WorldWideScience

Sample records for understood soilborne complex

  1. "I Understood the Complexity within Diversity": Preparation for Partnership with Families in Early Childhood Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, Helen; Lee, Debora

    2010-01-01

    "Partnership between parents and teachers" is a taken-for-granted feature of the philosophy and practice of early childhood education. Yet, the literature suggests this rhetoric belies a more complex and problematic reality for teachers. Making connections with the families and communities they will serve may help teacher education…

  2. Home is to be understood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie; Werner Hansen, Siv

    2018-01-01

    situation in Denmark is, as in many other countries at the moment, complex. On the one hand laws and regulations are concurrently tightened concerning residency permits, boarder control, and possession of belongings. On the other hand a nationwide humanitarian (non-political) network of citizens who have...... engages with the current societal issue of migration by instigating a co-creation experiment, which aims to convert the museum’s vision (defined by values such as ‘community’, ‘participation’, ‘responsibility’ and ‘change’) into practice. In particular, we address how the museum creates a space...... and visual ethnography (Pink, 2013; Rose, 2012) from the process of initiating and planning of the project and including visual material from the launch of the exhibition. References: Bishop, C. (2006). The Social turn: Collaboration and Its Discontents, Artforum http...

  3. Suppression of soilborne pathogens in mixed cropping systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiddink, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    Since the green revolution, agricultural production has increased tremendously due to synthetic fertilizers, chemical crop protectants and high yielding plant varieties. However, soilborne pathogens remain yield-limiting factors in agricultural production. Hardly any sustainable solutions are

  4. Management of soil-borne diseases of organic vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafique Hafiza Asma

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available With the rising awareness of the adverse effects of chemical pesticides, people are looking for organically grown vegetables. Consumers are increasingly choosing organic foods due to the perception that they are healthier than those conventionally grown. Vegetable crops are vulnerable to a range of pathogenic organisms that reduce yield by killing the plant or damaging the product, thus making it unmarketable. Soil-borne diseases are among the major factors contributing to low yields of organic produce. Apart from chemical pesticides there are several methods that can be used to protect crops from soil-borne pathogens. These include the introduction of biocontrol agents against soil-borne plant pathogens, plants with therapeutic effects and organic soil amendments that stimulate antagonistic activities of microorganisms to soil-borne diseases. The decomposition of organic matter in soil also results in the accumulation of specific compounds that may be antifungal or nematicidal. With the growing interest in organic vegetables, it is necessary to find non chemical means of plant disease control. This review describes the impact of soil-borne diseases on organic vegetables and methods used for their control.

  5. Poorly Understood Aspects of Striated Muscle Contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alf Månsson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscle contraction results from cyclic interactions between the contractile proteins myosin and actin, driven by the turnover of adenosine triphosphate (ATP. Despite intense studies, several molecular events in the contraction process are poorly understood, including the relationship between force-generation and phosphate-release in the ATP-turnover. Different aspects of the force-generating transition are reflected in the changes in tension development by muscle cells, myofibrils and single molecules upon changes in temperature, altered phosphate concentration, or length perturbations. It has been notoriously difficult to explain all these events within a given theoretical framework and to unequivocally correlate observed events with the atomic structures of the myosin motor. Other incompletely understood issues include the role of the two heads of myosin II and structural changes in the actin filaments as well as the importance of the three-dimensional order. We here review these issues in relation to controversies regarding basic physiological properties of striated muscle. We also briefly consider actomyosin mutation effects in cardiac and skeletal muscle function and the possibility to treat these defects by drugs.

  6. Managing Abiotic Factors of Compost to Increase Soilborne Disease Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Deirdre E.

    2012-01-01

    Soilborne pathogens can devastate crops, causing economic losses for farmers due to reduced yields and expensive management practices. Fumigants and fungicides have harmful impacts on the surrounding environment and can be toxic to humans. Therefore, alternative methods of disease management are important. The disease suppressive abilities of…

  7. Determinants of oral bioavailability of soil-borne contaminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen, Agnes Guadalupe

    2000-01-01

    Children ingest soil, either accidentally via hand-to-mouth behavior or deliberately. In this manner, a child ingests on average between 50 and 200 mg soil/day, although amounts of as much as 60 g/day have also been observed. Hence, soil ingestion can be a main route of exposure to soil-borne

  8. Management of Soilborne Diseases in Strawberry Using Vegetable Rotations

    OpenAIRE

    Subbarao, Krishna V

    2007-01-01

    The influence of crop rotation on soilborne diseases and yield of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) was determined at a site infested with Verticillium dahliae microsclerotia and at another with no known history of V. dahliae infestation during 1997 to 2000. The rotations studied at the V. dahliae-infested site were (i) broccoli-broccoli-strawberry, (ii) Brussels sproutsstrawberry, and (iii) lettuce-lettuce-strawberry; the treatments at the site with no history of V. dahliae were (i) broccoli-...

  9. The use of organic certified compost to control soilborne diseases caused by Phytophthora spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Pugliese, Massimo; Gullino, M. Lodovica; Garibaldi, Angelo

    2008-01-01

    Soilborne pathogens can cause serious damages to economically important crops. Control of these diseases has traditionally depended upon rotations and soil quality improvement strategies. Compost has shown a suppressive activity against soilborne pathogens, and its use may decrease the severity of root rot diseases, optimize waste recycling and increase yields in organic farming. An organic certified compost produced from biowaste, green and yard wastes in a composting plant in the North-West...

  10. Fumigant dosages below maximum label rate control some soilborne pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shachaf Triky-Dotan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The activity of commercial soil fumigants on some key soilborne pathogens was assessed in sandy loam soil under controlled conditions. Seven soil fumigants that are registered in California or are being or have been considered for registration were used in this study: dimethyl disulfide (DMDS mixed with chloropicrin (Pic (79% DMDS and 21% Pic, Tri-Con (50% methyl bromide and 50% Pic, Midas Gold (33% methyl iodide [MI] and 67% Pic, Midas Bronze (50% MI and 50% Pic, Midas (MI, active ingredient [a.i.] 97.8%, Pic (a.i. 99% trichloronitromethane and Pic-Clor 60 (57% Pic and 37% 1,3-dichloropropene [1–3,D]. Dose-response models were calculated for pathogen mortality after 24 hours of exposure to fumigants. Overall, the tested fumigants achieved good efficacy with dosages below the maximum label rate against the tested pathogens. In this study, Pythium ultimum and citrus nematode were sensitive to all the fumigants and Verticillium dahliae was resistant. For most fumigants, California regulations restrict application rates to less than the maximum (federal label rate, meaning that it is possible that the fumigants may not control major plant pathogens. This research provides information on the effectiveness of these alternatives at these lower application rates. The results from this study will help growers optimize application rates for registered fumigants (such as Pic and 1,3-D and will help accelerate the adoption of new fumigants (such as DMDS if they are registered in California.

  11. How Self-Reliance Is Understood: Viewpoints from One Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    Tanzania's 1967 policy of self-reliance (Hultin 1985, p.8). Before looking at the way self-reliance is understood in rural Malawi during a process of development, it may be beneficial to look at some of the tensions between micro and macro forms of development. Leading to Self-Reliance. Development Aid is a term that has ...

  12. How self-reliance is understood: viewpoints from one local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    How self-reliance is understood: viewpoints from one local community in Malawi. ... model that resists dependence on external aid, empowers community development, and provides opportunities to sustain development activity through local initiative, can be employed to increase social capital leading to sustainable growth.

  13. Urachal tumour: case report of a poorly understood carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallarino Luigi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urachal carcinoma is an uncommon neoplasm associated with poor prognosis. Case presentation A 45-year-old man was admitted with complaints of abdominal pain and pollakisuria. A soft mass was palpable under his navel. TC-scan revealed a 11 × 6 cm tumor, which was composed of a cystic lesion arising from the urachus and a solid mass component at the urinary bladder dome. The tumor was removed surgically. Histological examination detected poor-differentiated adenocarcinoma, which had invaded the urinary bladder. The patient has been followed up without recurrence for 6 months. Conclusion The urachus is the embryological remnant of urogenital sinus and allantois. Involution usually happens before birth and urachus is present as a median umbilical ligament. The pathogenesis of urachal tumours is not fully understood. Surgery is the treatment of choice and role of adjuvant treatment is not clearly understood.

  14. Development and Deployment of Systems-Based Approaches for the Management of Soilborne Plant Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellemi, D O; Gamliel, A; Katan, J; Subbarao, K V

    2016-03-01

    Biological suppression of soilborne diseases with minimal use of outside interventive actions has been difficult to achieve in high input conventional crop production systems due to the inherent risk of pest resurgence. This review examines previous approaches to the management of soilborne disease as precursors to the evolution of a systems-based approach, in which plant disease suppression through natural biological feedback mechanisms in soil is incorporated into the design and operation of cropping systems. Two case studies are provided as examples in which a systems-based approach is being developed and deployed in the production of high value crops: lettuce/strawberry production in the coastal valleys of central California (United States) and sweet basil and other herb crop production in Israel. Considerations for developing and deploying system-based approaches are discussed and operational frameworks and metrics to guide their development are presented with the goal of offering a credible alternative to conventional approaches to soilborne disease management.

  15. Effect of soil solarization on soil-borne pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobh, Hana

    1995-01-01

    -knot indices nor yields were significantly different in both treatments. At present, fumigation with methyl bromide is the most common method adopted by Lebanese farmers to control soil-borne pathogens of high value crops in greenhouses. Since methyl bromide is extremely toxic and damage the ozone layer, and its use is banned in several countries and may be banned world wide in year 2001, these preliminary results prove that soil solarization may stand as a good alternative control measure

  16. Host growth can cause invasive spread of crops by soilborne pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melen Leclerc

    Full Text Available Invasive soilborne plant pathogens cause substantial damage to crops and natural populations, but our understanding of how to prevent their epidemics or reduce their damage is limited. A key and experimentally-tested concept in the epidemiology of soilborne plant diseases is that of a threshold spacing between hosts below which epidemics (invasive spread can occur. We extend this paradigm by examining how plant-root growth may alter the conditions for occurrence of soilborne pathogen epidemics in plant populations. We hypothesise that host-root growth can 1 increase the probability of pathogen transmission between neighbouring plants and, consequently, 2 decrease the threshold spacing for epidemics to occur. We predict that, in systems initially below their threshold conditions, root growth can trigger soilborne pathogen epidemics through a switch from non-invasive to invasive behaviour, while in systems above threshold conditions root growth can enhance epidemic development. As an example pathosystem, we studied the fungus Rhizoctonia solani on sugar beet in field experiments. To address hypothesis 1, we recorded infections within inoculum-donor and host-recipient pairs of plants with differing spacing. We translated these observations into the individual-level concept of pathozone, a host-centred form of dispersal kernel. To test hypothesis 2 and our prediction, we used the pathozone to parameterise a stochastic model of pathogen spread in a host population, contrasting scenarios of spread with and without host growth. Our results support our hypotheses and prediction. We suggest that practitioners of agriculture and arboriculture account for root system expansion in order to reduce the risk of soilborne-disease epidemics. We discuss changes in crop design, including increasing plant spacing and using crop mixtures, for boosting crop resilience to invasion and damage by soilborne pathogens. We speculate that the disease-induced root growth

  17. Donors in Semiconductors - are they Understood in Electronic Era?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmochowski, Janusz E

    2007-01-01

    The physics of semiconductors and contemporary electronics cannot be understood without impurities. The hydrogen-like shallow donor (and acceptor) state of electron (hole) bound by Coulomb electrostatic force of excess charge of impurity is used to control conductivity of semiconductors and construct semiconductor diodes, transistors and numerous types of semiconductor electronic and optoelectronic devices, including lasers. Recently, surprisingly, the physics of impurity donors appeared to be much reacher. Experimental evidence has been provided for universal existence of other types of electronic states of the same donor impurity: i) mysterious, deep, DX-type state resulting in metastability - slow hysteresis phenomena - understood as two-electron, acceptor-like state of donor impurity, formed upon large lattice distortion or rearrangement around impurity and accompanying capture of second electron, resulting in negative electron correlation energy U; ii) deep, localized, fully symmetric, A1, one-electron donor state of substitutional impurity. The latter state can be formed from the 'ordinary' shallow hydrogen-like state in the process of strong localization of electron by short range, local potential of impurity core, preserving full (A 1 ) symmetry of the substitutional impurity in the host lattice. The 'anticrossing' of the two A 1 (shallow hydrogenic and deep localized) energy levels upon transformation is observed. All types of electronic states of impurity can be universally observed for the same donor impurity and mutual transformation between different states occur upon changing experimental conditions. The knowledge about existence and properties of these n ew , molecular type, donor states in semiconductors seems still await general recognition and positive application in contemporary material and device science and engineering

  18. Soil-borne microbial functional structure across different land uses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuramae, E.E.; Zhou, J.; Kowalchuk, G.A.; Van Veen, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Land use change alters the structure and composition of microbial communities. However, the links between environmental factors and microbial functions are not well understood. Here we interrogated the functional structure of soil microbial communities across different land uses. In a multivariate

  19. Soil-Borne Microbial Functional Structure across Different Land Uses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuramae, E.E.; Zhou, J.Z.; Kowalchuk, G.A.; van Veen, J.A..

    2014-01-01

    Land use change alters the structure and composition of microbial communities. However, the links between environmental factors and microbial functions are not well understood. Here we interrogated the functional structure of soil microbial communities across different land uses. In a multivariate

  20. Biological soil disinfestation : a safe and effective approach for controlling soilborne pests and diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, J.G.; Wanten, P.J.; Blok, W.J.

    2004-01-01

    Biological soil disinfestation (bsd) is an environmentally friendly method to disinfest the soil from soilborne fungi and nematodes. With biological soil disinfestation a green manure crop (40 tonnes per ha) or other green biomass is homogeneously incorporated into the soil layer that has to be

  1. (Cucumis melo L.) cultivars to soil-borne plant pathogenic fungi in Iran

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl11

    2012-10-30

    Oct 30, 2012 ... Melon is an important dessert fruit in the Sistan region of. Iran, but its cultivation is threatened by attacks of. Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi), Monosporascus cannonballus (Pollack and Uecker) and Rhizoctonia solani (Kuhn) (Safarnezhad, 2004). Melon death induced by these soil-borne plant pathogenic ...

  2. Potential Pseudomonas Isolated from Soybean Rhizosphere as Biocontrol against Soilborne Phytopathogenic Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARI SUSILOWATI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants are liable to be attacked by soilborne fungal pathogens which are responsible to reduce plant growth and losses in yield. In Indonesia, indigenous soybeans’ rhizobacteria such as antifungal producing Pseudomonas sp. have not many been reported yet. Therefore, the potential of the Pseudomonas sp. as biocontrol agent should be deeply explored. The aim of this study was to screen the indigenous soybeans’ rhizobacteria Pseudomonas sp. that possessing biocontrol characters against soilborne mainly i.e. Sclerotium rolfsii, Fusarium oxysporum, and Rhizoctonia solani, in vitro and in planta. Eleven isolates identified Pseudomonas sp. CRB numbered by CRB-3, CRB-16, CRB-17, CRB-31, CRB-44, CRB-75, CRB-80, CRB-86, CRB-102, CRB-109, and CRB-112 were affirmed to be candidates of biocontrol agents toward the soilborne fungal pathogens. Pseudomonas sp. CRB inhibited growth of the pathogenic fungi approximately 11.1-60.0% in vitro. Among of them, 7 isolates were also produced siderophore, 2 isolates produced chitinase, and 4 isolates produced hydrogen cyanide. Seed coating with the Pseudomonas sp. CRB accomplished disease suppression in planta about 14.3-100% in sterile soil condition and 5.2-52.6% in non sterile soil condition. Consistency in high performance more than 30% of disease suppression in non sterile soil condition suggested that 5 isolates i.e. CRB-16, CRB-44, CRB-86, CRB-102, and CRB-109 isolates have great promising to be developed as biocontrol agents of soilborne pathogenic fungi.

  3. Soil-borne microorganisms and soil-type affect pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Jacobaea vulgaris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, L.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Klinkhamer, P.G.L.; Van Veen, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Secondary metabolites like pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) play a crucial part in plant defense. We studied the effects of soil-borne microorganisms and soil-type on pyrrolizidine alkaloids in roots and shoots of Jacobaea vulgaris. We used clones of two genotypes from a dune area (Meijendel),

  4. Default options in the ICU: widely used but insufficiently understood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Joanna; Halpern, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Default options dramatically influence the behavior of decision makers and may serve as effective decision support tools in the ICU. Their use in medicine has increased in an effort to improve efficiency, reduce errors, and harness the potential of healthcare technology. Recent findings Defaults often fall short of their predicted influence when employed in critical care settings as quality improvement interventions. Investigations reporting the use of defaults are often limited by variations in the relative effect across sites. Preimplementation experiments and long-term monitoring studies are lacking. Summary Defaults in the ICU may help or harm patients and clinical efficiency depending on their format and use. When constructing and encountering defaults, providers should be aware of their powerful and complex influences on decision making. Additional evaluations of the appropriate creation of healthcare defaults and their resulting intended and unintended consequences are needed. PMID:25203352

  5. [Progress in improvement of continuous monoculture cropping problem in Panax ginseng by controlling soil-borne disease management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Dong, Lin-Lin; Xu, Jiang; Chen, Jun-Wen; Li, Xi-Wen; Chen, Shi-Lin

    2016-11-01

    The continuous monoculture cropping problem severely has hindered the land resource of Panax ginseng cultivation and threatened the sustainable development of ginseng industry. There are comprehensive factors causing the continuous monoculture cropping problem, such as deterioration of soil physical and chemical properties, accumulation of allelochemical, increase of pesticide residue and heavy metal, imbalance of rhizospheric micro-ecosystem, and increase of soil-borne diseases. Among soil-borne disease was one of the key factors. More than 40 soil-borne diseases have been reported in the ginseng cultivation, especially, the diseases were more serious in the ginseng replanting land. Here main soil-borne diseases and their prevention way have been summarized, and we try to provide the effective improvement strategy of continuous monoculture cropping problem focusing on the disease control and offer reference for overcoming the ginseng continuous monoculture cropping problem. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  6. Testing of Early Ripening Strawberry Cultivars Tolerant to Soil-Borne Pathogens as Alternative to 'Elsanta'

    OpenAIRE

    Spornberger, Andreas; Steffek, Robert; Altenburger, Josef

    2007-01-01

    Soil-borne pathogens, above all Verticillium sp., cause plant loss and yield decrease in many Austrian strawberry regions. As part of a research project 13 cultivars were planted in 2005 at 11 sites on nine farms in five different Austrian regions. The aim was to test early ripening Verticillium tolerant cultivars which are winter hardy, with high yield and good fruit characteristics as alternative to the highly susceptible cultivar ‘Elsanta’. Although in 2005 climatic conditions where not fa...

  7. The role of the arbuscular mycorrhiza-associated rhizobacteria in the biocontrol of soilborne phyto pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lioussanne, L.

    2010-07-01

    The mutualistic symbiosis of most land plants with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi has been shown to favor mineral and water nutrition and to increase resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses. This review reports the main mechanisms involved in the control of the disease symptoms and of the intraradical proliferation of soilborne phytopathogens by root colonization with AM fungi, with a special emphasis on the role of the rhizobacteria shown to be specifically associated with the AM extraradical network and the mycorrhizosphere (the soil zone with particular characteristics under the influence of the root/AM association). The mycorrhizosphere would constitute an environment conducive to microorganisms antagonistic to pathogen proliferation. Moreover, attempts to identify rhizobacteria from AM structures and/or the mycorrhizosphere often lead to the isolation of organisms showing strong properties of antagonism on various soilborne pathogens. The ability of AM fungi to control soilborne diseases would be strongly related to their capacity to specifically stimulate the establishment of rhizobacteria unfavorable to pathogen development within the mycorrhizosphere before root infection. Current knowledge concerning the mechanisms involved in AM/rhizobacteria interactions are also described in this review. (Author) 101 refs.

  8. Soil-Borne Microbial Functional Structure across Different Land Uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiko E. Kuramae

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Land use change alters the structure and composition of microbial communities. However, the links between environmental factors and microbial functions are not well understood. Here we interrogated the functional structure of soil microbial communities across different land uses. In a multivariate regression tree analysis of soil physicochemical properties and genes detected by functional microarrays, the main factor that explained the different microbial community functional structures was C : N ratio. C : N ratio showed a significant positive correlation with clay and soil pH. Fields with low C : N ratio had an overrepresentation of genes for carbon degradation, carbon fixation, metal reductase, and organic remediation categories, while fields with high C : N ratio had an overrepresentation of genes encoding dissimilatory sulfate reductase, methane oxidation, nitrification, and nitrogen fixation. The most abundant genes related to carbon degradation comprised bacterial and fungal cellulases; bacterial and fungal chitinases; fungal laccases; and bacterial, fungal, and oomycete polygalacturonases. The high number of genes related to organic remediation was probably driven by high phosphate content, while the high number of genes for nitrification was probably explained by high total nitrogen content. The functional gene diversity found in different soils did not group the sites accordingly to land management. Rather, the soil factors, C : N ratio, phosphate, and total N, were the main factors driving the differences in functional genes across the fields examined.

  9. [Suppression of three soil-borne diseases of cucumber by a rhizosphere fungal strain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Heng; Niu, Yong-chun; Deng, Hui; Lin, Xiao-min; Jin, Chun-li

    2015-12-01

    To understand the effect of rhizosphere fungi on soil-borne diseases of cucumber, 16 fungal, strains from rhizosphere soil were investigated for the antagonistic activity to three soilborne pathogenic fungi with dual culture method and for suppression of cucumber diseases caused by the pathogens in pot experiments. Four strains showed antagonism to one or more pathogenic fungi tested. The strain JCL143, identified as Aspergillus terreus, showed strong antagonistic activity to the three pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. In greenhouse pot experiments, inoculation with strain JCL143 provided 74% or more of relative control effect to all the three diseases of cucumber seedling caused by the above three pathogenic fungi, and provided 85% or more of relative control effect to Rhizoctonia root rot and Sclerotinia root and stem rot in pot experiment with non-sterilized substrate. In pot experiment with natural soil as substrate, inoculation with strain JCL143 provided average 84.1% of relative control effect to Fusarium wilt of cucumber at vine elongation stage. The fermentation broth of strain JCL143 showed inhibitory effect in different degrees on the colonial growth of the three pathogenic fungi tested, and reached 63.3% of inhibitory rate of colonial growth to S. sclerotiorum. The inhibitory activity of the fermentation broth decreased with increasing treatment temperature, was liable to decrease to alkaline pH than acid pH, and stable to protease treatment. The results indicated that A. terreus is an important factor in suppression of plant soil-borne diseases, and strain JCL143 with stable disease suppression is potential in biocontrol application.

  10. Hidden host plant associations of soilborne fungal pathogens: an ecological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Glenna M; Kuldau, Gretchen A; Gugino, Beth K; Jiménez-Gasco, María Del Mar

    2013-06-01

    Much of the current knowledge on population biology and ecology of soilborne fungal pathogens has been derived from research based on populations recovered from plants displaying disease symptoms or soil associated with symptomatic plants. Many soilborne fungal pathogens are known to cause disease on a large number of crop plants, including a variety of important agronomical, horticultural, ornamental, and forest plants species. For instance, the fungus Verticillium dahliae causes disease on >400 host plants. From a phytopathological perspective, plants on which disease symptoms have not been yet observed are considered to be nonhosts for V. dahliae. This term may be misleading because it does not provide information regarding the nature of the plant-fungus association; that is, a nonhost plant may harbor the fungus as an endophyte. Yet, there are numerous instances in the literature where V. dahliae has been isolated from asymptomatic plants; thus, these plants should be considered hosts. In this article, we synthesize scattered research that indicates that V. dahliae, aside from being a successful and significant vascular plant pathogen, may have a cryptic biology on numerous asymptomatic plants as an endophyte. Thus, we suggest here that these endophytic associations among V. dahliae and asymptomatic plants are not unusual relationships in nature. We propose to embrace the broader ecology of many fungi by differentiating between "symptomatic hosts" as those plants in which the infection and colonization by a fungus results in disease, and "asymptomatic hosts" as those plants that harbor the fungus endophytically and are different than true nonhosts that should be used for plant species that do not interact with the given fungus. In fact, if we broaden our definition of "host plant" to include asymptomatic plants that harbor the fungus as an endophyte, it is likely that the host ranges for some soilborne fungal pathogens are much larger than previously envisioned

  11. Antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of some indigenous plants against common soil-borne fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuba, T.; Abid, M.; Shaukat, S. S.; Shaikh, A.

    2016-01-01

    Present study was conducted to evaluate the fungicidal property of methanolic extracts of some indigenous plants of Karachi such as Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (leaves), The spesia populnea (leaves, stem and fruit), Withania somnifera (leaves and stem), Solanum surattense (shoot) and Melia azedarach (fruit) against common soil-borne phytopathogens viz., Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum by using food poison technique. Among the eight methanolic extracts of tested parts of plants, seven showed antifungal activity, of which T. populnea leaves and S. surattense shoots inhibited growth of all three test pathogens. Leaves of H. rosa-sinensis did not exhibit antifungal activity. T. populnea (leaves and stem), W. somnifera (stem) and M. azedarach (fruit) suppressed growth of Rhizoctonia solani by 100 percent. T. populnea leaves and M. azedarach fruit inhibited growth of M. phaseolina by 100 percent and 82 percent, respectively T. populnea leaves inhibited 99 percent mycelial growth of F. oxysporum. It is concluded that the methanolic extracts of the tested indigenous plants contain natural fungicidal compounds, which can be used for the control of common soil-borne pathogens. (author)

  12. A theoretical framework for biological control of soil-borne plant pathogens: Identifying effective strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunniffe, Nik J; Gilligan, Christopher A

    2011-06-07

    We develop and analyse a flexible compartmental model of the interaction between a plant host, a soil-borne pathogen and a microbial antagonist, for use in optimising biological control. By extracting invasion and persistence thresholds of host, pathogen and biological control agent, performing an equilibrium analysis, and numerical investigation of sensitivity to parameters and initial conditions, we determine criteria for successful biological control. We identify conditions for biological control (i) to prevent a pathogen entering a system, (ii) to eradicate a pathogen that is already present and, if that is not possible, (iii) to reduce the density of the pathogen. Control depends upon the epidemiology of the pathogen and how efficiently the antagonist can colonise particular habitats (i.e. healthy tissue, infected tissue and/or soil-borne inoculum). A sharp transition between totally effective control (i.e. eradication of the pathogen) and totally ineffective control can follow slight changes in biologically interpretable parameters or to the initial amounts of pathogen and biological control agent present. Effective biological control requires careful matching of antagonists to pathosystems. For preventative/eradicative control, antagonists must colonise susceptible hosts. However, for reduction in disease prevalence, the range of habitat is less important than the antagonist's bulking-up efficiency. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Biofertilization and Biocontrol in the fight against soilborne fungal root pathogens in Australian soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Sarah; Agnew, Linda; Pereg, Lily

    2015-04-01

    Control of soilborne fungal root pathogens that severely compromise cotton production and other crops worldwide has historically been through the use of synthetic fungicides and fertilizers, these often have hazardous implications for environmental and soil health. The search for sustainable alternatives has lead to heightened interest in biocontrol, using soil microorganisms that suppress the growth of phytopathogens directly and biofertilization, the use of microorganisms to increasing the nutrient availability in soils, increasing seedling vigour. Soil properties and consequently soil microbial properties are strongly impacted by agricultural practices, therefore we are isolating indigenous microorganisms from soils collected from ten different geographical locations within the Australian cotton-growing region. These differ vastly in soil type and management practices. Soils are being analysed to compare the abundance of phosphate solubilising, auxin producing and nitrogen cycling bacteria. Rhizospheric bacteria capable of plant growth promoting through a multiple actions are being isolated. In addition, a method for isolating soilborne fungal suppressive microbes directly from soil samples has been designed and is currently being used. Comparisons between agricultural practices and the plant growth promoting microbial component of soil microbiome will be reported on. We will discuss the microbial isolates identified, their modes of action and their potential use as biocontrol agents and/or biofertilizers in Australian cotton growing soils.

  14. SCREENING OF FLUORESCENT RHIZOBACTERIA FOR THE BIOCONTROL OF SOILBORNE PLANT PATHOGENIC FUNGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANELISE DIAS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The biocontrol of soilborne plant pathogens represents a promising approach from the environ- mental and practical points of view. Fluorescent pseudomonad rhizobacteria are well known by their antagonis- tic capacity towards several plant pathogens due to a diversity of antimicrobial metabolites they produce. This study was conceived to select and characterize rhizobacteria having antagonistic potential towards the patho- genic fungi Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii. A total of 94 bacterial strains isolated from the rhizospheres of four vegetable species under organic cultivation were evaluated. Twenty-two strains which predominate in lettuce and rudbeckia rhizospheres showed identical biochemical profiles to Pseudomonas fluo- rescens, while in kale and parsley rhizospheres identical profiles to Pseudomonas putida (subgroups A and B strains prevailed. Two types of antagonism were verified in vitro and defined as competition and inhibition of mycelial growth. Sixty percent of the evaluated strains showed antagonistic potential and, among those, 24 strains expressed antagonism to both target fungi, with P. fluorescens being the most representative bacterial species. This work clearly identified a number of strains with potential for use as plant growth-promoting and biocontrol of the two soilborne fungal pathogens in vegetable crops production systems.

  15. A nylon membrane bag assay for determination of the effect of chemicals on soilborne plant pathogens in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new nylon membrane bag assay was developed that can rapidly and effectively determine the impact of chemicals added to soil on soilborne plant pathogens for which there are no selective media or for which a selective medium is expensive or difficult to prepare. This assay consists of placing patho...

  16. Variability of Effective Micro-organisms (EM) in bokashi and soil and effects on soil-borne plant pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shin, Keumchul; Diepen, van G.; Blok, W.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2017-01-01

    The microbial inoculant ‘Effective Microorganisms’ (EM) has been used to promote soil fertility and plant growth in agriculture. We tested effects of commercial EM products on suppression of soil-borne diseases, microbial activity and bacterial composition in organically managed sandy soils. EM was

  17. Control of some important soil-borne fungi by chitin associated with chilli (capsicum annuum l.) in lower sindh, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, F.; Abid, M.; Farzana, A.; Akbar, M.; Shaukat, S.S.

    2013-01-01

    Chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) belongs to the family Solanaceae is one of the most important cash crop of the southern parts of Pakistan. Capsicum is cultivated on a large scale in a lower region of Sindh, Pakistan. It is an important and profitable crop of Pakistan. Several biotic and abiotic stresses affect the productivity of chilli crop. It is infected by a number of diseases particularly soil-borne diseases. Surveys of soil-borne fungal diseases associated with chilli crop in different areas of lower Sindh, including, Hyderabad, Tando Allahyar, Mirpurkhas, Umerkot, Kunri, Samaro, Kot Ghulam uhammad and Digri, were conducted, and chilli plants showing symptoms of wilting were collected. A number of soil-borne root infecting fungi were isolated and identified, such as, Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, Macrophomina phaseolina, Phytophthora capsici, Pythium sp., and Rhizoctonia solani, from collected disease plants. It was observed that all the major varieties of chillies (i.e., Sanam, Talhari, Ghotaki, Mexi), growing in lower Sindh, were highly susceptible to these fungi. The main objectives of the study were to examine the effectiveness of chitin for the management of soil-borne diseases of chilli plant by different methods, i.e., soil amendment and transplant root dip method. Results indicated that of the two methods, the soil amendment method was more effective while transplant root dip method was less effective. (author)

  18. Food and soil-borne Penicillia in Arctic environments: Chemical diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian

    Penicillia are very common inhabitants of cold environments, including arctic soil, plants, animals, and foods. We have investigated the mycobiota of Greenland inland ice and soil, and found a very unique and pronounced diversity among the Penicillia. Nearly all species were new to science....... The species found in inland ice were both of the soil-borne type, and Penicillia that grow and sporulate well at 25°C. The latter group of Penicillia have been found earlier in refrigerated foods, including P. nordicum, and in glacier ice and melting water from Svalbard (se Sonjak et al., this conference......). This “food-borne group” of arctic fungi also contained some new species, but not as many as in arctic soil. The chemical diversity of the Penicillium species was remarkably high and in most cases even larger than the chemical diversity of Penicillia in the tropics. Several new secondary metabolites were...

  19. Human soil-borne pathogens and risks associated with land use change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereg, Lily

    2017-04-01

    Soil is a source of pathogenic, neutral and beneficial microorganisms. Natural events and anthropogenic activity can affect soil biodiversity and influence the balance and distribution of soil-borne human pathogens. Important bacterial and fungal pathogens, such as Bacillus anthracis, Coxiella bernetii, Clostridium tetani, Escherichia coli 0157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Aspergillus fumigatus and Sporothrix schenckii will be discussed. This presentation will concentrate on soil pathogenic microorganisms and the effects of land use change on their prevalence and distribution. In particular, the potential of agricultural soil cultivation to enhance pathogen transmission to human through the release of soil microbes into the air attached to dust particles, contamination of waterways and infection of food plants and animal. Emerging solutions, such as biocontrol and probiotics, will be discussed.

  20. Biocontrol of certain soilborne diseases and promotion of growth of capsicum annuum using biofungicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madbouly, A.; Abdelbacki, A.M.M.

    2017-01-01

    Colored pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) has great economic importance as a food vegetable crop in Egypt and all over the world. This crop is prone to infection with soilborne fungal pathogens such as Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani and Macrophomina phaseolina. These mycopathogens were isolated from diseased pepper seedlings, identified; their virulence was confirmed in the greenhouse. Eight bacterial isolates mainly; (Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens), and many fungal isolates mainly, (Trichoderma harzianum and T. viride), were isolated from the rhizosphere soil of pepper. They caused appreciable In vitro inhibition of the radial growth of the 3 pathogens in dual culture technique, in percentages ranging from (71-79%) and (80-87%), respectively. On infestation of pepper soil with these bioagents and the 3 pathogens separately in the greenhouse, they caused In vivo reduction of disease symptoms of pepper compared with the pathogens infested and non-infested control soils. In addition, they caused significant improvement of pepper growth compared with the control soil, however, promotion exerted by B. subtilis and T. harzianum was more than that of P. fluorescens and T. viride. These promoting activities could be attributed to the production of metabolites such as growth hormones; solubilization of phosphates and improvement of nutrient uptake. This is the first record of promoting the growth of pepper in greenhouse by B. subtilis and T. harzianum in Egypt. Thus these bioagents could be formulated then applied in the future in pepper fields of this country as safe, effective, ecofriendly biofungicides to control soilborne pathogens and also could be used as biofertilizers to promote the growth and productivity of this crop. (author)

  1. The market of human organs: a window into a poorly understood global business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surman, O S; Saidi, R; Purtilo, R; Simmerling, M; Ko, D; Burke, T F

    2008-03-01

    The global demand for human organs has set the stage for an exploding and poorly understood global business in human organs. Whenever there is demand for a product, the opportunity for business arises. The form that a business takes is dependent on a complex network of inputs and outputs, each affecting the others. Historically, the details of any specific market are drastically underestimated. Nowhere is this truer than in the market of human organs. The drivers, which propel the "goods" of human organs, form a flourishing business. Critical analysis is essential to understanding of the supply and demand sides and to determine the role of government in regulating the industry. Governmental groups have dismissed formation of a regulated market for organ sales. The concept is nonetheless a topic of active discussion, motivated by the suffering of patients in need of organs and exploitation of the victims of human trafficking. Ethical principles have been invoked on each side of the ensuing debate. Theory in the absence of sufficient data is shaky ground for enactment of new policy. The Aristotelian concept of "practical wisdom" and the pragmatism of William James illuminate the importance of scientific investigation as guide to policy formation. How will stakeholders benefit or lose? What impact might be anticipated in regard to organized medicine's social contract? What can we learn about cross-cultural differences and their effect on the global landscape?

  2. Effects of Silicon Amendment on Soilborne and Fruit Diseases of Avocado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dann, Elizabeth K; Le, Duy P

    2017-10-20

    The effects of silicon (Si) amendment have been studied in several plant/pathogen interactions; however, studies in horticultural tree crops are limited. Effects of amendment with soluble potassium silicate (AgSil ® 32, approximately 30% available Si), or milled cement building board by-products (Mineral Mulch (MM) or Mineral Dust (MD), containing 5% available Si) were investigated in field and greenhouse trials with avocado. Orchard soil drench applications with potassium silicate improved yield and quality of fruit, but visual health of trees declining from Phytophthora root rot (PRR) was not affected. Orchard spray or trunk injection applications with potassium silicate were ineffective. Amendment of potting mix with MM and MD reduced root necrosis of avocado seedlings after inoculation with Calonectria ilicicola , an aggressive soilborne pathogen causing black root rot. Application of MM to mature orchard trees declining with PRR had a beneficial effect on visual tree health, and Si accumulation in leaves and fruit peel, after only 10 months. Products that deliver available Si consistently for uptake are likely to be most successful in perennial tree crops.

  3. Evaluation of methyl bromide alternatives efficacy against soil-borne pathogens, nematodes and soil microbial community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Xie

    Full Text Available Methyl bromide (MB and other alternatives were evaluated for suppression of Fusarium spp., Phytophthora spp., and Meloidogyne spp. and their influence on soil microbial communities. Both Fusarium spp. and Phytophthora spp. were significantly reduced by the MB (30.74 mg kg-1, methyl iodide (MI: 45.58 mg kg-1, metham sodium (MS: 53.92 mg kg-1 treatments. MS exhibited comparable effectiveness to MB in controlling Meloidogyne spp. and total nematodes, followed by MI at the tested rate. By contrast, sulfuryl fluoride (SF: 33.04 mg kg-1 and chloroform (CF: 23.68 mg kg-1 showed low efficacy in controlling Fusarium spp., Phytophthora spp., and Meloidogyne spp. MB, MI and MS significantly lowered the abundance of different microbial populations and microbial biomass in soil, whereas SF and CF had limited influence on them compared with the control. Diversity indices in Biolog studies decreased in response to fumigation, but no significant difference was found among treatments in PLFA studies. Principal component and cluster analyses of Biolog and PLFA data sets revealed that MB and MI treatments greatly influenced the soil microbial community functional and structural diversity compared with SF treatment. These results suggest that fumigants with high effectiveness in suppressing soil-borne disease could significantly influence soil microbial community.

  4. Effects of Silicon Amendment on Soilborne and Fruit Diseases of Avocado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth K. Dann

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of silicon (Si amendment have been studied in several plant/pathogen interactions; however, studies in horticultural tree crops are limited. Effects of amendment with soluble potassium silicate (AgSil®32, approximately 30% available Si, or milled cement building board by-products (Mineral Mulch (MM or Mineral Dust (MD, containing 5% available Si were investigated in field and greenhouse trials with avocado. Orchard soil drench applications with potassium silicate improved yield and quality of fruit, but visual health of trees declining from Phytophthora root rot (PRR was not affected. Orchard spray or trunk injection applications with potassium silicate were ineffective. Amendment of potting mix with MM and MD reduced root necrosis of avocado seedlings after inoculation with Calonectria ilicicola, an aggressive soilborne pathogen causing black root rot. Application of MM to mature orchard trees declining with PRR had a beneficial effect on visual tree health, and Si accumulation in leaves and fruit peel, after only 10 months. Products that deliver available Si consistently for uptake are likely to be most successful in perennial tree crops.

  5. Root interactions in a maize/soybean intercropping system control soybean soil-borne disease, red crown rot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Within-field multiple crop species intercropping is well documented and used for disease control, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. As roots are the primary organ for perceiving signals in the soil from neighboring plants, root behavior may play an important role in soil-borne disease control. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In two years of field experiments, maize/soybean intercropping suppressed the occurrence of soybean red crown rot, a severe soil-borne disease caused by Cylindrocladium parasiticum (C. parasiticum. The suppressive effects decreased with increasing distance between intercropped plants under both low P and high P supply, suggesting that root interactions play a significant role independent of nutrient status. Further detailed quantitative studies revealed that the diversity and intensity of root interactions altered the expression of important soybean PR genes, as well as, the activity of corresponding enzymes in both P treatments. Furthermore, 5 phenolic acids were detected in root exudates of maize/soybean intercropped plants. Among these phenolic acids, cinnamic acid was released in significantly greater concentrations when intercropped maize with soybean compared to either crop grown in monoculture, and this spike in cinnamic acid was found dramatically constrain C. parasiticum growth in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report to demonstrate that intercropping with maize can promote resistance in soybean to red crown rot in a root-dependent manner. This supports the point that intercropping may be an efficient ecological strategy to control soil-borne plant disease and should be incorporated in sustainable agricultural management practices.

  6. How operating room efficiency is understood in a surgical team: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakelian, Erebouni; Gunningberg, Lena; Larsson, Jan

    2011-02-01

    Building surgical teams is one attempt to ensure the health-care system becomes more efficient, but how is 'efficiency' understood or interpreted? The aim was to study how organized surgical team members and their leaders understood operating room efficiency. Qualitative study. A 1100-bed Swedish university hospital. Eleven participants, nine team members from the same team and their two leaders were interviewed. The analysis was performed according to phenomenography, a research approach that aims to discover variations in peoples' understanding of a phenomenon. Seven ways of understanding operating room efficiency were identified: doing one's best from one's prerequisites, enjoying work and adjusting it to the situation, interacting group performing parallel tasks, working with minimal resources to produce desired results, fast work with preserved quality, long-term effects for patient care and a relative concept. When talking about the quality and benefits of delivered care, most team members invoked the patient as the central focus. Despite seven ways of understanding efficiency between the team members, they described their team as efficient. The nurses and assistant nurses were involved in the production and discussed working in a timely manner more than the leaders. The seven ways of understanding operating room efficiency appear to represent both organization-oriented and individual-oriented understanding of that concept in surgical teams. The patient is in focus and efficiency is understood as maintaining quality of care and measuring benefits of care for the patients.

  7. Mycoparasitism of endophytic fungi isolated from reed on soilborne phytopathogenic fungi and production of cell wall-degrading enzymes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ronghua; Liu, Xiaoguang; Gao, Kexiang; Mendgen, Kurt; Kang, Zhensheng; Gao, Jianfeng; Dai, Yang; Wang, Xue

    2009-12-01

    Antagonism of three endophytic fungi isolated from common reed (Phragmites australis) against eight soilborne pathogenic fungi was investigated on potato dextrose agar by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Inhibitory zones were not observed. The microscopical studies suggested that the endophytes inhibit growth of soilborne pathogens by means of coiling around hyphae and, after penetration, the degradation of hyphal cytoplasm. Since penetration of hyphae seems to play a major role in parasitism, we studied the production of cell wall degrading enzymes by the three endophytes. Choiromyces aboriginum produced higher activities of beta-1,3-glucanases compared to Stachybotrys elegans and Cylindrocarpon sp. For C. aboriginum and S. elegans, colloidal chitin was the best substrate for the induction of beta-1,3-glucanases and chitinases, respectively. This result suggests that mycoparasitism by endophytes on soilborne plant pathogens can be explained by their mycoparasitic activity.

  8. Drought Impact on the Soilborne Fungal Pathogen of Tomato: Fusarium Oxysporum f. sp. Lycopersici Race 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, T.

    2016-12-01

    This paper reviews the drought impact on fungal pathogen of tomato. It presents the 11 Main Procedures used to conduct the experiments and discusses materials used. The 11 procedures are: Gather All the Soils, Sterilize the Soils Using Auto-Clave, Water Retention Test Using Auto-Clave, Cultivate Pathogen, Grow Tomato Plant, Count Pathogenic Cells, Inoculate the Pathogen, Conduct Root Dip, Grow Positive and Negative Samples, Test for Fusarium, and the Soil Separation Experiment with Pathogenic Soil. Experiments conducted on 6 Main Soils used in farming throughout California. The Yolo Series, Whiterock Series, Euic Soil, Potting Soil, Blacklock Series, and Henneke Series. The 6 Soils include amounts of clay, silt, sand, loam, and humus. It was crucial that these soils include these properties because deriving from last year's research I found that these particles in the soil has a role in the growth of the plant. Next, I tested the dry/wet weight of the soils, as this gave me a good estimate of how much water the soils can retain. This is very important because I found a direct correlation between the soil that retained the most amount of water and the soil that had the least harms done. Next, the other labs were completed to cultivate, inoculate, and test the pathogens in the soil, now these steps must be carried out with accuracy and precision because pathogens are a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host, and if even 0.100 mL is changed in the pathogenic level it can make a large difference. Later, after I finished conducting the root dip, and raising the tomato plants. I counted the Fusarium count in the soil and plated the samples, where I was able to find the results on how much harm the pathogen had on the plant. In each of the 90 reps. the Fusarium (soilborne pathogen) decreased a little, which factors in the transfer from Potato Dextrose Agar Petri Dish to the Soils. After, this transfer the pathogen decreased and never increased, but

  9. Sporothrix chilensis sp. nov. (Ascomycota: Ophiostomatales), a soil-borne agent of human sporotrichosis with mild-pathogenic potential to mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Cruz Choappa, Rodrigo; Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; de Hoog, G Sybren; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2016-02-01

    A combination of phylogeny, evolution, morphologies and ecologies has enabled major advances in understanding the taxonomy of Sporothrix species, including members exhibiting distinct lifestyles such as saprobes, human/animal pathogens, and insect symbionts. Phylogenetic analyses of ITS1/2 + 5.8s sequences split Sporothrix genus in two well-defined groups with dissimilar ecologies. Species embedded in the Sporothrix schenckii complex are frequently agents of human and animal sporotrichosis, and some of these are responsible for large sapronoses and zoonoses around the warmer temperate regions of the world. At the other extreme, basal saprophytic species evolved in association with decaying wood and soil, and are rarely found to cause human disease. We propose to create a new taxa, Sporothrix chilensis sp. nov., to accommodate strains collected from a clinical case of onychomycosis as well as from environmental origins in Chile. Multigene analyses based on ITS1/2 + 5.8s region, beta-tubulin, calmodulin and translation elongation factor 1α revealed that S. chilensis is a member of the Sporothrix pallida complex, and the nearest taxon is Sporothrix mexicana, a rare soil-borne species, non-pathogenic to humans. The ITS region serves as a primary barcode marker, while each one of the protein-coding loci easily recognized species boundaries providing sufficient information for species identification. A disseminated model of murine sporotrichosis revealed a mild-pathogenic potential, with lung invasion. Although S. chilensis is not a primary pathogen, accidental infection may have an impact in the immunosuppressed population. With the introduction of distinct species with similar routes of transmission but different virulence, identification of Sporothrix agents at the species level is mandatory. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Plant-plant-microbe mechanisms involved in soil-borne disease suppression on a maize and pepper intercropping system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intercropping systems could increase crop diversity and avoid vulnerability to biotic stresses. Most studies have shown that intercropping can provide relief to crops against wind-dispersed pathogens. However, there was limited data on how the practice of intercropping help crops against soil-borne Phytophthora disease. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Compared to pepper monoculture, a large scale intercropping study of maize grown between pepper rows reduced disease levels of the soil-borne pepper Phytophthora blight. These reduced disease levels of Phytophthora in the intercropping system were correlated with the ability of maize plants to form a "root wall" that restricted the movement of Phytophthora capsici across rows. Experimentally, it was found that maize roots attracted the zoospores of P. capsici and then inhibited their growth. When maize plants were grown in close proximity to each other, the roots produced and secreted larger quantities of 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H-one (DIMBOA and 6-methoxy-2-benzoxazolinone (MBOA. Furthermore, MBOA, benzothiazole (BZO, and 2-(methylthio-benzothiazole (MBZO were identified in root exudates of maize and showed antimicrobial activity against P. capsici. CONCLUSIONS: Maize could form a "root wall" to restrict the spread of P. capsici across rows in maize and pepper intercropping systems. Antimicrobe compounds secreted by maize root were one of the factors that resulted in the inhibition of P. capsici. These results provide new insights into plant-plant-microbe mechanisms involved in intercropping systems.

