observations at Crimea, 1972-1976). (2) Turbulent motion with velocities up to 250-300 km s -1 as can be estimated from broadening of emission lines. (3) Predominantly red asymmetry of emission lines in the explosive phase and during further development of flares. (4) 'Supersonic' velocities and supergravitational accelerations of separate moving masses of the flare plasma. (5) The appearance of flares in areas with high grad H, exceeding 0.1 G km -1 which is equivalent to regions of electric currents > approximately 10 11 A. (6) Strong variations of net magnetic flux through the active region, as it follows from Meudon, Crimean, and Sacramento Peak (Rust's) observations. (Auth.)

  8. Can delusions be understood linguistically?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinzen, Wolfram; Rosselló, Joana; McKenna, Peter

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Delusions are widely believed to reflect disturbed cognitive function, but the nature of this remains elusive. The “un-Cartesian” cognitive-linguistic hypothesis maintains (a) that there is no thought separate from language, that is, there is no distinct mental space removed from language where “thinking” takes place; and (b) that a somewhat broadened concept of grammar is responsible for bestowing meaning on propositions, and this among other things gives them their quality of being true or false. It is argued that a loss of propositional meaning explains why delusions are false, impossible and sometimes fantastic. A closely related abnormality, failure of linguistic embedding, can additionally account for why delusions are held with fixed conviction and are not adequately justified by the patient. The un-Cartesian linguistic approach to delusions has points of contact with Frith’s theory that inability to form meta-representations underlies a range of schizophrenic symptoms. It may also be relevant to the nature of the “second factor” in monothematic delusions in neurological disease. Finally, it can inform the current debate about whether or not delusions really are beliefs. PMID:27322493

  9. We Have Not Understood Descartes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallias, Andras

    1996-01-01

    Describes a personal involvement with digital media and the origins of the conception of the "diagrammatic" poem. Reflects on what is considered to be a poem in tune with today's computerized society. (PA)

  10. Typical horticultural products between tradition and innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocenza Chessa

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent EU and National policies for agriculture and rural development are mainly focused to foster the production of high quality products as a result of the increasing demand of food safety, typical foods and traditional processing methods. Another word very often used to describe foods in these days is “typicality” which pools together the concepts of “food connected with a specific place”, “historical memory and tradition” and “culture”. The importance for the EU and the National administrations of the above mentioned kind of food is demonstrated, among other things, by the high number of the PDO, PGI and TSG certificated products in Italy. In this period of global markets and economical crisis farmers are realizing how “typical products” can be an opportunity to maintain their market share and to improve the economy of local areas. At the same time, new tools and strategy are needed to reach these goals. A lack of knowledge has being recognized also on how new technologies and results coming from recent research can help in exploiting traditional product and in maintaining the biodiversity. Taking into account the great variety and richness of typical products, landscapes and biodiversity, this report will describe and analyze the relationships among typicality, innovation and research in horticulture. At the beginning “typicality” and “innovation” will be defined also through some statistical features, which ranks Italy at the first place in terms of number of typical labelled products, then will be highlighted how typical products of high quality and connected with the tradition and culture of specific production areas are in a strict relationship with the value of agro-biodiversity. Several different examples will be used to explain different successful methods and/or strategies used to exploit and foster typical Italian vegetables, fruits and flowers. Finally, as a conclusion, since it is thought that

  11. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...... twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source...

  12. TYPICAL FORMS OF LIVER PATHOLOGY IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter F. Litvitskiy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This lecture for the system of postgraduate medical education analyzes causes, types, key links of pathogenesis, and manifestations of the main typical forms of liver pathology — liver failure, hepatic coma, jaundice, cholemia, acholia, cholelithiasis, and their complications in children. To control the retention of the lecture material, case problems and multiple-choice tests are given.

  13. Typical electric bills, January 1, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The Typical Electric Bills report is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration; Department of Energy. The publication is geared to a variety of applications by electric utilities, industry, consumes, educational institutions, and government in recognition of the growing importance of energy planning in contemporary society. 19 figs., 18 tabs

  14. Herpes zoster - typical and atypical presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Roy Rafael; Peleg, Roni

    2017-08-01

    Varicella- zoster virus infection is an intriguing medical entity that involves many medical specialties including infectious diseases, immunology, dermatology, and neurology. It can affect patients from early childhood to old age. Its treatment requires expertise in pain management and psychological support. While varicella is caused by acute viremia, herpes zoster occurs after the dormant viral infection, involving the cranial nerve or sensory root ganglia, is re-activated and spreads orthodromically from the ganglion, via the sensory nerve root, to the innervated target tissue (skin, cornea, auditory canal, etc.). Typically, a single dermatome is involved, although two or three adjacent dermatomes may be affected. The lesions usually do not cross the midline. Herpes zoster can also present with unique or atypical clinical manifestations, such as glioma, zoster sine herpete and bilateral herpes zoster, which can be a challenging diagnosis even for experienced physicians. We discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of Herpes Zoster, typical and atypical presentations.

  15. Weak and strong typicality in quantum systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Lea F; Polkovnikov, Anatoli; Rigol, Marcos

    2012-07-01

    We study the properties of mixed states obtained from eigenstates of many-body lattice Hamiltonians after tracing out part of the lattice. Two scenarios emerge for generic systems: (i) The diagonal entropy becomes equivalent to the thermodynamic entropy when a few sites are traced out (weak typicality); and (ii) the von Neumann (entanglement) entropy becomes equivalent to the thermodynamic entropy when a large fraction of the lattice is traced out (strong typicality). Remarkably, the results for few-body observables obtained with the reduced, diagonal, and canonical density matrices are very similar to each other, no matter which fraction of the lattice is traced out. Hence, for all physical quantities studied here, the results in the diagonal ensemble match the thermal predictions.

  16. Metabolic disorders with typical alterations in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warmuth-Metz, M.

    2010-01-01

    The classification of metabolic disorders according to the etiology is not practical for neuroradiological purposes because the underlying defect does not uniformly transform into morphological characteristics. Therefore typical MR and clinical features of some easily identifiable metabolic disorders are presented. Canavan disease, Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease, Alexander disease, X-chromosomal adrenoleukodystrophy and adrenomyeloneuropathy, mitochondrial disorders, such as MELAS (mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes) and Leigh syndrome as well as L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria are presented. (orig.) [de

  17. Safeguards on nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    Safeguards and security policies within the Department of Energy (DOE) have been implemented in a graded fashion for the protection, control and accountability of nuclear materials. This graded philosophy has meant that safeguards on low-equity nuclear materials, typically considered of low diversion attractiveness such as waste, has been relegated to minimal controls. This philosophy has been and remains today an acceptable approach for the planning and implementation of safeguards on this material. Nuclear waste protection policy and guidance have been issued due to a lack of clear policy and guidance on the identification and implementation of safeguards controls on waste. However, there are issues related to safe-guarding waste that need to be clarified. These issues primarily stem from increased budgetary and resource pressures to remove materials from safeguards. Finally, there may be an unclear understanding, as to the scope and content of vulnerability assessments required prior to terminating safeguards on waste and other discardable materials and where the authority should lie within the Department for making decisions regarding safeguards termination. This paper examines these issues and the technical basis for Departmental policy for terminating safeguards on waste

  18. Melting tests for recycling of radioactive metal wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hisashi; Kanazawa, Katsuo; Fujiki, Kazuo

    1995-01-01

    To allow the future recycling of decommissioning wastes to promote smoothly, melting tests were conducted using metal wastes and simulated wastes with radioisotopes. The test results indicate that the transfer behavior of radionuclides during melting is basically understood by considering the volatility and oxidizable tendency of each radionuclide. The partitioning of some radionuclides into products was influenced by the melting process of wastes. The radioactivity distribution in ingots was uniform regardless of the kinds of radionuclide. (author)

  19. What Is Typical Is Good : The Influence of Face Typicality on Perceived Trustworthiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sofer, Carmel; Dotsch, Ron; Wigboldus, Daniel H J; Todorov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The role of face typicality in face recognition is well established, but it is unclear whether face typicality is important for face evaluation. Prior studies have focused mainly on typicality’s influence on attractiveness, although recent studies have cast doubt on its importance for attractiveness

  20. A propositional typicality logic for extending rational consequence

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduce Propositional Typicality Logic (PTL), a logic for reasoning about typicality. We do so by enriching classical propositional logic with a typicality operator of which the intuition is to capture the most typical (or normal) situations...

  1. Waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun Hansen, Karsten; Jamison, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark.......The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark....

  2. Evaluation of two typical distributed energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Miaomiao; Tan, Xiu

    2018-03-01

    According to the two-natural gas distributed energy system driven by gas engine driven and gas turbine, in this paper, the first and second laws of thermodynamics are used to measure the distributed energy system from the two parties of “quantity” and “quality”. The calculation results show that the internal combustion engine driven distributed energy station has a higher energy efficiency, but the energy efficiency is low; the gas turbine driven distributed energy station energy efficiency is high, but the primary energy utilization rate is relatively low. When configuring the system, we should determine the applicable natural gas distributed energy system technology plan and unit configuration plan according to the actual load factors of the project and the actual factors such as the location, background and environmental requirements of the project. “quality” measure, the utilization of waste heat energy efficiency index is proposed.

  3. Waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Verstricht, J.; Van Iseghem, P.; Buyens, M.

    1998-01-01

    The primary mission of the Waste Disposal programme at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is to propose, develop, and assess solutions for the safe disposal of radioactive waste. In Belgium, deep geological burial in clay is the primary option for the disposal of High-Level Waste and spent nuclear fuel. The main achievements during 1997 in the following domains are described: performance assessment, characterization of the geosphere, characterization of the waste, migration processes, underground infrastructure

  4. Food waste

    OpenAIRE

    Marešová, Adéla

    2014-01-01

    This thesis looks into issues related to food waste and consists of a theoretical and a practical part. Theoretical part aims to provide clear and complex definition of wood waste related problems, summarize current findings in Czech and foreign sources. Introduction chapter explains important terms and legal measures related to this topic. It is followed by description of causes, implications and possibilities in food waste reduction. Main goal of practical part is analyzing food waste in Cz...

  5. Waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumplmayr, A.; Sammer, G.

    2001-01-01

    Waste incineration can be defined as the thermal conversion processing of solid waste by chemical oxidation. The types of wastes range from solid household waste and infectious hospital waste through to toxic solid, liquid and gaseous chemical wastes. End products include hot incineration gases, composed primarily of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and to a smaller extend of non-combustible residue (ash) and air pollutants (e. g. NO x ). Energy can be recovered by heat exchange from the hot incineration gases, thus lowering fossil fuel consumption that in turn can reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. Burning of solid waste can fulfil up to four distinctive objectives (Pera, 2000): 1. Volume reduction: volume reduction of about 90 %, weight reduction of about 70 %; 2. Stabilization of waste: oxidation of organic input; 3. Recovery of energy from waste; 4. Sanitization of waste: destruction of pathogens. Waste incineration is not a means to make waste disappear. It does entail emissions into air as well as water and soil. The generated solid residues are the topic of this task force. Unlike other industrial processes discussed in this platform, waste incineration is not a production process, and is therefore not generating by-products, only residues. Residues that are isolated from e. g. flue gas, are concentrated in another place and form (e. g. air pollution control residues). Hence, there are generally two groups of residues that have to be taken into consideration: residues generated in the actual incineration process and others generated in the flue gas cleaning system. Should waste incineration finally gain public acceptance, it will be necessary to find consistent regulations for both sorts of residues. In some countries waste incineration is seen as the best option for the treatment of waste, whereas in other countries it is seen very negative. (author)

  6. Group typicality, group loyalty and cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Meagan M

    2014-09-01

    Over the course of childhood, children's thinking about social groups changes in a variety of ways. Developmental Subjective Group Dynamics (DSGD) theory emphasizes children's understanding of the importance of conforming to group norms. Abrams et al.'s study, which uses DSGD theory as a framework, demonstrates the social cognitive skills underlying young elementary school children's thinking about group norms. Future research on children's thinking about groups and group norms should explore additional elements of this topic, including aspects of typicality beyond loyalty. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Here is made a general survey of the situation relative to radioactive wastes. The different kinds of radioactive wastes and the different way to store them are detailed. A comparative evaluation of the situation in France and in the world is made. The case of transport of radioactive wastes is tackled. (N.C.)

  8. Passengers waste production during flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofalli, Niki; Loizia, Pantelitsa; Zorpas, Antonis A

    2017-12-20

    We assume that during flights the amount of waste that is produced is limited. However, daily, approximately 8000 commercial airplanes fly above Europe's airspace while at the same time, more than 17,000 commercial flights exist in the entire world. Using primary data from airlines, which use the Larnaca's International Airport (LIA) in Cyprus, we have tried to understand why wastes are produced during a typical flight such as food waste, paper, and plastics, as well as how passengers affect the production of those wastes. The compositional analysis took place on 27 flights of 4 different airlines which used LIA as final destination. The evaluation indicated that the passenger's habits and ethics, and the policy of each airline produced different kinds of waste during the flights and especially food waste (FW). Furthermore, it was observed that the only waste management strategy that exists in place in the airport is the collection and the transportation of all those wastes from aircrafts and from the airport in the central unit for further treatment. Hence, this research indicated extremely difficulties to implement any specific waste minimization, or prevention practice or other sorting methods during the flights due to the limited time of the most flights (less than 3 h), the limited available space within the aircrafts, and the strictly safety roles that exist during the flights.

  9. Contribution to the study of maximum levels for liquid radioactive waste disposal into continental and sea water. Treatment of some typical samples; Contribution a l'etude des niveaux limites relatifs a des rejets d'effluents radioactifs liquides dans les eaux continentales et oceaniques. Traitement de quelques exemples types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittel, R.; Mancel, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, departement de la protection sanitaire

    1968-10-01

    The most important carriers of radioactive contamination of man are the whole of foodstuffs and not only ingested water or inhaled air. That is the reason why, in accordance with the spirit of the recent recommendations of the ICRP, it is proposed to substitute the idea of maximum levels of contamination of water to the MPC. In the case of aquatic food chains (aquatic organisms and irrigated foodstuffs), the knowledge of the ingested quantities and of the concentration factors food/water permit to determinate these maximum levels, or to find out a linear relation between the maximum levels in the case of two primary carriers of contamination (continental and sea waters). The notion of critical food-consumption, critical radioelements and formula of waste disposal are considered in the same way, taking care to attach the greatest possible importance to local situations. (authors) [French] Les vecteurs essentiels de la contamination radioactive de l'homme sont les aliments dans leur ensemble, et non seulement l'eau ingeree ou l'air inhale. C'est pourquoi, en accord avec l'esprit des recentes recommandations de la C.I.P.R., il est propose de substituer aux CMA la notion de niveaux limites de contamination des eaux. Dans le cas des chaines alimentaires aquatiques (organismes aquatiques et aliments irrigues), la connaissance des quantites ingerees et celle des facteurs de concentration aliments/eau permettent de determiner ces niveaux limites dans le cas de deux vecteurs primaires de contamination (eaux continentales et eaux oceaniques). Les notions de regime alimentaire critique, de radioelement critique et de formule de rejets sont envisagees, dans le meme esprit, avec le souci de tenir compte le plus possible des situations locales. (auteurs)

  10. Typicity in Potato: Characterization of Geographic Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Manzelli

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A two-year study was carried out in three regions of Italy and the crop performance and the chemical composition of tubers of three typical potato varieties evaluated. Carbon and nitrogen tuber content was determined by means of an elemental analyzer and the other mineral elements by means of a spectrometer. The same determinations were performed on soil samples taken from experimental areas. The Principal Component Analysis, applied to the results of mineral element tuber analysis, permitted the classification of all potato tuber samples according to their geographic origin. Only a partial discrimination was obtained in function of potato varieties. Some correlations between mineral content in the tubers and in the soil were also detected. Analytical and statistical methods proved to be useful in verifying the authenticity of guaranteed geographical food denominations.

  11. Municipal solid waste generation in Kathmandu, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangi, Mohan B; Pretz, Christopher R; Urynowicz, Michael A; Gerow, Kenneth G; Reddy, J M

    2011-01-01

    Waste stream characteristics must be understood to tackle waste management problems in Kathmandu Metropolitan City (KMC), Nepal. Three-stage stratified cluster sampling was used to evaluate solid waste data collected from 336 households in KMC. This information was combined with data collected regarding waste from restaurants, hotels, schools and streets. The study found that 497.3 g capita(-1) day(-1) of solid waste was generated from households and 48.5, 113.3 and 26.1 kg facility(-1) day(-1) of waste was generated from restaurants, hotels and schools, respectively. Street litter measured 69.3 metric tons day(-1). The average municipal solid waste generation rate was 523.8 metric tons day(-1) or 0.66 kg capita(-1) day(-1) as compared to the 320 metric tons day(-1) reported by the city. The coefficient of correlation between the number of people and the amount of waste produced was 0.94. Key household waste constituents included 71% organic wastes, 12% plastics, 7.5% paper and paper products, 5% dirt and construction debris and 1% hazardous wastes. Although the waste composition varied depending on the source, the composition analysis of waste from restaurants, hotels, schools and streets showed a high percentage of organic wastes. These numbers suggest a greater potential for recovery of organic wastes via composting and there is an opportunity for recycling. Because there is no previous inquiry of this scale in reporting comprehensive municipal solid waste generation in Nepal, this study can be treated as a baseline for other Nepalese municipalities. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Tank Waste Disposal Program redefinition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grygiel, M.L.; Augustine, C.A.; Cahill, M.A.; Garfield, J.S.; Johnson, M.E.; Kupfer, M.J.; Meyer, G.A.; Roecker, J.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Holton, L.K.; Hunter, V.L.; Triplett, M.B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1991-10-01

    The record of decision (ROD) (DOE 1988) on the Final Environmental Impact Statement, Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic and Tank Wastes, Hanford Site, Richland Washington identifies the method for disposal of double-shell tank waste and cesium and strontium capsules at the Hanford Site. The ROD also identifies the need for additional evaluations before a final decision is made on the disposal of single-shell tank waste. This document presents the results of systematic evaluation of the present technical circumstances, alternatives, and regulatory requirements in light of the values of the leaders and constitutents of the program. It recommends a three-phased approach for disposing of tank wastes. This approach allows mature technologies to be applied to the treatment of well-understood waste forms in the near term, while providing time for the development and deployment of successively more advanced pretreatment technologies. The advanced technologies will accelerate disposal by reducing the volume of waste to be vitrified. This document also recommends integration of the double-and single-shell tank waste disposal programs, provides a target schedule for implementation of the selected approach, and describes the essential elements of a program to be baselined in 1992.

  13. Trends in Navy Waste Reduction and Materials Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    WASTE COMPONENTS AND TYPICAL GENERATORS Functional Components Typical Generators Family housing Military family residences Support Barracks Motels ...the 8ol14 Waste Disposal Act of tiou due to economic Impracticablity. bate that was limited to 30 minutes. Af- 1365 (Pub. L 80-272) as amended byi

  14. Comparison of typical mega cities in China using emergy synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L. X.; Chen, B.; Yang, Z. F.; Chen, G. Q.; Jiang, M. M.; Liu, G. Y.

    2009-06-01

    An emergy-based comparison analysis is conducted for three typical mega cities in China, i.e., Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, from 1990 to 2005 in four perspectives including emergy intensity, resource structure, environmental pressure and resource use efficiency. A new index of non-renewable emergy/money ratio is established to indicate the utilization efficiency of the non-renewable resources. The results show that for the three mega urban systems, Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, the total emergy inputs were 3.76E+23, 3.54E+23, 2.52E+23 sej in 2005, of which 64.88%, 91.45% and 72.28% were imported from the outsides, respectively. As to the indicators of emergy intensity involving the total emergy use, emergy density and emergy use per cap, three cities exhibited similar overall increase trends with annual fluctuations from 1990 to 2005. Shanghai achieved the highest level of economic development and non-renewable resource use efficiency, and meanwhile, lower proportion of renewable resource use and higher environmental pressure compared to those of Beijing and Guangzhou. Guangzhou has long term sustainability considering an amount of local renewable resources used, per capita emergy used, energy consumption per unit GDP and the ratio of waste to renewable emergy. It can be concluded that different emergy-based evaluation results arise from different geographical locations, resources endowments, industrial structures and urban orientations of the concerned mega cities.

  15. Characterization of waste from nanoenabled products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heggelund, Laura Roverskov

    of nanoproducts available, the potential release of ENMs from these products would have to be understood to perform a risk assessment of these products. Since ENMs are considered possible contaminants of the solid waste, it is important to include nano-specific characterisation tests in waste characterisation...... environmental exposure or risks associated with ENMs in waste from nanoproducts, it is necessary to investigate what ENMs are being used and to which extent, how they are treated at the end-of-life of the nanoproduct and, finally, what is the likelihood of them being released during waste treatment. This Ph......D project addressed these knowledge gaps by mapping and analysing available nano-enabled products, developing a method for categorising waste material fractions of nanoproducts and estimating their likely waste treatment. Furthermore, new experimental data regarding ENM release from nano-enabled products...

  16. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension: A typical presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algahtani, Hussein A.; Obeid, Tahir H.; Abuzinadah, Ahmad R.; Baeesa, Saleh S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to describe the clinical features of 5 patients with rare atypical presentation of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), and propose the possible mechanism of this atypical presentation. We carried out a retrospective study of 5 patients, admitted at King Khalid National Guard Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia with IIH during the period from January 2001 to December 2005. All were females with their age ranges from 24 to 40 years. The clinical presentations, the laboratory and imaging studies were analyzed. The opening pressures of the lumbar puncture tests were documented. All patients were presented with headache. One had typical pain of trigeminal neuralgia and one with neck pain and radiculopathy. Facial diplegia was present in one patient and two patients had bilateral 6th cranial neuropathy. Papilledema was present in all patients except in one patient. Imaging study was normal in all patients, and they had a very high opening pressure during lumbar puncture, except in one patient. All patients achieved full recovery with medical therapy in 6 to 12 weeks with no relapse during the mean follow up of 2 years. Atypical finding in IIH are rare and require a high index of suspicion for early diagnosis. (author)

  17. Industrial Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    of the industrial waste may in periods, depending on market opportunities and prices, be traded as secondary rawmaterials. Production-specificwaste from primary production, for example steel slag, is not included in the current presentation. In some countries industries must be approved or licensed and as part......Industrial waste is waste from industrial production and manufacturing. Industry covers many industrial sectors and within each sector large variations are found in terms of which raw materials are used, which production technology is used and which products are produced. Available data on unit...... generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing industrial waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. In addition part...

  18. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Each year, nuclear power plants, businesses, hospitals, and universities generate more than 1 million cubic feet of hardware, rags, paper, liquid waste, and protective clothing that have been contaminated with radioactivity. While most of this waste has been disposed of in facilities in Nevada, South Carolina, and Washington state, recent legislation made the states responsible - either individually, or through groups of states called compacts - for developing new disposal facilities. This paper discusses the states' progress and problems in meeting facility development milestones in the law, federal and state efforts to resolve issues related to mixed waste (low-level waste that also contains hazardous chemicals) and waste with very low levels of radioactivity, and the Department of Energy's progress in discharging the federal government's responsibility under the law to manage the most hazardous low-level waste

  19. Waste indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E.

    2003-01-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  20. Wasting away

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salzman, L.

    1978-01-01

    The problems of radioactive waste disposal are discussed, with particular reference to the following: radiation hazards from uranium mill tailings; disposal and storage of high-level wastes from spent fuel elements and reprocessing; low-level wastes; decommissioning of aged reactors; underground disposal, such as in salt formations; migration of radioactive isotopes, for example into ground water supplies or into the human food chain. (U.K.)

  1. Waste indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E. [Cowi A/S, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2003-07-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  2. Waste Incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    This book deals with plan and design of waste incinerator, which includes process outline of waste, method of measure, test, analysis, combustion way and classification of incineration facilities, condition of combustion and incineration, combustion calculation and heat calculation, ventilation and flow resistivity, an old body and component materials of supplementary installation, attached device, protection of pollution of incineration ash and waste gas, deodorization, prevention of noise in incineration facility, using heat and electric heat, check order of incineration plan.

  3. Glasses and nuclear waste vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojovan, Michael I.

    2012-01-01

    Glass is an amorphous solid material which behaves like an isotropic crystal. Atomic structure of glass lacks long-range order but possesses short and most probably medium range order. Compared to crystalline materials of the same composition glasses are metastable materials however crystallisation processes are kinetically impeded within times which typically exceed the age of universe. The physical and chemical durability of glasses combined with their high tolerance to compositional changes makes glasses irreplaceable when hazardous waste needs immobilisation for safe long-term storage, transportation and consequent disposal. Immobilisation of radioactive waste in glassy materials using vitrification has been used successfully for several decades. Nuclear waste vitrification is attractive because of its flexibility, the large number of elements which can be incorporated in the glass, its high corrosion durability and the reduced volume of the resulting wasteform. Vitrification involves melting of waste materials with glass-forming additives so that the final vitreous product incorporates the waste contaminants in its macro- and micro-structure. Hazardous waste constituents are immobilised either by direct incorporation into the glass structure or by encapsulation when the final glassy material can be in form of a glass composite material. Both borosilicate and phosphate glasses are currently used to immobilise nuclear wastes. In addition to relatively homogeneous glasses novel glass composite materials are used to immobilise problematic waste streams. (author)

  4. Radioactive waste management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werthamer, N.R.

    1977-01-01

    The State of New York, some 15 years ago, became a party to an attempt to commercialize the reprocessing and storage of spent nuclear fuels at the West Valley Reprocessing Facility operated by Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. (NFS). That attempted commercialization, and the State of New York, have fallen victim to changing Federal policies in the United States, leaving an outstanding and unique radioactive waste management problem unresolved. At the beginning of construction in 1963, the AEC assured both NFS and New York State of the acceptability of long-term liquid tank storage for high level wastes, and New York State ERDA therefore agreed to become the responsible long-lived stable institution whose oversight was needed. It was understood that perpetual care and maintenance of the wastes, as liquid, in on-site underground tanks, would provide for safe and secure storage in perpetuity. All that was thought to be required was the replacement of the tanks near the end of their 40-year design life, and the transferring of the contents; for this purpose, a perpetual care trust fund was established. In March of 1972, NFS shut West Valley down for physical expansion, requiring a new construction permit from the AEC. After four years of administrative proceedings, NFS concluded that changes in Federal regulations since the original operating license had been issued would require about 600 million dollars if operations were to resume. In the fall of 1976, NFS informed the NRC, of its intention of closing the reprocessing business. The inventories of wastes left are listed. The premises upon which the original agreements were based are no longer valid. Federal responsibilities for radioactive wastes require Federal ownership of the West Valley site. The views of New York State ERDA are discussed in detail

  5. Waste characterization program plan for WIPP experimental waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This program plan is being issued by the Department of Energy (DOE) to reflect the current status of the waste characterization program. Not all methods of compliance with the requirements imposed by the regulators have been fully developed. Although the Environmental Protection Agency has issued the Conditional No-Migration Determination for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), several activities have to be studied for recommendations of optimum courses of action. Therefore, as the DOE determines compliance methodologies for the requirements of the No-Migration Determination and for the requirements of the New Mexico Environmental Improvement Division, this program plan will be revised and reissued as often as necessary. It should also be understood that the DOE will comply with all regulations prior to making any shipment of transuranic waste to the WIPP for the experiments. 14 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs

  6. Control of radioactive waste-glass melters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickford, D.F.; Smith, P.K.; Hrma, P.; Bowan, B.W.

    1987-01-01

    Radioactive waste-glass melters require physical control limits and redox control of glass to assure continuous operation, and maximize production rates. Typical waste-glass melter operating conditions, and waste-glass chemical reaction paths are discussed. Glass composition, batching and melter temperature control are used to avoid the information of phases which are disruptive to melting or reduce melter life. The necessity and probable limitations of control for electric melters with complex waste feed compositions are discussed. Preliminary control limits, their bases, and alternative control methods are described for use in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant (SRP), and at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). Slurries of simulated high level radioactive waste and ground glass frit or glass formers have been isothermally reacted and analyzed to identify the sequence of the major chemical reactions in waste vitrification, and their effect on waste-glass production rates. Relatively high melting rates of waste batches containing mixtures of reducing agents (formic acid, sucrose) and nitrates are attributable to exothermic reactions which occur at critical stages in the vitrification process. The effect of foaming on waste glass production rates is analyzed, and limits defined for existing waste-glass melters, based upon measurable thermophysical properties. Through balancing the high nitrate wastes of the WVDP with reducing agents, the high glass melting rates and sustained melting without foaming required for successful WVDP operations have been demonstrated. 65 refs., 4 figs., 15 tabs

  7. Sawmill "Waste"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fred C. Simmons; Adna R. Bond

    1955-01-01

    Sawmills have the reputation of being very wasteful in converting logs and bolts into lumber and timbers. Almost everyone has seen the great heaps of sawdust and slabs that collect at sawmills. Frequently the question is asked, "Why doesn't somebody do something about this terrible waste of wood?"

  8. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The NEA Nuclear Waste Bulletin has been prepared by the Radiation Protection and Waste Management Division of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency to provide a means of communication amongst the various technical and policy groups within the waste management community. In particular, it is intended to provide timely and concise information on radioactive waste management activities, policies and programmes in Member countries and at the NEA. It is also intended that the Bulletin assists in the communication of recent developments in a variety of areas contributing to the development of acceptable technology for the management and disposal of nuclear waste (e.g., performance assessment, in-situ investigations, repository engineering, scientific data bases, regulatory developments, etc)

  9. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended in 1987, directed the Secretary of Energy to, among other things, investigate Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a potential site for permanently disposing of highly radioactive wastes in an underground repository. In April 1991, the authors testified on Yucca Mountain project expenditures before your Subcommittee. Because of the significance of the authors findings regrading DOE's program management and expenditures, you asked the authors to continue reviewing program expenditures in depth. As agreed with your office, the authors reviewed the expenditures of project funds made available to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, which is the lead project contractor for developing a nuclear waste package that wold be used for disposing of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain. This report discusses the laboratory's use of nuclear waste funds to support independent research projects and to manage Yucca Mountain project activities. It also discusses the laboratory's project contracting practices

  10. The waste management implications of decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passant, F.H.

    1988-01-01

    Decommissioning policy can only be framed in the light of radioactive waste management policy. What can be done with the waste materials, how and when, will determine the overall decommissioning plans and costs. In this paper the waste management options and their costs are reviewed for the decommissioning of the Central Electricity Generating Boards civil nuclear power stations. The paper concentrates on the decommissioning of Magnox stations, although comparative information on waste volumes and costs are given for the AGR programme and a typical PWR. (author)

  11. Radioactive waste data base through the net: A tool to improve the development of waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanhueza Mir, Azucena

    2003-01-01

    One of the duties in Chilean Commission for Nuclear Energy (CCHEN) is the timely reply to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Net enable waste management data base (NEWMDB) in the waste management field. This duty is carried out by the Radioactive Waste Management Section. CCHEN has complete this data base from about one decade ago. Through the time, the data base has changed according to new available information technologies, to the point that the access using the international net is a need today. The NEWMDB objective is to exchange information and knowledge between member states related to radioactive waste management situation and to conform a world inventory of radioactive waste. The Chilean experience got from the NEWMDB first data collection cycle (1999-2000) is presented here, and recommendations to be considered for incorporation in the domestic waste management system are exposed. In so doing, the data base answer should be easy to do and totally understood by everyone whose job is waste management around the world, in the context of the glossary, criteria and conventions on this data base is supported. The composition of the NEWMDB considers a General Frame which indicates the way in which the waste management is enfaced in the country, regulations, authorities, policies, infrastructure; a Waste Classification matrix which give the equivalence between proper country waste classification and that recommended by IAEA; Waste Data which give the quantities and situation of waste in the different steps of the management such as: conditioned waste, unconditioned stored waste, etc. Finally, the Sustainable Development for radioactive waste management Indicators (SDI) for the safety and environmental radioactive waste management are estimated (Au)

  12. Westinghouse waste simulation and optimization software tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mennicken, Kim; Aign, Jorg

    2013-01-01

    Applications for dynamic simulation can be found in virtually all areas of process engineering. The tangible benefits of using dynamic simulation can be seen in tighter design, smoother start-ups and optimized operation. Thus, proper implementation of dynamic simulation can deliver substantial benefits. These benefits are typically derived from improved process understanding. Simulation gives confidence in evidence based decisions and enables users to try out lots of 'what if' scenarios until one is sure that a decision is the right one. In radioactive waste treatment tasks different kinds of waste with different volumes and properties have to be treated, e.g. from NPP operation or D and D activities. Finding a commercially and technically optimized waste treatment concept is a time consuming and difficult task. The Westinghouse Waste Simulation and Optimization Software Tool will enable the user to quickly generate reliable simulation models of various process applications based on equipment modules. These modules can be built with ease and be integrated into the simulation model. This capability ensures that this tool is applicable to typical waste treatment tasks. The identified waste streams and the selected treatment methods are the basis of the simulation and optimization software. After implementing suitable equipment data into the model, process requirements and waste treatment data are fed into the simulation to finally generate primary simulation results. A sensitivity analysis of automated optimization features of the software generates the lowest possible lifecycle cost for the simulated waste stream. In combination with proven waste management equipments and integrated waste management solutions, this tool provides reliable qualitative results that lead to an effective planning and minimizes the total project planning risk of any waste management activity. It is thus the ideal tool for designing a waste treatment facility in an optimum manner

  13. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the Department of Energy's management of underground single-shell waste storage tanks at its Hanford, Washington, site. The tanks contain highly radioactive and nonradioactive hazardous liquid and solid wastes from nuclear materials production. Hundreds of thousands of gallons of these wastes have leaked, contaminating the soil, and a small amount of leaked waste has reached the groundwater. DOE does not collect sufficient data to adequately trace the migration of the leaks through the soil, and studies predicting the eventual environmental impact of tank leaks do not provide convincing support for DOE's conclusion that the impact will be low or nonexistent. DOE can do more to minimize the environmental risks associated with leaks. To reduce the environmental impact of past leaks, DOE may be able to install better ground covering over the tanks to reduce the volume of precipitation that drains through the soil and carries contaminants toward groundwater

  14. Waste Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset was developed from the Vermont DEC's list of certified solid waste facilities. It includes facility name, contact information, and the materials...

  15. Waste Heat to Power Market Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elson, Amelia [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Tidball, Rick [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Hampson, Anne [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Waste heat to power (WHP) is the process of capturing heat discarded by an existing process and using that heat to generate electricity. In the industrial sector, waste heat streams are generated by kilns, furnaces, ovens, turbines, engines, and other equipment. In addition to processes at industrial plants, waste heat streams suitable for WHP are generated at field locations, including landfills, compressor stations, and mining sites. Waste heat streams are also produced in the residential and commercial sectors, but compared to industrial sites these waste heat streams typically have lower temperatures and much lower volumetric flow rates. The economic feasibility for WHP declines as the temperature and flow rate decline, and most WHP technologies are therefore applied in industrial markets where waste heat stream characteristics are more favorable. This report provides an assessment of the potential market for WHP in the industrial sector in the United States.

  16. Characterization of transuranic solid wastes from a plutonium processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulkin, R.

    1975-06-01

    Transuranic-contaminated wastes generated in the processing areas of the Plutonium Chemistry and Metallurgy Group at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) were studied in detail to identify their chemical and physical composition. Nondestructive Assay (NDA) equipment was developed to measure transuranic activity at the 10-nCi/g level in low-density residues typically found in room-generated waste. This information will supply the Waste Management Program with a more positive means of identifying concerns in waste storage and the challenge of optimizing the system of waste form, packaging, and environment of the storage area for 20-yr retrievable waste. A positive method of measuring transuranic activity in waste at the 10-nCi/g level will eliminate the need for administrative control in a sensitive area, and will provide the economic advantage of minimizing the volume of waste stored as retrievable waste. (U.S.)

  17. Modelling object typicality in description logics - [Workshop on Description Logics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The authors presents a semantic model of typicality of concept members in description logics that accords well with a binary, globalist cognitive model of class membership and typicality. The authors define a general preferential semantic framework...

  18. Tribal Waste Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA’s Tribal Waste Management Program encourages environmentally sound waste management practices that promote resource conservation through recycling, recovery, reduction, clean up, and elimination of waste.

  19. Tritiated waste conditioning. Pt.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasznai, J.P.

    1985-11-01

    The Darlington Tritium Removal Facility will generate both liquid and solid tritiated waste. Liquid waste will have to be conditioned and packaged prior to disposal to minimize the releases of tritium to the environment. The conditioning requirements for solid tritiated waste are presently under investigation. Earlier work on the conditioning of aqueous tritiated waste has shown that solidification by itself in either cement or an organic polymer matrix is inadequate to meet a tritium (as HTO) release target of 1 x 10 -3 % per day. Encapsulating the solidified waste in a 1-cm thick layer of water extendible polyester resin reduced the release rate to 1.3 x 10 -4 % per day over a 150-day leaching period. The release rate however, increased to 1.7 x 10 -3 % per day when averaged over the subsequent 600-day leaching period. Encapsulation, however, is a difficult process and the information presented in this report compares encapsulation with simple containerization in a low water permeable material such as polyethylene. The results indicate that the same degree of tritium (as HTO) retention can be achieved by replacing a 1-cm thick encapsulating layer of polymer resin with a .14-cm thick high density polyethylene container. Consequently, encapsulation should not be pursued further for this type of waste. Leaching data has shown that even for the short exposure times encountered (typically 4-5 hours) the components of the polymer resin solidification agent permanently increase the water permeability and hence tritium releases from the polyethylene containers

  20. Solid Waste Program Fiscal Year 1996 Multi-Year Program Plan WBS 1.2.1, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This document contains the Fiscal Year 1996 Multi-Year Program Plan for the Solid Waste Program at the Hanford Reservation in Richland, Washington. The Solid Waste Program treats, stores, and disposes of a wide variety of solid wastes consisting of radioactive, nonradioactive and hazardous material types. Solid waste types are typically classified as transuranic waste, low-level radioactive waste, low-level mixed waste, and non-radioactive hazardous waste. This report describes the mission, goals and program strategies for the Solid Waste Program for fiscal year 1996 and beyond.

  1. Waste processing air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Waste processing and preparing waste to support waste processing relies heavily on ventilation. Ventilation is used at the Hanford Site on the waste storage tanks to provide confinement, cooling, and removal of flammable gases

  2. Radioactive Waste Management Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This strategy defines methods and means how collect, transport and bury radioactive waste safely. It includes low level radiation waste and high level radiation waste. In the strategy are foreseen main principles and ways of storage radioactive waste

  3. Radioactive waste management centers: an approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotts, A.L.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive waste management centers would satisfy the need for a cost-effective, sound management system for nuclear wastes by the industry and would provide a well integrated solution which could be understood by the public. The future demands for nuclear waste processing and disposal by industry and institutions outside the United States Government are such that a number of such facilities are required between now and the year 2000. Waste management centers can be organized around two general needs in the commercial sector: (1) the need for management of low-level waste generated by nuclear power plants, the once-through nuclear fuel cycle production facilities, from hospitals, and other institutions; and (2) more comprehensive centers handling all categories of nuclear wastes that would be generated by a nuclear fuel recycle industry. The basic technology for radioactive waste management will be available by the time such facilities can be deployed. This paper discusses the technical, economic, and social aspects of organizing radioactive waste managment centers and presents a strategy for stimulating their development

  4. Nuclear waste immobilization. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringwood, A.E.; Sinclair, W.; McLaughlin, G.M.

