Full Text Available Muscle contraction results from cyclic interactions between the contractile proteins myosin and actin, driven by the turnover of adenosine triphosphate (ATP. Despite intense studies, several molecular events in the contraction process are poorly understood, including the relationship between force-generation and phosphate-release in the ATP-turnover. Different aspects of the force-generating transition are reflected in the changes in tension development by muscle cells, myofibrils and single molecules upon changes in temperature, altered phosphate concentration, or length perturbations. It has been notoriously difficult to explain all these events within a given theoretical framework and to unequivocally correlate observed events with the atomic structures of the myosin motor. Other incompletely understood issues include the role of the two heads of myosin II and structural changes in the actin filaments as well as the importance of the three-dimensional order. We here review these issues in relation to controversies regarding basic physiological properties of striated muscle. We also briefly consider actomyosin mutation effects in cardiac and skeletal muscle function and the possibility to treat these defects by drugs.
Misailidi, Plousia; Bonoti, Fotini; Savva, Georgia
This article reports the results of a study which aimed to examine the development of children's ability to depict loneliness in their drawings. Seventy-eight children and 20 adults took part in the study. Participants were first asked a series of questions assessing their conceptions of loneliness, and were then invited to draw a picture that…
Zachor, Ditza A.; Itzchak, Esther Ben
The current study examined the relation between autism severity at baseline, type of intervention employed and outcomes in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Seventy-eight children with ASD, aged 15-35 months (M=25.4, SD=4.2), received either applied behavioral analysis (ABA) or integration of several intervention approaches…
Segal, Nancy L.; Cortez, Franchesca A.; Zettel-Watson, Laura; Cherry, Barbara J.; Mechanic, Mindy; Munson, Jaimee E.; Velázquez, Jaime M.A.; Reed, Brandon
Twins living in different countries offer opportunities to explore associations between observed differences and experiential effects. This report compared the life histories, cognitive abilities, personality traits, psychomotor skills, medical characteristics, job satisfaction, social support and social relations of dizygotic (DZ) female twins reunited at 78, the world's longest separated set. The twins’ advanced age also enabled a study of how co-twin differences in aging may be associated with current behavioral and social differences. Consistent with previous studies, these dizygotic reared apart (DZA) twins showed discordance across some, but not all, traits. Their different rearing situations and life histories may explain current differences in their responses to meeting their twin. This case highlights the importance of both genetic and rearing factors on behavior, but does not allow firm conclusions regarding the extent to which these sources explain individual developmental differences. However, such data contribute to the growing number of cross-culturally separated twins, generating novel hypotheses that may be assessed using larger samples. PMID:26366029
Nichols, John Spicer
The mass media as interdependent parts of a larger social system both control and are controlled by other subsystems. The various combinations of control, in turn, determine the functions the media system will serve. In the 1960's, the Cuban mass media underwent frequent change that reflected the volatility of the revolutionary process. Today,…
J.J. Verhoeven (Jennifer)
textabstractIntroduction: The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of hyperglycemia and insulin response in critically ill children with meningococcal disease in the intensive care unit of an academic children's hospital.Methods: Seventy-eight children with meningococcal disease
Spencer, Thomas J.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph; Lerner, Marc; Cooper, Kimberly M.; Zimmerman, Brenda
Objective: To investigate whether prolonged therapy with a long-acting stimulant affects growth in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: One hundred seventy-eight children ages 6 to 13 years received OROS methylphenidate (OROS MPH, CONCERTA) for at least 21 months. Height and weight were measured monthly during the…
Tanzania's 1967 policy of self-reliance (Hultin 1985, p.8). Before looking at the way self-reliance is understood in rural Malawi during a process of development, it may be beneficial to look at some of the tensions between micro and macro forms of development. Leading to Self-Reliance. Development Aid is a term that has ...
How self-reliance is understood: viewpoints from one local community in Malawi. ... model that resists dependence on external aid, empowers community development, and provides opportunities to sustain development activity through local initiative, can be employed to increase social capital leading to sustainable growth.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Urachal carcinoma is an uncommon neoplasm associated with poor prognosis. Case presentation A 45-year-old man was admitted with complaints of abdominal pain and pollakisuria. A soft mass was palpable under his navel. TC-scan revealed a 11 × 6 cm tumor, which was composed of a cystic lesion arising from the urachus and a solid mass component at the urinary bladder dome. The tumor was removed surgically. Histological examination detected poor-differentiated adenocarcinoma, which had invaded the urinary bladder. The patient has been followed up without recurrence for 6 months. Conclusion The urachus is the embryological remnant of urogenital sinus and allantois. Involution usually happens before birth and urachus is present as a median umbilical ligament. The pathogenesis of urachal tumours is not fully understood. Surgery is the treatment of choice and role of adjuvant treatment is not clearly understood.