  11. Congenital Vomer Agenesis: A Rare and Poorly Understood Condition Revealed by Cone Beam CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, David Jun; Lenoir, Vincent; Chatelain, Sibylle; Stefanelli, Salvatore; Becker, Minerva

    2018-02-10

    Isolated congenital vomer agenesis is a very rare and poorly understood condition. In the context of dental work-up by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), the explored volume of the facial bones occasionally reveals incidental abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year old Caucasian female who underwent CBCT for the pre-treatment evaluation of primary failure of tooth eruption affecting the permanent right upper and inferior molars. CBCT depicted a large defect of the postero-inferior part of the nasal septum without associated soft tissue abnormality and without cranio-facial malformation or cleft palate. In the absence of a history of trauma, chronic inflammatory sinonasal disease, neoplasia and drug abuse, a posterior nasal septum defect warrants the diagnosis of vomer agenesis. A discussion of this condition and of salient CBCT features is provided.

  12. Poorly understood and often miscategorized congenital umbilical cord hernia: an alternative repair method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İnce, E; Temiz, A; Ezer, S S; Gezer, H Ö; Hiçsönmez, A

    2017-06-01

    Umbilical cord hernia is poorly understood and often miscategorized as "omphalocele minor". Careless clamping of the cord leads to iatrogenic gut injury in the situation of umbilical cord hernia. This study aimed to determine the characteristics and outcomes of umbilical cord hernias. We also highlight an alternative repair method for umbilical cord hernias. We recorded 15 cases of umbilical cord hernias over 10 years. The patients' data were retrospectively reviewed, and preoperative preparation of the newborn, gestational age, birth weight, other associated malformations, surgical technique used, enteral nutrition, and length of hospitalization were recorded. This study included 15 neonates with umbilical cord hernias. The mean gestational age at the time of referral was 38.2 ± 2.1 umbilical cord hernia, the body folds develop normally and form the umbilical ring. The double purse-string technique is easy to apply and produces satisfactory cosmetic results in neonates with umbilical cord hernias.

  13. Testing biochemistry revisited: how in vivo metabolism can be understood from in vitro enzyme kinetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen van Eunen

    Full Text Available A decade ago, a team of biochemists including two of us, modeled yeast glycolysis and showed that one of the most studied biochemical pathways could not be quite understood in terms of the kinetic properties of the constituent enzymes as measured in cell extract. Moreover, when the same model was later applied to different experimental steady-state conditions, it often exhibited unrestrained metabolite accumulation.Here we resolve this issue by showing that the results of such ab initio modeling are improved substantially by (i including appropriate allosteric regulation and (ii measuring the enzyme kinetic parameters under conditions that resemble the intracellular environment. The following modifications proved crucial: (i implementation of allosteric regulation of hexokinase and pyruvate kinase, (ii implementation of V(max values measured under conditions that resembled the yeast cytosol, and (iii redetermination of the kinetic parameters of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase under physiological conditions.Model predictions and experiments were compared under five different conditions of yeast growth and starvation. When either the original model was used (which lacked important allosteric regulation, or the enzyme parameters were measured under conditions that were, as usual, optimal for high enzyme activity, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and some other glycolytic intermediates tended to accumulate to unrealistically high concentrations. Combining all adjustments yielded an accurate correspondence between model and experiments for all five steady-state and dynamic conditions. This enhances our understanding of in vivo metabolism in terms of in vitro biochemistry.

  14. How spirituality is understood and taught in New Zealand medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambie, D; Egan, R; Walker, S; MacLeod, R

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this research was to explore how spirituality is currently understood and taught in New Zealand Medical Schools. A mixed methods study was carried out involving interviews (n = 14) and a survey (n = 73). The first stage of the study involved recorded semi-structured interviews of people involved in curriculum development from the Dunedin School of Medicine (n = 14); which then informed a cross-sectional self-reported electronic survey (n = 73). The results indicate that spirituality is regarded by many involved in medical education in New Zealand as an important part of healthcare that may be taught in medical schools, but also that there is little consensus among this group as to what the topic is about. These findings provide a basis for further discussion about including spirituality in medical curricula, and in particular indicate a need to develop a shared understanding of what 'spirituality' means and how it can be taught appropriately. As a highly secular country, these New Zealand findings are significant for medical education in other secular Western countries. Addressing spirituality with patients has been shown to positively impact a range of health outcomes, but how spirituality is taught in medical schools is still developing across the globe.

  15. Inhibition of in vitro growth of soil-borne pathogens by compost-inhabiting indigenous bacteria and fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramzan, N.; Noreen, N.; Shahzad, S.

    2014-01-01

    During the present studies, compost-inhabiting microorganisms including 44 fungi and 15 bacteria isolated from different compost samples were evaluated for their in vitro efficacy against soil-borne pathogens viz., Fusarium solani, Macrophomina phaseolina, Pythium aphanidermatum, Rhizoctonia solani, and Sclerotium rolfsii. Compost inhabiting microbes like Trichoderma harzianum, T. virens, Bacillus cereus, B. pumilus, B. subtilis, Micrococcus varians and Pseudomonas fluorescens were found to inhibit all the test pathogens. Acrophialophora fusispora and Penicillium citrinum reduced the mycelial growth of all the test pathogens except Sclerotium rolfsii. Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus megaterium showed biocontrol activity against all the pathogens except Rhizoctonia solani. Trichoderma harzianum parasitized mycelia of all the tested pathogens and produced coiling around the mycelium. (author)

  16. The effectiveness of post-culture liquids of antagonistic bacteria in the protection of soybean from soil-borne fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Patkowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper was to determine the effectiveness of post-culture liquids of Bacillus sp. Bsch 19 and Pseudomonas sp. Psch 16 in the protection of soybean from soil-borne fungi. The use of post-culture liquids of those bacteria in seed dressing positively affected the number, healthiness and yielding of soybean plants. The plants were mainly infected by Fusarium spp., Phoma exigua var. exigua, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Those fungi were isolated much more rarely from the plants in combinations with the use of post-culture liquids of antagonistic bacteria as compared with the plants from the control combination, i.e. without seed dressing. A reverse relation was found for the occurrence of saprophytic fungi from the genera of Gliocladium, Penicillium and Trichoderma

  17. Thermographic visualization of leaf response in cucumber plants infected with the soil-borne pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Ling, Ning; Dong, Xian; Zhu, Yiyong; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2012-12-01

    Infection with the soil-borne pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC), which causes Fusarium wilt of cucumber plants, might result in changes in plant transpiration and water status within leaves. To monitor leaf response in cucumber infected with FOC, digital infrared thermography (DIT) was employed to detect changes in leaf temperature. During the early stages of FOC infection, stomata closure was induced by ABA in leaves, resulting in a decreased transpiration rate and increased leaf temperature. Subsequently, cell death occurred, accompanied by water loss, resulting in a little decrease in leaf temperature. A negative correlation between transpiration rate and leaf temperature was existed. But leaf temperature exhibited a special pattern with different disease severity on light-dark cycle. Lightly wilted leaves had a higher temperature in light and a lower temperature in dark than did in healthy leaves. We identified that the water loss from wilted leaves was regulated not by stomata but rather by cells damage caused by pathogen infection. Finally, water balance in infected plants became disordered and dead tissue was dehydrated, so leaf temperature increased again. These data suggest that membrane injury caused by FOC infection induces uncontrolled water loss from damaged cells and an imbalance in leaf water status, and ultimately accelerate plant wilting. Combining detection of the temperature response of leaves to light-dark conditions, DIT not only permits noninvasive detection and indirect visualization of the development of the soil-borne disease Fusarium wilt, but also demonstrates certain internal metabolic processes correlative with water status. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. The vulnerability of family caregivers in relation to vulnerability as understood by nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvimäki, Anneli; Stenbock-Hult, Bettina; Sundell, Eija; Oesch-Börman, Christine

    2017-03-01

    In Finland, the care of older persons is shifting from institutional care to family care. Research shows that family caregivers experience their situation much in the same way as professional nurses. The nurses' experiences have been studied in terms of vulnerability, and the same perspective could deepen our understanding of family caregivers' experiences. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge of the vulnerability of older caregivers taking care of an ageing family member. The research questions were as follows: How do family caregivers experience vulnerability? How do their experiences relate to vulnerability as understood by nurses? The study was done as a secondary analysis of focus group interviews on the experiences and daily life of older family caregivers. Four caregivers had taken part in monthly interviews during a period of 10 months. The interviews were analysed by deductive and inductive content analysis. The results showed that the caregivers saw caregiving as part of being human. They experienced a variety of feelings and moral agony and were harmed physically, mentally and socially. They showed courage, protected themselves and recognised that being a caregiver also was a source of maturing and developing. These results corresponded with the nurses' understanding of vulnerability. Shame, the experience of duty as a burden, worry and loneliness were themes that were found only among the family caregivers. The use of a matrix may have restricted the analysis, but using it in an unconstrained way allowed for new themes to be created. The results indicate a common humanness and vulnerability in professional and family caregiving. They also show that family caregivers need more support both from society and professionals. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  19. Taxonomy of some little-understood North American ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shattuck, Steve; Cover, Stefan

    2016-10-12

    The North American ant fauna has a long and detailed taxonomic history, and the fauna is relatively well characterized compared with those of many other regions. The vast majority of taxon names are clearly defined, being treated as either valid or invalid (primarily junior synonyms). Because of this, though considerable revisionary work will be necessary in the future, specimens collected from this region may often be placed with reasonable confidence either to species, or in some cases, to species complexes even if the status of the specific taxa involved are uncertain.

  20. Osteogenesis imperfecta: recent findings shed new light on this once well-understood condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basel, Donald; Steiner, Robert D

    2009-06-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta is a systemic heritable disorder of connective tissue whose cardinal manifestation is bone fragility. In approximately 90% of individuals with osteogenesis imperfecta, mutations in either of the genes encoding the pro-alpha1 or pro-alpha2 chains of type I collagen (COL1A1 or COL1A2) can be identified. Of those without collagen mutations, a number of them will have mutations involving the enzyme complex responsible for posttranslational hydroxylation of the position 3 proline residue of COL1A1. Two of the genes encoding proteins involved in that enzyme complex, LEPRE1 and cartilage-associated protein, when mutated have been shown to cause autosomal recessive osteogenesis imperfecta, which has a moderate to severe clinical phenotype, often indistinguishable from osteogenesis imperfecta types II or III. Mutations in COL1A1 or COL1A2 which result in an abnormal protein still capable of forming a triple helix cause a more severe phenotype than mutations that lead to decreased collagen production as a result of the dominant negative effect mediated by continuous protein turnover. The current standard of care includes a multidisciplinary approach with surgical intervention when necessary, proactive physiotherapy, and consideration for the use of bisphosphonates all in attempts to improve quality of life.

  1. Vitamin D Status and the Host Resistance to Infections: What It Is Currently (Not) Understood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Pierre Olivier; Aspinall, Richard

    2017-05-01

    Vitamin D is increasingly thought to play a role in regulating immunity. This comprehensive review updates the current understanding regarding ways in which we believe that vitamin D regulates responsiveness of the immune system and how serum status modulates the host defense against pathogens. The literature was searched by using PubMed and Scopus with the following key words: vitamin D, immunity, innate and adaptive immunity, infectious disease, and vaccine response. Vitamin D deficiency remains a major public health concern worldwide. The overall body of evidence confirms that vitamin D plays an important role in modulating the immune response to infections. Epidemiologic studies suggest a clear association between vitamin D deficiency and susceptibility to various pathogens. However, translation of vitamin D use into the clinic as a means of controlling infections is fraught with methodologic and epidemiologic challenges. The recent discovery of alternative activation pathways, different active forms of vitamin D, and possible interaction with non-vitamin D receptors provide further complications to an already complex interaction between vitamin D and the immune system. Moreover, it has become apparent that the individual responsiveness to supplementation is more dynamic than presumed from the static assessment of 25-hydroxy vitamin D status. Furthermore, the epigenetic response at the level of the individual to environmental changes and lifestyle or health conditions provides greater variation than those resulting from vitamin D receptor polymorphisms. To understand the future of vitamin D with respect to clinical applications in the prevention and better control of infectious diseases, it is necessary to determine all aspects of vitamin D metabolism, as well as the mechanisms by which active forms interact with the immune system globally. For the most part, we are unable to identify tissue-specific applications of supplementation except for those subjects at

  2. How Global Education Is Understood and to What Extent It Is Implemented in One Educator Preparation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amewu-Sirleaf, Lydia Valentina

    2015-01-01

    This mixed method study investigated the overarching question "how global education is understood and implemented in an educator preparation program in a Colorado university". The sub-questions used to answer the research question are: (1) How is global education/perspective understood and implemented by the faculty; (2) How do students…

  3. Effects of different potato cropping system approaches and water management on soilborne diseases and soil microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Robert P; Honeycutt, C Wayne; Griffin, Timothy S; Olanya, O Modesto; Halloran, John M; He, Zhongqi

    2011-01-01

    Four different potato cropping systems, designed to address specific management goals of soil conservation, soil improvement, disease suppression, and a status quo standard rotation control, were evaluated for their effects on soilborne diseases of potato and soil microbial community characteristics. The status quo system (SQ) consisted of barley underseeded with red clover followed by potato (2-year). The soil-conserving system (SC) featured an additional year of forage grass and reduced tillage (3-year, barley/timothy-timothy-potato). The soil-improving system (SI) added yearly compost amendments to the SC rotation, and the disease-suppressive system (DS) featured diverse crops with known disease-suppressive capability (3-year, mustard/rapeseed-sudangrass/rye-potato). Each system was also compared with a continuous potato control (PP) and evaluated under both irrigated and nonirrigated conditions. Data collected over three potato seasons following full rotation cycles demonstrated that all rotations reduced stem canker (10 to 50%) relative to PP. The SQ, SC, and DS systems reduced black scurf (18 to 58%) relative to PP; SI reduced scurf under nonirrigated but not irrigated conditions; and scurf was lower in DS than all other systems. The SQ, SC, and DS systems also reduced common scab (15 to 45%), and scab was lower in DS than all other systems. Irrigation increased black scurf and common scab but also resulted in higher yields for most rotations. SI produced the highest yields under nonirrigated conditions, and DS produced high yields and low disease under both irrigation regimes. Each cropping system resulted in distinctive changes in soil microbial community characteristics as represented by microbial populations, substrate utilization, and fatty acid methyl-ester (FAME) profiles. SI tended to increase soil moisture, microbial populations, and activity, as well result in higher proportions of monounsaturated FAMEs and the FAME biomarker for mycorrhizae (16:1

  4. Phytotoxic activity against Bromus tectorum for secondary metabolites of a seed-pathogenic Fusarium strain belonging to the F. tricinctum species complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco Masi; Susan Meyer; Gennaro Pescitelli; Alessio Cimmino; Suzette Clement; Beth Peacock; Antonio Evidente

    2017-01-01

    The winter annual grass Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) has become highly invasive in semiarid ecosystems of western North America. In these areas, a natural phenomenon, complete cheatgrass stand failure (‘die-off’), is apparently caused by a complex interaction among soilborne fungal pathogens. Several Fusarium strains belonging to the Fusarium tricinctum species complex...

  5. Differential Characteristics of Viral siRNAs between Leaves and Roots of Wheat Plants Naturally Infected with Wheat Yellow Mosaic Virus, a Soil-Borne Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linying; Andika, Ida Bagus; Xu, Yu; Zhang, Yan; Xin, Xiangqi; Hu, Lifeng; Sun, Zongtao; Hong, Gaojie; Chen, Yang; Yan, Fei; Yang, Jian; Li, Junmin; Chen, Jianping

    2017-01-01

    RNA silencing is an important innate antiviral defense in plants. Soil-borne plant viruses naturally infect roots via soil-inhabiting vectors, but it is unclear how antiviral RNA silencing responds to virus infection in this particular tissue. In this study, viral small interfering RNA (siRNA) profiles from leaves and roots of wheat plants naturally infected with a soil-borne virus, wheat yellow mosaic virus (WYMV, genus Bymovirus ), were analyzed by deep sequencing. WYMV siRNAs were much more abundant in roots than leaves, which was positively correlated with the accumulation of viral RNA. WYMV siRNAs in leaves and roots were predominantly 21- and 22-nt long and equally derived from the positive- and negative-strands of the viral genome. WYMV siRNAs from leaves and roots differed in distribution pattern along the viral genome. Interestingly, compared to siRNAs from leaves (and most other reports), those from roots obviously had a lower A/U bias at the 5'-terminal nucleotide. Moreover, the expression of Dicer-like genes upon WYMV infection were differently regulated between leaves and roots. Our data suggest that RNA silencing in roots may operate differently than in leaves against soil-borne virus invasion.

  6. Interplay between parasitism and host ontogenic resistance in the epidemiology of the soil-borne plant pathogen Rhizoctonia solani.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E Simon

    Full Text Available Spread of soil-borne fungal plant pathogens is mainly driven by the amount of resources the pathogen is able to capture and exploit should it behave either as a saprotroph or a parasite. Despite their importance in understanding the fungal spread in agricultural ecosystems, experimental data related to exploitation of infected host plants by the pathogen remain scarce. Using Rhizoctonia solani / Raphanus sativus as a model pathosystem, we have obtained evidence on the link between ontogenic resistance of a tuberizing host and (i its susceptibility to the pathogen and (ii after infection, the ability of the fungus to spread in soil. Based on a highly replicable experimental system, we first show that infection success strongly depends on the host phenological stage. The nature of the disease symptoms abruptly changes depending on whether infection occurred before or after host tuberization, switching from damping-off to necrosis respectively. Our investigations also demonstrate that fungal spread in soil still depends on the host phenological stage at the moment of infection. High, medium, or low spread occurred when infection was respectively before, during, or after the tuberization process. Implications for crop protection are discussed.

  7. Yield reduction caused by a soil-borne disease of naked, dwarf, and conventional oat in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. PELTONEN-SAINIO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A severe disease occurred in the field plots of naked (cv. Salomon, dwarf (cv. Pal, and conventional oat (cvs. Jalostettu maatiainen and Salo at the Viikki Experimental Farm of the University of Helsinki, Finland, in 1994 and 1995. Symptoms were expressed as grayish-brown necrotic areas on the lower leaves which killed plants from the seedling to heading stage, the effect being cultivar dependent. The proportion of plants killed plants from the seedling to heading stage, the effect being cultivar dependent. The proportion of plants killed contributed to the yield losses. The infection also resulted in less grains per panicle and lower weight of both panicle and vegetative above-ground biomass. From a total of 57 fungal isolates obtained from infected leaves, Fusarium culmorum (W.G.Sm. Sacc. and F. sambucinum Fuck. Dominated and subsequently caused infection (particularly foot and root rot in oat in laboratory tests. These two Fusarium spp. Were considered to be the primary causal agents of the symptoms observed in the field, although other pathogens may have been present. The disease was probably soil-borne. The results of this study suggested that the unusually dry and warm weather during late June and in July was the principal factor behind the severe disease outbreak. ;

  8. Soil-borne reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant bacteria are established following therapeutic treatment of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinxin; Zhao, Zhe; Orfe, Lisa; Subbiah, Murugan; Call, Douglas R

    2016-02-01

    We determined if antibiotics residues that are excreted from treated animals can contribute to persistence of resistant bacteria in agricultural environments. Administration of ceftiofur, a third-generation cephalosporin, resulted in a ∼ 3 log increase in ceftiofur-resistant Escherichia coli found in the faeces and pen soils by day 10 (P = 0.005). This resistant population quickly subsided in faeces, but was sustained in the pen soil (∼ 4.5 log bacteria g(-1)) throughout the trial (1 month). Florfenicol treatment resulted in a similar pattern although the loss of florfenicol-resistant E. coli was slower for faeces and remained stable at ∼ 6 log bacteria g(-1) in the soil. Calves were treated in pens where eGFP-labelled E. coli were present in the bedding (∼ 2 log g(-1)) resulting in amplification of the eGFP E. coli population ∼ 2.1 log more than eGFP E. coli populations in pens with untreated calves (day 4; P 10-fold greater contribution to the bedding reservoir compared with shedding of resistant bacteria in faeces. Treatment with therapeutic doses of ceftiofur or florfenicol resulted in 2-3 log g(-1) more bacteria than the estimated ID50 (2.83 CFU g(-1)), consistent with a soil-borne reservoir emerging after antibiotic treatment that can contribute to the long-term persistence of antibiotic resistance in animal agriculture. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. On-Site Molecular Detection of Soil-Borne Phytopathogens Using a Portable Real-Time PCR System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeShields, Joseph B; Bomberger, Rachel A; Woodhall, James W; Wheeler, David L; Moroz, Natalia; Johnson, Dennis A; Tanaka, Kiwamu

    2018-02-23

    On-site diagnosis of plant diseases can be a useful tool for growers for timely decisions enabling the earlier implementation of disease management strategies that reduce the impact of the disease. Presently in many diagnostic laboratories, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), particularly real-time PCR, is considered the most sensitive and accurate method for plant pathogen detection. However, laboratory-based PCRs typically require expensive laboratory equipment and skilled personnel. In this study, soil-borne pathogens of potato are used to demonstrate the potential for on-site molecular detection. This was achieved using a rapid and simple protocol comprising of magnetic bead-based nucleic acid extraction, portable real-time PCR (fluorogenic probe-based assay). The portable real-time PCR approach compared favorably with a laboratory-based system, detecting as few as 100 copies of DNA from Spongospora subterranea. The portable real-time PCR method developed here can serve as an alternative to laboratory-based approaches and a useful on-site tool for pathogen diagnosis.

  10. [Relationships between distribution of soil-born bryophytes in urban area of Hangzhou and related ecological factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Cao, Tong; Wang, Jian; Cao, Yang

    2008-04-01

    At the 21 sampling sites in urban area of Hangzhou, 47 species of soil-born bryophytes belonging to 31 genera and 22 families were recorded. Based on the ecological importance value of these species and the data of ecological factors at the sampling sites, the relationships between the distribution of the bryophytes species in urban area of Hangzhou and related ecological factors were studied by canonical correspondence analysis. The results showed that human disturbance and soil pH were the most important factors determining the distribution of the bryophytes. In urban parks and green lands where human disturbance was greater, soil pH was alkali, and the species were mainly belonging to the genera of Haplocladium and Bryum and the family of Pottiaceae. In hilly area where human disturbance was lesser, soil pH turned to acidic, and the bryophytes were more, with pleurocarpous mosses and liverworts being relatively rich. The niche width of the 47 bryophytes was calculated, which revealed that most of them had very narrow niche width (<0.1). The Pseudotaxiphyllum pohliaecarpum widely distributed in the hilly area of southwest Xihu Lake had the widest niche width (0.3510), followed by Trichostomum planifolium (0.2239) and Haplocladium microphyllum (0.2185), the commonest species in the parks and greenlands in urban area of Hangzhou.

  11. Metabolic patterns of bacterial communities in aerobic compost teas associated with potential biocontrol of soilborne plant diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catello PANE

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aerated compost teas (ACTs are organic products obtained by forced aeration of composts suspended in liquid phase. These products may be biological control tools alternative to synthetic fungicides, because ACTs contain antagonistic microorganisms. In this study, soilborne disease suppressive ability of seven water ACTs, extracted from five horticultural residue-based composts, from an animal waste anaerobic solid digestate and from a commercial municipal waste compost, was assessed using in vitro and in vivo systems. All the ACTs inhibited in vitro growth of Verticillium dahliae, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia minor, Sclerotium rolfsii and Botrytis cinerea. Filter or thermal sterilization eliminated in vitro suppression, suggesting that microorganisms play key roles in pathogen inhibition. Drenching applications of raw ACTs have potential to reduced disease symptoms caused by R. solani on savoy cabbage, S. minor on lettuce and S. rolfsii on pepper, improved the biomass production and did not show any sign of phytotoxicity. Both in vitro and in vivo suppressiveness of ACTs may be explained by antagonistic  bacterial communities that provide general suppression activities. The metabolic BIOLOG GN and GP profiles reflected the functional potential of the numerically dominant members of the microbial communities used as inoculum. This study has demonstrated that useful resident microorganisms, including mainly Gram-positive and Gram-negative antagonistic bacteria, are likely to be responsible for biological control activity of ACTs.

  12. Preservação de fungos fitopatogênicos habitantes do solo Storage of soilborne phytopathogenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César J. Bueno

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A preservação de fungos fitopatogênicos por longos períodos de tempo é importante para que pesquisas possam ser realizadas a qualquer momento. Os fungos habitantes do solo são organismos que podem produzir estruturas de resistência em face de situações adversas, tais como ausência de hospedeiros e ou condições climáticas desfavoráveis para a sua sobrevivência. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver metodologias de preservação de estruturas de resistência para os fungos Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici raça 2, Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani AG4 HGI, Sclerotium rolfsii, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum e Verticillium dahliae. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, com um método de produção de estruturas para cada fungo, submetido a três tratamentos [temperatura ambiente de laboratório (28±2ºC, de geladeira (5ºC e de freezer (-20ºC] e com dois frascos por temperatura. Mensalmente, e por um período de um ano, a sobrevivência e o vigor das colônias de cada patógeno foram avaliadas em meios de cultura específicos. Testes de patogenicidade foram realizados após um ano de preservação, com as estruturas que sobreviveram aos melhores tratamentos (temperatura para todos os fungos. As melhores temperaturas (tratamentos para preservar os fungos foram: a F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici em temperatura de refrigeração e de freezer (5,2 e 2,9 x 10³ufc.g-1 de talco, respectivamente; b M. phaseolina em temperatura de refrigeração [100% de sobrevivência (S e índice 3 de vigor (V] e S. rolfsii em temperatura ambiente (74,4% S e 1 V e c S. sclerotiorum e V. dahliae, ambos em temperatura de freezer (100% S e 3 V. Após um ano de preservação, somente V. dahliae perdeu a patogenicidade na metodologia desenvolvida.Preservation of soilborne phytopathogenic fungi for long periods of time is important so that researches can be followed up at any moment. Soilborne phytopathogenic fungi are organisms that can

  13. Potential use of soil-born fungi isolated from treated soil in Indonesia to degrade glyphosate herbicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Arfarita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The glyphosate herbicide is the most common herbicides used in palm-oil plantations and other agricultural in Indonesial. In 2020, Indonesian government to plan the development of oil palm plantations has reached 20 million hectares of which now have reached 6 million hectares. It means that a huge chemicals particularly glyphosate has been poured into the ground and continues to pollute the soil. However, there is no report regarding biodegradation of glyphosate-contaminated soils using fungal strain especially in Indonesia. This study was to observe the usage of Round Up as selection agent for isolation of soil-born fungi capable to grow on glyphosate as a sole source of phosphorus. Five fungal strains were able to grow consistently in the presence of glyphosate as the sole phosphorus source and identified as Aspergillus sp. strain KRP1, Fusarium sp. strain KRP2, Verticillium sp. strain KRP3, Acremoniumsp. strain GRP1 and Scopulariopsis sp. strain GRP2. This indicates as their capability to utilize and degrade this herbicide. We also used standard medium as control and get seventeen fungal strains. The seventeen fungal strains were identified as species of Botrytis, Fusarium, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Verticillium, Trichoderma and Paecilomyces. These results show the reduction in the number of fungal strains on solid medium containing glyphosate. Of the five isolated fungal species, Verticillium sp. strain KRP3 and Scopulariopsis sp. strain GRP2 were selected for further study based on their highest ratio of growth diameter. This study indicates that treatment of soil with glyphosate degrading fungus would be useful in some areas where this herbicide is extensively used.

  14. Do tradeoffs structure antibiotic inhibition, resistance, and resource use among soil-borne Streptomyces?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlatter, Daniel C; Kinkel, Linda L

    2015-09-15

    Tradeoffs among competing traits are believed to be crucial to the maintenance of diversity in complex communities. The production of antibiotics to inhibit competitors and resistance to antibiotic inhibition are two traits hypothesized to be critical to microbial fitness in natural habitats, yet data on costs or tradeoffs associated with these traits are limited. In this work we characterized tradeoffs between antibiotic inhibition or resistance capacities and growth efficiencies or niche widths for a broad collection of Streptomyces from soil. Streptomyces isolates tended to have either very little or very high inhibitory capacity. In contrast, Streptomyces isolates were most commonly resistant to antibiotic inhibition by an intermediate number of other isolates. Streptomyces with either very high antibiotic inhibitory or resistance capacities had less efficient growth and utilized a smaller number of resources for growth (smaller niche width) than those with low inhibition or resistance capacities, suggesting tradeoffs between antibiotic inhibitory or resistance and resource use phenotypes. This work suggests that life-history tradeoffs may be crucial to the maintenance of the vast diversity of antibiotic inhibitory and resistance phenotypes found among Streptomyces in natural communities.

  15. The use of nanoscale visible light-responsive photocatalyst TiO2-Pt for the elimination of soil-borne pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Lei Chen

    Full Text Available Exposure to the soil-borne pathogens Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia cenocepacia can lead to severe infections and even mortality. These pathogens exhibit a high resistance to antibiotic treatments. In addition, no licensed vaccine is currently available. A nanoscale platinum-containing titania photocatalyst (TiO(2-Pt has been shown to have a superior visible light-responsive photocatalytic ability to degrade chemical contaminants like nitrogen oxides. The antibacterial activity of the catalyst and its potential use in soil pathogen control were evaluated. Using the plating method, we found that TiO(2-Pt exerts superior antibacterial performance against Escherichia coli compared to other commercially available and laboratory prepared ultraviolet/visible light-responsive titania photocatalysts. TiO(2-Pt-mediated photocatalysis also affectively eliminates the soil-borne bacteria B. pseudomallei and B. cenocepacia. An air pouch infection mouse model further revealed that TiO(2-Pt-mediated photocatalysis could reduce the pathogenicity of both strains of bacteria. Unexpectedly, water containing up to 10% w/v dissolved soil particles did not reduce the antibacterial potency of TiO(2-Pt, suggesting that the TiO(2-Pt photocatalyst is suitable for use in soil-contaminated environments. The TiO(2-Pt photocatalyst exerted superior antibacterial activity against a broad spectrum of human pathogens, including B. pseudomallei and B. cenocepacia. Soil particles (<10% w/v did not significantly reduce the antibacterial activity of TiO(2-Pt in water. These findings suggest that the TiO(2-Pt photocatalyst may have potential applications in the development of bactericides for soil-borne pathogens.

  16. A simple method for normalization of DNA extraction to improve the quantitative detection of soil-borne plant pathogenic oomycetes by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M; Ishiguro, Y; Kageyama, K; Zhu, Z

    2015-08-01

    Most of the current research into the quantification of soil-borne pathogenic oomycetes lacks determination of DNA extraction efficiency, probably leading to an incorrect estimation of DNA quantity. In this study, we developed a convenient method by using a 100 bp artificially synthesized DNA sequence derived from the mitochondrion NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 gene of Thunnus thynnus as a control to determine the DNA extraction efficiency. The control DNA was added to soils and then co-extracted along with soil genomic DNA. DNA extraction efficiency was determined by the control DNA. Two different DNA extraction methods were compared and evaluated using different types of soils, and the commercial kit was proved to give more consistent results. We used the control DNA combined with real-time PCR to quantify the oomycete DNAs from 12 naturally infested soils. Detectable target DNA concentrations were three to five times higher after normalization. Our tests also showed that the extraction efficiencies varied on a sample-to-sample basis and were simple and useful for the accurate quantification of soil-borne pathogenic oomycetes. Oomycetes include many important plant pathogens. Accurate quantification of these pathogens is essential in the management of diseases. This study reports an easy method utilizing an external DNA control for the normalization of DNA extraction by real-time PCR. By combining two different efficient soil DNA extraction methods, the developed quantification method dramatically improved the results. This study also proves that the developed normalization method is necessary and useful for the accurate quantification of soil-borne plant pathogenic oomycetes. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Is restlessness best understood as a process? Reflecting on four boys’ restlessness during music therapy in kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helle-Valle, Anna; Binder, Per-Einar; Anderssen, Norman; Stige, Brynjulf

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT ADHD can be considered an internationally recognized framework for understanding children’s restlessness. In this context, children’s restlessness is understood as a symptom of neurodevelopmental disorder. However, there are other possible understandings of children’s restlessness. In this article, we explore four boys’ collaborative and creative process as it is described and understood by three adults. The process is framed by a community music therapy project in a Norwegian kindergarten, and we describe four interrelated phases of this process: Exploring musical vitality and cooperation, Consolidating positions, Performing together, and Discovering ripple effects. We discuss these results in relation to seven qualities central to a community music therapy approach: participation, resource orientation, ecology, performance, activism, reflexivity and ethics. We argue that in contrast to a diagnostic approach that entails a focus on individual problems, a community music therapy approach can shed light on adult and systemic contributions to children’s restlessness. PMID:28532331

  18. Soil-borne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in El Paso, Texas: Analysis of a potential problem in the United States/Mexico border region

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Torre-Roche, Roberto J.; Lee, Wen-Yee; Campos-Díaz, Sandra I.

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasonic extraction followed by Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction (SBSE) and thermal desorption inline coupled with Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (TD/GC/MS)was used to perform a comprehensive determination of soil-borne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in El Paso, Texas. The method provided good sensitivity and faster processing time for the analysis. The total PAHs in El Paso soil ranged from 0.1 to 2225.5 µg kg−1. Although the majority of PAH concentrations did not exceed the soil screening levels regulated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, the existence of PAHs in this ecosystem is ubiquitous. Naphthalene were found in 100% of the soil samples; while the heavy PAHs (five- and six-ring) were not often detected and mostly remained in closer proximity to industrial areas and major traffic points. The results ruled out the possibility of petroleum refining as the significant source of local soil-borne PAH contamination, but they suggested that the PAHs found in El Paso soil were closely linked to human activities and possible other industrial processes. PMID:18768257

  19. Soil-borne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in El Paso, Texas: analysis of a potential problem in the United States/Mexico border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Torre-Roche, Roberto J; Lee, Wen-Yee; Campos-Díaz, Sandra I

    2009-04-30

    Ultrasonic extraction followed by Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction (SBSE) and thermal desorption inline coupled with Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (TD/GC/MS) was used to perform a comprehensive determination of soil-borne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in El Paso, Texas. The method provided good sensitivity and faster processing time for the analysis. The total PAHs in El Paso soil ranged from 0.1 to 2225.5 microg kg(-1). Although the majority of PAH concentrations did not exceed the soil screening levels regulated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, the existence of PAHs in this ecosystem is ubiquitous. Naphthalene were found in 100% of the soil samples; while the heavy PAHs (five- and six-ring) were not often detected and mostly remained in closer proximity to industrial areas and major traffic points. The results ruled out the possibility of petroleum refining as the significant source of local soil-borne PAH contamination, but they suggested that the PAHs found in El Paso soil were closely linked to human activities and possible other industrial processes.

  20. Microevolution of Anthrax from a Young Ancestor (M.A.Y.A.) Suggests a Soil-Borne Life Cycle of Bacillus anthracis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Peter; Grass, Gregor; Aceti, Angela; Serrecchia, Luigina; Affuso, Alessia; Marino, Leonardo; Grimaldi, Stefania; Pagano, Stefania; Hanczaruk, Matthias; Georgi, Enrico; Northoff, Bernd; Schöler, Anne; Schloter, Michael; Antwerpen, Markus; Fasanella, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    During an anthrax outbreak at the Pollino National Park (Basilicata, Italy) in 2004, diseased cattle were buried and from these anthrax-foci Bacillus anthracis endospores still diffuse to the surface resulting in local accumulations. Recent data suggest that B. anthracis multiplies in soil outside the animal-host body. This notion is supported by the frequent isolation of B. anthracis from soil lacking one or both virulence plasmids. Such strains represent an evolutionary dead end, as they are likely no longer able to successfully infect new hosts. This loss of virulence plasmids is explained most simply by postulating a soil-borne life cycle of the pathogen. To test this hypothesis we investigated possible microevolution at two natural anthrax foci from the 2004 outbreak. If valid, then genotypes of strains isolated from near the surface at these foci should be on a different evolutionary trajectory from those below residing in deeper-laying horizons close to the carcass. Thus, the genetic diversity of B. anthracis isolates was compared conducting Progressive Hierarchical Resolving Assays using Nucleic Acids (PHRANA) and next generation Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS). PHRANA was not discriminatory enough to resolve the fine genetic relationships between the isolates. Conversely, WGS of nine isolates from near-surface and nine from near-carcass revealed five isolate specific SNPs, four of which were found only in different near-surface isolates. In support of our hypothesis, one surface-isolate lacked plasmid pXO1 and also harbored one of the unique SNPs. Taken together, our results suggest a limited soil-borne life cycle of B. anthracis. PMID:26266934

  1. Acyl-Homoserine Lactone Production Is More Common among Plant-Associated Pseudomonas spp. than among Soilborne Pseudomonas spp.†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elasri, Miena; Delorme, Sandrine; Lemanceau, Philippe; Stewart, Gordon; Laue, Bridget; Glickmann, Eric; Oger, Phil M.; Dessaux, Yves

    2001-01-01

    A total of 137 soilborne and plant-associated bacterial strains belonging to different Pseudomonas species were tested for their ability to synthesize N-acyl-homoserine lactones (NAHL). Fifty-four strains synthesized NAHL. Interestingly, NAHL production appears to be more common among plant-associated than among soilborne Pseudomonas spp. Indeed, 40% of the analyzed Pseudomonas syringae strains produced NAHL which were identified most often as the short-chain NAHL, N-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone, N-(3-oxo-hexanoyl)-homoserine lactone, and N-(3-oxo-octanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (no absolute correlation between genomospecies of P. syringae and their ability to produce NAHL could be found). Six strains of fluorescent pseudomonads, belonging to the species P. chlororaphis, P. fluorescens, and P. putida, isolated from the plant rhizosphere produced different types of NAHL. In contrast, none of the strains isolated from soil samples were shown to produce NAHL. The gene encoding the NAHL synthase in P. syringae pv. maculicola was isolated by complementation of an NAHL-deficient Chromobacterium mutant. Sequence analysis revealed the existence of a luxI homologue that we named psmI. This gene is sufficient to confer NAHL synthesis upon its bacterial host and has strong homology to psyI and ahlI, two genes involved in NAHL production in P. syringae pv. tabaci and P. syringae pv. syringae, respectively. We identified another open reading frame that we termed psmR, transcribed convergently in relation to psmI and partly overlapping psmI; this gene encodes a putative LuxR regulatory protein. This gene organization, with luxI and luxR homologues facing each other and overlapping, has been found so far only in the enteric bacteria Erwinia and Pantoea and in the related species P. syringae pv. tabaci. PMID:11229911

  2. Surgeon-level reporting presented by funnel plot is understood by doctors but inaccurately interpreted by members of the public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Ashish; Mehrotra, Prerna; Amawi, Falah; Lund, Jonathan N

    2015-01-01

    Risk-adjusted outcome data for general surgeons practicing in the United Kingdom were published for the first time in 2013 with the aim of increasing transparency, improving standards, and providing the public with information to aid decision making. Most specialties used funnel plots to present their data. We assess the ability of members of the public (MoP), medical students, nonsurgical doctors (NSD), and surgeons to understand risk-adjusted surgical outcome data. A fictitious outcome dataset was created and presented in the form of a funnel plot to 10 participants from each of the aforementioned group. Standard explanatory text was provided. Each participant was given 5 minutes to review the funnel plot and complete a questionnaire. For each question, there was only 1 correct answer. Completion rate was 100% (n = 40). No difference existed between NSD and surgeons. A significant difference for identification of the "worst performing surgeon" was noted between surgeons and MoP (p funnel plot significantly "more difficult" to interpret than surgeons did (p < 0.01) and NSD (p < 0.01). MoP found these data significantly more "difficult to understand" and were less likely to both spot "outliers" and use this data to inform decisions than doctors. Surgeons should be aware that outcome data may require an alternative method of presentation to be understood by MoP. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Conflict Prevalence in Primary School and How It Is Understood to Affect Teaching and Learning in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Afia Amponsaa Opoku-Asare

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Verbal and non-verbal interactions that occur daily between teachers and headteachers, teachers and pupils, and among pupils can generate conflict that may adversely affect teaching, learning, and schooling effectiveness. Little attention is, however, paid to the quality of relationships that exists between teachers and pupils, among teachers, among pupils, between teachers and their school heads, and between schools and their local communities. This study sought to investigate conflict prevalence in Ghana’s primary schools, and how relationship conflict is understood to affect teaching and learning at the level of headteachers as administrators, teachers as classroom managers, and pupils as learners, and direct beneficiaries of primary education. Using data gathered via interview, questionnaire administration, and observation in 30 public primary schools in 10 circuits of one district of Ashanti Region, the findings revealed a high prevalence of fighting, heckling, bullying, and other forms of relationship conflict among pupils; strained teacher–pupil relations due to insolence, indiscipline, and use of offensive language; and teacher–parent arguments and quarrels due to harsh punishment and verbal assault of pupils. Teacher–pupil conflicts may extend to teachers excluding the affected pupils from teaching and learning activities, denying them the rights to ask and answer questions, and have their class exercises marked, leading to lowered pupil self-esteem, reduced concentration during lessons, and passive involvement in learning activities, which could result in truancy and school dropout. Strengthening guidance mechanisms and encouraging peer mediation could significantly curb conflict in school environments and thereby raise educational standards in the district.

  4. Evidence for homoploid speciation in Phytophthora alni supports taxonomic reclassification in this species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husson, C; Aguayo, J; Revellin, C; Frey, P; Ioos, R; Marçais, B

    2015-04-01

    Alder decline has been a problem along European watercourses since the early 1990s. Hybridization was identified as the main cause of this emerging disease. Indeed, the causal agent, a soil-borne pathogen named Phytophthora alni subsp. alni (Paa) is the result of interspecific hybridization between two taxa, Phytophthora alni subsp. multiformis (Pam) and Phytophthora alni subsp. uniformis (Pau), initially identified as subspecies of Paa. The aim of this work was to characterize the ploidy level within the P. alni complex that is presently poorly understood. For that, we used two complementary approaches for a set of 31 isolates of Paa, Pam and Pau: (i) quantification of allele copy number of three single-copy nuclear genes using allele-specific real-time PCR and (ii) comparison of the genome size estimated by flow cytometry. Relative quantification of alleles of the three single-copy genes showed that the copy number of a given allele in Paa was systematically half that of its parents Pau or Pam. Moreover, DNA content estimated by flow cytometry in Paa was equal to half the sum of those in Pam and Pau. Our results therefore suggest that the hybrid Paa is an allotriploid species, containing half of the genome of each of its parents Pam and Pau, which in turn are considered to be allotetraploid and diploid, respectively. Paa thus results from a homoploid speciation process. Based on published data and on results from this study, a new formal taxonomic name is proposed for the three taxa Paa, Pam and Pau which are raised to species status and renamed P. ×alni, P. ×multiformis and P. uniformis, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of Allyl Isothiocyanate as a Soil Fumigant against Soil-borne Diseases in Commercial Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Production in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zongjie; Li, Yuan; Fang, Wensheng; Yan, Dongdong; Huang, Bin; Zhu, Jiahong; Wang, Xiaoning; Wang, Xianli; Wang, Qiuxia; Guo, Meixia; Cao, Aocheng

    2018-03-12

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), soil-borne diseases and weeds seriously reduce the commercial yield of tomatoes grown under protected cultivation in China. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), a natural product obtained from damaged Brassica tissues, was evaluated as a potential replacement for the fumigant methyl bromide (MB) for use in the greenhouse production of tomatoes in China. The dose-response assay indicates that AITC has high biological activity against major bacterial and fungal pathogens (EC 50 of 0.225 - 4.199 mg L -1 ). The bioassay results indicate that AITC has good efficacy against root-knot nematodes (LC 50 of 18.046 mg kg -1 ), moderate efficacy against fungal pathogens (LC 50 of 27.999 - 29.497 mg kg -1 ), and weeds (LC 50 of 17.300 - 47.660 mg kg -1 ). The potting test indicates AITC had significantly improved plant vigor. The field trials indicate that AITC showed good efficacy against Meloidogyne spp. and Fusarium spp. (both about 80%) as well as Phytophthora spp. and Pythium spp. (both about 70%), and improved plant vigor and marketable yield. AITC used as a soil fumigant (30 - 50g m -2 ) effectively controlled major bacterial and fungal pathogens, root-knot nematode, weeds and increased plant vigor, yield and farmers' income in tomato cultivated under protected agriculture in China. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Potential of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles using Stenotrophomonas sp. BHU-S7 (MTCC 5978) for management of soil-borne and foliar phytopathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sandhya; Singh, Braj Raj; Naqvi, Alim H; Singh, H B

    2017-03-27

    Stenotrophomonas sp. is emerging as a popular microbe of global concern with various potential ecological roles. Biosynthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using this bacterial strain has shown promising applications in life sciences. However, there is no report on efficient agricultural applications of biosynthesized AgNPs using Stenotrophomonas sp. In this regard, successful biosynthesis of AgNPs using Stenotrophomonas sp. BHU-S7 (MTCC 5978) was monitored by Uv-visible spectrum showing surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak at 440 nm. The biosynthesized AgNPs were spherical with an average mean size of ~12 nm. The antifungal efficacy of biosynthesized AgNPs against foliar and soil-borne phytopathogens was observed. The inhibitory impact of AgNPs (2, 4, 10 μg/ml) on conidial germination was recorded under in vitro conditions. Interestingly, sclerotia of Sclerotium rolfsii exposed to AgNPs failed to germinate on PDA medium and in soil system. Moreover, AgNPs treatment successfully managed collar rot of chickpea caused by S. rolfsii under greenhouse conditions. The reduced sclerotia germination, phenolic acids induction, altered lignification and H 2 O 2 production was observed to be the probable mechanisms providing protection to chickpea against S. rolfsii. Our data revealed that AgNPs treated plants are better equipped to cope with pathogen challenge pointing towards their robust applications in plant disease management.