    1979-11-20

    United States defense nuclear wastes are presently in tank storage, largely as sludges comprising Fe, Mn, Ni, U and Na oxides and hydroxides, together with 0.5 to 5 percent of fission products and actinides (exclusive of uranium). The relative proportions of Al, Fe, Mn, Ni, U and Na in the sludges from different tanks vary considerably, except that (Fe + Al + Mn) are by far the major components and Fe is more abundant than Mn. Typical compositions of some calcined sludges from Savannah River are given. This paper briefly describes how the SYNROC process, utilizing straightforward technology, can be readily adapted to the problem of defense waste immobilization, yielding a dense, inert, ceramic waste-form, SYNROC-D. Two classes of processes are discussed - one designed to immobilize sludges containing normal amounts of sodium and the other designed for otherwise similar sludges which are, however, strongly depleted in sodium as a result of more efficient washing procedures.

  5. Waste water heat recovery system

    OpenAIRE

    Markovi?, G.; Vranayov?, Z.; K?posztasov?, D.

    2016-01-01

    After heating and cooling, water heating is typically the second largest user of energy in the home. There are a lot of purposes and uses of hot water in buildings - showers, tubs, sinks, dishwashers and clothes washers etc. In most cases, these hot waste waters are discarded direct to sewer system. When we take into the account all of these purposes in every households, the wastewater retains a considerable portion of its initial energy ? energy that could be recovered and use...

  6. Flowsheets and source terms for radioactive waste projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1985-03-01

    Flowsheets and source terms used to generate radioactive waste projections in the Integrated Data Base (IDB) Program are given. Volumes of each waste type generated per unit product throughput have been determined for the following facilities: uranium mining, UF 6 conversion, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, boiling-water reactors (BWRs), pressurized-water reactors (PWRs), and fuel reprocessing. Source terms for DOE/defense wastes have been developed. Expected wastes from typical decommissioning operations for each facility type have been determined. All wastes are also characterized by isotopic composition at time of generation and by general chemical composition. 70 references, 21 figures, 53 tables

  7. Recycling of solid wastes at kindergartens centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed R.M.S.R.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to conduct an activity on environmental awareness campaign at a kindergarten center, with the children age 4-6 years old. The activity included identify the various types of waste generated at the kindergarten and to realize the conservation practice by participating in simple waste management strategies and an explanation about recycling, reusing and reducing waste (3R. The activity provided the children more awareness about the importance of minimizing the plastic wastes. The activity had created an interesting experience to the young generation through practice activity and has given a light on the nature conservation along their growing years. It can be concluded that the awareness of environmental issues among children have risen up as noted by looking at students physical expression. Children have understood the potential to conserve nature from a simple action which is recycling. After the activity, children’s were able to identify and divide the rubbish.

  8. Human waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin, Md Nurul; Kroeze, Carolien; Strokal, Maryna

    2017-01-01

    Many people practice open defecation in south Asia. As a result, lot of human waste containing nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) enter rivers. Rivers transport these nutrients to coastal waters, resulting in marine pollution. This source of nutrient pollution is, however, ignored in

  9. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container. type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3). nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.). building concerned. details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting o...

  10. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container; type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3); nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.); building concerned; details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting...

  11. Dental Office Waste – Public Health and Ecological Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamedagic, Belma; Muhamedagic, Lejla; Masic, Izet

    2009-01-01

    CONFLICT OF INTEREST: NONE DECLARED Waste management is one of the key ecological challenges of the modern world. As dental practitioners, we must recognize that some of the materials and procedures we use to provide dental health services may present challenges to the environment. Realizing this, we can begin to take measures to minimize the production of these wastes and their potential environmental effects. Dental office waste typically cause toxic chemicals to enter our streams, sewers, and landfills. This paper identifies some common wastes produced by dental offices (dental amalgam, silver, lead, biomedical and general office waste) and provides practical suggestions for reducing the impact of our profession on the environment. To dispose of dental wastes, if recycling is not an option, proper disposal as hazardous waste is necessary. But, problem is that dental waste is in most cases dumped at uncontrolled disposal sites, and that is public health and ecological risk. PMID:24133379

  12. Dental office waste - public health and ecological risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamedagic, Belma; Muhamedagic, Lejla; Masic, Izet

    2009-01-01

    NONE DECLARED Waste management is one of the key ecological challenges of the modern world. As dental practitioners, we must recognize that some of the materials and procedures we use to provide dental health services may present challenges to the environment. Realizing this, we can begin to take measures to minimize the production of these wastes and their potential environmental effects. Dental office waste typically cause toxic chemicals to enter our streams, sewers, and landfills. This paper identifies some common wastes produced by dental offices (dental amalgam, silver, lead, biomedical and general office waste) and provides practical suggestions for reducing the impact of our profession on the environment. To dispose of dental wastes, if recycling is not an option, proper disposal as hazardous waste is necessary. But, problem is that dental waste is in most cases dumped at uncontrolled disposal sites, and that is public health and ecological risk.

  13. Phosphate bonded ceramics as candidate final-waste-form materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A.S.; Cunnane, J.; Sutaria, M.; Kurokawa, S.; Mayberry, J.

    1994-04-01

    Room-temperature setting phosphate-bonded ceramics were studied as candidate materials for stabilization of DOE low-level problem mixed wastes which cannot be treated by other established stabilization techniques. Phosphates of Mg, Mg-Na, Al and Zr were studied to stabilize ash surrogate waste containing RCRA metals as nitrates and RCRA organics. We show that for a typical loading of 35 wt.% of the ash waste, the phosphate ceramics pass the TCLP test. The waste forms have high compression strength exceeding ASTM recommendations for final waste forms. Detailed X-ray diffraction studies and differential thermal analyses of the waste forms show evidence of chemical reaction of the waste with phosphoric acid and the host matrix. The SEM studies show evidence of physical bonding. The excellent performance in the leaching tests is attributed to a chemical solidification and physical as well as chemical bonding of ash wastes in these phosphate ceramics

  14. The Hanford Site solid waste treatment project; Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility will provide treatment and temporary storage (consisting of in-process storage) for radioactive and radioactive/hazardous mixed waste. This facility must be constructed and operated in compliance with all appropriate US Department of Energy (DOE) orders and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations. The WRAP Facility will examine and certify, segregate/sort, and treat for disposal suspect transuranic (TRU) wastes in drums and boxes placed in 20-yr retrievable storage since 1970; low-level radioactive mixed waste (RMW) generated and placed into storage at the Hanford Site since 1987; designated remote-handled wastes; and newly generated TRU and RMW wastes from high-level waste (HLW) recovery and processing operations. In order to accelerated the WRAP Project, a partitioning of the facility functions was done in two phases as a means to expedite those parts of the WRAP duties that were well understood and used established technology, while allowing more time to better define the processing functions needed for the remainder of WRAP. The WRAP Module 1 phase one, is to provide the necessary nondestructive examination and nondestructive assay services, as well as all transuranic package transporter (TRUPACT-2) shipping for both WRAP Project phases, with heating, ventilation, and air conditioning; change rooms; and administrative services. Phase two of the project, WRAP Module 2, will provide all necessary waste treatment facilities for disposal of solid wastes. 1 tab

  15. Managing radioactive waste issues and misunderstandings (radiation realities, energy comparison, waste strategies)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, M.

    2001-01-01

    The technical specialist is confident that radioactive waste can be safely managed, but many in the public remain totally unconvinced. There are issues and deep-seated misunderstandings that drive public doubts. Currently, a growing concern with pollution from other industrial waste is enabling radioactive waste issues to be debated in a wider context that allows comparisons with other potentially hazardous waste, particularly from energy generation sources. Health effects and time period issues are not unique to radioactive waste. This paper concentrates on 3 topics. The first concerns radiation health effects where the real realities of radiation are covered. The large misunderstandings that exist about radiation and its health effects have led to an almost zero health impact regulatory policy. A policy which must be more fully understood and dealt with. The second topic deals with a few revealing comparisons about the various energy generation systems. Nuclear power's 10 thousand fold lower fuel requirements, compared with a comparable fossil fuelled plant, is a dominating factor decisively minimising environmental impacts. The third topic examines waste disposal strategies. Extraordinarily small radioactive waste quantities permit a confinement strategy for disposal as opposed to the more common dispersion strategy for most toxic waste. The small quantities coupled with radioactive decay, contrary to the public perception, make any potential hazard from both low and high level radioactive waste exceedingly small. (author)

  16. Lysimeter tests of SRP waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooker, R.L.; Root, R.W. Jr.

    1981-05-01

    A field study, estimated to last 10 years, has been started to define leaching and migration rates of radionuclides from typical SRP buried wastes. The study utilizes 42 lysimeters (6-ft or 10-ft diameter by 10-ft deep) which have been charged with soil and waste to simulate burial ground conditions. Eight waste forms were selected for the study, which represent the bulk of the wastes generated at SRP. This report describes the lysimeter design, the physical and radiological characteristics of the wastes, and the experimental approach. Calculations have also been made which predict the migration of various radionuclides in the lysimeter soil. The calculations should provide guidance during the course of the study, and are the basis of recommendations made for collecting and interpreting data so that important parameters of migration can be evaluated

  17. Environmental impact of emissions from incineration plants in comparison to typical heating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielgosiński, Grzegorz; Namiecińska, Olga; Czerwińska, Justyna

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, five modern municipal waste incineration plants have been built in Poland. Next ones are being constructed and at the same time building of several others is being considered. Despite positive experience with the operation of the existing installations, each project of building a new incinerator raises a lot of emotions and social protests. The main argument against construction of an incineration plant is the emission of pollutants. The work compares emissions from municipal waste incineration plants with those from typical heating plants: in the first part, for comparison large heating plants equipped with pulverized coal-fired boilers (OP-140), stoker-fired boilers (three OR-32 boilers) or gas blocks with heat output of about 100 MW have been selected, while the second part compares WR-10 and WR-25 stoker-fired boilers most popular in our heating industry with thermal treatment systems for municipal waste or refuse-derived-fuel (RDF) with similar heat output. Both absolute emission and impact - immission of pollutants in vicinity of the plant were analyzed.

  18. Environmental impact of emissions from incineration plants in comparison to typical heating systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wielgosiński Grzegorz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, five modern municipal waste incineration plants have been built in Poland. Next ones are being constructed and at the same time building of several others is being considered. Despite positive experience with the operation of the existing installations, each project of building a new incinerator raises a lot of emotions and social protests. The main argument against construction of an incineration plant is the emission of pollutants. The work compares emissions from municipal waste incineration plants with those from typical heating plants: in the first part, for comparison large heating plants equipped with pulverized coal-fired boilers (OP-140, stoker-fired boilers (three OR-32 boilers or gas blocks with heat output of about 100 MW have been selected, while the second part compares WR-10 and WR-25 stoker-fired boilers most popular in our heating industry with thermal treatment systems for municipal waste or refuse-derived-fuel (RDF with similar heat output. Both absolute emission and impact - immission of pollutants in vicinity of the plant were analyzed.

  19. REMOTE MATERIAL HANDLING IN THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN WASTE PACKAGE CLOSURE CELL AND SUPPORT AREA GLOVEBOX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K.M. Croft; S.M. Allen; M.W. Borland

    2005-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System (WPCS) cells provide for shielding of highly radioactive materials contained in unsealed waste packages. The purpose of the cells is to provide safe environments for package handling and sealing operations. Once sealed, the packages are placed in the Yucca Mountain Repository. Closure of a typical waste package involves a number of remote operations. Those involved typically include the placement of matched lids onto the waste package. The lids are then individually sealed to the waste package by welding. Currently, the waste package includes three lids. One lid is placed before movement of the waste package to the closure cell; the final two are placed inside the closure cell, where they are welded to the waste package. These and other important operations require considerable remote material handling within the cell environment. This paper discusses the remote material handling equipment, designs, functions, operations, and maintenance, relative to waste package closure

  20. Substantial Integration of Typical Educational Games into Extended Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Douglas B.; Tanner-Smith, Emily; Hostetler, Andrew; Fradkin, Aryah; Polikov, Vadim

    2018-01-01

    Much research focuses on what might be possible with digital games in the classroom. This study focuses on what is currently probable and typical. It uses a controlled quasi-experimental design to compare outcomes for students of 13 teachers in 10 diverse urban, suburban, and rural schools. The teachers integrated a set of 55 typical educational…

  1. Lack of Generalization of Auditory Learning in Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Lorna F.; Taylor, Jenny L.; Millward, Kerri E.; Moore, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To understand the components of auditory learning in typically developing children by assessing generalization across stimuli, across modalities (i.e., hearing, vision), and to higher level language tasks. Method: Eighty-six 8- to 10-year-old typically developing children were quasi-randomly assigned to 4 groups. Three of the groups…

  2. 40 CFR 261.11 - Criteria for listing hazardous waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... absence of data on human toxicity, it has been shown in studies to have an oral LD 50 toxicity (rat) of... VIII only if they have been shown in scientific studies to have toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic or... if he has reason to believe that individual wastes, within the class or type of waste, typically or...

  3. Hazardous waste status of discarded electronic cigarettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Max J.; Townsend, Timothy G., E-mail: ttown@ufl.edu

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Electronic cigarettes were tested using TCLP and WET. • Several electronic cigarette products leached lead at hazardous waste levels. • Lead was the only element that exceeded hazardous waste concentration thresholds. • Nicotine solution may cause hazardous waste classification when discarded unused. - Abstract: The potential for disposable electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) to be classified as hazardous waste was investigated. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was performed on 23 disposable e-cigarettes in a preliminary survey of metal leaching. Based on these results, four e-cigarette products were selected for replicate analysis by TCLP and the California Waste Extraction Test (WET). Lead was measured in leachate as high as 50 mg/L by WET and 40 mg/L by TCLP. Regulatory thresholds were exceeded by two of 15 products tested in total. Therefore, some e-cigarettes would be toxicity characteristic (TC) hazardous waste but a majority would not. When disposed in the unused form, e-cigarettes containing nicotine juice would be commercial chemical products (CCP) and would, in the United States (US), be considered a listed hazardous waste (P075). While household waste is exempt from hazardous waste regulation, there are many instances in which such waste would be subject to regulation. Manufactures and retailers with unused or expired e-cigarettes or nicotine juice solution would be required to manage these as hazardous waste upon disposal. Current regulations and policies regarding the availability of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes worldwide were reviewed. Despite their small size, disposable e-cigarettes are consumed and discarded much more quickly than typical electronics, which may become a growing concern for waste managers.

  4. Hazardous waste status of discarded electronic cigarettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, Max J.; Townsend, Timothy G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Electronic cigarettes were tested using TCLP and WET. • Several electronic cigarette products leached lead at hazardous waste levels. • Lead was the only element that exceeded hazardous waste concentration thresholds. • Nicotine solution may cause hazardous waste classification when discarded unused. - Abstract: The potential for disposable electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) to be classified as hazardous waste was investigated. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was performed on 23 disposable e-cigarettes in a preliminary survey of metal leaching. Based on these results, four e-cigarette products were selected for replicate analysis by TCLP and the California Waste Extraction Test (WET). Lead was measured in leachate as high as 50 mg/L by WET and 40 mg/L by TCLP. Regulatory thresholds were exceeded by two of 15 products tested in total. Therefore, some e-cigarettes would be toxicity characteristic (TC) hazardous waste but a majority would not. When disposed in the unused form, e-cigarettes containing nicotine juice would be commercial chemical products (CCP) and would, in the United States (US), be considered a listed hazardous waste (P075). While household waste is exempt from hazardous waste regulation, there are many instances in which such waste would be subject to regulation. Manufactures and retailers with unused or expired e-cigarettes or nicotine juice solution would be required to manage these as hazardous waste upon disposal. Current regulations and policies regarding the availability of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes worldwide were reviewed. Despite their small size, disposable e-cigarettes are consumed and discarded much more quickly than typical electronics, which may become a growing concern for waste managers

  5. Radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkhout, F.

    1991-01-01

    Focusing on radioactive waste management and disposal policies in the United Kingdom, Sweden and the Federal Republic of Germany, this book gives a detailed historical account of the policy process in these three countries, and draws out the implications for theory and public policy. This comparative approach underlines how profoundly different the policy process has been in different countries. By comparing the evolution of policy in three countries, fundamental questions about the formation and resolution of technical decisions under uncertainty are clarified. The analysis of nuclear strategy, the politics of nuclear power, and the shifting emphasis of government regulation redefines the issue of radwaste management and sets it at the heat of the current debate about power, the environment and society. The combination of up-to-date technological assessment with an account of the social and political implications of radwaste management makes'Radioactive Waste'particularly useful to students of environmental studies, geography and public administration. (author)

  6. Demolition, construction and excavation wastes in Copenhagen. Los residuos de demolicion, construccion y excavacion en Copenhague

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, N.J.; Lauridsen, P.S.

    1994-01-01

    Demolition Waste, Construction Waste and Excavation Waste will in a modern society represent a major part of the total amount of the industrial wastes. Implementation of the Regulation for Industrial Waste in Copenhagen has resulted insignificant changes in the transportation and processing of this type of waste was typically disposed of as mixed waste on landfill sites and open dumps. Today most of this waste is sorted at the source (see figure 1) and recycled namely as secondary raw materials. This change in the disposal of construction waste etc, is due to two main factors: implementation of the regulation of commercial wastes and a significant raise in the (governmental) waste tax on specially landfilling activities. (Author)

  7. Improving waste management through a process of learning: the South African waste information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Linda; Scott, Dianne

    2011-05-01

    Piloting of the South African Waste Information System (SAWIS) provided an opportunity to research whether the collection of data for a national waste information system could, through a process of learning, change the way that waste is managed in the country, such that there is a noticeable improvement. The interviews with officials from municipalities and private waste companies, conducted as part of the piloting of the SAWIS, highlighted that certain organizations, typically private waste companies have been successful in collecting waste data. Through a process of learning, these organizations have utilized this waste data to inform and manage their operations. The drivers of such data collection efforts were seen to be financial (business) sustainability and environmental reporting obligations, particularly where the company had an international parent company. However, participants highlighted a number of constraints, particularly within public (municipal) waste facilities which hindered both the collection of waste data and the utilization of this data to effect change in the way waste is managed. These constraints included a lack of equipment and institutional capacity in the collection of data. The utilization of this data in effecting change was further hindered by governance challenges such as politics, bureaucracy and procurement, evident in a developing country context such as South Africa. The results show that while knowledge is a necessary condition for resultant action, a theoretical framework of learning does not account for all observed factors, particularly external influences.

  8. Waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormack, M.D.

    1981-01-01

    As a result of the information gained from retrieval projects, the decision was made to perform an analysis of all the available incinerators to determine which was best suited for processing the INEL waste. A number of processes were evaluated for incinerators currently funded by DOE and for municipal incinerators. Slagging pyrolysis included the processes of three different manufacturers: Andco-Torrax, FLK and Purox

  9. Ceramic and glass radioactive waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Readey, D.W.; Cooley, C.R. (comps.)

    1977-01-01

    This report contains 14 individual presentations and 6 group reports on the subject of glass and polycrystalline ceramic radioactive waste forms. It was the general consensus that the information available on glass as a waste form provided a good basis for planning on the use of glass as an initial waste form, that crystalline ceramic forms could also be good waste forms if much more development work were completed, and that prediction of the chemical and physical stability of the waste form far into the future would be much improved if the basic synergistic effects of low temperature, radiation and long times were better understood. Continuing development of the polycrystalline ceramic forms was recommended. It was concluded that the leach rate of radioactive species from the waste form is an important criterion for evaluating its suitability, particularly for the time period before solidified waste is permanently placed in the geologic isolation of a Federal repository. Separate abstracts were prepared for 12 of the individual papers; the remaining two were previously abstracted.

  10. Waste caretakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlpart, A.

    1992-01-01

    One of the major critical forces shaping our future is the quality and educational level of our workforce. As society became more technologically oriented, we must become scientifically and technically literate. That is, we must be able to function at highly technical levels on the job as well as being able to make political decisions on increasingly complex technical issues. This paper reports that the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has as its goal the storage of high level radioactive waste from civilian nuclear power plant operations. The achievement of this goal requires the availability of a sufficient number and of appropriately educated scientists, engineers, and technicians. A preliminary workforce assessment was initiated in 1991 to identify current and projected employment needs. The Radioactive Waste Management Fellowship program supports graduate study and research at designated academic institutions in specified science and engineering disciplines or in interdisciplinary programs. The Historically Black Colleges and Universities Research program is designed to increase the participation of these institutions in relevant mission-oriented research

  11. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    DOE estimates that disposing of radioactive waste from civilian nuclear power plants and its defense-related nuclear facilities could eventually end up costing $32 billion. To pay for this, DOE collects fees from utilities on electricity generated by nuclear power plants and makes payments from its defense appropriation. This report states that unless careful attention is given to its financial condition, the nuclear waste program is susceptible to future shortfalls. Without a fee increase, the civilian-waste part of the program may already be underfunded by at least $2.4 billion (in discounted 1988 dollars). Also, DOE has not paid its share of cost-about $480 million-nor has it disclosed this liability in its financial records. Indexing the civilian fee to the inflation rate would address one major cost uncertainty. However, while DOE intends to do this at an appropriate time, it does not use a realistic rate of inflation as its most probable scenario in assessing whether that time has arrived

  12. Treatment and conditioning of radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    Radioactive materials are extensively used in industrial and research activities mainly related to medical, agricultural, environmental and other studies and applications. During the application and production of radioisotopes, significant amounts of radioactive wastes will inevitably arise, which must be managed (i.e. handled, treated, conditioned, intermediately stored and finally disposed of) with particular care. Serious efforts to minimize and appropriately segregate the waste arisings during the application of radioisotopes are the most important first step in waste management. The essential objective of the management of radioactive waste is the protection of mankind, the biosphere and the environment from the detrimental effects of nuclear radiation both now and in the future. This report deals with radioactive wastes outside the nuclear fuel cycle and it is directed primarily to countries without nuclear power programmes, e.g. countries belonging to the Groups A, B and C. Group A includes Member States which utilize radioisotopes at a few hospital locations, universities and industries. Group B includes Member States which have multi-use of radioisotopes in hospitals and other institutional areas and need a central collection and processing system. Group C includes Member States which have multi-use of radioisotopes and a nuclear research centre which is capable of indigenous production of several radioisotopes. When developing a waste management strategy, consideration should be given to the entire sequence of waste management operations from waste sources to disposal and all the related issues: every aspect of waste generation, processing, transportation, storage and disposal, including regulatory, socio-political and economic issues. The interaction of all these aspects must be analysed and understood before the entire waste management system can be properly built up and safely managed. 16 refs, 13 figs, 5 tabs

  13. National perspective on waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Sources of nuclear wastes are listed and the quantities of these wastes per year are given. Methods of processing and disposing of mining and milling wastes, low-level wastes, decommissioning wastes, high-level wastes, reprocessing wastes, spent fuels, and transuranic wastes are discussed. The costs and safeguards involved in the management of this radioactive wastes are briefly covered in this presentation

  14. Hospital waste management and toxicity evaluation: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsakona, M.; Anagnostopoulou, E.; Gidarakos, E.

    2007-01-01

    Hospital waste management is an imperative environmental and public safety issue, due to the waste's infectious and hazardous character. This paper examines the existing waste strategy of a typical hospital in Greece with a bed capacity of 400-600. The segregation, collection, packaging, storage, transportation and disposal of waste were monitored and the observed problematic areas documented. The concentrations of BOD, COD and heavy metals were measured in the wastewater the hospital generated. The wastewater's toxicity was also investigated. During the study, omissions and negligence were observed at every stage of the waste management system, particularly with regard to the treatment of infectious waste. Inappropriate collection and transportation procedures for infectious waste, which jeopardized the safety of staff and patients, were recorded. However, inappropriate segregation practices were the dominant problem, which led to increased quantities of generated infectious waste and hence higher costs for their disposal. Infectious waste production was estimated using two different methods: one by weighing the incinerated waste (880 kg day -1 ) and the other by estimating the number of waste bags produced each day (650 kg day -1 ). Furthermore, measurements of the EC 50 parameter in wastewater samples revealed an increased toxicity in all samples. In addition, hazardous organic compounds were detected in wastewater samples using a gas chromatograph/mass spectrograph. Proposals recommending the application of a comprehensive hospital waste management system are presented that will ensure that any potential risks hospital wastes pose to public health and to the environment are minimized

  15. Integrated waste plan for Chalk River Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClelland, P.; Bainbridge, I.

    2011-01-01

    The core missions for Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) will involve a complex suite of activities for decades to come, many of these activities resulting in production of some amount of wastes. In order to support the business of the Nuclear Laboratories there is a requirement to responsibly manage the wastes arising from these activities. Capability to develop waste stream pathway scenarios and be able to make informed strategic decisions regarding the various options for waste processing, storage and long-term management (i.e. e nabling facilities ) is necessary to discharge this responsibility in the most cost effective and sustainable manner. A holistic waste management plan integrated with the decommissioning, environmental remediation and operations programs is the desired result such that: - Waste inputs and timings are identified; - Timing of key decisions regarding enabling facilities is clearly identified; and - A defensible decision-making framework for enabling facilities is established, thereby ensuring value for Canadians. The quantities of wastes that require managing as part of the Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program and AECL operations activities is in the range of 200,000 to 300,000 m 3 , with a yearly increase of several thousand m 3 . This volume can be classified into over thirty distinct waste streams having differing life cycle waste management pathways from generation to disposition. The time phasing of the waste management activities required for these wastes spans several decades and involves a complex array of processes and facilities. Several factors typical of wastes from the development of nuclear technology further complicate the situation. For example, there is considerable variation in the level of detail and format of waste records generated over several decades. Also, wastes were put into storage over several decades without knowledge or consideration of what the final disposition path will be. Prior to proceeding with any major new

  16. Narrative versus style: Effect of genre-typical events versus genre-typical filmic realizations on film viewers’ genre recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visch, V.; Tan, E.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether film viewers recognize four basic genres (comic, drama, action and nonfiction) on the basis of genre-typical event cues or of genre-typical filmic realization cues of events. Event cues are similar to the narrative content of a film sequence, while filmic realization

  17. Typical Faulty Goals of Adolescents: A Base for Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Eugene W.; Sweeney, Thomas J.

    1979-01-01

    Proposes that the behavior of many teenagers may be understood as a function of 11 immediate goals, each of which represents a coherent set of attitudes and behaviors by which the ultimate goals of belonging and self-esteem are sought. These goals are rooted in faulty beliefs and elicit characteristic reactions from adults. (Author)

  18. Rethinking the waste hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, C.; Vigsoe, D. (eds.)

    2005-03-01

    There is an increasing need to couple environmental and economic considerations within waste management. Consumers and companies alike generate ever more waste. The waste-policy challenges of the future lie in decoupling growth in waste generation from growth in consumption, and in setting priorities for the waste management. This report discusses the criteria for deciding priorities for waste management methods, and questions the current principles of EU waste policies. The basis for the discussion is the so-called waste hierarchy which has dominated the waste policy in the EU since the mid-1970s. The waste hierarchy ranks possible methods of waste management. According to the waste hierarchy, the very best solution is to reduce the amount of waste. After that, reuse is preferred to recycling which, in turn, is preferred to incineration. Disposal at a landfill is the least favourable solution. (BA)

  19. Disposal of hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnhart, B.J.

    1978-01-01

    The Fifth Life Sciences Symposium entitled Hazardous Solid Wastes and Their Disposal on October 12 through 14, 1977 was summarized. The topic was the passage of the National Resources Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 will force some type of action on all hazardous solid wastes. Some major points covered were: the formulation of a definition of a hazardous solid waste, assessment of long-term risk, list of specific materials or general criteria to specify the wastes of concern, Bioethics, sources of hazardous waste, industrial and agricultural wastes, coal wastes, radioactive wastes, and disposal of wastes

  20. Other Special Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    In addition to the main types of special waste related to municipal solid waste (MSW) mentioned in the previous chapters (health care risk waste, WEEE, impregnated wood, hazardous waste) a range of other fractions of waste have in some countries been defined as special waste that must be handled...... separately from MSW. Some of these other special wastes are briefly described in this chapter with respect to their definition, quantity and composition, and management options. The special wastes mentioned here are batteries, tires, polyvinylchloride (PVC) and food waste....

  1. Disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.

    1979-01-01

    Radioactive waste management and disposal requirements options available are discussed. The possibility of beneficial utilization of radioactive wastes is covered. Methods of interim storage of transuranium wastes are listed. Methods of shipment of low-level and high-level radioactive wastes are presented. Various methods of radioactive waste disposal are discussed

  2. Nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-12-01

    The subject is discussed, with special reference to the UK, under the headings: radiation; origins of the waste (mainly from nuclear power programme; gas, liquid, solid; various levels of activity); dealing with waste (methods of processing, storage, disposal); high-active waste (storage, vitrification, study of means of eventual disposal); waste management (UK organisation to manage low and intermediate level waste). (U.K.)

  3. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 1, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation.

  4. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 1, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation

  5. Visual/Verbal-Analytic Reasoning Bias as a Function of Self-Reported Autistic-Like Traits: A Study of Typically Developing Individuals Solving Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugard, Andrew J. B.; Stewart, Mary E.; Stenning, Keith

    2011-01-01

    People with autism spectrum condition (ASC) perform well on Raven's matrices, a test which loads highly on the general factor in intelligence. However, the mechanisms supporting enhanced performance on the test are poorly understood. Evidence is accumulating that milder variants of the ASC phenotype are present in typically developing individuals,…

  6. Summary and evaluation of nuclear waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutze, W.; Ewing, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Typically, the final comparison of waste forms (e.g., Hench et al. 1984) rested on the predicted risk to man, often calculated as a dose-to-man over long periods of time (Cheung et al. 1982). The codes (e.g., MISER) used in these predictions calculated the transport behavior of radionuclides from the repository and, not surprisingly, found that the differences in the performance between waste forms (e.g., glass versus ceramic) did not result in significant differences in the final ''dose-to-man''. Such conclusions formed the basis for the discontinuation of research programs on alternative or second generation waste forms. This was most unfortunate, because despite the seemingly quantitative results of such calculations, the codes did not take advantage of a detailed knowledge of the various process by which waste form might degrade (e.g., fracture, corrosion or radiation effects). Thus, the conclusion that the calculated ''dose-to-man'' was not sensitive to the orders of magnitude variation in the release of radionuclides from different types of waste forms was not based on any scientific understanding of waste form degradation processes. Significantly, such calculations obscured important differences in the materials properties among waste forms and the different ways in which waste forms interact with various geologic environments. In this chapter, the authors have tried to avoid an approach of this type and have instead compiled data from the contributed chapters into tables

  7. Advanced Conversion of Organic Waste into Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offenbacher, Elmar [BDI-BioEnergy International AG, Grambach/Graz (Austria)

    2012-11-01

    Day by day, every human generates significant amounts of organic waste that most of the time ends on landfills. Disposing of organic residues is not just a waste of energy resources but also a burden to the environment as anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases are produced. In contrast to waste combustion that can't generate any energy out of organic waste but the contrary, anaerobic digestion is the most suitable technology for the sustainable and efficient conversion of all kind of organic waste into valuable biogas. Biogas generated from organic waste typically consists of 55-60% methane (CH{sub 4}) and provides an energy content of more than 20 MJ/Nm{sup 3}. The average biogas yield is around 150 Nm{sup 3} per ton of organic waste that can be converted into 350 kW of electricity plus the same amount of process heat. In other words a typical household could recover about one twentieth of its power consumption just out of the organic waste it is producing. Anaerobic digestion significantly reduces the amount of waste going to landfill as well as the uncontrolled emissions of methane. The BDI High Load Hybrid Reactor merges the core concepts of CSTR and UASB fermenters while providing a two phase anaerobic digestion system. The first process step accommodates hydrolysis and acidification to break down the complex organic molecules into simple sugars, amino acids, and fatty acids under acid conditions. In the second stage acetic acids are finally converted into methane (CH{sub 4}), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and water. This two-phase concept ensures maximum yield of biogas generated, paired with high loading rates and feedstock flexibility.

  8. Waste-wood-derived fillers for plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent English; Craig M. Clemons; Nicole Stark; James P. Schneider

    1996-01-01

    Filled thermoplastic composites are stiffer, stronger, and more dimensionally stable than their unfilled counterparts. Such thermoplastics are usually provided to the end-user as a precompounded, pelletized feedstock. Typical reinforcing fillers are inorganic materials like talc or fiberglass, but materials derived from waste wood, such as wood flour and recycled paper...

  9. Portion distortion: typical portion sizes selected by young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jaime; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2006-09-01

    The incidence of obesity has increased in parallel with increasing portion sizes of individually packaged and ready-to-eat prepared foods as well as foods served at restaurants. Portion distortion (perceiving large portion sizes as appropriate amounts to eat at a single eating occasion) may contribute to increasing energy intakes and expanding waistlines. The purpose of this study was to determine typical portion sizes that young adults select, how typical portion sizes compare with reference portion sizes (based in this study on the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act's quantities of food customarily eaten per eating occasion), and whether the size of typical portions has changed over time. Young adults (n=177, 75% female, age range 16 to 26 years) at a major northeastern university. Participants served themselves typical portion sizes of eight foods at breakfast (n=63) or six foods at lunch or dinner (n=62, n=52, respectively). Typical portion-size selections were unobtrusively weighed. A unit score was calculated by awarding 1 point for each food with a typical portion size that was within 25% larger or smaller than the reference portion; larger or smaller portions were given 0 points. Thus, each participant's unit score could range from 0 to 8 at breakfast or 0 to 6 at lunch and dinner. Analysis of variance or t tests were used to determine whether typical and reference portion sizes differed, and whether typical portion sizes changed over time. Mean unit scores (+/-standard deviation) were 3.63+/-1.27 and 1.89+/-1.14, for breakfast and lunch/dinner, respectively, indicating little agreement between typical and reference portion sizes. Typical portions sizes in this study tended to be significantly different from those selected by young adults in a similar study conducted 2 decades ago. Portion distortion seems to affect the portion sizes selected by young adults for some foods. This phenomenon has the potential to hinder weight loss, weight maintenance, and

  10. An expert system framework for nondestructive waste assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, G.K.

    1996-01-01

    Management and disposition of transuranic (RU) waste forms necessitates determining entrained RU and associated radioactive material quantities as per National RU Waste Characterization Program requirements. Technical justification and demonstration of a given NDA method used to determine RU mass and uncertainty in accordance with program quality assurance is difficult for many waste forms. Difficulties are typically founded in waste NDA methods that employ standards compensation and/or employment of simplifying assumptions on waste form configurations. Capability to determine and justify RU mass and mass uncertainty can be enhanced through integration of waste container data/information using expert system and empirical data-driven techniques with conventional data acquisition and analysis. Presented is a preliminary expert system framework that integrates the waste form data base, alogrithmic techniques, statistical analyses, expert domain knowledge bases, and empirical artificial intelligence modules into a cohesive system. The framework design and bases in addition to module development activities are discussed

  11. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of rope-guided conveyances in two typical kinds of shaft layouts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renyuan Wu

    Full Text Available The behavior of rope-guided conveyances is so complicated that the rope-guided hoisting system hasn't been understood thoroughly so far. In this paper, with user-defined functions loaded, ANSYS FLUENT 14.5 was employed to simulate lateral motion of rope-guided conveyances in two typical kinds of shaft layouts. With rope-guided mine elevator and mine cages taken into account, results show that the lateral aerodynamic buffeting force is much larger than the Coriolis force, and the side aerodynamic force have the same order of magnitude as the Coriolis force. The lateral aerodynamic buffeting forces should also be considered especially when the conveyance moves along the ventilation air direction. The simulation shows that the closer size of the conveyances can weaken the transverse aerodynamic buffeting effect.

  12. Waste remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halas, Nancy J.; Nordlander, Peter; Neumann, Oara

    2017-01-17

    A system including a steam generation system and a chamber. The steam generation system includes a complex and the steam generation system is configured to receive water, concentrate electromagnetic (EM) radiation received from an EM radiation source, apply the EM radiation to the complex, where the complex absorbs the EM radiation to generate heat, and transform, using the heat generated by the complex, the water to steam. The chamber is configured to receive the steam and an object, wherein the object is of medical waste, medical equipment, fabric, and fecal matter.

  13. Waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, D.; Hooper, E.W.

    1981-01-01

    In the treatment of wastes, such as liquid radioactive effluents, it is known to remove radionuclides by successive in situ precipitation of cobalt sulphide, an hydroxide, barium sulphate and a transition element ferrocyanide, followed by separation of the thereby decontaminated effluent. In this invention, use is made of precipitates such as obtained above in the treatment of further fresh liquid radioactive effluent, when it is found that the precipitates have additional capacity for extracting radionuclides. The resulting supernatant liquor may then be subjected to a further precipitation treatment such as above. Decontamination factors for radionuclides of Ce, Ru, Sr and Cs have been considerably enhanced. (author)

  14. Entrance and escape dynamics for the typical set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Schuyler B.; Greenberg, Jonah S.; Green, Jason R.

    2018-01-01

    According to the asymptotic equipartition property, sufficiently long sequences of random variables converge to a set that is typical. While the size and probability of this set are central to information theory and statistical mechanics, they can often only be estimated accurately in the asymptotic limit due to the exponential growth in possible sequences. Here we derive a time-inhomogeneous dynamics that constructs the properties of the typical set for all finite length sequences of independent and identically distributed random variables. These dynamics link the finite properties of the typical set to asymptotic results and allow the typical set to be applied to small and transient systems. The main result is a geometric mapping—the triangle map—relating sequences of random variables of length n to those of length n +1 . We show that the number of points in this map needed to quantify the properties of the typical set grows linearly with sequence length, despite the exponential growth in the number of typical sequences. We illustrate the framework for the Bernoulli process and the Schlögl model for autocatalytic chemical reactions and demonstrate both the convergence to asymptotic limits and the ability to reproduce exact calculations.

  15. Radioactive wastes in nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, Sadahiro; Nagaike, Tadakatsu; Emura, Satoru; Matsumoto, Akira; Morisawa, Shinsuke.

    1978-01-01

    Recent topics concerning radioactive water management and disposal are widely reviewed. As the introduction, various sources of radioactivity including uranium mining, fuel fabrication, reactor operation and fuel reprocessing and their amount of wastes accumulated per 1000 MWe year operation of a LWR are presented together with the typical methods of disposal. The second section discusses the problems associated with uranium fuel fabrication and with nuclear power plants. Typical radioactive nuclides and their sources in PWRs and BWRs are discussed. The third section deals with the problems associated with reprocessing facilities and with mixed oxide fuel fabrication. Solidification of high-level wastes and the methods of the disposal of transuranic nuclides are the main topics in this section. The fourth section discusses the methods and the problems of final disposal. Various methods being proposed or studied for the final disposal of low- and high-level wastes and transuranic wastes are reviewed. The fifth section concerns with the risk analysis of waste disposal. Both deterministic and probabilistic methods are treated. As the example, the assessment of the risk due to floods is explained. The associated event tree and fault three are presented together with the estimated probability of the occurrence of each constituent failure. In the final section, the environmental problems of radioactive wastes are widely reviewed. (Aoki, K.)

  16. Yes Virginia, quantum mechanics can be understood

    CERN Document Server

    Wallace, John P

    2017-01-01

    Virginia, B. W. Wooster, and Jeeves take up physics with the hope of understanding quantum mechanics. In the process they take a rather grand tour on an old sailing ship and aid a sow in distress. On their journey they discover that physics is not as difficult a subject as they imagined. When they dismantled physics and reassembled it in a form where gravity, strong, electromagnetic and the weak forces all stem from understanding the gaming strategy known as the fair-game. That great cultural divide first expounded by the novelist C.P.Snow was found to be a mere ditch that can be stepped over. The sins of the past were violations of energy conservation and strange notions about what mass actually represents. Now mass is defined without the assistance of the Standard Model. Things will not be the same. Singularities have been banished. The electron now has a scale and is no longer captive in a point. The gluon is no longer essential along with the single virtual photon.

  17. The Center of Gravity, Systemically Understood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    Swain and Larry G. Heysteck (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: CMH , Desert Storm Interviews, 1991), 33. 91Purvis, et al., 17. 40...Sullivan. "Interview: Centcom Planning Cell." In Unedited Transcript, edited by Richard Swain and Larry G. Heysteck. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: CMH

  18. Evil Understood as the Absence of Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabjerg, Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    Self-development is closely related to the idea of formation (or what is referred to as Bildung in German). But when speaking of formation, we have to address the question, ‘what are we formed by?’ Is the human being formed by him- or herself, or by resources originating from outside the self? Fr...