  7. How flares can be understood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severny, A.B.

    1977-01-01

    Specific features of the flare phenomenon which are important for understanding of flares are the following: (1) Fine structure of visible emission of flares, especially at the very beginning and in the pre-flare active region. This structure can be seen also in later stages of development as bright points, some of which exist from the flare beginning (Babin's observations at Crimea, 1972-1976). (2) Turbulent motion with velocities up to 250-300 km s -1 as can be estimated from broadening of emission lines. (3) Predominantly red asymmetry of emission lines in the explosive phase and during further development of flares. (4) 'Supersonic' velocities and supergravitational accelerations of separate moving masses of the flare plasma. (5) The appearance of flares in areas with high grad H, exceeding 0.1 G km -1 which is equivalent to regions of electric currents > approximately 10 11 A. (6) Strong variations of net magnetic flux through the active region, as it follows from Meudon, Crimean, and Sacramento Peak (Rust's) observations. (Auth.)

  8. Can delusions be understood linguistically?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinzen, Wolfram; Rosselló, Joana; McKenna, Peter

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Delusions are widely believed to reflect disturbed cognitive function, but the nature of this remains elusive. The “un-Cartesian” cognitive-linguistic hypothesis maintains (a) that there is no thought separate from language, that is, there is no distinct mental space removed from language where “thinking” takes place; and (b) that a somewhat broadened concept of grammar is responsible for bestowing meaning on propositions, and this among other things gives them their quality of being true or false. It is argued that a loss of propositional meaning explains why delusions are false, impossible and sometimes fantastic. A closely related abnormality, failure of linguistic embedding, can additionally account for why delusions are held with fixed conviction and are not adequately justified by the patient. The un-Cartesian linguistic approach to delusions has points of contact with Frith’s theory that inability to form meta-representations underlies a range of schizophrenic symptoms. It may also be relevant to the nature of the “second factor” in monothematic delusions in neurological disease. Finally, it can inform the current debate about whether or not delusions really are beliefs. PMID:27322493

  9. We Have Not Understood Descartes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallias, Andras

    1996-01-01

    Describes a personal involvement with digital media and the origins of the conception of the "diagrammatic" poem. Reflects on what is considered to be a poem in tune with today's computerized society. (PA)

  10. The soil-borne supremacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, Corné M J; de Jonge, Ronnie; Berendsen, Roeland L.

    2016-01-01

    The rhizosphere microbiome plays an important role in plant growth, nutrition and health. Recent research unearthed that plant genotype-dependent navigation of microbial community composition in the rhizosphere is associated with fitness consequences for the host plant, providing great promise for

  11. Managing Complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassin, David P.; Posse, Christian; Malard, Joel M.

    2004-08-01

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today’s most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically-based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This paper explores the state of the art in the use physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and to deriving stable and robust control strategies for them. In particular we review and discussion applications of some analytic methods based on the thermodynamic metaphor according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood.

  12. Time complexity and gate complexity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Tatsuhiko; Okudaira, Yosuke

    2010-01-01

    We formulate and investigate the simplest version of time-optimal quantum computation theory (TO-QCT), where the computation time is defined by the physical one and the Hamiltonian contains only one- and two-qubit interactions. This version of TO-QCT is also considered as optimality by sub-Riemannian geodesic length. The work has two aims: One is to develop a TO-QCT itself based on a physically natural concept of time, and the other is to pursue the possibility of using TO-QCT as a tool to estimate the complexity in conventional gate-optimal quantum computation theory (GO-QCT). In particular, we investigate to what extent is true the following statement: Time complexity is polynomial in the number of qubits if and only if gate complexity is also. In the analysis, we relate TO-QCT and optimal control theory (OCT) through fidelity-optimal computation theory (FO-QCT); FO-QCT is equivalent to TO-QCT in the limit of unit optimal fidelity, while it is formally similar to OCT. We then develop an efficient numerical scheme for FO-QCT by modifying Krotov's method in OCT, which has a monotonic convergence property. We implemented the scheme and obtained solutions of FO-QCT and of TO-QCT for the quantum Fourier transform and a unitary operator that does not have an apparent symmetry. The former has a polynomial gate complexity and the latter is expected to have an exponential one which is based on the fact that a series of generic unitary operators has an exponential gate complexity. The time complexity for the former is found to be linear in the number of qubits, which is understood naturally by the existence of an upper bound. The time complexity for the latter is exponential in the number of qubits. Thus, both the targets seem to be examples satisfyng the preceding statement. The typical characteristics of the optimal Hamiltonians are symmetry under time reversal and constancy of one-qubit operation, which are mathematically shown to hold in fairly general situations.

  13. Abundance of Soil-Borne Entomopathogenic Fungi in Organic and Conventional Fields in the Midwestern USA with an Emphasis on the Effect of Herbicides and Fungicides on Fungal Persistence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric H Clifton

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic fungi (EPF are widespread in agricultural fields and help suppress crop pests. These natural enemies may be hindered by certain agronomic practices associated with conventional agriculture including the use of pesticides. We tested whether the abundance of EPF differed between organic and conventional fields, and whether specific cropping practices and soil properties were correlated with their abundance. In one year of the survey, soil from organic fields and accompanying margins had significantly more EPF than conventional fields and accompanying margins. Regression analysis revealed that the percentage of silt and the application of organic fertilizer were positively correlated with EPF abundance; but nitrogen concentration, tillage, conventional fields, and margins of conventional fields were negatively correlated with EPF abundance. A greenhouse experiment in which fungicides and herbicides were applied to the soil surface showed no significant effect on EPF. Though organic fields were perceived to be more suitable environments for EPF, abiotic factors and cropping practices such as tillage may have greater impacts on the abundance of EPF. Also, fungicides and herbicides may not be as toxic to soil-borne EPF as originally thought.

  14. Abundance of Soil-Borne Entomopathogenic Fungi in Organic and Conventional Fields in the Midwestern USA with an Emphasis on the Effect of Herbicides and Fungicides on Fungal Persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Eric H; Jaronski, Stefan T; Hodgson, Erin W; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2015-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) are widespread in agricultural fields and help suppress crop pests. These natural enemies may be hindered by certain agronomic practices associated with conventional agriculture including the use of pesticides. We tested whether the abundance of EPF differed between organic and conventional fields, and whether specific cropping practices and soil properties were correlated with their abundance. In one year of the survey, soil from organic fields and accompanying margins had significantly more EPF than conventional fields and accompanying margins. Regression analysis revealed that the percentage of silt and the application of organic fertilizer were positively correlated with EPF abundance; but nitrogen concentration, tillage, conventional fields, and margins of conventional fields were negatively correlated with EPF abundance. A greenhouse experiment in which fungicides and herbicides were applied to the soil surface showed no significant effect on EPF. Though organic fields were perceived to be more suitable environments for EPF, abiotic factors and cropping practices such as tillage may have greater impacts on the abundance of EPF. Also, fungicides and herbicides may not be as toxic to soil-borne EPF as originally thought.

  15. Yes Virginia, quantum mechanics can be understood

    CERN Document Server

    Wallace, John P

    2017-01-01

    Virginia, B. W. Wooster, and Jeeves take up physics with the hope of understanding quantum mechanics. In the process they take a rather grand tour on an old sailing ship and aid a sow in distress. On their journey they discover that physics is not as difficult a subject as they imagined. When they dismantled physics and reassembled it in a form where gravity, strong, electromagnetic and the weak forces all stem from understanding the gaming strategy known as the fair-game. That great cultural divide first expounded by the novelist C.P.Snow was found to be a mere ditch that can be stepped over. The sins of the past were violations of energy conservation and strange notions about what mass actually represents. Now mass is defined without the assistance of the Standard Model. Things will not be the same. Singularities have been banished. The electron now has a scale and is no longer captive in a point. The gluon is no longer essential along with the single virtual photon.

  16. The Center of Gravity, Systemically Understood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    Swain and Larry G. Heysteck (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: CMH , Desert Storm Interviews, 1991), 33. 91Purvis, et al., 17. 40...Sullivan. "Interview: Centcom Planning Cell." In Unedited Transcript, edited by Richard Swain and Larry G. Heysteck. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: CMH

  17. Evil Understood as the Absence of Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabjerg, Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    Self-development is closely related to the idea of formation (or what is referred to as Bildung in German). But when speaking of formation, we have to address the question, ‘what are we formed by?’ Is the human being formed by him- or herself, or by resources originating from outside the self? Fr...

  18. Resilience and Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores two key concepts: resilience and complexity. The first is understood as an emergent property of the latter, and their inter-relatedness is discussed using a three tier approach. First, by exploring the discourse of each concept, next, by analyzing underlying relationships and...... robust. Robustness is a property of simple or complicated systems characterized by predictable behavior, enabling the system to bounce back to its normal state following a perturbation. Resilience, however, is an emergent property of complex adaptive systems. It is suggested that this distinction...

  19. Reducing the Use of Pesticides with Site-Specific Application: The Chemical Control of Rhizoctonia solani as a Case of Study for the Management of Soil-Borne Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Cointe, Ronan; Simon, Thomas E; Delarue, Patrick; Hervé, Maxime; Leclerc, Melen; Poggi, Sylvain

    Reducing our reliance on pesticides is an essential step towards the sustainability of agricultural production. One approach involves the rational use of pesticides combined with innovative crop management. Most control strategies currently focus on the temporal aspect of epidemics, e.g. determining the optimal date for spraying, regardless of the spatial mechanics and ecology of disease spread. Designing innovative pest management strategies incorporating the spatial aspect of epidemics involves thorough knowledge on how disease control affects the life-history traits of the pathogen. In this study, using Rhizoctonia solani/Raphanus sativus as an example of a soil-borne pathosystem, we investigated the effects of a chemical control currently used by growers, Monceren® L, on key epidemiological components (saprotrophic spread and infectivity). We tested the potential "shield effect" of Monceren® L on pathogenic spread in a site-specific application context, i.e. the efficiency of this chemical to contain the spread of the fungus from an infected host when application is spatially localized, in our case, a strip placed between the infected host and a recipient bait. Our results showed that Monceren® L mainly inhibits the saprotrophic spread of the fungus in soil and may prevent the fungus from reaching its host plant. However, perhaps surprisingly we did not detect any significant effect of the fungicide on the pathogen infectivity. Finally, highly localized application of the fungicide-a narrow strip of soil (12.5 mm wide) sprayed with Monceren® L-significantly decreased local transmission of the pathogen, suggesting lowered risk of occurrence of invasive epidemics. Our results highlight that detailed knowledge on epidemiological processes could contribute to the design of innovative management strategies based on precision agriculture tools to improve the efficacy of disease control and reduce pesticide use.

  20. Complex networks: Dynamics and security

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study a mechanism for cascades in complex networks by constructing a model incorporating the flows of information and physical quantities in the network. Using this model we can also show that the cascading phenomenon can be understood as a phase transition in terms of the key parameter characterizing the node ...

  1. Visions of technology: : Big data lessons understood by EU policy makers in their review of the legal frameworks on intellectual property rights, access to and re-use of PSI and the protection of personal data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerant, Hans; de Hert, Paul; Gutwirth, Serge; Leenes, Ronald; De Hert, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This article’s focus is on how the advent of big data technology and practices has been understood and addressed by policy makers in the EU. We start with a reflection on of how big data affects business processes and how it con- tributes to the creation of a data economy. Then we look at EU policy

  2. Complexity explained

    CERN Document Server

    Erdi, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This book explains why complex systems research is important in understanding the structure, function and dynamics of complex natural and social phenomena. Readers will learn the basic concepts and methods of complex system research.

  3. Suppression of soil-borne plant pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agtmaal, van M.

    2015-01-01

    Soil borne plant pathogens considerably reduce crop yields worldwide and are difficult to control due to their ”masked” occurrence  in the heterogeneous soil environment. This hampers the efficacy of chemical - and microbiological control agents.   Outbreaks of crop

  4. Complex chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bong Gon; Kim, Jae Sang; Kim, Jin Eun; Lee, Boo Yeon

    2006-06-01

    This book introduces complex chemistry with ten chapters, which include development of complex chemistry on history coordination theory and Warner's coordination theory and new development of complex chemistry, nomenclature on complex with conception and define, chemical formula on coordination compound, symbol of stereochemistry, stereo structure and isomerism, electron structure and bond theory on complex, structure of complex like NMR and XAFS, balance and reaction on solution, an organo-metallic chemistry, biology inorganic chemistry, material chemistry of complex, design of complex and calculation chemistry.

  5. Dimensionality reduction in complex models

    OpenAIRE

    Boukouvalas, Alexis; Maniyar, Dharmesh M.; Cornford, Dan

    2007-01-01

    As a part of the Managing Uncertainty in Complex Models (MUCM) project, research at Aston University will develop methods for dimensionality reduction of the input and/or output spaces of models, as seen within the emulator framework. Towards this end this report describes a framework for generating toy datasets, whose underlying structure is understood, to facilitate early investigations of dimensionality reduction methods and to gain a deeper understanding of the algorithms employed, both i...

  6. Complex Narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, J.; Buckland, W.

    2014-01-01

    In the opening chapter, "Complex Narratives," Jan Simons brings together narratology, game theory, and complexity theory to untangle the intricate nature of complex narratives in contemporary cinema. He presents an overview of the different concepts - forking path narratives, mind-game films,

  7. phenanthroline complex

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ABHRANIL DE

    2018-02-28

    Feb 28, 2018 ... complex in a unique binding motif and provide additional stability to the compound in the solid state. This iron(II) complex is able to catalyze the cleavage of aromatic C-C linkage of 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (Gentisic acid,. GA) in oxygen environment. The iron(II) complex in the presence of two equivalent ...

  8. (II) complexes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    activities of Schiff base tin (II) complexes. Neelofar1 ... Conclusion: All synthesized Schiff bases and their Tin (II) complexes showed high antimicrobial and ...... Singh HL. Synthesis and characterization of tin (II) complexes of fluorinated Schiff bases derived from amino acids. Spectrochim Acta Part A: Molec Biomolec.

  9. Morphological evolution and genetic differentiation in Daphnia species complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gießer, S.; Mader, E.; Schwenk, K.

    1999-01-01

    Despite many ecological and evolutionary studies, the history of several species complexes within the freshwater crustacean genus Daphnia (Branchiopoda, Anomopoda) is poorly understood. In particular, the Daphnia longispina group, comprising several large-lake species, is characterized by pronounced

  10. A phylogenetic and cognitive perspective on linguistic complexity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article, however, we argue that the complexity of linguistic systems may also be understood as the result of the relation between language, mind and an extra-linguistic reality. In our view, linguistic complexity is a function of the representational role that language plays in the complex mental processing and construal ...

  11. Stoichiometry of pyrogallol/ammonium-nitrogen complex using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This complex, which we now refer to as P/NH4 +-N complex, can be the basis for the spectrophotometric determination of NH4 +-N in aqueous solution. Aqueous NH4 +-N is a very important pollution index. Therefore it is imperative that the stoichiometry of this complex be thoroughly understood. In this work, Job's method of ...

  12. Complexity Plots

    KAUST Repository

    Thiyagalingam, Jeyarajan

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present a novel visualization technique for assisting the observation and analysis of algorithmic complexity. In comparison with conventional line graphs, this new technique is not sensitive to the units of measurement, allowing multivariate data series of different physical qualities (e.g., time, space and energy) to be juxtaposed together conveniently and consistently. It supports multivariate visualization as well as uncertainty visualization. It enables users to focus on algorithm categorization by complexity classes, while reducing visual impact caused by constants and algorithmic components that are insignificant to complexity analysis. It provides an effective means for observing the algorithmic complexity of programs with a mixture of algorithms and black-box software through visualization. Through two case studies, we demonstrate the effectiveness of complexity plots in complexity analysis in research, education and application. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Complex odontoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preetha, A; Balikai, Bharati S; Sujatha, D; Pai, Anuradha; Ganapathy, K S

    2010-01-01

    Odontomas are hamartomatous lesions or malformations composed of mature enamel, dentin, and pulp. They may be compound or complex, depending on the extent of morphodifferentiation or their resemblance to normal teeth. The etiology of odontoma is unknown, although several theories have been proposed. This article describes a case of a large infected complex odontoma in the residual mandibular ridge, resulting in considerable mandibular expansion.

  14. Complex narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper brings together narratology, game theory, and complexity theory to untangle the intricate nature of complex narratives in contemporary cinema. It interrogates the different terms - forking-path narratives, mind-game films, modular narratives, multiple-draft films, database narratives,

  15. Complexity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, William H K.

    2016-01-01

    A complex system consists of many interacting parts, generates new collective behavior through self organization, and adaptively evolves through time. Many theories have been developed to study complex systems, including chaos, fractals, cellular automata, self organization, stochastic processes, turbulence, and genetic algorithms.

  16. Engineering Education as a Complex System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattie, David K.; Kellam, Nadia N.; Schramski, John R.; Walther, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical basis for cultivating engineering education as a complex system that will prepare students to think critically and make decisions with regard to poorly understood, ill-structured issues. Integral to this theoretical basis is a solution space construct developed and presented as a benchmark for evaluating…

  17. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Stephen D

    1999-01-01

    The most important topics in the theory and application of complex variables receive a thorough, coherent treatment in this introductory text. Intended for undergraduates or graduate students in science, mathematics, and engineering, this volume features hundreds of solved examples, exercises, and applications designed to foster a complete understanding of complex variables as well as an appreciation of their mathematical beauty and elegance. Prerequisites are minimal; a three-semester course in calculus will suffice to prepare students for discussions of these topics: the complex plane, basic

  18. Managing Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maylath, Bruce; Vandepitte, Sonia; Minacori, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the largest and most complex international learning-by-doing project to date- a project involving translation from Danish and Dutch into English and editing into American English alongside a project involving writing, usability testing, and translation from English into Dutch...... and into French. The complexity of the undertaking proved to be a central element in the students' learning, as the collaboration closely resembles the complexity of international documentation workplaces of language service providers. © Association of Teachers of Technical Writing....

  19. Efeito de lodo de esgoto sobre patógenos habitantes do solo e severidade de oídio da soja Effect of sewage sludge in soil-borne pathogens and powdery mildew severity in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Fernando de Araújo

    2009-09-01

    ântulas de soja, nos três cultivos, foi inversamente proporcional à concentração do lodo de Franca, sendo totalmente inibida na concentração de 20%. Nos estudos com R. solani não foram observados efeitos da aplicação do lodo da ETE de Franca sobre o tombamento e a severidade. No primeiro cultivo a resposta ao tombamento foi quadrática para o lodo Barueri, sendo que ocorreu aumento nas concentrações de 1N e 2N, e redução na concentração 4N. No segundo cultivo ocorreu aumento nos índices de tombamento de plantas em relação ao primeiro, com resposta quadrática para o lodo Barueri, mas com ponto de inflexão mínimo na concentração de 1N, sendo que para a concentração 8N o tombamento foi semelhante à testemunha. A severidade da doença no colo das plantas manteve a mesma resposta quadrática para o lodo de Barueri nos dois cultivos, com ponto de máximo na dose 4N. Para M. phaseolina a incidência da doença foi inversamente proporcional à concentração do lodo de Franca. Dessa forma, os resultados não permitem conclusão sobre a indução de supressividade à R. solani e M. phaseolina.Sewage sludge, complying with environmental demands, has potential for use in agriculture. The incorporation of sewage sludge may changes the chemical, physical and biological soil properties, for being rich in macro and micronutrients and organic matter. These changes can provide benefits such as the increase in the availability of nutrients for plants, and the induction of suppressiveness to soilborne plant pathogens and resistance to foliar diseases. However, it may influence negatively the biological and chemical balance of the soil, due to the presence of contaminants. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of sewage sludge on the severity soybean (Glycine max powdery mildew (Erysiphe diffusa and on suppressiveness to Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina The experiments used soil which received four successive applications of sewage sludge

  20. Complex Covariance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frieder Kleefeld

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to some generalized correspondence principle the classical limit of a non-Hermitian quantum theory describing quantum degrees of freedom is expected to be the well known classical mechanics of classical degrees of freedom in the complex phase space, i.e., some phase space spanned by complex-valued space and momentum coordinates. As special relativity was developed by Einstein merely for real-valued space-time and four-momentum, we will try to understand how special relativity and covariance can be extended to complex-valued space-time and four-momentum. Our considerations will lead us not only to some unconventional derivation of Lorentz transformations for complex-valued velocities, but also to the non-Hermitian Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations, which are to lay the foundations of a non-Hermitian quantum theory.

  1. Communication Complexity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jaikumar Radhakrishnan

    Alice and Bob are randomized agents. They exchange messages in order to compute a function f(x, y). We allow a small probability of error. Goal: minimize the total number of bits transmitted. Jaikumar Radhakrishnan. Communication Complexity ...

  2. Atomic nuclei: a laboratory for the study of complexity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Y.; Suraud, E.

    1993-01-01

    The nucleus is a mandatory step in the understanding of nature, between elementary particles and atoms and molecules. To what extent might it be understood with the help of complexity viewpoints. Conversely, could the atomic nucleus provide a laboratory for understanding the behaviour of 'complex' systems. The purpose of this note is to capitalize on the fad for complexity and claim that nuclear physics is an excellent choice to do physics of complex systems...without getting lost

  3. Complex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Freitag, Eberhard

    2005-01-01

    The guiding principle of this presentation of ``Classical Complex Analysis'' is to proceed as quickly as possible to the central results while using a small number of notions and concepts from other fields. Thus the prerequisites for understanding this book are minimal; only elementary facts of calculus and algebra are required. The first four chapters cover the essential core of complex analysis: - differentiation in C (including elementary facts about conformal mappings) - integration in C (including complex line integrals, Cauchy's Integral Theorem, and the Integral Formulas) - sequences and series of analytic functions, (isolated) singularities, Laurent series, calculus of residues - construction of analytic functions: the gamma function, Weierstrass' Factorization Theorem, Mittag-Leffler Partial Fraction Decomposition, and -as a particular highlight- the Riemann Mapping Theorem, which characterizes the simply connected domains in C. Further topics included are: - the theory of elliptic functions based on...

  4. Complex Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Stein, Elias M

    2009-01-01

    With this second volume, we enter the intriguing world of complex analysis. From the first theorems on, the elegance and sweep of the results is evident. The starting point is the simple idea of extending a function initially given for real values of the argument to one that is defined when the argument is complex. From there, one proceeds to the main properties of holomorphic functions, whose proofs are generally short and quite illuminating: the Cauchy theorems, residues, analytic continuation, the argument principle.With this background, the reader is ready to learn a wealth of additional m

  5. Complex manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Morrow, James

    2006-01-01

    This book, a revision and organization of lectures given by Kodaira at Stanford University in 1965-66, is an excellent, well-written introduction to the study of abstract complex (analytic) manifolds-a subject that began in the late 1940's and early 1950's. It is largely self-contained, except for some standard results about elliptic partial differential equations, for which complete references are given. -D. C. Spencer, MathSciNet The book under review is the faithful reprint of the original edition of one of the most influential textbooks in modern complex analysis and geometry. The classic

  6. Complexity: the organizing principle at the interface of biological (dis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We then introduce a developmental and an evolutionary understanding of what it means for biological systems to be complex.We propose that the complexity of living systems can be understood through two interdependent structural properties: multiscalarity of interconstituent mechanisms and excitability of the biological ...

  7. Elementary real and complex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Shilov, Georgi E

    1996-01-01

    In this book the renowned Russian mathematician Georgi E. Shilov brings his unique perspective to real and complex analysis, an area of perennial interest in mathematics. Although there are many books available on the topic, the present work is specially designed for undergraduates in mathematics, science and engineering. A high level of mathematical sophistication is not required.The book begins with a systematic study of real numbers, understood to be a set of objects satisfying certain definite axioms. The concepts of a mathematical structure and an isomorphism are introduced in Chapter 2,

  8. Communication Complexity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jaikumar Radhakrishnan

    Communication complexity. Motivation . . . An abstract model to study the communicaiton required for computation. A tool for showing lower bounds in several computational models. The study often requires deep understanding of computation using tools from combinatorics, coding theory, algebra, analysis, etc. Jaikumar ...

  9. Lecithin Complex

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Department of Food Science and Engineering, Xinyang College of Agriculture and Forestry, Xinyang 464000, 2Henan. Economy and Trade ... Methanol of HPLC grade was purchased from Tedia (USA). Other chemicals used were of analytical grade. Preparation of polydatin-lecithin complex. Polydatin (200 mg) and ...

  10. Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Evsukoff, Alexandre; González, Marta

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade we have seen the emergence of a new inter-disciplinary field focusing on the understanding of networks which are dynamic, large, open, and have a structure sometimes called random-biased. The field of Complex Networks is helping us better understand many complex phenomena such as the spread of  deseases, protein interactions, social relationships, to name but a few. Studies in Complex Networks are gaining attention due to some major scientific breakthroughs proposed by network scientists helping us understand and model interactions contained in large datasets. In fact, if we could point to one event leading to the widespread use of complex network analysis is the availability of online databases. Theories of Random Graphs from Erdös and Rényi from the late 1950s led us to believe that most networks had random characteristics. The work on large online datasets told us otherwise. Starting with the work of Barabási and Albert as well as Watts and Strogatz in the late 1990s, we now know th...

  11. Complex chemistry with complex compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eichler Robert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years gas-phase chemical studies assisted by physical pre-separation allowed for the investigation of fragile single molecular species by gas-phase chromatography. The latest success with the heaviest group 6 transactinide seaborgium is highlighted. The formation of a very volatile hexacarbonyl compound Sg(CO6 was observed similarly to its lighter homologues molybdenum and tungsten. The interactions of these gaseous carbonyl complex compounds with quartz surfaces were investigated by thermochromatography. Second-generation experiments are under way to investigate the intramolecular bond between the central metal atom of the complexes and the ligands addressing the influence of relativistic effects in the heaviest compounds. Our contribution comprises some aspects of the ongoing challenging experiments as well as an outlook towards other interesting compounds related to volatile complex compounds in the gas phase.

  12. Welding complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedev, V.K.; Kuchuk-Yatsenko, S.I.; Sakharnov, V.A.; Galyan, B.A.; Krivenko, V.G.; Asoyants, G.B.

    1992-10-27

    A welding complex for construction of a continuous underwater pipeline is adapted to be installed aboard a ship. The complex includes a welding machine positionable at a joint of the pipeline with a pipe section to be welded, burr-removing trimmers positionable coaxially with the pipeline for displacement relative to the pipeline in the joint area, and a support device for the end part of the pipeline. A rotatably mounted holding device for setting, holding, and retaining the pipe section to be welded, the welding machine, and the trimmers is axially aligned with the end part of the pipeline. An accumulator is provided for storing and delivering successive pipe sections at a loading position laterally offset from the common axis of the pipeline and of the pipe section to be welded to it. The holding device includes a platform movable along the common axis of the pipeline and of the pipe section to be welded to it by a resistance butt welding machine, and a plate with a means for carrying the pipe section to be welded which is mounted on a pivot carried by the platform for rotation between the loading position and the aligning position. The welding complex of the invention provides for implementing resistance butt welding in construction of continuous underwater pipelines and ensures the accuracy of alignment and permanence of the gap between the edges being welded. The welding complex's structure allows handling of longer pipe sections, thus reducing the overall number of joints to be welded. 7 figs.

  13. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Flanigan, Francis J

    2010-01-01

    A caution to mathematics professors: Complex Variables does not follow conventional outlines of course material. One reviewer noting its originality wrote: ""A standard text is often preferred [to a superior text like this] because the professor knows the order of topics and the problems, and doesn't really have to pay attention to the text. He can go to class without preparation."" Not so here-Dr. Flanigan treats this most important field of contemporary mathematics in a most unusual way. While all the material for an advanced undergraduate or first-year graduate course is covered, discussion

  14. Complex dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Carleson, Lennart

    1993-01-01

    Complex dynamics is today very much a focus of interest. Though several fine expository articles were available, by P. Blanchard and by M. Yu. Lyubich in particular, until recently there was no single source where students could find the material with proofs. For anyone in our position, gathering and organizing the material required a great deal of work going through preprints and papers and in some cases even finding a proof. We hope that the results of our efforts will be of help to others who plan to learn about complex dynamics and perhaps even lecture. Meanwhile books in the field a. re beginning to appear. The Stony Brook course notes of J. Milnor were particularly welcome and useful. Still we hope that our special emphasis on the analytic side will satisfy a need. This book is a revised and expanded version of notes based on lectures of the first author at UCLA over several \\Vinter Quarters, particularly 1986 and 1990. We owe Chris Bishop a great deal of gratitude for supervising the production of cour...

  15. Complex Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum instanton (QI approximation is recently proposed for the evaluations of the chemical reaction rate constants with use of full dimensional potential energy surfaces. Its strategy is to use the instanton mechanism and to approximate time-dependent quantum dynamics to the imaginary time propagation of the quantities of partition function. It thus incorporates the properties of the instanton idea and the quantum effect of partition function and can be applied to chemical reactions of complex systems. In this paper, we present the QI approach and its applications to several complex systems mainly done by us. The concrete systems include, (1 the reaction of H+CH4→H2+CH3, (2 the reaction of H+SiH4→H2+SiH3, (3 H diffusion on Ni(100 surface; and (4 surface-subsurface transport and interior migration for H/Ni. Available experimental and other theoretical data are also presented for the purpose of comparison.

  16. Complex sleep apnea syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang J

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Juan Wang,1,* Yan Wang,1,* Jing Feng,1,2 Bao-yuan Chen,1 Jie Cao1 1Respiratory Department of Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, People's Republic of China; 2Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA *The first two authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Complex sleep apnea syndrome (CompSAS is a distinct form of sleep-disordered breathing characterized as central sleep apnea (CSA, and presents in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA patients during initial treatment with a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP device. The mechanisms of why CompSAS occurs are not well understood, though we have a high loop gain theory that may help to explain it. It is still controversial regarding the prevalence and the clinical significance of CompSAS. Patients with CompSAS have clinical features similar to OSA, but they do exhibit breathing patterns like CSA. In most CompSAS cases, CSA events during initial CPAP titration are transient and they may disappear after continued CPAP use for 4–8 weeks or even longer. However, the poor initial experience of CompSAS patients with CPAP may not be avoided, and nonadherence with continued therapy may often result. Treatment options like adaptive servo-ventilation are available now that may rapidly resolve the disorder and relieve the symptoms of this disease with the potential of increasing early adherence to therapy. But these approaches are associated with more expensive and complicated devices. In this review, the definition, potential plausible mechanisms, clinical characteristics, and treatment approaches of CompSAS will be summarized. Keywords: complex sleep apnea syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea, central sleep apnea, apnea threshold, continuous positive airway pressure, adaptive servo-ventilation

  17. Cosmic Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    What explains the extraordinary complexity of the observed universe, on all scales from quarks to the accelerating universe? My favorite explanation (which I certainty did not invent) ls that the fundamental laws of physics produce natural instability, energy flows, and chaos. Some call the result the Life Force, some note that the Earth is a living system itself (Gaia, a "tough bitch" according to Margulis), and some conclude that the observed complexity requires a supernatural explanation (of which we have many). But my dad was a statistician (of dairy cows) and he told me about cells and genes and evolution and chance when I was very small. So a scientist must look for me explanation of how nature's laws and statistics brought us into conscious existence. And how is that seemll"!gly Improbable events are actually happening a!1 the time? Well, the physicists have countless examples of natural instability, in which energy is released to power change from simplicity to complexity. One of the most common to see is that cooling water vapor below the freezing point produces snowflakes, no two alike, and all complex and beautiful. We see it often so we are not amazed. But physlc!sts have observed so many kinds of these changes from one structure to another (we call them phase transitions) that the Nobel Prize in 1992 could be awarded for understanding the mathematics of their common features. Now for a few examples of how the laws of nature produce the instabilities that lead to our own existence. First, the Big Bang (what an insufficient name!) apparently came from an instability, in which the "false vacuum" eventually decayed into the ordinary vacuum we have today, plus the most fundamental particles we know, the quarks and leptons. So the universe as a whole started with an instability. Then, a great expansion and cooling happened, and the loose quarks, finding themselves unstable too, bound themselves together into today's less elementary particles like protons and

  18. Design Patterns for Complex Event Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Paschke, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    Currently engineering efficient and successful event-driven applications based on the emerging Complex Event Processing (CEP) technology, is a laborious trial and error process. The proposed CEP design pattern approach should support CEP engineers in their design decisions to build robust and efficient CEP solutions with well understood tradeoffs and should enable an interdisciplinary and efficient communication process about successful CEP solutions in different application domains.

  19. Dendritic calcium activity precedes inspiratory bursts in preBotzinger complex neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Negro, Christopher A; Hayes, John A; Rekling, Jens C

    2011-01-01

    Medullary interneurons of the preBötzinger complex assemble excitatory networks that produce inspiratory-related neural rhythms, but the importance of somatodendritic conductances in rhythm generation is still incompletely understood. Synaptic input may cause Ca(2+) accumulation postsynaptically ...

  20. Inhalation Exposure and Lung Dose Analysis of Multi-mode Complex Ambient Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Ambient aerosols are complex mixture of particles with different size, shape and chemical composition. Although they are known to cause health hazard, it is not fully understood about causal mechanisms and specific attributes of particles causing the effects. Internal ...

  1. Domain interactions within the Ski2/3/8 complex and between the Ski complex and Ski7p

    OpenAIRE

    WANG, LINGNA; LEWIS, MARC S.; JOHNSON, ARLEN W.

    2005-01-01

    The Ski complex (composed of Ski3p, Ski8p, and the DEVH ATPase Ski2p) is a central component of the 3′–5′ cytoplasmic mRNA degradation pathway in yeast. Although the proteins of the complex interact with each other as well as with Ski7p to mediate degradation by exosome, a 3′-exonuclease complex, the nature of these interactions is not well understood. Here we explore interactions within the Ski complex and between the Ski complex and Ski7p using a directed two-hybrid approach combined with c...

  2. Well Researched, Yet Little Understood: Young Adults and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cothran, Donetta; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges

    2005-01-01

    The authors present two beginning studies. One investigated the teaching-style preferences of young adults, and the other looked at physical activity trends within this age group. One key to understanding young adults and physical activity is to recognize the importance of participant cognition on physical activity patterns. From this…

  3. Emotions are understood from biological motion across remote cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Carolyn; Walker, Trent T; Memmi, Sarah; Wheatley, Thalia

    2017-04-01

    Patterns of bodily movement can be used to signal a wide variety of information, including emotional states. Are these signals reliant on culturally learned cues or are they intelligible across individuals lacking exposure to a common culture? To find out, we traveled to a remote Kreung village in Ratanakiri, Cambodia. First, we recorded Kreung portrayals of 5 emotions through bodily movement. These videos were later shown to American participants, who matched the videos with appropriate emotional labels with above chance accuracy (Study 1). The Kreung also viewed Western point-light displays of emotions. After each display, they were asked to either freely describe what was being expressed (Study 2) or choose from 5 predetermined response options (Study 3). Across these studies, Kreung participants recognized Western point-light displays of anger, fear, happiness, sadness, and pride with above chance accuracy. Kreung raters were not above chance in deciphering an American point-light display depicting love, suggesting that recognizing love may rely, at least in part, on culturally specific cues or modalities other than bodily movement. In addition, multidimensional scaling of the patterns of nonverbal behavior associated with each emotion in each culture suggested that similar patterns of nonverbal behavior are used to convey the same emotions across cultures. The considerable cross-cultural intelligibility observed across these studies suggests that the communication of emotion through movement is largely shaped by aspects of physiology and the environment shared by all humans, irrespective of differences in cultural context. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Prevalence of Obesity: A Public Health Problem Poorly Understood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa A. Nicklas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This review article discusses the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA in support of a total diet approach to achieving diet and health goals, especially as they relate to the obesity epidemic. However, some scientists and organizations have identified one food, food group, or nutrient as the cause of the obesity epidemic and recommend that simply reducing that food/food group/nutrient will solve the problem. This is simplistic and unlikely to be effective in long term management of the obesity problem. This article also acknowledges discrepancies in the literature and the lack of consensus opinions from systematic reviews. Failure to consider the evidence as a whole can lead to inaccurate reports which may, in turn, adversely influence clinical practice, public policy, and future research. This article also considers where the line should be drawn between individual choice and responsibility and public regulation. Using sugar sweetened beverages as an example, the article considers the lack of a consistent association between added sugars and weight in the literature and calls for policy recommendations that are based on science and emphasizes the need for evidence-based policies rather than policy-based evidence.

  5. The bare parameters of Gribov's Langrangian are understood and determined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishari, M.

    1977-01-01

    In the context of the ''1/N Dual Unitarization'' scheme, an explicit dynamical study of the triple bare pomeron mechanism which governs the interaction term in Gribov's Lagrangian is presented. Together with the previously established bare pomeron slope and intercept, controlling respectively, the kinetic and mass terms in Gribov's Lagrangian, this work demonstrates the viability of the ''1/N Dual Unitarization'' approach for a field theory of interaction bare pomerons. (author)

  6. Can morphogenesis be understood in terms of physical rules?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    In a similar way, 3D structures of bio- logical systems constructed by computer can serve as a data base which can be applied to research, education and practical purposes. 2.1 Construction of human lung airway. The lung airway is constructed within the amniotic fluid by branching of a duct. Since it does not touch other tis-.

  7. Happiness in Economics as Understood Across Ism and Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Ghafar Ismail

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of happiness has been discussed long time ago by economists. Recently, it became the most related and important thing to be studied because of its impact in societies. Discussion about happiness basically interprets within two separate views. First, happiness related with economic variable, for instance, how money can create happiness. Second happiness is discussed within the context of religion. However, the discussion did not combine both contexts, economic variable and religion, to interpret happiness. Therefore, it is important to highlight the concept of happiness in a different way such as in this article. Different cultures will have their own perspective on the determination of happiness. From just “individual perspective” of happiness, they then formed an ism through involvement of a big society from the same culture. Some isms such as hedonism and materialism are synonyms in characterizing the concept of happiness in this modern world. At the same time, the isms are actually working with the economic and non-economic indicators as elements to strengthen the ism itself. On the other hand, the concept of happiness from the perspective of religion will also be a part of discussion in this article. Therefore, this article will reveal that the meaning of happiness is different in terms of religion and ism. So, to carry out both ism and religion simultaneously in shaping a more intrinsic value of happiness is not an easy task. Furthermore, religion is always associated with spiritual value that makes it hard for some people to practice religion and their isms at the same time. Thus, this article will propose that the right interpretation of isms based on their faith in religion can contribute to the concept of genuine happiness.

  8. Mirror neurons and their function in cognitively understood empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, Antonella; Antonietti, Alessandro

    2013-09-01

    The current renewal of interest in empathy is closely connected to the recent neurobiological discovery of mirror neurons. Although the concept of empathy has been widely deployed, we shall focus upon one main psychological function it serves: enabling us to understand other peoples' intentions. In this essay we will draw on neuroscientific, psychological, and philosophical literature in order to investigate the relationships between mirror neurons and empathy as to intention understanding. Firstly, it will be explored whether mirror neurons are the neural basis of our empathic capacities: a vast array of empirical results appears to confirm this hypothesis. Secondly, the higher level capacity of reenactive empathy will be examined and the question will be addressed whether philosophical analysis alone is able to provide a foundation for this more abstract level of empathy. The conclusion will be drawn that both empirical evidence and philosophical analysis can jointly contribute to the clarification of the concept of empathy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sharing their stories helps young people to feel more understood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Zoe

    2017-05-10

    My passion for improving mental health services started after a young woman I knew took her own life. She was part of a theatre group I volunteered for, and the distress experienced by fellow members prompted me to take action.

  10. Q Fever: An Old but Still a Poorly Understood Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Honarmand

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Q fever is a bacterial infection affecting mainly the lungs, liver, and heart. It is found around the world and is caused by the bacteria Coxiella burnetii. The bacteria affects sheep, goats, cattle, dogs, cats, birds, rodents, and ticks. Infected animals shed this bacteria in birth products, feces, milk, and urine. Humans usually get Q fever by breathing in contaminated droplets released by infected animals and drinking raw milk. People at highest risk for this infection are farmers, laboratory workers, sheep and dairy workers, and veterinarians. Chronic Q fever develops in people who have been infected for more than 6 months. It usually takes about 20 days after exposure to the bacteria for symptoms to occur. Most cases are mild, yet some severe cases have been reported. Symptoms of acute Q fever may include: chest pain with breathing, cough, fever, headache, jaundice, muscle pains, and shortness of breath. Symptoms of chronic Q fever may include chills, fatigue, night sweats, prolonged fever, and shortness of breath. Q fever is diagnosed with a blood antibody test. The main treatment for the disease is with antibiotics. For acute Q fever, doxycycline is recommended. For chronic Q fever, a combination of doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine is often used long term. Complications are cirrhosis, hepatitis, encephalitis, endocarditis, pericarditis, myocarditis, interstitial pulmonary fibrosis, meningitis, and pneumonia. People at risk should always: carefully dispose of animal products that may be infected, disinfect any contaminated areas, and thoroughly wash their hands. Pasteurizing milk can also help prevent Q fever.

  11. How is evidence to be understood in modern coaching psychology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spaten, Ole Michael; Løkken, Lillith Olesen

    2015-01-01

    The hunt for evidence in modern coaching psychology could be counter-productive, and possibly lead to a simplified approach to research, practice, searching for “definitive truths”. The article discuss a critical approach to evidence hierarchies, and the prevalent (medical) understanding of evide......The hunt for evidence in modern coaching psychology could be counter-productive, and possibly lead to a simplified approach to research, practice, searching for “definitive truths”. The article discuss a critical approach to evidence hierarchies, and the prevalent (medical) understanding...

  12. Learning Outcomes of 'Understanding Research' as understood by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simon Bhekumuzi

    criterion for DT use, Tapscott (1998) referred to current digital users as the Net Generation, and later Prensky. (2001) referred to them as Digital natives, implying that as they are born in the digital era, it predisposes them to learning via digital technologies. The normalisation of technology in the everyday life of learners ...

  13. How Inclusive Education Is Understood by Principals of Independent Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gous, Jennifer Glenda; Eloff, Irma; Moen, Melanie Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Inclusive education has become a practice that has been adopted by many schools across the globe and most usually in first-world countries. As a whole-school system, it occurs less frequently in developing countries including South Africa which unlike many developing countries has a sound infrastructure and many excellent schools in both the state…

  14. Clinical governance; How been understood, what is needed? Nurses' perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homayoun Sadeghi Bazargani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Clinical Governance (CG is an overarching concept, using organizational capacity, safeguards high standards of the health services and provides a safe care for patients.  The aim of this research was to study nurses’ perception about Clinical Governance. Materials and Methods: A qualitative study was done with Focus Group Discussions (FGD. Purposeful Sampling was used to select the objectives including 65 participants. Actually 7 FGD’s were held. Content analysis was used to extract the meaningful themes. Results:Nurses believed that patient centeredness and evidence based practice is the core of the CG concept. Also they mentioned that cultural change, staffs training, adequate financial and human resources are required to successfully implementation of CG in hospitals.  Conclusion: Spreading up a shared vision about CG and providing the required infrastructures in hospitals would be facilitate CG initiatives. Proper commitment of the managers and staff participation could lead an effective CG implementation.

  15. How to Talk about Media You Haven't Understood

    OpenAIRE

    Casilli, Antonio,

    2014-01-01

    The following text, featured in the special issue of the Journal of Visual Culture (vol. 13, n. 1, April 2014) celebrating the 50th anniversary of Marshall McLuhan's 'Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man' is based on the talk given by Antonio A. Casilli at the McLuhan centenary conference 'McLuhan 100 Then Now Next' (7-11 November 2011, University of Toronto).

  16. Complex Networks in Psychological Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedemann, R. S.; Carvalho, L. S. A. V. D.; Donangelo, R.

    We develop schematic, self-organizing, neural-network models to describe mechanisms associated with mental processes, by a neurocomputational substrate. These models are examples of real world complex networks with interesting general topological structures. Considering dopaminergic signal-to-noise neuronal modulation in the central nervous system, we propose neural network models to explain development of cortical map structure and dynamics of memory access, and unify different mental processes into a single neurocomputational substrate. Based on our neural network models, neurotic behavior may be understood as an associative memory process in the brain, and the linguistic, symbolic associative process involved in psychoanalytic working-through can be mapped onto a corresponding process of reconfiguration of the neural network. The models are illustrated through computer simulations, where we varied dopaminergic modulation and observed the self-organizing emergent patterns at the resulting semantic map, interpreting them as different manifestations of mental functioning, from psychotic through to normal and neurotic behavior, and creativity.

  17. Reduction of Subjective and Objective System Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Occam's razor is often used in science to define the minimum criteria to establish a physical or philosophical idea or relationship. Albert Einstein is attributed the saying "everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler". These heuristic ideas are based on a belief that there is a minimum state or set of states for a given system or phenomena. In looking at system complexity, these heuristics point us to an idea that complexity can be reduced to a minimum. How then, do we approach a reduction in complexity? Complexity has been described as a subjective concept and an objective measure of a system. Subjective complexity is based on human cognitive comprehension of the functions and inter relationships of a system. Subjective complexity is defined by the ability to fully comprehend the system. Simplifying complexity, in a subjective sense, is thus gaining a deeper understanding of the system. As Apple's Jonathon Ive has stated," It's not just minimalism or the absence of clutter. It involves digging through the depth of complexity. To be truly simple, you have to go really deep". Simplicity is not the absence of complexity but a deeper understanding of complexity. Subjective complexity, based on this human comprehension, cannot then be discerned from the sociological concept of ignorance. The inability to comprehend a system can be either a lack of knowledge, an inability to understand the intricacies of a system, or both. Reduction in this sense is based purely on a cognitive ability to understand the system and no system then may be truly complex. From this view, education and experience seem to be the keys to reduction or eliminating complexity. Objective complexity, is the measure of the systems functions and interrelationships which exist independent of human comprehension. Jonathon Ive's statement does not say that complexity is removed, only that the complexity is understood. From this standpoint, reduction of complexity can be approached

  18. International conference on Algebraic and Complex Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Kloosterman, Remke; Schütt, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Several important aspects of moduli spaces and irreducible holomorphic symplectic manifolds were highlighted at the conference “Algebraic and Complex Geometry” held September 2012 in Hannover, Germany. These two subjects of recent ongoing progress belong to the most spectacular developments in Algebraic and Complex Geometry. Irreducible symplectic manifolds are of interest to algebraic and differential geometers alike, behaving similar to K3 surfaces and abelian varieties in certain ways, but being by far less well-understood. Moduli spaces, on the other hand, have been a rich source of open questions and discoveries for decades and still continue to be a hot topic in itself as well as with its interplay with neighbouring fields such as arithmetic geometry and string theory. Beyond the above focal topics this volume reflects the broad diversity of lectures at the conference and comprises 11 papers on current research from different areas of algebraic and complex geometry sorted in alphabetic order by the ...

  19. Complex networks: Dynamics and security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ying-Cheng; Motter, Adilson; Nishikawa, Takashi; Park, Kwangho; Zhao, Liang

    2005-04-01

    This paper presents a perspective in the study of complex networks by focusing on how dynamics may affect network security under attacks. In particular, we review two related problems: attack-induced cascading breakdown and range-based attacks on links. A cascade in a network means the failure of a substantial fraction of the entire network in a cascading manner, which can be induced by the failure of or attacks on only a few nodes. These have been reported for the internet and for the power grid (e.g., the August 10, 1996 failure of the western United States power grid). We study a mechanism for cascades in complex networks by constructing a model incorporating the flows of information and physical quantities in the network. Using this model we can also show that the cascading phenomenon can be understood as a phase transition in terms of the key parameter characterizing the node capacity. For a parameter value below the phase-transition point, cascading failures can cause the network to disintegrate almost entirely. We will show how to obtain a theoretical estimate for the phase-transition point. The second problem is motivated by the fact that most existing works on the security of complex networks consider attacks on nodes rather than on links. We address attacks on links. Our investigation leads to the finding that many scale-free networks are more sensitive to attacks on short-range than on long-range links. Considering that the small-world phenomenon in complex networks has been identified as being due to the presence of long-range links, i.e., links connecting nodes that would otherwise be separated by a long node-to-node distance, our result, besides its importance concerning network efficiency and security, has the striking implication that the small-world property of scale-free networks is mainly due to short-range links.

  20. Phytophthora taxa associated with cultivated Agathosma, with emphasis on the P. citricola complex and P. capensis sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezuidenhout, C M; Denman, S; Kirk, S A; Botha, W J; Mostert, L; McLeod, A

    2010-12-01

    Agathosma species, which are indigenous to South Africa, are also cultivated for commercial use. Recently growers experienced severe plant loss, and symptoms shown by affected plants suggested that a soilborne disease could be the cause of death. A number of Phytophthora taxa were isolated from diseased plants, and this paper reports their identity, mating type, and pathogenicity to young Agathosma plants. Using morphological and sequence data seven Phytophthora taxa were identified: the A1 mating type of P. cinnamomi var. cinnamomi, P. cinnamomi var. parvispora and P. cryptogea, the A2 mating type of P. drechsleri and P. nicotianae, and two homothallic taxa from the P. citricola complex. The identity of isolates in the P. citricola complex was resolved using reference isolates of P. citricola CIT groups 1 to 5 sensu Oudemans et al. (1994) along with multi-locus phylogenies (three nuclear and two mitochondrial regions), isozyme analyses, morphological characteristics and temperature-growth studies. These analyses revealed the isolates from Agathosma to include P. multivora and a putative novel species, P. taxon emzansi. Furthermore, among the P. citricola reference isolates the presence of a new species was revealed, described here as P. capensis. Findings of our study, along with some recent other studies, have contributed to resolving some of the species complexity within the P. citricola complex, resulting in the identification of a number of phylogenetically distinct taxa. The pathogenicity of representative isolates of the taxa from Agathosma was tested on A. betulina seedlings. The putative novel species, P. taxon emzansi, and P. cinnamomi var. parvispora were non-pathogenic, whereas the other species were pathogenic to this host.

  1. Complex organic molecules in organic-poor massive young stellar objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fayolle, Edith C.; Öberg, Karin I.; Garrod, Robin T.

    2015-01-01

    Context. Massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) with hot cores are classic sources of complex organic molecules. The origins of these molecules in such sources, as well as the small-and large-scale differentiation between nitrogen-and oxygen-bearing complex species, are poorly understood. Aims. We...

  2. Investigating Differences in Teacher Practices through a Complexity Theory Lens: The Influence of Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Susan D.; Dismuke, Sherry

    2018-01-01

    How to prepare teachers to be effective in our nations' classrooms seems to get increasingly complex, yet the links between teacher education and teachers' eventual practices are little understood. Using complexity theory as a theoretical framework, this mixed-methods study investigated writing teacher practices of 23 elementary teachers. Twelve…

  3. Joined up Thinking? Evaluating the Use of Concept-Mapping to Develop Complex System Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Martyn

    2012-01-01

    In the physical and natural sciences, the complexity of natural systems and their interactions is becoming better understood. With increased emphasis on learning about complex systems, students will be encountering concepts that are dynamic, ill-structured and interconnected. Concept-mapping is a method considered particularly valuable for…

  4. Complex analysis and geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Alessandro

    1993-01-01

    The papers in this wide-ranging collection report on the results of investigations from a number of linked disciplines, including complex algebraic geometry, complex analytic geometry of manifolds and spaces, and complex differential geometry.

  5. Complex Systems: An Introduction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 9. Complex Systems: An Introduction - Anthropic Principle, Terrestrial Complexity, Complex Materials. V K Wadhawan. General Article Volume 14 Issue 9 September 2009 pp 894-906 ...

  6. Soil-borne microbiome: linking diversity to function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendes, L.M.; Tsai, S.M.; Navarrete, Acácio A.; De Hollander, Mattias; Van Veen, J.A.; Kuramae, Eiko E.

    2015-01-01

    Soil microorganisms are sensitive to environment disturbances, and such alterations have consequences on microbial diversity and functions. Our hypothesis is that alpha diversity of microbial communities and functional diversity decrease from undisturbed to disturbed soils, with consequences for

  7. Soil-borne microbiome: linking diversity to function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Lucas W; Tsai, Siu M; Navarrete, Acácio A; de Hollander, Mattias; van Veen, Johannes A; Kuramae, Eiko E

    2015-07-01

    Soil microorganisms are sensitive to environment disturbances, and such alterations have consequences on microbial diversity and functions. Our hypothesis is that alpha diversity of microbial communities and functional diversity decrease from undisturbed to disturbed soils, with consequences for functional redundancy in the soil ecosystem. To test this hypothesis, we used soil DNA shotgun metagenomics approach to assess the soil microbiome in a chronosequence of land-use from a native tropical forest, followed by deforestation and cultivation of soybean croplands and pasture in different seasons. Agriculture and pasture soils were among the most diverse and presented higher functional redundancy, which is important to maintain the ecosystem functioning after the forest conversion. On the other hand, the ecosystem equilibrium in forest is maintained based on a lower alpha diversity but higher abundance of microorganisms. Our results indicate that land-use change alters the structure and composition of microbial communities; however, ecosystem functionality is overcome by different strategies based on the abundance and diversity of the communities.

  8. Management of foliar and soilborne pathogens of cowpea ( Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    White and pink garlic extracts were tested for their antifungal potentials on mycelial radial growth, spores and sclerotial production of Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid, Colletotrichum destructivum O gara and Colletotrichum capsici (Syd) Butler and Bisby pathogens of cowpea in vitro. Water or ethanol extracts of ...

  9. Management of foliar and soilborne pathogens of cowpea (Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-23

    Apr 23, 2014 ... estimated to be 77% in the USA (Hewitt, 1988). Although, benzimidazole based compounds are available against these pathogens; risk of fungicide resistance, the scale of economy and wrong attitude of consumer to chemical handling makes them less practicable for peasant farmers. Alternative methods ...

  10. Hazards to wildlife from soil-borne cadmium reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.

    2000-01-01

    Cadmium is a toxic element that should be included in environmental risk assessments of contaminated soils. This paper argues, however, that hazards to wildlife from cadmium have often been overstated. The literature contains only meager evidence that wild animals have been seriously harmed by cadmium, even at severely contaminated sites. Although some researchers have reported that wildlife have accumulated concentrations of cadmium in their kidneys that were above suggested injury thresholds, the thresholds may be disputed, since they were well below the World Health Organization criterion of 200 mg/kg (wet weight) of cadmium in the renal cortex for protecting human health. Recent risk assessments have concluded that soil cadmium concentrations less than 1 mg/kg are toxic to soil organisms and wildlife, which implies that background concentrations of cadmium naturally found in soils are hazardous. An examination of the databases used to support these assessments suggested that the toxicity of cadmium has been exaggerated.

  11. 8th Conference on Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Menezes, Ronaldo; Sinatra, Roberta; Zlatic, Vinko

    2017-01-01

    This book collects the works presented at the 8th International Conference on Complex Networks (CompleNet) 2017 in Dubrovnik, Croatia, on March 21-24, 2017. CompleNet aims at bringing together researchers and practitioners working in areas related to complex networks. The past two decades has witnessed an exponential increase in the number of publications within this field. From biological systems to computer science, from economic to social systems, complex networks are becoming pervasive in many fields of science. It is this interdisciplinary nature of complex networks that CompleNet aims at addressing. The last decades have seen the emergence of complex networks as the language with which a wide range of complex phenomena in fields as diverse as physics, computer science, and medicine (to name a few) can be properly described and understood. This book provides a view of the state-of-the-art in this dynamic field and covers topics such as network controllability, social structure, online behavior, recommend...

  12. Embracing the complexity of educational programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elly Govers

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Systems of monitoring and control have left many educators and organisations in the field of post-compulsory education struggling to find ways to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse society. Education is complex. Many educators would agree that it is influenced by many, often contradictory, voices and power structures. Based on the findings of a case study involving multiple programmes in a post-compulsory education institution in Aotearoa/New Zealand, this paper aims to unravel this complexity for the case of educational programmes. It describes how programmes can be seen as complex systems, created by people and directed by discourses in society, some of which are more influential than others. If programmes are seen as complex systems, the experience of struggle as referred to above can be understood as a consequence of the attempt to control the complexity rather than work with it. This control limits the possibilities for development and innovation. Alternatively, as this paper will explain, acknowledging and embracing the complexity of programmes helps open up spaces for innovation that would otherwise remain hidden. It is argued that the ultimate space for change is educators’ personal and collective responsibility for the discourses in society they choose to follow.

  13. The Mitochondrial Complex(Ity of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix A. Urra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence highlights that the cancer cell energy requirements vary greatly from normal cells and that cancer cells exhibit different metabolic phenotypes with variable participation of both glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. NADH–ubiquinone oxidoreductase (Complex I is the largest complex of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and contributes about 40% of the proton motive force required for mitochondrial ATP synthesis. In addition, Complex I plays an essential role in biosynthesis and redox control during proliferation, resistance to cell death, and metastasis of cancer cells. Although knowledge about the structure and assembly of Complex I is increasing, information about the role of Complex I subunits in tumorigenesis is scarce and contradictory. Several small molecule inhibitors of Complex I have been described as selective anticancer agents; however, pharmacologic and genetic interventions on Complex I have also shown pro-tumorigenic actions, involving different cellular signaling. Here, we discuss the role of Complex I in tumorigenesis, focusing on the specific participation of Complex I subunits in proliferation and metastasis of cancer cells.

  14. Population structure of manganese-oxidizing bacteria in stratified soils and properties of manganese oxide aggregates under manganese-complex medium enrichment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihong Yang

    Full Text Available Manganese-oxidizing bacteria in the aquatic environment have been comprehensively investigated. However, little information is available about the distribution and biogeochemical significance of these bacteria in terrestrial soil environments. In this study, stratified soils were initially examined to investigate the community structure and diversity of manganese-oxidizing bacteria. Total 344 culturable bacterial isolates from all substrata exhibited Mn(II-oxidizing activities at the range of 1 µM to 240 µM of the equivalent MnO2. The high Mn(II-oxidizing isolates (>50 mM MnO2 were identified as the species of phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. Seven novel Mn(II-oxidizing bacterial genera (species, namely, Escherichia, Agromyces, Cellulomonas, Cupriavidus, Microbacterium, Ralstonia, and Variovorax, were revealed via comparative phylogenetic analysis. Moreover, an increase in the diversity of soil bacterial community was observed after the combined enrichment of Mn(II and carbon-rich complex. The phylogenetic classification of the enriched bacteria represented by predominant denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis bands, was apparently similar to culturable Mn(II-oxidizing bacteria. The experiments were further undertaken to investigate the properties of the Mn oxide aggregates formed by the bacterial isolates with high Mn(II-oxidizing activity. Results showed that these bacteria were closely encrusted with their Mn oxides and formed regular microspherical aggregates under prolonged Mn(II and carbon-rich medium enrichment for three weeks. The biotic oxidation of Mn(II to Mn(III/IV by these isolates was confirmed by kinetic examinations. X-ray diffraction assays showed the characteristic peaks of several Mn oxides and rhodochrosite from these aggregates. Leucoberbelin blue tests also verified the Mn(II-oxidizing activity of these aggregates. These results demonstrated that Mn oxides were formed at certain amounts under the

  15. 7th Workshop on Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gonçalves, Bruno; Menezes, Ronaldo; Sinatra, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    The last decades have seen the emergence of Complex Networks as the language with which a wide range of complex phenomena in fields as diverse as Physics, Computer Science, and Medicine (to name just a few) can be properly described and understood. This book provides a view of the state of the art in this dynamic field and covers topics ranging from network controllability, social structure, online behavior, recommendation systems, and network structure. This book includes the peer-reviewed list of works presented at the 7th Workshop on Complex Networks CompleNet 2016 which was hosted by the Université de Bourgogne, France, from March 23-25, 2016. The 28 carefully reviewed and selected contributions in this book address many topics related to complex networks and have been organized in seven major groups: (1) Theory of Complex Networks, (2) Multilayer networks, (3) Controllability of networks, (4) Algorithms for networks, (5) Community detection, (6) Dynamics and spreading phenomena on networks, (7) Applicat...

  16. Complex differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Fangyang

    2002-01-01

    The theory of complex manifolds overlaps with several branches of mathematics, including differential geometry, algebraic geometry, several complex variables, global analysis, topology, algebraic number theory, and mathematical physics. Complex manifolds provide a rich class of geometric objects, for example the (common) zero locus of any generic set of complex polynomials is always a complex manifold. Yet complex manifolds behave differently than generic smooth manifolds; they are more coherent and fragile. The rich yet restrictive character of complex manifolds makes them a special and interesting object of study. This book is a self-contained graduate textbook that discusses the differential geometric aspects of complex manifolds. The first part contains standard materials from general topology, differentiable manifolds, and basic Riemannian geometry. The second part discusses complex manifolds and analytic varieties, sheaves and holomorphic vector bundles, and gives a brief account of the surface classifi...

  17. Radioisotope trithiol complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurisson, Silvia S.; Cutler, Cathy S.; Degraffenreid, Anthony J.

    2016-08-30

    The present invention is directed to a series of stable radioisotope trithiol complexes that provide a simplified route for the direct complexation of radioisotopes present in low concentrations. In certain embodiments, the complex contains a linking domain configured to conjugate the radioisotope trithiol complex to a targeting vector. The invention is also directed to a novel method of linking the radioisotope to a trithiol compound to form the radioisotope trithiol complex. The inventive radioisotope trithiol complexes may be utilized for a variety of applications, including diagnostics and/or treatment in nuclear medicine.

  18. Complex and symplectic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Medori, Costantino; Tomassini, Adriano

    2017-01-01

    This book arises from the INdAM Meeting "Complex and Symplectic Geometry", which was held in Cortona in June 2016. Several leading specialists, including young researchers, in the field of complex and symplectic geometry, present the state of the art of their research on topics such as the cohomology of complex manifolds; analytic techniques in Kähler and non-Kähler geometry; almost-complex and symplectic structures; special structures on complex manifolds; and deformations of complex objects. The work is intended for researchers in these areas.

  19. Understanding complex urban systems multidisciplinary approaches to modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Gurr, Jens; Schmidt, J

    2014-01-01

    Understanding Complex Urban Systems takes as its point of departure the insight that the challenges of global urbanization and the complexity of urban systems cannot be understood – let alone ‘managed’ – by sectoral and disciplinary approaches alone. But while there has recently been significant progress in broadening and refining the methodologies for the quantitative modeling of complex urban systems, in deepening the theoretical understanding of cities as complex systems, or in illuminating the implications for urban planning, there is still a lack of well-founded conceptual thinking on the methodological foundations and the strategies of modeling urban complexity across the disciplines. Bringing together experts from the fields of urban and spatial planning, ecology, urban geography, real estate analysis, organizational cybernetics, stochastic optimization, and literary studies, as well as specialists in various systems approaches and in transdisciplinary methodologies of urban analysis, the volum...

  20. Oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Azevedo, Cristina G.; Vollhardt, K. Peter C.

    2002-01-18

    Synthesis, characterization, and reactivity studies of oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes, namely those of fulvalene, tercyclopentadienyl, quatercyclopentadienyl, and pentacyclopentadienyl(cyclopentadienyl) are the subject of this account. Thermal-, photo-, and redox chemistries of homo- and heteropolynuclear complexes are described.

  1. Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 30, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 514 Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC) WHAT IS MAC? HOW DO ... INTERACTION PROBLEMS THE BOTTOM LINE WHAT IS MAC? Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC) is a serious illness caused ...

  2. Complex sulfides and thiosalts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehlls, A.

    1987-01-01

    Different types of the structures of complex sulfides, thiosalts of alkali, alkaline earth, rare earth, transition and actinide metals are considered in the review of the papers published before 1980 and devoted to the crystal structure of complex sulfides

  3. Holograms as complex media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, H. John

    2005-08-01

    Complex media can be grown, found in nature, or manufactured.. Holography is one way of fabricating such media. Here I review some examples of holographically manufactured complex media and speculate about some that could be made.

  4. Solvent isotope effects in the complex formation of beryllium sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boojj, M.

    1978-01-01

    The kinetics of complex formation and dissociation of BeSO 4 in D 2 O has been studied. The association constant and the inner sphere/outer sphere equilibrium constant were obtained. By comparing with the corresponding results in H 2 O(1) the solvent isotope effect could be evaluated for some of the involved thermodynamic and kinetic constants. The isotope effects can be understood in terms of Swain and Bader's statistical thermodynamical calculations (2). (orig.) [de

  5. Complex regional pain syndromes (CRPS) type 1 validating case histories

    OpenAIRE

    P. Berger

    2003-01-01

    The treatment of patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type 1 is challenging and unpredictable as the condition presents with vascular and neuropathic symptoms after nil or even minor injury to a peripheral nerve. The condition is one of a pain and motor dysfunction. The pathophysiology is not well understood and the relief of symptoms may change from being sympathetically mediated to sympathetically independent during  the course of the disease. At any stage physiotherapy has b...

  6. The simple complex numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Zalesny, Jaroslaw

    2008-01-01

    A new simple geometrical interpretation of complex numbers is presented. It differs from their usual interpretation as points in the complex plane. From the new point of view the complex numbers are rather operations on vectors than points. Moreover, in this approach the real, imaginary and complex numbers have similar interpretation. They are simply some operations on vectors. The presented interpretation is simpler, more natural, and better adjusted to possible applications in geometry and ...

  7. The Visibility Complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pocchiola, Michel; Vegter, Gert

    1993-01-01

    We introduce the visibility complex of a collection O of n pairwise disjoint convex objects in the plane. This 2–dimensional cell complex may be considered as a generalization of the tangent visibility graph of O. Its space complexity k is proportional to the size of the tangent visibility graph. We

  8. Complex fuzzy soft multisets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkouri, Abd Ulazeez M.; Salleh, Abdul Razak

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we combine two definitions, namely fuzzy soft multiset and complex fuzzy set to construct the definition of a complex fuzzy soft multiset and study its properties. In other words, we study the extension of a fuzzy soft multiset from real numbers to complex numbers. We also introduce its basic operations, namely complement, union and intersection. Some examples are given.

  9. Complex variables I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, Alan D

    2013-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Complex Variables I includes functions of a complex variable, elementary complex functions, integrals of complex functions in the complex plane, sequences and series, and poles and r

  10. The Mediator complex and transcription regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poss, Zachary C.; Ebmeier, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    The Mediator complex is a multi-subunit assembly that appears to be required for regulating expression of most RNA polymerase II (pol II) transcripts, which include protein-coding and most non-coding RNA genes. Mediator and pol II function within the pre-initiation complex (PIC), which consists of Mediator, pol II, TFIIA, TFIIB, TFIID, TFIIE, TFIIF and TFIIH and is approximately 4.0 MDa in size. Mediator serves as a central scaffold within the PIC and helps regulate pol II activity in ways that remain poorly understood. Mediator is also generally targeted by sequence-specific, DNA-binding transcription factors (TFs) that work to control gene expression programs in response to developmental or environmental cues. At a basic level, Mediator functions by relaying signals from TFs directly to the pol II enzyme, thereby facilitating TF-dependent regulation of gene expression. Thus, Mediator is essential for converting biological inputs (communicated by TFs) to physiological responses (via changes in gene expression). In this review, we summarize an expansive body of research on the Mediator complex, with an emphasis on yeast and mammalian complexes. We focus on the basics that underlie Mediator function, such as its structure and subunit composition, and describe its broad regulatory influence on gene expression, ranging from chromatin architecture to transcription initiation and elongation, to mRNA processing. We also describe factors that influence Mediator structure and activity, including TFs, non-coding RNAs and the CDK8 module. PMID:24088064

  11. Building complex reference objects from dual sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patson, Nikole D; Warren, Tessa

    2011-05-01

    There has been considerable psycholinguistic investigation into the conditions that allow separately introduced individuals to be joined into a plural set and represented as a complex reference object (e.g., Eschenbach, et al., 1989; Garrod & Sanford, 1982; Koh & Clifton, 2002; Koh et al., 2008; Moxey et al., 2004; Sanford & Lockhart, 1990). The current paper reports three eye-tracking experiments that investigate the less-well understood question of what conditions allow pointers to be assigned to the individuals within a previously undifferentiated set, turning it into a complex reference object. The experiments made use of a methodology used in Patson and Ferreira (2009) to distinguish between complex reference objects and undifferentiated sets. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that assigning different properties to the members of an undifferentiated dual set via a conjoined modifier or a comparative modifier transformed it into a complex reference object. Experiment 3 indicated that assigning a property to only one member of an undifferentiated dual set introduced pointers to both members. These results demonstrate that pointers can be established to referents within a plural set without picking them out via anaphors; they set boundaries on the kinds of implicit contrasts between referents that establish pointers; and they illustrate that extremely subtle properties of the semantic and referential context can affect early parsing decisions.

  12. What Is a Complex Innovation System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, J. Sylvan

    2016-01-01

    Innovation systems are sometimes referred to as complex systems, something that is intuitively understood but poorly defined. A complex system dynamically evolves in non-linear ways giving it unique properties that distinguish it from other systems. In particular, a common signature of complex systems is scale-invariant emergent properties. A scale-invariant property can be identified because it is solely described by a power law function, f(x) = kxα, where the exponent, α, is a measure of scale-invariance. The focus of this paper is to describe and illustrate that innovation systems have properties of a complex adaptive system. In particular scale-invariant emergent properties indicative of their complex nature that can be quantified and used to inform public policy. The global research system is an example of an innovation system. Peer-reviewed publications containing knowledge are a characteristic output. Citations or references to these articles are an indirect measure of the impact the knowledge has on the research community. Peer-reviewed papers indexed in Scopus and in the Web of Science were used as data sources to produce measures of sizes and impact. These measures are used to illustrate how scale-invariant properties can be identified and quantified. It is demonstrated that the distribution of impact has a reasonable likelihood of being scale-invariant with scaling exponents that tended toward a value of less than 3.0 with the passage of time and decreasing group sizes. Scale-invariant correlations are shown between the evolution of impact and size with time and between field impact and sizes at points in time. The recursive or self-similar nature of scale-invariance suggests that any smaller innovation system within the global research system is likely to be complex with scale-invariant properties too. PMID:27258040

  13. What Is a Complex Innovation System?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Sylvan Katz

    Full Text Available Innovation systems are sometimes referred to as complex systems, something that is intuitively understood but poorly defined. A complex system dynamically evolves in non-linear ways giving it unique properties that distinguish it from other systems. In particular, a common signature of complex systems is scale-invariant emergent properties. A scale-invariant property can be identified because it is solely described by a power law function, f(x = kxα, where the exponent, α, is a measure of scale-invariance. The focus of this paper is to describe and illustrate that innovation systems have properties of a complex adaptive system. In particular scale-invariant emergent properties indicative of their complex nature that can be quantified and used to inform public policy. The global research system is an example of an innovation system. Peer-reviewed publications containing knowledge are a characteristic output. Citations or references to these articles are an indirect measure of the impact the knowledge has on the research community. Peer-reviewed papers indexed in Scopus and in the Web of Science were used as data sources to produce measures of sizes and impact. These measures are used to illustrate how scale-invariant properties can be identified and quantified. It is demonstrated that the distribution of impact has a reasonable likelihood of being scale-invariant with scaling exponents that tended toward a value of less than 3.0 with the passage of time and decreasing group sizes. Scale-invariant correlations are shown between the evolution of impact and size with time and between field impact and sizes at points in time. The recursive or self-similar nature of scale-invariance suggests that any smaller innovation system within the global research system is likely to be complex with scale-invariant properties too.

  14. Simplicial complexes of graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Jonsson, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    A graph complex is a finite family of graphs closed under deletion of edges. Graph complexes show up naturally in many different areas of mathematics, including commutative algebra, geometry, and knot theory. Identifying each graph with its edge set, one may view a graph complex as a simplicial complex and hence interpret it as a geometric object. This volume examines topological properties of graph complexes, focusing on homotopy type and homology. Many of the proofs are based on Robin Forman's discrete version of Morse theory. As a byproduct, this volume also provides a loosely defined toolbox for attacking problems in topological combinatorics via discrete Morse theory. In terms of simplicity and power, arguably the most efficient tool is Forman's divide and conquer approach via decision trees; it is successfully applied to a large number of graph and digraph complexes.

  15. Measuring static complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Goertzel

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “pattern” is introduced, formally defined, and used to analyze various measures of the complexity of finite binary sequences and other objects. The standard Kolmogoroff-Chaitin-Solomonoff complexity measure is considered, along with Bennett's ‘logical depth’, Koppel's ‘sophistication'’, and Chaitin's analysis of the complexity of geometric objects. The pattern-theoretic point of view illuminates the shortcomings of these measures and leads to specific improvements, it gives rise to two novel mathematical concepts--“orders” of complexity and “levels” of pattern, and it yields a new measure of complexity, the “structural complexity”, which measures the total amount of structure an entity possesses.

  16. Avoiding Simplicity Is Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allender, Eric

    It is a trivial observation that every decidable set has strings of length n with Kolmogorov complexity logn + O(1) if it has any strings of length n at all. Things become much more interesting when one asks whether a similar property holds when one considers resource-bounded Kolmogorov complexity. This is the question considered here: Can a feasible set A avoid accepting strings of low resource-bounded Kolmogorov complexity, while still accepting some (or many) strings of length n?

  17. Complex Systems and Dependability

    CERN Document Server

    Zamojski, Wojciech; Sugier, Jaroslaw

    2012-01-01

    Typical contemporary complex system is a multifaceted amalgamation of technical, information, organization, software and human (users, administrators and management) resources. Complexity of such a system comes not only from its involved technical and organizational structure but mainly from complexity of information processes that must be implemented in the operational environment (data processing, monitoring, management, etc.). In such case traditional methods of reliability analysis focused mainly on technical level are usually insufficient in performance evaluation and more innovative meth

  18. Cobalt(III) complex

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    e, 40 µM complex, 10 hrs after dissolution, f, 40 µM complex, after irradiation dose 15 Gy. and H-atoms result in reduction of Co(III) to Co. (II). 6. It is interesting to see in complex containing multiple ligands what is the fate of electron adduct species formed by electron addition. Reduction to. Co(II) and intramolecular transfer ...

  19. Quantum interference within the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chia-Chun; Sanz, Ángel S.; Miret-Artés, Salvador; Wyatt, Robert E.

    2010-10-01

    Quantum interference is investigated within the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. As shown in a previous work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102 (2009) 250401], complex quantum trajectories display helical wrapping around stagnation tubes and hyperbolic deflection near vortical tubes, these structures being prominent features of quantum caves in space-time Argand plots. Here, we further analyze the divergence and vorticity of the quantum momentum function along streamlines near poles, showing the intricacy of the complex dynamics. Nevertheless, despite this behavior, we show that the appearance of the well-known interference features (on the real axis) can be easily understood in terms of the rotation of the nodal line in the complex plane. This offers a unified description of interference as well as an elegant and practical method to compute the lifetime for interference features, defined in terms of the average wrapping time, i.e., considering such features as a resonant process.

  20. Quantum interference within the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Chia-Chun; Sanz, Angel S.; Miret-Artes, Salvador; Wyatt, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    Quantum interference is investigated within the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. As shown in a previous work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102 (2009) 250401], complex quantum trajectories display helical wrapping around stagnation tubes and hyperbolic deflection near vortical tubes, these structures being prominent features of quantum caves in space-time Argand plots. Here, we further analyze the divergence and vorticity of the quantum momentum function along streamlines near poles, showing the intricacy of the complex dynamics. Nevertheless, despite this behavior, we show that the appearance of the well-known interference features (on the real axis) can be easily understood in terms of the rotation of the nodal line in the complex plane. This offers a unified description of interference as well as an elegant and practical method to compute the lifetime for interference features, defined in terms of the average wrapping time, i.e., considering such features as a resonant process.

  1. Conducting metal dithiolate complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underhill, A. E.; Ahmad, M. M.; Turner, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    Further work on the chemical composition of the one-dimensional metallic metal dithiolene complex Li-Pt(mnt) is reported. The electrical conduction and thermopower properties of the nickel and palladium complexes are reported and compared with those of the platinum compound......Further work on the chemical composition of the one-dimensional metallic metal dithiolene complex Li-Pt(mnt) is reported. The electrical conduction and thermopower properties of the nickel and palladium complexes are reported and compared with those of the platinum compound...

  2. The visibility complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pocchiola, M; Vegter, G

    We introduce the visibility complex (rr 2-dimensional regular cell complex) of a collection of n pairwise disjoint convex obstacles in the plane. It can be considered as a subdivision of the set of free rays (i.e., rays whose origins lie in free space, the complement of the obstacles). Its cells

  3. complexes of pyrimidine derived

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    HL3, HL4 and HL5) respectively. These ligands are already reported as good donors for Mo(VI) state. The μ-oxo Mo(V) complexes reported here bears a distorted octahedral geometry around each Mo atom with either N2O2Cl or N2O2Br chromophores. Fine variations in the spectroscopic behaviour of the complexes.

  4. Visual Complexity: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donderi, Don C.

    2006-01-01

    The idea of visual complexity, the history of its measurement, and its implications for behavior are reviewed, starting with structuralism and Gestalt psychology at the beginning of the 20th century and ending with visual complexity theory, perceptual learning theory, and neural circuit theory at the beginning of the 21st. Evidence is drawn from…

  5. Complex Materials and Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    Disruptive Basic Research Areas” – Metamaterials and Plasmonics – Quantum Information Science – Cognitive Neuroscience – Nanoscience and...function Complex Electronics and Fundamental Quantum Processes Complex engineered materials and devices Devices based on quantum phenomena...fundamental quantum processes Quantum Electronic Solids (Weinstock) Photonics and Optoelectronics (Pomrenke) GHz-THz Electronics (Hwang) Natural

  6. Complexity in Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierschynski, Jarek; Louie, Belinda; Pughe, Bronwyn

    2015-01-01

    One of the key requirements of Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in English Language Arts is that students are able to read and access complex texts across all grade levels. The CCSS authors emphasize both the limitations and lack of accuracy in the current CCSS model of text complexity, calling for the development of new frameworks. In response…

  7. Complex conductivity of soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revil, A.; Coperey, A.; Shao, Z.; Florsch, N.; Fabricus, I.L.; Deng, Y.; Delsman, J.R.; Pauw, P.S.; Karaoulis, M.; Louw, P.G.B. de; Baaren, E.S. van; Dabekaussen, W.; Menkovic, A.; Gunnink, J.L.

    2017-01-01

    The complex conductivity of soils remains poorly known despite the growing importance of this method in hydrogeophysics. In order to fill this gap of knowledge, we investigate the complex conductivity of 71 soils samples (including four peat samples) and one clean sand in the frequency range 0.1 Hz

  8. Genetics of complex disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kere, Juha

    2010-05-21

    The success stories of identifying genes in Mendelian disorders have stimulated research that aims at identifying the genetic determinants in complex disorders, in which both genetics, environment and chance affect the pathogenetic processes. This review summarizes the brief history and lessons learned from genetic analysis of complex disorders and outlines some landscapes ahead for medical research. 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Life Complexity and Diversity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is as if the stage is cleared from time to time to make for fresh beginnings, with major bouts of extinction. Humans are amongst the most complex products of evolution having in turn populated the world with ever growing numbers of complex artefacts. These artefacts are now threatening to overwhelm the diversity of life.

  10. Photocytotoxic lanthanide complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The chemistry of photoactive lanthanide complexes showing biological applications is of recent origin. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive treatment modality of cancer using a photosensitizer drug and light. This review primarily focuses on different aspects of the chemistry of lanthanide complexes showing ...

  11. complexes of pyrimidine derived

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    complexes are not so common in literature. Because of a tendency of Mo(V) species to form oxo- ... enzymes such as DMSO reductase are common in microbial systems and are mononuclear in nature. 11 ..... ligands with centroid to centroid distances of 3⋅52 Å. 4. Conclusion. Ten new Mo(V) complexes are prepared which ...

  12. Galactic Habitable Zone and Astrobiological Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukotic, B.

    2012-12-01

    This is a short thesis description and for the sake of brevity most things are left out. For more details, those interested are further directed to the thesis related papers in this article reference list. Thesis itself is available at the University of Belgrade library "Svetozar Markovic" (Serbian version only). In this thesis we study the astrobiological history of the Galactic habitable zone through the means of numerical modeling. First group of simulations are unidimensional (time-axis) toy models examine the influence of global regulation mechanisms (gamma-ray bursts and supernovae) on temporal evolution of Galactic astrobiological complexity. It is shown that under the assumption of global regulation classical anti SETI arguments can be undermined. Second group of simulations are more complex bidimensional probabilistic cellular automata models of the Galactic thin disk. They confirm the findings of the toy models and give some insights into the spatial clustering of astrobiological complexity. As a new emerging multidisciplinary science the basic concepts of astrobiology are poorly understood and although all the simulations present here do not include some basic physics (such as Galactic kinematics and dynamics), the input parameters are somewhat arbitrary and could use a future refinement (such as the boundaries of the Galactic habitable zone). This is the cause for low weight and high uncertainty in the output results of the simulations. However, the probabilistic cellular automata has shown as a highly adaptable modeling platform that can simulate various class of astrobiological models with great ease.

  13. Complexity and behavioral economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, J Barkley; Rosser, Marina V

    2015-04-01

    This paper will consider the relationship between complexity economics and behavioral economics. A crucial key to this is to understand that Herbert Simon was both the founder of explicitly modern behavioral economics as well as one of the early developers of complexity theory. Bounded rationality was essentially derived from Simon's view of the impossibility of full rationality on the part of economic agents. Modern complexity theory through such approaches as agent-based modeling offers an approach to understanding behavioral economics by allowing for specific behavioral responses to be assigned to agents who interact within this context, even without full rationality. Other parts of modern complexity theory are considered in terms of their relationships with behavioral economics. Fundamentally, complexity provides an ultimate foundation for bounded rationality and hence the need to use behavioral economics in a broader array of contexts than most economists have thought appropriate.

  14. Leading healthcare in complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Jeffrey

    2014-12-01

    Healthcare institutions and providers are in complexity. Networks of interconnections from relationships and technology create conditions in which interdependencies and non-linear dynamics lead to surprising, unpredictable outcomes. Previous effective approaches to leadership, focusing on top-down bureaucratic methods, are no longer effective. Leading in complexity requires leaders to accept the complexity, create an adaptive space in which innovation and creativity can flourish and then integrate the successful practices that emerge into the formal organizational structure. Several methods for doing adaptive space work will be discussed. Readers will be able to contrast traditional leadership approaches with leading in complexity. They will learn new behaviours that are required of complexity leaders, along with challenges they will face, often from other leaders within the organization.

  15. Contemporary Leadership Theories. Enhancing the Understanding of the Complexity, Subjectivity and Dynamic of Leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Ingo

    . Leadership is understood as product of complex social relationships embedded in the logic and dynamic of the social system. The book discusses theoretical approaches from top leadership journals, but also addresses various alternatives that are suitable to challenge mainstream leadership research...

  16. Phytophthora taxa associated with cultivated Agathosma, with emphasis on the P. citricola complex and P. capensis sp. nov.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezuidenhout, C.M.; Denman, S.; Kirk, S.A.; Botha, W.J.; Mostert, L.; McLeod, A.

    2010-01-01

    Agathosma species, which are indigenous to South Africa, are also cultivated for commercial use. Recently growers experienced severe plant loss, and symptoms shown by affected plants suggested that a soilborne disease could be the cause of death. A number of Phytophthora taxa were isolated from

  17. Sustaining Economic Exploitation of Complex Ecosystems in Computational Models of Coupled Human-Natural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Neo D.; Tonin, Perrine; Bauer, Barbara; Rael, Rosalyn C.; Singh, Rahul; Yoon, Sangyuk; Yoon, Ilmi; Dunne, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding ecological complexity has stymied scientists for decades. Recent elucidation of the famously coined "devious strategies for stability in enduring natural systems" has opened up a new field of computational analyses of complex ecological networks where the nonlinear dynamics of many interacting species can be more realistically mod-eled and understood. Here, we describe the first extension of this field to include coupled human-natural systems. This extension elucidates new strat...

  18. A precursor of the sciences of complexity in the XIX century

    OpenAIRE

    Kinouchi, Osame

    2001-01-01

    The sciences of complexity present some recurrent themes: the emergence of qualitatively new behaviors in dissipative systems out of equilibrium, the aparent tendency of complex system to lie at the border of phase transitions and bifurcation points, a historical dynamics which present punctuated equilibrium, a tentative of complementing Darwinian evolution with certain ideas of progress (understood as increase of computational power) etc. Such themes, indeed, belong to a long scientific and ...

  19. DNA Barcoding of Bemisia tabaci Complex (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Reveals Southerly Expansion of the Dominant Whitefly Species on Cotton in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Hebert, Paul D. N.; Mirza, M. Sajjad; Khan, Arif M.; Mansoor, Shahid; Shah, Ghulam S.; Zafar, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    Background Although whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci complex) are an important pest of cotton in Pakistan, its taxonomic diversity is poorly understood. As DNA barcoding is an effective tool for resolving species complexes and analyzing species distributions, we used this approach to analyze genetic diversity in the B. tabaci complex and map the distribution of B. tabaci lineages in cotton growing areas of Pakistan. Methods/Principal Findings Sequence diversity in the DNA barcode region (mtCOI-5′) ...

  20. Quantum Entropy and Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benatti, F.; Oskouei, S. Khabbazi; Abad, A. Shafiei Deh

    We study the relations between the recently proposed machine-independent quantum complexity of P. Gacs [1] and the entropy of classical and quantum systems. On one hand, by restricting Gacs complexity to ergodic classical dynamical systems, we retrieve the equality between the Kolmogorov complexity rate and the Shannon entropy rate derived by A. A. Brudno [2]. On the other hand, using the quantum Shannon-McMillan theorem [3], we show that such an equality holds densely in the case of ergodic quantum spin chains.

  1. Study of complex modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastrnak, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    This eighteen-month study has been successful in providing the designer and analyst with qualitative guidelines on the occurrence of complex modes in the dynamics of linear structures, and also in developing computer codes for determining quantitatively which vibration modes are complex and to what degree. The presence of complex modes in a test structure has been verified. Finite element analysis of a structure with non-proportional dumping has been performed. A partial differential equation has been formed to eliminate possible modeling errors

  2. Simulation in Complex Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholas, Paul; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Tamke, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This paper will discuss the role of simulation in extended architectural design modelling. As a framing paper, the aim is to present and discuss the role of integrated design simulation and feedback between design and simulation in a series of projects under the Complex Modelling framework. Complex...... Restraint developed for the research exhibition Complex Modelling, Meldahls Smedie Gallery, Copenhagen in 2016. Where the direct project aims and outcomes have been reported elsewhere, the aim for this paper is to discuss overarching strategies for working with design integrated simulation....

  3. Complexity from the ordinary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayres, Phil

    2006-01-01

    Herbert Simon proposed that complexity is an emergent property that can result from the interaction of a simple mechanism within a complex environment. The Kielder context exhibits continual variation across many time scales and offers a rich resource for exploring the notions of novelty, variety......, specificity and complexity. By considering the design process as a continual iterative cycle in which the digital and analogue are closely coupled, we might imagine a construct that continually redefines itself in relation to its context, attempting to become increasingly specific to location and purpose over...

  4. Understanding Complex Human Ecosystems: The Case of Ecotourism on Bonaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Abel

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available It is suggested that ecotourism development on the island of Bonaire can be productively understood as a perturbation of a complex human ecosystem. Inputs associated with ecotourism have fueled transformations of the island ecology and sociocultural system. The results of this study indicate that Bonaire's social and economic hierarchy is approaching a new, stable systems state following a 50-yr transition begun by government and industry that stabilized with the appearance of ecotourism development and population growth. Ecotourism can be understood to have "filled in" the middle of the production hierarchy of Bonaire. Interpreted from this perspective, population growth has completed the transformation by expanding into production niches at smaller scales in the production hierarchy. Both a consequence and a cause, ecotourism has transformed the island's social structure and demography. The theory and methods applied in this case study of interdisciplinary research in the field of human ecosystems are also presented.

  5. Complex Flow Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-05-01

    This report documents findings from a workshop on the impacts of complex wind flows in and out of wind turbine environments, the research needs, and the challenges of meteorological and engineering modeling at regional, wind plant, and wind turbine scales.

  6. Low complexity MIMO receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Lin; Yu, Quan

    2014-01-01

    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems can increase the spectral efficiency in wireless communications. However, the interference becomes the major drawback that leads to high computational complexity at both transmitter and receiver. In particular, the complexity of MIMO receivers can be prohibitively high. As an efficient mathematical tool to devise low complexity approaches that mitigate the interference in MIMO systems, lattice reduction (LR) has been widely studied and employed over the last decade. The co-authors of this book are world's leading experts on MIMO receivers, and here they share the key findings of their research over years. They detail a range of key techniques for receiver design as multiple transmitted and received signals are available. The authors first introduce the principle of signal detection and the LR in mathematical aspects. They then move on to discuss the use of LR in low complexity MIMO receiver design with respect to different aspects, including uncoded MIMO detection...

  7. Physical Sciences Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This 88,000 square foot complex is used to investigate basic physical science in support of missile technology development. It incorporates office space, dedicated...

  8. Bitter Sweetness of Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, A. K.; Wagener, C.

    Glycosylation of proteins, lipids and mucins has gained increasing complexity in the course of evolution. Metazoans and mammals exhibit extensively exploited pathways of N-glycan biosynthesis, with unique features that are not found in plants or protozoans.

  9. complexes of Ciprofloxacin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-12-17

    2002). Magnesium, Calcium and Barium Percholate complexes of ciprofloxacin and Norfloxacin. Acta. Chim. Slov. 49: 457-466. Akanji MA, Olagoke OA, Oloyede OB (1993). Effects of chronic consumption of metabisulphite on ...

  10. Complex Strategic Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    . Complex Strategic Choices provides clear principles and methods which can guide and support strategic decision making to face the many current challenges. By considering ways in which planning practices can be renewed and exploring the possibilities for acquiring awareness and tools to add value...... and students in the field of planning and decision analysis as well as practitioners dealing with strategic analysis and decision making. More broadly, Complex Strategic Choices acts as guide for professionals and students involved in complex planning tasks across several fields such as business...... to strategic decision making, Complex Strategic Choices presents a methodology which is further illustrated by a number of case studies and example applications. Dr. Techn. Steen Leleur has adapted previously established research based on feedback and input from various conferences, journals and students...

  11. Indicators: Physical Habitat Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical habitat complexity measures the amount and variety of all types of cove at the water’s edge in lakes. In general, dense and varied shoreline habitat is able to support more diverse communities of aquatic life.

  12. Complex Networks IX

    CERN Document Server

    Coronges, Kate; Gonçalves, Bruno; Sinatra, Roberta; Vespignani, Alessandro; Proceedings of the 9th Conference on Complex Networks; CompleNet 2018

    2018-01-01

    This book aims to bring together researchers and practitioners working across domains and research disciplines to measure, model, and visualize complex networks. It collects the works presented at the 9th International Conference on Complex Networks (CompleNet) 2018 in Boston, MA in March, 2018. With roots in physical, information and social science, the study of complex networks provides a formal set of mathematical methods, computational tools and theories to describe prescribe and predict dynamics and behaviors of complex systems. Despite their diversity, whether the systems are made up of physical, technological, informational, or social networks, they share many common organizing principles and thus can be studied with similar approaches. This book provides a view of the state-of-the-art in this dynamic field and covers topics such as group decision-making, brain and cellular connectivity, network controllability and resiliency, online activism, recommendation systems, and cyber security.

  13. Reconstruction Using Witness Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudot, Steve Y.

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel reconstruction algorithm that, given an input point set sampled from an object S, builds a one-parameter family of complexes that approximate S at different scales. At a high level, our method is very similar in spirit to Chew’s surface meshing algorithm, with one notable difference though: the restricted Delaunay triangulation is replaced by the witness complex, which makes our algorithm applicable in any metric space. To prove its correctness on curves and surfaces, we highlight the relationship between the witness complex and the restricted Delaunay triangulation in 2d and in 3d. Specifically, we prove that both complexes are equal in 2d and closely related in 3d, under some mild sampling assumptions. PMID:21643440

  14. Complexity for Artificial Substrates (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loke, L.H.L.; Jachowski, N.R.; Bouma, T.J.; Ladle, R.J.; Todd, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Physical habitat complexity regulates the structure and function of biological communities, although the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear. Urbanisation, pollution, unsustainable resource exploitation and climate change have resulted in the widespread simplification (and loss)

  15. Thermodynamics of complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerhoff, Hans V.; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Snoep, Jacky L.