  19. The temporality of waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Katrine Dahl; Jordt Jørgensen, Nanna; Læssøe, Jeppe

    Waste is, indisputably, one of the key issues of environmental concerns of our times. In an environment and sustainability education perspective, waste offers concrete entry points to issues of consumption, sustainability and citizenship. Still, waste education has received relatively little...

  20. Hazardous Waste Generators

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The HazWaste database contains generator (companies and/or individuals) site and mailing address information, waste generation, the amount of waste generated etc. of...

  1. Informative document waste plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout D; Sein AA; Duvoort GL

    1989-01-01

    This "Informative document waste plastics" forms part of a series of "informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the indstruction of the Directorate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behalf of the program of

  2. Informative document packaging waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten JM; Nagelhout D; Duvoort GL; Weerd M de

    1989-01-01

    This "informative document packaging waste" forms part of a series of "informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the instructions of the Direcotrate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behalf of the program of

  3. Household hazardous waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelsted, Lotte; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2007-01-01

    and the paint waste was less contaminated with heavy metals than was the ordinary household waste. This may suggest that households no longer need to source-segregate their paint if the household waste is incinerated, since the presence of a small quantity of solvent-based paint will not be harmful when......'Paint waste', a part of the 'household hazardous waste', amounting to approximately 5 tonnes was collected from recycling stations in two Danish cities. Sorting and analyses of the waste showed paint waste comprised approximately 65% of the mass, paint-like waste (cleaners, fillers, etc.......) comprised 15-25% and foreign items comprised 10-20%. Water-based paint was the dominant part of the paint waste. The chemical composition of the paint waste and the paint-like waste was characterized by an analysis of 27 substances in seven waste fractions. The content of critical substances was tow...

  4. Radioactive waste in perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2010-01-01

    ... radioactive. While disposal options for hazardous wastes are generally well established, some types of hazardous waste face issues similar to those for radioactive waste and also require long-term disposal arrangements...

  5. Closed Fuel Cycle Waste Treatment Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vienna, J. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Collins, E. D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Crum, J. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ebert, W. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Frank, S. M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Garn, T. G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gombert, D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jones, R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jubin, R. T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Maio, V. C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Marra, J. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Matyas, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Nenoff, T. M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Riley, B. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sevigny, G. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Soelberg, N. R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Strachan, D. M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thallapally, P. K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westsik, J. H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This study is aimed at evaluating the existing waste management approaches for nuclear fuel cycle facilities in comparison to the objectives of implementing an advanced fuel cycle in the U.S. under current legal, regulatory, and logistical constructs. The study begins with the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Integrated Waste Management Strategy (IWMS) (Gombert et al. 2008) as a general strategy and associated Waste Treatment Baseline Study (WTBS) (Gombert et al. 2007). The tenets of the IWMS are equally valid to the current waste management study. However, the flowsheet details have changed significantly from those considered under GNEP. In addition, significant additional waste management technology development has occurred since the GNEP waste management studies were performed. This study updates the information found in the WTBS, summarizes the results of more recent technology development efforts, and describes waste management approaches as they apply to a representative full recycle reprocessing flowsheet. Many of the waste management technologies discussed also apply to other potential flowsheets that involve reprocessing. These applications are occasionally discussed where the data are more readily available. The report summarizes the waste arising from aqueous reprocessing of a typical light-water reactor (LWR) fuel to separate actinides for use in fabricating metal sodium fast reactor (SFR) fuel and from electrochemical reprocessing of the metal SFR fuel to separate actinides for recycle back into the SFR in the form of metal fuel. The primary streams considered and the recommended waste forms include; Tritium in low-water cement in high integrity containers (HICs); Iodine-129: As a reference case, a glass composite material (GCM) formed by the encapsulation of the silver Mordenite (AgZ) getter material in a low-temperature glass is assumed. A number of alternatives with distinct advantages are also considered including a fused silica waste form

  6. Municipal Solid Waste Management

    OpenAIRE

    Soni, Ajaykumar; Patil, Deepak; Argade, Kuldeep

    2016-01-01

    Waste management covers newly generated waste or waste from an onging process. When steps to reduce or even eliminate waste are to be considered, it is imperative that considerations should include total oversight, technical and management services of the total process.From raw material to the final product this includes technical project management expertise, technical project review and pollution prevention technical support and advocacy.Waste management also includes handling of waste, in...

  7. Waste Characterization Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Naranjo, Felicia Danielle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-02

    This report discusses ways to classify waste as outlined by LANL. Waste Generators must make a waste determination and characterize regulated waste by appropriate analytical testing or use of acceptable knowledge (AK). Use of AK for characterization requires several source documents. Waste characterization documentation must be accurate, sufficient, and current (i.e., updated); relevant and traceable to the waste stream’s generation, characterization, and management; and not merely a list of information sources.

  8. Supermarket food waste

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    Food waste occurs along the entire food supply chain and gives rise to great financial losses and waste of natural resources. The retail stage of the supply chain contributes significant masses of waste. Causes of this waste need to be identified before potential waste reduction measures can be designed, tested and evaluated. Therefore this thesis quantified retail food waste and evaluated selected prevention and valorisation measures, in order to determine how the carbon footprint of food ca...

  9. Hazardous Waste: Learn the Basics of Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page Contact Us to ask a question, provide feedback, or report a problem. Hazardous Waste Hazardous Waste Home Learn the Basics of Hazardous Waste Hazardous Waste Management Generation Identification Definition of Solid Waste Exclusions Characterization Delistings Transportation Land ...

  10. Environmental effects of reactor waste disposal alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unruh, C.M.

    1980-05-01

    This present document, Environmental Impact Statement on Management of Commercially Generated Radioactive Waste, describes ten alternative methods for disposal of nuclear wastes and evaluates their anticipated environmental impacts. The ten alternatives are: (1) geologic disposal using conventional mining techniques; (2) chemical resynthesis; (3) very deep hole concept; (4) rock melting concept; (5) island disposal; (6) sub-seabed geologic disposal; (7) ice sheet disposal; (8) reverse-well disposal; (9) partitioning and transmutation; and (10) space disposal. In evaluating the various technical strategies, issues and environmental impacts have been analyzed as best understood currently. Based on the analysis presented here, and in the light of the greater depth of knowledge on geologic disposal, DOE proposes that: (1) the disposal of radioactive wastes in geologic formations can likely be developed and applied with minimal environmental consequences; and (2) therefore the program emphasis should be on the establishment of mined repositories as the operative disposal technology

  11. Waste package emplacement borehole option study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streeter, W.S.

    1992-03-01

    This study evaluates the cost and thermal effects of various waste package emplacement configurations that differ in emplacement orientation, number of containers per borehole, and standoff distance at the potential Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository. In this study, eight additional alternatives to the vertical and horizontal orientation options presented in the Site Characterization Plan Conceptual Design Report are considered. Typical panel layout configurations based on thermal analysis of the waste and cost estimates for design and construction, operations, and closure and decommissioning were made for each emplacement option. For the thermal analysis average waste 10 years out of reactor and the SIM code were used to determine whether the various configurations temperatures would exceed the design criteria for temperature. This study does not make a recommendation for emplacement configuration, but does provide information for comparison of alternatives

  12. Early Freezing of Gait: Atypical versus Typical Parkinson Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Lieberman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 18 months, 850 patients were referred to Muhammad Ali Parkinson Center (MAPC. Among them, 810 patients had typical Parkinson disease (PD and 212 had PD for ≤5 years. Among the 212 patients with early PD, 27 (12.7% had freezing of gait (FOG. Forty of the 850 had atypical parkinsonism. Among these 40 patients, all of whom had symptoms for ≤5 years, 12 (30.0% had FOG. FOG improved with levodopa in 21/27 patients with typical PD but did not improve in the 12 patients with atypical parkinsonism. FOG was associated with falls in both groups of patients. We believe that FOG unresponsive to levodopa in typical PD resembles FOG in atypical parkinsonism. We thus compared the 6 typical PD patients with FOG unresponsive to levodopa plus the 12 patients with atypical parkinsonism with the 21 patients with typical PD responsive to levodopa. We compared them by tests of locomotion and postural stability. Among the patients with FOG unresponsive to levodopa, postural stability was more impaired than locomotion. This finding leads us to believe that, in these patients, postural stability, not locomotion, is the principal problem underlying FOG.

  13. Food and Wine Tourism: an Analysis of Italian Typical Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Maria Olivieri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to focus the specific role of local food productions in spite of its relationship with tourism sector to valorization and promotion of the territorial cultural heritage. The modern agriculture has been and, in the recent years, several specific features are emerging referring to different territorials areas. Tourist would like to have a complete experience consumption of a destination, specifically to natural and cultural heritage and genuine food. This contribute addresses the topics connected to the relationship between typical productions system and tourism sector to underline the competitive advantages to local development. The typical productions are Designation of Protected Origin (Italian DOP, within wine certifications DOCG and DOC and Typical Geographical Indication (IGP and wine’s IGT. The aim is an analysis of the specialization of these kinds of production at Italian regional scale. The implication of the work has connected with defining a necessary and appropriate value strategies based on marketing principles in order to translate the benefit of typical productions to additional value for the local system. Thus, the final part of the paper describes the potential dynamics with the suitable accommodation typology of agriturismo and the typical production system of Italian Administrative Regions.

  14. Review Of Rheology Modifiers For Hanford Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pareizs, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    appreciably change the pH of the waste; Organics are typically reductants and could impact glass REDOX if not accounted for in the reductant addition calculations; Stability of the modifiers in a caustic, radioactive environment is not known, but some of the modifiers tested were specifically designed to withstand caustic conditions; These acids will add to the total organic carbon content of the wastes. Radiolytic decomposition of the acids could result in organic and hydrogen gas generation. These potential impacts must be addressed in future studies with simulants representative of real waste and finally with tests using actual waste based on the rheology differences seen between SRS simulants and actual waste. The only non-organic modifier evaluated was sodium metasilicate. Further evaluation of this modifier is recommended if a reducing modifier is a concern

  15. Knowledge, attitudes and behaviour regarding waste management options in Romania: results from a school questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin KOLBE

    2014-12-01

    The analysis revealed that knowledge is highly developed in Romania regarding the potential of recycling, while the concepts of waste management technologies are far less known about and understood. Landfill is seen as a problem for human health and the environment. However, recycling behaviour is low - partly as a result of limited possibilities. In general, the treatment hierarchy that is recommended in the "European waste hierarchy" is only partly reflected in students’ attitudes towards waste management options.

  16. Introduction to Waste Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Solid waste management is as old as human civilization, although only considered an engineering discipline for about one century. The change from the previous focus on public cleansing of the cities to modern waste management was primarily driven by industrialization, which introduced new materials...... and chemicals, dramatically changing the types and composition of waste, and by urbanization making waste management in urban areas a complicated and costly logistic operation. This book focuses on waste that commonly appears in the municipal waste management system. This chapter gives an introduction to modern...... waste management, including issues as waste definition, problems associated with waste, waste management criteria and approaches to waste management. Later chapters introduce aspects of engineering (Chapter 1.2), economics (Chapter 1.3) and regulation (Chapter 1.4)....

  17. Lysimeter study of commercial reactor waste forms: waste form acquisition characterization and full-scale leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-02-01

    This report describes work conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) as part of a joint program with Savannah River Laboratory. Typical full-scale (55-gallon drum size) waste forms were acquired by BNL from a boiling water reactor (BWR) and a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Liquid waste stream activity concentrations were analyzed by gamma spectroscopy. This information was used to determine the waste from activity inventory, providing the necessary source term for lysimeter and leaching experiments. Predominant radionuclides of interest include 60 Co, 137 Cs, 134 Cs, and 54 Mn. A full-scale leaching experiment was initiated by BNL encompassing four representative waste stream-solidification agent combinations. Waste streams tested include PWR evaporator concentrate (boric acid waste), BWR evaporator concentrate (sodium sulfate waste) and BWR evaporator concentrate plus ion exchange resins. Solidification agents include masonry cement, portland type III cement, and vinyl ester-styrene (Dow polymer). Analyses of leachates indicate measurable leach rates of 137 Cs, 134 Cs, and 60 Co from both BWR and PWR cement waste forms. The leach rates for both cesium isotopes in cement are at least two orders of magnitude greater than those for cobalt. Leachates from the BWR Dow polymer waste form include the same isotopes present in cement leachates, with the addition of 54 Mn. Cesium leach rates from the Dow polymer waste form are approximately one order of magnitude lower than from an equivalent cement waste form. The 60 Co cumulative fraction release, however, is approximately three times greater for the Dow polymer waste form

  18. Preliminary analysis of typical transients in fusion driven subcritical system (FDS-I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Yunqing; Ke Yan; Wu Yican

    2007-01-01

    The potential safety characteristic is expected as one of the advantages of fusion-driven subcritical system (FDS-I) for the transmutation and incineration of nuclear waste compared with the critical reactor. Transients of the FDS-I may occur due to the perturbation of external neutron source, the failure of functional device, and the occurrence of the uncontrolled event. As typical transient scenarios, the following cases were analyzed: unprotected plasma overpower (UPOP), unprotected loss of flow (ULOF), unprotected transient overpower (UTOP). The transient analyses for the FDS-I were performed with a coupled two-dimensional thermal-hydraulics and neutronics transient analysis code NTC2D. The negative feedback of reactivity is the interesting safety feature of FDS-I as temperature increase, due to the fuel form of the circulating particle. The present simulation results showed that the current FDS-I design has a resistance against severe transient scenarios. (author)

  19. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Privacy Act of 1974 restricts both the type of information on private individuals that federal agencies may maintain in their records and the conditions under which such information may be disclosed. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission, which must approve DOE plans to build a nuclear waste repository at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada, requires a quality assurance program to guarantee that studies of the site are done by qualified employees. Under such a program, the training and qualifications of DOE and contractor employees would be verified. This report reviews DOE's efforts to identify and resolve the implications of the Privacy Act for DOE's quality assurance program and how the delay in resolving Privacy Act issues may have affected preliminary work on the Yucca Mountain project

  20. Nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The Department of Energy is awarding grants to the state of Nevada for the state's participation in DOE's program to investigate Yucca Mountain as a possible site for the disposal of civilian nuclear waste. This report has found that DOE's financial assistance budget request of $15 million for Nevada's fiscal year 1990 was not based on the amount the state requested but rather was derived by increasing Nevada's grant funds from the previous year in proportion to the increase that DOE requested for its own activities at the Nevada site. DOE's evaluations of Nevada's requests are performed too late to be used in DOE's budget formulation process because Nevada has been applying for financial assistance at about the same time that DOE submits its budget request to Congress

  1. Spatial Resolution of the ECE for JET Typical Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tribaldos, V. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to obtain estimations of the spatial resolution of the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) phenomena for the typical plasmas found in JET tokamak. The analysis of the spatial resolution of the ECE is based on the underlying physical process of emission and a working definition is presented and discussed. In making these estimations a typical JET pulse is being analysed taking into account the magnetic configuration, the density and temperature profiles, obtained with the EFIT code and from the LIDAR diagnostic. Ray tracing simulations are performed for a Maxwellian plasma taking into account the antenna pattern. (Author) 5 refs.

  2. Waste volume reduction by acid digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, R.E.; Divine, J.R.

    1975-06-01

    Acid digestion is a process being developed at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) in Richland, Washington, to reduce the volume of alpha-contaminated combustible waste by converting it into a non-combustible residue. Typical waste materials such as polyvinylchloride (PVC), polyethylene, paper and other cellulosic materials, ion exchange resin, all types of rubber, etc., are digested in hot (230 0 C--270 0 C) concentrated sulfuric acid containing nitric acid oxidant to form inert residues generally having less than four percent of their original volume and less than twenty-five percent of their original mass. The process is currently being tested using non-radioactive waste in an Acid Digestion Test Unit (ADTU) with all glass equipment. Engineering tests to date have shown acid digestion to be a potentially attractive method for treating combustible waste materials. Based on results of the engineering tests, an acid digestion pilot unit capable of treating radioactive wastes is being designed and constructed. Design capacity of the pilot unit for radioactive waste will be 100 kg of waste per day. (U.S.)

  3. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 3, Part 2, Waste Management Facility report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1944-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation and amount of waste.

  4. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 4, Waste Management Facility report, Radioactive mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on radioactive mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling method and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation and amount of waste.

  5. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 2, Generator dangerous waste report, radioactive mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on radioactive mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, waste designation, weight, and waste designation.

  6. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 3, Part 1, Waste Management Facility report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling method and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation, and amount of waste.

  7. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 4, Waste Management Facility report, Radioactive mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains information on radioactive mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling method and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation and amount of waste

  8. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 2, Generator dangerous waste report, radioactive mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains information on radioactive mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, waste designation, weight, and waste designation

  9. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 3, Part 1, Waste Management Facility report, dangerous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, handling method and containment vessel, waste number, waste designation, and amount of waste

  10. Hanford Site Hazardous waste determination report for transuranic debris waste streams NPFPDL2A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WINTERHALDER, J.A.

    1999-09-29

    This hazardous waste determination report (Report) describes the process and information used on the Hanford Site to determine that waste stream number NPFPDLZA, consisting of 30 containers of contact-handled transuranic debris waste, is not hazardous waste regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act. For a waste to be hazardous under these statutes, the waste either must be specifically listed as a hazardous waste, or exhibit one or more of the characteristics of a hazardous waste, Le., ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, or toxicity. Waste stream NPFPDLZA was generated, packaged, and placed into storage between 1993 and 1997. Extensive knowledge of the waste generating process, facility operational history, and administrative controls and operating procedures in effect at the time of generation, supported the initial nonhazardous waste determination. Because of the extent and reliability of information pertaining to this waste type, and the total volume of waste in the debris matrix parameter category, the Hanford Site is focusing initial efforts on this and similar waste streams for the first shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). RCRA regulations authorize hazardous waste determinations to be made either by using approved sampling and analysis methods or by applying knowledge of the waste in light of the materials or the process(es) used. This latter approach typically is referred to as process knowledge. The Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (CAO-94-1010) for WIPP refers to acceptable knowledge in essentially the same terms; acceptable knowledge as used throughout this Report is synonymous with the term process knowledge. The 30 containers addressed in this Report were characterized by the following methods: Acceptable knowledge; Nondestructive examination using real-time radiography; Visual examination; and Headspace gas sampling and analysis. The initial

  11. Generic impact statement for commercial radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unruh, C.M.

    1976-01-01

    ERDA is preparing a generic environmental impact statement on the treatment and disposal of waste resulting from commercial reactors and post fission operations in the light water reactor (LWR) fuel cycle. Expert contributions will be provided by many of the ERDA national laboratories and contractors. The waste management aspects of the statement will be based on available technology as presented in the recently issued ''Alternatives for Managing Waste from Reactors and Post Fission Operations in the LWR Fuel Cycle,'' ERDA-76-43 Document. This 1500 page, five volume Technical Alternative Document (TAD) describes the status of technology (to September, 1975) for handling post fission radioactive waste generated by the production of electricity by nuclear power light water reactor-generator systems. The statement will be generic in nature discussing typical or hypothetical facilities in typical or hypothetical environments. It is not intended to replace environmental statements required in support of specific projects nor for Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing procedures. A major purpose of the generic statement is to inform the public and to solicit comments on the ERDA program for: (1) the final disposition of commercial radioactive waste, (2) waste treatment, (3) waste interim storage, and (4) transportation of waste. The statement will discuss the ERDA contingency program to provide retrievable storage of such waste if they should be transferred to Federal custody prior to the availability of the geologic isolation facilities for terminal disposal. The generic statement will not address radioactive waste resulting from U.S. Defense Programs, the mining or milling of uranium, the management of waste from the breeder reactor program, waste from other nations, nor will it include an evaluation of the impact of waste resulting from power sources other than light water reactors

  12. Construction and Demolition Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Andersen, L.

    2011-01-01

    Construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) is the waste generated during the building, repair, remodeling or removal of constructions. The constructions can be roads, residential housing and nonresidential buildings. C&D waste has traditionally been considered without any environmental problems...

  13. The typicality of academic discourse and its relevance for constructs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Constructs of academic literacy are used both for test and course design. While the discussion is relevant to both, the focus of this article will be on test design. Constructs of academic literacy necessarily depend on definitions that assume that academic discourse is typically different from other kinds of discourse. The more ...

  14. Physico-chemical properties and fertility status of some typic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical properties and fertility status of some typic plinthaquults in bauchi loval government area of Bauchi state, Nigeria. S Mustapha. Abstract. No Abstract. IJOTAFS Vol. 1 (2) 2007: pp. 120-124. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  15. Memory for Sequences of Events Impaired in Typical Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Timothy A.; Morris, Andrea M.; Stark, Shauna M.; Fortin, Norbert J.; Stark, Craig E. L.

    2015-01-01

    Typical aging is associated with diminished episodic memory performance. To improve our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms underlying this age-related memory deficit, we previously developed an integrated, cross-species approach to link converging evidence from human and animal research. This novel approach focuses on the ability to…

  16. Artificial bias typically neglected in comparisons of uncertain atmospheric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arola, A. T.; Pitkänen, M. R. A.; Mikkonen, S.; Lipponen, A.; Lehtinen, K. E.

    2016-12-01

    Researchers in atmospheric sciences typically neglect biases caused by regression dilution and regression to the mean (RTM) in comparisons of uncertain data. Regression dilution occurs when the ordinary least squares regression method is used on a predictor with random data uncertainty, which causes the slope to become biased towards zero. RTM on the other hand happens when an extreme observation is accompanied by a less extreme follow-up observation. These biases both originate from random uncertainties of the reference data, which is typically not taken into account and discussed in atmospheric sciences. This is crucial, since essentially all typical atmospheric data have some level of uncertainty. We use synthetic observations of aerosol optical thickness and UV index mimicking real atmospheric data to demonstrate how the biases arise from random data uncertainties of measurements, model output, or satellite retrieval products. Further, we provide examples of typical methods of data comparisons that have a tendency to pronounce the biases. The results show, that data uncertainties can significantly bias data comparisons due regression dilution and RTM, a fact that is known in statistics, but disregarded in atmospheric sciences. Thus we argue, that often these biases are widely regarded as measurement or modeling errors, for instance, while they in fact are artificial. It is essential that atmospheric and geoscience communities become aware of and consider features in research.

  17. Human Behavior, Learning, and the Developing Brain: Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coch, Donna, Ed.; Fischer, Kurt W., Ed.; Dawson, Geraldine, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This volume brings together leading authorities from multiple disciplines to examine the relationship between brain development and behavior in typically developing children. Presented are innovative cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that shed light on brain-behavior connections in infancy and toddlerhood through adolescence. Chapters…

  18. Typical and Atypical Dementia Family Caregivers: Systematic and Objective Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Linda O.; Martindale-Adams, Jennifer; Burns, Robert; Graney, Marshall J.; Zuber, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    This systematic, objective comparison of typical (spouse, children) and atypical (in-law, sibling, nephew/niece, grandchild) dementia family caregivers examined demographic, caregiving and clinical variables. Analysis was of 1,476 caregivers, of whom 125 were atypical, from the Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregivers Health (REACH I and II)…

  19. Gendered Perceptions of Typical Engineers across Specialties for Engineering Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Margaret S.; Bryan, Kimberley K.

    2018-01-01

    Young women do not choose to be engineers nearly as often as young men, and they tend to cluster in particular specialties when they do. We examine these patterns and the role of gender schemas as applied to perceptions of typical engineers in understanding the choices that women make in terms of engineering specialties. We use Part 1 of two waves…

  20. Typical School Personnel Developing and Implementing Basic Behavior Support Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland-Cohen, M. Kathleen; Horner, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the ability of typical school personnel with basic behavioral training to develop and implement function-based supports for students with mild to moderate problem behaviors. Descriptive results indicated that following four 1-hr training sessions, 13 participants were able to (a) identify interventions that were and were not…

  1. Hydraulic characteristics of a typical basement complex aquifer in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydraulic characteristics of a typical basement complex aquifer in Ajaokuta, southwestern Nigeria. CC Osadebe, JO Fatoba, S Obrike. Abstract. No Abstract. Ife Journal of Science Vol. 7(2) 2005: 297-303. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  2. Changes in some physical properties of a typic haplorthox in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The assessment of the impacts of different crop rotations on soil physical properties is needed to identify those with the potential to improve such properties which enhance crops´ responses to soil nutrients. The effects of eight crop rotations on physical properties of a Rhodic Ferralsol (Typic Haplorthox) were assessed in ...

  3. Children's Typically-Perceived-Situations of Floating and Sinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Yong Jae

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore children's typically-perceived-situations (TPS) of "floating" and "sinking". TPS refers to the situation rising spontaneously in an individual's mind when they first think of a phenomenon or concept. Data were collected from 148 Year 5 Korean children. As a result of analysing the data…

  4. Differences in College Student Typical Drinking and Celebration Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodyard, Catherine Dane; Hallam, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to determine whether students consume alcohol in greater quantities when drinking in celebration of an event or holiday versus typical drinking use. Celebratory occasions include tailgating during football games, holidays, and the beginning and ending of academic semesters. Participants: Traditional…

  5. Analogical Reasoning Ability in Autistic and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsanyi, Kinga; Holyoak, Keith J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies (e.g. Dawson et al., 2007) have reported that autistic people perform in the normal range on the Raven Progressive Matrices test, a formal reasoning test that requires integration of relations as well as the ability to infer rules and form high-level abstractions. Here we compared autistic and typically developing children, matched…

  6. NOUN DERIVATION OF THE TYPICAL MINAHASA FOOD AND BEVERAGE NAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina P Pamantung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Derivation of the name of typical Minahasa food and beverage is a change or replacement of the word class of verbs, adverbs, and adjectives into nouns. It occurs through the process of compounding, affixation, and reduplication. Free morpheme which appears is ransak, tei, tu'tu, tape, segor, sende ', rica, fresh, rukus. Conversely, some morphemes or bound forms (affixes are the prefix /pe-/,/wa-/, and /ko-/ ; infix /-in-/ ; suffix /-en/, and confixes /-in- + -an/ and  /ka- + -an/ . Prefixes /pe-/, /wa-/, and /ko-/ ; infix /-in-/ ; sufi x-en/, andconfixes /-in- + -an/ occur in the formation of derivational words of  food, while  drinks contain two morphemes (affixes, the infix / -in- / and confix (ka + -an. Thus, the derivation of the typical Minahasa food naming is called derivational affixes such as derivational prefix, infix, and confix. Meanwhile, derivational infix, and confix occur in a typical Minahasa drink. Empty derivation is not found in the typical Minahasa food and beverage since a single form, for example, pangi, sa’ut, paniki, kawok, dan sopi have a meaning that does not change the word class. In addition, the characteristics of the structure of itscompounding: root + base (base + roots, that have a sense of the endocentric and exocentric compound words. Endocentric ompounding is the most frequent.

  7. Breast Metastases from Extramammary Malignancies: Typical and Atypical Ultrasound Features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, Sung Hee; Ko, Eun Young; Han, Boo-Kyung; Shin, Jung Hee; Kim, Suk Jung; Cho, Eun Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies are uncommon. The most common sources are lymphomas/leukemias and melanomas. Some of the less common sources include carcinomas of the lung, ovary, and stomach, and infrequently, carcinoid tumors, hypernephromas, carcinomas of the liver, tonsil, pleura, pancreas, cervix, perineum, endometrium and bladder. Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies have both hematogenous and lymphatic routes. According to their routes, there are common radiological features of metastatic diseases of the breast, but the features are not specific for metastases. Typical ultrasound (US) features of hematogenous metastases include single or multiple, round to oval shaped, well-circumscribed hypoechoic masses without spiculations, calcifications, or architectural distortion; these masses are commonly located superficially in subcutaneous tissue or immediately adjacent to the breast parenchyma that is relatively rich in blood supply. Typical US features of lymphatic breast metastases include diffusely and heterogeneously increased echogenicities in subcutaneous fat and glandular tissue and a thick trabecular pattern with secondary skin thickening, lymphedema, and lymph node enlargement. However, lesions show variable US features in some cases, and differentiation of these lesions from primary breast cancer or from benign lesions is difficult. In this review, we demonstrate various US appearances of breast metastases from extramammary malignancies as typical and atypical features, based on the results of US and other imaging studies performed at our institution. Awareness of the typical and atypical imaging features of these lesions may be helpful to diagnose metastatic lesions of the breast

  8. Breast Metastases from Extramammary Malignancies: Typical and Atypical Ultrasound Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, Sung Hee [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Catholic University of Daegu College of Medicine, Daegu 712-702 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Eun Young; Han, Boo-Kyung; Shin, Jung Hee [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Suk Jung [Department of Radiology, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan Paik Hospital, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Eun Yoon [Department of Pathology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies are uncommon. The most common sources are lymphomas/leukemias and melanomas. Some of the less common sources include carcinomas of the lung, ovary, and stomach, and infrequently, carcinoid tumors, hypernephromas, carcinomas of the liver, tonsil, pleura, pancreas, cervix, perineum, endometrium and bladder. Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies have both hematogenous and lymphatic routes. According to their routes, there are common radiological features of metastatic diseases of the breast, but the features are not specific for metastases. Typical ultrasound (US) features of hematogenous metastases include single or multiple, round to oval shaped, well-circumscribed hypoechoic masses without spiculations, calcifications, or architectural distortion; these masses are commonly located superficially in subcutaneous tissue or immediately adjacent to the breast parenchyma that is relatively rich in blood supply. Typical US features of lymphatic breast metastases include diffusely and heterogeneously increased echogenicities in subcutaneous fat and glandular tissue and a thick trabecular pattern with secondary skin thickening, lymphedema, and lymph node enlargement. However, lesions show variable US features in some cases, and differentiation of these lesions from primary breast cancer or from benign lesions is difficult. In this review, we demonstrate various US appearances of breast metastases from extramammary malignancies as typical and atypical features, based on the results of US and other imaging studies performed at our institution. Awareness of the typical and atypical imaging features of these lesions may be helpful to diagnose metastatic lesions of the breast.

  9. Regular Strongly Typical Blocks of {mathcal{O}^{mathfrak {q}}}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisk, Anders; Mazorchuk, Volodymyr

    2009-10-01

    We use the technique of Harish-Chandra bimodules to prove that regular strongly typical blocks of the category {mathcal{O}} for the queer Lie superalgebra {mathfrak{q}_n} are equivalent to the corresponding blocks of the category {mathcal{O}} for the Lie algebra {mathfrak {gl}_n}.

  10. Face-to-Face Interference in Typical and Atypical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riby, Deborah M.; Doherty-Sneddon, Gwyneth; Whittle, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Visual communication cues facilitate interpersonal communication. It is important that we look at faces to retrieve and subsequently process such cues. It is also important that we sometimes look away from faces as they increase cognitive load that may interfere with online processing. Indeed, when typically developing individuals hold face gaze…

  11. Simulation of seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers: Some typical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers is generally three dimensional (3-D) in nature. In the literature, there is a general lack of reported results on 3-D simulations. This paper presents some typical example simulations of 3-D seawater intrusion process for a specified hypothetical study area. The simulation results presented ...

  12. Use of the Structured Descriptive Assessment with Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cynthia M.; English, Carie L.; Hedrick, Theresa M.

    2006-01-01

    To date, only a limited number of studies have focused on functional assessment with typically developing populations. The most commonly reported method of functional assessment with this population seems to be descriptive assessment; however, the methods used in the descriptive assessment often are unclear. This is unfortunate as researchers and…

  13. Quality and quantity of construction and demolition waste in Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, Alireza; Ghorbanian, Tahereh; Yousefi, Nader; Dadashzadeh, Dariush; Khalili, Fatemeh; Bagheri, Amin; Raei, Mehdi; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2017-01-01

    In recent years the generation rate of construction and demolition waste (C&D) has significantly augmented. The aim of this study was to assessed the quality and quantity of construction and demolition waste in Tehran (capital of Iran). Questionnaire methods were used for estimating the amount of generated C&D wastes national statistical data and typical waste generation data. In order to defining the composition of C&D waste, trucks were randomly selected and their wastes were separated and weighted. According to obtained results, about 82,646,051 m 3 of C&D waste (average 16,529,210 m 3 per year) were generated during 2011 to 2016 which only about 26% of them has been recycled. Mixing sand and cement, concrete, broken bricks and soil have the highest amount of the composition of C&D waste in Tehran that was 30, 19, 18 and 11%, respectively. Based on the results, about 2,784,158 t of the waste will generate in 2025 and this is approximately 122% higher than wastes generate in 2016. Based on MAPSA's data, 360 teams of personnel cruise and control the illegal disposals, but due to the expansion of Tehran this number of teams is inadequate and can't be effective in controlling the situation. In general, the overall condition of C&D waste management in Tehran seems undesirable and needs to be updated based on the experience of successful countries in this field.

  14. Food waste management using an electrostatic separator with corona discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Koonchun; Teh, Pehchiong; Lim, Sooking

    2015-01-01

    In Malaysia, municipal solid waste contains a high portion of organic matters, typically contributed by food waste. It is estimated that about 45% of the municipal waste are food waste, followed by the non-food waste such as plastics, metals, glass and others. Food waste, while being properly sorted and contamination free from non-food waste, can be reused (e.g. fertiliser) instead of being landfilled. Therefore, recycling of food waste is crucial not only from the view point of waste management, but also with respect to the reduction of resource losses and greenhouse gases emission. A new waste separation process involved food particles, non-food particles and electrostatic discharge was investigated in this study. The empirical results reveal that the corona electrostatic separation is an environmental-friendly way in recovering foods from municipal waste. The efficiency of the separator, under same operating conditions, varies with the particle size of the food and non-food particles. The highest efficiency of 82% is recorded for the particle sizes between 1.5 and 3.0 mm

  15. Food waste management using an electrostatic separator with corona discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Koonchun; Teh, Pehchiong [Faculty of Engineering and Green Technology, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (Malaysia); Lim, Sooking [Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    In Malaysia, municipal solid waste contains a high portion of organic matters, typically contributed by food waste. It is estimated that about 45% of the municipal waste are food waste, followed by the non-food waste such as plastics, metals, glass and others. Food waste, while being properly sorted and contamination free from non-food waste, can be reused (e.g. fertiliser) instead of being landfilled. Therefore, recycling of food waste is crucial not only from the view point of waste management, but also with respect to the reduction of resource losses and greenhouse gases emission. A new waste separation process involved food particles, non-food particles and electrostatic discharge was investigated in this study. The empirical results reveal that the corona electrostatic separation is an environmental-friendly way in recovering foods from municipal waste. The efficiency of the separator, under same operating conditions, varies with the particle size of the food and non-food particles. The highest efficiency of 82% is recorded for the particle sizes between 1.5 and 3.0 mm.

  16. Food waste management using an electrostatic separator with corona discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Koonchun; Lim, Sooking; Teh, Pehchiong

    2015-05-01

    In Malaysia, municipal solid waste contains a high portion of organic matters, typically contributed by food waste. It is estimated that about 45% of the municipal waste are food waste, followed by the non-food waste such as plastics, metals, glass and others. Food waste, while being properly sorted and contamination free from non-food waste, can be reused (e.g. fertiliser) instead of being landfilled. Therefore, recycling of food waste is crucial not only from the view point of waste management, but also with respect to the reduction of resource losses and greenhouse gases emission. A new waste separation process involved food particles, non-food particles and electrostatic discharge was investigated in this study. The empirical results reveal that the corona electrostatic separation is an environmental-friendly way in recovering foods from municipal waste. The efficiency of the separator, under same operating conditions, varies with the particle size of the food and non-food particles. The highest efficiency of 82% is recorded for the particle sizes between 1.5 and 3.0 mm.

  17. Policies and strategies for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    A policy for spent fuel and radioactive waste management should include a set of goals or requirements to ensure the safe and efficient management of spent fuel and radioactive waste in the country. Policy is mainly established by the national government and may become codified in the national legislative system. The spent fuel and radioactive waste management strategy sets out the means for achieving the goals and requirements set out in the national policy. It is normally established by the relevant waste owner or nuclear facility operator, or by government (institutional waste). Thus, the national policy may be elaborated in several different strategy components. To ensure the safe, technically optimal and cost effective management of radioactive waste, countries are advised to formulate appropriate policies and strategies. A typical policy should include the following elements: defined safety and security objectives, arrangements for providing resources for spent fuel and radioactive waste management, identification of the main approaches for the management of the national spent fuel and radioactive waste categories, policy on export/import of radioactive waste, and provisions for public information and participation. In addition, the policy should define national roles and responsibilities for spent fuel and radioactive waste management. In order to formulate a meaningful policy, it is necessary to have sufficient information on the national situation, for example, on the existing national legal framework, institutional structures, relevant international obligations, other relevant national policies and strategies, indicative waste and spent fuel inventories, the availability of resources, the situation in other countries and the preferences of the major interested parties. The strategy reflects and elaborates the goals and requirements set out in the policy statement. For its formulation, detailed information is needed on the current situation in the country

  18. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to set out the Government's current strategy for the long term in the management of radioactive wastes. It takes account of the latest developments, and will be subject to review in the light of future developments and studies. The subject is discussed under the headings: what are radioactive wastes; who is responsible; what monitoring takes place; disposal as the objective; low-level wastes; intermediate-level wastes; discharges from Sellafield; heat generating wastes; how will waste management systems and procedures be assessed; how much more waste is there going to be in future; conclusion. (U.K.)

  19. Infectious waste feed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulthard, E. James

    1994-01-01

    An infectious waste feed system for comminuting infectious waste and feeding the comminuted waste to a combustor automatically without the need for human intervention. The system includes a receptacle for accepting waste materials. Preferably, the receptacle includes a first and second compartment and a means for sealing the first and second compartments from the atmosphere. A shredder is disposed to comminute waste materials accepted in the receptacle to a predetermined size. A trough is disposed to receive the comminuted waste materials from the shredder. A feeding means is disposed within the trough and is movable in a first and second direction for feeding the comminuted waste materials to a combustor.

  20. Waste Package Lifting Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H. Marr

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the structural response of the waste package during the horizontal and vertical lifting operations in order to support the waste package lifting feature design. The scope of this calculation includes the evaluation of the 21 PWR UCF (pressurized water reactor uncanistered fuel) waste package, naval waste package, 5 DHLW/DOE SNF (defense high-level waste/Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel)--short waste package, and 44 BWR (boiling water reactor) UCF waste package. Procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, calculations, is used to develop and document this calculation

  1. The solid waste dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amey, E.B.; Russell, J.A.; Hurdelbrink, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    In 1976, the U.S. Congress enacted the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) to further address the problem of increasing industrial and municipal waste. The main objectives of RCRA were to responsibly manage hazardous and solid waste and to procure materials made from recovered wastes. To fulfill these objectives, four main programs of waste management were developed. These programs were defined under Subtitle C, the Hazardous Waste Program; Subtitle D, the Solid Waste Program; Subtitle I, the Underground Storage Tank Program; and Subtitle J, the Medical Waste Program. Subtitle D illustrates the solid waste dilemma occurring in the United States. Under this program, states are encouraged to develop and implement their own waste management plans. These plans include the promotion of recycling solid wastes and the closing and upgrading of all environmentally unsound dumps. ?? 1996 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  2. Understanding radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

  3. Understanding radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes)

  4. Radioactive mixed waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasen, W.G.; Erpenbeck, E.G.

    1993-02-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) have led to the definition of radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). The radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes have resulted in the initiation of special projects for the management of these wastes. Other solid wastes at the Hanford Site include low-level wastes, transuranic (TRU), and nonradioactive hazardous wastes. This paper describes a system for the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of solid radioactive waste

  5. Special Analysis for Disposal of High-Concentration I-129 Waste in the Low-Activity Waste Vaults at the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collard, L.B.