    1998-01-01

    the thesis that the aforesaid holds a fortiori for the living cell: Much of the essence of the live state depends more on the manner in which the molecules are organised than on the properties of single molecules. This is due to the phenomenon of 'Complexity'. BioComplexity is defined here as the phenomenon...... understanding of this BioComplexity, modem thermodynamic concepts and methods (nonequilibrium thermodynamics, metabolic and hierarchical control analysis) will be needed. We shall propose to redefine nonequilibrium thermodynamics as: The science that aims at understanding the behaviour of nonequilibrium systems...... with metabolic control analysis. Subsequently, the complexity of the control of the energy metabolism of E. coli will be analysed in detail. New control theorems will be derived for newly defined control coefficients. It will become transparent that molecular genetic experimentation will allow one to penetrate...

  16. A scoping review and thematic classification of patient complexity: offering a unifying framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis K. Schaink

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The path to improving healthcare quality for individuals with complex health conditions is complicated by a lack of common understanding of complexity. Modern medicine, together with social and environmental factors, has extended life, leading to a growing population of patients with chronic conditions. In many cases, there are social and psychological factors that impact treatment, health outcomes, and quality of life. This is the face of complexity. Care challenges, burden, and cost have positioned complexity as an important health issue. Complex chronic conditions are now being discussed by clinicians, researchers, and policy-makers around such issues as quantification, payment schemes, transitions, management models, clinical practice, and improved patient experience. We conducted a scoping review of the literature for definitions and descriptions of complexity. We provide an overview of complex chronic conditions, and what is known about complexity, and describe variations in how it is understood. We developed a Complexity Framework from these findings to guide our approach to understanding patient complexity. It is critical to use common vernacular and conceptualization of complexity to improve service and outcomes for patients with complex chronic conditions. Many questions still persist about how to develop this work with a health and social care lens; our framework offers a foundation to structure thinking about complex patients. Further insight into patient complexity can inform treatment models and goals of care, and identify required services and barriers to the management of complexity.

  17. Complex variable HVPT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killingbeck, John P [Mathematics Department, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX (United Kingdom); Grosjean, Alain [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de l' Observatoire de Besancon (CNRS, UPRES-A 6091), 41 bis Avenue de l' Observatoire, BP 1615, 25010 Besancon Cedex (France); Jolicard, Georges [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de l' Observatoire de Besancon (CNRS, UPRES-A 6091), 41 bis Avenue de l' Observatoire, BP 1615, 25010 Besancon Cedex (France)

    2004-08-13

    Complex variable hypervirial perturbation theory is applied to the case of oscillator and Coulomb potentials perturbed by a single term potential of the form Vx{sup n} or Vr{sup n}, respectively. The trial calculations reported show that this approach can produce accurate complex energies for resonant states via a simple and speedy calculation and can also be useful in studies of PT symmetry and tunnelling resonance effects. (addendum)

  18. An erupted complex odontoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozoglu, Sinan; Yildirim, Umran; Buyukkurt, M Cemil

    2010-01-01

    Odontomas are benign tumors of odontogenic origin. The cause of the odontoma is unknown, but it is believed to be hereditary or due to a disturbance in tooth development triggered by trauma or infection. Odontomas may be either compound or complex. Although these tumors are seen frequently, erupted odontomas are rare. The purpose of this study is to present a rare case of complex odontoma that erupted into the oral cavity.

  19. Complexity and Safety (FAA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-27

    Carnegie Mellon University for the operation of the Software Engineering Institute, a federally funded research and development center sponsored by...their error propagation potentials are Enable use of complexity as an indicator of risk , to be tracked using standard techniques Future research...into “How much can we discount the complexity of a system given that X% has been used before?” can be framed as “ credit for precedence” and ties to

  20. Simulation with complex measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieu, T.D.; Griffin, C.J.

    1994-01-01

    The simulation of statistical and quantum systems suffers from the sign problem when the generating function measures are indefinite or are complex, such as lattice quantum chromodynamics with finite temperature and density and chiral gauge theory. A new approach is proposed which yields statistical errors smaller than the crude Monte Carlo using absolute values of the original measures. The one-dimensional complex-coupling Ising model is employed as an illustration. 2 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  1. Advances in network complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Dehmer, Matthias; Emmert-Streib, Frank

    2013-01-01

    A well-balanced overview of mathematical approaches to describe complex systems, ranging from chemical reactions to gene regulation networks, from ecological systems to examples from social sciences. Matthias Dehmer and Abbe Mowshowitz, a well-known pioneer in the field, co-edit this volume and are careful to include not only classical but also non-classical approaches so as to ensure topicality. Overall, a valuable addition to the literature and a must-have for anyone dealing with complex systems.

  2. Provability, complexity, grammars

    CERN Document Server

    Beklemishev, Lev; Vereshchagin, Nikolai

    1999-01-01

    The book contains English translations of three outstanding dissertations in mathematical logic and complexity theory. L. Beklemishev proves that all provability logics must belong to one of the four previously known classes. The dissertation of M. Pentus proves the Chomsky conjecture about the equivalence of two approaches to formal languages: the Chomsky hierarchy and the Lambek calculus. The dissertation of N. Vereshchagin describes a general framework for criteria of reversability in complexity theory.

  3. Conversation, coupling and complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Abney, Drew; Bahrami, Bahador

    We investigate the linguistic co-construction of interpersonal synergies. By applying a measure of coupling between complex systems to an experimentally elicited corpus of joint decision dialogues, we show that interlocutors’ linguistic behavior displays increasing signature of multi-scale coupling......, known as complexity matching, over the course of interaction. Furthermore, we show that stronger coupling corresponds with more effective interaction, as measured by collective task performance....

  4. Electrospun complexes - functionalised nanofibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, T.; Wolf, M.; Dreyer, B.; Unruh, D.; Krüger, C.; Menze, M. [Leibniz University Hannover, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry (Germany); Sindelar, R. [University of Applied Science Hannover, Faculty II (Germany); Klingelhöfer, G. [Gutenberg-University, Institute of Inorganic and Analytic Chemistry (Germany); Renz, F., E-mail: renz@acd.uni-hannover.de [Leibniz University Hannover, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    Here we present a new approach of using iron-complexes in electro-spun fibres. We modify poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) by replacing the methoxy group with Diaminopropane or Ethylenediamine. The complex is bound covalently via an imine-bridge or an amide. The resulting polymer can be used in the electrospinning process without any further modifications in method either as pure reagent or mixed with small amounts of not functionalised polymer resulting in fibres of different qualities (Fig. 1).

  5. Organotin complexes with phosphines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passos, B. de F.T.; Jesus Filho, M.F. de; Filgueiras, C.A.L.; Abras, A.

    1988-01-01

    A series of organotin complexes was prepared involving phosphines bonded to the organotin moiety. The series include derivatives of SnCl x Ph 4-x (where x varied from zero to four with the phosphines Ph 3 P, (Ph 2 P)CH 2 , (Ph 2 P) 2 (CH 2 ) 2 , cis-(Ph 2 P)CH 2 , and CH 3 C(CH 2 PPh 2 ) 3 . A host of new complexes was obtained, showing different stoichiometries, bonding modes, and coordination numbers around the tin atom. These complexes were characterized by several different chemical and physical methods. The 119 Sn Moessbauer parameters varied differently. Whereas isomer shift values did not great variation for each group of complexs with the same organotin parent (SnCl x Ph 4-x ), reflecting a small change in s charge distribution on the Sn atom upon complexation, quadrupole splitting results varied widely, however, when the parent organotin compound was wholly symmetric (SnCl 4 and SnPPh 4 ), the complexes also tended to show quadrupole splitting values approaching zero. (author)

  6. MANAGEMENT OF SPORT COMPLEXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian STAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The actuality of the investigated theme. Nowadays, human evolution, including his intellectual development, proves the fact that especially the creation manpower and the employment was the solution of all life’s ambitions in society. So, the fact is that in reality, man is the most important capital of the society. Also, in an individual’s life, the practice of sport plays a significant role and that’s why the initiation, the launch and the management of sports complexes activity reveal the existence of specific management features that we will identify and explain in the current study. The aim of the research refers to the elaboration of a theoretical base of the management of the sport complexes, to the pointing of the factors that influence the efficient existence and function of a sport complex in our country and to the determination of the responsibilities that have a manager who directs successfully the activity of the sport complexes. The investigation is based on theoretical methods, such as: scientific documentation, analysis, synthesis, comparison and on empirical research methods, like: study of researched literature and observation. The results of the research indicate the fact that the profitability of a sport complex must assure a particular structure to avoid the bankruptcy risk and also, that the administration of the sport complexes activity must keep in view the reliable functions of the contemporaneous management.

  7. Our Galactic Neighbor Hosts Complex Organic Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Kerry

    2018-03-01

    For the first time, data from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) reveal the presence of methyl formate and dimethyl ether in a star-forming region outside our galaxy. This discovery has important implications for the formation and survival of complex organic compounds importantfor the formation of life in low-metallicity galaxies bothyoung and old.No Simple Picture of Complex Molecule FormationALMA, pictured here with the Magellanic Clouds above, has observed organic molecules in our Milky Way Galaxy and beyond. [ESO/C. Malin]Complex organic molecules (those with at least six atoms, one or more of which must be carbon) are the precursors to the building blocks of life. Knowing how and where complex organic molecules can form is a key part of understanding how life came to be on Earth and how it might arise elsewhere in the universe. From exoplanet atmospheres to interstellar space, complex organic molecules are ubiquitous in the Milky Way.In our galaxy, complex organic molecules are often found in the intense environments of hot cores clumps of dense molecular gas surrounding the sites of star formation. However, its not yet fully understood how the complex organic molecules found in hot cores come to be. One possibility is that the compounds condense onto cold dust grains long before the young stars begin heating their natal shrouds. Alternatively, they might assemble themselves from the hot, dense gas surrounding the blazing protostars.Composite infrared and optical image of the N 113 star-forming region in the LMC. The ALMA coverage is indicated by the gray line. Click to enlarge. [Sewio et al. 2018]Detecting Complexity, a Galaxy AwayUsing ALMA, a team of researchers led by Marta Sewio (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center) recently detected two complex organic molecules methyl formate and dimethyl ether for the first time in our neighboring galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Previous searches for organic molecules in the LMC detected

  8. Statistical emission of complex fragments from highly excited compound nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuse, T.

    1991-01-01

    A full statistical analysis has been given in terms of the Extended Hauser-Feshbach method. The charge and kinetic energy distributions of 35 Cl+ 12 C reaction at E lab = 180, 200 MeV and 23 Na+ 24 Mg reaction at E lab = 89 MeV which form the 47 V compound nucleus are investigated as a prototype of the light mass system. The measured kinetic energy distributions of the complex fragments are shown to be well reproduced by the Extended Hauser-Feshbach method, so the observed complex fragment production is understood as the statistical binary decay from the compound nucleus induced by heavy-ion reaction. Next, this method is applied to the study of the complex production from the 111 In compound nucleus which is formed by the 84 Kr+ 27 Al reaction at E lab = 890 MeV. (K.A.) 18 refs., 10 figs

  9. Understanding sustainability from an exergetic frame in complex adaptive systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar Hernandez, Glem Alonso

    2017-01-01

    The concept of sustainability was developed from thermodynamic properties applied to complex adaptive systems. The origins of the perception about sustainable development and limitation in its application to analyze the interaction between a system and its surroundings were described. The properties of a complex adaptive system were taken as basis to determine how a system can to be affected by the resources restriction and irreversibility of the processes. The complex adaptive system was understood using the first and second law of thermodynamics, generating a conceptual framework to define the sustainability of a system. The contributions developed by exergy were shown to analyze the sustainability of systems in an economic, social and environmental context [es

  10. Political complexity predicts the spread of ethnolinguistic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Thomas E; Mace, Ruth

    2009-05-05

    Human languages show a remarkable degree of variation in the area they cover. However, the factors governing the distribution of human cultural groups such as languages are not well understood. While previous studies have examined the role of a number of environmental variables the importance of cultural factors has not been systematically addressed. Here we use a geographical information system (GIS) to integrate information about languages with environmental, ecological, and ethnographic data to test a number of hypotheses that have been proposed to explain the global distribution of languages. We show that the degree of political complexity and type of subsistence strategy exhibited by societies are important predictors of the area covered by a language. Political complexity is also strongly associated with the latitudinal gradient in language area, whereas subsistence strategy is not. We argue that a process of cultural group selection favoring more complex societies may have been important in shaping the present-day global distribution of language diversity.

  11. The Orion complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goudis, C.

    1982-01-01

    This work deals with some of the most typical complexes of interstellar matter and presents a holistic view of the well studied complexes in Orion, built on information derived from various branches of modern astrophysics. A wealth of published data is presented in the form of photographs, contour maps, diagrams and numerous heavily annotated tables. Chapter 1, which is concerned with the large scale view of the Orion region, outlines the morphology of the area and examines in particular the nature of Barnard's Loop and the associated filamentary structure in addition to the origin of the I Orion OB association. Chapter 2 focuses on the Great Orion Nebula (M42 or NGC 1976) and the small H II region to the north (M43 or NGC 1982). Chapter 3 examines the Orion Complex as a whole, i.e. the H II regions M42 and M43, the associated molecular clouds OMC 1 and OMC 2 and their interrelations. Chapter 4 contains a discussion of the empirical models introduced to attempt to explain certain aspects of this very complex region, and chapter 5 investigates the second prominent H II region and molecular cloud complex, NGC 2024 (Orion B, W12). (Auth.)

  12. Algorithmic Relative Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cerra

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Information content and compression are tightly related concepts that can be addressed through both classical and algorithmic information theories, on the basis of Shannon entropy and Kolmogorov complexity, respectively. The definition of several entities in Kolmogorov’s framework relies upon ideas from classical information theory, and these two approaches share many common traits. In this work, we expand the relations between these two frameworks by introducing algorithmic cross-complexity and relative complexity, counterparts of the cross-entropy and relative entropy (or Kullback-Leibler divergence found in Shannon’s framework. We define the cross-complexity of an object x with respect to another object y as the amount of computational resources needed to specify x in terms of y, and the complexity of x related to y as the compression power which is lost when adopting such a description for x, compared to the shortest representation of x. Properties of analogous quantities in classical information theory hold for these new concepts. As these notions are incomputable, a suitable approximation based upon data compression is derived to enable the application to real data, yielding a divergence measure applicable to any pair of strings. Example applications are outlined, involving authorship attribution and satellite image classification, as well as a comparison to similar established techniques.

  13. Complexes and imagination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, Verena

    2014-11-01

    Fantasies as imaginative activities are seen by Jung as expressions of psychic energy. In the various descriptions of active imagination the observation of the inner image and the dialogue with inner figures, if possible, are important. The model of symbol formation, as Jung describes it, can be experienced in doing active imagination. There is a correspondence between Jung's understanding of complexes and our imaginations: complexes develop a fantasy life. Complex episodes are narratives of difficult dysfunctional relationship episodes that have occurred repeatedly and are internalized with episodic memory. This means that the whole complex episode (the image for the child and the image for the aggressor, connected with emotions) is internalized and can get constellated in everyday relationship. Therefore inner dialogues do not necessarily qualify as active imaginations, often they are the expression of complex-episodes, very similar to fruitless soliloquies. If imaginations of this kind are repeated, new symbols and new possibilities of behaviour are not found. On the contrary, old patterns of behaviour and fantasies are perpetuated and become cemented. Imaginations of this kind need an intervention by the analyst. In clinical examples different kinds of imaginations are discussed. © 2014, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  14. Theories and simulations of complex social systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mago, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Research into social systems is challenging due to their complex nature. Traditional methods of analysis are often difficult to apply effectively as theories evolve over time. This can be due to a lack of appropriate data, or too much uncertainty. It can also be the result of problems which are not yet understood well enough in the general sense so that they can be classified, and an appropriate solution quickly identified. Simulation is one tool that deals well with these challenges, fits in well with the deductive process, and is useful for testing theory. This field is still relatively new, and much of the work is necessarily innovative, although it builds upon a rich and varied foundation. There are a number of existing modelling paradigms being applied to complex social systems research. Additionally, new methods and measures are being devised through the process of conducting research. We expect that readers will enjoy the collection of high quality research works from new and accomplished researchers. ...

  15. Modeling Power Systems as Complex Adaptive Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassin, David P.; Malard, Joel M.; Posse, Christian; Gangopadhyaya, Asim; Lu, Ning; Katipamula, Srinivas; Mallow, J V.

    2004-12-30

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today's most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This report explores the state-of-the-art physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and deriving stable and robust control strategies for using them. We review and discuss applications of some analytic methods based on a thermodynamic metaphor, according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood. We apply these methods to the question of how power markets can be expected to behave under a variety of conditions.

  16. Pattern palette for complex fluid flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandnes, B.

    2012-04-01

    From landslides to oil and gas recovery to the squeeze of a toothpaste tube, flowing complex fluids are everywhere around us in nature and engineering. That is not to say, though, that they are always well understood. The dissipative interactions, through friction and inelastic collisions, often give rise to nonlinear dynamics and complexity manifested in pattern formation on large scales. The images displayed on this poster illustrate the diverse morphologies found in multiphase flows involving wet granular material: Air is injected into a generic mixture of granular material and fluid contained in a 500 µm gap between two parallel glass plates. At low injection rates, friction between the grains - glass beads averaging 100 µm in diameter - dominates the rheology, producing "stick-slip bubbles" and labyrinthine frictional fingering. A transition to various other morphologies, including "corals" and viscous fingers, emerges for increasing injection rate. At sufficiently high granular packing fractions, the material behaves like a deformable, porous solid, and the air rips through in sudden fractures.

  17. Modeling Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Boccara, Nino

    2010-01-01

    Modeling Complex Systems, 2nd Edition, explores the process of modeling complex systems, providing examples from such diverse fields as ecology, epidemiology, sociology, seismology, and economics. It illustrates how models of complex systems are built and provides indispensable mathematical tools for studying their dynamics. This vital introductory text is useful for advanced undergraduate students in various scientific disciplines, and serves as an important reference book for graduate students and young researchers. This enhanced second edition includes: . -recent research results and bibliographic references -extra footnotes which provide biographical information on cited scientists who have made significant contributions to the field -new and improved worked-out examples to aid a student’s comprehension of the content -exercises to challenge the reader and complement the material Nino Boccara is also the author of Essentials of Mathematica: With Applications to Mathematics and Physics (Springer, 2007).

  18. Complex Strategic Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    Effective decision making requires a clear methodology, particularly in a complex world of globalisation. Institutions and companies in all disciplines and sectors are faced with increasingly multi-faceted areas of uncertainty which cannot always be effectively handled by traditional strategies....... Complex Strategic Choices provides clear principles and methods which can guide and support strategic decision making to face the many current challenges. By considering ways in which planning practices can be renewed and exploring the possibilities for acquiring awareness and tools to add value...... to strategic decision making, Complex Strategic Choices presents a methodology which is further illustrated by a number of case studies and example applications. Dr. Techn. Steen Leleur has adapted previously established research based on feedback and input from various conferences, journals and students...

  19. Large erupted complex odontoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijeev Vasudevan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas are a heterogeneous group of jaw bone lesions, classified as odontogenic tumors which usually include well-diversified dental tissues. Odontoma is a term introduced to the literature by Broca in 1867. Trauma, infection and hereditary factors are the possible causes of forming this kind of lesions. Among odontogenic tumors, they constitute about 2/3 of cases. These lesions usually develop slowly and asymptomatically, and in most cases they do not cross the bone borders. Two types of odontoma are recognized: compound and complex. Complex odontomas are less common than the compound variety in the ratio 1:2.3. Eruption of an odontoma in the oral cavity is rare. We present a case of complex odontoma, in which apparent eruption has occurred in the area of the right maxillary second molar region.

  20. Alanine water complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero, Vanesa; Sanz, M Eugenia; Peña, Isabel; Mata, Santiago; Cabezas, Carlos; López, Juan C; Alonso, José L

    2014-04-10

    Two complexes of alanine with water, alanine-(H2O)n (n = 1,2), have been generated by laser ablation of the amino acid in a supersonic jet containing water vapor and characterized using Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. In the observed complexes, water molecules bind to the carboxylic group of alanine acting as both proton donors and acceptors. In alanine-H2O, the water molecule establishes two intermolecular hydrogen bonds forming a six-membered cycle, while in alanine-(H2O)2 the two water molecules establish three hydrogen bonds forming an eight-membered ring. In both complexes, the amino acid moiety is in its neutral form and shows the conformation observed to be the most stable for the bare molecule. The microsolvation study of alanine-(H2O)n (n = 1,2) can be taken as a first step toward understanding bulk properties at a microscopic level.

  1. Can Complexity be Planned?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Koutny

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The long accepted complexity invariance of human languages has become controversial within the last decade. In investigations of the problem, both creole and planned languages have often been neglected. After a presentation of the scope of the invariance problem and the proposition of the natural to planned language continuum, this article will discuss the contribution of planned languages. It will analyze the complexity of Esperanto at the phonological, morphological, syntactic and semantic levels, using linguistic data bases. The role of the L2 speech community and development of the language will also be taken into account when discussing the endurance of the same level of simplicity of this planned international language. The author argues that complexity can be variable and to some extent planned and maintained.

  2. Complex Strategic Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    to strategic decision making, Complex Strategic Choices presents a methodology which is further illustrated by a number of case studies and example applications. Dr. Techn. Steen Leleur has adapted previously established research based on feedback and input from various conferences, journals and students......Effective decision making requires a clear methodology, particularly in a complex world of globalisation. Institutions and companies in all disciplines and sectors are faced with increasingly multi-faceted areas of uncertainty which cannot always be effectively handled by traditional strategies....... Complex Strategic Choices provides clear principles and methods which can guide and support strategic decision making to face the many current challenges. By considering ways in which planning practices can be renewed and exploring the possibilities for acquiring awareness and tools to add value...

  3. Philosophy of complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    The domain of nonlinear dynamical systems and its mathematical underpinnings has been developing exponentially for a century, the last 35 years seeing an outpouring of new ideas and applications and a concomitant confluence with ideas of complex systems and their applications from irreversible thermodynamics. A few examples are in meteorology, ecological dynamics, and social and economic dynamics. These new ideas have profound implications for our understanding and practice in domains involving complexity, predictability and determinism, equilibrium, control, planning, individuality, responsibility and so on. Our intention is to draw together in this volume, we believe for the first time, a comprehensive picture of the manifold philosophically interesting impacts of recent developments in understanding nonlinear systems and the unique aspects of their complexity. The book will focus specifically on the philosophical concepts, principles, judgments and problems distinctly raised by work in the domain of comple...

  4. Synchronization in complex networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenas, A.; Diaz-Guilera, A.; Moreno, Y.; Zhou, C.; Kurths, J.

    2007-12-12

    Synchronization processes in populations of locally interacting elements are in the focus of intense research in physical, biological, chemical, technological and social systems. The many efforts devoted to understand synchronization phenomena in natural systems take now advantage of the recent theory of complex networks. In this review, we report the advances in the comprehension of synchronization phenomena when oscillating elements are constrained to interact in a complex network topology. We also overview the new emergent features coming out from the interplay between the structure and the function of the underlying pattern of connections. Extensive numerical work as well as analytical approaches to the problem are presented. Finally, we review several applications of synchronization in complex networks to different disciplines: biological systems and neuroscience, engineering and computer science, and economy and social sciences.

  5. Management of complex fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Hans Staby; Andersen, Peder; Hoff, Ayoe

    2013-01-01

    . This is defined as the management scheme which produces the highest net present value over a 25 year period. The assessed management schemes (scenarios) are composed by several measures as used in the Common Fisheries Policy of the European Union for the cod fishery in the Baltic Sea. The scenarios are total......The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how fisheries economics management issues or problems can be analyzed by using a complex model based on conventional bioeconomic theory. Complex simulation models contain a number of details that make them suitable for practical management advice......, including taking into account the response of the fishermen to implemented management measures. To demonstrate the use of complex management models this paper assesses a number of second best management schemes against a first rank optimum (FRO), an ideal individual transferable quotas (ITQ) system...

  6. Introduction to Complex Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Bonitz, Michael; Ludwig, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Complex plasmas differ from traditional plasmas in many ways: these are low-temperature high pressure systems containing nanometer to micrometer size particles which may be highly charged and strongly interacting. The particles may be chemically reacting or be in contact with solid surfaces, and the electrons may show quantum behaviour. These interesting properties have led to many applications of complex plasmas in technology, medicine and science. Yet complex plasmas are extremely complicated, both experimentally and theoretically, and require a variety of new approaches which go beyond standard plasma physics courses. This book fills this gap presenting an introduction to theory, experiment and computer simulation in this field. Based on tutorial lectures at a very successful recent Summer Institute, the presentation is ideally suited for graduate students, plasma physicists and experienced undergraduates.

  7. Modeling Complex Time Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Svatos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze complexity of time limits we can find especially in regulated processes of public administration. First we review the most popular process modeling languages. There is defined an example scenario based on the current Czech legislature which is then captured in discussed process modeling languages. Analysis shows that the contemporary process modeling languages support capturing of the time limit only partially. This causes troubles to analysts and unnecessary complexity of the models. Upon unsatisfying results of the contemporary process modeling languages we analyze the complexity of the time limits in greater detail and outline lifecycles of a time limit using the multiple dynamic generalizations pattern. As an alternative to the popular process modeling languages there is presented PSD process modeling language, which supports the defined lifecycles of a time limit natively and therefore allows keeping the models simple and easy to understand.

  8. Simulation in Complex Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholas, Paul; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Tamke, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This paper will discuss the role of simulation in extended architectural design modelling. As a framing paper, the aim is to present and discuss the role of integrated design simulation and feedback between design and simulation in a series of projects under the Complex Modelling framework. Complex...... performance, engage with high degrees of interdependency and allow the emergence of design agency and feedback between the multiple scales of architectural construction. This paper presents examples for integrated design simulation from a series of projects including Lace Wall, A Bridge Too Far and Inflated...... Restraint developed for the research exhibition Complex Modelling, Meldahls Smedie Gallery, Copenhagen in 2016. Where the direct project aims and outcomes have been reported elsewhere, the aim for this paper is to discuss overarching strategies for working with design integrated simulation....

  9. Complex Polynomial Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    vector fields. Since the class of complex polynomial vector fields in the plane is natural to consider, it is remarkable that its study has only begun very recently. There are numerous fundamental questions that are still open, both in the general classification of these vector fields, the decomposition...... of parameter spaces into structurally stable domains, and a description of the bifurcations. For this reason, the talk will focus on these questions for complex polynomial vector fields.......The two branches of dynamical systems, continuous and discrete, correspond to the study of differential equations (vector fields) and iteration of mappings respectively. In holomorphic dynamics, the systems studied are restricted to those described by holomorphic (complex analytic) functions...

  10. Association of the human CD3-zeta chain with the alpha beta-T cell receptor/CD3 complex. Clues from a T cell variant with a mutated T cell receptor-alpha chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, C; Schøller, J; Wahi, M A

    1990-01-01

    of the various components of this multimeric protein complex are not fully understood. In this report, a variant of the human leukemic T cell line Jurkat that synthesized all of the known components of the TCR/CD3 complex but fails to express the TCR/CD3 complex at the cell surface is further characterized...

  11. Entropy, Search, Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Katona, Gyula O H; Tardos, Gábor

    2007-01-01

    The present volume is a collection of survey papers in the fields of entropy, search and complexity. They summarize the latest developments in their respective areas. More than half of the papers belong to search theory which lies on the borderline of mathematics and computer science, information theory and combinatorics, respectively. Search theory has variegated applications, among others in bioinformatics. Some of these papers also have links to linear statistics and communicational complexity. Further works survey the fundamentals of information theory and quantum source coding. The volume is recommended to experienced researchers as well as young scientists and students both in mathematics and computer science

  12. Complex HVPT and hyperasymptotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killingbeck, John P [Mathematics Department, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX (United Kingdom); Grosjean, Alain [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de l' Observatoire de Besancon(CNRS, UMR 6091), 41 bis Avenue de l' Observatoire, BP 1615, 25010 Besancon Cedex (France); Jolicard, Georges [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de l' Observatoire de Besancon(CNRS, UMR 6091), 41 bis Avenue de l' Observatoire, BP 1615, 25010 Besancon Cedex (France)

    2006-08-25

    Complex hypervirial perturbation theory (HVPT) is applied to the problem of a harmonic oscillator with a perturbation gx{sup 3}exp(i{psi}), for which the traditional Rayleigh-Schodinger perturbation theory has to be supplemented by hyperasymptotics for obtaining accurate resonance energies in the negative {psi} region. Complex HVPT gives accurate results for positive {psi} and for negative {psi} up to about vertical bar {phi} vertical bar = {pi}/24. The case of a quartic perturbed oscillator is also treated. (letter to the editor)

  13. Luminescent macrocyclic lanthanide complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Kenneth N; Corneillie, Todd M; Xu, Jide

    2014-05-20

    The present invention provides a novel class of macrocyclic compounds as well as complexes formed between a metal (e.g., lanthanide) ion and the compounds of the invention. Preferred complexes exhibit high stability as well as high quantum yields of lanthanide ion luminescence in aqueous media without the need for secondary activating agents. Preferred compounds incorporate hydroxy-isophthalamide moieties within their macrocyclic structure and are characterized by surprisingly low, non-specific binding to a variety of polypeptides such as antibodies and proteins as well as high kinetic stability. These characteristics distinguish them from known, open-structured ligands.

  14. Theories of computational complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Calude, C

    1988-01-01

    This volume presents four machine-independent theories of computational complexity, which have been chosen for their intrinsic importance and practical relevance. The book includes a wealth of results - classical, recent, and others which have not been published before.In developing the mathematics underlying the size, dynamic and structural complexity measures, various connections with mathematical logic, constructive topology, probability and programming theories are established. The facts are presented in detail. Extensive examples are provided, to help clarify notions and constructions. The lists of exercises and problems include routine exercises, interesting results, as well as some open problems.

  15. Complex function theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sarason, Donald

    2007-01-01

    Complex Function Theory is a concise and rigorous introduction to the theory of functions of a complex variable. Written in a classical style, it is in the spirit of the books by Ahlfors and by Saks and Zygmund. Being designed for a one-semester course, it is much shorter than many of the standard texts. Sarason covers the basic material through Cauchy's theorem and applications, plus the Riemann mapping theorem. It is suitable for either an introductory graduate course or an undergraduate course for students with adequate preparation. The first edition was published with the title Notes on Co

  16. Planning Complex Projects Automatically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, Andrea L.; Stottler, Richard H.; Maher, Timothy P.

    1995-01-01

    Automated Manifest Planner (AMP) computer program applies combination of artificial-intelligence techniques to assist both expert and novice planners, reducing planning time by orders of magnitude. Gives planners flexibility to modify plans and constraints easily, without need for programming expertise. Developed specifically for planning space shuttle missions 5 to 10 years ahead, with modifications, applicable in general to planning other complex projects requiring scheduling of activities depending on other activities and/or timely allocation of resources. Adaptable to variety of complex scheduling problems in manufacturing, transportation, business, architecture, and construction.

  17. Complex variables II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, Alan D

    2013-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Complex Variables II includes elementary mappings and Mobius transformation, mappings by general functions, conformal mappings and harmonic functions, applying complex functions to a

  18. Humic acid protein complexation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, W. F.; Koopal, L. K.; Weng, L. P.; van Riemsdijk, W. H.; Norde, W.

    2008-04-01

    Interactions of purified Aldrich humic acid (PAHA) with lysozyme (LSZ) are investigated. In solution LSZ is moderately positively and PAHA negatively charged at the investigated pH values. The proton binding of PAHA and of LSZ is determined by potentiometric proton titrations at various KCl concentrations. It is also measured for two mixtures of PAHA-LSZ and compared with theoretically calculated proton binding assuming no mutual interaction. The charge adaptation due to PAHA-LSZ interaction is relatively small and only significant at low and high pH. Next to the proton binding, the mass ratio PAHA/LSZ at the iso-electric point (IEP) of the complex at given solution conditions is measured together with the pH using the Mütek particle charge detector. From the pH changes the charge adaptation due to the interaction can be found. Also these measurements show that the net charge adaptation is weak for PAHA-LSZ complexes at their IEP. PAHA/LSZ mass ratios in the complexes at the IEP are measured at pH 5 and 7. At pH 5 and 50 mmol/L KCl the charge of the complex is compensated for 30-40% by K +; at pH 7, where LSZ has a rather low positive charge, this is 45-55%. At pH 5 and 5 mmol/L KCl the PAHA/LSZ mass ratio at the IEP of the complex depends on the order of addition. When LSZ is added to PAHA about 25% K + is included in the complex, but no K + is incorporated when PAHA is added to LSZ. The flocculation behavior of the complexes is also different. After LSZ addition to PAHA slow precipitation occurs (6-24 h) in the IEP, but after addition of PAHA to LSZ no precipitation can be seen after 12 h. Clearly, PAHA/LSZ complexation and the colloidal stability of PAHA-LSZ aggregates depend on the order of addition. Some implications of the observed behavior are discussed.

  19. Complex matrix model duality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T.W.

    2010-11-15

    The same complex matrix model calculates both tachyon scattering for the c=1 non-critical string at the self-dual radius and certain correlation functions of half-BPS operators in N=4 super- Yang-Mills. It is dual to another complex matrix model where the couplings of the first model are encoded in the Kontsevich-like variables of the second. The duality between the theories is mirrored by the duality of their Feynman diagrams. Analogously to the Hermitian Kontsevich- Penner model, the correlation functions of the second model can be written as sums over discrete points in subspaces of the moduli space of punctured Riemann surfaces. (orig.)

  20. Complex/Symplectic Mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, Wu-yen; Kachru, Shamit; /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC; Tomasiello, Alessandro; /Stanford U., ITP

    2005-10-28

    We construct a class of symplectic non-Kaehler and complex non-Kaehler string theory vacua, extending and providing evidence for an earlier suggestion by Polchinski and Strominger. The class admits a mirror pairing by construction. Comparing hints from a variety of sources, including ten-dimensional supergravity and KK reduction on SU(3)-structure manifolds, suggests a picture in which string theory extends Reid's fantasy to connect classes of both complex non-Kaehler and symplectic non-Kaehler manifolds.

  1. Simulations with complex measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markham, J.K.; Kieu, T.D.

    1997-01-01

    A method is proposed to handle the sign problem in the simulation of systems having indefinite or complex-valued measures. In general, this new approach, which is based on renormalisation blocking, is shown to yield statistical errors smaller that the crude Monte Carlo method using absolute values of the original measures. The improved method is applied to the 2D Ising model with temperature generalised to take on complex values. It is also adapted to implement Monte Carlo Renormalisation Group calculations of the magnetic and thermal critical exponents. 10 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs

  2. Mergers and acquisitions in professional organizations: a complex adaptive systems approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, M E; McDaniel, R R

    1999-09-01

    Nurse managers face unique challenges as they cope with mergers and acquisitions among health care organizations. These challenges can be better understood if it is recognized that health care institutions are professional organizations and that the transformations required are extremely difficult. These difficulties are caused, in part, by the institutionalized nature of professional organizations, and this nature is explicated. Professional organizations are stubborn. They are repositories of expertise and values that are societal in origin and difficult to change. When professional organizations are understood as complex adaptive systems, complexity theory offers insight that provide strategies for managing mergers and acquisitions that may not be apparent when more traditional conceptualizations of professional organizations are used. Specific managerial techniques consistent with both the institutionalized characteristics and the complex adaptive systems characteristics of professional organizations are offered to nurse managers.

  3. Translating concepts of complexity to the field of ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Guy H; Stanton, Neville A; Salmon, Paul M; Jenkins, Daniel P; Rafferty, Laura

    2010-10-01

    Since 1958 more than 80 journal papers from the mainstream ergonomics literature have used either the words 'complex' or 'complexity' in their titles. Of those, more than 90% have been published in only the past 20 years. This observation communicates something interesting about the way in which contemporary ergonomics problems are being understood. The study of complexity itself derives from non-linear mathematics but many of its core concepts have found analogies in numerous non-mathematical domains. Set against this cross-disciplinary background, the current paper aims to provide a similar initial mapping to the field of ergonomics. In it, the ergonomics problem space, complexity metrics and powerful concepts such as emergence raise complexity to the status of an important contingency factor in achieving a match between ergonomics problems and ergonomics methods. The concept of relative predictive efficiency is used to illustrate how this match could be achieved in practice. What is clear overall is that a major source of, and solution to, complexity are the humans in systems. Understanding complexity on its own terms offers the potential to leverage disproportionate effects from ergonomics interventions and to tighten up the often loose usage of the term in the titles of ergonomics papers. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This paper reviews and discusses concepts from the study of complexity and maps them to ergonomics problems and methods. It concludes that humans are a major source of and solution to complexity in systems and that complexity is a powerful contingency factor, which should be considered to ensure that ergonomics approaches match the true nature of ergonomics problems.

  4. Origin of the Anomalous Color of Egyptian and Han Blue Historical Pigments: Going beyond the Complex Approximation in Ligand Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fernandez, Pablo; Moreno, Miguel; Aramburu, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The complex approximation is widely used in the framework of the Ligand Field Theory for explaining the optical properties of crystalline coordination compounds. Here, we show that there are essential features of these systems that cannot be understood with the usual approximation that only considers an isolated complex at the correct equilibrium…

  5. SIMPLE MODELS OF COMPLEX BEHAVIOUR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SIMPLE MODELS OF COMPLEX BEHAVIOUR · COMPLEXITY IN HUMAN AFFAIRS · COMPLEXITY IN STATISTICAL PHYSICS · DISORDER, CRITICALITY and ORDER IN EQUILIBRIUM SYSTEMS · COARSENING PHENOMENA · NONEQUILIBRIUM STEADY STATES · ORDERING INDUCED BY RANDOM DRIVING.

  6. Exporting Complex Digital Products: Motives and Entry Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten

    2005-01-01

    When the product is digital, it will most often be distributed directly to the customer through the Internet, and therefore the entry modes, considered in this paper, are different flavors of the entry mode called direct export: Virtual export channel are generally understood as the entry mode fo...... for digital product providers. However other types of entry modes like what wee call direct digital export with F2F-sales, direct digital export with F2F-support and virtual sales subsidiary are entry modes that respond to a higher degree of pre- and after-sales complexity....

  7. Exporting Complex Digital Products: Motives and Entry Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten

    2005-01-01

    When the product is digital, it will most often be distributed directly to the customer through the Internet, and therefore, the entry modes, considered in this paper, are different flavors of the entry mode called direct export: virtual export channel is generally understood as the entry mode...... for digital product providers. However, other types of entry modes like what we call direct digital export with F2F-sales, direct digital export with F2F-support, and virtual sales subsidiary are entry modes that respond to a higher degree of pre- and postsales complexity....

  8. Regulatory Mechanisms in the P4-ATPase Complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Sara

    . The functionality on the P4-ATPase complex is essential for several cellular processes, such as vesicle-mediated transport. However, the specific role of flippase activity in vesicle biogenesis and the regulatory mechanism behind this process is still poorly understood. In these studies, we identified...... as these transporters are trapped in an environment formed by their own substrate (lipids). Most lipid uptake assays use fluorescent lipid analogues in combination with flow cytometry analysis. However, flow cytometry systems are rather expensive and require extensive maintenance. Thus, we present a simple and more...

  9. Real and complex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Apelian, Christopher; Taft, Earl; Nashed, Zuhair

    2009-01-01

    The Spaces R, Rk, and CThe Real Numbers RThe Real Spaces RkThe Complex Numbers CPoint-Set Topology Bounded SetsClassification of Points Open and Closed SetsNested Intervals and the Bolzano-Weierstrass Theorem Compactness and Connectedness Limits and Convergence Definitions and First Properties Convergence Results for SequencesTopological Results for Sequences Properties of Infinite SeriesManipulations of Series in RFunctions: Definitions and Limits DefinitionsFunctions as MappingsSome Elementary Complex FunctionsLimits of FunctionsFunctions: Continuity and Convergence Continuity Uniform Continuity Sequences and Series of FunctionsThe DerivativeThe Derivative for f: D1 → RThe Derivative for f: Dk → RThe Derivative for f: Dk → RpThe Derivative for f: D → CThe Inverse and Implicit Function TheoremsReal IntegrationThe Integral of f: [a, b] → RProperties of the Riemann Integral Further Development of Integration TheoryVector-Valued and Line IntegralsComplex IntegrationIntroduction to Complex Integrals Fu...

  10. Nitrido complexes of technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abram, U.; Abram, S.

    1987-01-01

    In this report synthesis, characterization and chemical behaviour of coordination compounds of the element technetium are reported containing a geminal nitrogen ligand. In addition, an evaluation of the in-vitro behaviour of the complexes is given as well as a list of all literature to this matter. (author)

  11. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 40. It is uncommon in children and rare in the elderly. How is complex regional pain syndrome diagnosed? Your ... Mental Health Sex and Birth Control Sex and Sexuality Birth Control Family ... Men Seniors In The News Your Health Resources Healthcare Management End- ...

  12. Proteasomes: a complex story

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendil, Klavs B; Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus

    2004-01-01

    Protein degradation in eukaryotic cells is important for regulation of metabolism, progression through the division cycle, in cell signalling pathways, and in mammals also for generation of antigen fragments for presentation on the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I. Most cell protein...

  13. Cobalt(III) complex

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    CO. –. 2 radi- cals with [Co(III)(phendione)2Cl2]Cl (complex) have been studied by electron pulse radiolysis. Time resolved transient absorption spectra for all the four species show two peaks which match with those of phendione anion radical produced by the reaction of e. – aq with phendione. However, there are some ...

  14. Life Complexity and Diversity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 12. Life Complexity and Diversity Whither Diversity. Madhav Gadgil. Series Article Volume 1 Issue 12 December 1996 pp 17-25. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/12/0017-0025 ...

  15. Smoothed Complexity Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bläser, Markus; Manthey, Bodo

    Smoothed analysis is a new way of analyzing algorithms introduced by Spielman and Teng. Classical methods like worst-case or average-case analysis have accompanying complexity classes, such as P and Avg-P, respectively. Whereas worst-case or average-case analysis give us a means to talk about the

  16. Entropy and Kolmogorov complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moriakov, N.V.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is dedicated to studying the theory of entropy and its relation to the Kolmogorov complexity. Originating in physics, the notion of entropy was introduced to mathematics by C. E. Shannon as a way of measuring the rate at which information is coming from a data source. There are, however,

  17. The CERN accelerator complex

    CERN Multimedia

    Christiane Lefèvre

    2008-01-01

    The LHC is the last ring (dark grey line) in a complex chain of particle accelerators. The smaller machines are used in a chain to help boost the particles to their final energies and provide beams to a whole set of smaller experiments, which also aim to uncover the mysteries of the Universe.

  18. The hamstring muscle complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Made, A. D.; Wieldraaijer, T.; Kerkhoffs, G. M.; Kleipool, R. P.; Engebretsen, L.; van Dijk, C. N.; Golanó, P.

    2015-01-01

    The anatomical appearance of the hamstring muscle complex was studied to provide hypotheses for the hamstring injury pattern and to provide reference values of origin dimensions, muscle length, tendon length, musculotendinous junction (MTJ) length as well as width and length of a tendinous

  19. Electromeric rhodium radical complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puschmann, F.F.; Harmer, J.; Stein, D.; Rüegger, H.; de Bruin, B.; Grützmacher, H.

    2010-01-01

    Radical changes: One single P-Rh-P angle determines whether the odd electron in the paramagnetic complex [Rh(trop2PPh)(PPh3)] is delocalized over the whole molecule (see picture, blue) or is localized on the P—Rh unit (red). The two energetically almost degenerate electromers exist in a fast

  20. Supporting complex search tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gäde, Maria; Hall, Mark; Huurdeman, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    introductory to specialized, and from authoritative to speculative or opinionated, when to show what sources of information? How does the information seeking process evolve and what are relevant differences between different stages? With complex task and search process management, blending searching, browsing...

  1. Complexity and formative experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roque Strieder

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The contemporaneity is characterized by instability and diversity calling into question certainties and truths proposed in modernity. We recognize that the reality of things and phenomena become effective as a set of events, interactions, retroactions and chances. This different frame extends the need for revision of the epistemological foundations that sustain educational practices and give them sense. The complex thinking is an alternative option for acting as a counterpoint to classical science and its reductionist logic and knowledge compartmentalization, as well as to answer to contemporary epistemological and educational challenges. It aims to associate different areas and forms of knowledge, without, however merge them, distinguishing without separating the several disciplines and instances of the realities. This study, in theoretical references, highlights the relevance of complex approaches to support formative experiences because also able to produce complexities in reflections about educational issues. We conclude that formative possibilities from complexity potentialize the resignification of human’s conception and the understanding of its singularity in interdependence; The understanding that pedagogical and educational activities is a constant interrogation about the possibilities of knowing the knowledge and reframe learning, far beyond knowing its functions and utilitarian purposes; and, as a formative possibility, places us on the trail of responsibility, not as something eventual, but present and indicative of freedom to choose to stay or go beyond.

  2. The CERN accelerator complex

    CERN Multimedia

    Mobs, Esma Anais

    2016-01-01

    The LHC is the last ring (dark blue line) in a complex chain of particle accelerators. The smaller machines are used in a chain to help boost the particles to their final energies and provide beams to a whole set of smaller experiments, which also aim to uncover the mysteries of the Universe.

  3. Managing complex child law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Idamarie Leth

    2017-01-01

    The article reports the findings of a qualitative study of Danish legal regulation of the public initial assessment of children and young persons and municipal practitioners’ decision-making under this regulation. The regulation mirrors new and complex relations between families and society and t...

  4. Complexity driven photonics

    KAUST Repository

    Fratalocchi, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    Disorder and chaos are ubiquitous phenomena that are mostly unwanted in applications. On the contrary, they can be exploited to create a new technology. In this talk I will summarize my research in this field, discussing chaotic energy harvesting, nonlinear stochastic resonance and complex nanolasers.

  5. The CERN accelerator complex

    CERN Multimedia

    Haffner, Julie

    2013-01-01

    The LHC is the last ring (dark grey line) in a complex chain of particle accelerators. The smaller machines are used in a chain to help boost the particles to their final energies and provide beams to a whole set of smaller experiments, which also aim to uncover the mysteries of the Universe.

  6. Complexity measures of music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease, April; Mahmoodi, Korosh; West, Bruce J.