    2003-02-14

    This Special Analysis (SA) addresses disposal of wastes containing a high concentration of I-129 in the Low Activity Waste (LAW) Vaults at the Savannah River Site E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility. These wastes were analyzed by computer modeling incorporating a laboratory-measured I-129 Kd. A Kd represents partitioning of a contaminant between solid particles (i.e., the waste) and liquid that can transport the contaminant. These wastes exhibited high Kds indicating a slow release rate that typically is manifested as low aquifer concentrations and high vault-inventory limits. This SA applies to ER and ETF wastes and any type of future waste that contains a high concentration of I-129. This SA was prepared to meet the requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy Order 435.1 (DOE 1999). Because the Performance Assessment (PA, McDowell-Boyer, et al., 2000) analyzes generic wastes, this report focuses on wastes with a high I-129 concentration. Common information from the PA is not duplicate d in this report.

  6. A Management Framework for Municipal Solid Waste Systems and Its Application to Food Waste Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista L. Thyberg

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Waste management is a complex task involving numerous waste fractions, a range of technological treatment options, and many outputs that are circulated back into society. A systematic, interdisciplinary systems management framework was developed to facilitate the planning, implementation, and maintenance of sustainable waste systems. It aims not to replace existing decision-making approaches, but rather to enable their integration to allow for inclusion of overall sustainability concerns and address the complexity of solid waste management. The framework defines key considerations for system design, steps for performance monitoring, and approaches for facilitating continual system improvements. It was developed by critically examining the literature to determine what aspects of a management framework would be most effective at improving systems management for complex waste systems. The framework was applied to food waste management as a theoretical case study to exemplify how it can serve as a systems management tool for complex waste systems, as well as address obstacles typically faced in the field. Its benefits include the integration of existing waste system assessment models; the inclusion of environmental, economic, and social priorities; efficient performance monitoring; and a structure to continually define, review, and improve systems. This framework may have broader implications for addressing sustainability in other disciplines.

  7. Municipal Solid Waste Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a source of biomass material that can be utilized for bioenergy production with minimal additional inputs. MSW resources include mixed commercial and residential garbage such as yard trimmings, paper and paperboard, plastics, rubber, leather, textiles, and food wastes. Waste resources such as landfill gas, mill residues, and waste grease are already being utilized for cost-effective renewable energy generation. MSW for bioenergy also represents an opportunity to divert greater volumes of residential and commercial waste from landfills.

  8. Nuclear waste solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklund, William J.

    1977-01-01

    High level liquid waste solidification is achieved on a continuous basis by atomizing the liquid waste and introducing the atomized liquid waste into a reaction chamber including a fluidized, heated inert bed to effect calcination of the atomized waste and removal of the calcined waste by overflow removal and by attrition and elutriation from the reaction chamber, and feeding additional inert bed particles to the fluidized bed to maintain the inert bed composition.

  9. Radium bearing waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tope, W.G.; Nixon, D.A.; Smith, M.L.; Stone, T.J.; Vogel, R.A.; Schofield, W.D.

    1995-01-01

    Fernald radium bearing ore residue waste, stored within Silos 1 and 2 (K-65) and Silo 3, will be vitrified for disposal at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). A comprehensive, parametric evaluation of waste form, packaging, and transportation alternatives was completed to identify the most cost-effective approach. The impacts of waste loading, waste form, regulatory requirements, NTS waste acceptance criteria, as-low-as-reasonably-achievable principles, and material handling costs were factored into the recommended approach

  10. Biomedical Waste Management

    OpenAIRE

    Sikovska, Biljana; Dimova, Cena; Sumanov, Gorgi; Vankovski, Vlado

    2016-01-01

    Medical waste is all waste material generated at health care facilities, such as hospitals, clinics, physician’s offices, dental practices, blood banks, and veterinary hospitals/clinics, as well as medical research facilities and laboratories. Poor management of health care waste potentially exposes health care workers, waste handlers, patients and the community at large to infection, toxic effects and injuries, and risks polluting the environment. It is essential that all medical waste ma...

  11. Power Production Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Junpei; Zhu, Cheng; Zhang, Panyue; Zhang, Qian; Nabi, Mohammad; Wang, Xuan

    2017-10-01

    This review focuses on the research literature published in 2016 relating to power production waste that results from fossil fuel and nuclear power plants. It elaborates the characterization, reuse and disposal of power production wastes. The wastes from fossil fuel power plants have been divided into fly ash, flue gas desulfurization gypsum and waste catalyst. The environmental issues, associated with nuclear power plants and waste production are also reviewed.

  12. Visions of technology: : Big data lessons understood by EU policy makers in their review of the legal frameworks on intellectual property rights, access to and re-use of PSI and the protection of personal data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerant, Hans; de Hert, Paul; Gutwirth, Serge; Leenes, Ronald; De Hert, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This article’s focus is on how the advent of big data technology and practices has been understood and addressed by policy makers in the EU. We start with a reflection on of how big data affects business processes and how it con- tributes to the creation of a data economy. Then we look at EU policy

  13. Waste site grouping for 200 Areas soil investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify logical waste site groups for characterization based on criteria established in the 200 Areas Soil Remediation Strategy (DOE-RL 1996a). Specific objectives of the document include the following: finalize waste site groups based on the approach and preliminary groupings identified in the 200 Areas Soil Remediation Strategy; prioritize the waste site groups based on criteria developed in the 200 Areas Soil Remediation Strategy; select representative site(s) that best represents typical and worse-case conditions for each waste group; develop conceptual models for each waste group. This document will serve as a technical baseline for implementing the 200 Areas Soil Remediation Strategy. The intent of the document is to provide a framework, based on waste site groups, for organizing soil characterization efforts in the 200 Areas and to present initial conceptual models

  14. Waste site grouping for 200 Areas soil investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify logical waste site groups for characterization based on criteria established in the 200 Areas Soil Remediation Strategy (DOE-RL 1996a). Specific objectives of the document include the following: finalize waste site groups based on the approach and preliminary groupings identified in the 200 Areas Soil Remediation Strategy; prioritize the waste site groups based on criteria developed in the 200 Areas Soil Remediation Strategy; select representative site(s) that best represents typical and worse-case conditions for each waste group; develop conceptual models for each waste group. This document will serve as a technical baseline for implementing the 200 Areas Soil Remediation Strategy. The intent of the document is to provide a framework, based on waste site groups, for organizing soil characterization efforts in the 200 Areas and to present initial conceptual models.

  15. Mixed waste management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, C.B.; Kirner, N.P.

    1992-01-01

    Currently, limited storage and treatment capacity exists for commercial mixed waste streams. No commercial mixed waste disposal is available, and it has been estimated that if and when commercial mixed waste disposal becomes available, the costs will be high. If high disposal fees are imposed, generators may be willing to apply extraordinary treatment or regulatory approaches to properly dispose of their mixed waste. This paper explores the feasibility of several waste management scenarios and management options. Existing data on commercially generated mixed waste streams are used to identify the realm of mixed waste known to be generated. Each waste stream is evaluated from both a regulatory and technical perspective in order to convert the waste into a strictly low-level radioactive or a hazardous waste. Alternative regulatory approaches evaluated in this paper include a delisting petition) no migration petition) and a treatability variance. For each waste stream, potentially available treatment options are identified that could lead to these variances. Waste minimization methodology and storage for decay are also considered. Economic feasibility of each option is discussed broadly. Another option for mixed waste management that is being explored is the feasibility of Department of Energy (DOE) accepting commercial mixed waste for treatment, storage, and disposal. A study has been completed that analyzes DOE treatment capacity in comparison with commercial mixed waste streams. (author)

  16. Seismic design of low-level nuclear waste repositories and toxic waste management facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, D.H.; Bernreuter, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    Identification of the elements of typical hazardous waste facilities (HFWs) that are the major contributors to the risk are focussed on as the elements which require additional considerations in the design and construction of low-level nuclear waste management repositories and HWFs. From a recent study of six typical HWFs it was determined that the factors that contribute most to the human and environmental risk fall into four basic categories: geologic and seismological conditions at each HWF; engineered structures at each HWF; environmental conditions at each HWF; and nature of the material being released. In selecting and carrying out the six case studies, three groups of hazardous waste facilities were examined: generator industries which treat or temporarily store their own wastes; generator facilities which dispose of their own hazardous wastes on site; and industries in the waste treatment and disposal business. The case studies have a diversity of geologic setting, nearby settlement patterns, and environments. Two sites are above a regional aquifer, two are near a bay important to regional fishing, one is in rural hills, and one is in a desert, although not isolated from nearby towns and a groundwater/surface-water system. From the results developed in the study, it was concluded that the effect of seismic activity on hazardous facilities poses a significant risk to the population. Fifteen reasons are given for this conclusion

  17. Power station does not waste waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madeley, J.

    2000-03-01

    Two examples of the 'waste not, want not' philosophy is demonstrated by the examples of the Town of Holsworthy in the United Kingdom, and the Lerwick Waste to Energy Plant in the Shetland Islands of Scotland. In the case of the Town of Holsworthy, a power plant is under construction which, when completed, will generate electricity using 300 tonnes of cow dung and organic food waste per day to fuel two 'digesters' to heat the waste in order to release methane which will then be siphoned off to power gas engines to produce the electricity. The dung will be returned to the farmers (minus the methane) to spread on their fields. The Shetland Islands project uses an incineration plant to burn mostly municipal waste in a grate incinerator with a waste heat boiler. The waste consists of paper, glass, steel and aluminium cans, garden waste and other household materials. Clinical waste from hospitals, clinics, etc. is also included. The plant is designed to treat about 26,000 tonnes of waste a year. Burning is at the rate of 3.6 tonnes an hour at 850 degrees C. The grate is activated through a hydraulic oil system. Water in the boiler tubes is heated to 115 degrees C and pumped into the district heating system, a large centralized boiler, to distribute to houses and other buildings through underground pipes. Only heat from the hot water, not the hot water itself, is transferred through the pipes.

  18. Narrative versus Style : Effect of Genre Typical Events versus Genre Typical Filmic Realizations on Film Viewers' Genre Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visch, V.; Tan, E.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether film viewers recognize four basic genres (comic, drama, action and nonfiction) on the basis of genre-typical event cues or of genretypical filmic realization cues of events. Event cues are similar to the narrative content of a film sequence, while filmic realization

  19. Application of a glass furnace system to low-level radioactive and mixed waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, L.; Armstrong, K.

    1986-01-01

    In 1981 Mound began a study to determine the feasibility of using an electrically heated glass furnace for the treatment of low-level radioactive wastes generated at commercial nuclear power facilities. Experiments were designed to determine: Whether the technology offered solutions to industry waste disposal problems, and if so; whether is could meet what were thought to be critical requirements for radioactive thermal waste processing. These requirements include: high quality combustion of organic constituents, capture and immobilization of radioactivity, integrity of final waste form, and cost effectiveness. To address these questions a variety of wastes typical of the types generated by nuclear power facilities, including not only standard trash but also wastes of high aqueous and/or inorganic content, were spiked with waste radioisotopes predominant in plant wastes and processed in the glass furnace. The results of this study indicate that the unit is capable of fully meeting the addressed needs of the nuclear industry for power plant waste processing

  20. Geological disposal of radioactive waste: records, markers and people. An integration challenge to be met over millennia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, C.; Mays, C.

    2008-01-01

    An issue that has long been on the radioactive waste management agenda is the means of marking a waste repository site, such that future generations will be able to comprehend its purpose and risks even if written records have been lost. For years the main reason cited for needing such comprehension was to preclude unintentional future human intrusion into the repository and the ensuing exposure of the intruder to radiation. Such a future intruder could also cause damage to the repository system and endanger his own and subsequent generations. More recently, other reasons have included the wish to maintain a certain degree of flexibility for future generations, in case the latter decide to retrieve the waste for motives that may go beyond safety, e.g., the economic exploitation of the energy potential that may remain in the waste. The conceptualisation and design of markers of records by technologists has typically focused on durability and has assumed that the repository is - and will be - something totally separate from its cultural environment. A new vision is emerging, however, that it may be worthwhile to consider the repository as part of a societal fabric. The task of maintaining memory would thus be facilitated by measures that would foster community involvement and would go as far as foreseeing that these communities will in time build their own new markers to replace old ones that have become obsolete or are fading away. It must be understood that the timescales over which the hazard exists are much longer than just a few thousands of years, and it must be accepted that the current generation's capacity to assure continued integrity cannot be projected indefinitely into the future, but rather diminishes with time. Hence, there is perhaps the need to conceptualize a 'rolling future' in which each generation takes responsibility to ensure continuity and safety for the succeeding several generations, including a need for flexibility and adaptability to

  1. Verbal communication skills in typical language development: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Camila Mayumi; Bretanha, Andreza Carolina; Bozza, Amanda; Ferraro, Gyovanna Junya Klinke; Lopes-Herrera, Simone Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate verbal communication skills in children with typical language development and ages between 6 and 8 years. Participants were 10 children of both genders in this age range without language alterations. A 30-minute video of each child's interaction with an adult (father and/or mother) was recorded, fully transcribed, and analyzed by two trained researchers in order to determine reliability. The recordings were analyzed according to a protocol that categorizes verbal communicative abilities, including dialogic, regulatory, narrative-discursive, and non-interactive skills. The frequency of use of each category of verbal communicative ability was analyzed (in percentage) for each subject. All subjects used more dialogical and regulatory skills, followed by narrative-discursive and non-interactive skills. This suggests that children in this age range are committed to continue dialog, which shows that children with typical language development have more dialogic interactions during spontaneous interactions with a familiar adult.

  2. SSI response of a typical shear wall structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.J.; Maslenikov, O.R.; Schewe, E.C.

    1985-01-01

    The seismic response of a typical shear structure in a commercial nuclear power plant was investigated for a series of site and foundation conditions using best estimate and design procedures. The structure selected is a part of the Zion AFT complex which is a connected group of reinforced concrete shear wall buildings, typical of nuclear power plant structures. Comparisons between best estimate responses quantified the effects of placing the structure on different sites and founding it in different manners. Calibration factors were developed by comparing simplified SSI design procedure responses to responses calculated by best estimate procedures. Nineteen basic cases were analyzed - each case was analyzed for ten earthquakes targeted to the NRC R.G. 1.60 design response spectra. The structure is a part of the Zion auxiliary-fuel handling turbine building (AFT) complex to the Zion nuclear power plants. (orig./HP)

  3. Neural Correlates of Reward Processing in Typical and Atypical Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma G. Duerden PhD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Atypically developing children including those born preterm or who have autism spectrum disorder can display difficulties with evaluating rewarding stimuli, which may result from impaired maturation of reward and cognitive control brain regions. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, 58 typically and atypically developing children (6-12 years participated in a set-shifting task that included the presentation of monetary reward stimuli. In typically developing children, reward stimuli were associated with age-related increases in activation in cognitive control centers, with weaker changes in reward regions. In atypically developing children, no age-related changes were evident. Maturational disturbances in the frontostriatal regions during atypical development may underlie task-based differences in activation.

  4. Memory for radio advertisements: the effect of program and typicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Luengo, Beatriz; Luna, Karlos; Migueles, Malen

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influence of the type of radio program on the memory for radio advertisements. We also investigated the role in memory of the typicality (high or low) of the elements of the products advertised. Participants listened to three types of programs (interesting, boring, enjoyable) with two advertisements embedded in each. After completing a filler task, the participants performed a true/false recognition test. Hits and false alarm rates were higher for the interesting and enjoyable programs than for the boring one. There were also more hits and false alarms for the high-typicality elements. The response criterion for the advertisements embedded in the boring program was stricter than for the advertisements in other types of programs. We conclude that the type of program in which an advertisement is inserted and the nature of the elements of the advertisement affect both the number of hits and false alarms and the response criterion, but not the accuracy of the memory.

  5. Discriminating grotesque from typical faces: evidence from the Thatcher illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Nick; Zürcher, Nicole R; Cornes, Katherine; Snyder, Josh; Naik, Paulami; Hadwin, Julie; Hadjikhani, Nouchine

    2011-01-01

    The discrimination of thatcherized faces from typical faces was explored in two simultaneous alternative forced choice tasks. Reaction times (RTs) and errors were measured in a behavioural task. Brain activation was measured in an equivalent fMRI task. In both tasks, participants were tested with upright and inverted faces. Participants were also tested on churches in the behavioural task. The behavioural task confirmed the face specificity of the illusion (by comparing inversion effects for faces against churches) but also demonstrated that the discrimination was primarily, although not exclusively, driven by attending to eyes. The fMRI task showed that, relative to inverted faces, upright grotesque faces are discriminated via activation of a network of emotion/social evaluation processing areas. On the other hand, discrimination of inverted thatcherized faces was associated with increased activation of brain areas that are typically involved in perceptual processing of faces.

  6. Electric Field Simulation of Surge Capacitors with Typical Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenmeng; Mao, Yuxiang; Xie, Shijun; Zhang, Yu

    2018-03-01

    The electric field of power capacitors with different typical defects in DC working condition and impulse oscillation working condition is studied in this paper. According to the type and location of defects and considering the influence of space charge, two-dimensional models of surge capacitors with different typical defects are simulated based on ANSYS. The distribution of the electric field inside the capacitor is analyzed, and the concentration of electric field and its influence on the insulation performance are obtained. The results show that the type of defects, the location of defects and the space charge all affect the electric field distribution inside the capacitor in varying degrees. Especially the electric field distortion in the local area such as sharp corners and burrs is relatively larger, which increases the probability of partial discharge inside the surge capacitor.

  7. The selection, licensing, and operation of a low-level radioactive waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrowsmith, H.W.; Dalton, D.

    1990-01-01

    The Scientific Ecology Group has just completed the selection, procurement, licensing, and start-up of a low-level radioactive waste incinerator. This incinerator is the only commercial radioactive waste incinerator in the US and was licensed by the Environmental Protection Agency, the State of Tennessee, the City of Oak Ridge, and the Tennessee Valley Authority. This incinerator has a thermal capacity of 13,000,000 BTUs and can burn approximately 1,000 pounds per hour of typical radioactive waste. Waste to be incinerated is sorted in a new waste sorting system at the SEG facility. The sorting is essential to assure that the incinerator will not be damaged by any unexpected waste and to maintain the purity of the incinerator off-gas. The volume reduction expected for typical waste is approximately 100:1. After burning, the incinerator ash is compacted or vitrified before shipment to burial sites

  8. Typical homicide ritual of the Italian Mafia (incaprettamento)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineschi, V; Dell'Erba, A S; Di Paolo, M; Procaccianti, P

    1998-03-01

    Certain methods of homicide used by the Italian Mafia are intended to have an admonitory significance. One such method is the so-called "incaprettamento." This study analyzes 18 cases of homicidal ligature strangulation in which the body was found in this typical position. The circumstances of the crime and the macroscopic and microscopic evidence were evaluated to determine whether or not the ligatures on the wrists and ankles were placed antemortem or postmortem.

  9. Lipoma arborescens: Comparison of typical and atypical disease presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, B.M.; Wenger, D.E.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether the aetiology differed between typical cases of lipoma arborescens with unilateral knee involvement and atypical cases involving joints other than the knee, polyarticular disease, and disease outside of the knee joint. Materials and methods: Cases of lipoma arborescens involving the knee joint were evaluated for the distribution of the disease and severity of degenerative arthritis. Joints other than the knee were evaluated for the presence and severity of degenerative arthritis, and the distribution was classified as either intra-articular, extra-articular, or both. Clinical history was reviewed for patient age at presentation, a history of inflammatory arthritis, diabetes mellitus, and known steroid use. Fisher's exact test was used to determine whether there was a statistically significant difference between typical and atypical presentations of the disease. Results: Lipoma arborescens was identified in 45 joints in 39 patients. Twenty-eight patients were classified as “typical” and 11 patients had “atypical” disease. There was no significant difference in age at presentation, presence of degenerative arthritis, or known inflammatory arthritis when comparing typical and atypical presentations of the disease. Conclusion: Twenty-eight percent of patients in the present study had atypical presentation of lipoma arborescens with multifocal lipoma arborescens or disease in joints other than the knee. There was no significant difference in age at presentation, presence of degenerative arthritis, or known inflammatory arthritis when comparing typical and atypical presentations of the disease. Of the 39 patients, only three had no evidence of degenerative arthritis, which suggests that many cases of lipoma arborescens are secondary to chronic reactive change in association with degenerative arthritis

  10. TYPICAL LEISHMANIOSIS IN A DOG REGULARLY VACCINATED WITH CANILEISH®

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Gavazza; Anyela Andrea Medina Valentin; George Lubas

    2016-01-01

    The vaccine Canileish® is distributed in Europe to reduce the risk of developing an active infection and clinical leishmaniosis. An English Setter dog vaccinated with Canileish® and treated with anti-feeding and repellent medications showed typical clinical signs of leishmaniosis. The dog was presented with dysorexia, weight loss, fever and forelimb lameness. The physical exam revealed moderate generalized external lymph node enlargement, sero-purulent ocular discharge, photophobia, and swoll...

  11. The role of emotionality and typicality in speechreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, K; Rönnberg, J

    1995-06-01

    Two experiments were carried out to investigate how emotionality and typicality could influence speechreading performance. Typical and atypical sentences for a certain script, and emotional sentences (happy and sad content, presented with happy, sad or neutral facial expression) were shown without sound on a TV-screen. Two different scripts (restaurant and doctor) were used. In Experiment 1, hearing-impaired subjects participated and in Experiment 2, normal-hearing subjects participated. Experiment 2 also evaluated the effects of tactile information. The results from both experiments showed that typical restaurant sentences were the easiest to speechread of all sentence-types, in line with script-theory (Abelson, 1981; Anderson, 1983; Bellezza & Bower, 1981; Nottenburg & Shoben, 1980; Yekovich & Walker, 1986). For the doctor script, sad sentences were better speechread than happy sentences, also according to script-theory. In addition, perception of emotional content was enhanced by tactile information. Generally, both the cognitive and emotional effects are script-dependent, suggesting important social constraints on speechreading accuracy.

  12. Typically Female Features in Hungarian Shopping Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Michalkó

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Although shopping has been long acknowledged as a major tourist activity, the extent and characteristics of shopping tourism have only recently become the subject of academic research and discussion. As a contribution to this field of knowledge, the paper presents the characteristics of shopping tourism in Hungary, and discusses the typically female features of outbound Hungarian shopping tourism. The research is based on a survey of 2473 Hungarian tourists carried out in 2005. As the findings of the study indicate, while female respondents were altogether more likely to be involved in tourist shopping than male travellers, no significant difference was experienced between the genders concerning the share of shopping expenses compared to their total travel budget. In their shopping behaviour, women were typically affected by price levels, and they proved to be both more selfish and more altruistic than men by purchasing more products for themselves and for their family members. The most significant differences between men and women were found in their product preferences as female tourists were more likely to purchase typically feminine goods such as clothes, shoes, bags and accessories, in the timing of shopping activities while abroad, and in the information sources used by tourists, since interpersonal influences such as friends’, guides’ and fellow travellers’ recommendations played a higher role in female travellers’ decisions.

  13. Typicality of Incest in Common-law Marriages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yor Alexander Casas Villamizar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the way Law 54 of 1990 defined common-law marriage in Colombia. Legally, common-law marriage is a way to constitute a family through natural ties. This family is expressed in the Superior Statute, which establishes this union as the essential core of the society, acquiring integral quality within the social state of law and forcing the State and the society to protect it as a legal right by means of the Criminal Law. Incest –understood as carnal knowledge or other sexual act with a predecessor, descendant, adoptive parent, or sibling– destabilizes and imperils the family institution. Common-law marriages composed by incestuous relatives are a punishable behavior and not a marital estate.

  14. Overview of nuclear waste disposal in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, E.E.; Priest, C.C.

    1981-01-01

    One option receiving consideration by the Department of Energy (DOE) is the space disposal of certain high-level nuclear wastes. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is assessing the space disposal option in support of DOE studies on alternatives for nuclear waste management. The space disposal option is viewed as a complement, since total disposal of fuel rods from commercial power plants is not considered to be economically practical with Space Shuttle technology. The space disposal of certain high-level wastes may, however, provide reduced calculated and perceived risks. The space disposal option in conjunction with terrestrial disposal may offer a more flexible and lower risk overall waste management system. For the space disposal option to be viable, it must be demonstrated that the overall long-term risks associated with this activity, as a complement to the mined geologic repository, would be significantly less than the long-term risk associated with disposing of all the high-level waste. The long-term risk benefit must be achieved within an acceptable short-term and overall program cost. This paper briefly describes space disposal alternatives, the space disposal destination, possible waste mixes and forms, systems and typical operations, and the energy and cost analysis

  15. Making waste management public (or falling back to sleep).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hird, Myra J; Lougheed, Scott; Rowe, R Kerry; Kuyvenhoven, Cassandra

    2014-06-01

    Human-produced waste is a major environmental concern, with communities considering various waste management practices, such as increased recycling, landfilling, incineration, and waste-to-energy technologies. This article is concerned with how and why publics assemble around waste management issues. In particular, we explore Noortje Marres and Bruno Latour's theory that publics do not exist prior to issues but rather assemble around objects, and through these assemblages, objects become matters of concern that sometimes become political. The article addresses this theory of making things public through a study of a small city in Ontario, Canada, whose landfill is closed and waste diversion options are saturated, and that faces unsustainable costs in shipping its waste to the United States, China, and other regions. The city's officials are undertaking a cost-benefit assessment to determine the efficacy of siting a new landfill or other waste management facility. We are interested in emphasizing the complexity of making (or not making) landfills public, by exploring an object in action, where members of the public may or may not assemble, waste may or may not be made into an issue, and waste is sufficiently routinized that it is not typically transformed from an object to an issue. We hope to demonstrate Latour's third and fifth senses of politics best account for waste management's trajectory as a persistent yet inconsistent matter of public concern.

  16. Contaminant distributions at typical U.S. uranium milling facilities and their effect on remedial action decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamp, S.; Dotson, P.W.

    1995-01-01

    Past operations at uranium processing sites throughout the US have resulted in local contamination of soils and ground water by radionuclides, toxic metals, or both. Understanding the origin of contamination and how the constituents are distributed is a basic element for planning remedial action decisions. This report describes the radiological and nonradiological species found in ground water at a typical US uranium milling facility. The report will provide the audience with an understanding of the vast spectrum of contaminants that must be controlled in planning solutions to the long-term management of these waste materials

  17. Revised Draft Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact Statement, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This ''Revised Draft Hanford Site Solid (Radioactive and Hazardous) Waste Program Environmental Impact Statement'' (HSW EIS) covers three primary aspects of waste management at Hanford--waste treatment, storage, and disposal. It also addresses four kinds of solid waste--low-level waste (LLW), mixed (radioactive and chemically hazardous) low-level waste (MLLW), transuranic (TRU) waste, and immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW). It fundamentally asks the question: how should we manage the waste we have now and will have in the future? This EIS analyzes the impacts of the LLW, MLLW, TRU waste, and ILAW we currently have in storage, will generate, or expect to receive at Hanford. The HSW EIS is intended to help us determine what specific facilities we will continue to use, modify, or construct to treat, store, and dispose of these wastes (Figure S.1). Because radioactive and chemically hazardous waste management is a complex, technical, and difficult subject, we have made every effort to minimize the use of acronyms (making an exception for our four waste types listed above), use more commonly understood words, and provide the ''big picture'' in this summary. An acronym list, glossary of terms, and conversions for units of measure are provided in a readers guide in Volume 1 of this EIS

  18. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 2, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous materials at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation.

  19. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 2, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains information on hazardous materials at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation

  20. Kinetic properties of Cellulomonas sp. purine nucleoside phosphorylase with typical and non-typical substrates: implications for the reaction mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielgus-Kutrowska, Beata; Bzowska, Agnieszka

    2005-01-01

    Phosphorolysis catalyzed by Cellulomonas sp. PNP with typical nucleoside substrate, inosine (Ino), and non-typical 7-methylguanosine (m7Guo), with either nucleoside or phosphate (Pd) as the varied substrate, kinetics of the reverse synthetic reaction with guanine (Gua) and ribose-1-phosphate (R1P) as the varied substrates, and product inhibition patterns of synthetic and phosphorolytic reaction pathways were studied by steady-state kinetic methods. It is concluded that, like for mammalian trimeric PNP, complex kinetic characteristics observed for Cellulomonas enzyme results from simultaneous occurrence of three phenomena. These are sequential but random, not ordered binding of substrates, tight binding of one substrate purine bases, leading to the circumstances that for such substrates (products) rapid-equilibrium assumptions do not hold, and a dual role of Pi, a substrate, and also a reaction modifier that helps to release a tightly bound purine base.

  1. Glass formulation for phase 1 high-level waste vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vienna, J.D.; Hrma, P.R.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide potential glass formulations for prospective Phase 1 High-Level Waste (HLW) vitrification at Hanford. The results reported here will be used to aid in developing a Phase 1 HLW vitrification request for proposal (RFP) and facilitate the evaluation of ensuing proposals. The following factors were considered in the glass formulation effort: impact on total glass volume of requiring the vendor to process each of the tank compositions independently versus as a blend; effects of imposing typical values of B 2 O 3 content and waste loading in HLW borosilicate glasses as restrictions on the vendors (according to WAPS 1995, the typical values are 5--10 wt% B 2 O 3 and 20--40 wt% waste oxide loading); impacts of restricting the processing temperature to 1,150 C on eventual glass volume; and effects of caustic washing on any of the selected tank wastes relative to glass volume

  2. Frogs host faecal bacteria typically associated with humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Karen; Schobben, Xavier; Christian, Keith

    2017-07-01

    Tree frogs commonly access drinking water tanks; this may have human health implications. Although amphibians might not be expected to host mammalian faecal indicator bacteria (FIB), it is possible that they may have human FIB on their skin after exposure to human waste. We collected faeces and skin wash from green tree frogs (Litoria caerulea) from a natural environment, a suburban site, and a suburban site near a creek occasionally contaminated with sewage effluent. We used molecular techniques to test for FIB that are routinely used to indicate human faecal contamination. Enterococci colonies were isolated from both faecal and skin wash samples, and specific markers (Enterococcus faecium and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron) were found in frog faeces, demonstrating that these markers are not human- or mammalian-specific. Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron was detected in frogs from both natural and urban sites, but E. faecium was only associated with the sewage impacted site.

  3. Dysphonia Severity Index in Typically Developing Indian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebbili, Gopi Kishore; Kidwai, Juhi; Shabnam, Srushti

    2017-01-01

    Dysphonia is a variation in an individual's quality, pitch, or loudness from the voice characteristics typical of a speaker of similar age, gender, cultural background, and geographic location. Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI) is a recognized assessment tool based on a weighted combination of maximum phonation time, highest frequency, lowest intensity, and jitter (%) of an individual. Although dysphonia in adults is accurately evaluated using DSI, standard reference values for school-age children have not been studied. This study aims to document the DSI scores in typically developing children (8-12 years). A total of 42 typically developing children (8-12 years) without complaint of voice problem on the day of testing participated in the study. DSI was computed by substituting the raw scores of substituent parameters: maximum phonation time, highest frequency, lowest intensity, and jitter% using various modules of CSL 4500 software. The average DSI values obtained in children were 2.9 (1.23) and 3.8 (1.29) for males and females, respectively. DSI values are found to be significantly higher (P = 0.027) for females than those for males in Indian children. This could be attributed to the anatomical and behavioral differences among females and males. Further, pubertal changes set in earlier for females approximating an adult-like physiology, thereby leading to higher DSI values in them. The mean DSI value obtained for male and female Indian children can be used as a preliminary reference data against which the DSI values of school-age children with dysphonia can be compared. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Typical exposure of children to EMF: exposimetry and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valic, Blaz; Kos, Bor; Gajsek, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A survey study with portable exposimeters, worn by 21 children under the age of 17, and detailed measurements in an apartment above a transformer substation were carried out to determine the typical individual exposure of children to extremely low- and radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic field. In total, portable exposimeters were worn for >2400 h. Based on the typical individual exposure the in situ electric field and specific absorption rate (SAR) values were calculated for an 11-y-old female human model. The average exposure was determined to be low compared with ICNIRP reference levels: 0.29 μT for an extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic field and 0.09 V m -1 for GSM base stations, 0.11 V m -1 for DECT and 0.10 V m -1 for WiFi; other contributions could be neglected. However, some of the volunteers were more exposed: the highest realistic exposure, to which children could be exposed for a prolonged period of time, was 1.35 μT for ELF magnetic field and 0.38 V m -1 for DECT, 0.13 V m -1 for WiFi and 0.26 V m -1 for GSM base stations. Numerical calculations of the in situ electric field and SAR values for the typical and the worst-case situation show that, compared with ICNIRP basic restrictions, the average exposure is low. In the typical exposure scenario, the extremely low frequency exposure is <0.03 % and the RF exposure <0.001 % of the corresponding basic restriction. In the worst-case situation, the extremely low frequency exposure is <0.11 % and the RF exposure <0.007 % of the corresponding basic restrictions. Analysis of the exposures and the individual's perception of being exposed/ unexposed to an ELF magnetic field showed that it is impossible to estimate the individual exposure to an ELF magnetic field based only on the information provided by the individuals, as they do not have enough knowledge and information to properly identify the sources in their vicinity. (authors)

  5. Lyme disease: A case report with typical and atypical lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuj Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lyme disease is a multisystem infectious disease caused by the spirochete “Borrelia burgdorferi,” which is transmitted by “Ixodes” tick, with skin being the most common and earliest organ to be affected. Diagnosis of erythema chronicum migrans (ECM, which is the characteristic lesion of early disease, may help in early treatment and prevention of complications. Here, we are reporting a case of Lyme disease in a 10-year-old young boy from a non-endemic zone of Himachal Pradesh, who presented with typical as well as atypical ECM lesions. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed serologically, and the child was treated successfully with doxycycline.

  6. SSI response of a typical shear wall structure. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.J.; Schewe, E.C.; Maslenikov, O.R.

    1984-04-01

    The Simplified Methods project of the US NRC-funded Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) has as its goal the development of a methodology to perform routine seismic probabilistic risk assessments of commercial nuclear power plants. The study reported here develops calibration factors to relate best estimate response to design values accounting for approximations and simplifications in SSI analysis procedures. Nineteen cases were analyzed and in-structure response compared. The structure of interest was a typical shear wall structure. 6 references, 44 figures, 22 tables

  7. Energy Renovation of a Typical Danish Single-family House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2007-01-01

    In 2006, new tighter energy performance requirements were introduced in Denmark for both new buildings and renovation, including a new classification system for low energy buildings. These demands are based on the directive on Energy Performance of Buildings, the EPBD (2002/91/EC). In general......, the purpose of the project was to demonstrate that energy efficient renovation of a typical single-family house would lead to large reductions in energy consumption in a cost efficient manner, and at the same time improve living conditions. The focus has also been on achieving a commonly acceptable design...

  8. Typical exposure of children to EMF: exposimetry and dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valič, Blaž; Kos, Bor; Gajšek, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A survey study with portable exposimeters, worn by 21 children under the age of 17, and detailed measurements in an apartment above a transformer substation were carried out to determine the typical individual exposure of children to extremely low- and radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic field. In total, portable exposimeters were worn for >2400 h. Based on the typical individual exposure the in situ electric field and specific absorption rate (SAR) values were calculated for an 11-y-old female human model. The average exposure was determined to be low compared with ICNIRP reference levels: 0.29 μT for an extremely low-frequency (ELF) magnetic field and 0.09 V m(-1) for GSM base stations, 0.11 V m(-1) for DECT and 0.10 V m(-1) for WiFi; other contributions could be neglected. However, some of the volunteers were more exposed: the highest realistic exposure, to which children could be exposed for a prolonged period of time, was 1.35 μT for ELF magnetic field and 0.38 V m(-1) for DECT, 0.13 V m(-1) for WiFi and 0.26 V m(-1) for GSM base stations. Numerical calculations of the in situ electric field and SAR values for the typical and the worst-case situation show that, compared with ICNIRP basic restrictions, the average exposure is low. In the typical exposure scenario, the extremely low frequency exposure is basic restriction. In the worst-case situation, the extremely low frequency exposure is basic restrictions. Analysis of the exposures and the individual's perception of being exposed/unexposed to an ELF magnetic field showed that it is impossible to estimate the individual exposure to an ELF magnetic field based only on the information provided by the individuals, as they do not have enough knowledge and information to properly identify the sources in their vicinity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Working memory training improves reading processes in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loosli, Sandra V; Buschkuehl, Martin; Perrig, Walter J; Jaeggi, Susanne M

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate whether a brief cognitive training intervention results in a specific performance increase in the trained task, and whether there are transfer effects to other nontrained measures. A computerized, adaptive working memory intervention was conducted with 9- to 11-year-old typically developing children. The children considerably improved their performance in the trained working memory task. Additionally, compared to a matched control group, the experimental group significantly enhanced their reading performance after training, providing further evidence for shared processes between working memory and reading.

  10. Ballistic Characterization Of A Typical Military Steel Helmet

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Ali Maher; Dr. Osama Mounir Dawood; Dr. Nabil El Houseiny Awad; Mahmoud Mohamed Younes

    2017-01-01

    In this study the ballistic limit of a steel helmet against a FMJ 919 mm caliber bullet is estimated. The helmet model is the typical polish helmet wz.31.The helmet material showed high strength low alloy steel material of 0.28 carbon content and 9.125 kgm2 areal density. The tensile test according to ASTM E8 showed a tensile strength of 1236.4 MPa .The average hardness value was about HV550. First shooting experiment has been executed using a 9 mm pistol based on 350 ms muzzle velocity at 5m...

  11. Objectives for radioactive waste packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowers, R.H.

    1982-04-01

    The report falls under the headings: introduction; the nature of radioactive wastes; how to manage radioactive wastes; packaging of radioactive wastes (supervised storage; disposal); waste form evaluation and test requirements (supervised storage; disposal); conclusions. (U.K.)

  12. The material politics of waste disposal - decentralization and integrated systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope Harvey

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article and the previous «Convergence and divergence between the local and regional state around solid waste management. An unresolved problem in the Sacred Valley» from Teresa Tupayachi are published as complementary accounts on the management of solid waste in the Vilcanota Valley in Cusco. Penelope Harvey and Teresa Tupayachi worked together on this theme. The present article explores how discontinuities across diverse instances of the state are experienced and understood. Drawing from an ethnographic study of the Vilcanota Valley in Cusco, the article looks at the material politics of waste disposal in neoliberal times. Faced with the problem of how to dispose of solid waste, people from Cusco experience a lack of institutional responsibility and call for a stronger state presence. The article describes the efforts by technical experts to design integrated waste management systems that maximise the potential for re-cycling, minimise toxic contamination, and turn ‘rubbish’ into the altogether more economically lively category of ‘solid waste’. However while the financialization of waste might appear to offer an indisputable public good, efforts to instigate a viable waste disposal business in a decentralizing political space elicit deep social tensions and contradictions. The social discontinuities that decentralization supports disrupt ambitions for integrated solutions as local actors resist top-down models and look not just for alternative solutions, but alternative ways of framing the problem of urban waste, and by extension their relationship to the state.

  13. Waste disposal: preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, J.F. de.

    1983-01-01

    The problem of high level radioactive waste disposal is analyzed, suggesting an alternative for the final waste disposal from irradiated fuel elements. A methodology for determining the temperature field around an underground disposal facility is presented. (E.G.) [pt

  14. Radioactive wastes. Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaumont, R.

    2001-01-01

    Many documents (journal articles, book chapters, non-conventional documents..) deal with radioactive wastes but very often this topic is covered in a partial way and sometimes the data presented are contradictory. The aim of this article is to precise the definition of radioactive wastes and the proper terms to describe this topic. It describes the main guidelines of the management of radioactive wastes, in particular in France, and presents the problems raised by this activity: 1 - goal and stakes of the management; 2 - definition of a radioactive waste; 3 - radionuclides encountered; 4 - radio-toxicity and radiation risks; 5 - French actors of waste production and management; 6 - French classification and management principles; 7 - wastes origin and characteristics; 8 - status of radioactive wastes in France per categories; 9 - management practices; 10 - packages conditioning and fabrication; 11 - storage of wastes; 12 - the French law from December 30, 1991 and the opportunities of new ways of management; 13 - international situation. (J.S.)

  15. Commercial and Institutional Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Commercial and institutional waste is primarily from retail (stores), hotels, restaurants, health care (except health risk waste), banks, insurance companies, education, retirement homes, public services and transport. Within some of these sectors, e.g. retail and restaurants, large variations...

  16. Global Warming Potential Of A Waste Refinery Using Enzymatic Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Astrup, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    and fossil resources. This is especially important with respect to the residual waste (i.e. the remains after source-separation and separate collection) which is typically incinerated or landfilled. In this paper the energy and Global Warming performance of a pilot-scale waste refinery for the enzymatic...... plants and utilization of the liquid fraction for biogas production turned out to be the best options with respect to energy and Global Warming performance....

  17. Radioactive waste will be stored at desolate Cape site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    High, intermediate and low-level radioactive waste will be stored at the Vaalputs nuclear waste dump site near Springbok. This area is sparsely populated, there are no mineral deposits of any value, the agricultural potential is minimal. It is a typical semi-desert area. Geologically it lends itself towards the ground-storage of used nuclear fuel, because of the remote possibility of earthquakes

  18. Waste canister for storage of nuclear wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, James B.

    1977-01-01

    A waste canister for storage of nuclear wastes in the form of a solidified glass includes fins supported from the center with the tips of the fins spaced away from the wall to conduct heat away from the center without producing unacceptable hot spots in the canister wall.

  19. Mixed Waste Focus Area - Waste form initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaoka, R.; Waters, R.; Pohl, P.; Roach, J.

    1998-01-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is to provide acceptable technologies that enable implementation of mixed waste treatment systems which are developed in partnership with end-users, stakeholders, tribal governments, and regulators. To accomplish this mission, a technical baseline was established in 1996 and revised in 1997. The technical baseline forms the basis for determining which technology development activities will be supported by the MWFA. The primary attribute of the technical baseline is a set of prioritized technical deficiencies or roadblocks related to implementation of mixed waste treatment systems. The Waste Form Initiative (WFI) was established to address an identified technical deficiency related to waste form performance. The primary goal of the WFI was to ensure that the mixed low-level waste (MLLW) treatment technologies being developed, currently used, or planned for use by DOE would produce final waste forms that meet the waste acceptance criteria (WAC) of the existing and/or planned MLLW disposal facilities. The WFI was limited to an evaluation of the disposal requirements for the radioactive component of MLLW. Disposal requirements for the hazardous component are dictated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and were not addressed. This paper summarizes the technical basis, strategy, and results of the activities performed as part of the WFI

  20. Business unusual - Waste Act implementation: solid waste

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The preamble to the Waste Act (2008) is very clear that, as a result of this legislation, waste management in South Africa will never be the same again. This should send a clear message that ‘business as usual’ will no longer be sufficient....

  1. Robotic inspection of nuclear waste storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulbright, R.; Stephens, L.M.

    1995-01-01

    The University of South Carolina and the Westinghouse Savannah River Company have developed a prototype mobile robot designed to perform autonomous inspection of nuclear waste storage facilities. The Stored Waste Autonomous Mobile Inspector (SWAMI) navigates and inspects rows of nuclear waste storage drums, in isles as narrow as 34 inches with drums stacked three high on each side. SWAMI reads drum barcodes, captures drum images, and monitors floor-level radiation levels. The topics covered in this article reporting on SWAMI include the following: overall system design; typical mission scenario; barcode reader subsystem; video subsystem; radiation monitoring subsystem; position determination subsystem; onboard control system hardware; software development environment; GENISAS, a C++ library; MOSAS, an automatic code generating tool. 10 figs

  2. Diversity of amino acids in a typical chernozem of Moldova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frunze, N. I.

    2014-12-01

    The content and composition of the amino acids in typical chernozems were studied. The objects of the study included a reference soil under an old fallow and three variants under fodder crop rotations: not fertilized, with mineral fertilizers, and with organic fertilizers. The contents of 18 amino acids were determined in these soils. The amino acids were extracted by the method of acid hydrolysis and identified by the method of ion-exchange chromatography. The total content of most of the amino acids was maximal in the reference soil; it was much lower in the cultivated soils and decreased in the following sequence: organic background > mineral background > no fertilization. The diversity of amino acids was evaluated quantitatively using different parameters applied in ecology for estimating various aspects of the species composition of communities (Simpson, Margalef, Menhinick, and Shannon's indices). The diversity and contribution of different amino acids to the total pool of amino acids also varied significantly in the studied variants. The maximum diversity of amino acids and maximum evenness of their relative abundance indices were typical of the reference chernozem; these parameters were lower in the cultivated soils. It was concluded that the changes in the structure of the amino acids under the impact of agricultural loads are similar to those that are usually observed under stress conditions.

  3. Emotion, gender, and gender typical identity in autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grysman, Azriel; Merrill, Natalie; Fivush, Robyn

    2017-03-01

    Gender differences in the emotional intensity and content of autobiographical memory (AM) are inconsistent across studies, and may be influenced as much by gender identity as by categorical gender. To explore this question, data were collected from 196 participants (age 18-40), split evenly between men and women. Participants narrated four memories, a neutral event, high point event, low point event, and self-defining memory, completed ratings of emotional intensity for each event, and completed four measures of gender typical identity. For self-reported emotional intensity, gender differences in AM were mediated by identification with stereotypical feminine gender norms. For narrative use of affect terms, both gender and gender typical identity predicted affective expression. The results confirm contextual models of gender identity (e.g., Diamond, 2012 . The desire disorder in research on sexual orientation in women: Contributions of dynamical systems theory. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41, 73-83) and underscore the dynamic interplay between gender and gender identity in the emotional expression of autobiographical memories.

  4. Daily intakes of naturally occurring radioisotopes in typical Korean foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Min-Seok; Lin, Xiu-Jing; Lee, Sun Ah; Kim, Wan; Kang, Hee-Dong; Doh, Sih-Hong; Kim, Do-Sung; Lee, Dong-Myung

    2008-08-01

    The concentrations of naturally occurring radioisotopes ((232)Th, (228)Th, (230)Th, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, and (40)K) in typical Korean foods were evaluated. The daily intakes of these radioisotopes were calculated by comparing concentrations in typical Korean foods and the daily consumption rates of these foods. Daily intakes were as follows: (232)Th, 0.00-0.23; (228)Th, 0.00-2.04; (230)Th, 0.00-0.26; (228)Ra, 0.02-2.73; (226)Ra, 0.01-4.37 mBq/day; and (40)K, 0.01-5.71 Bq/day. The total daily intake of the naturally occurring radioisotopes measured in this study from food was 39.46 Bq/day. The total annual internal dose resulting from ingestion of radioisotopes in food was 109.83 muSv/y, and the radioisotope with the highest daily intake was (40)K. These values were same level compiled in other countries.

  5. Daily intakes of naturally occurring radioisotopes in typical Korean foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Min-Seok; Lin Xiujing; Lee, Sun Ah; Kim, Wan; Kang, Hee-Dong; Doh, Sih-Hong; Kim, Do-Sung; Lee, Dong-Myung

    2008-01-01

    The concentrations of naturally occurring radioisotopes ( 232 Th, 228 Th, 230 Th, 228 Ra, 226 Ra, and 40 K) in typical Korean foods were evaluated. The daily intakes of these radioisotopes were calculated by comparing concentrations in typical Korean foods and the daily consumption rates of these foods. Daily intakes were as follows: 232 Th, 0.00-0.23; 228 Th, 0.00-2.04; 230 Th, 0.00-0.26; 228 Ra, 0.02-2.73; 226 Ra, 0.01-4.37 mBq/day; and 40 K, 0.01-5.71 Bq/day. The total daily intake of the naturally occurring radioisotopes measured in this study from food was 39.46 Bq/day. The total annual internal dose resulting from ingestion of radioisotopes in food was 109.83 μSv/y, and the radioisotope with the highest daily intake was 40 K. These values were same level compiled in other countries

  6. A study on prioritizing typical women’s entrepreneur characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Ramezani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is one of the main pivot of progress and growth of every country. The spread of entrepreneurship particularly the role of women in this category has speeded up today more than any other times. Many of researchers believe that attention to women entrepreneurship plays remarkable role in soundness and safety of nation’s economy. Maybe in Iran less attention has been paid to this matter in proportion to other countries and due to various reasons, there are not many entrepreneur woman. However, employing typical entrepreneur women in various fields of productivity, industrial, commercial, social and cultural and even higher than these, in country’s political issue proves that women’s role is magnificent and in many cases they enjoy higher abilities in portion to men. In this paper, using additive ratio assessment (ARAS as a prioritizing method, eleven entrepreneur women were chosen for prioritizing criteria for measuring a typical women’s entrepreneurship characteristics. The results show that the balance between work and family among criteria are propounded as the highest weight and fulfilling different jobs simultaneously as the lowest weight.

  7. TYPICAL LEISHMANIOSIS IN A DOG REGULARLY VACCINATED WITH CANILEISH®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Gavazza

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The vaccine Canileish® is distributed in Europe to reduce the risk of developing an active infection and clinical leishmaniosis. An English Setter dog vaccinated with Canileish® and treated with anti-feeding and repellent medications showed typical clinical signs of leishmaniosis. The dog was presented with dysorexia, weight loss, fever and forelimb lameness. The physical exam revealed moderate generalized external lymph node enlargement, sero-purulent ocular discharge, photophobia, and swollen and painful right carpal joint. Clinico-pathological findings revealed moderate microcytic-hypochromic non-regenerative anemia, mild neutropenia and thrombocytopenia, hyperglobulinemia, hematuria and mild elevation of urine protein-to-creatinine ratio, polyclonal peak in the gamma globulins, Leishmania spp. amastigotes in lymph nodes and bone marrow, and immunofluorescence antibody titer (IFAT of 1:5120. The successful treatment included meglumine antimonate and allopurinol for 40 days, and metronidazole-spyramicin for 24 days. The dog was monitored up to 9 months and normalization of most hemato-biochemical abnormalities was achieved. The bone marrow qPCR for Leishmania infantum was negative, while IFAT was 1:160. Despite the systematic leishmaniosis prevention, the typical clinical disease can occur.

  8. Solid waste handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parazin, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    This study presents estimates of the solid radioactive waste quantities that will be generated in the Separations, Low-Level Waste Vitrification and High-Level Waste Vitrification facilities, collectively called the Tank Waste Remediation System Treatment Complex, over the life of these facilities. This study then considers previous estimates from other 200 Area generators and compares alternative methods of handling (segregation, packaging, assaying, shipping, etc.)

  9. Radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    Radioactive waste of two different activity levels is buried on the same site. The high level waste e.g. intermediate level waste may be in a trench or cells in a trench bottom, and be surmounted by a layer of concrete surmounted by an intrusion barrier comprising drums containing an aggregate of cement and the lower level activity waste, the whole having a substantially impermeable cap. (author)

  10. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balek, V.

    1994-01-01

    This booklet is a publication by International Atomic Energy Agency for general awareness of citizens and policy-makers to clarify their concept of nuclear wastes. In a very simple way it tells what is radioactivity, radiations and radioactive wastes. It further hints on various medial and industrial uses of radiations. It discusses about different types of radioactive wastes and radioactive waste management. Status of nuclear power plants in Central and Eastern European countries are also discussed

  11. Waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.J.

    1985-06-19

    This is a claim for a waste disposal package including an inner or primary canister for containing hazardous and/or radioactive wastes. The primary canister is encapsulated by an outer or secondary barrier formed of a porous ceramic material to control ingress of water to the canister and the release rate of wastes upon breach on the canister. 4 figs.

  12. International waste management conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the international waste management conference. Topics covered include: Quality assurance in the OCR WM program; Leading the spirit of quality; Dept. of Energy hazardous waste remedial actions program; management of hazardous waste projects; and System management and quality assurance

  13. Swedish waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandwall, L.

    2004-01-01

    Sweden has a well-functioning organization for managing various types of radioactive waste. There is an interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel, a final repository for low and intermediate level waste, and a specially-built vessel with transport casks and containers for shipping the radioactive waste between the nuclear installations. (author)

  14. Nuclear wastes; Dechets nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Here is made a general survey of the situation relative to radioactive wastes. The different kinds of radioactive wastes and the different way to store them are detailed. A comparative evaluation of the situation in France and in the world is made. The case of transport of radioactive wastes is tackled. (N.C.)

  15. Radioactive Wastes. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Charles H.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This booklet deals with the handling, processing and disposal of radioactive wastes. Among the topics discussed are: The Nature of Radioactive Wastes; Waste Management; and Research and Development. There are…

  16. Radioactive waste management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.W.

    1983-06-01

    The speaker discusses the development of government policy regarding radioactive waste disposal in Canada, indicates overall policy objectives, and surveys the actual situation with respect to radioactive wastes in Canada. He also looks at the public perceptions of the waste management situation and how they relate to the views of governmental decision makers

  17. Mine waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, I.P.G.; Ellison, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    This book reports on mine waste management. Topics covered include: Performance review of modern mine waste management units; Mine waste management requirements; Prediction of acid generation potential; Attenuation of chemical constituents; Climatic considerations; Liner system design; Closure requirements; Heap leaching; Ground water monitoring; and Economic impact evaluation

  18. Radioactive waste repository study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This is the second part of a report of a preliminary study for AECL. It considers the requirements for an underground waste repository for the disposal of wastes produced by the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Program. The following topics are discussed with reference to the repository: 1) geotechnical assessment, 2) hydrogeology and waste containment, 3) thermal loading and 4) rock mechanics. (author)

  19. WASTE CONTAINMENT OVERVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    BSE waste is derived from diseased animals such as BSE (bovine spongiform encepilopothy, also known as Mad Cow) in cattle and CWD (chronic wasting disease) in deer and elk. Landfilling is examined as a disposal option and this presentation introduces waste containment technology...

  20. Household food waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahlen, S.; Winkel, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Food waste is debated not only in the light of sustainable consumption in research and policy, but also in the broader public. This article focuses on food waste in household contexts, what is widely believed the end of the food chain. However, household food waste is far more complex and intricate

  1. Rock & Roll : Waste seperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beunder, L.; Rem, P.C.; Van Den Berg, R.

    2000-01-01

    Five hundred tonnes of glass, 1 million tonnes of plastic,14 million tonnes of building and demolition waste, 7 million tonnes of household waste, 3 million tonnes of packaging, 3.5 million tonnes of paper and board, and 300,000 old cars. All part of the annual harvest of waste materials in the

  2. Encapsulation of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pordes, O.; Plows, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for encapsulating a particular radioactive waste which consists of suspending the waste in a viscous liquid encapsulating material, of synthetic resin monomers or prepolymers, and setting the encapsulating material by addition or condensation polymerization to form a solid material in which the waste is dispersed. (author)

  3. Nuclear waste packaging facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, C.W.; Watts, R.E.; Paladino, J.B.; Razor, J.E.; Lilley, A.W.; Winston, S.J.; Stricklin, B.C.

    1987-01-01

    A nuclear waste packaging facility comprising: (a) a first section substantially surrounded by radiation shielding, including means for remotely handling waste delivered to the first section and for placing the waste into a disposal module; (b) a second section substantially surrounded by radiation shielding, including means for handling a deformable container bearing waste delivered to the second section, the handling means including a compactor and means for placing the waste bearing deformable container into the compactor, the compactor capable of applying a compacting force to the waste bearing containers sufficient to inelastically deform the waste and container, and means for delivering the deformed waste bearing containers to a disposal module; (c) a module transportation and loading section disposed between the first and second sections including a means for handling empty modules delivered to the facility and for loading the empty modules on the transport means; the transport means moving empty disposal modules to the first section and empty disposal modules to the second section for locating empty modules in a position for loading with nuclear waste, and (d) a grouting station comprising means for pouring grout into the waste bearing disposal module, and a capping station comprising means for placing a lid onto the waste bearing grout-filled disposal module to completely encapsulate the waste

  4. Waste vs Resource Management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent global waste statistics show that in the order of 70% of all municipal waste generated worldwide is disposed at landfill, 11% is treated in thermal and Waste-to-Energy (WtE) facilities and the rest (19%) is recycled or treated by mechanical...

  5. Waste inventory, waste characteristics and waste repositories in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimooka, K.

    1997-01-01

    There are two types of repositories for the low level radioactive wastes in Japan. One is a trench type repository only for concrete debris generated from the dismantling of the research reactor. According to the safety assurance system, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has disposed of the concrete debris arose from the dismantling of the Japan Power Demonstration Reactor (JPDR). The other type is the concreted pit with engineered barriers. Rokkasho Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Center has this type of repository mainly for the power plant wastes. Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd. (JNFL) established by electric power companies is the operator of the LLW disposal project. JNFL began the storage operation in 1992 and buried approximately 60,000 drums there. Two hundred thousand drums of uniformly solidified, waste may be buried ultimately. 4 refs, 3 tabs

  6. Demonstration and Validation of a Waste-to-Energy Conversion System for Fixed DoD Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    streams at the base (as opposed to cafeteria or industrial streams), the waste was observed to contain a broad range of 34 items including...hazardous waste, electronic waste, and wiring that would not typically find its way to landfill if derived from a cafeteria or industrial source. As a...generated from on-site living facilities, as well as from industrial facilities on the base. The waste from the on-site living facilities is similar to

  7. Solving the geologic issues in nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towse, D.

    1979-01-01

    Technical problems with nuclear waste disposal are largely geological. If these are not solved, curtailment of nuclear power development may follow, resulting in loss of an important element in the national energy supply. Present knowledge and credible advances are capable of solving these problems provided a systems view is preserved and a national development plan is followed. This requires identification of the critical controllable elements and a systematic underground test program to prove those critical elements. Waste migration can be understood and controlled by considering the key elements in the system: the system geometry, the hydrology, and the waste-rock-water chemistry. The waste program should: (1) identify and attack the critical problems first; (2) provide tests and demonstration at real disposal sites; and (3) schedule elements with long lead-times for early start and timely completion

  8. Economy of typical food: technical restrictions and organizative challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Viganò

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The economic analysis of typical agri-food products requires to be focused on the following issues: i the specific features of the offering system; ii the technical restrictions established by the EU regulations on Protected designation of origin (Pdo and Pgi and, iii the strategies aimed at product differentiation and for value creation for the consumer. Considering this latest aspect, it is important to notice that the specificity of the agricultural raw materials, the use of traditional production techniques of production coming from the tradition of the place and certification represent only a prerequisite for the differentiation of the product on the market against standard products. The problem is that the specificity of local product comes from attributes (tangible and intangible of quality which are not directly accessible, nor verifiable, by the consumer when he/she makes purchasing choices. This situation persists despite the greater propensity of modern consumer to make investments in information and his/her greater attention and larger background towards the acknowledgement of different offers based on quality. This paper tends to develop an analysis on a theoretical and operative basis upon open strategies that can be implemented at the enterprise level, and that of agro-food chain and of territorial system in order to promote the quality of products to consumers. In particular, the work addresses the problems connected to the establishment of competitive advantages for Protected Designation of Origin (Pdo and Protected Geographical Indication (Pgi, highlighting that in order to achieve those advantages, firms offering typical products need to differentiate their offering on both material and immaterial ground acting on intrinsic and extrinsic attributes of quality of products, on specific features (natural, historical, cultural, etc. of territorial, on the efficiency of the offering organizational structure, and finally on the

  9. Economy of typical food: technical restrictions and organizative challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Viganò

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The economic analysis of typical agri-food products requires to be focused on the following issues: i the specific features of the offering system; ii the technical restrictions established by the EU regulations on Protected designation of origin (Pdo and Pgi and, iii the strategies aimed at product differentiation and for value creation for the consumer. Considering this latest aspect, it is important to notice that the specificity of the agricultural raw materials, the use of traditional production techniques of production coming from the tradition of the place and certification represent only a prerequisite for the differentiation of the product on the market against standard products. The problem is that the specificity of local product comes from attributes (tangible and intangible of quality which are not directly accessible, nor verifiable, by the consumer when he/she makes purchasing choices. This situation persists despite the greater propensity of modern consumer to make investments in information and his/her greater attention and larger background towards the acknowledgement of different offers based on quality. This paper tends to develop an analysis on a theoretical and operative basis upon open strategies that can be implemented at the enterprise level, and that of agro-food chain and of territorial system in order to promote the quality of products to consumers. In particular, the work addresses the problems connected to the establishment of competitive advantages for Protected Designation of Origin (Pdo and Protected Geographical Indication (Pgi, highlighting that in order to achieve those advantages, firms offering typical products need to differentiate their offering on both material and immaterial ground acting on intrinsic and extrinsic attributes of quality of products, on specific features (natural, historical, cultural, etc. of territorial, on the efficiency of the offering organizational structure, and finally on the

  10. Low-level waste characterization plan for the WSCF Laboratory Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, J.A.

    1994-10-04

    The Waste Characterization Plan for the Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) complex describes the organization and methodology for characterization of all waste streams that are transferred from the WSCF Laboratory Complex to the Hanford Site 200 Areas Storage and Disposal Facilities. Waste generated at the WSCF complex typically originates from analytical or radiological procedures. Process knowledge is derived from these operations and should be considered an accurate description of WSCF generated waste. Sample contribution is accounted for in the laboratory waste designation process and unused or excess samples are returned to the originator for disposal. The report describes procedures and processes common to all waste streams; individual waste streams; and radionuclide characterization methodology.

  11. A Modal Model to Simulate Typical Structural Dynamic Nonlinearity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacini, Benjamin Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mayes, Randall L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roettgen, Daniel R [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Some initial investigations have been published which simulate nonlinear response with almost traditional modal models: instead of connecting the modal mass to ground through the traditional spring and damper, a nonlinear Iwan element was added. This assumes that the mode shapes do not change with amplitude and there are no interactions between modal degrees of freedom. This work expands on these previous studies. An impact experiment is performed on a structure which exhibits typical structural dynamic nonlinear response, i.e. weak frequency dependence and strong damping dependence on the amplitude of vibration. Use of low level modal test results in combination with high level impacts are processed using various combinations of modal filtering, the Hilbert Transform and band-pass filtering to develop response data that are then fit with various nonlinear elements to create a nonlinear pseudo-modal model. Simulations of forced response are compared with high level experimental data for various nonlinear element assumptions.

  12. Typical equilibrium state of an embedded quantum system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ithier, Grégoire; Ascroft, Saeed; Benaych-Georges, Florent

    2017-12-01

    We consider an arbitrary quantum system coupled nonperturbatively to a large arbitrary and fully quantum environment. In the work by Ithier and Benaych-Georges [Phys. Rev. A 96, 012108 (2017)2469-992610.1103/PhysRevA.96.012108] the typicality of the dynamics of such an embedded quantum system was established for several classes of random interactions. In other words, the time evolution of its quantum state does not depend on the microscopic details of the interaction. Focusing on the long-time regime, we use this property to calculate analytically a partition function characterizing the stationary state and involving the overlaps between eigenvectors of a bare and a dressed Hamiltonian. This partition function provides a thermodynamical ensemble which includes the microcanonical and canonical ensembles as particular cases. We check our predictions with numerical simulations.

  13. On the nature of a 'typical' pulsars radio emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazbegi, A.Z.; Machabeli, G.Z.; Melikdze, G.I.; Usov, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    The possibility of the excitation of electromagnetic (t) as well as of longitudinal-transverse (lt) waves in the magnetosphere of a 'typical' pulsar is discussed. Two mechanisms of the t-waves excitation excist. Th first mechanism is connected with the cyclotron resonance between t-waves and high-energy particles of the both: the 'tail' of the distribution function and the primary beam. Th second mechanism is conditiond by the particles drift motion and needs to safety a Cherenkov resonance condition. Due to the second mechamism the lt-waves excitation is olso possible. The waves excited due to the cyclotron instability cause the diffusion of particles across the magnetic field. For the sufficiently large pitch angles the aditional possibility of t-waves excitation appears. (author). 25 refs

  14. Typical conservation problems of polychrome wooden sculptures in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Vuga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Slovene ethnic territory lies at the contact of Italian and German cultural influences, which can also be traced in gilded works of art. The majority of wooden Gothic art heritage has been lost for good, but a great number of wooden "golden altars" from the 17th century and large 18th century baroque altarpieces with outstanding sculptures survive. Conservators-restorers face great problems resulting from repeated restoration interventions of a great deal of these works of art. The paper describes a recent treatment undertaken at the National Gallery of Slovenia of an 18th century water gilded sculpture from no more existing altar, which was subsequently and typically overpainted several times. The case study is used to illustrate the problems encountered in overpaint removal from gilded areas.

  15. Typical and atypical radiological manifestations of renal oncocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernaldez, P.; Iriborreu, M. A.; Rodriguez, M. L.; Martinez-Moya, M.; Rodriguez, A.; Navarro, S.

    2001-01-01

    Asses the Radiologic findings [ conventional X-ray, intravenous urography (IU), ultrasonography and computerized tomography (CT) ] of the renal oncocytomas and determine if there are characteristics that allow us to differentiate them from renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We performed a retrospective study of eight patients diagnosed of renal oncocytoma, analyzing the characteristics found in the plain radiography and IVU, ultrasonography and CT without and with i. v. contrast. The masses were well defined in seven cases and poorly defined in one, and were homogeneous on four occasions and heterogeneous on two. The remaining two were homogeneous, except for the presence of a central scar. Two lesions showed and aggressive biological behavior, coinciding with signs suggestive of malignancy from the radiological point of view. The fibrous scar is a typical but infrequent findings in renal oncocytoma that we can only detect by CT. It is not possible to differentiate it from aggressive lesions with imaging techniques, although orientative findings exist. (Author) 17 refs

  16. Simulation of laser scattering by typical marine aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Yi-wei; Wang, Biao; Li, Xian-tao

    2017-10-01

    Maritime environment own numerous models of the aerosols which are typically comprised of dust, water-soluble aerosol and sea salt aerosol. A Maritime environment aerosol model is developed in the simulation for laser beam from visible to near infrared. Mie theory is used to calculate optical parameters, such as scattering coefficient, Aledo and average asymmetry factor, for different models of aerosols of variable size with gamma distribution. The simulation results show that dust aerosol and water-soluble aerosol have the largest absorption coefficient. Aged Sea-salt aerosol and near-surface Sea-salt aerosol have the largest scattering coefficient. The model solving the optical properties of marine aerosol problem is capable of handling light detection and ranging.

  17. Typical and atypical clinical appearance of atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Nanette B

    Atopic dermatitis is a complex, systemic inflammatory disorder associated with a variety of clinical features. The original criteria of Hanifin and Rajka include major criteria and a list of about two dozen minor criteria however, even the minor criteria do not include some features of atopic dermatitis noted less commonly but still seen with some frequency. This contribution first reviews the common clinical appearance of atopic dermatitis in infancy, childhood, and adulthood, as well as the less typical appearances, including lichenoid atopic dermatitis; juvenile plantar dermatosis; nummular-type atopic dermatitis; follicular atopic dermatitis; alopecia of atopic dermatitis; eczema coxsackium; and psoriasiform, perineal, and lip licker's dermatitis. The clinician will be able to recognize and treat rarer forms of atopic dermatitis and incorporate this into their daily practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Typical and unusual cases of female genital tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kulchavenya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is a disease with myriad presentations and manifestations; it can affect any organ or tissue, excluding only hair and nails. Doctors who are not familiar with extrapulmonary tuberculosis often overlook this disease. Urogenital tuberculosis (UGTB is the second most common form of TB in countries with severe epidemic situation and the third most common form in regions with low incidence of TB. The term “Urogenital tuberculosis” includes kidney tuberculosis; male and female tuberculosis and urinary tract tuberculosis as complication of kidney tuberculosis. We describe rarest case of tuberculosis of a placenta in young woman, suffered from genital tuberculosis, which was overlooked before delivery, as well as typical tubo-ovarian tuberculomas.

  19. Air Leakage Rates in Typical Air Barrier Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hun, Diana E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Atchley, Jerald Allen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Childs, Phillip W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Estimates for 2010 indicate that infiltration in residential buildings was responsible for 2.85 quads of energy (DOE 2014), which is about 3% of the total energy consumed in the US. One of the mechanisms being implemented to reduce this energy penalty is the use of air barriers as part of the building envelope. These technologies decrease airflow through major leakage sites such as oriented strand board (OSB) joints, and gaps around penetrations (e.g., windows, doors, pipes, electrical outlets) as indicated by Hun et al. (2014). However, most air barrier materials do not properly address leakage spots such as wall-to-roof joints and wall-to-foundation joints because these are difficult to seal, and because air barrier manufacturers usually do not provide adequate instructions for these locations. The present study focuses on characterizing typical air leakage sites in wall assemblies with air barrier materials.

  20. Analysis and Comparison of Typical Models within Distribution Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Hans Jacob; Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.

    This paper investigates the characteristics of typical optimisation models within Distribution Network Design. During the paper fourteen models known from the literature will be thoroughly analysed. Through this analysis a schematic approach to categorisation of distribution network design models...... for educational purposes. Furthermore, the paper can be seen as a practical introduction to network design modelling as well as a being an art manual or recipe when constructing such a model....... are covered in the categorisation include fixed vs. general networks, specialised vs. general nodes, linear vs. nonlinear costs, single vs. multi commodity, uncapacitated vs. capacitated activities, single vs. multi modal and static vs. dynamic. The models examined address both strategic and tactical planning...

  1. New genetic tools to identify and protect typical italian products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Lanteri

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available During last decades the use of local varieties was strongly reduced due to introduction of modern cultivars characterized by higher yield, and breed for different traits of agronomic value. However, these cultivars not always have the quality aspects that was found in old traditional and typical crops also depending from the know-how of traditional cultivation. Nowadays the practise of intensive agriculture select only a small number of species and varieties with a consequent reduction of the diversity in agro-ecosystems and risk of loss of important alleles characterizing genetic materials adapted to specific environments. The creation of quality marks of the European Union proved to be a successful system to protect typical products through the Denomination of Origins (PDO- Protected Denomination of Origin and PGI- Protected Geographical Indication. However, the protection of quality needs efficient instruments to discriminate DOP or IGP varieties in the field and to trace them along the agro-food chain. DNA fingerprinting represents an excellent system to discriminate herbaceous and tree species as well as to quantify the amount of genetic variability present in germplasm collections. The paper describes several examples in which AFLPs, SSRs and minisatellite markers were successfully used to identify tomato, artichoke, grape, apple and walnut varieties proving to be effective in discriminating also closely related genetic material. DNA fingerprinting based on SSR is also a powerful tool to trace and authenticate row plant materials in agro-food chains. The paper describes examples of varieties traceability in the food chains durum wheat, olive, apple and tomato pursued through the identification of SSR allelic profiles obtained from DNA isolated from complex highly processed food, such as bread, olive oil, apple pureè and nectar and peeled tomato.

  2. A brief history of typical absence seizures - Petit mal revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigo, Francesco; Trinka, Eugen; Lattanzi, Simona; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Nardone, Raffaele; Martini, Mariano

    2018-03-01

    In this article, we have traced back the history of typical absence seizures, from their initial clinical description to the more recent nosological position. The first description of absence seizures was made by Poupart in 1705 and Tissot in 1770. In 1824, Calmeil introduced the term "absences", and in 1838, Esquirol for the first time used the term petit mal. Reynolds instead used the term "epilepsia mitior" (milder epilepsy) and provided a comprehensive description of absence seizures (1861). In 1854, Delasiauve ranked absences as the seizure type with lower severity and introduced the concept of idiopathic epilepsy. Otto Binswanger (1899) discussed the role of cortex in the pathophysiology of "abortive seizures", whereas William Gowers (1901) emphasized the importance of a detailed clinical history to identify nonmotor seizures or very mild motor phenomena which otherwise may go unnoticed or considered not epileptic. At the beginning of the 20th Century, the term pyknolepsy was introduced, but initially was not universally considered as a type of epilepsy; it was definitely recognized as an epileptic entity only in 1945, based on electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. Hans Berger, the inventor of the EEG, made also the first EEG recording of an atypical absence (his results were published only in 1933), whereas the characteristic EEG pattern was reported by neurophysiologists of the Harvard Medical School in 1935. The discovery of EEG made it also possible to differentiate absence seizures from so called "psychomotor" seizures occurring in temporal lobe epilepsy. Penfield and Jasper (1938) considered absences as expression of "centrencephalic epilepsy". Typical absences seizures are now classified by the International League Against Epilepsy among generalized nonmotor (absence) seizures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Far-infrared irradiation drying behavior of typical biomass briquettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, N.N.; Chen, M.Q.; Fu, B.A.; Song, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    Infrared radiation drying behaviors of four typical biomass briquettes (populus tomentosa leaves, cotton stalk, spent coffee grounds and eucalyptus bark) were investigated based on a lab-scale setup. The effect of radiation source temperatures (100–200 °C) on the far-infrared drying kinetics and heat transfer of the samples was addressed. As the temperature went up from 100 °C to 200 °C, the time required for the four biomass briquettes drying decreased by about 59–66%, and the average values of temperature for the four biomass briquettes increased by about 33–39 °C, while the average radiation heat transfer fluxes increased by about 3.3 times (3.7 times only for the leaves). The specific energy consumptions were 0.622–0.849 kW h kg −1 . The Modified Midilli model had the better representing for the moisture ratio change of the briquettes. The values of the activation energy for the briquettes in the first falling rate stage were between 20.35 and 24.83 kJ mol −1 , while those in the second falling rate stage were between 17.89 and 21.93 kJ mol −1 . The activation energy for the eucalyptus bark briquette in two falling rate stages was the least one, and that for the cotton stalk briquette was less than that for the rest two briquettes. - Highlights: • Far infrared drying behaviors of four typical biomass briquettes were addressed. • The effect of radiation source temperatures on IR drying kinetics was stated. • Radiation heat transfer flux between the sample and heater was evaluated. • Midilli model had the better representing for the drying process of the samples.

  4. New genetic tools to identify and protect typical italian products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Lanteri

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available During last decades the use of local varieties was strongly reduced due to introduction of modern cultivars characterized by higher yield, and breed for different traits of agronomic value. However, these cultivars not always have the quality aspects that was found in old traditional and typical crops also depending from the know-how of traditional cultivation. Nowadays the practise of intensive agriculture select only a small number of species and varieties with a consequent reduction of the diversity in agro-ecosystems and risk of loss of important alleles characterizing genetic materials adapted to specific environments. The creation of quality marks of the European Union proved to be a successful system to protect typical products through the Denomination of Origins (PDO- Protected Denomination of Origin and PGI- Protected Geographical Indication. However, the protection of quality needs efficient instruments to discriminate DOP or IGP varieties in the field and to trace them along the agro-food chain. DNA fingerprinting represents an excellent system to discriminate herbaceous and tree species as well as to quantify the amount of genetic variability present in germplasm collections. The paper describes several examples in which AFLPs, SSRs and minisatellite markers were successfully used to identify tomato, artichoke, grape, apple and walnut varieties proving to be effective in discriminating also closely related genetic material. DNA fingerprinting based on SSR is also a powerful tool to trace and authenticate row plant materials in agro-food chains. The paper describes examples of varieties traceability in the food chains durum wheat, olive, apple and tomato pursued through the identification of SSR allelic profiles obtained from DNA isolated from complex highly processed food, such as bread, olive oil, apple pureè and nectar and peeled tomato.

  5. Memory for sequences of events impaired in typical aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Timothy A.; Morris, Andrea M.; Stark, Shauna M.; Fortin, Norbert J.

    2015-01-01

    Typical aging is associated with diminished episodic memory performance. To improve our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms underlying this age-related memory deficit, we previously developed an integrated, cross-species approach to link converging evidence from human and animal research. This novel approach focuses on the ability to remember sequences of events, an important feature of episodic memory. Unlike existing paradigms, this task is nonspatial, nonverbal, and can be used to isolate different cognitive processes that may be differentially affected in aging. Here, we used this task to make a comprehensive comparison of sequence memory performance between younger (18–22 yr) and older adults (62–86 yr). Specifically, participants viewed repeated sequences of six colored, fractal images and indicated whether each item was presented “in sequence” or “out of sequence.” Several out of sequence probe trials were used to provide a detailed assessment of sequence memory, including: (i) repeating an item from earlier in the sequence (“Repeats”; e.g., ABADEF), (ii) skipping ahead in the sequence (“Skips”; e.g., ABDDEF), and (iii) inserting an item from a different sequence into the same ordinal position (“Ordinal Transfers”; e.g., AB3DEF). We found that older adults performed as well as younger controls when tested on well-known and predictable sequences, but were severely impaired when tested using novel sequences. Importantly, overall sequence memory performance in older adults steadily declined with age, a decline not detected with other measures (RAVLT or BPS-O). We further characterized this deficit by showing that performance of older adults was severely impaired on specific probe trials that required detailed knowledge of the sequence (Skips and Ordinal Transfers), and was associated with a shift in their underlying mnemonic representation of the sequences. Collectively, these findings provide unambiguous evidence that the

  6. Typical external skull beveling wound unlinked with a gunshot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delannoy, Y; Colard, T; Becart, A; Tournel, G; Gosset, D; Hedouin, V

    2013-03-10

    Lesions of the cranial vault resulting from firearms are traditionally described in forensic medical literature with many reports illustrating atypical bone lesions carried out to the skull by gunshot wounds. The authors present this report which illustrates an external beveled skull wound, associated with internal beveling damage, caused by a stabbing injury. A partially buried human skeleton was found in a forest. The examining of the skull revealed a hole resembling the exit wound caused by a bullet and two other smaller stab wounds. No typical entering bullet wound and no other bone lesions were found. During the course of the investigation, one of the perpetrators admitted to hitting the victim, using a sickle, and to hiding the body. For this purpose, he dragged the corpse with the sickle still implanted in the skull, using it as a hook. Upon retrieving the sickle, a piece of cranial vault was removed, thus creating an external beveled wound. In order to identify the mechanism which brought about this kind of lesion, experimental work was carried out on a human skull. In this particular case, the tip of the sickle penetrated into the bone, creating a lesion that would typically be produced with a stabbing instrument when applied with vertical force. When the body was dragged, using the sickle as a hook, this was a hand-produced vertical force, which was applied in the opposite direction. It caused the tearing of a piece of bone and the creation of an outer bevel. This atypical lesion should be made known to medical examiners and pathologists in order to help investigating and understanding of the circumstances of injuries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Disruption of conditioned reward association by typical and atypical antipsychotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danna, C L; Elmer, G I

    2010-07-01

    Antipsychotic drugs are broadly classified into typical and atypical compounds; they vary in their pharmacological profile however a common component is their antagonist effects at the D2 dopamine receptors (DRD2). Unfortunately, diminished DRD2 activation is generally thought to be associated with the severity of neuroleptic-induced anhedonia. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the atypical antipsychotic olanzapine and typical antipsychotic haloperidol in a paradigm that reflects the learned transfer of incentive motivational properties to previously neutral stimuli, namely autoshaping. In order to provide a dosing comparison to a therapeutically relevant endpoint, both drugs were tested against amphetamine-induced disruption of prepulse inhibition as well. In the autoshaping task, rats were exposed to repeated pairings of stimuli that were differentially predictive of reward delivery. Conditioned approach to the reward-predictive cue (sign-tracking) and to the reward (goal-tracking) increased during repeated pairings in the vehicle treated rats. Haloperidol and olanzapine completely abolished this behavior at relatively low doses (100microg/kg). This same dose was the threshold dose for each drug to antagonize the sensorimotor gating deficits produced by amphetamine. At lower doses (3-30microg/kg) both drugs produced a dose-dependent decrease in conditioned approach to the reward-predictive cue. There was no difference between drugs at this dose range which indicates that olanzapine disrupts autoshaping at a significantly lower proposed DRD2 receptor occupancy. Interestingly, neither drug disrupted conditioned approach to the reward at the same dose range that disrupted conditioned approach to the reward-predictive cue. Thus, haloperidol and olanzapine, at doses well below what is considered therapeutically relevant, disrupts the attribution of incentive motivational value to previously neutral cues. Drug effects on this dimension of reward

  8. Wastes from the light water reactor fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steindler, M.J.; Trevorrow, L.E.