    2018-03-01

    We present a technique to search for the presence of crucial events in music, based on the analysis of the music volume. Earlier work on this issue was based on the assumption that crucial events correspond to the change of music notes, with the interesting result that the complexity index of the crucial events is mu ~ 2, which is the same inverse power-law index of the dynamics of the brain. The search technique analyzes music volume and confirms the results of the earlier work, thereby contributing to the explanation as to why the brain is sensitive to music, through the phenomenon of complexity matching. Complexity matching has recently been interpreted as the transfer of multifractality from one complex network to another. For this reason we also examine the mulifractality of music, with the observation that the multifractal spectrum of a computer performance is significantly narrower than the multifractal spectrum of a human performance of the same musical score. We conjecture that although crucial events are demonstrably important for information transmission, they alone are not suficient to define musicality, which is more adequately measured by the multifractality spectrum.

  7. Optical Complex Systems 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Guillaume

    The Optical Complex Systems are more and more in the heart of various systems that industrial applications bring to everyday life. From environment up to spatial applications, OCS is also relevant in monitoring, transportation, robotics, life sciences, sub-marine, and even for agricultural purposes.

  8. Complex adaptive systems ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2003-01-01

    In the following, I will analyze two articles called Complex Adaptive Systems EcologyI & II (Molin & Molin, 1997 & 2000). The CASE-articles are some of the more quirkyarticles that have come out of the Molecular Microbial Ecology Group - a groupwhere I am currently making observational studies...

  9. Macroevolution of complex retroviruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katzourakis, Aris; Gifford, Robert J; Tristem, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Retroviruses can leave a "fossil record" in their hosts' genomes in the form of endogenous retroviruses. Foamy viruses, complex retroviruses that infect mammals, have been notably absent from this record. We have found an endogenous foamy virus within the genomes of sloths and show that foamy vir...

  10. Energy momentum complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nashed, Gamal G.L. [Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt). Faculty of Science. Mathematics Dept.

    2010-09-15

    We show that the definition of the energy-momentum complex given by Moeller using Weitzenboeck spacetime in the calculations of gravitational energy gives results which are different from those obtained from other definitions given in the framework of general relativity. (author)

  11. unsymmetrical Schiff base complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ecoline-RE 104 thermostat. FT- .... refluxed for 24 h under nitrogen atmosphere. The result- ing oil was grinded with n-hexane to extract impurities, ... diethyl ether into a solution of the metal complex in dimethylformamide (DMF) at room temperature ...

  12. Light in complex dielectrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurmans, F.J.P.

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis the properties of light in complex dielectrics are described, with the two general topics of "modification of spontaneous emission" and "Anderson localization of light". The first part focuses on the spontaneous emission rate of an excited atom in a dielectric host with variable

  13. Prediction of Biomolecular Complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Vangone, Anna

    2017-04-12

    Almost all processes in living organisms occur through specific interactions between biomolecules. Any dysfunction of those interactions can lead to pathological events. Understanding such interactions is therefore a crucial step in the investigation of biological systems and a starting point for drug design. In recent years, experimental studies have been devoted to unravel the principles of biomolecular interactions; however, due to experimental difficulties in solving the three-dimensional (3D) structure of biomolecular complexes, the number of available, high-resolution experimental 3D structures does not fulfill the current needs. Therefore, complementary computational approaches to model such interactions are necessary to assist experimentalists since a full understanding of how biomolecules interact (and consequently how they perform their function) only comes from 3D structures which provide crucial atomic details about binding and recognition processes. In this chapter we review approaches to predict biomolecular complexesBiomolecular complexes, introducing the concept of molecular dockingDocking, a technique which uses a combination of geometric, steric and energetics considerations to predict the 3D structure of a biological complex starting from the individual structures of its constituent parts. We provide a mini-guide about docking concepts, its potential and challenges, along with post-docking analysis and a list of related software.

  14. Accessibility in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travençolo, B. A. N.; da F. Costa, L.

    2008-12-01

    This Letter describes a method for the quantification of the diversity of non-linear dynamics in complex networks as a consequence of self-avoiding random walks. The methodology is analyzed in the context of theoretical models and illustrated with respect to the characterization of the accessibility in urban streets.

  15. Complex Event Recognition Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, William A.; Firby, R. James

    2009-01-01

    Complex Event Recognition Architecture (CERA) is the name of a computational architecture, and software that implements the architecture, for recognizing complex event patterns that may be spread across multiple streams of input data. One of the main components of CERA is an intuitive event pattern language that simplifies what would otherwise be the complex, difficult tasks of creating logical descriptions of combinations of temporal events and defining rules for combining information from different sources over time. In this language, recognition patterns are defined in simple, declarative statements that combine point events from given input streams with those from other streams, using conjunction, disjunction, and negation. Patterns can be built on one another recursively to describe very rich, temporally extended combinations of events. Thereafter, a run-time matching algorithm in CERA efficiently matches these patterns against input data and signals when patterns are recognized. CERA can be used to monitor complex systems and to signal operators or initiate corrective actions when anomalous conditions are recognized. CERA can be run as a stand-alone monitoring system, or it can be integrated into a larger system to automatically trigger responses to changing environments or problematic situations.

  16. Life: Complexity and Diversity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Research, Bangalore. His fascination for the .... largest being an egg of the ostrich, largely loaded with stored food. So, to achieve larger sizes .... viruses and fungi. Packing Species. The diversity of living organisms has exploded, hand in hand with the evolving complexity of their interactions in communi- ties. In the dance ...

  17. pyridine-carboxamide complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DOI 10.1007/s12039-016-1215-9. REGULAR ARTICLE. Synthesis, characterization, crystal structure and DNA-binding study of four cadmium(II) ...... be due to the presence of four non-planar ligand moi- eties in complexes (1), which probably play a key role to interact with DNA in electrostatic/covalent binding mode. 4.

  18. Query complexity in expectation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaniewski, J.; Lee, T.; de Wolf, R.; Halldórsson, M.M.; Iwama, K.; Kobayashi, N.; Speckmann, B.

    2015-01-01

    We study the query complexity of computing a function f:{0,1}n→R+ in expectation. This requires the algorithm on input x to output a nonnegative random variable whose expectation equals f(x), using as few queries to the input x as possible. We exactly characterize both the randomized and the quantum

  19. Tevatron's complex collider cousins

    CERN Multimedia

    Fischer, W

    2004-01-01

    Letter referring to Schwarzschild's story "Disappointing performance and tight budgets confront Fermilab with tough decisions" and contesting that the Tevatron is not the most complex accelerator operating. They use the examples of CERN's SPS collider, HERA at DESY and the RHIC at Brookhaven (1/4 page)

  20. Typical Complexity Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Typical Complexity Numbers. Say. 1000 tones,; 100 Users,; Transmission every 10 msec. Full Crosstalk cancellation would require. Full cancellation requires a matrix multiplication of order 100*100 for all the tones. 1000*100*100*100 operations every second for the ...

  1. Life: Complexity and Diversity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 4. Life : Complexity and Diversity Growing Larger. Madhav Gadgil. Series Article Volume 1 Issue 4 April 1996 pp 15-22. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/04/0015-0022 ...

  2. Photocytotoxic lanthanide complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ln(III) complexes are also expected to be non-toxic in dark owing to the redox stability of the Ln(III) ions thus making them suitable for cellular applications in the presence of reducing cellular glutathione. The presence of heavy lanthanide metal is likely to facilitate the ISC due to heavy atom effect thereby contributing to the ...

  3. pyridine-carboxamide complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In addition, a short ring interaction between thiophene S1 and pyri- dine N1 of a symmetry related complex (centroid-to- centroid distance = 3.707(4) Ε; dihedral angle between planes = 2.3(3) ..... Changes in the Histology of Kidneys in Common Carp,. Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae) Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 58 456. 10.

  4. Automatic Complexity Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1989-01-01

    One way to analyse programs is to to derive expressions for their computational behaviour. A time bound function (or worst-case complexity) gives an upper bound for the computation time as a function of the size of input. We describe a system to derive such time bounds automatically using abstrac...

  5. Chaos, complexity and complicatedness: lessons from rocket science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Geoff

    2011-06-01

    Recently several authors have drawn parallels between educational research and some theories of natural science, in particular complexity theory and chaos theory. The central claim is that both the natural science theories are useful metaphors for education research in that they deal with phenomena that involve many variables interacting in complex, non-linear and unstable ways, and leading to effects that are neither reproducible nor comprehensible. This paper presents a counter-argument. I begin by carefully examining the concepts of uncertainty, complexity and chaos, as described in physical science. I distinguish carefully between systems that are, respectively, complex, chaotic and complicated. I demonstrate that complex and chaotic systems have highly specific characteristics that are unlikely to be present in education systems. I then suggest that, in fact, there is ample evidence that human learning can be understood adequately with conventional linear models. The implications of these opposing world views are substantial. If education science has the properties of complex or chaotic systems, we should abandon any attempt at control or understanding. However, as I point out, to do so would ignore a number of recent developments in our understanding of learning that hold promise to yield substantial improvements in effectiveness and efficiency of learning. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.

  6. Formation of the acrosome complex in the bush cricket Gampsocleis gratiosa (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Cai Xia; Chen, Jie; Shi, Fu Ming; Guo, Ming Shen; Chang, Yan Lin

    2017-07-01

    The acrosome complex plays an indispensable role in the normal function of mature spermatozoa. However, the dynamic process of acrosome complex formation in insect remains poorly understood. Gampsocleis gratiosa Brunner von Wattenwyl possesses the typical characteristic of insect sperms, which is tractable in terms of size, and therefore was selected for the acrosome formation study in this report. The results show that acrosome formation can be divided into six phases: round, rotating, rhombic, cylindrical, transforming and mature phase, based on the morphological dynamics of acrosome complex and nucleus. In addition, the cytoskeleton plays a critical role in the process of acrosome formation. The results from this study indicate that: (1) glycoprotein is the major component of the acrosome proper; (2) the microfilament is one element of the acrosome complex, and may mediate the morphologic change of the acrosome complex; (3) the microtubules might also shape the nucleus and acrosome complex during the acrosome formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Interdisciplinary Symposium on Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rössler, Otto; Zelinka, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The book you hold in your hands is the outcome of the “2014 Interdisciplinary Symposium on Complex Systems” held in the historical city of Florence. The book consists of 37 chapters from 4 areas of Physical Modeling of Complex Systems, Evolutionary Computations, Complex Biological Systems and Complex Networks. All 4 parts contain contributions that give interesting point of view on complexity in different areas in science and technology. The book starts with a comprehensive overview and classification of complexity problems entitled Physics in the world of ideas: Complexity as Energy”  , followed by chapters about complexity measures and physical principles, its observation, modeling and its applications, to solving various problems including real-life applications. Further chapters contain recent research about evolution, randomness and complexity, as well as complexity in biological systems and complex networks. All selected papers represent innovative ideas, philosophical overviews and state-of-the-...

  8. The way I understood it, it wasn’t meant to be understood – when 6th grade reads Franz Kafka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Martin Blok

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, literacy problematics and different concepts (Cooperative Learning, Learning Styles) have taken up much of the school’s literature teaching. It has pushed discussions of the professional content into the background. This article takes up the content discussion for renewed debate......, but now also with the aim of discussing the literary texts one can present to children in school. The research questions posed are: Which texts can justifiably be presented to children as part of teaching in school? What will happen if 10 to 12-year-old Danish school pupils are presented with classical...... starting point in three concepts rooted in theory, i.e. unpredictability, defamiliarization and entitlement, which are subsequently used to get to grips with the empirical part of the study. The article does not attempt to depict a hard-and-fast picture of all children being equally enthusiastic about...

  9. "The Way I Understood It, It Wasn't Meant to Be Understood"--When 6th Grade Reads Franz Kafka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Martin Blok

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, literacy problematics and different concepts (Cooperative Learning, Learning Styles) have taken up much of the school's literature teaching. It has pushed discussions of the professional content into the background. This article takes up the content discussion for renewed debate, but now also with the aim of discussing the…

  10. Complex Strategic Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    resulting in new material stemming from and focusing on practical application of a systemic approach. The outcome is a coherent and flexible approach named systemic planning. The inclusion of both the theoretical and practical aspects of systemic planning makes this book a key resource for researchers......Effective decision making requires a clear methodology, particularly in a complex world of globalisation. Institutions and companies in all disciplines and sectors are faced with increasingly multi-faceted areas of uncertainty which cannot always be effectively handled by traditional strategies....... Complex Strategic Choices provides clear principles and methods which can guide and support strategic decision making to face the many current challenges. By considering ways in which planning practices can be renewed and exploring the possibilities for acquiring awareness and tools to add value...

  11. Complexity is simple!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, William; Montero, Miguel

    2018-02-01

    In this note we investigate the role of Lloyd's computational bound in holographic complexity. Our goal is to translate the assumptions behind Lloyd's proof into the bulk language. In particular, we discuss the distinction between orthogonalizing and `simple' gates and argue that these notions are useful for diagnosing holographic complexity. We show that large black holes constructed from series circuits necessarily employ simple gates, and thus do not satisfy Lloyd's assumptions. We also estimate the degree of parallel processing required in this case for elementary gates to orthogonalize. Finally, we show that for small black holes at fixed chemical potential, the orthogonalization condition is satisfied near the phase transition, supporting a possible argument for the Weak Gravity Conjecture first advocated in [1].

  12. Complexes Tickling the $ubject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Gildersleeve

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article continues my earlier work of reading Jung with Lacan. This article will develop Zizek’s work on Lacan’s concept of objet petit a by relating it to a phenomenological interpretation of Jung. I use a number of different examples, including Zizek’s interpretation of Francis Bacon, Edvard Munch, Hans Holbein and Johann Gottlieb Fichte, to describe the objet petit a and its relationship to a phenomenological interpretation of complexes. By integrating other Lacanian concepts, such as subject, drive, fantasy, jouissance, gaze, desire, and ego as well as the imaginary, symbolic and Real, this work also highlights how Hegel and Heidegger can elucidate the relationship between objet petit a and complexes. Jung’s transcendent function and the Rosarium Philosophorum also elucidate the relationship between Jung and Lacan.

  13. Polystochastic Models for Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Iordache, Octavian

    2010-01-01

    This book is devoted to complexity understanding and management, considered as the main source of efficiency and prosperity for the next decades. Divided into six chapters, the book begins with a presentation of basic concepts as complexity, emergence and closure. The second chapter looks to methods and introduces polystochastic models, the wave equation, possibilities and entropy. The third chapter focusing on physical and chemical systems analyzes flow-sheet synthesis, cyclic operations of separation, drug delivery systems and entropy production. Biomimetic systems represent the main objective of the fourth chapter. Case studies refer to bio-inspired calculation methods, to the role of artificial genetic codes, neural networks and neural codes for evolutionary calculus and for evolvable circuits as biomimetic devices. The fifth chapter, taking its inspiration from systems sciences and cognitive sciences looks to engineering design, case base reasoning methods, failure analysis, and multi-agent manufacturing...

  14. Complex Polynomial Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Kealey

    The two branches of dynamical systems, continuous and discrete, correspond to the study of differential equations (vector fields) and iteration of mappings respectively. In holomorphic dynamics, the systems studied are restricted to those described by holomorphic (complex analytic) functions...... or meromorphic (allowing poles as singularities) functions. There already exists a well-developed theory for iterative holomorphic dynamical systems, and successful relations found between iteration theory and flows of vector fields have been one of the main motivations for the recent interest in holomorphic...... vector fields. Since the class of complex polynomial vector fields in the plane is natural to consider, it is remarkable that its study has only begun very recently. There are numerous fundamental questions that are still open, both in the general classification of these vector fields, the decomposition...

  15. On complex functions analyticity

    CERN Document Server

    Karavashkin, S B

    2002-01-01

    We analyse here the conventional definitions of analyticity and differentiability of functions of complex variable. We reveal the possibility to extend the conditions of analyticity and differentiability to the functions implementing the non-conformal mapping. On this basis we formulate more general definitions of analyticity and differentiability covering those conventional. We present some examples of such functions. By the example of a horizontal belt on a plane Z mapped non-conformally onto a crater-like harmonic vortex, we study the pattern of trajectory variation of a body motion in such field in case of field power function varying in time. We present the technique to solve the problems of such type with the help of dynamical functions of complex variable implementing the analytical non-conformal mapping

  16. Complex conductivity of soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revil, A.; Coperey, A.; Shao, Z.

    2017-01-01

    The complex conductivity of soil remains poorly known despite the growing importance of this method in hyrogeophysics. In order to fill this gap of knowledge, we investigate the complex conductivity of 71 soils samples (including 4 peat samples) and one clean sand in the frequency range 0.1 Hertz...... to 45 kHz. The soil samples are saturated with 6 different NaCl brines with conductivities (0.031, 0.53, 1.15, 5.7, 14.7, and 22 S m-1, NaCl, 25°C) in order to determine their intrinsic formation factor and surface conductivity. This dataset is used to test the predictions of the dynamic Stern...... polarization model of porous media in terms of relationship between the quadrature conductivity and the surface conductivity. We also investigate the relationship between the normalized chargeability (the difference of in phase conductivity between two frequencies) and the quadrature conductivity...

  17. Operational Shock Complexity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-26

    Theory : Recommendations For The National Strategy To Defeat Terrorism.” Student Issue Paper, Center for Strategic Leadership , US Army War College, July...Lens of Complexity Theory : Recommendations For The National Strategy To Defeat Terrorism.” (Student Issue Paper, Center for Strategic Leadership , US...planners managed to cause confusion in the enemy’s internal model by operating in an unexpected manner. 140 Glenn E. James, “Chaos Theory : The

  18. Arithmetic of Complex Manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Lange, Herbert

    1989-01-01

    It was the aim of the Erlangen meeting in May 1988 to bring together number theoretists and algebraic geometers to discuss problems of common interest, such as moduli problems, complex tori, integral points, rationality questions, automorphic forms. In recent years such problems, which are simultaneously of arithmetic and geometric interest, have become increasingly important. This proceedings volume contains 12 original research papers. Its main topics are theta functions, modular forms, abelian varieties and algebraic three-folds.

  19. Modeling Complex Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreckenberg, M

    2004-01-01

    This book by Nino Boccara presents a compilation of model systems commonly termed as 'complex'. It starts with a definition of the systems under consideration and how to build up a model to describe the complex dynamics. The subsequent chapters are devoted to various categories of mean-field type models (differential and recurrence equations, chaos) and of agent-based models (cellular automata, networks and power-law distributions). Each chapter is supplemented by a number of exercises and their solutions. The table of contents looks a little arbitrary but the author took the most prominent model systems investigated over the years (and up until now there has been no unified theory covering the various aspects of complex dynamics). The model systems are explained by looking at a number of applications in various fields. The book is written as a textbook for interested students as well as serving as a comprehensive reference for experts. It is an ideal source for topics to be presented in a lecture on dynamics of complex systems. This is the first book on this 'wide' topic and I have long awaited such a book (in fact I planned to write it myself but this is much better than I could ever have written it!). Only section 6 on cellular automata is a little too limited to the author's point of view and one would have expected more about the famous Domany-Kinzel model (and more accurate citation!). In my opinion this is one of the best textbooks published during the last decade and even experts can learn a lot from it. Hopefully there will be an actualization after, say, five years since this field is growing so quickly. The price is too high for students but this, unfortunately, is the normal case today. Nevertheless I think it will be a great success! (book review)

  20. On convex complexity measures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubeš, P.; Jukna, S.; Kulikov, A.; Pudlák, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 411, 16-18 (2010), s. 1842-1854 ISSN 0304-3975 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1019401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : boolean formula * complexity measure * combinatorial rectangle * convexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.838, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304397510000885

  1. Complex geometries in wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Riiber Nielsen, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The versatility of wood constructions and traditional wood joints for the production of non standard elements was in focus of a design based research. Herein we established a seamless process from digital design to fabrication. A first research phase centered on the development of a robust...... parametric model and a generic design language a later explored the possibilities to construct complex shaped geometries with self registering joints on modern wood crafting machines. The research was carried out as collaboration with industrial partners....

  2. COMPLEX QUERY AND METADATA

    OpenAIRE

    Nakatoh, Tetsuya; Omori, Keisuke; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Hirokawa, Sachio

    2003-01-01

    We are developing a search system DAISEn which integrates multiple search engines and generates a metasearch engine automatically. The target search engines of DAISEn are not general search engines, but are search engines specialized in some area. Integration of such engines yields efficiency and quality. There are search engines of new type which accept complex query and return structured data. Integration of such search engines is much harder than that of simple search engines which accept ...

  3. Volatile uranyl hexafluoroacetoacetonate complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dines, M.B.; Hall, R.B.; Kaldor, A.; Kramer, G.M.; Maas, E.T. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A composition of matter is described, characterized by the formula UO 2 (CF 3 COCHCOCF 3 ).L where L is a ligand selected from isopropanol, ethanol, isobutanol, tert-butanol, methanol, tetrahydrofuran, acetone, dimethylformamide, n-propanol and ethyl acetate. A process for producing the complex comprises reacting uranyl chloride with a hexafluoroacetylacetonate dissolved in a ligand L: experimental details are given. (U.K.)

  4. Complexity in Dynamical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Cristopher David

    The study of chaos has shown us that deterministic systems can have a kind of unpredictability, based on a limited knowledge of their initial conditions; after a finite time, the motion appears essentially random. This observation has inspired a general interest in the subject of unpredictability, and more generally, complexity; how can we characterize how "complex" a dynamical system is?. In this thesis, we attempt to answer this question with a paradigm of complexity that comes from computer science, we extract sets of symbol sequences, or languages, from a dynamical system using standard methods of symbolic dynamics; we then ask what kinds of grammars or automata are needed a generate these languages. This places them in the Chomsky heirarchy, which in turn tells us something about how subtle and complex the dynamical system's behavior is. This gives us insight into the question of unpredictability, since these automata can also be thought of as computers attempting to predict the system. In the culmination of the thesis, we find a class of smooth, two-dimensional maps which are equivalent to the highest class in the Chomsky heirarchy, the turning machine; they are capable of universal computation. Therefore, these systems possess a kind of unpredictability qualitatively different from the usual "chaos": even if the initial conditions are known exactly, questions about the system's long-term dynamics are undecidable. No algorithm exists to answer them. Although this kind of unpredictability has been discussed in the context of distributed, many-degree-of -freedom systems (for instance, cellular automata) we believe this is the first example of such phenomena in a smooth, finite-degree-of-freedom system.

  5. Complexity of the Ephemeral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Ulrik

    2015-01-01

    This brief article presents the everyday cultural use of the Snapchat instant messaging application for video chats as an exemplary case of the challenges confronting studies of cinematics in an epoch marked by the rise in network societies of ubiquitous mobile and social media and technics. It p....... It proffers and begins to detail the argument that snap video chats cannot be denigrated as mere ‘shorts’ but must be approached as spatiotemporally and experientally complex....

  6. The Complexity Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    fundamental challenge for the millennial genera- tion. Complexity, it appears, is all the rage. We challenge these declarations and assumptions—not...pan- opticism: surveillance creates “a state of conscious and permanent visibility that assures the automatic functioning of power.”38 States do not...Oxford University Press, 1997), 124-125. 20. Ibid., 4, 246, 252. 21. Richard Price and Nina Tannenwald, “Norms and Deterrence: The Nuclear and Chemical

  7. Complex geometries in wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Riiber Nielsen, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The versatility of wood constructions and traditional wood joints for the production of non standard elements was in focus of a design based research. Herein we established a seamless process from digital design to fabrication. A first research phase centered on the development of a robust parame...... parametric model and a generic design language a later explored the possibilities to construct complex shaped geometries with self registering joints on modern wood crafting machines. The research was carried out as collaboration with industrial partners....

  8. Predictive Surface Complexation Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sverjensky, Dimitri A. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences

    2016-11-29

    Surface complexation plays an important role in the equilibria and kinetics of processes controlling the compositions of soilwaters and groundwaters, the fate of contaminants in groundwaters, and the subsurface storage of CO2 and nuclear waste. Over the last several decades, many dozens of individual experimental studies have addressed aspects of surface complexation that have contributed to an increased understanding of its role in natural systems. However, there has been no previous attempt to develop a model of surface complexation that can be used to link all the experimental studies in order to place them on a predictive basis. Overall, my research has successfully integrated the results of the work of many experimentalists published over several decades. For the first time in studies of the geochemistry of the mineral-water interface, a practical predictive capability for modeling has become available. The predictive correlations developed in my research now enable extrapolations of experimental studies to provide estimates of surface chemistry for systems not yet studied experimentally and for natural and anthropogenically perturbed systems.

  9. The Emparassment of Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowotny, Helga

    My vision of complexity sciences targets their potential to extend the range, precision, and depth in making predictions. While this has always been the ambition and yardstick for the physicalmathematical sciences, complexity sciences now allow to include society and social behavior - to some extent. There is agreement that society is a complex adaptive system, CAS, with a few peculiarities. Ignoring, downplaying, or naturalizing them, i.e. to take them as essential and given, carries the risk to end up with abstractions which are cutoff from the dynamics of societal contexts. One of the peculiarities of society as a CAS is that the models with which we try to make sense of the world are invented and constructed by us. It is humans who make observations and provide the assumptions on which models are based. Humans leave traces that are collected and processed to be transformed into data. Humans decide to which purpose they will be put and how they will be repurposed. Humans are object of research and subject. Coping with these peculiarities requires an inbuilt reflexivity. Practioners must perform a double act and do so repeatedly. They must engage in a focused way with their scientific work and equally distance themselves by critically reflecting their often tacit assumptions. A friend of mine, Yehuda Elkana, called this twotier thinking...

  10. Control of complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Albertos, Pedro; Blanke, Mogens; Isidori, Alberto; Schaufelberger, Walter; Sanz, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    The world of artificial systems is reaching complexity levels that es­ cape human understanding. Surface traffic, electricity distribution, air­ planes, mobile communications, etc. , are examples that demonstrate that we are running into problems that are beyond classical scientific or engi­ neering knowledge. There is an ongoing world-wide effort to understand these systems and develop models that can capture its behavior. The reason for this work is clear, if our lack of understanding deepens, we will lose our capability to control these systems and make they behave as we want. Researchers from many different fields are trying to understand and develop theories for complex man-made systems. This book presents re­ search from the perspective of control and systems theory. The book has grown out of activities in the research program Control of Complex Systems (COSY). The program has been sponsored by the Eu­ ropean Science Foundation (ESF) which for 25 years has been one of the leading players in stimula...

  11. Keynes, Hayek and Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormerod, Paul

    In the spirit of the overall topic of the conference, in this paper I consider the extent to which economic theory includes elements of the complex systems approach. I am setting to one side here the developments over the past decade in applying complex systems analysis to economic problems. This is not because this recent work is not important. It most certainly is. But I want to argue that there is a very distinct tradition of what we would now describe as a complex systems approach in the works of two of the greatest economists of the 20th century. There is of course a dominant intellectual paradigm within economics, that known as `neo-classical'economics. This paradigm is by no means an empty box, and is undoubtedly useful in helping to understand how some aspects of the social and economic worlds work. But even in its heyday, neo-classical economics never succeeded by its empirical success in driving out completely other theoretical approaches, for its success was simply not sufficient to do so. Much more importantly, economics over the past twenty or thirty years has become in an increasing state of flux.

  12. Coherence, Complexity and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arecchi, Fortunato Tito

    We review the ideas and experiments that established the onset of laser coherence beyond a suitable threshold. That threshold is the first of a chain of bifurcations in a non linear dynamics, leading eventually to deterministic chaos in lasers. In particular, the so called HC behavior has striking analogies with the electrical activity of neurons. Based on these considerations, we develop a dynamical model of neuron synchronization leading to coherent global perceptions. Synchronization implies a transitory control of neuron chaos. Depending on the time duration of this control, a cognitive agent has different amounts of awareness. Combining this with a stream of external inputs, one can point at an optimal use of internal resources, that is called cognitive creativity. While coherence is associated with long range correlations, complexity arises whenever an array of coupled dynamical systems displays multiple paths of coherence. What is the relation among the three concepts in the title? While coherence is associated with long range correlations, complexity arises whenever an array of coupled dynamical systems displays multiple paths of coherence. Creativity corresponds to a free selection of a coherence path within a complex nest. As sketched above, it seems dynamically related to chaos control.

  13. [Complex posttraumatic stress disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Tamar; Kotler, Moshe

    2007-11-01

    The characteristic symptoms resulting from exposure to an extreme trauma include three clusters of symptoms: persistent experience of the traumatic event, persistent avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma and persistent symptoms of increased arousal. Beyond the accepted clusters of symptoms for posttraumatic stress disorder exists a formation of symptoms related to exposure to extreme or prolonged stress e.g. childhood abuse, physical violence, rape, and confinement within a concentration camp. With accumulated evidence of the existence of these symptoms began a trail to classify a more complex syndrome, which included, but was not confined to the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. This review addresses several subjects for study in complex posttraumatic stress disorder, which is a complicated and controversial topic. Firstly, the concept of complex posttraumatic stress disorder is presented. Secondly, the professional literature relevant to this disturbance is reviewed and finally, the authors present the polemic being conducted between the researchers of posttraumatic disturbances regarding validity, reliability and the need for separate diagnosis for these symptoms.

  14. Complexity Leadership: A Theoretical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaci, Ali; Balci, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Complex systems are social networks composed of interactive employees interconnected through collaborative, dynamic ties such as shared goals, perspectives and needs. Complex systems are largely based on "the complex system theory". The complex system theory focuses mainly on finding out and developing strategies and behaviours that…

  15. Transition Complexity of Incomplete DFAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Gao

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the transition complexity of regular languages based on the incomplete deterministic finite automata. A number of results on Boolean operations have been obtained. It is shown that the transition complexity results for union and complementation are very different from the state complexity results for the same operations. However, for intersection, the transition complexity result is similar to that of state complexity.

  16. Variable structure control of complex systems analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Xing-Gang; Edwards, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    This book systematizes recent research work on variable-structure control. It is self-contained, presenting necessary mathematical preliminaries so that the theoretical developments can be easily understood by a broad readership. The text begins with an introduction to the fundamental ideas of variable-structure control pertinent to their application in complex nonlinear systems. In the core of the book, the authors lay out an approach, suitable for a large class of systems, that deals with system uncertainties with nonlinear bounds. Its treatment of complex systems in which limited measurement information is available makes the results developed convenient to implement. Various case-study applications are described, from aerospace, through power systems to river pollution control with supporting simulations to aid the transition from mathematical theory to engineering practicalities. The book addresses systems with nonlinearities, time delays and interconnections and considers issues such as stabilization, o...

  17. Motor dysfunction in complex regional pain syndrome : the role of sensory processing and sensory-motor integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bank, Paulina Johanna Maria

    2014-01-01

    In the chronic stage of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS), motor disturbances are common and cause significant disability. The motor dysfunction of CRPS is a poorly understood phenomenon that is characterized predominantly by a decrease or loss of voluntary muscle control. This thesis aims to

  18. Influence of competition and age on tree growth in structurally complex old-growth forests in northern Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomas Aakala; Shawn Fraver; Anthony W. D' Amato; Brian J. Palik

    2013-01-01

    Factors influencing tree growth in structurally complex forests remain poorly understood. Here we assessed the influence of competition on Pinus resinosa (n = 224) and Pinus strobus (n = 90) growth in four old-growth stands in Minnesota, using mixed effects models. A subset of trees, with...

  19. Ultrastructural characterisation of Bacillus subtilis TatA complexes suggests they are too small to form homooligomeric translocation pores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, Daniel; Vasisht, Nishi; Baglieri, Jacopo; Monteferrante, Carmine G.; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Robinson, Colin; Smith, Corinne J.

    Tat-dependent protein transport permits the traffic of fully folded proteins across membranes in bacteria and chloroplasts. The mechanism by which this occurs is not understood. Current theories propose that a key step requires the coalescence of a substrate-binding TatC-containing complex with a

  20. Relaxation phenomena during polyelectrolyte complex formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindhoud, S.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Polyelectrolyte complex formation is a well-studied subject in colloid science. Several types of complex formation have been studied, including PEMs, macroscopic polyelectrolyte complexes, soluble complexes and polyelectrolyte complex micelles. The chemical nature of the complex-forming

  1. The Stigma Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescosolido, Bernice A.; Martin, Jack K.

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, research on stigma has continued. Building on conceptual and empirical work, the recent period clarifies new types of stigmas, expansion of measures, identification of new directions, and increasingly complex levels. Standard beliefs have been challenged, the relationship between stigma research and public debates reconsidered, and new scientific foundations for policy and programs suggested. We begin with a summary of the most recent Annual Review articles on stigma, which reminded sociologists of conceptual tools, informed them of developments from academic neighbors, and claimed findings from the early period of “resurgence.” Continued (even accelerated) progress has also revealed a central problem. Terms and measures are often used interchangeably, leading to confusion and decreasing accumulated knowledge. Drawing from this work but focusing on the past 14 years of stigma research (including mental illness, sexual orientation, HIV/AIDS, and race/ethnicity), we provide a theoretical architecture of concepts (e.g., prejudice, experienced/received discrimination), drawn together through a stigma process (i.e., stigmatization), based on four theoretical premises. Many characteristics of the mark (e.g., discredited, concealable) and variants (i.e., stigma types and targets) become the focus of increasingly specific and multidimensional definitions. Drawing from complex and systems science, we propose a stigma complex, a system of interrelated, heterogeneous parts bringing together insights across disciplines to provide a more realistic and complicated sense of the challenge facing research and change efforts. The Framework Integrating Normative Influences on Stigma (FINIS) offers a multilevel approach that can be tailored to stigmatized statuses. Finally, we outline challenges for the next phase of stigma research, with the goal of continuing scientific activity that enhances our understanding of stigma and builds

  2. Complexity in fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayly, B.

    1991-01-01

    Fluids are basically very simple things. The fluids encountered all the time - air, water, milk, coffee, etc. - are undramatic. One blob of a given fluid looks much like any other, except for such gross properties as volume or mass. Of course, blobs of fluid come in different shapes. However, it's easy to change the shape of a blob of fluid, with the result that we rarely think of the shape of a fluid blob as a defining property. In fact, a blob that starts with one shape can be deformed into almost any other shape, with arbitrarily small input of energy. When one talks about lumps of a solid, in contrast, shape is important. This is because it takes work, i.e., energy, to change the shape of a solid. Making a small deformation from some rest configuration takes a small amount of energy, and a large deformation takes a lot of energy. Sometimes, as in idealized elastic systems, the required energy goes to infinity as the deformation becomes unbounded. Real solids usually break if you deform them enough; all subsequent deformations cost no energy. Basically, a finite deformation requires finite energy. Complexity arises in fluid systems because the shape of a blob of fluid is indeterminate. Nothing prevents an initially simple fluid blob from deforming into the weirdest shape imaginable. It is the absence of any kind of blob-shape constraint that allows complexity to enter fluid science. During these lectures the author briefly describes a few areas in which complexity arises and has to be dealt with. These lectures will be roughly divided as follows: (1) physical and mathematical description of fluids and flows; (2) flow transport and ergodic theory; (3) magnetic dynamos and related problems; (4) flow instabilities; (5) turbulence

  3. Complex systems dynamics in aging: new evidence, continuing questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alan A

    2016-02-01

    There have long been suggestions that aging is tightly linked to the complex dynamics of the physiological systems that maintain homeostasis, and in particular to dysregulation of regulatory networks of molecules. This review synthesizes recent work that is starting to provide evidence for the importance of such complex systems dynamics in aging. There is now clear evidence that physiological dysregulation--the gradual breakdown in the capacity of complex regulatory networks to maintain homeostasis--is an emergent property of these regulatory networks, and that it plays an important role in aging. It can be measured simply using small numbers of biomarkers. Additionally, there are indications of the importance during aging of emergent physiological processes, functional processes that cannot be easily understood through clear metabolic pathways, but can nonetheless be precisely quantified and studied. The overall role of such complex systems dynamics in aging remains an important open question, and to understand it future studies will need to distinguish and integrate related aspects of aging research, including multi-factorial theories of aging, systems biology, bioinformatics, network approaches, robustness, and loss of complexity.

  4. Complexity in Managing Modularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Sun, Hongyi

    2011-01-01

    In general, the phenomenon of managing modularization is not well known. The cause-effect relationships between modularization and realized benefits are complex and comprehensive. Though a number of research works have contributed to the study of the phenomenon of efficient and effective...... modularization management it is far from clarified. Recognizing the need for further empirical research, we have studied 40 modularity cases in various companies. The studies have been designed as long-term studies leaving time for various types of modularization benefits to emerge. Based on these studies we...... have developed a framework to support the heuristic and iterative process of planning and realizing modularization benefits....

  5. Fluorido complexes of technetium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariappan Balasekaran, Samundeeswari

    2013-07-04

    Fluorine chemistry has received considerable interest during recent years due to its significant role in the life sciences, especially for drug development. Despite the great nuclear medicinal importance of the radioactive metal technetium in radiopharmaceuticals, its coordination chemistry with the fluorido ligand is by far less explored than that of other ligands. Up to now, only a few technetium fluorides are known. This thesis contains the synthesis, spectroscopic and structural characterization of novel technetium fluorides in the oxidation states ''+1'', ''+2'', ''+4'' and ''+6''. In the oxidation state ''+6'', the fluoridotechnetates were synthesized either from nitridotechnetic(VI) acid or from pertechnetate by using reducing agent and have been isolated as cesium or tetraethylammonium salts. The compounds were characterized spectroscopically and structurally. In the intermediate oxidation state ''+4'', hexafluoridotechnetate(IV) was known for long time and studied spectroscopically. This thesis reports novel and improved syntheses and solved the critical issues of early publications such as the color, some spectroscopic properties and the structure of this key compound. Single crystal analyses of alkali metal, ammonium and tetramethylammonium salts of hexafluoridotechnetate(IV) are presented. In aqueous alkaline solutions, the ammonium salt of hexafluoridotechnetate(IV) undergoes hydrolysis and forms an oxido-bridged dimeric complex. It is the first step hydrolysis product of hexafluoridotechnetate(IV) and was characterized by spectroscopic and crystallographic methods. Low-valent technetium fluorides with the metal in the oxidation states of ''+2'' or ''+1'' are almost unknown. A detailed description of the synthesis and characterization of pentafluoridonitrosyltechnetate(II) is presented. The

  6. Complex adaptive systems ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2003-01-01

    In the following, I will analyze two articles called Complex Adaptive Systems EcologyI & II (Molin & Molin, 1997 & 2000). The CASE-articles are some of the more quirkyarticles that have come out of the Molecular Microbial Ecology Group - a groupwhere I am currently making observational studies....... They are the result of acooperation between Søren Molin, professor in the group, and his brother, JanMolin, professor at Department of Organization and Industrial Sociology atCopenhagen Business School. The cooperation arises from the recognition that bothmicrobial ecology and sociology/organization theory works...

  7. The Frankenstein Complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Boris Brorman

    2016-01-01

    In his polemic essay Boris Brorman Jensen raises the issue of a perceived academic reluctance to acknowledge the impact of real-world pragmatics on the architectural expression of built architecture. “One might claim that parts of architectural academia suffer from a Frankenstein complex that see...... to understand and engage the full range of technical skills present in the interdisciplinary team of consultants......., of our given lifeworld.” Being the first major project of the emerging practice Element Architects, the Teachers’ Union Conference Center highlights the importance of the architect as a skilled negotiator, not merely the provider of flattering design. Critically acclaimed for its unconventional approach...

  8. Deformable Simplicial Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misztal, Marek Krzysztof

    triangles/tetrahedra marked as outside from those marked as inside. Such an approach allows for robust topological adaptivity. Among other advantages of the deformable simplicial complexes there are: space adaptivity, ability to handle and preserve sharp features, possibility for topology control. We....... One particular advantage of DSC is the fact that as an alternative to topology adaptivity, topology control is also possible. This is exploited in the construction of cut loci on tori where a front expands from a single point on a torus and stops when it self-intersects....

  9. Kinetics of complex plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Sodha, Mahendra Singh

    2014-01-01

    The presentation in the book is based on charge balance on the dust particles, number and energy balance of the constituents and atom-ion-electron interaction in the gaseous plasma. Size distribution of dust particles, statistical mechanics, Quantum effects in electron emission from and accretion on dust particles and nonlinear interaction of complex plasmas with electric and electromagnetic fields have been discussed in the book. The book introduces the reader to basic concepts and typical applications. The book should be of use to researchers, engineers and graduate students.

  10. Emergent complex neural dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chialvo, Dante R.

    2010-10-01

    A large repertoire of spatiotemporal activity patterns in the brain is the basis for adaptive behaviour. Understanding the mechanism by which the brain's hundred billion neurons and hundred trillion synapses manage to produce such a range of cortical configurations in a flexible manner remains a fundamental problem in neuroscience. One plausible solution is the involvement of universal mechanisms of emergent complex phenomena evident in dynamical systems poised near a critical point of a second-order phase transition. We review recent theoretical and empirical results supporting the notion that the brain is naturally poised near criticality, as well as its implications for better understanding of the brain.

  11. Genetics of complex diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellerup, Erling; Møller, Gert Lykke; Koefoed, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    A complex disease with an inheritable component is polygenic, meaning that several different changes in DNA are the genetic basis for the disease. Such a disease may also be genetically heterogeneous, meaning that independent changes in DNA, i.e. various genotypes, can be the genetic basis...... for the disease. Each of these genotypes may be characterized by specific combinations of key genetic changes. It is suggested that even if all key changes are found in genes related to the biology of a certain disease, the number of combinations may be so large that the number of different genotypes may be close...

  12. Complex regional pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep J Sebastin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS previously known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy is a chronic neurological disorder involving the limbs characterized by disabling pain, swelling, vasomotor instability, sudomotor abnormality, and impairment of motor function. CRPS is not uncommon after hand surgery and may complicate post-operative care. There is no specific diagnostic test for CRPS and the diagnosis is based on history, clinical examination, and supportive laboratory findings. Recent modifications to diagnostic criteria have enabled clinicians to diagnose this disease more consistently. This review gives a synopsis of CRPS and discusses the diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment options based on the limited evidence in the literature.

  13. Procuring complex performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, A.; Roehrich, J.; Frederiksen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    – The transition towards PCP can be best described as a learning process which cumulates the knowledge and experience in the client-supplier interaction accompanied by changing contractual and relational capabilities. In public infrastructure this process is not initially motivated by the benefits of value co......-creation, but is politically driven. Practical implications – The study proposes three generic transition stages towards increased performance and infrastructural complexity moderated by contract duration. These stages may help managers of public agencies to identify the current procurement level and the contractual...... adopting a longitudinal perspective on these interactions in the transition towards PCP....

  14. Computability, complexity, logic

    CERN Document Server

    Börger, Egon

    1989-01-01

    The theme of this book is formed by a pair of concepts: the concept of formal language as carrier of the precise expression of meaning, facts and problems, and the concept of algorithm or calculus, i.e. a formally operating procedure for the solution of precisely described questions and problems. The book is a unified introduction to the modern theory of these concepts, to the way in which they developed first in mathematical logic and computability theory and later in automata theory, and to the theory of formal languages and complexity theory. Apart from considering the fundamental themes an

  15. Bound Exciton Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, B. K.

    In the preceding chapter, we concentrated on the properties of free excitons. These free excitons may move through the sample and hit a trap, a nonradiative or a radiative recombination center. At low temperatures, the latter case gives rise to either deep center luminescence, mentioned in Sect. 7.1 and discussed in detail in Chap. 9, or to the luminescence of bound exciton complexes (BE or BEC). The chapter continues with the most prominent of these BECs, namely A-excitons bound to neutral donors. The next aspects are the more weakly BEs at ionized donors. The Sect. 7.4 treats the binding or localization energies of BEC from a theoretical point of view, while Sect. 7.5 is dedicated to excited states of BECs, which contain either holes from deeper valence bands or an envelope function with higher quantum numbers. The last section is devoted to donor-acceptor pair transitions. There is no section devoted specifically to excitons bound to neutral acceptors, because this topic is still partly controversially discussed. Instead, information on these A0X complexes is scattered over the whole chapter, however, with some special emphasis seen in Sects. 7.1, 7.4, and 7.5.

  16. Herding Complex Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ruf, Sebastian F.

    2018-04-12

    The problem of controlling complex networks is of interest to disciplines ranging from biology to swarm robotics. However, controllability can be too strict a condition, failing to capture a range of desirable behaviors. Herdability, which describes the ability to drive a system to a specific set in the state space, was recently introduced as an alternative network control notion. This paper considers the application of herdability to the study of complex networks. The herdability of a class of networked systems is investigated and two problems related to ensuring system herdability are explored. The first is the input addition problem, which investigates which nodes in a network should receive inputs to ensure that the system is herdable. The second is a related problem of selecting the best single node from which to herd the network, in the case that a single node is guaranteed to make the system is herdable. In order to select the best herding node, a novel control energy based herdability centrality measure is introduced.

  17. Complex master slave interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivet, Sylvain; Maria, Michael; Bradu, Adrian; Feuchter, Thomas; Leick, Lasse; Podoleanu, Adrian

    2016-02-08

    A general theoretical model is developed to improve the novel Spectral Domain Interferometry method denoted as Master/Slave (MS) Interferometry. In this model, two functions, g and h are introduced to describe the modulation chirp of the channeled spectrum signal due to nonlinearities in the decoding process from wavenumber to time and due to dispersion in the interferometer. The utilization of these two functions brings two major improvements to previous implementations of the MS method. A first improvement consists in reducing the number of channeled spectra necessary to be collected at Master stage. In previous MSI implementation, the number of channeled spectra at the Master stage equated the number of depths where information was selected from at the Slave stage. The paper demonstrates that two experimental channeled spectra only acquired at Master stage suffice to produce A-scans from any number of resolved depths at the Slave stage. A second improvement is the utilization of complex signal processing. Previous MSI implementations discarded the phase. Complex processing of the electrical signal determined by the channeled spectrum allows phase processing that opens several novel avenues. A first consequence of such signal processing is reduction in the random component of the phase without affecting the axial resolution. In previous MSI implementations, phase instabilities were reduced by an average over the wavenumber that led to reduction in the axial resolution.