    1976-01-01

    The LWR fuel cycle is represented, in the minimum detail necessary to indicate the origin of the wastes, as a system of operations that is typical of those proposed for various commercial fuel cycle ventures. The primary wastes (before any treatment) are described in terms of form, volume, radioactivity, chemical composition, weight, and combustibility (in anticipation of volume reduction treatments). Properties of the wastes expected from the operation of reactors, fuel reprocessing plants, and mixed oxide fuel fabrication plants are expressed in terms of their amounts per unit of nuclear energy produced

  9. Evaluation of remote smearing of DWPF canistered waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, C.H.; Rankin, W.N.

    1991-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is evaluating the variables of the remote smearing process for monitoring transferable contamination on the waste glass canisters at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Smearing for transferable contamination is typically done by hand, but in this case, due to the nature of the high level waste within the canisters, remote smearing is required. The effectiveness of the smear pad was determined under varying conditions (distance traveled, force applied, and canister surface), as well as the relative importance of these factors. It was concluded that the remote smear is more reliable than the hand smear

  10. Radioactive mixed waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennig, J.M.; Jasen, W.G.; Hamilton, W.H.

    1992-08-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA) (reference 1) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) (reference 2) have led to the definition of a group of wastes called radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). As a result of the radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes, special projects have been initiated for the management of RMW. This paper addresses the storage of solid RMW. The management of bulk liquid RMW will not be described

  11. Radioactive Waste Management Basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, B.K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  12. Management of solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.T.; Stinton, L.H.

    1980-01-01

    Compliance with the latest regulatory requirements addressing disposal of radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste requires the application of numerous qualitative and quantitative criteria in the selection, design, and operation of solid waste management facilities. Due to the state of flux of these regulatory requirements from EPA and NRC several waste management options were identified as being applicable to the management of the various types of solid waste. This paper highlights the current regulatory constraints and the design and operational requirements for construction of both storage and disposal facilities for use in management of DOE-ORO solid waste. Capital and operational costs are included for both disposal and storage options

  13. Phylogenetic relationships of typical antbirds (Thamnophilidae and test of incongruence based on Bayes factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nylander Johan AA

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The typical antbirds (Thamnophilidae form a monophyletic and diverse family of suboscine passerines that inhabit neotropical forests. However, the phylogenetic relationships within this assemblage are poorly understood. Herein, we present a hypothesis of the generic relationships of this group based on Bayesian inference analyses of two nuclear introns and the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. The level of phylogenetic congruence between the individual genes has been investigated utilizing Bayes factors. We also explore how changes in the substitution models affected the observed incongruence between partitions of our data set. Results The phylogenetic analysis supports both novel relationships, as well as traditional groupings. Among the more interesting novel relationship suggested is that the Terenura antwrens, the wing-banded antbird (Myrmornis torquata, the spot-winged antshrike (Pygiptila stellaris and the russet antshrike (Thamnistes anabatinus are sisters to all other typical antbirds. The remaining genera fall into two major clades. The first includes antshrikes, antvireos and the Herpsilochmus antwrens, while the second clade consists of most antwren genera, the Myrmeciza antbirds, the "professional" ant-following antbirds, and allied species. Our results also support previously suggested polyphyly of Myrmotherula antwrens and Myrmeciza antbirds. The tests of phylogenetic incongruence, using Bayes factors, clearly suggests that allowing the gene partitions to have separate topology parameters clearly increased the model likelihood. However, changing a component of the nucleotide substitution model had much higher impact on the model likelihood. Conclusions The phylogenetic results are in broad agreement with traditional classification of the typical antbirds, but some relationships are unexpected based on external morphology. In these cases their true affinities may have been obscured by convergent evolution and

  14. Properties of radioactive wastes and waste containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, H.S.; Dayal, R.

    1984-01-01

    Major tasks in this NRC-sponsored program include: (1) an evaluation of the acceptability of low-level solidified wastes with respect to minimizing radionuclide releases after burial; and (2) an assessment of the influence of pertinent environmental stresses on the performance of high-integrity radwaste container (HIC) materials. The waste form performance task involves studies on small-scale laboratory specimens to predict and extrapolate: (1) leachability for extended time periods; (2) leach behavior of full-size forms; (3) performance of waste forms under realistic leaching conditions; and (4) leachability of solidified reactor wastes. The results show that leach data derived from testing of small-scale specimens can be extrapolated to estimate leachability of a full-scale specimen and that radionuclide release data derived from testing of simulants can be employed to predict the release behavior of reactor wastes. Leaching under partially saturated conditions exhibits lower releases of radionuclides than those observed under the conventional IAEA-type or ANS 16.1 leach tests. The HIC assessment task includes the characterization of mechanical properties of Marlex CL-100, a candidate radwaste high density polyethylene material. Tensile strength and creep rupture tests have been carried out to determine the influence of specific waste constituents as well as gamma irradiation on material performance. Emphasis in ongoing tests is being placed on studying creep rupture while the specimens are in contact with a variety of chemicals including radiolytic by-products of irradiated resin wastes. 12 references 6 figures, 2 tables

  15. Waste container and method for containing waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Akira; Matsushita, Mitsuhiro; Doi, Makoto; Nakatani, Seiichi.

    1990-01-01

    In a waste container, water-proof membranes and rare earth element layers are formed on the inner surface of a steel plate concrete container in which steel plates are embedded. Further, rear earth element detectors are disposed each from the inner side of the steel plate concrete container by way of a pressure pipe to the outer side of the container. As a method for actually containing wastes, when a plurality of vessels in which wastes are fixed are collectively enhoused to the waste container, cussioning materials are attached to the inner surface of the container and wastes fixing containers are stacked successively in a plurality of rows in a bag made of elastic materials. Subsequently, fixing materials are filled and tightly sealed in the waste container. When the waste container thus constituted is buried underground, even if it should be deformed to cause intrusion of rain water to the inside of the container, the rare earth elements in the container dissolved in the rain water can be detected by the detectors, the containers are exchanged before the rain water intruding to the inner side is leached to the surrounding ground, to previously prevent the leakage of radioactive nuclides. (K.M.)

  16. A cost effective waste management methodology for power reactor waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granus, M.W.; Campbell, A.D.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes a computer based methodology for the selection of the processing methods (solidification/dewatering) for various power reactor radwaste streams. The purpose of this methodology is to best select the method that provides the most cost effective solution to waste management. This method takes into account the overall cost of processing, transportation and disposal. The selection matrix on which the methodology is based is made up of over ten thousand combinations of liner, cask, process, and disposal options from which the waste manager can choose. The measurement device for cost effective waste management is the concurrent evaluation of total dollars spent. The common denominator is dollars per cubic foot of the input waste stream. Dollars per curie of the input waste stream provides for proper checks and balances. The result of this analysis can then be used to assess the total waste management cost. To this end, the methodology can then be employed to predict a given number of events (processes, transportation, and disposals) and project the annual cost of waste management. For the purposes of this paper, the authors provide examples of the application of the methodology on a typical BWR at 2, 4 and 6 years. The examples are provided in 1984 dollars. Process selection is influenced by a number of factors which must be independently evaluated for each waste stream. Final processing cost is effected by the particular process efficiency and a variety of regulatory constraints. The interface between process selection and cask selection/transportation driven by the goal of placing the greatest amount of pre-processed waste in the package and remaining within the bounds of weight, volume, regulatory, and cask availability limitations. Disposal is the cost of burial and can be affected by disposal, but availability of burial space, and the location of the disposal site in relation to the generator

  17. Solid waste study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, Paul G.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to study the solid waste issues brought about by a Type C Investigation; ''Disposal of Inappropriate Material in the Los Alamos County Landfill'' (May 28, 1993). The study was completed in August 1995 by Coleman Research Corporation, under subcontract number 405810005-Y for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The study confirmed the issues identified in the Type C investigation, and also ascertained further issues or problems. During the course of this study two incidents involving hazardous waste resulted in the inappropriate disposal of the waste. An accidental spill, on June 8, 1995, at one of Laboratory buildings was not handled correctly, and ended up in the LAC Landfill. Hazardous waste was disposed of in a solid waste container and sent to the Los Alamos County Landfill. An attempt to locate the hazardous waste at the LAC Landfill was not successful. The second incident involving hazardous waste was discovered by the FSS-8, during a random dumpster surveillance. An interim dumpster program managed by FSS-8 discovered hazardous waste and copper chips in the solid waste, on August 9, 1995. The hazardous waste and copper chips would have been transported to the LAC Landfill if the audit team had not brought the problem to the awareness of the facility waste management personnel

  18. Waste Management Technical Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckingham, J.S. [ed.

    1967-08-31

    This Manual has been prepared to provide a documented compendium of the technical bases and general physical features of Isochem Incorporated`s Waste Management Program. The manual is intended to be used as a means of training and as a reference handbook for use by personnel responsible for executing the Waste Management Program. The material in this manual was assembled by members of Isochem`s Chemical Processing Division, Battelle Northwest Laboratory, and Hanford Engineering Services between September 1965 and March 1967. The manual is divided into the following parts: Introduction, contains a summary of the overall Waste Management Program. It is written to provide the reader with a synoptic view and as an aid in understanding the subsequent parts; Feed Material, contains detailed discussion of the type and sources of feed material used in the Waste Management Program, including a chapter on nuclear reactions and the formation of fission products; Waste Fractionization Plant Processing, contains detailed discussions of the processes used in the Waste Fractionization Plant with supporting data and documentation of the technology employed; Waste Fractionization Plant Product and Waste Effluent Handling, contains detailed discussions of the methods of handling the product and waste material generated by the Waste Fractionization Plant; Plant and Equipment, describes the layout of the Waste Management facilities, arrangement of equipment, and individual equipment pieces; Process Control, describes the instruments and analytical methods used for process control; and Safety describes process hazards and the methods used to safeguard against them.

  19. Temperature effects on waste glass performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazer, J.J.

    1991-02-01

    The temperature dependence of glass durability, particularly that of nuclear waste glasses, is assessed by reviewing past studies. The reaction mechanism for glass dissolution in water is complex and involves multiple simultaneous reaction proceeded, including molecular water diffusion, ion exchange, surface reaction, and precipitation. These processes can change in relative importance or dominance with time or changes in temperature. The temperature dependence of each reaction process has been shown to follow an Arrhenius relationship in studies where the reaction process has been isolated, but the overall temperature dependence for nuclear waste glass reaction mechanisms is less well understood, Nuclear waste glass studies have often neglected to identify and characterize the reaction mechanism because of difficulties in performing microanalyses; thus, it is unclear if such results can be extrapolated to other temperatures or reaction times. Recent developments in analytical capabilities suggest that investigations of nuclear waste glass reactions with water can lead to better understandings of their reaction mechanisms and their temperature dependences. Until a better understanding of glass reaction mechanisms is available, caution should be exercised in using temperature as an accelerating parameter. 76 refs., 1 tab

  20. Ten questions on nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaumont, R.; Bacher, P.

    2004-01-01

    The authors give explanations and answers to ten issues related to nuclear wastes: when a radioactive material becomes a waste, how radioactive wastes are classified and particularly nuclear wastes in France, what are the risks associated with radioactive wastes, whether the present management of radioactive wastes is well controlled in France, which wastes are raising actual problems and what are the solutions, whether amounts and radio-toxicity of wastes can be reduced, whether all long life radionuclides or part of them can be transmuted, whether geologic storage of final wastes is inescapable, whether radioactive material can be warehoused over long durations, and how the information on radioactive waste management is organised

  1. Introduction to Waste Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Solid waste management as introduced in Chapter 1.1 builds in many ways on engineering. Waste engineering here means the skills and ability to understand quantitatively how a waste management system works in such a detail that waste management can be planned, facilities can be designed and sited...... and systems can be operated in a way that is environmentally sound, technical feasible, economically efficient and socially acceptable. This applies to all scales of relevance: (1) national surveys of energy use and material flows determining the frame for politically setting goals in waste management, (2......) regional plans for waste management, including (3) the selection of main management technologies and siting of facilities, (4) the design of individual technological units and, for example, (5) the operation of recycling schemes within a municipality. This chapter gives an introduction to waste engineering...

  2. Mixed waste: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghissi, A.A.; Blauvelt, R.K.; Benda, G.A.; Rothermich, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    This volume contains the peer-reviewed and edited versions of papers submitted for presentation a the Second International Mixed Waste Symposium. Following the tradition of the First International Mixed Waste Symposium, these proceedings were prepared in advance of the meeting for distribution to participants. The symposium was organized by the Mixed Waste Committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The topics discussed at the symposium include: stabilization technologies, alternative treatment technologies, regulatory issues, vitrification technologies, characterization of wastes, thermal technologies, laboratory and analytical issues, waste storage and disposal, organic treatment technologies, waste minimization, packaging and transportation, treatment of mercury contaminated wastes and bioprocessing, and environmental restoration. Individual abstracts are catalogued separately for the data base

  3. Thermal plasma waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heberlein, Joachim; Murphy, Anthony B

    2008-01-01

    Plasma waste treatment has over the past decade become a more prominent technology because of the increasing problems with waste disposal and because of the realization of opportunities to generate valuable co-products. Plasma vitrification of hazardous slags has been a commercial technology for several years, and volume reduction of hazardous wastes using plasma processes is increasingly being used. Plasma gasification of wastes with low negative values has attracted interest as a source of energy and spawned process developments for treatment of even municipal solid wastes. Numerous technologies and approaches exist for plasma treatment of wastes. This review summarizes the approaches that have been developed, presents some of the basic physical principles, provides details of some specific processes and considers the advantages and disadvantages of thermal plasmas in waste treatment applications. (topical review)

  4. Wastes in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    As human space activities have created more wastes on low and high Earth orbits over the past 50 years than the solar system injected meteorites over billions of years, this report gives an overview of this problem. It identifies the origins of these space debris and wastes (launchers, combustion residues, exploitation wastes, out-of-use satellites, accidental explosions, accidental collisions, voluntary destructions, space erosion), and proposes a stock list of space wastes. Then, it distinguishes the situation for the different orbits: low Earth orbit or LEO (traffic, presence of the International Space Station), medium Earth orbits or MEO (traffic, operating satellites, wastes), geostationary Earth orbit or GEO (traffic, operating satellites, wastes). It also discusses wastes and bacteria present on the moon (due to Apollo missions or to crash tests). It evokes how space and nuclear industry is concerned, and discusses the re-entry issue (radioactive boomerang, metallic boomerang). It also indicates elements of international law

  5. Mixed waste: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghissi, A.A.; Blauvelt, R.K.; Benda, G.A.; Rothermich, N.E. [eds.] [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Safety and Health

    1993-12-31

    This volume contains the peer-reviewed and edited versions of papers submitted for presentation a the Second International Mixed Waste Symposium. Following the tradition of the First International Mixed Waste Symposium, these proceedings were prepared in advance of the meeting for distribution to participants. The symposium was organized by the Mixed Waste Committee of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The topics discussed at the symposium include: stabilization technologies, alternative treatment technologies, regulatory issues, vitrification technologies, characterization of wastes, thermal technologies, laboratory and analytical issues, waste storage and disposal, organic treatment technologies, waste minimization, packaging and transportation, treatment of mercury contaminated wastes and bioprocessing, and environmental restoration. Individual abstracts are catalogued separately for the data base.

  6. EPRI waste processing projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) manages research for its sponsoring electric utilities in the United States. Research in the area of low level radioactive waste (LLRW) from light water reactors focuses primarily on waste processing within the nuclear power plants, monitoring of the waste packages, and assessments of disposal technologies. Accompanying these areas and complimentary to them is the determination and evaluation of the sources of nuclear power plants radioactive waste. This paper focuses on source characterization of nuclear power plant waste, LLRW processing within nuclear power plants, and the monitoring of these wastes. EPRI's work in waste disposal technology is described in another paper in this proceeding by the same author. 1 reference, 5 figures

  7. Waste Transfer Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves...... a transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small...... satellite collection vehicles to large compacting vehicles that cannot effectively travel small streets and alleys within the inner city or in residential communities with narrow roads. However, mobile transfer is not dealt with in this chapter, which focuses on stationary transfer stations. This chapter...

  8. Handbook of hazardous waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metry, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    The contents of this work are arranged so as to give the reader a detailed understanding of the elements of hazardous waste management. Generalized management concepts are covered in Chapters 1 through 5 which are entitled: Introduction, Regulations Affecting Hazardous Waste Management, Comprehensive Hazardous Waste Management, Control of Hazardous Waste Transportation, and Emergency Hazardous Waste Management. Chapters 6 through 11 deal with treatment concepts and are entitled: General Considerations for Hazardous Waste Management Facilities, Physical Treatment of Hazardous Wastes, Chemical Treatment of Hazardous Wastes, Biological Treatment of Hazardous Wastes, Incineration of Hazardous Wastes, and Hazardous Waste Management of Selected Industries. Chapters 12 through 15 are devoted to ultimate disposal concepts and are entitled: Land Disposal Facilities, Ocean Dumping of Hazardous Wastes, Disposal of Extremely Hazardous Wastes, and Generalized Criteria for Hazardous Waste Management Facilities

  9. Comprehension of wh-questions precedes their production in typical development and autism spectrum disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Anthony; Fein, Deborah; Naigles, Letitia R.

    2011-01-01

    Lay Abstract Children with autism produce few wh-questions, compared to their typically developing peers. It is unclear if this is because of social-pragmatic difficulties, or if they have not yet learned the grammar for asking wh-questions. If children do not know how to use grammatical rules to produce questions, they might simply repeat sentences that they have heard without completely understanding them first. We visited the homes of 15 children with autism and 18 typically developing children with similar language abilities, across a three-year period. At each visit, children watched a video that depicted an apple hitting a flower and keys hitting a book. The children were then shown the items side-by-side on the screen and the audio asked “what hit the flower?” and “what did the keys hit?” We filmed the children’s eye movements and analyzed how long they looked at the named item, compared to when they heard “where is the flower/keys?” At each visit, we also filmed a 30-minute mother-child play session and analyzed the types of questions that the children asked. Children with autism showed comprehension of wh-questions at a later age than typically developing children, but at a similar level of overall language development. Neither group produced wh-questions before they had demonstrated that they understood the underlying grammatical rules. Therefore, children with autism seem to process wh-questions in the same way as their typically developing peers, just at a later age. This paper discusses the implications of our findings for the language development of children with autism. Scientific Abstract Children with autism (ASD) rarely produce wh-questions (e.g., “What hit the book?”) in naturalistic speech. It is unclear if this is due to social-pragmatic difficulties, or if grammatical deficits are also involved. If grammar is impaired, production of wh-questions by rote memorization might precede comprehension of similar forms. In a

  10. Comparison of Energy Performance of Different HVAC Systems for a Typical Office Room and a Typical Classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Tao; Heiselberg, Per; Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew

    This report is part of the work performed under the project “Natural cooling and Ventilation through Diffuse Ceiling Supply and Thermally Activated Building Constructions”. In this project, a new system solution combining natural ventilation with diffuse ceiling inlet and thermally activated...... the energy consumption for buildings with cooling demand in cold seasons. In this way, the building system can operate at a very low energy use all the year round. The main purpose of this task is to investigate the energy performance of different HVAC systems used in the office room and the classroom......, and find the potential of energy saving for the proposed new system solution. In this report, a typical room is selected according to the previous study, but the occupation is different for the purpose of the office and the classroom. Energy performance of these two types of room under different internal...

  11. [Investigation of 14 selected antibiotics in sediments of the typical cross sections of Tiaoxi River].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong-Shan; Zhang, Hai-Bo; Luo, Yong-Ming; Hu, Guan-Jiu; Zhao, Yong-Gang; Song, Jing

    2011-03-01

    The occurrence and distribution of 14 selected antibiotics in sediments of the typical cross sections of Tiaoxi River were analyzed by UPLC/MS/MS. The 14 antibiotics includes tetracycline (TC), oxytetracycline (OTC), chlortetracycline (CTC), doxycycline (DXC), sulfadiazine (SD), sulfamethoxazole (SMZ), sulfamethazine (SMX), norfloxacin (NFC), ofloxacin (OFC), enythromycin-H2O (ETM-H2O), roxithromycin (RTM), chloramphenicol (CPC), thiamphenical (TPC) and florfenicol (FFC). The results show that almost all sediment samples are unavoidably contaminated with antibiotics (detection frequency is more than 70%), and the dominant contaminants are TC, OTC, CTC and DXC, which range from 0.1 to 55.7, 0.7 to 276.6, 6.5 to 131.6 and 6.0 to 15.6 microg x kg(-1), respectively. The concentration of TC, OTC, CTC and DXC observed are as high as 1794.2, 9287.5, 1823.6, 1 149.5 microg x kg(-1) dry weight, in the sediments of the main stream around an outfall of a pig farm respectively. This implied that waste water discharge from animal husbandry was probably one of the main sources to the contamination of these antibiotics in the sediment of Tiaoxi River. Besides the four dominant antibiotics, sulfadiazineshould also be concerned due to its high concentration of 251.6 microg x kg(-1) in the sediment around the outfall of the pig farm.

  12. Longitudinal changes in cortical thickness in autism and typical development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigge, Molly B. D.; Nielsen, Jared A.; Froehlich, Alyson L.; Abildskov, Tracy J.; Anderson, Jeffrey S.; Fletcher, P. Thomas; Zygmunt, Kristen M.; Travers, Brittany G.; Lange, Nicholas; Alexander, Andrew L.; Bigler, Erin D.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2014-01-01

    The natural history of brain growth in autism spectrum disorders remains unclear. Cross-sectional studies have identified regional abnormalities in brain volume and cortical thickness in autism, although substantial discrepancies have been reported. Preliminary longitudinal studies using two time points and small samples have identified specific regional differences in cortical thickness in the disorder. To clarify age-related trajectories of cortical development, we examined longitudinal changes in cortical thickness within a large mixed cross-sectional and longitudinal sample of autistic subjects and age- and gender-matched typically developing controls. Three hundred and forty-five magnetic resonance imaging scans were examined from 97 males with autism (mean age = 16.8 years; range 3–36 years) and 60 males with typical development (mean age = 18 years; range 4–39 years), with an average interscan interval of 2.6 years. FreeSurfer image analysis software was used to parcellate the cortex into 34 regions of interest per hemisphere and to calculate mean cortical thickness for each region. Longitudinal linear mixed effects models were used to further characterize these findings and identify regions with between-group differences in longitudinal age-related trajectories. Using mean age at time of first scan as a reference (15 years), differences were observed in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, pars opercularis and pars triangularis, right caudal middle frontal and left rostral middle frontal regions, and left frontal pole. However, group differences in cortical thickness varied by developmental stage, and were influenced by IQ. Differences in age-related trajectories emerged in bilateral parietal and occipital regions (postcentral gyrus, cuneus, lingual gyrus, pericalcarine cortex), left frontal regions (pars opercularis, rostral middle frontal and frontal pole), left supramarginal gyrus, and right transverse temporal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, and

  13. Longitudinal changes in cortical thickness in autism and typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Brandon A; Prigge, Molly B D; Nielsen, Jared A; Froehlich, Alyson L; Abildskov, Tracy J; Anderson, Jeffrey S; Fletcher, P Thomas; Zygmunt, Kristen M; Travers, Brittany G; Lange, Nicholas; Alexander, Andrew L; Bigler, Erin D; Lainhart, Janet E

    2014-06-01

    The natural history of brain growth in autism spectrum disorders remains unclear. Cross-sectional studies have identified regional abnormalities in brain volume and cortical thickness in autism, although substantial discrepancies have been reported. Preliminary longitudinal studies using two time points and small samples have identified specific regional differences in cortical thickness in the disorder. To clarify age-related trajectories of cortical development, we examined longitudinal changes in cortical thickness within a large mixed cross-sectional and longitudinal sample of autistic subjects and age- and gender-matched typically developing controls. Three hundred and forty-five magnetic resonance imaging scans were examined from 97 males with autism (mean age = 16.8 years; range 3-36 years) and 60 males with typical development (mean age = 18 years; range 4-39 years), with an average interscan interval of 2.6 years. FreeSurfer image analysis software was used to parcellate the cortex into 34 regions of interest per hemisphere and to calculate mean cortical thickness for each region. Longitudinal linear mixed effects models were used to further characterize these findings and identify regions with between-group differences in longitudinal age-related trajectories. Using mean age at time of first scan as a reference (15 years), differences were observed in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, pars opercularis and pars triangularis, right caudal middle frontal and left rostral middle frontal regions, and left frontal pole. However, group differences in cortical thickness varied by developmental stage, and were influenced by IQ. Differences in age-related trajectories emerged in bilateral parietal and occipital regions (postcentral gyrus, cuneus, lingual gyrus, pericalcarine cortex), left frontal regions (pars opercularis, rostral middle frontal and frontal pole), left supramarginal gyrus, and right transverse temporal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, and

  14. Eculizumab in Typical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS) With Neurological Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Lars; Hartmann, Hans; Bange, Franz Christoph; Suerbaum, Sebastian; Bueltmann, Eva; Ahlenstiel-Grunow, Thurid

    2015-06-01

    In typical hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) approximately 25% of patients show central nervous system (CNS) involvement often leading to serious long-term disabilities. We used the C5-complement inhibitor Eculizumab as rescue therapy. From 2011 to 2014, 11 children (median age 22 months, range 11-175) with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli-positive HUS requiring dialysis who had seizures (11/11) and/or were in a stupor or coma (10/11) were treated with Eculizumab. Two patients enrolled on the Safety and Efficacy Study of Eculizumab in Shiga-Toxin Producing E coli Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome (STEC-HUS) each received 6 doses of Eculizumab, 3 patients 2 doses, and 6 patients 1 dose. Laboratory diagnostics of blood samples and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed as per center practice. Data were analyzed retrospectively. Cranial MRI was abnormal in 8 of 10 patients with findings in the basal ganglia and/or white matter. A 2-year-old boy with severe cardiac involvement and status epilepticus needed repeated cardio-pulmonary resuscitation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. He died 8 days after start of Eculizumab treatment. Two patients with hemorrhagic colitis and repeated seizures required artificial ventilation for 6 and 16 days, respectively. At the time of discharge, 1 patient showed severe neurological impairment and 1 mild neurological impairment. The 8 surviving patients experienced no further seizures after the first dose of Eculizumab. Three patients showed mild neurological impairment at discharge, whilst the remaining 5 showed no impairment. The platelets normalized 4 days (median) after the first dose of Eculizumab (range 0-20 days). The mean duration of dialysis after the first dose of Eculizumab was 14.1 ± 6.1 days. In children with typical HUS and CNS involvement early use of Eculizumab appears to improve neurological outcome. In severe HUS cases which progress rapidly with multiple organ involvement, late treatment with Eculizumab seems

  15. Large scale waste combustion projects. A study of financial structures and sensitivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandler, A.

    1993-01-01

    The principal objective of the study was to determine the key contractual and financial aspects of large scale energy-from-waste projects, and to provide the necessary background information on financing to appreciate the approach lenders take when they consider financing waste combustion projects. An integral part of the study has been the preparation of a detailed financial model, incorporating all major financing parameters, to assess the economic and financial viability of typical waste combustion projects. (author)

  16. Acid digestion of combustible radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, C.R.; Lerch, R.E.; Crippen, M.D.; Cowan, R.G.

    1982-03-01

    The following conclusions resulted from operation of Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) for processing transuranic waste: (1) the acid digestion process can be safely and efficiently operated for radioactive waste treatment.; (2) in transuranic waste treatment, there was no detectable radionuclide carryover into the exhaust off-gas. The plutonium decontamination factor (DF) between the digester and the second off-gas tower was >1.5 x 10 6 and the overall DF from the digester to the off-gas stack was >1 x 10 8 ; (3) plutonium can be easily leached from undried digestion residue with dilute nitric acid (>99% recovery). Leachability is significantly reduced if the residue is dried (>450 0 stack temp.) prior to leaching; (4) sulfuric acid recovery and recycle in the process is 100%; (5) nitric acid recovery is typically 35% to 40%. Losses are due to the formation of free nitrogen (N 2 ) during digestion, reaction with chlorides in waste (NO 2 stack was > 1.5 x 10 6 andl), and other process losses; (6) noncombustible components comprised approximately 6% by volume of glovebox waste and contained 18% of the plutonium; (7) the acid digestion process can effectively handle a wide variety of waste forms. Some design changes are desirable in the head end to reduce manual labor, particularly if large quantities of specific waste forms will be processed; (8) with the exception of residue removal and drying equipment, all systems performed satisfactorily and only minor design and equipment changes would be recommended to improve performance; and(9) the RADTU program met all of its planned primary objectives and all but one of additional secondary objectives

  17. Cleaning Up Electronic Waste (E-Waste)

    Science.gov (United States)

    While accurate data on the amount of e-waste being exported from the U.S. are not available, the United States government is concerned that these exports are being mismanaged abroad, causing serious public health and environmental hazards.

  18. New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) Waste Streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. E. Archibald

    1999-01-01

    This report addresses the issues of conducting debris treatment in the New Waste Calcine Facility (NWCF) decontamination area and the methods currently being used to decontaminate material at the NWCF

  19. Solid waste programs Fiscal Year 1995 multi-year program plan/fiscal year work plan WBS 1.2.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, M.M.

    1994-09-01

    The Hanford Mission Plan, Volume 1, Site Guidance identifies the need for the Solid Waste Program to treat, store, and dispose of a wide variety of solid material types consisting of multiple radioactive and hazardous waste classes. This includes future Hanford Site activities which will generate new wastes that must be handled as cleanup activities are completed. Solid wastes are typically categorized as transuranic waste, low level waste, low level mixed waste, and hazardous waste. To meet this need the Solid Waste Program has defined its mission as the following - receive, store, treat, decontaminate, and dispose of solid radioactive and nonradioactive dangerous wastes in a safe, cost effective and environmentally compliant manner. This workbook contains the program overview, program baselines and fiscal year work plan for the Solid Waste Program

  20. Determinants of sustainability in solid waste management--the Gianyar Waste Recovery Project in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurbrügg, Christian; Gfrerer, Margareth; Ashadi, Henki; Brenner, Werner; Küper, David

    2012-11-01

    According to most experts, integrated and sustainable solid waste management should not only be given top priority, but must go beyond technical aspects to include various key elements of sustainability to ensure success of any solid waste project. Aside from project sustainable impacts, the overall enabling environment is the key feature determining performance and success of an integrated and affordable solid waste system. This paper describes a project-specific approach to assess typical success or failure factors. A questionnaire-based assessment method covers issues of: (i) social mobilisation and acceptance (social element), (ii) stakeholder, legal and institutional arrangements comprising roles, responsibilities and management functions (institutional element); (iii) financial and operational requirements, as well as cost recovery mechanisms (economic element). The Gianyar Waste Recovery Project in Bali, Indonesia was analysed using this integrated assessment method. The results clearly identified chief characteristics, key factors to consider when planning country wide replication but also major barriers and obstacles which must be overcome to ensure project sustainability. The Gianyar project consists of a composting unit processing 60 tons of municipal waste per day from 500,000 inhabitants, including manual waste segregation and subsequent composting of the biodegradable organic fraction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Effect of Three Typical Disinfection Byproducts on Bacterial Antibiotic Resistance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Lu; Zhang, Meng-lu; Wang, Chun-ming; Lin, Hui-rong; Yu, Xin

    2015-07-01

    The effect of typical disinfection byproducts (DBPs) on bacterial antibiotic resistance was investigated in this study. chlorodibromomethane (CDBM), iodoacetic acid (IAA) and chloral hydrate (CH) were selected, which belong to trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs) and aldehydes, respectively. After exposure to the selected DBPs, the resistance change of the tested strains to antibiotics was determined. As a result, all of the three DBPs induced Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 to gain increased resistance to the five antibiotics tested, and the DBPs ranked as IAA > CH > CDBM according to their enhancement effects. Multidrug resistance could also be enhanced by treatment with IAA. The same result was observed in Escherichia coli K12, suggesting that the effect of DBPs on antibiotic resistance was a common phenomenon. The mechanism was probably that DBPs stimulated oxidative stress, which induced mutagenesis. And the antibiotic resistance mutation frequency could be increased along with mutagenesis. This study revealed that the acquisition of bacterial antibiotic resistance might be related to DBPs in drinking water systems. Besides the genotoxicological risks, the epidemiological risks of DBPs should not be overlooked.

  2. A quantitative evaluation of seismic margin of typical sodium piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Masaki

    1999-05-01

    It is widely recognized that the current seismic design methods for piping involve a large amount of safety margin. From this viewpoint, a series of seismic analyses and evaluations with various design codes were made on typical LMFBR main sodium piping systems. Actual capability against seismic loads were also estimated on the piping systems. Margins contained in the current codes were quantified based on these results, and potential benefits and impacts to the piping seismic design were assessed on possible mitigation of the current code allowables. From the study, the following points were clarified; 1) A combination of inelastic time history analysis and true (without margin)strength capability allows several to twenty times as large seismic load compared with the allowable load with the current methods. 2) The new rule of the ASME is relatively compatible with the results of inelastic analysis evaluation. Hence, this new rule might be a goal for the mitigation of seismic design rule. 3) With this mitigation, seismic design accommodation such as equipping with a large number of seismic supports may become unnecessary. (author)

  3. Typical and unusual findings in MR mammography - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bick, U.

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, MR mammography has gained increasing importance in breast diagnostics. The main advantage of this technique is its high sensitivity for invasive breast cancer. The two main indications for MR mammography are preoperative staging of breast cancer and the differentiation between postoperative changes and recurrent tumor. In addition, MR mammography is increasingly used for problem solving in cases of questionable clinical, mammographic or sonographic findings. At this it is important to know not only the different manifestations of breast cancer, but also important benign and malignant diagnostic alternatives. Furthermore, it is necessary to be familiar with therapy-related changes. The most important criterion to differentiate between benign and malignant lesions in MR mammography is the extent and temporal course of contrast enhancement. In addition, the lesion morphology and the signal intensity on T 2 -weighted images can be used to distinguish between different disease entities. The following review article will discuss typical and unusual findings in breast MRI, including rare entities as well as changes after breast conserving therapy and chemotherapy. (orig.) [de

  4. Facial affect recognition in autism, ADHD and typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Steve; Engström, Ann-Charlotte; Bölte, Sven

    2016-05-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have been associated with facial affect recognition (FAR) alterations. This study examined accuracy and response times for general and specific FAR in whole face and eye-region stimuli. FAR was assessed in matched samples of children and adolescents with ASD (n = 35), ADHD (n = 32), and typical development (TD) (n = 32) aged 8.6-15.9 years (M = 11.6; SD = 2.0). Compared to TD, the ASD group performed less accurate and showed longer response times for general and specific FAR, mostly driven by problems in neutral and happy face identification. The ADHD group responded faster than the ASD group for global FAR. No differences between ADHD and TD were found. Attentional distractibility had a significant effect on FAR performance in ASD and ADHD. Findings confirm FAR alterations in ASD, but not ADHD, and endorse effects of attentional distractibility on FAR in ASD and ADHD. FAR and attention function training is clinically meaningful in ASD. Future studies should include control for visual attention and facial configuration skills, use naturalistic FAR material and also investigate implicit FAR.

  5. Development of Visuospatial Attention in Typically Developing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickx, Gaétan; Bleyenheuft, Yannick; Hatem, Samar M

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the development of visuospatial attention in typically developing children and to propose reference values for children for the following six visuospatial attention tests: star cancellation, Ogden figure, reading test, line bisection, proprioceptive pointing and visuo-proprioceptive pointing. Data of 159 children attending primary or secondary school in the Fédération Wallonie Bruxelles (Belgium) were analyzed. Results showed that the children's performance on star cancellation, Ogden figure and reading test improved until the age of 13 years, whereas their performance on proprioceptive pointing, visuo-proprioceptive pointing and line bisection was stable with increasing age. These results suggest that the execution of different types of visuospatial attention tasks are not following the same developmental trajectories. This dissociation is strengthened by the lack of correlation observed between tests assessing egocentric and allocentric visuospatial attention, except for the star cancellation test (egocentric) and the Ogden figure copy (ego- and allocentric). Reference values are proposed that may be useful to examine children with clinical disorders of visuospatial attention.

  6. Aqueous-chlorine leaching of typical Canadian uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, K.E.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory-scale aqueous-chlorine leaches were conducted on quartz-pebble conglomerates, pegmatite and vein-type ores. Optimum leach temperatures, pulp density and retention times were determined. Uranium extraction of 98 per cent was obtained from the Elliot Lake, Madawaska Mines of Bancroft and Rabbit Lake ores, 96 per cent from the Key Lake ore and 86 per cent from the Agnew Lake ore. However, tailings containing 15-20 pCi g -1 of radium-226 were obtained only from the Elliot Lake and Agnew lake quartz-pebble conglomerates and Bancroft pegmatite-type ores by second-stage leaches with HCl. The second-stage leach results indicate that multistage (3 or 4) acid-chloride or salt-chloride leaches might be effective to obtain tailings containing 15-20 pCi 226 Ra g -1 from the high-grade vein-type ores. Comparative reagent-cost estimates show that the sulphuric-acid leach process is far less expensive than aqueous chlorine leaching. Nevertheless, only the aqueous chlorine and acid-chloride leaches in stages are effective in producing tailings containing 15-20 pCi 226 Ra g -1 from the typical Canadian uranium ores. (Auth.)

  7. Status and challenges for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riotte, H.

    2011-01-01

    safety case which goes beyond demonstrating compliance with numerical safety indicators and highlights the range of underlying evidence and methods that give confidence. Regarding long-term safety regulation, the variety of approaches in national criteria and practices that reflects the different national regulatory, legal and cultural environments needs to be made transparent. Today, there is a clear understanding that the implementation of radioactive waste repositories is as much a socio-political challenge as a technical one. Public acceptance of the site needs to be secured and maintained over the lifetime of the repository and beyond. A durable relationship between a waste management facility and its host community is paramount to resolve conflicts and to deal with diverging interests that may come up during the long implementation and operational period of a geologic repository. Reversibility of decisions and retrievability of waste, under specified conditions, are typically two important requests from the local public that need to be taken into account when designing a disposal programme. While the management of short-lived, low-level waste became an industrial reality and general attention has been focusing on the management of high level waste and geologic repositories, in several countries there are still outstanding issues related to special types of radioactive waste, e.g. mixed waste and graphite, that require further consideration. As a specific case, safe and cost-effective management of waste from accident facilities, like the Fukushima plants, or from remediation of contaminated land, may pose new questions that could benefit from the international experience.