  18. Complexity in language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Alexander; Lappin, Shalom

    2013-01-01

    Learning theory has frequently been applied to language acquisition, but discussion has largely focused on information theoretic problems-in particular on the absence of direct negative evidence. Such arguments typically neglect the probabilistic nature of cognition and learning in general. We argue first that these arguments, and analyses based on them, suffer from a major flaw: they systematically conflate the hypothesis class and the learnable concept class. As a result, they do not allow one to draw significant conclusions about the learner. Second, we claim that the real problem for language learning is the computational complexity of constructing a hypothesis from input data. Studying this problem allows for a more direct approach to the object of study--the language acquisition device-rather than the learnable class of languages, which is epiphenomenal and possibly hard to characterize. The learnability results informed by complexity studies are much more insightful. They strongly suggest that target grammars need to be objective, in the sense that the primitive elements of these grammars are based on objectively definable properties of the language itself. These considerations support the view that language acquisition proceeds primarily through data-driven learning of some form. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  19. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for the hydrolysis complexes of cisplatin: implications for the hydrolysis process of platinum complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feifan, Xie; Pieter, Colin; Jan, Van Bocxlaer

    2017-07-01

    Non-enzyme-dependent hydrolysis of the drug cisplatin is important for its mode of action and toxicity. However, up until today, the hydrolysis process of cisplatin is still not completely understood. In the present study, the hydrolysis of cisplatin in an aqueous solution was systematically investigated by using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry coupled to liquid chromatography. A variety of previously unreported hydrolysis complexes corresponding to monomeric, dimeric and trimeric species were detected and identified. The characteristics of the Pt-containing complexes were investigated by using collision-induced dissociation (CID). The hydrolysis complexes demonstrate distinctive and correlative CID characteristics, which provides tools for an informative identification. The most frequently observed dissociation mechanism was sequential loss of NH 3 , H 2 O and HCl. Loss of the Pt atom was observed as the final step during the CID process. The formation mechanisms of the observed complexes were explored and experimentally examined. The strongly bound dimeric species, which existed in solution, are assumed to be formed from the clustering of the parent compound and its monohydrated or dihydrated complexes. The role of the electrospray process in the formation of some of the observed ions was also evaluated, and the electrospray ionization-related cold clusters were identified. The previously reported hydrolysis equilibria were tested and subsequently refined via a hydrolysis study resulting in a renewed mechanistic equilibrium system of cisplatin as proposed from our results. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Shapes of interacting RNA complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Benjamin Mingming; Reidys, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Shapes of interacting RNA complexes are studied using a filtration via their topological genus. A shape of an RNA complex is obtained by (iteratively) collapsing stacks and eliminating hairpin loops.This shape-projection preserves the topological core of the RNA complex and for fixed topological...... genus there are only finitely many such shapes. Our main result is a new bijection that relates the shapes of RNA complexes with shapes of RNA structures. This allows to compute the shape polynomial of RNA complexes via the shape polynomial of RNA structures. We furthermore present a linear time uniform...... sampling algorithm for shapes of RNA complexes of fixed topological genus....

  1. On the Origin of Complex Adaptive Traits: Progress Since the Darwin Versus Mivart Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takao K

    2017-06-01

    The evolutionary origin of complex adaptive traits has been a controversial topic in the history of evolutionary biology. Although Darwin argued for the gradual origins of complex adaptive traits within the theory of natural selection, Mivart insisted that natural selection could not account for the incipient stages of complex traits. The debate starting from Darwin and Mivart eventually engendered two opposite views: gradualism and saltationism. Although this has been a long-standing debate, the issue remains unresolved. However, recent studies have interrogated classic examples of complex traits, such as the asymmetrical eyes of flatfishes and leaf mimicry of butterfly wings, whose origins were debated by Darwin and Mivart. Here, I review recent findings as a starting point to provide a modern picture of the evolution of complex adaptive traits. First, I summarize the empirical evidence that unveils the evolutionary steps toward complex traits. I then argue that the evolution of complex traits could be understood within the concept of "reducible complexity." Through these discussions, I propose a conceptual framework for the formation of complex traits, named as reducible-composable multicomponent systems, that satisfy two major characteristics: reducibility into a sum of subcomponents and composability to construct traits from various additional and combinatorial arrangements of the subcomponents. This conceptual framework provides an analytical foundation for exploring evolutionary pathways to build up complex traits. This review provides certain essential avenues for deciphering the origin of complex adaptive traits. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Complexity functions for networks: Dynamical hubs and complexity clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afraimovich, Valentin; Dmitrichev, Aleksei; Shchapin, Dmitry; Nekorkin, Vladimir

    2018-02-01

    A method for studying the behavior of the elements of dynamical networks is introduced. We measure the amount of instability stored at each element according to the value of the mean complexity related to this element. Elements with close values of the mean complexity can be unified into complexity clusters; elements with the smallest values of complexities form dynamical hubs. The effectiveness of the method is manifested by its successive application to networks of coupled Lorenz systems.

  3. Complex agent networks: An emerging approach for modeling complex systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mei, S.; Zarrabi, N.; Lees, M.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Complexity and complex systems are all around us: from molecular and cellular systems in biology up to economics and human societies. There is an urgent need for methods that can capture the multi-scale spatio-temporal characteristics of complex systems. Recent emphasis has centered on two methods

  4. Syntactic Complexity as an Aspect of Text Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Roger S.; Starr, Laura E.; Bailey, Alison L.

    2015-01-01

    Students' ability to read complex texts is emphasized in the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for English Language Arts and Literacy. The standards propose a three-part model for measuring text complexity. Although the model presents a robust means for determining text complexity based on a variety of features inherent to a text as well as…

  5. Complex dynamical invariants for two-dimensional complex potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Complex dynamical invariants are searched out for two-dimensional complex poten- tials using rationalization method within the framework of an extended complex phase space characterized by x = x1 + ip3, y = x2 + ip4, px = p1 + ix3, py = p2 + ix4. It is found that the cubic oscillator and shifted harmonic oscillator ...

  6. Complexity, Training Paradigm Design, and the Contribution of Memory Subsystems to Grammar Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Mark; Ettlinger, Marc; Wong, Patrick C M

    2016-01-01

    Although there is variability in nonnative grammar learning outcomes, the contributions of training paradigm design and memory subsystems are not well understood. To examine this, we presented learners with an artificial grammar that formed words via simple and complex morphophonological rules. Across three experiments, we manipulated training paradigm design and measured subjects' declarative, procedural, and working memory subsystems. Experiment 1 demonstrated that passive, exposure-based training boosted learning of both simple and complex grammatical rules, relative to no training. Additionally, procedural memory correlated with simple rule learning, whereas declarative memory correlated with complex rule learning. Experiment 2 showed that presenting corrective feedback during the test phase did not improve learning. Experiment 3 revealed that structuring the order of training so that subjects are first exposed to the simple rule and then the complex improved learning. The cumulative findings shed light on the contributions of grammatical complexity, training paradigm design, and domain-general memory subsystems in determining grammar learning success.

  7. Complexity, Training Paradigm Design, and the Contribution of Memory Subsystems to Grammar Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettlinger, Marc; Wong, Patrick C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Although there is variability in nonnative grammar learning outcomes, the contributions of training paradigm design and memory subsystems are not well understood. To examine this, we presented learners with an artificial grammar that formed words via simple and complex morphophonological rules. Across three experiments, we manipulated training paradigm design and measured subjects' declarative, procedural, and working memory subsystems. Experiment 1 demonstrated that passive, exposure-based training boosted learning of both simple and complex grammatical rules, relative to no training. Additionally, procedural memory correlated with simple rule learning, whereas declarative memory correlated with complex rule learning. Experiment 2 showed that presenting corrective feedback during the test phase did not improve learning. Experiment 3 revealed that structuring the order of training so that subjects are first exposed to the simple rule and then the complex improved learning. The cumulative findings shed light on the contributions of grammatical complexity, training paradigm design, and domain-general memory subsystems in determining grammar learning success. PMID:27391085

  8. OF AGROINDUSTRIAL COMPLEX MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan E. Mansurov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of this work is determined, on the one hand, by tightening of the foreign political situation and its possible negative impact on the food security of the country, and, on the other hand, by the crisis of the domestic agricultural sector. These factors demand the development of new approaches to regional agroindustrial complex (AIC management. The aim is to develop a methodology for assessing the level of food self-sufficiency in main food areas of the Volgograd region. The author used the results of the statistical materials of AIC of the Volgograd region for 2016. The analytical methods included mathematical analysis and comparison. The main results are as follows. Based on the analysis of the current situation to ensure food security of Russia it was proved that at the present time it is necessary to develop effective indicators showing the level of self-sufficiency in basic food regions. It was also revealed that at the moment this indicator in the system of regional agrarian and industrial complex is not controlled. As a result of generalization of existing approaches the author’s method of rating the level of self-sufficiency of regions was offered. Its testing was carried out in several districts of the Volgograd region. The proposed authoring method of rating estimation of self-sufficiency in basic foodstuffs can be used in the regional agroindustrial complex management system at the federal and local levels. It can be used to rank areas in terms of their self-sufficiency in basic foodstuffs. This allows us to focus on the development of backward areas of agro-food and make appropriate management decisions. The final rating value - 0.759 obtained by the results of analysis of the situation in the Volgograd region means that the situation in matters of selfsufficiency in basic foodstuffs in general is good. However, we should aim at the maximum possible value of the rating - 1. In the application of the proposed

  9. Perspectives of Complexity in Water Governance: Local Experiences of Global Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele-Lee Moore

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Those responsible for water governance face great complexity. However, the conceptualisations of what comprises that complexity have been broad and inconsistent. When efforts are made to address the complexity in water governance, it is unclear whether the problems and the related solutions will be understood across the actors and institutions involved. This paper provides a review of the literature focused on global water governance to discern core themes that commonly characterise discussions of complexity. It then considers how the consequences of these issues are manifested at the local scale through an examination of empirical research of the Murray-Darling Basin Authority and the Prachinburi River Basin Committee. The results demonstrate that a history of a technical, depoliticised discourse is often perceived to contribute to complexity. The consequence is that when a severe ecological disturbance occurs within a river basin with poorly understood causes, few tools are available to support river basin organisations to address the political nature of these challenges. Additionally, a lack of clear authority structures has been recognised globally, but locally this can contribute to conflict amongst the 'governors' of water. Finally, a range of contested definitions and governance frameworks exists that contributes to complexity, but confronting the diversity of perspectives can lead to ethical dilemmas given that the decisions will affect the health and livelihoods of basin communities.

  10. Complex Hamiltonian Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bountis, Tassos

    2012-01-01

    This book introduces and explores modern developments in the well established field of Hamiltonian dynamical systems. It focuses on high degree-of-freedom systems and the transitional regimes between regular and chaotic motion. The role of nonlinear normal modes is highlighted and the importance of low-dimensional tori in the resolution of the famous FPU paradox is emphasized. Novel powerful numerical methods are used to study localization phenomena and distinguish order from strongly and weakly chaotic regimes. The emerging hierarchy of complex structures in such regimes gives rise to particularly long-lived patterns and phenomena called quasi-stationary states, which are explored in particular in the concrete setting of one-dimensional Hamiltonian lattices and physical applications in condensed matter systems.  The self-contained and pedagogical approach is blended with a unique balance between mathematical rigor, physics insights and concrete applications. End of chapter exercises and (more demanding) res...

  11. Recirculation over complex terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutter, Eric; Yi, Chuixiang; Hendrey, George; Liu, Heping; Eaton, Timothy; Ni-Meister, Wenge

    2017-06-01

    This study generated eddy covariance data to investigate atmospheric dynamics leeward of a small, forested hillside in upstate New York. The causes and effects of recirculation eddies were examined to support the larger goal of improving measurement of the exchange of energy, moisture, and trace gases between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere over complex terrain. Sensors operated at five different altitudes on two separate towers—one at the top of the hill and one down the slope to the east—for approximately 8 weeks in the spring of 2013. During the experiment, the vertical potential temperature gradient was found to be the primary factor for determining whether winds interacting with the terrain features caused a recirculating eddy leeward of the hill. The study found evidence that the recirculation influenced carbon dioxide flux and caused the air column to be vertically well mixed.

  12. Complex performance in construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bougrain, Frédéric; Forman, Marianne; Gottlieb, Stefan Christoffer

    of the industry. The main objective of this project was to understand how the development of integrated solutions in construction led to distinct configuration of actors and structures. Furthermore, the project analyses whether these changes modified project processes and contributed to the delivery of new value......To fulfil the expectations of demanding clients, new project-delivery mechanisms have been developed. Approaches focusing on performance-based building or new procurement processers such as new forms of private-public partnerships are considered as solutions improving the overall performance...... to the end users. This report summarises the results from work undertaken in the international collaborative project “Procuring and Operating Complex Products and Systems in Construction” (POCOPSC). POCOPSC was carried out in the period 2010-2014. The project was executed in collaboration between CSTB...

  13. Complex algebraic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Kollár, János

    1997-01-01

    This volume contains the lectures presented at the third Regional Geometry Institute at Park City in 1993. The lectures provide an introduction to the subject, complex algebraic geometry, making the book suitable as a text for second- and third-year graduate students. The book deals with topics in algebraic geometry where one can reach the level of current research while starting with the basics. Topics covered include the theory of surfaces from the viewpoint of recent higher-dimensional developments, providing an excellent introduction to more advanced topics such as the minimal model program. Also included is an introduction to Hodge theory and intersection homology based on the simple topological ideas of Lefschetz and an overview of the recent interactions between algebraic geometry and theoretical physics, which involve mirror symmetry and string theory.

  14. Mutagenicity of complex mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelroy, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of coal-derived complex chemical mixtures on the mutagenicity of 6-aminochrysene (6-AC) was determined with Salmonella typhimurium TA98. Previous results suggested that the mutagenic potency of 6-AC for TA98 in the standard microsomal activation (Ames) assay increased if it was presented to the cells mixed with high-boiling coal liquids (CL) from the solvent refined coal (SRC) process. In this year's work, the apparent mutational synergism of CL and 6-AC was independently verified in a fluctuation bioassay which allowed quantitation of mutational frequencies and cell viability. The results of this assay system were similar to those in the Ames assay. Moreover, the fluctation assay revealed that mutagenesis and cellular toxicity induced by 6-AC were both strongly enhanced if 6-AC was presented to the cells mixed in a high-boiling CL. 4 figures

  15. Early AIDS dementia complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountz, J.M.; Speed, N.M.; Adams, K.; Schwartz, J.A.; Gross, M.D.; Ostrow, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    A frequent complication of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is AIDS dementia complex (ADC). The authors evaluated seven patients with AIDS (aged 28-55 years, all male) for ADC by psychiatric evaluation, neuropsychological testing, CT scanning, and IMP-SPECT. Six of seven patients exhibited cognitive or behavioral abnormalities. Neuropsychological testing showed general deficits but no cases of explicit dementia. SPECT showed marked abnormalities in two cases: posterior temporal-parietal diminution of tracer uptake in one case (posterior/anterior=0.81) and marked right/left subcortical asymmetry (1.17) in the other. In three additional cases there was asymmetric tracer uptake in the subcortical and parietal regions. CT findings were normal in all seven cases. The authors conclude that functional imaging with the use of IMP-SPECT may be a useful method to follow ADC progression and response to therapy

  16. Segmentation of complex document

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souad Oudjemia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a method for segmentation of documents image with complex structure. This technique based on GLCM (Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix used to segment this type of document in three regions namely, 'graphics', 'background' and 'text'. Very briefly, this method is to divide the document image, in block size chosen after a series of tests and then applying the co-occurrence matrix to each block in order to extract five textural parameters which are energy, entropy, the sum entropy, difference entropy and standard deviation. These parameters are then used to classify the image into three regions using the k-means algorithm; the last step of segmentation is obtained by grouping connected pixels. Two performance measurements are performed for both graphics and text zones; we have obtained a classification rate of 98.3% and a Misclassification rate of 1.79%.

  17. Turbulence in complex terrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, Jakob [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmosheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a model of the spectral velocity-tensor in neutral flow over complex terrain. The resulting equations are implemented in a computer code using the mean flow generated by a linear mean flow model as input. It estimates turbulence structure over hills (except on the lee side if recirculation is present) in the so-called outer layer and also models the changes in turbulence statistics in the vicinity roughness changes. The generated turbulence fields are suitable as input for dynamic load calculations on wind turbines and other tall structures and is under implementation in the collection of programs called WA{sup s}P Engineering. (au) EFP-97; EU-JOULE-3. 15 refs.

  18. Thermodynamics of complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerhoff, Hans V.; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Snoep, Jacky L.

    1998-01-01

    Thermodynamics has always been a remarkable science in that it studies macroscopic properties that are only partially determined by the properties of individual molecules. Entropy and free energy only exist in constellations of more than a single molecule (degree of freedom). They are the so...... understanding of this BioComplexity, modem thermodynamic concepts and methods (nonequilibrium thermodynamics, metabolic and hierarchical control analysis) will be needed. We shall propose to redefine nonequilibrium thermodynamics as: The science that aims at understanding the behaviour of nonequilibrium systems...... by taking into account both the molecular properties and the emergent properties that are due to (dys)organisation. This redefinition will free nonequilibrium thermodynamics from the limitations imposed by earlier near-equilibrium assumptions, resolve the duality with kinetics, and bridge the apparent gap...

  19. Evolution of Biological Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Raymond E.

    It is a general rule of nature that larger organisms are more complex, at least as measured by the number of distinct types of cells present. This reflects the fitness advantage conferred by a division of labor among specialized cells over homogeneous totipotency. Yet, increasing size has both costs and benefits, and the search for understanding the driving forces behind the evolution of multicellularity is becoming a very active area of research. This article presents an overview of recent experimental and theoretical work aimed at understanding this biological problem from the perspective of physics. For a class of model organisms, the Volvocine green algae, an emerging hypothesis connects the transition from organisms with totipotent cells to those with terminal germ-soma differentiation to the competition between diffusion and fluid advection created by beating flagella. A number of challenging problems in fluid dynamics, nonlinear dynamics, and control theory emerge when one probes the workings of the simplest multicellular organisms.

  20. Iridium complexes for electrocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheehan, Stafford Wheeler; Hintermair, Ulrich; Thomsen, Julianne M; Brudvig, Gary W; Crabtree, Robert H

    2017-10-17

    Solution-phase (e.g., homogeneous) or surface-immobilized (e.g., heterogeneous) electrode-driven oxidation catalysts based on iridium coordination compounds which self-assemble upon chemical or electrochemical oxidation of suitable precursors and methods of making and using thereof are. Iridium species such as {[Ir(LX).sub.x(H.sub.2O).sub.y(.mu.-O)].sub.z.sup.m+}.sub.n wherein x, y, m are integers from 0-4, z and n from 1-4 and LX is an oxidation-resistant chelate ligand or ligands, such as such as 2(2-pyridyl)-2-propanolate, form upon oxidation of various molecular iridium complexes, for instance [Cp*Ir(LX)OH] or [(cod)Ir(LX)] (Cp*=pentamethylcyclopentadienyl, cod=cis-cis,1,5-cyclooctadiene) when exposed to oxidative conditions, such as sodium periodate (NaIO.sub.4) in aqueous solution at ambient conditions.

  1. Complexity Science for Simpletons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feinstein C. A.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we shall describe some of the most interesting topics in the subject of Complexity Science for a general audience. Anyone with a solid foundation in high school mathematics (with some calculus and an elementary understanding of computer programming will be able to follow this article. First, we shall explain the significance of the P versus NP problem and solve it. Next, we shall describe two other famous mathematics problems, the Collatz 3n+ 1 Conjecture and the Riemann Hypothesis, and show how both Chaitin’s incompleteness theorem and Wolfram’s notion of “computational irreducibility” are important for understanding why no one has, as of yet, solved these two problems.

  2. Complex Algebraic Varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Peternell, Thomas; Schneider, Michael; Schreyer, Frank-Olaf

    1992-01-01

    The Bayreuth meeting on "Complex Algebraic Varieties" focussed on the classification of algebraic varieties and topics such as vector bundles, Hodge theory and hermitian differential geometry. Most of the articles in this volume are closely related to talks given at the conference: all are original, fully refereed research articles. CONTENTS: A. Beauville: Annulation du H(1) pour les fibres en droites plats.- M. Beltrametti, A.J. Sommese, J.A. Wisniewski: Results on varieties with many lines and their applications to adjunction theory.- G. Bohnhorst, H. Spindler: The stability of certain vector bundles on P(n) .- F. Catanese, F. Tovena: Vector bundles, linear systems and extensions of (1).- O. Debarre: Vers uns stratification de l'espace des modules des varietes abeliennes principalement polarisees.- J.P. Demailly: Singular hermitian metrics on positive line bundles.- T. Fujita: On adjoint bundles of ample vector bundles.- Y. Kawamata: Moderate degenerations of algebraic surfaces.- U. Persson: Genus two fibra...

  3. Complex wounds Feridas complexas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Castro Ferreira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex wound is the term used more recently to group those well-known difficult wounds, either chronic or acute, that challenge medical and nursing teams. They defy cure using conventional and simple "dressings" therapy and currently have a major socioeconomic impact. The purpose of this review is to bring these wounds to the attention of the health-care community, suggesting that they should be treated by multidisciplinary teams in specialized hospital centers. In most cases, surgical treatment is unavoidable, because the extent of skin and subcutaneous tissue loss requires reconstruction with grafts and flaps. New technologies, such as the negative pressure device, should be introduced. A brief review is provided of the major groups of complex wounds-diabetic wounds, pressure sores, chronic venous ulcers, post-infection soft-tissue gangrenes, and ulcers resulting from vasculitis.Ferida complexa é uma nova definição para identificar aquelas feridas crônicas e algumas agudas já bem conhecidas e que desafiam equipes médicas e de enfermagem. São difíceis de serem resolvidas usando tratamentos convencionais e simples curativos. Têm atualmente grande impacto sócio-econômico. Esta revisão procura atrair atenção da comunidade de profissionais de saúde para estas feridas, sugerindo que devam ser tratadas por equipe multidisciplinar em centro hospitalar especializado. Na maioria dos casos o tratamento cirúrgico deve ser indicado, uma vez que a perda de pele e tecido subcutâneo é extensa, necessitando de reconstrução com enxertos e retalhos. Nova tecnologia, como uso da terapia por pressão negativa foi introduzido. Breves comentários sobre os principais grupos de feridas complexas: pé diabético, úlceras por pressão, úlceras venosas, síndrome de Fournier e vasculites.

  4. The Complex Cepstrum - Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemerait, R. C., Sr.

    2016-12-01

    Since this paper comes at the twilight of my career, it is appropriate to share my views on a subject very dear to my heart and to my long career. In 2004 "From Frequency to Quefrency: A History of the Cepstrum" was published in the IEEE Signal Processing magazine. There is no question that the authors, Alan V. Oppenheim and Ronald W. Schafer, were pioneers in this area of research, and this publication documents their involvement quite nicely. In parallel research also performed in the 1960's, Childers, et. al., renamed the original "Cepstrum" to the "Power Cepstrum" to avoid confusion with the principal topic of their research, that being the "Complex Cepstrum." The term "Power Cepstrum" has become widely used in the literature since that time. The Childers team, including Dr. Kemerait, published a summary of their work, as of that date, in the IEEE Proceedings of October 1977, and titled the article "The Cepstrum: A Guide to Processing." In the subsequent 40 years, Dr. Kemerait has continued to research cepstral techniques applied to many diverse problems; however, his primary research has been on estimating the depth of underground and underwater events. He has also applied these techniques to biomedical data: EEG, EKG, and Visua-evoked responses as well as on hydroacoustic data ; thereby, determining the "bubble pulse frequency", and the depths of the explosion and the ocean depth at the explosion point. He has also used cepstral techniques in the processing of ground penetrating radar, speech, machine diagnostics, and, throughout these years, seismic data. This paper emphasizes his recent improvements in processing primarily seismic and infrasound data associated with nuclear treaty monitoring. The emphasis is mainly on the recent improvements and the automation of the Complex Cepstrum process.

  5. Amphotericin B Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is used to treat serious, possibly life-threatening fungal infections in people who did ... respond or are unable to tolerate conventional amphotericin B therapy. Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is in ...

  6. Complex Challenges, Comprehensive Responses - Linking Security and Development : 11th International Summer School 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Brockmann, Kathrin; Hauck, Hans Bastian

    2007-01-01

    "The link between international security and development constitutes a nexus that is only beginning to be understood and addressed by the international community and by regional security and development actors. During the International Summer School, participants and renowned speakers examine the complexity of contemporary development and security challenges, such as transnational warfare, terrorism, poor governance and state failure, migration and resource conflicts, as well as the transform...

  7. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome following an Episode of Herpes Zoster: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Marrero, Christopher E; Mclean, Neuyen; Varnado, Keyana

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is characterized by searing pain, hyperalgesia, edema, allodynia, and skin changes. CRPS may be difficult to diagnose and to treat given poorly understood mechanisms as well as its presentation of symptoms that may mimic common conditions such as joint stiffness in this condition as well as rheumatoid arthritis. Case Report: A 71-year-old female presented to our clinic post shingles of the right upper extremity. We diagnosed her with CRPS ba...

  8. Complexation of U(VI) with HEDPA in neutral and alkaline solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Nash, Kenneth L.

    2003-01-01

    Diphosphonic acid ligands such as HEDPA (1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid) have been found to have superior complexation properties in acidic media over carboxylic acids. Consequently, they have been incorporated in a number of actinide separation processes: for example, surface decontamination and solvent extraction. Though these systems are well understood in the acidic region, relatively little work has been carried out with regards to the interaction between these ligands and metals ...

  9. Complexity in governance network theory

    OpenAIRE

    Klijn, Erik-Hans; Koppenjan, Joop

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstractIn this article, we discuss how complexity is viewed in governance network theory. The article provides a systematic elaboration of the notion of complexity, distinguishing three types: substantive, strategic , and institutional complexity. We argue that dealing with these types of complexity in networks is essentially a matter of mutual adaption and cooperation. An important explanation for the occurrence of deadlocks, breakthroughs and outcomes is the presence and the qualit...

  10. Cooperativity of complex salt bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Gvritishvili, Anzor G.; Gribenko, Alexey V.; Makhatadze, George I.

    2008-01-01

    The energetic contribution of complex salt bridges, in which one charged residue (anchor residue) forms salt bridges with two or more residues simultaneously, has been suggested to have importance for protein stability. Detailed analysis of the net energetics of complex salt bridge formation using double- and triple-mutant cycle analysis revealed conflicting results. In two cases, it was shown that complex salt bridge formation is cooperative, i.e., the net strength of the complex salt bridge...

  11. The NSL Complex Regulates Housekeeping Genes in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Sunil Jayaramaiah; Holz, Herbert; Luscombe, Nicholas M.; Manke, Thomas; Akhtar, Asifa

    2012-01-01

    MOF is the major histone H4 lysine 16-specific (H4K16) acetyltransferase in mammals and Drosophila. In flies, it is involved in the regulation of X-chromosomal and autosomal genes as part of the MSL and the NSL complexes, respectively. While the function of the MSL complex as a dosage compensation regulator is fairly well understood, the role of the NSL complex in gene regulation is still poorly characterized. Here we report a comprehensive ChIP–seq analysis of four NSL complex members (NSL1, NSL3, MBD-R2, and MCRS2) throughout the Drosophila melanogaster genome. Strikingly, the majority (85.5%) of NSL-bound genes are constitutively expressed across different cell types. We find that an increased abundance of the histone modifications H4K16ac, H3K4me2, H3K4me3, and H3K9ac in gene promoter regions is characteristic of NSL-targeted genes. Furthermore, we show that these genes have a well-defined nucleosome free region and broad transcription initiation patterns. Finally, by performing ChIP–seq analyses of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) in NSL1- and NSL3-depleted cells, we demonstrate that both NSL proteins are required for efficient recruitment of Pol II to NSL target gene promoters. The observed Pol II reduction coincides with compromised binding of TBP and TFIIB to target promoters, indicating that the NSL complex is required for optimal recruitment of the pre-initiation complex on target genes. Moreover, genes that undergo the most dramatic loss of Pol II upon NSL knockdowns tend to be enriched in DNA Replication–related Element (DRE). Taken together, our findings show that the MOF-containing NSL complex acts as a major regulator of housekeeping genes in flies by modulating initiation of Pol II transcription. PMID:22723752

  12. Statistic complexity: combining kolmogorov complexity with an ensemble approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmert-Streib, Frank

    2010-08-26

    The evaluation of the complexity of an observed object is an old but outstanding problem. In this paper we are tying on this problem introducing a measure called statistic complexity. This complexity measure is different to all other measures in the following senses. First, it is a bivariate measure that compares two objects, corresponding to pattern generating processes, on the basis of the normalized compression distance with each other. Second, it provides the quantification of an error that could have been encountered by comparing samples of finite size from the underlying processes. Hence, the statistic complexity provides a statistical quantification of the statement ' is similarly complex as Y'. The presented approach, ultimately, transforms the classic problem of assessing the complexity of an object into the realm of statistics. This may open a wider applicability of this complexity measure to diverse application areas.

  13. Statistic complexity: combining kolmogorov complexity with an ensemble approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Emmert-Streib

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The evaluation of the complexity of an observed object is an old but outstanding problem. In this paper we are tying on this problem introducing a measure called statistic complexity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This complexity measure is different to all other measures in the following senses. First, it is a bivariate measure that compares two objects, corresponding to pattern generating processes, on the basis of the normalized compression distance with each other. Second, it provides the quantification of an error that could have been encountered by comparing samples of finite size from the underlying processes. Hence, the statistic complexity provides a statistical quantification of the statement ' is similarly complex as Y'. CONCLUSIONS: The presented approach, ultimately, transforms the classic problem of assessing the complexity of an object into the realm of statistics. This may open a wider applicability of this complexity measure to diverse application areas.

  14. Complexity in governance network theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E-H. Klijn (Erik-Hans); J.F.M. Koppenjan (Joop)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstractIn this article, we discuss how complexity is viewed in governance network theory. The article provides a systematic elaboration of the notion of complexity, distinguishing three types: substantive, strategic , and institutional complexity. We argue that dealing with these types of

  15. Uranium nucleophilic carbene complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tourneux, Jean-Christophe

    2012-01-01

    The only stable f-metal carbene complexes (excluding NHC) metals f present R 2 C 2- groups having one or two phosphorus atoms in the central carbon in alpha position. The objective of this work was to develop the chemistry of carbenes for uranium (metal 5f) with the di-anion C{Ph 2 P(=S)} 2 2- (SCS 2- ) to extend the organometallic chemistry of this element in its various oxidation states (+3-+6), and to reveal the influence of the 5f orbitals on the nature and reactivity of the double bond C=U. We first isolated the reactants M(SCHS) (M = Li and K) and demonstrated the role of the cation M + on the evolution of the di-anion M 2 SCS (M = Li, K, Tl) which is transformed into LiSCHS in THF or into product of intramolecular cyclization K 2 [C(PhPS) 2 (C 6 H 4 )]. We have developed the necessary conditions mono-, bis- and tris-carbene directly from the di-anion SCS 2- and UCl 4 , as the precursor used in uranium chemistry. The protonolysis reactions of amides compounds (U-NEt 2 ) by the neutral ligand SCH 2 S were also studied. The compounds [Li(THF)] 2 [U(SCS)Cl 3 ] and [U(SCS)Cl 2 (THF) 2 ] were then used to prepare a variety of cyclopentadienyl and mono-cyclo-octa-tetra-enyliques uranium(IV) carbene compounds of the DFT analysis of compounds [M(SCS)Cl 2 (py) 2 ] and [M(Cp) 2 (SCS)] (M = U, Zr) reveals the strong polarization of the M=C double bond, provides information on the nature of the σ and π interactions in this binding, and shows the important role of f orbitals. The influence of ancillary ligands on the M=C bond is revealed by examining the effects of replacing Cl - ligands and pyridine by C 5 H 5 - groups. Mulliken and NBO analyzes show that U=C bond, unlike the Zr=C bond, is not affected by the change in environment of the metal center. While the oxidation tests of carbene complexes of U(IV) were disappointing, the first carbene complex of uranium (VI), [UO 2 (SCS)(THF) 2 ], was isolated with the uranyl ion UO 2 2+ . The reactions of compounds UO 2 X 2

  16. Monotone measures of statistical complexity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnicki, Łukasz; Toranzo, Irene V.; Sánchez-Moreno, Pablo; Dehesa, Jesús S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The notion of monotonicity of the complexity measure of a probability distribution is introduced and discussed. • The monotonicity properties of statistical measures of complexity are studied. • The Cramer–Rao and Fisher–Shannon measures of complexity are shown to be monotone. - Abstract: We introduce and discuss the notion of monotonicity for the complexity measures of general probability distributions, patterned after the resource theory of quantum entanglement. Then, we explore whether this property is satisfied by the three main intrinsic measures of complexity (Crámer–Rao, Fisher–Shannon, LMC) and some of their generalizations.

  17. Monotone measures of statistical complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudnicki, Łukasz [Institute for Physics, University of Freiburg, Rheinstraße 10, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Center for Theoretical Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Aleja Lotników 32/46, PL-02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Toranzo, Irene V. [Instituto Carlos I de Física Teórica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, 18071-Granada (Spain); Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, 18071-Granada (Spain); Sánchez-Moreno, Pablo [Instituto Carlos I de Física Teórica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, 18071-Granada (Spain); Departamento de Matemática Aplicada, Universidad de Granada, 18071-Granada (Spain); Dehesa, Jesús S., E-mail: dehesa@ugr.es [Instituto Carlos I de Física Teórica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, 18071-Granada (Spain); Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, 18071-Granada (Spain)

    2016-01-28

    Highlights: • The notion of monotonicity of the complexity measure of a probability distribution is introduced and discussed. • The monotonicity properties of statistical measures of complexity are studied. • The Cramer–Rao and Fisher–Shannon measures of complexity are shown to be monotone. - Abstract: We introduce and discuss the notion of monotonicity for the complexity measures of general probability distributions, patterned after the resource theory of quantum entanglement. Then, we explore whether this property is satisfied by the three main intrinsic measures of complexity (Crámer–Rao, Fisher–Shannon, LMC) and some of their generalizations.

  18. Economic development and wage inequality: A complex system analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, Emanuele; Pietronero, Luciano

    2017-01-01

    Adapting methods from complex system analysis, this paper analyzes the features of the complex relationship between wage inequality and the development and industrialization of a country. Development is understood as a combination of a monetary index, GDP per capita, and a recently introduced measure of a country’s economic complexity: Fitness. Initially the paper looks at wage inequality on a global scale, over the time period 1990–2008. Our empirical results show that globally the movement of wage inequality along with the ongoing industrialization of countries has followed a longitudinally persistent pattern comparable to the one theorized by Kuznets in the fifties: countries with an average level of development suffer the highest levels of wage inequality. Next, the study narrows its focus on wage inequality within the United States. By using data on wages and employment in the approximately 3100 US counties over the time interval 1990–2014, it generalizes the Fitness-Complexity metric for geographic units and industrial sectors, and then investigates wage inequality between NAICS industries. The empirical time and scale dependencies are consistent with a relation between wage inequality and development driven by institutional factors comparing countries, and by change in the structural compositions of sectors in a homogeneous institutional environment, such as the counties of the United States. PMID:28926577

  19. Economic development and wage inequality: A complex system analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Sbardella

    Full Text Available Adapting methods from complex system analysis, this paper analyzes the features of the complex relationship between wage inequality and the development and industrialization of a country. Development is understood as a combination of a monetary index, GDP per capita, and a recently introduced measure of a country's economic complexity: Fitness. Initially the paper looks at wage inequality on a global scale, over the time period 1990-2008. Our empirical results show that globally the movement of wage inequality along with the ongoing industrialization of countries has followed a longitudinally persistent pattern comparable to the one theorized by Kuznets in the fifties: countries with an average level of development suffer the highest levels of wage inequality. Next, the study narrows its focus on wage inequality within the United States. By using data on wages and employment in the approximately 3100 US counties over the time interval 1990-2014, it generalizes the Fitness-Complexity metric for geographic units and industrial sectors, and then investigates wage inequality between NAICS industries. The empirical time and scale dependencies are consistent with a relation between wage inequality and development driven by institutional factors comparing countries, and by change in the structural compositions of sectors in a homogeneous institutional environment, such as the counties of the United States.

  20. On Measuring the Complexity of Networks: Kolmogorov Complexity versus Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikołaj Morzy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most popular methods of estimating the complexity of networks is to measure the entropy of network invariants, such as adjacency matrices or degree sequences. Unfortunately, entropy and all entropy-based information-theoretic measures have several vulnerabilities. These measures neither are independent of a particular representation of the network nor can capture the properties of the generative process, which produces the network. Instead, we advocate the use of the algorithmic entropy as the basis for complexity definition for networks. Algorithmic entropy (also known as Kolmogorov complexity or K-complexity for short evaluates the complexity of the description required for a lossless recreation of the network. This measure is not affected by a particular choice of network features and it does not depend on the method of network representation. We perform experiments on Shannon entropy and K-complexity for gradually evolving networks. The results of these experiments point to K-complexity as the more robust and reliable measure of network complexity. The original contribution of the paper includes the introduction of several new entropy-deceiving networks and the empirical comparison of entropy and K-complexity as fundamental quantities for constructing complexity measures for networks.

  1. Complexity a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Holland, John H

    2014-01-01

    The importance of complexity is well-captured by Hawking's comment: "Complexity is the science of the 21st century". From the movement of flocks of birds to the Internet, environmental sustainability, and market regulation, the study and understanding of complex non-linear systems has become highly influential over the last 30 years. In this Very Short Introduction, one of the leading figures in the field, John Holland, introduces the key elements and conceptual framework of complexity. From complex physical systems such as fluid flow and the difficulties of predicting weather, to complex adaptive systems such as the highly diverse and interdependent ecosystems of rainforests, he combines simple, well-known examples - Adam Smith's pin factory, Darwin's comet orchid, and Simon's 'watchmaker' - with an account of the approaches, involving agents and urn models, taken by complexity theory. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost eve...

  2. Complexity of formation in holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Shira [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Marrochio, Hugo [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Department of Physics & Astronomy and Guelph-Waterloo Physics Institute,University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Myers, Robert C. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

    2017-01-16

    It was recently conjectured that the quantum complexity of a holographic boundary state can be computed by evaluating the gravitational action on a bulk region known as the Wheeler-DeWitt patch. We apply this complexity=action duality to evaluate the ‘complexity of formation’ (DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.191301; 10.1103/PhysRevD.93.086006), i.e. the additional complexity arising in preparing the entangled thermofield double state with two copies of the boundary CFT compared to preparing the individual vacuum states of the two copies. We find that for boundary dimensions d>2, the difference in the complexities grows linearly with the thermal entropy at high temperatures. For the special case d=2, the complexity of formation is a fixed constant, independent of the temperature. We compare these results to those found using the complexity=volume duality.

  3. Managing Complex Environmental Risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Mikael

    2006-01-01

    Environmental and public health risks are often handled in a process in which experts, and sometimes policy makers, try their best to quantitatively assess, evaluate and manage risks. This approach harmonises with mainstream interpretations of sustainable development, which aim at defining a desirable relationship between human and natural systems, for instance by policies that define limit values of different forms of disturbances. However, under conditions of high scientific incertitude, diverging values and distrust, this approach is far from satisfactory. The use of cell phones, hazardous chemicals, nuclear or fossil energy systems, and modern biotechnology are examples of activities causing such risks with high complexity. Against this background, a complementary interpretation of the concept of sustainable development is suggested. This interpretation is operationalised through new formulations of three common principles for public risk management; the precautionary principle, the polluter pays principle and the principle of public participation. Implementation of these reformulated principles would challenge some foundations of present mainstream views on environmental decision-making, but would on the other hand contribute to improved practices for long-term human welfare and planetary survival (full text of contribution)

  4. Complex Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Talha Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex sleep apnea is the term used to describe a form of sleep disordered breathing in which repeated central apneas (>5/hour persist or emerge when obstructive events are extinguished with positive airway pressure (PAP and for which there is not a clear cause for the central apneas such as narcotics or systolic heart failure. The driving forces in the pathophysiology are felt to be ventilator instability associated oscillation in PaCO2 arterial partial pressure of Carbon Dioxide, continuous cositive airway pressure (CPAP related increased CO2 carbon dioxide elimination, and activation of airway and pulmonary stretch receptors triggering these central apneas. The prevalence ranges from 0.56% to 18% with no clear predictive characteristics as compared to simple obstructive sleep apnea. Prognosis is similar to obstructive sleep apnea. The central apnea component in most patients on followup using CPAP therap, has resolved. For those with continued central apneas on simple CPAP therapy, other treatment options include bilevel PAP, adaptive servoventilation, permissive flow limitation and/or drugs.

  5. Complex Interfaces Under Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosbjerg, Dan

    The hydrosphere is dynamic across the major compartments of the Earth system: the atmosphere, the oceans and seas, the land surface water, and the groundwater within the strata below the two last compartments. The global geography of the hydrosphere essentially depends on thermodynamic and mechan...... these interfaces and interfaced compartments and processes. Climate, sea-level, oceanographic currents and hydrological processes are all affected, while anthropogenic changes are often intense in the geographic settings corresponding to such interfaces.......The hydrosphere is dynamic across the major compartments of the Earth system: the atmosphere, the oceans and seas, the land surface water, and the groundwater within the strata below the two last compartments. The global geography of the hydrosphere essentially depends on thermodynamic...... and mechanical processes that develop within this structure. Water-related processes at the interfaces between the compartments are complex, depending both on the interface itself, and on the characteristics of the interfaced compartments. Various aspects of global change directly or indirectly impact...

  6. Complexity of Perceptual Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tito Arecchi, F.

    2005-09-01

    At the borderline between neuroscience and physics of complex phenomena, a new paradigm is under investigation, namely feature binding. This terminology denotes how a large collection of coupled neurons combines external signals with internal memories into new coherent patterns of meaning. An external stimulus spreads over an assembly of coupled neurons, building up a corresponding collective state. Thus, the synchronization of spike trains of many individual neurons is the basis of a coherent perception. Based on recent investigations, a novel conjecture for the dynamics of single neurons and, consequently, for neuron assemblies has been formulated. Homoclinic chaos is proposed as the most suitable way to code information in time by trains of equal spikes occurring at apparently erratic times; a new quantitative indicator, called propensity, is introduced to select the most appropriate neuron model. In order to classify the set of different perceptions, the percept space is given a metric structure by introducing a distance measure between distinct percepts. The distance in percept space is conjugate to the duration of the perception in the sense that an uncertainty relation in percept space is associated with time limited perceptions. Thus coding of different percepts by synchronized spike trains entails fundamental quantum features. It is conjectured that they are related to the details of the perceptual chain rather than depending on Planck's action.

  7. Complexities and futures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Urry

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Physical and social worlds are full of change, paradox and contradiction. There are no simple, unchangingstable states or states to which there is equilibrium-establishing movement. The “normal” state isnot one of balance and equilibrium. Any system is “complex”. Policies never straightforwardly restoreequilibrium. The equilibrium models dominant in most economic system analyses, especially generalequilibrium models, can be critiqued since they ignore the huge array of positive feedbacks. Thus, systems should be viewed as dynamic and processual, demonstrating the power of the second law of thermodynamics, in which physical and social systems are seen as moving towards entropy. Systems can be broadly viewed as unpredictable, open rather than closed, with energy and matter flowing in and out. Systems are characterised by a lack of proportionality or “non-linearity” between the apparent “causes” and “effects” of events and processes. Various implications for thinking futures are examined in the light of this complex systems thinking.

  8. Complex mixtures biostudies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Springer, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of the project is to identify potential adverse biological activities associated with human exposures to complex organic mixtures (COM) from energy-related industries. Studies to identify the influence of chemical class fractions from a COM on the initiating activity of a known carcinogen, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), demonstrated that the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nitrogen-containing polycyclic aromatic compound (NPAC) fractions were the most effective inhibitors of initiation. In an effort to determine the contribution of BaP to the initiating activity of the COM, binding of radiolabeled BaP to mouse skin DNA was measured. Results indicated that binding of BaP to DNA decreased in the presence of the COM so that at initiating COM doses, BaP binding was near the limit detection. Addition of unlabeled BaP to the COM at an amount similar to that originally present in the COM did not significantly increase the binding. Studies to determine the rates of disappearance of carcinogenic PAH from the site of application on the skin indicated that half-lives for PAH differed by a factor of about 2. Analytical methods developed to identify PAH from COM which covalently bind to DNA demonstrated that the lower level of detection is approximately 200 picograms. Developmental studies demonstrated that both pregnant rats and mice treated dermally with a high-boiling COM developed fetuses with major malformations including cleft palate, small lungs, edema, and sagittal suture hemorrhages. 3 figures, 5 tables

  9. Complex biological and bio-inspired systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecke, Robert E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The understanding and characterization ofthe fundamental processes of the function of biological systems underpins many of the important challenges facing American society, from the pathology of infectious disease and the efficacy ofvaccines, to the development of materials that mimic biological functionality and deliver exceptional and novel structural and dynamic properties. These problems are fundamentally complex, involving many interacting components and poorly understood bio-chemical kinetics. We use the basic science of statistical physics, kinetic theory, cellular bio-chemistry, soft-matter physics, and information science to develop cell level models and explore the use ofbiomimetic materials. This project seeks to determine how cell level processes, such as response to mechanical stresses, chemical constituents and related gradients, and other cell signaling mechanisms, integrate and combine to create a functioning organism. The research focuses on the basic physical processes that take place at different levels ofthe biological organism: the basic role of molecular and chemical interactions are investigated, the dynamics of the DNA-molecule and its phylogenetic role are examined and the regulatory networks of complex biochemical processes are modeled. These efforts may lead to early warning algorithms ofpathogen outbreaks, new bio-sensors to detect hazards from pathomic viruses to chemical contaminants. Other potential applications include the development of efficient bio-fuel alternative-energy processes and the exploration ofnovel materials for energy usages. Finally, we use the notion of 'coarse-graining,' which is a method for averaging over less important degrees of freedom to develop computational models to predict cell function and systems-level response to disease, chemical stress, or biological pathomic agents. This project supports Energy Security, Threat Reduction, and the missions of the DOE Office of Science through its efforts to

  10. Complexity measurement based on information theory and kolmogorov complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Leong Ting; Terrazas, Germán; Zenil, Hector; Alexander, Cameron; Krasnogor, Natalio

    2015-01-01

    In the past decades many definitions of complexity have been proposed. Most of these definitions are based either on Shannon's information theory or on Kolmogorov complexity; these two are often compared, but very few studies integrate the two ideas. In this article we introduce a new measure of complexity that builds on both of these theories. As a demonstration of the concept, the technique is applied to elementary cellular automata and simulations of the self-organization of porphyrin molecules.