  8. Japanese Nuclear Waste Avatars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynn Kirby, Peter; Stier, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Japan's cataclysmic 2011 tsunami has become a vast, unwanted experiment in waste management. The seismic event and resulting Fukushima Daiichi radiation crisis created an awkwardly fortuitous rupture in Japanese nuclear practice that exposed the lax and problematic management of nuclear waste in this country to broader scrutiny, as well as distortions in its very conception. This article looks at the full spectrum of nuclear waste in post-tsunami Japan, from spent fuel rods to contorted reactor containment, and the ways that nuclear waste mirrors or diverges from more quotidian waste practices in Japanese culture. Significantly, the Fukushima Daiichi plant itself and its erstwhile banal surroundings have themselves transmuted into an unwieldy form of nuclear waste. The immense challenges of the Fukushima Daiichi site have stimulated a series of on-the-fly innovations that furnish perspective on more everyday nuclear waste practices in the industry. While some HLW can be reprocessed for limited use in today's reactors, it cannot be ignored that much of Japan's nuclear waste is simply converted into other forms of waste. In a society that has long been fixated on segregating filth, maintaining (imagined) purity, and managing proximity to pollution, the specter of nuclear waste looms over contemporary Japan and its ongoing debates over resources, risk, and Japanese nuclear identity itself

  9. Ferrocyanide tank waste stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, K.D.

    1993-01-01

    Ferrocyanide wastes were generated at the Hanford Site during the mid to late 1950s as a result of efforts to create more tank space for the storage of high-level nuclear waste. The ferrocyanide process was developed to remove 137 CS from existing waste and newly generated waste that resulted from the recovery of valuable uranium in Hanford Site waste tanks. During the course of research associated with the ferrocyanide process, it was recognized that ferrocyanide materials, when mixed with sodium nitrate and/or sodium nitrite, were capable of violent exothermic reaction. This chemical reactivity became an issue in the 1980s, when safety issues associated with the storage of ferrocyanide wastes in Hanford Site tanks became prominent. These safety issues heightened in the late 1980s and led to the current scrutiny of the safety issues associated with these wastes, as well as current research and waste management programs. Testing to provide information on the nature of possible tank reactions is ongoing. This document supplements the information presented in Summary of Single-Shell Tank Waste Stability, WHC-EP-0347, March 1991 (Borsheim and Kirch 1991), which evaluated several issues. This supplement only considers information particular to ferrocyanide wastes

  10. TSA waste stream and final waste form composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandy, J.D.; Eddy, T.L.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    A final vitrified waste form composition, based upon the chemical compositions of the input waste streams, is recommended for the transuranic-contaminated waste stored at the Transuranic Storage Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The quantities of waste are large with a considerable uncertainty in the distribution of various waste materials. It is therefore impractical to mix the input waste streams into an ''average'' transuranic-contaminated waste. As a result, waste stream input to a melter could vary widely in composition, with the potential of affecting the composition and properties of the final waste form. This work examines the extent of the variation in the input waste streams, as well as the final waste form under conditions of adding different amounts of soil. Five prominent Rocky Flats Plant 740 waste streams are considered, as well as nonspecial metals and the ''average'' transuranic-contaminated waste streams. The metals waste stream is the most extreme variation and results indicate that if an average of approximately 60 wt% of the mixture is soil, the final waste form will be predominantly silica, alumina, alkaline earth oxides, and iron oxide. This composition will have consistent properties in the final waste form, including high leach resistance, irrespective of the variation in waste stream. For other waste streams, much less or no soil could be required to yield a leach resistant waste form but with varying properties

  11. Prospects for pyrolysis technologies in managing municipal, industrial, and DOE cleanup wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reaven, S.J.

    1994-12-01

    Pyrolysis converts portions of municipal solid wastes, hazardous wastes, and special wastes such as tires, medical wastes, and even old landfills into solid carbon and a liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon stream. Pyrolysis heats a carbonaceous waste stream typically to 290--900 C in the absence of oxygen, and reduces the volume of waste by 90% and its weight by 75%. The solid carbon char has existing markets as an ingredient in many manufactured goods, and as an adsorbent or filter to sequester certain hazardous wastes. Pyrolytic gases may be burned as fuel by utilities, or liquefied for use as chemical feedstocks, or low-pollution motor vehicle fuels and fuel additives. This report analyzes the potential applications of pyrolysis in the Long Island region and evaluates for the four most promising pyrolytic systems their technological and commercial readiness, their applicability to regional waste management needs, and their conformity with DOE requirements for environmental restoration and waste management. This summary characterizes their engineering performance, environmental effects, costs, product applications, and markets. Because it can effectively treat those wastes that are inadequately addressed by current systems, pyrolysis can play an important complementing role in the region's existing waste management strategy. Its role could be even more significant if the region moves away from existing commitments to incineration and MSW composting. Either way, Long Island could become the center for a pyrolysis-based recovery services industry serving global markets in municipal solid waste treatment and hazardous waste cleanup. 162 refs

  12. Prospects for pyrolysis technologies in managing municipal, industrial, and DOE cleanup wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reaven, S.J. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Pyrolysis converts portions of municipal solid wastes, hazardous wastes, and special wastes such as tires, medical wastes, and even old landfills into solid carbon and a liquid or gaseous hydrocarbon stream. Pyrolysis heats a carbonaceous waste stream typically to 290--900 C in the absence of oxygen, and reduces the volume of waste by 90% and its weight by 75%. The solid carbon char has existing markets as an ingredient in many manufactured goods, and as an adsorbent or filter to sequester certain hazardous wastes. Pyrolytic gases may be burned as fuel by utilities, or liquefied for use as chemical feedstocks, or low-pollution motor vehicle fuels and fuel additives. This report analyzes the potential applications of pyrolysis in the Long Island region and evaluates for the four most promising pyrolytic systems their technological and commercial readiness, their applicability to regional waste management needs, and their conformity with DOE requirements for environmental restoration and waste management. This summary characterizes their engineering performance, environmental effects, costs, product applications, and markets. Because it can effectively treat those wastes that are inadequately addressed by current systems, pyrolysis can play an important complementing role in the region`s existing waste management strategy. Its role could be even more significant if the region moves away from existing commitments to incineration and MSW composting. Either way, Long Island could become the center for a pyrolysis-based recovery services industry serving global markets in municipal solid waste treatment and hazardous waste cleanup. 162 refs.

  13. The role of the operator of nuclear power plants in disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaussade, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    Public opinion polls show that the French have largely understood the importance of our nuclear programme in maintaining French independence with regard to power supply and its security and that they have confidence in the technicians for the proper construction and operation of these power plants, but that they retain many questions concerning the disposal of nuclear waste. They have the impression that solutions remain to be found, and especially that the Electricite de France (EDF) devised the nuclear power programme without concern for the disposal of waste. This lack of information is fortunately far from reality, EDF, under the supervision of the security authorities, manages the waste produced in the nuclear power plants. Final stocking of waste is handled by a body that is independent of the waste producer, the ''Agence nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs'' (Andra) (National Agency for the Management of Radioactive Waste). (author). 7 refs., 1 tab

  14. Early Involvement and Integration in Construction Projects: The Benefits of DfX in Elimination of Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heikki Halttula

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Typical construction processes provide waste: material waste but especially process-related waste. The majority of this waste can be avoided with efficient planning in the front end of projects. The main aim is to describe how the concept of Design for Excellence (DfX can reduce the most severe waste in construction projects. Based on a literature review of waste and requirements that aid early involvement and integration, we created a survey for analyzing and prioritizing types of waste in the construction industry. We describe how DFX reduces this waste, especially through the use of early involvement and integration. When applied, DfX creates incentives for project stakeholders to eliminate waste automatically through early involvement and integration.

  15. Waste statistics 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-07

    The 2004 reporting to the ISAG comprises 394 plants owned by 256 enterprises. In 2003, reports covered 403 plants owned by 273 enterprises. Waste generation in 2004 is compared to targets for 2008 in the government's Waste Strategy 2005-2008. The following summarises waste generation in 2004: 1) In 2004, total reported waste arisings amounted to 13,359,000 tonnes, which is 745,000 tonnes, or 6 per cent, more than in 2003. 2) If amounts of residues from coal-fired power plants are excluded from statistics, waste arisings in 2004 were 12,179,000 tonnes, which is a 9 per cent increase from 2003. 3) If amounts of residues from coal-fired power plants and waste from the building and construction sector are excluded from statistics, total waste generation in 2004 amounted to 7,684,000 tonnes, which is 328,000 tonnes, or 4 per cent, more than in 2002. In other words, there has been an increase in total waste arisings, if residues and waste from building and construction are excluded. Waste from the building and construction sector is more sensitive to economic change than most other waste. 4) The total rate of recycling was 65 per cent. The 2008 target for recycling is 65 per cent. The rate of recycling in 2003 was also 65 per cent. 5) The total amount of waste led to incineration amounted to 26 per cent, plus an additional 1 per cent left in temporary storage to be incinerated at a later time. The 2008 target for incineration is 26 per cent. These are the same percentage figures as applied to incineration and storage in 2003. 6) The total amount of waste led to landfills amounted to 8 per cent, which is one percentage point better than the overall landfill target of a maximum of 9 per cent landfilling in 2008. Also in 2003, 8 per cent of the waste was landfilled. 7) The targets for treatment of waste from individual sectors are still not being met: too little waste from households and the service sector is being recycled, and too much waste from industry is being

  16. Waste Management Project Contingency Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edward L. Parsons, Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the office of Waste Management (WM) with recommended contingency calculation procedures for typical WM projects. Typical projects were defined as conventional construction-type activities that use innovative elements when necessary to meet the project objectives. Projects involve treatment, storage, and disposal of low level, mixed low level, hazardous, transuranic, and high level waste. Cost contingencies are an essential part of Total Cost Management. A contingency is an amount added to a cost estimate to compensate for unexpected expenses resulting from incomplete design, unforeseen and unpredictable conditions, or uncertainties in the project scope (DOE 1994, AACE 1998). Contingency allowances are expressed as percentages of estimated cost and improve cost estimates by accounting for uncertainties. The contingency allowance is large at the beginning of a project because there are more uncertainties, but as a project develops, the allowance shrinks to adjust for costs already incurred. Ideally, the total estimated cost remains the same throughout a project. Project contingency reflects the degree of uncertainty caused by lack of project definition, and process contingency reflects the degree of uncertainty caused by use of new technology. Different cost estimation methods were reviewed and compared with respect to terminology, accuracy, and Cost Guide standards. The Association for the Advancement of Cost Engineering (AACE) methods for cost estimation were selected to represent best industry practice. AACE methodology for contingency analysis can be readily applied to WM Projects, accounts for uncertainties associated with different stages of a project, and considers both project and process contingencies and the stage of technical readiness. As recommended, AACE contingency allowances taper off linearly as a project nears completion

  17. Radioactive wastes of Nuclear Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This conference studies the radioactive waste of nuclear industry. Nine articles and presentations are exposed here; the action of the direction of nuclear installations safety, the improvement of industrial proceedings to reduce the waste volume, the packaging of radioactive waste, the safety of radioactive waste disposal and environmental impact studies, a presentation of waste coming from nuclear power plants, the new waste management policy, the international panorama of radioactive waste management, the international transport of radioactive waste, finally an economic analysis of the treatment and ultimate storage of radioactive waste. (N.C.)

  18. Typical tumors of the petrous bone; Typische Tumoren des Felsenbeins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlhelm, F.; Mueller, U. [Kantonsspital Baden AG, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Institut fuer Radiologie, Baden (Switzerland); Ulmer, S. [Medizinisch-Radiologisches Institut, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2014-04-15

    In the region of the petrous bone, inner acoustic canal and cerebellopontine angle, a variety of different tissues can be found, such as bony, epithelial, neural and vascular structures. Tumorous or tumor-like lesions, vascular or bony malformations or other pathologies can therefore be found in all of these areas. We discuss various frequently occurring tumorous or tumor-like pathologies including congential lesions, such as mucoceles, inflammatory disorders including osteomyelitis, pseudotumors and Wegener's granulomatosis. Benign non-neoplastic lesions, such as cholesteatoma, cholesterol granuloma, epidermoid and benign neoplastic tumors, such as the most commonly found vestibular schwannoma, meningeoma, paraganglioma, vascular pathologies and finally malignant lesions, such as metastasis, chordoma or chondrosarcoma and endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) are also discussed. The emphasis of this article is on the appearance of these entities in computed tomography (CT) and more so magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), it provides key facts and typical images and discusses possibilities how to distinguish these pathologies. (orig.) [German] In der Region des Felsenbein, inneren Gehoerkanals und Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkels findet sich eine Vielzahl an unterschiedlichen Gewebearten inklusive knoechernes, epitheliales, nervales und vaskulaeres Gewebe. Tumoren oder tumoraehnliche Laesionen, ossaere oder vaskulaere Pathologien koennen entsprechend dort gefunden werden. Wir diskutieren verschiedene Tumoren oder tumoraehnliche Pathologien inklusive angeborene Laesionen wie Muko- und Meningozelen, entzuendliche Veraenderungen wie die Osteomyelitis, Pseudotumoren, die Wegener-Granulomatose, nichtneoplastische Tumoren wie das Epidermoid, Cholesteatom oder Cholesterolgranulom und gutartige neoplastische Tumoren wie das am haeufigsten zu findende Vestibularisschwannom, das Paragangliom und das Meningeom, Gefaessprozesse/-pathologien und schliesslich maligne Laesionen wie Metastasen

  19. The development of prospective memory in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tian-xiao; Chan, Raymond C K; Shum, David

    2011-05-01

    This study aimed to use specifically designed tasks to capture time-based, activity-based, and event-based prospective memory (PM) performance in typically developing school-age children. Two PM tasks (Fishing Game & Happy Week) were used to examine the developmental patterns of PM in these children. Retrospective memory (RM) was also examined in these tasks. A total of 120 children aged between 7 and 12 years (10 girls and 10 boys in each age band) were recruited. Tests of working memory, inhibition, and IQ were also administered. The age effect on PM accuracy was significant, with improvements identified between ages 7 to 8 and 10 to 11 years. For both tasks, performance on the time-based PM task was significantly poorer than that on the event-based PM task, which in turn was significantly poorer than that on the activity-based PM task. In terms of errors, results indicated that while errors associated with the PM component of the tasks decreased with age, errors associated with the RM component showed an inverted-U shape. The different patterns of errors suggest qualitative as well as quantitative differences in PM development in children. Finally, IQ, working memory, and inhibition were found to relate to PM when age was partialed out. Results of the study highlight the importance of contextual cues, such as activities and events, for prospective remembering in children. In addition, they have provided a general picture of PM development in school-age children and have implications for educators and parents.

  20. Ballistic Characterization Of A Typical Military Steel Helmet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ali Maher

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study the ballistic limit of a steel helmet against a FMJ 919 mm caliber bullet is estimated. The helmet model is the typical polish helmet wz.31.The helmet material showed high strength low alloy steel material of 0.28 carbon content and 9.125 kgm2 areal density. The tensile test according to ASTM E8 showed a tensile strength of 1236.4 MPa .The average hardness value was about HV550. First shooting experiment has been executed using a 9 mm pistol based on 350 ms muzzle velocity at 5m against the simply supported helmet complete penetrations rose in this test were in the form of cracks on the helmet surface and partial penetrations were in the form of craters on the surface whose largest diameter and depth were 43 mm and 20.2 mm consequently .The second experiment was on a rifled gun arrangement 13 bullets of 919 mm caliber were shot on the examined simply supported steel helmet at a zero obliquity angle at different velocities to determine the ballistic limit velocity V50 according to MIL-STD-662F. Three major outcomes were revealed 1 the value V50 which found to be about 390 ms is higher than the one found in literature 360 ms German steel helmet model 1A1. 2 The smallest the standard deviation of the mixed results zone data the most accurate the ballistic limit is. 3Similar to the performance of blunt-ended projectiles impacting overmatching targets tD near 11 or larger It was found that the dominating failure mode of the steel helmet stuck by a hemispherical-nose projectile was plugging mode despite of having tD ratio of about 19 undermatching.

  1. Thermal properties of typical chernozems in Kursk Oblast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhangel'skaya, T. A.; Velichenko, M. V.; Tikhonravova, P. I.

    2016-10-01

    Thermal diffusivity and heat capacity of virgin and plowed heavy loamy typical chernozems of Kursk oblast were studied. Thermal diffusivity was determined in the course of step-by-step drying of the initially capillary-saturated samples to the air-dry state. Specific heat capacity was determined for absolutely dry samples. Volumetric heat capacity was calculated according to the de Vries equation. Thermal diffusivity varied within the ranges of (1.15-3.46) × 10-7 m2/s in the Ap horizon, (1.14-3.35) × 10-7 m2/s in the A1 horizon, (1.49-3.70) × 10-7 m2/s in the AB horizon, (1.49-3.91) × 10-7 m2/s in the B1 horizon, and (1.60-3.80) × 10-7 m2/s in the Bca horizon. The thermal diffusivity vs. water content dependencies had distinct maximums and were flattened in the range of low water contents. The maximums were most pronounced for the mineral B1 and Bca horizons; for the A1 and Ap horizons, the curves were rather S-shaped. Volumetric heat capacity of the air-dry soils varied from 0.96 J/(cm3 K) in the A1 horizon to 1.31 J/(cm3 K) in the Bca horizon; in the state of capillary saturation, it varied from 2.79 J/(cm3 K) in the A1 horizon to 3.28 J/(cm3 K) in the Bca horizon. Thermal properties of topsoil horizons were higher in the plowed chernozem compared with the virgin chernozem, which is explained by an increase in the bulk density and a decrease in the organic matter content in the plowed soil.

  2. Describing Speech Usage in Daily Activities in Typical Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Laine; Baylor, Carolyn R; Eadie, Tanya L; Yorkston, Kathryn M

    2016-01-01

    "Speech usage" refers to what people want or need to do with their speech to meet communication demands in life roles. The purpose of this study was to contribute to validation of the Levels of Speech Usage scale by providing descriptive data from a sample of adults without communication disorders, comparing this scale to a published Occupational Voice Demands scale and examining predictors of speech usage levels. This is a survey design. Adults aged ≥25 years without reported communication disorders were recruited nationally to complete an online questionnaire. The questionnaire included the Levels of Speech Usage scale, questions about relevant occupational and nonoccupational activities (eg, socializing, hobbies, childcare, and so forth), and demographic information. Participants were also categorized according to Koufman and Isaacson occupational voice demands scale. A total of 276 participants completed the questionnaires. People who worked for pay tended to report higher levels of speech usage than those who do not work for pay. Regression analyses showed employment to be the major contributor to speech usage; however, considerable variance left unaccounted for suggests that determinants of speech usage and the relationship between speech usage, employment, and other life activities are not yet fully defined. The Levels of Speech Usage may be a viable instrument to systematically rate speech usage because it captures both occupational and nonoccupational speech demands. These data from a sample of typical adults may provide a reference to help in interpreting the impact of communication disorders on speech usage patterns. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Gender-typical olfactory regulation of sexual behavior in goldfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Yutaro; Nagaoka, Akira; Kitami, Asana; Mitsuhashi, Tomomi; Hayakawa, Youichi; Kobayashi, Makito

    2014-01-01

    It is known that olfaction is essential for the occurrence of sexual behavior in male goldfish. Sex pheromones from ovulatory females elicit male sexual behavior, chasing, and sperm releasing act. In female goldfish, ovarian prostaglandin F2α (PGF) elicits female sexual behavior, egg releasing act. It has been considered that olfaction does not affect sexual behavior in female goldfish. In the present study, we re-examined the involvement of olfaction in sexual behavior of female goldfish. Olfaction was blocked in male and female goldfish by two methods: nasal occlusion (NO) which blocks the reception of olfactants, and olfactory tract section (OTX) which blocks transmission of olfactory information from the olfactory bulb to the telencephalon. Sexual behavior of goldfish was induced by administration of PGF to females, an established method for inducing goldfish sexual behavior in both sexes. Sexual behavior in males was suppressed by NO and OTX as previously reported because of lack of pheromone stimulation. In females, NO suppressed sexual behavior but OTX did not affect the occurrence of sexual behavior. Females treated with both NO and OTX performed sexual behavior normally. These results indicate that olfaction is essential in female goldfish to perform sexual behavior as in males but in a different manner. The lack of olfaction in males causes lack of pheromonal stimulation, resulting in no behavior elicited. Whereas the results of female experiments suggest that lack of olfaction in females causes strong inhibition of sexual behavior mediated by the olfactory pathway. Olfactory tract section is considered to block the pathway and remove this inhibition, resulting in the resumption of the behavior. By subtract sectioning of the olfactory tract, it was found that this inhibition was mediated by the medial olfactory tracts, not the lateral olfactory tracts. Thus, it is concluded that goldfish has gender-typical olfactory regulation for sexual behavior.

  4. Gender-typical olfactory regulation of sexual behavior in goldfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Yutaro; Nagaoka, Akira; Kitami, Asana; Mitsuhashi, Tomomi; Hayakawa, Youichi; Kobayashi, Makito

    2014-01-01

    It is known that olfaction is essential for the occurrence of sexual behavior in male goldfish. Sex pheromones from ovulatory females elicit male sexual behavior, chasing, and sperm releasing act. In female goldfish, ovarian prostaglandin F2α (PGF) elicits female sexual behavior, egg releasing act. It has been considered that olfaction does not affect sexual behavior in female goldfish. In the present study, we re-examined the involvement of olfaction in sexual behavior of female goldfish. Olfaction was blocked in male and female goldfish by two methods: nasal occlusion (NO) which blocks the reception of olfactants, and olfactory tract section (OTX) which blocks transmission of olfactory information from the olfactory bulb to the telencephalon. Sexual behavior of goldfish was induced by administration of PGF to females, an established method for inducing goldfish sexual behavior in both sexes. Sexual behavior in males was suppressed by NO and OTX as previously reported because of lack of pheromone stimulation. In females, NO suppressed sexual behavior but OTX did not affect the occurrence of sexual behavior. Females treated with both NO and OTX performed sexual behavior normally. These results indicate that olfaction is essential in female goldfish to perform sexual behavior as in males but in a different manner. The lack of olfaction in males causes lack of pheromonal stimulation, resulting in no behavior elicited. Whereas the results of female experiments suggest that lack of olfaction in females causes strong inhibition of sexual behavior mediated by the olfactory pathway. Olfactory tract section is considered to block the pathway and remove this inhibition, resulting in the resumption of the behavior. By subtract sectioning of the olfactory tract, it was found that this inhibition was mediated by the medial olfactory tracts, not the lateral olfactory tracts. Thus, it is concluded that goldfish has gender-typical olfactory regulation for sexual behavior. PMID

  5. Do Typical Galaxies in Adolescence Already Host Growing Black Holes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Jonathan

    2012-10-01

    This archival grism proposal achieves a 100-fold gain in high-quality {5+sigma} information for discovering which properties of adolescent {0.7typical mass and SFR are linked to AGN activity. We propose to analyze 147 WFC3 G141 and 111 ACS 800L pointings of 2-orbit grism data in the CANDELS fields, for a sample of 3000 galaxies reaching SFR 5 Msun/yr and stellar masses of log{M*/Msun} 9 at z 1.5. We will leverage spatially-resolved line ratios to uniquely distinguish a nuclear AGN from extended low-metallicity or shocked gas. Compared to our 30-galaxy published sample that hints at AGNs in low-mass z 2 galaxies {Trump et al. 2011}, this 3000 galaxy sample enables a 100-fold gain in divisions by galaxy morphology, SFR, and stellar mass to discover which galaxy properties correlate most with rapid SMBH growth. We will stack the deep {0.8-4 Ms} Chandra data available in these fields as an independent check of the grism AGN/SF diagnostics. The unique ancillary data in these fields also include ACS+WFC3 imaging for morphologies, deep multiwavelength data for well-sampled SEDs and stellar masses, and previous optical {and future near-IR} spectroscopy to supplement the G141 coverage. Based on discussions with the GOODS-N and 3D-HST teams, our proposed AGN science does not overlap with their proposed or funded science goals. As a value-added product for the community we will release, via the public Rainbow-CANDELS database server, an atlas of spatial maps of emission lines and line ratios {and associated errors} for the entire sample of 3000 galaxies.

  6. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoulfanidis, N.

    1991-01-01

    The management of radioactive waste is a very important part of the nuclear industry. The future of the nuclear power industry depends to a large extent on the successful solution of the perceived or real problems associated with the disposal of both low-level waste (LLW) and high-level waste (HLW). All the activities surrounding the management of radioactive waste are reviewed. The federal government and the individual states are working toward the implementation of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and the Low-Level Waste Policy Act. The two congressional acts are reviewed and progress made as of early 1990 is presented. Spent-fuel storage and transportation are discussed in detail as are the concepts of repositories for HLW. The status of state compacts for LLW is also discussed. Finally, activities related to the decommissioning of nuclear facilities are also described

  7. DOE Hazardous Waste Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyman, L.D.; Craig, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    The goal of the DOE Hazardous Waste Program is to support the implementation and improvement of hazardous-chemical and mixed-radioactive-waste management such that public health, safety, and the environment are protected and DOE missions are effectively accomplished. The strategy for accomplishing this goal is to define the character and magnitude of hazardous wastes emanating from DOE facilities, determine what DOE resources are available to address these problems, define the regulatory and operational constraints, and develop programs and plans to resolve hazardous waste issues. Over the longer term the program will support the adaptation and application of technologies to meet hazardous waste management needs and to implement an integrated, DOE-wide hazardous waste management strategy. 1 reference, 1 figure

  8. Waste acceptance and logistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, James H.

    1992-01-01

    There are three major components which are normally highlighted when the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program is discussed - the repository, the monitored retrievable storage facility, and the transportation system. These are clearly the major physical system elements and they receive the greatest external attention. However, there will not be a successful, operative waste management system without fully operational waste acceptance plans and logistics arrangements. This paper will discuss the importance of developing, on a parallel basis to the normally considered waste management system elements, the waste acceptance and logistics arrangements to enable the timely transfer of spent nuclear fuel from more than one hundred and twenty waste generators to the Federal government. The paper will also describe the specific activities the Program has underway to make the necessary arrangements. (author)

  9. Incineration of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eid, C.

    1985-01-01

    The incineration process currently seems the most appropriate way to solve the problems encountered by the increasing quantities of low and medium active waste from nuclear power generation waste. Although a large number of incinerators operate in the industry, there is still scope for the improvement of safety, throughput capacity and reduction of secondary waste. This seminar intends to give opportunity to scientists working on the different aspects of incineration to present their most salient results and to discuss the possibilities of making headway in the management of LL/ML radioactive waste. These proceedings include 17 contributions ranging over the subjects: incineration of solid β-γ wastes; incineration of other radwastes; measurement and control of wastes; off-gas filtration and release. (orig./G.J.P.)

  10. Typical Mexican agroindustrial residues as supports for solid-state fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores-Maltos, Dulce A.; Mussatto, Solange Ines; Contreras Esquivel, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Biological wastes contain several reusable substances of high value such as soluble sugars and fiber. Direct disposal of such wastes to soil or landfill causes serious environmental problems. Thus, the development of potential value-added processes for these wastes is highly attractive...

  11. Ceramics in nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikalla, T D; Mendel, J E [eds.

    1979-05-01

    Seventy-three papers are included, arranged under the following section headings: national programs for the disposal of radioactive wastes, waste from stability and characterization, glass processing, ceramic processing, ceramic and glass processing, leaching of waste materials, properties of nuclear waste forms, and immobilization of special radioactive wastes. Separate abstracts were prepared for all the papers. (DLC)

  12. Waste Characterization: Approaches and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerkvist, A.; Ecke, H.; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    related to individual treatment processes and waste products are dealt with in the following chapters: Characteristic data on residential waste (Chapter 2.2), commercial and institutional waste (Chapter 2.3), industrial waste (Chapter 2.4) and construction and demolition waste (Chapter 2...

  13. Guidelines for mixed waste minimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, C.

    1992-02-01

    Currently, there is no commercial mixed waste disposal available in the United States. Storage and treatment for commercial mixed waste is limited. Host States and compacts region officials are encouraging their mixed waste generators to minimize their mixed wastes because of management limitations. This document provides a guide to mixed waste minimization.

  14. Guidelines for mixed waste minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, C.

    1992-02-01

    Currently, there is no commercial mixed waste disposal available in the United States. Storage and treatment for commercial mixed waste is limited. Host States and compacts region officials are encouraging their mixed waste generators to minimize their mixed wastes because of management limitations. This document provides a guide to mixed waste minimization

  15. Treating landfill gas hydrogen sulphide with mineral wool waste (MWW) and rod mill waste (RMW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergersen, Ove; Haarstad, Ketil

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) gas is a major odorant at municipal landfills. The gas can be generated from different waste fractions, for example demolition waste containing gypsum based plaster board. The removal of H2S from landfill gas was investigated by filtering it through mineral wool waste products. The flow of gas varied from 0.3 l/min to 3.0 l/min. The gas was typical for landfill gas with a mean H2S concentration of ca. 4500 ppm. The results show that the sulphide gas can effectively be removed by mineral wool waste products. The ratios of the estimated potential for sulphide precipitation were 19:1 for rod mill waste (RMW) and mineral wool waste (MWW). A filter consisting of a mixture of MWW and RMW, with a vertical perforated gas tube through the center of filter material and with a downward gas flow, removed 98% of the sulfide gas over a period of 80 days. A downward gas flow was more efficient in contacting the filter materials. Mineral wool waste products are effective in removing hydrogen sulphide from landfill gas given an adequate contact time and water content in the filter material. Based on the estimated sulphide removal potential of mineral wool and rod mill waste of 14 g/kg and 261 g/kg, and assuming an average sulphide gas concentration of 4500 ppm, the removal capacity in the filter materials has been estimated to last between 11 and 308 days. At the studied location the experimental gas flow was 100 times less than the actual gas flow. We believe that the system described here can be upscaled in order to treat this gas flow. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Categorizing operational radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-04-01

    The primary objective of this publication is to improve communications among waste management professionals and Member States relative to the properties and status of radioactive waste. This is accomplished by providing a standardized approach to operational waste categorization using accepted industry practices and experience. It is a secondary objective to draw a distinction between operational waste categorization and waste disposal classification. The approach set forth herein is applicable to waste generation by mature (major, advanced) nuclear programmes, small-to-medium sized nuclear programmes, and programmes with waste from other nuclear applications. It can be used for planning, developing or revising categorization methodologies. For existing categorization programmes, the approach set forth in this publication may be used as a validation and evaluation tool for assessing communication effectiveness among affected organizations or nations. This publication is intended for use by waste management professionals responsible for creating, implementing or communicating effective categorization, processing and disposal strategies. For the users of this publication, it is important to remember that waste categorization is a communication tool. As such, the operational waste categories are not suitable for regulatory purposes nor for use in health and safety evaluations. Following Section 1 (Introduction) Section 2 of this publication defines categorization and its relationship to existing waste classification and management standards, regulations and practices. It also describes the benefits of a comprehensive categorization programme and fundamental record considerations. Section 3 provides an overview of the categorization process, including primary categories and sub-categories. Sections 4 and 5 outline the specific methodology for categorizing unconditioned and conditioned wastes. Finally, Section 6 provides a brief summary of critical considerations that

  17. Operational Waste Volume Projection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STRODE, J.N.

    1999-08-24

    Waste receipts to the double-shell tank system are analyzed and wastes through the year 2018 are projected based on assumption as of July 1999. A computer simulation of site operations is performed, which results in projections of tank fill schedules, tank transfers, evaporator operations, tank retrieval, and aging waste tank usage. This projection incorporates current budget planning and the clean-up schedule of the Tri-Party Agreement.

  18. Nuclear wastes: overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billard, Isabelle

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear wastes are a major concern for all countries dealing with civil nuclear energy, whatever these countries have decided yet about reprocessing/storage options. In this chapter, a (exact) definition of a (radioactive) waste is given, together with definitions of waste classes and their characteristics (volumes, types etc.). The various options that are currently experienced in the world will be presented but focus will be put on the French case. Envision evolutions will be briefly presented. (author)

  19. Radioactive waste repository study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This is the first part of a report of a preliminary study for Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. It considers the requirements for an underground waste repository for the disposal of wastes produced by the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Program. The following topics are discussed with reference to the repository: 1) underground layout, 2) cost estimates, 3) waste handling, 4) retrievability, decommissioning, sealing and monitoring, and 5) research and design engineering requirements. (author)

  20. Hydrogen from Waste Tyres

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim F. Elbaba; Paul T. Williams

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen is regarded to play an important role in future energy systems because it can be produced from abundant resources and its combustion only generates water. The disposal of waste tyres is a major problem in environmental management throughout the world. The use of waste materials as a source of hydrogen is particularly of interest in that it would also solve a waste treatment problem. There is much interest in the use of alternative feedstocks for the production of...

  1. Handling of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanhueza Mir, Azucena

    1998-01-01

    Based on characteristics and quantities of different types of radioactive waste produced in the country, achievements in infrastructure and the way to solve problems related with radioactive waste handling and management, are presented in this paper. Objectives of maintaining facilities and capacities for controlling, processing and storing radioactive waste in a conditioned form, are attained, within a great range of legal framework, so defined to contribute with safety to people and environment (au)

  2. Operational Waste Volume Projection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STRODE, J.N.

    2000-08-28

    Waste receipts to the double-shell tank system are analyzed and wastes through the year 2015 are projected based on generation trends of the past 12 months. A computer simulation of site operations is performed, which results in projections of tank fill schedules, tank transfers, evaporator operations, tank retrieval, and aging waste tank usage. This projection incorporates current budget planning and the clean-up schedule of the Tri-Party Agreement. Assumptions were current as of June. 2000.

  3. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Almost all IAEA Member States use radioactive sources in medicine, industry, agriculture and scientific research, and countries remain responsible for the safe handling and storage of all radioactively contaminated waste that result from such activities. In some cases, waste must be specially treated or conditioned before storage and/or disposal. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme with the support of the Nuclear Energy Department aimed at establishing appropriate technologies and procedures for managing radioactive wastes. (IAEA)

  4. Radioactive waste disposal policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, H.R.

    1982-01-01

    The responsibilities of the Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food and Ministry policy on radioactive waste disposal are described. The disposal of solid radioactive waste at sea is subject to detailed safeguards developed within two international agreements to which the United Kingdom is a contracting party. The agreements are discussed together with a research and monitoring programme to provide scientific data for informed decisions on waste disposal authorisations and dumping licences. (U.K.)

  5. 1994 Solid waste forecast summary: Waste characteristics and treatability groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valero, O.J.; Williams, N.C.; Armacost, L.L.

    1994-10-01

    This document, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), describes the characteristics of the low-level mixed solid waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic mixed solid waste (TRU/TRUM) that will be received at Hanford's Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC). This waste will be generated over the next 30 years from operations, maintenance activities, deactivation activities, decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of facilities, and environmental restoration (ER) activities. For the past 4 years, each onsite and offsite waste generator has provided an annual forecast of the waste volume that is scheduled to be shipped to Hanford's Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC) over the next 30 years. The generator's forecast includes the waste volumes, waste classes, physical waste forms, hazardous constituents, and container types. Certain waste generators had a difficult time predicting their future waste volumes. Therefore, special studies and interviews were conducted to obtain these volumes. This document, based primarily on the 1993 forecasts, describes the physical waste forms and hazardous constituents for the low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and the transuranic/transuranic mixed waste (TRU/TRUM) that will be shipped to Hanford's SWOC. In addition, it illustrates how mixed waste is categorized into nationally established treatability groups. Defining the waste characteristics and categorizing the waste into treatability groups allows management and treatment planners to plan for future waste management activities and evaluate alternative treatment strategies

  6. Review Of Rheology Modifiers For Hanford Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J. M.

    2013-09-30

    do not appreciably change the pH of the waste; Organics are typically reductants and could impact glass REDOX if not accounted for in the reductant addition calculations; Stability of the modifiers in a caustic, radioactive environment is not known, but some of the modifiers tested were specifically designed to withstand caustic conditions; These acids will add to the total organic carbon content of the wastes. Radiolytic decomposition of the acids could result in organic and hydrogen gas generation. These potential impacts must be addressed in future studies with simulants representative of real waste and finally with tests using actual waste based on the rheology differences seen between SRS simulants and actual waste. The only non-organic modifier evaluated was sodium metasilicate. Further evaluation of this modifier is recommended if a reducing modifier is a concern.

  7. PURIFIED WASTE FCC CATALYST AS A CEMENT REPLACEMENT MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danute Vaiciukyniene

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Zeolites are commonly used in the fluid catalytic cracking process. Zeolite polluted with oil products and became waste after some time used. The quantity of this waste inevitably rises by expanding rapidly oil industry. The composition of these catalysts depends on the manufacturer and on the process that is going to be used. The main factors retarding hydration process of cement systems and modifying them strength are organic compounds impurities in the waste FCC catalyst. The present paper shows the results of using purified waste FCC catalyst (pFCC from Lithuania oil refinery, as Portland cement replacement material. For this purpose, the purification of waste FCC catalyst (FCC samples was treated with hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 is one of the most powerful oxidizers known. By acting of waste with H2O2 it can eliminate the aforementioned waste deficiency, and the obtained product becomes one of the most promising ingredients, in new advanced building materials. Hardened cement paste samples with FCC or pFCC were formed. It was observed that the pFCC blended cements developed higher strength, after 28 days, compared to the samples with FCC or reference samples. Typical content of Portland cement substituting does not exceed 30 % of mass of Portland cement in samples. Reducing the consumption of Portland cement with utilizing waste materials is preferred for reasons of environmental protection.

  8. Low level waste management within British Nuclear Fuels PLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.F.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the UK Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee (RWMAC) classification of low level waste (LLW) as that material containing radioactive substances, other than those very low level wastes which are acceptable for dustbin disposal (less than 400 kBq in any 0.1m 3 (10 micro Ci in any 3.5 cu ft), but not exceeding 4 GBq/t (120 mCi/ton) alpha or 12 GBq/t (360 mCi/ton) beta gamma. The major UK source of solid low level waste is BNFL's nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at Sellafield in West Cumbria. Additional sources include: other BNFL production establishments; nuclear power stations; United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority sites; Ministry of Defense facilities; hospitals; universities; radio-chemical sites; and various industrial organizations. A range of initiatives is being pursued at BNFL establishments to reduce as-generated LLW arising. These include: measures to minimize the amount of non-active packing materials entering contamination control zones (Sellafield); decontamination to reclassify waste as very low level waste (Capenhurst); recovery of radioactive materials for reuse (Springfields). The composition of solid low level waste is mixed and includes paper, wood plastics, metals, soils and rubber. Typically, about 70% by volume of waste as it arises is soft, low dense material

  9. Stabilization of mixed waste - Rocky Flats solar ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittner, T.A.; Mathew, S.A.; Henderson, W.C.

    1993-01-01

    Among the wastes that require disposal as part of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Environmental Restoration Program are large amounts of contaminated sludge and inorganic wastes. Halliburton NUS Corporation was awarded a contract by EG ampersand G Rocky Flats in March 1991 to stabilize mixed waste sludge contained in five solar evaporator ponds and to reprocess billets of solidified waste called Pondcrete and Saltcrete at DOE's Rocky Flats Plant. The scope of the project consists of waste characterization and treatability studies for process development, followed by design, construction and operation of various process trains to remediate different waste forms ranging from solid Pondcrete/Saltcrete blocks to aqueous brine solutions. One of the significant advances made was the development of a durable and certifiable stabilization formulation capable of treating concentrated nitrate solution wastes. The project uses high-volume grout mixing and pumping technologies with process control techniques that accommodate the heterogeneity of the wastes. To comply with all relevant environmental regulations and to provide a safe working atmosphere for plant personnel, Halliburton NUS designed process trains such that all emissions were eliminated during the remediation process. Personnel protection equipment requirements have been downgraded due to safeguards incorporated in the design. The technical and regulatory issues that were encountered would be typical of stabilization efforts underway at other DOE sites. Thus the lessons learned and concepts developed can be expected to have widespread application

  10. Nuclear waste issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryhanen, V.

    2000-01-01

    A prerequisite for future use of nuclear energy in electricity production is safe management of the radioactive wastes generated by nuclear power industry. A number of facilities have been constructed for different stages of nuclear waste management around the world, for example for conditioning of different kind of process wastes and for intermediate storage of spent nuclear fuel. Difficulties have often been encountered particularly when trying to advance plans for final stage of waste management, which is permanent disposal in stable geological formations. The main problems have not been technical, but poor public acceptance and lack of necessary political decisions have delayed the progress in many countries. However, final disposal facilities are already in operation for low- and medium-level nuclear wastes. The most challenging task is the development of final disposal solutions for long-lived high-level wastes (spent fuel or high-level reprocessing waste). The implementation of deep geological repositories for these wastes requires persistent programmes for technology development, siting and safety assessments, as well as for building public confidence in long-term safety of the planned repositories. Now, a few countries are proceeding towards siting of these facilities, and the first high-level waste repositories are expected to be commissioned in the years 2010 - 2020. (author)

  11. Avoidable waste management costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP.

  12. Security of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldammer, W.

    2003-01-01

    Measures to achieve radioactive waste security are discussed. Categorization of waste in order to implement adequate and consistent security measures based on potential consequences is made. The measures include appropriate treatment/storage/disposal of waste to minimize the potential and consequences of malicious acts; management of waste only within an authorised, regulated, legal framework; management of the security of personnel and information; measures to minimize the acquisition of radioactive waste by those with malicious intent. The specific measures are: deter unauthorized access to the waste; detect any such attempt or any loss or theft of waste; delay unauthorized access; provide timely response to counter any attempt to gain unauthorised access; measures to minimize acts of sabotage; efforts to recover any lost or stolen waste; mitigation and emergency plans in case of release of radioactivity. An approach to develop guidance, starting with the categorisation of sources and identification of dangerous sources, is presented. Dosimetric criteria for internal and external irradiation are set. Different exposure scenarios are considered. Waste categories and security categories based on the IAEA INFCIRC/225/Rev.4 are presented

  13. Waste-form development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Colombo, P.

    1982-01-01

    Contemporary solidification agents are being investigated relative to their applications to major fuel cycle and non-fuel cycle low-level waste (LLW) streams. Work is being conducted to determine the range of conditions under which these solidification agents can be applied to specific LLW streams. These studies are directed primarily towards defining operating parameters for both improved solidification of problem wastes and solidification of new LLW streams generated from advanced volume reduction technologies. Work is being conducted to measure relevant waste form properties. These data will be compiled and evaluated to demonstrate compliance with waste form performance and shallow land burial acceptance criteria and transportation requirements

  14. Waste management at WAK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, K.D.; Willax, H.O.

    1986-01-01

    After a short description of the WAK plant and its reprocessing and intervention activities, types and sources of WAK wastes are described. Roughly half of the waste volume is generated during reprocessing, the other half during intervention periods. Most of the waste is transported to KfK for conditioning. Only waste from the head end cell is cementated on the spot. HLLW is stored in stainless steel tanks. Some results from analyzing this stuff are given. The corrosion behavior is acceptable for medium term storage. (orig.)

  15. How to minimize wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambolet, M.

    1988-10-01

    Actions undertaken by the CEA to decrease the stock of natural and depleted uranium are presented in this paper. Various wastes and residues are produced in uranium fabrication. If for some wastes or residues processing methods were found previously, for other storage was the rule. Facing growing problems of safety, bulkiness, and cost new treatments allow to decrease a great amount of wastes. Uranium fabrication cycle, wastes and residues are described. Processing of the different residues of operations and optimization of manufacture are indicated [fr

  16. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron

    1998-09-23

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.

  17. Management of Radioactive Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchokosa, P.

    2010-01-01

    Management of Radioactive Wastes is to protect workers and the public from the radiological risk associated with radioactive waste for the present and future. It application of the principles to the management of waste generated in a radioisotope uses in the industry. Any material that contains or is contaminated with radionuclides at concentrations or radioactivity levels greater than ‘exempt quantities’ established by the competent regulatory authorities and for which no further use is foreseen or intended. Origin of the Radioactive Waste includes Uranium and Thorium mining and milling, nuclear fuel cycle operations, Operation of Nuclear power station, Decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities and Institutional uses of isotopes. There are types of radioactive waste: Low-level Waste (LLW) and High-level Waste. The Management Options for Radioactive Waste Depends on Form, Activity, Concentration and half-lives of the radioactive waste, Storage and disposal methods will vary according to the following; the radionuclides present, and their concentration, and radio toxicity. The contamination results basically from: Contact between radioactive materials and any surface especially during handling. And it may occur in the solid, liquid or gas state. Decontamination is any process that will either reduce or completely remove the amount of radionuclides from a contaminated surface

  18. Hazardous industrial waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quesada, Hilda; Salas, Juan Carlos; Romero, Luis Guillermo

    2007-01-01

    The appropriate managing of hazardous wastes is a problem little dealed in the wastes management in the country. A search of available information was made about the generation and handling to internal and external level of the hazardous wastes by national industries. It was worked with eleven companies of different types of industrial activities for, by means of a questionnaire, interviews and visits, to determine the degree of integral and suitable handling of the wastes that they generate. It was concluded that exist only some isolated reports on the generation of hazardous industrial wastes and handling. The total quantity of wastes generated in the country was impossible to establish. The companies consulted were deficient in all stages of the handling of their wastes: generation, accumulation and storage, transport, treatment and final disposition. The lack of knowledge of the legislation and of the appropriate managing of the wastes is showed as the principal cause of the poor management of the residues. The lack of state or private entities entrusted to give services of storage, transport, treatment and final disposition of hazardous wastes in the country was evident. (author) [es

  19. Aqueous radioactive waste bituminization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, A.S.

    1980-08-01

    The bituminzation of decontamination and ion exchange resin stripping wastes with four grades of asphalt was investigated to determine the effects of asphalt type on the properties of the final products. All waste forms deformed readily under light loads indicating they would flow if not restrained. It was observed in all cases that product leaching rates increased as the hardness of the asphalt used to treat the waste increased. If bituminization is adopted for any Ontario Hydro aqueous radioactive wastes they should be treated with soft asphalt to obtain optimum leaching resistance and mechanical stability during interim storage should be provided by a corrosion resistant container

  20. Radiological waste problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milanov, M.

    1990-01-01

    The chapter offers a description of the system of radioactive waste treatment as presented in the Belene NPP technical project and goes beyond the scope of the project evaluation in the account of the radioactive waste treatment, storage and disposal of other sources including the industry, science and the medicine of Bulgaria. The necessity for a developed legislative basis and an accepted policy regarding the radioactive waste management in the country is stressed upon. There is an elaboration on the problem of the construction of a new radioactive waste depository, the capacities of the existing disposal site being used up. 17 refs., 7 tabs. (R.Ts.)

  1. Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulikas, V.

    2006-01-01

    After the Law of the Republic of Lithuania was passed on Radioactive Waste Management on May 20, 1999, much more attention is being given to the disposal of this kind of waste in our country and especially at Ignalina NPP, the facility that generates most of it. The key principle of radioactive waste management is to manage it in such a manner that it would pose no danger to the public and the environment, and would not become an additional burden to future generations. This principle is followed in managing radioactive waste in Lithuania too. (author)

  2. CLAB Transuranic Waste Spreadsheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leyba, J.D.

    2000-08-11

    The Building 772-F Far-Field Transuranic (TRU) Waste Counting System is used to measure the radionuclide content of waste packages produced at the Central Laboratory Facilities (CLAB). Data from the instrument are entered into one of two Excel spreadsheets. The waste stream associated with the waste package determines which spreadsheet is actually used. The spreadsheets calculate the necessary information required for completion of the Transuranic Waste Characterization Form (OSR 29-90) and the Radioactive Solid Waste Burial Ground Record (OSR 7-375 or OSR 7-375A). In addition, the spreadsheets calculate the associated Low Level Waste (LLW) stream information that potentially could be useful if the waste container is ever downgraded from TRU to LLW. The spreadsheets also have the capability to sum activities from source material added to a waste container after assay. A validation data set for each spreadsheet along with the appropriate results are also presented in this report for spreadsheet verification prior to each use.

  3. Politics of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colglazier, E.W. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    In November of 1979, the Program in Science, Technology and Humanism and the Energy Committee of the Aspen Institute organized a conference on resolving the social, political, and institutional conflicts over the permanent siting of radioactive wastes. This book was written as a result of this conference. The chapters provide a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the governance issues connected with radioactive waste management as well as a sampling of the diverse views of the interested parties. Chapter 1 looks in depth of radioactive waste management in the United States, with special emphasis on the events of the Carter Administration as well as on the issues with which the Reagen administration must deal. Chapter 2 compares waste management policies and programs among the industralized countries. Chapter 3 examines the factional controversies in the last administration and Congress over nuclear waste issues. Chapter 4 examines the complex legal questions involved in the federal-state conflicts over nuclear waste management. Chapter 5 examines the concept of consultation and concurrence from the perspectives of a host state that is a candidate for a repository and an interested state that has special concerns regarding the demonstration of nuclear waste disposal technology. Chapter 6 examines US and European perspectives concerning public participation in nuclear waste management. Chapter 7 discusses propaganda in the issues. The epilogue attempts to assess the prospects for consensus in the United States on national policies for radioactive waste management. All of the chapter in this book should be interpreted as personal assessments

  4. Avoidable waste management costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP

  5. Waste inspection tomography (WIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardi, R.T.

    1995-01-01

    Waste Inspection Tomography (WIT) provides mobile semi-trailer mounted nondestructive examination (NDE) and assay (NDA) for nuclear waste drum characterization. WIT uses various computed tomography (CT) methods for both NDE and NDA of nuclear waste drums. Low level waste (LLW), transuranic (TRU), and mixed radioactive waste can be inspected and characterized without opening the drums. With externally transmitted x-ray NDE techniques, WIT has the ability to identify high density waste materials like heavy metals, define drum contents in two- and three-dimensional space, quantify free liquid volumes through density and x-ray attenuation coefficient discrimination, and measure drum wall thickness. With waste emitting gamma-ray NDA techniques, WIT can locate gamma emitting radioactive sources in two- and three-dimensional space, identify gamma emitting, isotopic species, identify the external activity levels of emitting gamma-ray sources, correct for waste matrix attenuation, provide internal activity approximations, and provide the data needed for waste classification as LLW or TRU

  6. Willingness to pay for improved solid waste management services in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Developing countries often fail to pay adequate attention to solid waste management in the bid to accelerate the rate of their development, and this oversight typically culminates into an adverse impact on the environment and on public health and safety. This paper sought to analyse the factors influencing residents' ...

  7. [Investigation of typical melamine urinary stones using infrared spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Min-Zhen; Li, Qing-Yun; Liu, Ren-Ming; Kang, Yi-Pu; Wang, Kun-Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Guo

    2010-02-01

    A typical melamine kidney stone confirmed by some medicine expert was collected from the first people's hospital of Yunnan. The kidney stone was adequately determined by PE corporation spectra 100(with resolution of 1 cm(-1)). The stone samples for FTIR analysis were prepared using the KBr pellet technique, where 2 mg of the pretreated stone powder was mixed with 200 mg of analytical grade KBr using an agate pestle and mortar. The digital spectrum was then scanned in the mid-infrared region from 4 000 to 400 cm(-1) at room temperature. The appearing bands between 4 000 and 2 000 cm(-1) were 3 487, 3 325, 3 162 and 2 788 cm(-1), those between 1 700 and 1 000 cm(-1) were 1 694, 1 555, 1 383, 1 340, 1 189 and 1 122 cm(-1), and those between 1 000 and 400 cm(-1) were 993, 782, 748, 709, 624, 585, 565 and 476 cm(-1). It was found that the main constituent of calculi showed few comparability with cat kidney stone, which was from cats that died after consuming the contaminated food, and confirmed that these deposits were primarily composed of melamine and cyanuric acid compared to the IR spectra of calculi in literature. It was also found that the main constituent of calculi showed few comparability with popular kidney stone by comparison with the IR spectra of calculi in literature. The spectrum of calculi was 50% respectively similar with melamine and uric acid as compared with the IR spectrum. It was found that the main constituent of calculi was melamine itself and uric acid as compared with the IR spectra of calculi and melamine: (1 : 1), because the spectrum of calculi was 83. 3% similar to melamine and uric acid (1 : 1). The appearing bands of melamine and uric acid (1 : 1) between 4 000 and 2 000 cm(-1) were 3 469, 3 419, 3 333, 3 132, 3 026, 2 827 cm(-1), those between 1 700 and 1 000 cm(-1) were 1 696, 1 656, 1 555, 1 489, 1 439, 1 350, 1 311, 1 198, 1 124 and 1 028 cm(-1), and those between 1 000 and 400 cm(-1) were 993, 878, 814, 784, 745, 708, 619, 577 and

  8. Indoor air quality in typical temperate zone Australian dwellings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, S. B.; Cheng, M.; Galbally, I. E.; Keywood, M. D.; Lawson, S. J.; Powell, J. C.; Gillett, R.; Dunne, E.; Selleck, P. W.

    2012-07-01

    We report the results of a comprehensive study of indoor air quality in typical temperate zone Australian dwellings. Forty dwellings located over an 800 km2 area in the south-east of Melbourne with a range of ages, materials and structures representative of Australian dwellings were selected. A range of indoor air quality pollutants were sampled both inside and outside for one week each in Winter/Spring 2008 and Summer/Autumn 2009. Information was collected on house characteristics, the surrounding areas and occupant activities during the sampling. Weekly indoor averaged CO2 (536 ± 121 ppm), CO (0.3 ± 0.2 ppm), PM2.5 (8.4 ± 4.0 μg m-3), temperatures (21.2 ± 2.0 °C), water vapour mixing ratios (7.9 ± 1.3 g kg-1), benzene (1.3 ± 1.1 μg m-3), toluene (8.8 ± 7.9 μg m-3) and xylenes (6.2 ± 6.7 μg m-3) varied from 1.1 to approximately three times higher compared to the equivalent outdoors concentrations. Formaldehyde (12.2 ± 4.7 ppb), other carbonyls (7.9 ± 2.6 ppb) and total volatile organic compounds (181.1 ± 89.5 μg m-3) had indoor concentrations of factors between eight and 12 times higher compared to outdoor concentrations. Weekly averaged indoor ozone (0.7 ± 0.7 ppb), NO2 (8.4 ± 3.9 ppb) and PM10 (20.4 ± 8.1 μg m-3) were significantly lower than outdoors. Correlations and factor analysis showed the major influences on this indoor air quality were (a) dwelling age, whereby dwellings constructed in recent decades compared to older buildings were found to have increased concentrations of the highly elevated species formaldehyde, other carbonyls and total volatile organic compounds, and (b) combustion and cooking activities that increased the concentrations of multiple species including CO, CO2, NO2, H2O and particles. The indoor pollutant concentrations from this study were in general comparable with or lower than other Australian or overseas studies.

  9. Secondary Waste Cast Stone Waste Form Qualification Testing Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2012-09-26

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being constructed to treat the 56 million gallons of radioactive waste stored in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford Site. The WTP includes a pretreatment facility to separate the wastes into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions for vitrification and disposal. The LAW will be converted to glass for final disposal at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Cast Stone – a cementitious waste form, has been selected for solidification of this secondary waste stream after treatment in the ETF. The secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form must be acceptable for disposal in the IDF. This secondary waste Cast Stone waste form qualification testing plan outlines the testing of the waste form and immobilization process to demonstrate that the Cast Stone waste form can comply with the disposal requirements. Specifications for the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form have not been established. For this testing plan, Cast Stone specifications are derived from specifications for the immobilized LAW glass in the WTP contract, the waste acceptance criteria for the IDF, and the waste acceptance criteria in the IDF Permit issued by the State of Washington. This testing plan outlines the testing needed to demonstrate that the waste form can comply with these waste form specifications and acceptance criteria. The testing program must also demonstrate that the immobilization process can be controlled to consistently provide an acceptable waste form product. This testing plan also outlines the testing needed to provide the technical basis for understanding the long-term performance of the waste form in the disposal environment. These waste form performance data are needed to support performance assessment analyses of the long-term environmental impact of the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form in the IDF

  10. Chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for low-level mixed waste stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A.S.; Cunnane, J.C.; Mayberry, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    Novel chemically bonded phosphate ceramics (CBPCs) are being developed and fabricated for low-temperature stabilization and solidification of mixed waste streams which are amenable to conventional high-temperature stabilization processes due to presence of volatiles such as heavy metal chloride and fluorides and/or pyrophorics in the wastes. Phosphates of Mg, Mg-Na and Zr are being developed as candidate matrix materials. In this paper, we present the fabrication procedures of phosphate waste forms using surrogates compositions of three typical mixed wastes streams -- ash, cement sludges, and salts. The performance of the final waste forms such as compression strength, leachability of the contaminants, durability in aqueous environment were conducted. In addition, parameteric studies have been conducted to establish the optimal waste loading in a particular binder system. Based on the results, we present potential applications in the treatment of various mixed waste streams

  11. Mechanisms and modelling of waste-cement and cement-host rock interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Safe and sustainable disposal of hazardous and radioactive waste is a major concern in today's industrial societies. The hazardous waste forms originate from residues of thermal treatment of waste, fossil fuel combustion and ferrous/non-ferrous metal smelting being the most important ones in terms of waste production. Low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste is produced in the course of nuclear applications in research and energy production. For both waste forms encapsulation in alkaline, cement-based matrices is considered to ensure long-term safe disposal. Cementitious materials are in routine use as industrial materials and have mainly been studied with respect to their evolution over a typical service life of several decades. Use of these materials in waste management applications, however, requires assessments of their performance over much longer time periods on the order of thousands to several ten thousands of years.

  12. Waste Generation Overview, Course 23263

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, Lewis Edward

    2016-01-01

    This course, Waste Generation Overview Live (COURSE 23263), provides an overview of federal and state waste management regulations, as well as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) policies and procedures for waste management operations. The course covers the activities involved in the cradle-to-grave waste management process and focuses on waste characterization, waste compatibility determinations and classification, and the storage requirements for temporary waste accumulation areas at LANL. When you have completed this course, you will be able to recognize federal, state, and LANL environmental requirements and their impact on waste operations; recognize the importance of the cradle-to-grave waste management process; identify the roles and responsibilities of key LANL waste management personnel (e.g., Waste Generator, Waste Management Coordinator, Waste Stream Profile approver, and Waste Certification Official); characterize a waste stream to determine whether it meets the definition of a hazardous waste, as well as characterize the use and minimum requirements for use of acceptable knowledge (AK) for waste characterization and waste compatibility documentation requirements; and identify the requirements for setting up and managing temporary waste accumulation areas.

  13. Waste Generation Overview, Course 23263

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Lewis Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-28

    This course, Waste Generation Overview Live (COURSE 23263), provides an overview of federal and state waste management regulations, as well as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) policies and procedures for waste management operations. The course covers the activities involved in the cradle-to-grave waste management process and focuses on waste characterization, waste compatibility determinations and classification, and the storage requirements for temporary waste accumulation areas at LANL. When you have completed this course, you will be able to recognize federal, state, and LANL environmental requirements and their impact on waste operations; recognize the importance of the cradle-to-grave waste management process; identify the roles and responsibilities of key LANL waste management personnel (e.g., Waste Generator, Waste Management Coordinator, Waste Stream Profile approver, and Waste Certification Official); characterize a waste stream to determine whether it meets the definition of a hazardous waste, as well as characterize the use and minimum requirements for use of acceptable knowledge (AK) for waste characterization and waste compatibility documentation requirements; and identify the requirements for setting up and managing temporary waste accumulation areas.

  14. Evaluation of quality and quantity of solid wastes in Babol Dental Faculty–North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoliman Amouei

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dental wastes are a main part of urban solid wastes in each society and have pathogenic agents and toxic chemicals, which put health of patients, personnel and other referees to dental clinics in danger. The present study was done to recognize the quality and quantity of the different generated wastes at various parts of the Faculty of Dentistry-Babol University of Medical Sciences. Methods: The whole solid wastes generated in the odd and even days (Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday of the middle of the week from the second month of each season were examined. Various dental solid wastes including general, infectious and hazardous chemical wastes were weighted by typical scale. Results: The generation rate of the solid wastes were: total dental wastes: 291.2 kg including general solid wastes: 251.3 kg (%86.3, infectious wastes and sharps: 38 kg (%13 and hazardous chemical waste: 2 kg (%0.7. The total amount of wastes in a year was 69888 kg. The solid wastes are daily produced according to each active dental unit as total, domestic-type, infectious and the hazardous chemical wastes were 3.07 kg, 2.65 kg, 0.4 kg and 0.02 kg, respectively. Conclusions: Considering the quality and quantity of the generated dental solid wastes especially infectious wastes and their unfavorable effects on the peoples' health and environment, it is necessary to compile a distinct policy for the management of these medical solid wastes. Also, holding training workshops, knowledge of the staffs in the dentistry care centers should be increased to avoid possible dangers.

  15. Waste to wealth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivapalan Kathiravale; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus

    2010-01-01

    We currently live in a world where depletion of resources is beyond control. The call for sustainable development both environmentally and economically is spelt out loud and clear. Hence, the current and future generations must ensure that all resources shall be preserved, fully utilized and well managed. Waste generation has been part and parcel of man kinds pursuit for development, be it in social or economic activities. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is an example of socio-economic activities that entails with waste generation. Generation rates of MSW vary according to the economic and social standing of a country. This in return will also affect the management style of the MSW generated. Generally, the higher income countries generated more waste, recycle more and have the money to employ new technology to treat their waste. As for the lower income countries, the waste generated is more organic in nature, which calls for lesser recycling, whereas disposal is by open dumping. The effects of this naturally would mean that in the lower income countries pollution to the water and air is huge as compare to the more developed countries. However on the other hand, does waste alone generate harmful gasses that pollute the world or does manufacturing, transportation and power production, which is rampant in the more industrialized countries contributing more towards pollution? This subject is argumentative and could be discussed at length. However, the environment cannot wait for the population to debate on the above matter. Action needs to be taken in a world where economic power determines the treatment method. Hence, the idea of recovering all 'wealth' in the waste is essential to ensure that even the poorest countries could benefit from all waste management technologies. For this to work, recycling, reuse and recovery of energy is essential in an integrated approach towards waste management. This would also mean that many environmental disasters could be avoided

  16. 1994 Annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress as required by DOE Order 5400.1, Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    Many Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention successes at the Hanford Site occur every day without formal recognition. A few of the successful projects are: T-Plant helps facilities reuse equipment by offering decontamination services for items such as gas cylinders, trucks, and railcars, thus saving disposal and equipment replacement costs. Custodial Services reviewed its use of 168 hazardous cleaning products, and, through a variety of measures, replaced them with 38 safer substitutes, one for each task. Scrap steel contaminated with low level radioactivity from the interim stabilization of 107-K and 107-C was decontaminated and sold to a vendor for recycling. Site-wide programs include the following: the Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (P2OA) program at the Hanford site was launched during 1994, including a training class, a guidance document, technical assistance, and goals; control over hazardous materials purchased was achieved by reviewing all purchase requisitions of a chemical nature; the Office Supply Reuse Program was established to redeploy unused or unwanted office supply items. In 1994, pollution prevention activities reduced approximately 274,000 kilograms of hazardous waste, 2,100 cubic meters of radioactive and mixed waste, 14,500,000 kilograms of sanitary waste, and 215,000 cubic meters off liquid waste and waste water. Pollution Prevention activities also saved almost $4.2 million in disposal, product, and labor costs. Overall waste generation increased in 1994 due to increased work and activity typical for a site with an environmental restoration mission. However, without any Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention activities, solid radioactive waste generation at Hanford would have been 25% higher, solid hazardous waste generation would have been 30% higher, and solid sanitary waste generation would have been 60% higher

  17. Headway on co-digestion of wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokhale, Yogeshwar

    2013-01-01

    streams investigated were diverse and included food waste, cheese whey processing waste, brewery waste, FOG, poultry waste, beef and sheep abattoir waste and vegetable market waste. The preliminary findings of the YVW study showed favourable economic analysis and resulted in YVW inviting tenders for assistance in design, construction and operation of the waste to energy facility in July 2012. The higher level of accuracy achieved through the tendering process will provide more certainty to the business case, and the waste to energy facility will be built subject to business case verification. The facility is proposed to be co-located with a wastewater treatment plant. CWW is currently reviewing the concept design report for a Resource Recovery Centre (RCC) to consider the benefits sustainable organic waste management may deliver to its customers and community by beneficial reuse of water, energy and solids and the barriers that need to be overcome. The most commonly used technologies for digestion are mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD), thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD), temperature phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) and acid-gas (AG) phased anaerobic digestion. The high temperature processes (TAD and TPAD) are not well suited for small facilities, and though MAD is well suited to small facilities it typically has medium process stability and potential for high strength waste to breakthrough. The acid-gas phased digestion is an appropriate process, which is more stable due to separate digesters for acidification and methane production, has lower risk of process failure, has comparable capital and operating cost, and a smaller footprint when compared to the other available technologies. Though the acid-gas phased digestion has advantages over other processes, the selected technology largely depends on the method of procurement (design-build-operate, design and construct, build-own-operate-transfer etc) and on the experience of involved parties with the various

  18. Waste Handling in SVAFO's Hot Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, Jennifer; Ekenborg, Fredrik; Hellsten, Erik

    2016-01-01

    -lived waste, even if the activity consists solely of short-lived nuclides such as Co-60. The subsequent disposal of the waste is thus delayed, as there is not yet a final repository for long-lived waste available. The Swedish repository for short-lived radioactive waste, SFR, has been in operation since 1988. The question posed in the study was whether it is possible, in preparation for the dismantling of the R2 reactor and other nuclear facilities at the Studsvik site, to adequately characterize the hot cell environment with respect to radioactive contamination to allow short-lived waste brought into the hot cell to be classified as short-lived after it is passed out of the cell. A method was developed to collect surface contamination samples inside the hot cell. These samples were analysed for various short and long-lived radionuclides. Tests were carried out to simulate typical waste handling operations inside the cell in order to determine how much contamination is transferred to objects introduced into the cell. These results indicate that it may be possible to establish a method to justify the classification of certain waste items as short-lived, even after handling in the HM hot cell. Further analyses need to be carried out to validate the method. It is believed that by developing a characterisation method that minimises the quantity of waste classified as long-lived, some intermediate level decommissioning wastes can be readily disposed of in the existing Swedish repository for short-lived waste, thereby reducing waste disposal costs. (authors)

  19. Water And Waste Water Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Byeong Ju

    1988-04-01

    This book shows US the distribution diagram of water and waste water processing with device of water processing, and device of waste water processing, property of water quality like measurement of pollution of waste water, theoretical Oxygen demand, and chemical Oxygen demand, processing speed like zero-order reactions and enzyme reactions, physical processing of water and waste water, chemical processing of water and waste water like neutralization and buffering effect, biological processing of waste water, ammonia removal, and sludges processing.

  20. Municipal solid waste management in Tehran: Changes during the last 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmir, Tahereh; Tojo, Yasumasa

    2016-05-01

    The situation of waste management in Tehran was a typical example of it in developing countries. The amount of municipal solid waste has been increasing and the city has depended on landfill for municipal solid waste management. However, in recent years, various measures have been taken by the city, such as collecting recyclables at the source and increasing the capacity of waste-processing facilities. As a result, significant changes in the waste stream are starting to occur. This study investigated the nature of, and reasons for, the marked changes in the waste stream from 2008 to 2012 by analysing the municipal solid waste statistics published by the Tehran Waste Management Organization in 2013 and survey data on the physical composition of the municipal solid waste. The following trends were identified: Although the generation of municipal solid waste increased by 10% during the 5-year period, the amount of waste directly disposed of to landfill halved and resource recovery almost doubled. An increase in the capacity of a waste-processing facility contributed significantly to these changes. The biodegradable fraction going to landfill was estimated by using the quantity and the composition of each input to the landfill. The estimated result in 2012 decreased to 49% of its value in 2008. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Radioactive waste storage issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, Daniel E. [Colorado Christian Univ., Lakewood, CO (United States)

    1994-08-15

    In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state`s boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected.

  2. Waste statistics 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Reports to the ISAG (Information System for Waste and Recycling) for 2001 cover 402 Danish waste treatment plants owned by 295 enterprises. The total waste generation in 2001 amounted to 12,768,000 tonnes, which is 2% less than in 2000. Reductions are primarily due to the fact that sludge for mineralization is included with a dry matter content of 20% compared to 1,5% in previous statistics. This means that sludge amounts have been reduced by 808,886 tonnes. The overall rate of recycling amounted to 63%, which is 1% less than the overall recycling target of 64% for 2004. Since sludge has a high recycling rate, the reduction in sludge amounts of 808,886 tonnes has also caused the total recycling rate to fall. Waste amounts incinerated accounted for 25%, which is 1% more than the overall target of 24% for incineration in 2004. Waste going to landfill amounted to 10%, which is better than the overall landfill target for 2004 of a maximum of 12% for landfilling. Targets for treatment of waste from the different sectors, however, are still not complied with, since too little waste from households and the service sector is recycled, and too much waste from industry is led to landfill. (BA)

  3. Nuclear waste solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Darrel D.; Ebra, Martha A.

    1987-01-01

    High efficiency removal of technetium values from a nuclear waste stream is achieved by addition to the waste stream of a precipitant contributing tetraphenylphosphonium cation, such that a substantial portion of the technetium values are precipitated as an insoluble pertechnetate salt.

  4. Waste to energy

    CERN Document Server

    Syngellakis, S

    2014-01-01

    Waste to Energy deals with the very topical subject of converting the calorific content of waste material into useful forms of energy. Topics included cover: Biochemical Processes; Conversions by Thermochemical Processes; Computational Fluid Dynamics Modelling; Combustion; Pyrolysis; Gasification; Biofuels; Management and Policies.

  5. Nuclear waste for NT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Brendan

    2005-01-01

    The Northern Territory may be powerless to block the dumping of low-level nuclear waste in the Territory under legislation introduced into Parliament by Minister for Education Science and Training, Dr Brendan Nelson, in October. Despite strong opposition to the dumping of nuclear waste in the NT, the Australian Government will be able to send waste to one of the three nominated Commonwealth-owned Defence sites within the NT under the Commonwealth Radioactive Waste Management Bill 2005 and the Commonwealth Radioactive Waste Management (Related Amendment) Bill 2005. The Bills veto recently drafted NT legislation designed to scuttle the plans. Low-level nuclear waste is stored at more than 100 sites around Australia, including hospitals, factories, universities and defence facilities. Medical isotopes produced at Lucas Heights and provided for medical procedures are the source of much of this waste, including some 16 cubic metres currently held at Darwin Hospital. Dr Nelson stressed that the Government would take all die necessary steps to comply with safety and regulatory precautions, including handling waste in line with relevant environmental, nuclear safety and proliferation safeguards

  6. Waste statistics 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Reports to the ISAG (Information System for Waste and Recycling) for 2001 cover 402 Danish waste treatment plants owned by 295 enterprises. The total waste generation in 2001 amounted to 12,768,000 tonnes, which is 2% less than in 2000. Reductions are primarily due to the fact that sludge for mineralization is included with a dry matter content of 20% compared to 1,5% in previous statistics. This means that sludge amounts have been reduced by 808,886 tonnes. The overall rate of recycling amounted to 63%, which is 1% less than the overall recycling target of 64% for 2004. Since sludge has a high recycling rate, the reduction in sludge amounts of 808,886 tonnes has also caused the total recycling rate to fall. Waste amounts incinerated accounted for 25%, which is 1% more than the overall target of 24% for incineration in 2004. Waste going to landfill amounted to 10%, which is better than the overall landfill target for 2004 of a maximum of 12% for landfilling. Targets for treatment of waste from the different sectors, however, are still not complied with, since too little waste from households and the service sector is recycled, and too much waste from industry is led to landfill. (BA)

  7. Lyophilization -Solid Waste Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwiller, Eric; Flynn, Michael; Fisher, John; Reinhard, Martin

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of a solid waste treatment system that has been designed for a Mars transit exploration mission. The technology described is an energy-efficient lyophilization technique that is designed to recover water from spacecraft solid wastes. Candidate wastes include feces, concentrated brines from water processors, and other solid wastes that contain free water. The system is designed to operate as a stand-alone process or to be integrated into the International Space Station Waste Collection System. In the lyophilization process, water in an aqueous waste is frozen and then sublimed, separating the waste into a dried solid material and liquid water. The sublimed water is then condensed in a solid ice phase and then melted to generate a liquid product. In the subject system the waste solids are contained within a 0.2 micron bio-guard bag and after drying are removed from the system and stored in a secondary container. This technology is ideally suited to applications such as the Mars Reference Mission, where water recovery rates approaching 100% are desirable but production of CO2 is not. The system is designed to minimize power consumption through the use of thermoelectric heat pumps. The results of preliminary testing of a prototype system and testing of the final configuration are provided. A mathematical model of the system is also described.

  8. ERDA waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhlman, C.W.

    1976-01-01

    The ERDA commercial waste program is summarized. It consists of three parts: terminal storage, processing, and preparation of the Generic Environmental Impact Statement. Emplacement in geologic formations is the best disposal method for high-level waste; migration would be essentially zero, as it was in the Oklo event. Solidification processes are needed. Relations with the states, etc. are touched upon

  9. FOUNDRY WASTE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borut Kosec

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Waste management in foundries is gaining a higher ecological and economical importance. Waste is becoming an increasingly traded product, where excellent profits can be made. Due to the cost reduction and successful business operation in companies, waste has to be regenerated and used again as a material to the maximum possible extent. Such research is long lasting and expensive and is a great challenge for companies. In the frame of our research, a total waste management case study for the Slovenian foundry Feniks was carried out. From the sustainable development point of view, waste management is most suitable, since it ensures the material utilization of waste, reduces the consumption of natural renewable or non-renewable resources and makes efficient production capacity utilization possible. Properly treated ecologically safe waste with a suitable physical characteristic, long-term existence, is a substitute for natural materials. Sand, dust, slag and other mineral waste from foundries are increasingly being used as materials in other industries. The foundry Feniks was awarded with certification of the environmental management system according to the standard SIST EN ISO 14001 and confirmed its environmental credentials.

  10. Low level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, P.R.H.; Wilson, M.A.

    1983-11-01

    Factors in selecting a site for low-level radioactive waste disposal are discussed. South Australia has used a former tailings dam in a remote, arid location as a llw repository. There are also low-level waste disposal procedures at the Olympic Dam copper/uranium project

  11. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfredson, P.G.; Levins, D.M.

    1975-08-01

    Present and future methods of managing radioactive wastes in the nuclear industry are reviewed. In the stages from uranium mining to fuel fabrication, the main purpose of waste management is to limit and control dispersal into the environment of uranium and its decay products, particularly radium and radon. Nuclear reactors produce large amounts of radioactivity but release rates from commercial power reactors have been low and well within legal limits. The principal waste from reprocessing is a high activity liquid containing essentially all the fission products along with the transuranium elements. Most high activity wastes are currently stored as liquids in tanks but there is agreement that future wastes must be converted into solids. Processes to solidify wastes have been demonstrated in pilot plant facilities in the United States and Europe. After solidification, wastes may be stored for some time in man-made structures at or near the Earth's surface. The best method for ultimate disposal appears to be placing solid wastes in a suitable geological formation on land. (author)

  12. Radioactive waste storage issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state's boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected

  13. Solid-Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Consists of excerpts from a forthcoming publication of the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Student's Guide to Solid-Waste Management.'' Discusses the sources of wastes from farms, mines, factories, and communities, the job of governments, ways to collect trash, methods of disposal, processing, and suggests possible student action.…

  14. Management of reactor waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baatz, H.

    1976-01-01

    The author discusses the type, production and amount of radioactive waste produced in a nuclear power station (LWR) as well as its conditioning and disposal. The mobile system developed by STEAG for the solidification of medium-activity waste and sludge is referred to in this connection. (HR) [de

  15. Environmental Hazards of Nuclear Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micklin, Philip P.

    1974-01-01

    Present methods for storage of radioactive wastes produced at nuclear power facilities are described. Problems arising from present waste management are discussed and potential solutions explored. (JP)

  16. Waste classification: a management approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickham, L.E.

    1984-01-01

    A waste classification system designed to quantify the total hazard of a waste has been developed by the Low-Level Waste Management Program. As originally conceived, the system was designed to deal with mixed radioactive waste. The methodology has been developed and successfully applied to radiological and chemical wastes, both individually and mixed together. Management options to help evaluate the financial and safety trade-offs between waste segregation, waste treatment, container types, and site factors are described. Using the system provides a very simple and cost effective way of making quick assessments of a site's capabilities to contain waste materials. 3 references

  17. Waste statistics 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The 2003 reporting to the ISAG comprises 403 plants owned by 273 enterprises. In 2002, reports covered 407 plants owned by 296 enterprises. Waste generation in 2003 is compared to targets from 2008 in the government's Waste Strategy 2005-2008. The following can be said to summarise waste generation in 2003: 1) In 2003, total reported waste arisings amounted to 12,835,000 tonnes, which is 270,000 tonnes, or 2 per cent, less than in 2002. 2) If amounts of residues from coal-fired power plants are excluded from statistics, waste arisings in 2003 were 11,597,000 tonnes, which is a 2 per cent increase from 2002. 3) If amounts of residues from coal-fired power plants and waste from the building and construction sector are excluded from statistics, total waste generation in 2003 amounted to 7,814,000 tonnes, which is 19,000 tonnes, or 1 per cent, less than in 2002. In other words, there has been a fall in total waste arisings, if residues and waste from building and construction are excluded. 4) The overall rate of recycling amounted to 66 per cent, which is one percentage point above the overall recycling target of 65 per cent for 2008. In 2002 the total rate of recycling was 64 per cent. 5) The total amount of waste led to incineration amounted to 26 per cent, plus an additional 1 per cent left in temporary storage to be incinerated at a later time. The 2008 target for incineration is 26 per cent. These are the same percentage figures as applied to incineration and storage in 2002. 6) The total amount of waste led to landfills amounted to 8 per cent, which is one percentage point below the overall landfill target of a maximum of 9 per cent landfilling in 2008. In 2002, 9 per cent was led to landfill. 7) The targets for treatment of waste from individual sectors are still not being met: too little waste from households and the service sector is being recycled, and too much waste from industry is being led to landfill. (au)

  18. Waste pipe calculus extensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    The waste pipe calculus provides a rapid method, using Laplace transforms, to calculate the transport of a pollutant such as nuclear waste, by a network of one-dimensional flow paths. The present note extends previous work as follows: (1) It provides an alternate approximation to the time-domain function (inverse Laplace transform) for the resulting transport. This algebraic approximation may be viewed as a simpler and more approximate model of the transport process. (2) It identifies two scalar quantities which may be used as summary consequence measures of the waste transport (or inversely, waste retention) system, and provides algebraic expressions for them. (3) It includes the effects of radioactive decay on the scalar quantity results, and further provides simplifying approximations for the cases of medium and long half-lives. This algebraic method can be used for quick approximate analyses of expected results, uncertainty and sensitivity, in evaluating selection and design choices for nuclear waste disposal systems

  19. Radioactive waste management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranowski, F.P.

    1976-01-01

    The information in the US ERDA ''Technical Alternatives Document'' is summarized. The first two points show that waste treatment, interim storage and transportation technologies for all wastes are currently available. Third, an assessment of integrated waste management systems is needed. One such assessment will be provided in our expanded waste management environmental statement currently planned for release in about one year. Fourth, geologies expected to be suitable for final geologic storage are known. Fifth, repository system assessment methods, that is a means to determine and assess the acceptability of a terminal storage facility for nonretrievable storage, must and will be prepared. Sixth, alternatives to geologic storage are not now available. Seventh, waste quantities and characteristics are sensitive to technologies and fuel-cycle modes, and therefore an assessment of these technologies and modes is important. Eighth, and most important, it is felt that the LWR fuel cycle can be closed with current technologies

  20. Classification of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Radioactive wastes are generated in a number of different kinds of facilities and arise in a wide range of concentrations of radioactive materials and in a variety of physical and chemical forms. To simplify their management, a number of schemes have evolved for classifying radioactive waste according to the physical, chemical and radiological properties of significance to those facilities managing this waste. These schemes have led to a variety of terminologies, differing from country to country and even between facilities in the same country. This situation makes it difficult for those concerned to communicate with one another regarding waste management practices. This document revises and updates earlier IAEA references on radioactive waste classification systems given in IAEA Technical Reports Series and Safety Series. Guidance regarding exemption of materials from regulatory control is consistent with IAEA Safety Series and the RADWASS documents published under IAEA Safety Series. 11 refs, 2 figs, 2 tab