  11. The hamstring muscle complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Made, A D; Wieldraaijer, T; Kerkhoffs, G M; Kleipool, R P; Engebretsen, L; van Dijk, C N; Golanó, P

    2015-07-01

    The anatomical appearance of the hamstring muscle complex was studied to provide hypotheses for the hamstring injury pattern and to provide reference values of origin dimensions, muscle length, tendon length, musculotendinous junction (MTJ) length as well as width and length of a tendinous inscription in the semitendinosus muscle known as the raphe. Fifty-six hamstring muscle groups were dissected in prone position from 29 human cadaveric specimens with a median age of 71.5 (range 45-98). Data pertaining to origin dimensions, muscle length, tendon length, MTJ length and length as well as width of the raphe were collected. Besides these data, we also encountered interesting findings that might lead to a better understanding of the hamstring injury pattern. These include overlapping proximal and distal tendons of both the long head of the biceps femoris muscle and the semimembranosus muscle (SM), a twist in the proximal SM tendon and a tendinous inscription (raphe) in the semitendinosus muscle present in 96 % of specimens. No obvious hypothesis can be provided purely based on either muscle length, tendon length or MTJ length. However, it is possible that overlapping proximal and distal tendons as well as muscle architecture leading to a resultant force not in line with the tendon predispose to muscle injury, whereas the presence of a raphe might plays a role in protecting the muscle against gross injury. Apart from these architectural characteristics that may contribute to a better understanding of the hamstring injury pattern, the provided reference values complement current knowledge on surgically relevant hamstring anatomy. IV.

  12. Carney complex (CNC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertherat, Jérôme

    2006-06-06

    The Carney complex (CNC) is a dominantly inherited syndrome characterized by spotty skin pigmentation, endocrine overactivity and myxomas. Skin pigmentation anomalies include lentigines and blue naevi. The most common endocrine gland manifestations are acromegaly, thyroid and testicular tumors, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-independent Cushing's syndrome due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD). PPNAD, a rare cause of Cushing's syndrome, is due to primary bilateral adrenal defect that can be also observed in some patients without other CNC manifestations or familial history of the disease. Myxomas can be observed in the heart, skin and breast. Cardiac myxomas can develop in any cardiac chamber and may be multiple. One of the putative CNC genes located on 17q22-24, (PRKAR1A), has been identified to encode the regulatory subunit (R1A) of protein kinase A. Heterozygous inactivating mutations of PRKAR1A were reported initially in 45 to 65% of CNC index cases, and may be present in about 80% of the CNC families presenting mainly with Cushing's syndrome. PRKAR1A is a key component of the cAMP signaling pathway that has been implicated in endocrine tumorigenesis and could, at least partly, function as a tumor suppressor gene. Genetic analysis should be proposed to all CNC index cases. Patients with CNC or with a genetic predisposition to CNC should have regular screening for manifestations of the disease. Clinical work-up for all the manifestations of CNC should be performed at least once a year in all patients and should start in infancy. Cardiac myxomas require surgical removal. Treatment of the other manifestations of CNC should be discussed and may include follow-up, surgery, or medical treatment depending on the location of the tumor, its size, the existence of clinical signs of tumor mass or hormonal excess, and the suspicion of malignancy. Bilateral adrenalectomy is the most common treatment for Cushing's syndrome due to PPNAD.

  13. Carney complex (CNC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertherat Jérôme

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Carney complex (CNC is a dominantly inherited syndrome characterized by spotty skin pigmentation, endocrine overactivity and myxomas. Skin pigmentation anomalies include lentigines and blue naevi. The most common endocrine gland manifestations are acromegaly, thyroid and testicular tumors, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD. PPNAD, a rare cause of Cushing's syndrome, is due to primary bilateral adrenal defect that can be also observed in some patients without other CNC manifestations or familial history of the disease. Myxomas can be observed in the heart, skin and breast. Cardiac myxomas can develop in any cardiac chamber and may be multiple. One of the putative CNC genes located on 17q22-24, (PRKAR1A, has been identified to encode the regulatory subunit (R1A of protein kinase A. Heterozygous inactivating mutations of PRKAR1A were reported initially in 45 to 65 % of CNC index cases, and may be present in about 80 % of the CNC families presenting mainly with Cushing's syndrome. PRKAR1A is a key component of the cAMP signaling pathway that has been implicated in endocrine tumorigenesis and could, at least partly, function as a tumor suppressor gene. Genetic analysis should be proposed to all CNC index cases. Patients with CNC or with a genetic predisposition to CNC should have regular screening for manifestations of the disease. Clinical work-up for all the manifestations of CNC should be performed at least once a year in all patients and should start in infancy. Cardiac myxomas require surgical removal. Treatment of the other manifestations of CNC should be discussed and may include follow-up, surgery, or medical treatment depending on the location of the tumor, its size, the existence of clinical signs of tumor mass or hormonal excess, and the suspicion of malignancy. Bilateral adrenalectomy is the most common treatment for Cushing

  14. Complexity management in projects between rational momentum and complex conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mac, Anita; Schlamovitz, Jesper

    This study takes its departure in a model of complexity, developed by Stacey (1993), to test and discuss its practical benefit as perceived by practicing project managers. Based on a survey, the study finds that complexity is a phenomenon recognized by project managers, and complexity management...... is associated with benefits in the development of tasks and managing stakeholders. It is also associated with some difficulty in terms of an increased need for dialogue and a risk of creating goal ambiguity. Based on the findings, we conclude that classical project management approaches can benefit from...... incorporating complexity management....

  15. Complexity Management In Projects Between Rational Momentum And Complex Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mac, Anita; Schlamovitz, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    management is associated with benefits in the development of tasks and managing stakeholders. It is also associated with some difficulty in terms of an increased need for dialogue and a risk of creating goal ambiguity. Based on the findings, we conclude that classical project management approaches can......Abstract: This study takes its departure in a model of complexity, developed by Stacey (1993), to test and discuss its practical benefit as perceived by practicing project managers. Based on a survey, the study finds that complexity is a phenomenon recognized by project managers, and complexity...... benefit from incorporating complexity management....

  16. Complexity management in projects between rational momentum and complex conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mac, Anita; Schlamovitz, Jesper

    is associated with benefits in the development of tasks and managing stakeholders. It is also associated with some difficulty in terms of an increased need for dialogue and a risk of creating goal ambiguity. Based on the findings, we conclude that classical project management approaches can benefit from......This study takes its departure in a model of complexity, developed by Stacey (1993), to test and discuss its practical benefit as perceived by practicing project managers. Based on a survey, the study finds that complexity is a phenomenon recognized by project managers, and complexity management...... incorporating complexity management....

  17. Evidence for condensed complexes of cholesterol in lipid membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, Maria K.

    Although cholesterol is a predominant lipid in the eukaryotic plasma membrane, its interactions with other lipids are still not well understood. Insights into the nature of lipid assembly can be gained from examining lipid-cholesterol interaction using model systems. A key observation was the discovery of liquid-liquid phase diagrams with two critical points in the binary mixtures of cholesterol and lipids. The shape of the phase diagrams can be explained by a thermodynamic model of "condensed complexes". In our quest to characterize cholesterol-lipid interactions, we determined phase diagrams of cholesterol and phospholipids that point to the existence of condensed complexes. This complex formation hypothesis was further supported by experiments involving cholesterol removal by cyclodextrin, grazing x-ray diffraction and x-ray reflectivity studies and isothermal calorimetry. Our study aimed at establishing a correlation (or the lack of) between domain formation and complex formation, as well as determining the mode of cholesterol association with different lipids based on their structural and physical properties. We established a displacement assay by which we were able to probe cholesterol-lipid interactions by perturbing them in the presence of an intercalator that competes with cholesterol for association with lipids. Our data support the condensed complex model between cholesterol and lipids, and cholesterol when complexed with lipids shows low activity whereas free, uncomplexed cholesterol exhibits high activity. We were successful in modulating cholesterol activity by varying the level of intercalator while keeping the cholesterol content fixed. In this thesis, not only have we shown that cholesterol can be displaced by intercalators in model systems, we have further established that such displacement can take place in membranes of live cell.

  18. Lanthanide croconate complexation in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choppin, G.R.; Orebaugh, E.

    1977-01-01

    The thermodynamic parameters of complexation of lanthanide cations by croconate ligands have been measured in aqueous solution using potentiometry and calorimetry. Comparison of experimental and calculated (with a modified Born equation) values of ΔG indicates the presence of aromatic pi systems in the carbon rings of the ligands in squarate, croconate and tropolonate complexes but of a nonaromatic pi system in the cyclic ether rings of kojate and maltolate complexes

  19. Metal complexes of phosphinic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, P.N.M.; Kuchen, W.; Keck, H.; Haegele, G.

    1977-01-01

    Pr(III), Nd(III) and Eu(III) complexes of dimethyldithiophosphinic acid have been prepared. Their properties and structures have been studied using elemental analysis, molecular weight determination, IR, UV, mass, NMR, magnetic studies, etc. It is found that these metals form neutral complexes of the type ML 3 where L is a deprotonated bidentate dimethyldithiophosphinic acid molecule. The coordination number exhibited by these metals in this case is six. Octahedral structures have been assigned to these complexes. (author)

  20. Increasing complexity with quantum physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Janet; Wiesner, Karoline

    2011-09-01

    We argue that complex systems science and the rules of quantum physics are intricately related. We discuss a range of quantum phenomena, such as cryptography, computation and quantum phases, and the rules responsible for their complexity. We identify correlations as a central concept connecting quantum information and complex systems science. We present two examples for the power of correlations: using quantum resources to simulate the correlations of a stochastic process and to implement a classically impossible computational task.

  1. Complex networks an algorithmic perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Erciyes, Kayhan

    2014-01-01

    Network science is a rapidly emerging field of study that encompasses mathematics, computer science, physics, and engineering. A key issue in the study of complex networks is to understand the collective behavior of the various elements of these networks.Although the results from graph theory have proven to be powerful in investigating the structures of complex networks, few books focus on the algorithmic aspects of complex network analysis. Filling this need, Complex Networks: An Algorithmic Perspective supplies the basic theoretical algorithmic and graph theoretic knowledge needed by every r

  2. Complexity leadership: a healthcare imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weberg, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The healthcare system is plagued with increasing cost and poor quality outcomes. A major contributing factor for these issues is that outdated leadership practices, such as leader-centricity, linear thinking, and poor readiness for innovation, are being used in healthcare organizations. Complexity leadership theory provides a new framework with which healthcare leaders may practice leadership. Complexity leadership theory conceptualizes leadership as a continual process that stems from collaboration, complex systems thinking, and innovation mindsets. Compared to transactional and transformational leadership concepts, complexity leadership practices hold promise to improve cost and quality in health care. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. COMPLEXITY and the QGCW Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zichichi, Antonino

    2014-06-01

    The following sections are included: * Seven definitions of Complexity * Complexity exists at all scales * AFB phenomena from Beethoven to the Superworld * UEEC events, from Galilei up to SM&B * The two asymptotic limits: History and Science * The basic points on the correlation between Complexity and Predictions * The lesson needed for the future * From Planck to Complexity * Consequences for LHC: the QGCW project * Conclusions * The Platonic Grand Unification * The Platonic Supersymmetry * Examples of UEEC events in the construction of the SM&B * Open Problems in Subnuclear Physics * The ten challenges of Subnuclear Physics * References

  4. Technetium-aspirin molecule complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Shahawy, A.S.; Mahfouz, R.M.; Aly, A.A.M.; El-Zohry, M. (Assiut Univ. (Egypt))

    1993-01-01

    Technetium-aspirin and technetium-aspirin-like molecule complexes were prepared. The structure of N-acetylanthranilic acid (NAA) has been decided through CNDO calculations. The ionization potential and electron affinity of the NAA molecule as well as the charge densities were calculated. The electronic absorption spectra of Tc(V)-Asp and Tc(V)-ATS complexes have two characteristic absorption bands at 450 and 600 nm, but the Tc(V)-NAA spectrum has one characteristic band at 450 nm. As a comparative study, Mo-ATS complex was prepared and its electronic absorption spectrum is comparable with the Tc-ATS complex spectrum. (author).

  5. Cyclomatic Complexity: theme and variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Henderson-Sellers

    1993-11-01

    Full Text Available Focussing on the "McCabe family" of measures for the decision/logic structure of a program, leads to an evaluation of extensions to modularization, nesting and, potentially, to object-oriented program structures. A comparison of rated, operating and essential complexities of programs suggests two new metrics: "inessential complexity" as a measure of unstructuredness and "product complexity" as a potential objective measure of structural complexity. Finally, nesting and abstraction levels are considered, especially as to how metrics from the "McCabe family" might be applied in an object-oriented systems development environment.

  6. Axially chiral allenyl gold complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alice; Laguna, Antonio; Gimeno, M Concepción

    2014-09-17

    Unprecedented allenyl gold complexes have been achieved starting from triphenylpropargylphosphonium bromide. Two different coordination modes of the allene isomer of triphenylphosphoniumpropargylide to gold have been found depending on the gold oxidation state. Bromo-, pentafluorophenyl-, and triphenylphosphine-gold(I) allenyl complexes were prepared in which the α carbon coordinates to the gold(I) center. A chiral pentafluorophenyl-gold(III) allenyl complex with the gold atoms coordinated to the γ carbon was also prepared. All the complexes have been structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction showing the characteristic distances for a C═C═C unit.

  7. Complex dynamical invariants for two-dimensional complex potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    that the cubic oscillator and shifted harmonic oscillator admit quadratic complex invariants. The obtained invariants ..... where α, β, α1,α2,β1,β2,δ3 and δ4 are arbitrary constants of integration. Pramana – J. Phys. ..... An invariant for a shifted harmonic oscillator in complex plane can be derived by substi- tuting δ3 = 0,δ2 = −1.

  8. Complex Constructivism: A Theoretical Model of Complexity and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, Peter E.

    2014-01-01

    Education has long been driven by its metaphors for teaching and learning. These metaphors have influenced both educational research and educational practice. Complexity and constructivism are two theories that provide functional and robust metaphors. Complexity provides a metaphor for the structure of myriad phenomena, while constructivism…

  9. Complexity in phonology: The complex consonants of simple CV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this article is to investigate the interplay of simplicity and complexity in the phonological structure of Zezuru. The article argues that Zezuru affricates, prenasalised consonants (NCs) and velarised consonants (Cws) are subsegmentally complex segments which function as simple onsets. Treating them ...

  10. Tolerance as Understood by Young Russian and German Volunteers in Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorskaia, L. E.

    2008-01-01

    In 2006 the author and her colleagues carried out the sociological survey "Tolerance in Volunteer Social Work." They sought to determine the attitudes that young Russian and German volunteers of social work have when it comes to tolerance as a concept, a trait of personality, a principle of life and activity. They studied the various…

  11. Silicon as Versatile Player in Plant and Human Biology: Overlooked and Poorly Understood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Muhammad Ansar; Dietz, Karl-Josef

    2015-01-01

    Silicon (Si) serves as bioactive beneficial element. Si is highly abundant in soil, and occurs ubiquitously in all organisms including plants and humans. During the last three decades, nutritional significance of Si for plant and human health has received increasing attention. Plant Si plays a pivotal role in growth and development, and this beneficial effect depends usually on accumulation in plant tissues, which are then protected from various forms of biotic and abiotic stresses. Likewise, human exposure to Si imparts health benefits and essentially occurs through plant-derived food products. Si bioavailability in human diet, e.g., strengthens bones and improves immune response, as well as neuronal and connective tissue health. Despite this empiric knowledge, the essentiality of Si still remains enigmatic. Thus the link between Si availability for plant development and its profound implication for human welfare should receive attention. This review aims to provide a broad perspective on Si as important element for plant and human nutrition and to define research fields for interdisciplinary research.

  12. Learning Outcomes as Understood by "Publishing Research" Facilitators at a South African University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoza, Simon Bheki

    2013-01-01

    This article draws on a case study of six facilitators who were teaching Publishing Research in 2011 at one of the universities in South Africa. Publishing Research was offered by two campuses of this institution. This article gives these facilitators a voice and also identifies and defines the intended, implemented and attained learning outcomes…

  13. Transformations of Chinese International Students Understood through a Sense of Wholeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yina

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to explore Chinese international students' academic and personal transformation under the influences of formal education in schools and informal education outside of the classroom. A qualitative inquiry using in-depth, semi-structured interviews was employed with eight senior undergraduate Chinese international students attending…

  14. understood with the help of a theoretical framework. He was also ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    expansion of the universe therefore is an example of the coming together of theoretical work and innovation in technology in the advancement of science. This year, we are celebrating the International Year of Astronomy. Four hundred years ago, in 1609, Galileo held his telescope to view the starry heavens, and changed ...

  15. Possibly All of that and Then Some: Scalar Implicatures Are Understood in Two Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, John M., Jr.; Bailey, Todd M.; Bott, Lewis

    2013-01-01

    Scalar implicatures often incur a processing cost in sentence comprehension tasks. We used a novel mouse-tracking technique in a sentence verification paradigm to test different accounts of this effect. We compared a two-step account, in which people access a basic meaning and then enrich the basic meaning to form the scalar implicature, against a…

  16. understood with the help of a theoretical framework. He was also ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    to avoid the effects of turbulence in the lower atmosphere. A set of telescopes were built atop Mount Wilson in the western coast of USA just before Hubble began his work. The discovery of the expansion of the universe therefore is an example of the coming together of theoretical work and innovation in technology in the.

  17. Non-Universal Usability? A Survey of How Usability Is Understood by Chinese and Danish Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen-Thorlacius, Olaf; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren; Hertzum, Morten

    2009-01-01

    , who differ in how they understand and prioritize different aspects of usability. Chinese users appear to be more concerned with visual appearance, satisfaction, and fun than Danish users; Danish users prioritize effectiveness, efficiency, and lack of frustration higher than Chinese users. The results...... suggest that culture influences perceptions of usability. We discuss implications for usability research and for usability practice....

  18. Immigration and Linguistic Diversity: A New and Poorly Understood Situation for Catalan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comellas-Casanova, Pere

    2016-01-01

    For decades Catalan, a language minoritized and endangered by the hegemony of other state languages, has been experimenting with a process of revitalization driven by social activism and political autonomy, which has been particularly strong in some of its historical regions. Recently, however, serious doubts about the success of this process have…

  19. Group Differences in IQ Are Best Understood as Environmental in Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbett, Richard E.; Aronson, Joshua; Blair, Clancy; Dickens, William; Flynn, James; Halpern, Diane F.; Turkheimer, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Responds to the comments by J. P. Rushton (see record 2012-24333-012); M. A. Woodley and G. Meisenberg (see record 2012-24333-013); and J. D. Mayer, D. R. Caruso, A. T. Panter, and P. Salovey (see record 2012-24333-014) on the present authors' original article, "Intelligence: New findings and theoretical developments" (see record…

  20. Are the Greenhouse Gas Implications of New Residential Developments Understood Wrongly?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seppo Junnila

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Built environment carbon reduction strategies materialize predominantly in city-level greenhouse gas (GHG management, where new residential development appears as one of the key instruments. However, city-level assessments are often incapable of producing data at a community or neighborhood level and thus they may heavily underestimate the emissions from new construction. This paper explores the implications of low-energy residential construction as an instrument of climate change mitigation in the built environment and demonstrates why city-level approaches easily fail to identify the significance of the emissions from construction. We employ a hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA approach to demonstrate that, when the temporal allocation of emissions from the construction and use phases is taken into account, construction phase emissions come to have a central role in finding effective GHG mitigation strategies—even when the emissions from all consumption activities during the use phase are included in the assessment. In fact, their role would seem to be so central that new residential construction cannot be utilized as an instrument of city carbon management, even over a relatively long period. While we analyze a case study from Finland, the analysis intends to highlight the situation throughout the globe.

  1. Content-Based Instruction Understood in Terms of Connectionism and Constructivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lain, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Despite the number of articles devoted to the topic of content-based instruction (CBI), little attempt has been made to link the claims for CBI to research in cognitive science. In this article, I review the CBI model of foreign language (FL) instruction in the context of its close alignment with two emergent frameworks in cognitive science:…

  2. The physics of magnetic resonance imaging: how well understood is it?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, S.E.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Part of my work involves tutoring trainee radiologists on the physics of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). I have observed that a full understanding of the physics involved with MRI, or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to be more specific, seems to be beyond the hopes of many people working in the field. All diagnostic radiology textbooks that I have read touch very superficially on the physics of NMR and sometimes the explanations and models used are quite inaccurate and misleading. After further investigation, I found some very good coverage on the subject in chemistry texts. The physics of NMR is based on some very difficult quantum mechanical concepts. What I have managed to understand has been tremendously satisfying and has shed light on several conceptual difficulties which I initially struggled with. The physics of MRI is based on the motion of the hydrogen proton when subjected to an external magnetic field. Protons, which are positively charged particles, have an intrinsic spin and as a result, a magnetic field. A proton, when placed in an external magnetic field, undergoes several changes in its motion. The laws of quantum mechanics govern these changes. Diagnostic radiology textbook models describing the motion of a proton tend to be poor and inaccurate leading to confusion. For example, subatomic particles are subject to laws of quantum mechanics and are forbidden to align exactly with an applied magnetic field thus creating precession. Some textbooks make no attempt to explain this phenomenon whereas others attempt a superficial but inadequate quantum mechanical explanation. I am interested to canvas opinions from others involved in MRI as to difficulties they have encountered with the understanding of the physics of MRI and how they have been overcome. Copyright (2000) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  3. Muslim fundamentalism: something to be understood or to be explained away?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinessen, M.M. van

    1995-01-01

    This article surveys various attempts to make sociological sense of the diverse Muslim movements often lumped together under the label of fundamentalism. Explanations of fundamentalism as a form of resistance to modernization or those reducing it to social and economic discontent may have some

  4. Educational Leadership in Australian Private VET Organisations: How Is It Understood and Enacted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Michele; Harris, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing reform in vocational education and training (VET) has placed significant pressure on leaders in private training organisations in terms of striking an 'appropriate' balance between educational and business imperatives. This paper draws on data from 34 interviews with leaders from 16 private registered training organisations in Australia to…

  5. How static media is understood and used by high school science teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Miguel

    The purpose of the present study is to explore the role of static media in textbooks, as defined by Mayer (2001) in the form of printed images and text, and how these media are viewed and used by high school science teachers. Textbooks appeared in the United States in the late 1800s, and since then pictorial aids have been used extensively in them to support the teacher's work in the classroom (Giordano, 2003). According to Woodward, Elliott, and Nagel (1988/2013) the research on textbooks prior to the 1970s doesn't present relevant work related to the curricular role and the quality and instructional design of textbooks. Since then there has been abundant research, specially on the use of visual images in textbooks that has been approached from: (a) the text/image ratio (Evans, Watson, & Willows, 1987; Levin & Mayer, 1993; Mayer, 1993; Woodward, 1993), and (b) the instructional effectiveness of images (Woodward, 1993). The theoretical framework for this study comes from multimedia learning (Mayer, 2001), information design (Pettersson, 2002), and visual literacy (Moore & Dwyer, 1994). Data was collected through in-depth interviews of three high school science teachers and the graphic analyses of three textbooks used by the interviewed teachers. The interview data were compared through an analytic model developed from the literature, and the graphic analyses were performed using Mayer's multimedia learning principles (Mayer, 2001) and the Graphic Analysis Protocol (GAP) (Slough & McTigue, 2013). The conclusions of this study are: (1) pictures are specially useful for teaching science because science is a difficult subject to teach, (2) due this difficulty, pictures are very important to make the class dynamic and avoid students distraction, (3) static and dynamic media when used together can be more effective, (4) some specific type of graphics were found in the science textbooks used by the participants, in this case they were naturalistic drawings, stylized drawings, scale diagram, flow chart - cycle, flow chart - sequence, and hybrids, no photographs were found, (5) graphics can be related not only to the general text but specifically to the captions, (6) the textbooks analyzed had a balanced proportion of text and graphics, and (7) to facilitate the text-graphics relationship the spatial contiguity of both elements is key to their semantic integration.

  6. Silicon as versatile player in plant and human biology: Overlooked and poorly understood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ansar Farooq

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Silicon (Si serves as bioactive beneficial element. Si is highly abundant in soil, and occurs ubiquitously in all organisms including plants and humans. During the last three decades, nutritional significance of Si for plant and human health has received increasing attention. Plant Si plays a pivotal role in growth and development, and this beneficial effect depends usually on accumulation in plant tissues, which are then protected from various forms of biotic and abiotic stresses. Likewise, human exposure to Si imparts health benefits and essentially occurs through plant-derived food products. Si bioavailability in human diet e.g. strengthens bones and improves immune response, as well as neuronal and connective tissue health. Despite this empiric knowledge, the essentiality of Si still remains enigmatic. Thus the link between Si availability for plant development and its profound implication for human welfare should receive attention. This review aims to provide a broad perspective on Si as important element for plant and human nutrition and to define research fields for interdisciplinary research.

  7. ComplexViewer: visualization of curated macromolecular complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combe, Colin W; Sivade, Marine Dumousseau; Hermjakob, Henning; Heimbach, Joshua; Meldal, Birgit H M; Micklem, Gos; Orchard, Sandra; Rappsilber, Juri

    2017-11-15

    Proteins frequently function as parts of complexes, assemblages of multiple proteins and other biomolecules, yet network visualizations usually only show proteins as parts of binary interactions. ComplexViewer visualizes interactions with more than two participants and thereby avoids the need to first expand these into multiple binary interactions. Furthermore, if binding regions between molecules are known then these can be displayed in the context of the larger complex. freely available under Apache version 2 license; EMBL-EBI Complex Portal: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/complexportal; Source code: https://github.com/MICommunity/ComplexViewer; Package: https://www.npmjs.com/package/complexviewer; http://biojs.io/d/complexviewer. Language: JavaScript; Web technology: Scalable Vector Graphics; Libraries: D3.js. colin.combe@ed.ac.uk or juri.rappsilber@ed.ac.uk. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. ComplexRec 2017: Recommendation in Complex Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Recommendation algorithms for ratings prediction and item ranking have steadily matured during the past decade. However, these state-of-the-art algorithms are typically applied in relatively straightforward scenarios. In reality, recommendation is often a more complex problem: it is usually just...... a single step in the user's more complex background need. These background needs can often place a variety of constraints on which recommendations are interesting to the user and when they are appropriate. However, relatively little research has been done on these complex recommendation scenarios....... The ComplexRec 2017 workshop addressed this by providing an interactive venue for discussing approaches to recommendation in complex scenarios that have no simple one-size-fits-all-solution....

  9. Workshop on Recommendation in Complex Scenarios (ComplexRec 2017)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Toine; Koolen, Marijn; Mobasher, Bamshad

    2017-01-01

    Recommendation algorithms for ratings prediction and item ranking have steadily matured during the past decade. However, these state-of-the-art algorithms are typically applied in relatively straightforward scenarios. In reality, recommendation is often a more complex problem: it is usually just...... a single step in the user's more complex background need. These background needs can often place a variety of constraints on which recommendations are interesting to the user and when they are appropriate. However, relatively little research has been done on these complex recommendation scenarios....... The ComplexRec 2017 workshop addressed this by providing an interactive venue for discussing approaches to recommendation in complex scenarios that have no simple one-size-fits-all-solution....

  10. Humic substances in natural waters and their complexation with trace metals and radionuclides: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boggs, S. Jr.; Livermore, D.; Seitz, M.G.

    1985-07-01

    Dissolved humic substances (humic and fulvic acids) occur in surface waters and groundwaters in concentrations ranging from less than 1 mg(C)/L to more than 100 mg(C)/L. Humic substances are strong complexing agents for many trace metals in the environment and are also capable of forming stable soluble complexes or chelates with radionuclides. Concentrations of humic materials as low as 1 mg(C)/L can produce a detectable increase in the mobility of some actinide elements by forming soluble complexes that inhibit sorption of the radionuclides onto rock materials. The stability of trace metal- or radionuclide-organic complexes is commonly measured by an empirically determined conditional stability constant (K'), which is based on the ratio of complexed metal (radionuclide) in solution to the product concentration of uncomplexed metal and humic complexant. Larger values of stability constants indicate greater complex stability. The stability of radionuclide-organic complexes is affected both by concentration variables and envionmental factors. In general, complexing is favored by increased of radionuclide, increased pH, and decreased ionic strength. Actinide elements are generally most soluble in their higher oxidation states. Radionuclides can also form stable, insoluble complexes with humic materials that tend to reduce radionuclide mobility. These insoluble complexes may be radionuclide-humate colloids that subsequently precipitate from solution, or complexes of radionuclides and humic substances that sorb to clay minerals or other soil particulates strongly enough to immobilize the radionuclides. Colloid formation appears to be favored by increased radionuclide concentration and lowered pH; however, the conditions that favor formation of insoluble complexes that sorb to particulates are still poorly understood. 129 refs., 25 figs., 19 tabs

  11. 3D model of amphioxus steroid receptor complexed with estradiol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, Michael E.; Chang, David J.

    2009-01-01

    The origins of signaling by vertebrate steroids are not fully understood. An important advance was the report that an estrogen-binding steroid receptor [SR] is present in amphioxus, a basal chordate with a similar body plan as vertebrates. To investigate the evolution of estrogen-binding to steroid receptors, we constructed a 3D model of amphioxus SR complexed with estradiol. This 3D model indicates that although the SR is activated by estradiol, some interactions between estradiol and human ERα are not conserved in the SR, which can explain the low affinity of estradiol for the SR. These differences between the SR and ERα in the steroid-binding domain are sufficient to suggest that another steroid is the physiological regulator of the SR. The 3D model predicts that mutation of Glu-346 to Gln will increase the affinity of testosterone for amphioxus SR and elucidate the evolution of steroid-binding to nuclear receptors.

  12. 3D model of amphioxus steroid receptor complexed with estradiol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Michael E., E-mail: mbaker@ucsd.edu [Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0693 (United States); Chang, David J. [Department of Biology, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0693 (United States)

    2009-08-28

    The origins of signaling by vertebrate steroids are not fully understood. An important advance was the report that an estrogen-binding steroid receptor [SR] is present in amphioxus, a basal chordate with a similar body plan as vertebrates. To investigate the evolution of estrogen-binding to steroid receptors, we constructed a 3D model of amphioxus SR complexed with estradiol. This 3D model indicates that although the SR is activated by estradiol, some interactions between estradiol and human ER{alpha} are not conserved in the SR, which can explain the low affinity of estradiol for the SR. These differences between the SR and ER{alpha} in the steroid-binding domain are sufficient to suggest that another steroid is the physiological regulator of the SR. The 3D model predicts that mutation of Glu-346 to Gln will increase the affinity of testosterone for amphioxus SR and elucidate the evolution of steroid-binding to nuclear receptors.

  13. Simple emergent power spectra from complex inflationary physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Mafalda; Frazer, Jonathan; Marsh, M.C. David

    2016-04-01

    We construct ensembles of random scalar potentials for N f interacting scalar fields using non-equilibrium random matrix theory, and use these to study the generation of observables during small-field inflation. For N f =O(few), these heavily featured scalar potentials give rise to power spectra that are highly non-linear, at odds with observations. For N f >>1, the superhorizon evolution of the perturbations is generically substantial, yet the power spectra simplify considerably and become more predictive, with most realisations being well approximated by a linear power spectrum. This provides proof of principle that complex inflationary physics can give rise to simple emergent power spectra. We explain how these results can be understood in terms of large N f universality of random matrix theory.

  14. Internationalization of law globalization, international law and complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Dias Varella, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    The book provides an overview of how international law is today constructed through diverse macro and microprocesses that expand its traditional subjects and sources, with the attribution of sovereign capacity and power to the international plane (moving the international toward the national). Simultaneously, national laws approximate laws of other nations (moving among nations or moving the national toward the international) and new sources of legal norms emerge, independent of states and international organisations. This expansion occurs in many subject areas, with specific structures: commercial, environmental, human rights, humanitarian, financial, criminal and labor law contribute to the formation of post national law with different modes of functioning, different actors and different sources of law that should be understood as a new complexity of law.

  15. Electrochemical analysis of metal complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de H.G.

    1987-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the electroanalytical chemistry of complexes of metals with large ligands. The main purpose was to develop quantitative descriptions of the voltammetric current-potential relation of metal complex systems with different diffusion coefficients of the

  16. Team dynamics in complex projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeij, P.; Vroome, E.E.M. de; Dhondt, S.; Gaspersz, J.B.R.

    2012-01-01

    Complexity of projects is hotly debated and a factor which affects innovativeness of team performance. Much attention in the past is paid to technical complexity and many issues are related to natural and physical sciences. A growing awareness of the importance of socioorganisational issues is

  17. Information geometric methods for complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felice, Domenico; Cafaro, Carlo; Mancini, Stefano

    2018-03-01

    Research on the use of information geometry (IG) in modern physics has witnessed significant advances recently. In this review article, we report on the utilization of IG methods to define measures of complexity in both classical and, whenever available, quantum physical settings. A paradigmatic example of a dramatic change in complexity is given by phase transitions (PTs). Hence, we review both global and local aspects of PTs described in terms of the scalar curvature of the parameter manifold and the components of the metric tensor, respectively. We also report on the behavior of geodesic paths on the parameter manifold used to gain insight into the dynamics of PTs. Going further, we survey measures of complexity arising in the geometric framework. In particular, we quantify complexity of networks in terms of the Riemannian volume of the parameter space of a statistical manifold associated with a given network. We are also concerned with complexity measures that account for the interactions of a given number of parts of a system that cannot be described in terms of a smaller number of parts of the system. Finally, we investigate complexity measures of entropic motion on curved statistical manifolds that arise from a probabilistic description of physical systems in the presence of limited information. The Kullback-Leibler divergence, the distance to an exponential family and volumes of curved parameter manifolds, are examples of essential IG notions exploited in our discussion of complexity. We conclude by discussing strengths, limits, and possible future applications of IG methods to the physics of complexity.

  18. A Simple Explanation of Complexation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, J. Richard

    2010-01-01

    The topics of solution thermodynamics, activity coefficients, and complex formation are introduced through computational exercises and sample applications. The presentation is designed to be accessible to freshmen in a chemical engineering computations course. The MOSCED model is simplified to explain complex formation in terms of hydrogen…

  19. Holistic education and complexity thinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jörg, T.

    2007-01-01

    Paper proposal for the SIG Holistic Education at AERA 2007 Title: Holistic Education and Complexity Thinking Ton Jörg IVLOS Institute of Education University of Utrecht The Netherlands A.G.D.Jorg@ivlos.uu.nl ABSTRACT In this paper I link complexity thinking with Holistic Education (HE). It is a

  20. Complexity control in statistical learning

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    measures of complexity are the VC-dimension and the fat shattering dimension. These are not discussed here. An exposition of these measures of complexity, .... a hypothesis f ∈ H based on this empirical data alone. Though we cannot compute E, we can compute the empirical error, which is the empirical mean of the loss.

  1. Genetics Home Reference: Carney complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases: Cushing's Syndrome Educational Resources (5 links) MalaCards: carney complex variant MalaCards: carney complex, type 1 Merck Manual Home ... disease type 1 GABA-transaminase deficiency All New & Updated ...

  2. Heterotrimetallic complexes in molecular magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andruh, Marius

    2018-04-05

    This paper reviews the most representative examples of heterometallic complexes containing three different paramagnetic metal ions, focusing on their magnetic properties. These compounds show a rich structural variety, ranging from discrete species to coordination polymers of various dimensionalities. The general synthetic strategies leading to heterotrimetallic complexes are discussed and illustrated.

  3. How to lead complex situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Pingel

    2013-01-01

    The military leader is experiencing increasingly more complex situations, whether it is as leader in a foreign combat environment or in the home-based public administration. Complex situations like these call for a special set of managerial responses and a special way of leading organisations...

  4. Candmium complexes with aroyl hydrazones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biradar, N.S.; Mahale, V.B.; Havinale, B.R.

    1976-01-01

    Eight complexes of Cd(II) have been prepared by reacting cadmium acetate with aroyl hydrazones in aqueous ethanolic medium. The elemental analyses indicate 1:2 stoichiometry. On the basis of infrared spectral studies, it has been shown that the ligands react in the keto form and the complexes have coordination number six. (author)

  5. The Algebra of Complex Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LePage, Wilbur R.

    This programed text is an introduction to the algebra of complex numbers for engineering students, particularly because of its relevance to important problems of applications in electrical engineering. It is designed for a person who is well experienced with the algebra of real numbers and calculus, but who has no experience with complex number…

  6. Complex multiplication of abelian surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streng, Theodorus Cornelis

    2010-01-01

    The theory of complex multiplication makes it possible to construct certain class fields and abelian varieties. The main theme of this thesis is making these constructions explicit for the case where the abelian varieties have dimension 2. Chapter I is an introduction to complex

  7. Complex networks: Dynamics and security

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and nonlinear physics, applied mathematics, and social science has emerged, which brings novel concepts and approaches to the study of complex networks. Issues such as the characterization of the network architecture, dynamics on complex net- works, and the effect of attacks on network operation have begun to be ...

  8. Holographic complexity and spacetime singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbón, José L.F.; Rabinovici, Eliezer

    2016-01-01

    We study the evolution of holographic complexity in various AdS/CFT models containing cosmological crunch singularities. We find that a notion of complexity measured by extremal bulk volumes tends to decrease as the singularity is approached in CFT time, suggesting that the corresponding quantum states have simpler entanglement structure at the singularity.

  9. Complexity control in statistical learning

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    further, may be corrupted by noise. In this situation, it is important to control the complexity of the class of models from which we are to choose our model. In this paper, we first give a simplified overview of the principal features of learning theory. Then we describe how the method of regularization is used to control complexity.

  10. Copper complexes as chemical nucleases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Chemical nucleases are redox active coordination complexes that cleave DNA by an oxidative pathway. ... with a reductant like ascorbate, reduced glutathione or NADH in DNA strand breaking giving the order T > G > C > A 16,17. .... The emission intensity of CT DNA-bound ethidium bromide (12⋅5 µM) at different complex ...

  11. TETRACYANONICKELATE(II) PYRIDAZINE COMPLEXES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    and their structures consist of polymeric layers of │M−Ni(CN)4│∞ with the pdz bound to the metal (M) atom. KEY WORDS: Hofmann-type complexes, Vibrational spectra, Pyridazine, Tetracyanonickelate(II), Thermal analysis. INTRODUCTION. Cyano-bridged complexes have been shown to form polymeric structures by ...

  12. Servitization, Services and Managing Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harjo, Ieva; Frandsen, Thomas; Hsuan, Juliana

    This paper explores how seemingly complex servitized solutions can become tradable in a customer–supplier relationship by objectification and abbreviation. The key argument is that the complexity of product-service solutions can be reduced by abbreviation of the reality in written form of contracts...

  13. Complexity Results in Epistemic Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; Jensen, Martin Holm; Schwarzentruber, Francois

    2015-01-01

    Epistemic planning is a very expressive framework that extends automated planning by the incorporation of dynamic epistemic logic (DEL). We provide complexity results on the plan existence problem for multi-agent planning tasks, focusing on purely epistemic actions with propositional preconditions......-hardness of the plan verification problem, which strengthens previous results on the complexity of DEL model checking....

  14. Rhythmic complexity and predictive coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuust, Peter; Witek, Maria A G

    2014-01-01

    Musical rhythm, consisting of apparently abstract intervals of accented temporal events,has a remarkable capacity to move our minds and bodies. How does the cognitive systemenable our experiences of rhythmically complex music? In this paper, we describe somecommon forms of rhythmic complexity...

  15. The complex portal--an encyclopaedia of macromolecular complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldal, Birgit H M; Forner-Martinez, Oscar; Costanzo, Maria C; Dana, Jose; Demeter, Janos; Dumousseau, Marine; Dwight, Selina S; Gaulton, Anna; Licata, Luana; Melidoni, Anna N; Ricard-Blum, Sylvie; Roechert, Bernd; Skyzypek, Marek S; Tiwari, Manu; Velankar, Sameer; Wong, Edith D; Hermjakob, Henning; Orchard, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The IntAct molecular interaction database has created a new, free, open-source, manually curated resource, the Complex Portal (www.ebi.ac.uk/intact/complex), through which protein complexes from major model organisms are being collated and made available for search, viewing and download. It has been built in close collaboration with other bioinformatics services and populated with data from ChEMBL, MatrixDB, PDBe, Reactome and UniProtKB. Each entry contains information about the participating molecules (including small molecules and nucleic acids), their stoichiometry, topology and structural assembly. Complexes are annotated with details about their function, properties and complex-specific Gene Ontology (GO) terms. Consistent nomenclature is used throughout the resource with systematic names, recommended names and a list of synonyms all provided. The use of the Evidence Code Ontology allows us to indicate for which entries direct experimental evidence is available or if the complex has been inferred based on homology or orthology. The data are searchable using standard identifiers, such as UniProt, ChEBI and GO IDs, protein, gene and complex names or synonyms. This reference resource will be maintained and grow to encompass an increasing number of organisms. Input from groups and individuals with specific areas of expertise is welcome. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  16. Evolution of genome size and complexity in Pinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M Morse

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genome evolution in the gymnosperm lineage of seed plants has given rise to many of the most complex and largest plant genomes, however the elements involved are poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gymny is a previously undescribed retrotransposon family in Pinus that is related to Athila elements in Arabidopsis. Gymny elements are dispersed throughout the modern Pinus genome and occupy a physical space at least the size of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome. In contrast to previously described retroelements in Pinus, the Gymny family was amplified or introduced after the divergence of pine and spruce (Picea. If retrotransposon expansions are responsible for genome size differences within the Pinaceae, as they are in angiosperms, then they have yet to be identified. In contrast, molecular divergence of Gymny retrotransposons together with other families of retrotransposons can account for the large genome complexity of pines along with protein-coding genic DNA, as revealed by massively parallel DNA sequence analysis of Cot fractionated genomic DNA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Most of the enormous genome complexity of pines can be explained by divergence of retrotransposons, however the elements responsible for genome size variation are yet to be identified. Genomic resources for Pinus including those reported here should assist in further defining whether and how the roles of retrotransposons differ in the evolution of angiosperm and gymnosperm genomes.

  17. Magnetic circular dichroism of porphyrin lanthanide M3+ complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrushchenko, Valery; Padula, Daniele; Zhivotova, Elena; Yamamoto, Shigeki; Bouř, Petr

    2014-10-01

    Lanthanide complexes exhibit interesting spectroscopic properties yielding many applications as imaging probes, natural chirality amplifiers, and therapeutic agents. However, many properties are not fully understood yet. Therefore, we applied magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy, which provides enhanced information about the underlying electronic structure to a series of lanthanide compounds. The metals in the M(3+) state included Y, La, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu; the spectra were collected for selected tetraphenylporphin (TPP) and octaethylporphin (OEP) complexes in chloroform. While the MCD and UV-VIS absorption spectra were dominated by the porphyrin signal, metal binding significantly modulated them. MCD spectroscopy was found to be better suited to discriminate between various species than absorption spectroscopy alone. The main features and trends in the lanthanide series observed in MCD and absorption spectra of the complexes could be interpreted at the Density Functional Theory (DFT) level, with effective core potentials on metal nuclei. The sum over state (SOS) method was used for simulation of the MCD intensities. The combination of the spectroscopy and quantum-chemical computations is important for understanding the interactions of the metals with the organic compounds. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Heat capacity changes in carbohydrates and protein-carbohydrate complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavelas, Eneas A; García-Hernández, Enrique

    2009-05-13

    Carbohydrates are crucial for living cells, playing myriads of functional roles that range from being structural or energy-storage devices to molecular labels that, through non-covalent interaction with proteins, impart exquisite selectivity in processes such as molecular trafficking and cellular recognition. The molecular bases that govern the recognition between carbohydrates and proteins have not been fully understood yet. In the present study, we have obtained a surface-area-based model for the formation heat capacity of protein-carbohydrate complexes, which includes separate terms for the contributions of the two molecular types. The carbohydrate model, which was calibrated using carbohydrate dissolution data, indicates that the heat capacity contribution of a given group surface depends on its position in the saccharide molecule, a picture that is consistent with previous experimental and theoretical studies showing that the high abundance of hydroxy groups in carbohydrates yields particular solvation properties. This model was used to estimate the carbohydrate's contribution in the formation of a protein-carbohydrate complex, which in turn was used to obtain the heat capacity change associated with the protein's binding site. The model is able to account for protein-carbohydrate complexes that cannot be explained using a previous model that only considered the overall contribution of polar and apolar groups, while allowing a more detailed dissection of the elementary contributions that give rise to the formation heat capacity effects of these adducts.

  19. SMC complexes orchestrate the mitotic chromatin interaction landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakui, Yasutaka; Uhlmann, Frank

    2017-09-21

    Chromatin is a very long DNA-protein complex that controls the expression and inheritance of the genetic information. Chromatin is stored within the nucleus in interphase and further compacted into chromosomes during mitosis. This process, known as chromosome condensation, is essential for faithful segregation of genomic DNA into daughter cells. Condensin and cohesin, members of the structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) family, are fundamental for chromosome architecture, both for establishment of chromatin structure in the interphase nucleus and for the formation of condensed chromosomes in mitosis. These ring-shaped SMC complexes are thought to regulate the interactions between DNA strands by topologically entrapping DNA. How this activity shapes chromosomes is not yet understood. Recent high throughput chromosome conformation capture studies revealed how chromatin is reorganized during the cell cycle and have started to explore the role of SMC complexes in mitotic chromatin architecture. Here, we summarize these findings and discuss the conserved nature of chromosome condensation in eukaryotes. We highlight the unexpected finding that condensin-dependent intra-chromosomal interactions in mitosis increase within a distinctive distance range that is characteristic for an organism, while longer and shorter-range interactions are suppressed. This reveals important molecular insight into chromosome architecture.

  20. Molecular architecture and mechanism of the anaphase-promoting complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; McLaughlin, Stephen H.; Barford, David

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquitination of cell cycle regulatory proteins by the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) controls sister chromatid segregation, cytokinesis and the establishment of G1. The APC/C is an unusually large multimeric cullin-RING ligase. Its activity is strictly dependent on regulatory coactivator subunits that promote APC/C – substrate interactions and stimulate its catalytic reaction. Because the structures of many APC/C subunits and their organization within the assembly are unknown, the molecular basis for these processes is poorly understood. Here, from a cryo-EM reconstruction of a human APC/C-coactivator-substrate complex at 7.4 Å resolution, we have determined the complete secondary structural architecture of the complex. With this information we identified protein folds for structurally uncharacterized subunits, and the definitive location of all 20 APC/C subunits within the 1.2 MDa assembly. Comparison with apo APC/C shows that coactivator promotes a profound allosteric transition involving displacement of the cullin-RING catalytic subunits relative to the degron recognition module of coactivator and Apc10. This transition is accompanied by increased flexibility of the cullin-RING subunits and enhanced affinity for UbcH10~ubiquitin, changes which may contribute to coactivator-mediated stimulation of APC/C E3 ligase activity. PMID:25043029