Dmochowski, Janusz E
The physics of semiconductors and contemporary electronics cannot be understood without impurities. The hydrogen-like shallow donor (and acceptor) state of electron (hole) bound by Coulomb electrostatic force of excess charge of impurity is used to control conductivity of semiconductors and construct semiconductor diodes, transistors and numerous types of semiconductor electronic and optoelectronic devices, including lasers. Recently, surprisingly, the physics of impurity donors appeared to be much reacher. Experimental evidence has been provided for universal existence of other types of electronic states of the same donor impurity: i) mysterious, deep, DX-type state resulting in metastability - slow hysteresis phenomena - understood as two-electron, acceptor-like state of donor impurity, formed upon large lattice distortion or rearrangement around impurity and accompanying capture of second electron, resulting in negative electron correlation energy U; ii) deep, localized, fully symmetric, A1, one-electron donor state of substitutional impurity. The latter state can be formed from the 'ordinary' shallow hydrogen-like state in the process of strong localization of electron by short range, local potential of impurity core, preserving full (A 1 ) symmetry of the substitutional impurity in the host lattice. The 'anticrossing' of the two A 1 (shallow hydrogenic and deep localized) energy levels upon transformation is observed. All types of electronic states of impurity can be universally observed for the same donor impurity and mutual transformation between different states occur upon changing experimental conditions. The knowledge about existence and properties of these n ew , molecular type, donor states in semiconductors seems still await general recognition and positive application in contemporary material and device science and engineering
Freeman, Adam J; Senn, David R; Arendt, Douglas M
A study of the etiology, anatomic location, victim demographics and legal disposition of bite mark cases was made with the purpose of updating and augmenting previous research in the field. The information may be of interest to a myriad of professional disciplines including Forensic Odontologists, Medical Examiners, Detectives, Profilers, Emergency Room Personnel, Coroners, Psychologists, and Family Service Counselors, as bite marks provide both physical and biological data. While bite marks were found on all anatomic regions of the body some sites are significantly more likely to receive bites, and the frequency that an area is bitten may vary with the type of crime. Sex and age of the victim may also impact the resulting location and frequency of bites. A survey form for bite mark cases was created and mailed to all Diplomates of the American Board of Forensic Odontology. The survey form was also included in the American Society of Forensic Odontology newsletter. The survey requested that the recipient fill out a separate form for each case for which the recipient was the primary investigator of a patterned injury. The data from the resulting surveys were entered into a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. The responses detailed two hundred thirty two (259) bite mark cases that included seven hundred (778) individual bite marks. Harvey (1976) and Sweet and Pretty (2000) published studies finding the highest percentage of bites to the breasts. In 1983 Vale and Noguchi published the paper indicating that the most frequently bitten area was the upper extremities. The survey forms were sent to approximately 1100 forensic dentist in 26 countries. The forensic experience level of the dentists varied from neophyte to very experienced. The data were analyzed and the results reported and organized in the following categories; Victim Distribution by Gender, Victim Distribution by Age, Child Abuse Distribution by Age and Gender, Sexual Assault Distribution by age and Gender, Homicide Distribution by Age and Gender, Bite Mark Distribution by Gender and Location, Number of Bite Marks per Victim, Bite mark Distribution Comparison to Previous Research, Child Abuse Suspect Age Distribution by Age and Sex, Homicide Suspect Age Distribution by Age and Sex, Sexual Crimes Suspect Age Distribution by Age and Sex, and Bite Mark Incidence by Anatomical Area and Type of Crime. Fifty-two forensic odontologists from seven countries responded. Nineteen responders were Diplomates of the American Board of Forensic Odontology. The number of cases reported by each responder ranged from one to thirty-three and the average number of cases reported was 4.5. In this broad based study, females were bitten more often than males. The average male victim was younger than the average female victim. Males that were victims tended to be either very young or very old. The youngest victim was a two-month-old boy and the oldest victim a 95-year-old woman. Perpetrators were male more often than female and there was an average of 1.4 suspects per case. The results show that most bites occurred on the arm, followed by the breast. If broken down by gender, males were bitten on the arm more than females, and females were bitten on the breast more often than males. The data show patterns in location and number of bites that seem related to both the type of crime and the age of the victim.
Gerber, Markus; Endes, Katharina; Brand, Serge; Herrmann, Christian; Colledge, Flora; Donath, Lars; Faude, Oliver; Hanssen, Henner; Pühse, Uwe; Zahner, Lukas
In children, the pathways by which physical activity and fitness are associated with physical and psychological wellbeing are still not fully understood. The present study examines for the first time in young children whether high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity moderate the relationship between severity of life events and health-related quality of life. Three hundred and seventy-eight children (188 girls, 190 boys, M age = 7.27 years) participated in this cross-sectional study. Parental education, gender, age, severity of life events, health-related quality of life and physical activity were assessed via parental questionnaires. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed with the 20 m shuttle run test. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to test whether physical activity and fitness interacted with critical life events to explain health-related quality of life. When exposed to critical life events, children with higher fitness levels experienced higher levels of psychological wellbeing, relative to their less fit peers. On the other hand, children with higher fitness levels experienced higher physical wellbeing and more positive friendship relationships when severity of life events was low. A similar moderation effect was found for physical activity with overall quality of life as outcome. Recent stressful experiences alone were not sufficient to explain negative health outcomes in young children. Children with low cardiorespiratory fitness levels experienced lower psychological wellbeing when they were exposed to critical life events. More research is needed to find out whether similar findings emerge with objective physical activity measurements and when critical life events are assessed over longer periods of time.
Evans, S; Preston, F; Daly, A; Ashmore, C; Holden, C; MacDonald, A
Home enteral tube feeding (HETF) is commonly used in children with inherited metabolic disorders (IMD). It is unclear how caregiver knowledge and their safety in using tube feeding techniques changes over time. Caregivers of children with IMD on HETF from one UK IMD centre had annual interviews over 3 years using a structured questionnaire and observation to assess HETF knowledge and safety techniques. Thirty-two caregivers of IMD children (median age 5.3 years; range 0.3-13.6 years) were studied. Seventy-eight percent (n = 25) of subjects had been on HETF for >5 years. Over 3 years, many caregivers' HETF techniques deteriorated: accurate feed ingredient measurement decreased from 36% to 11%; correct flushing of tubes decreased from 56% to 44%; checking tube position as recommended decreased from 72% to 56%; and correct hand washing decreased from 38% to 25%. Despite improvements, knowledge of some aspects remained poorly understood: dangers of incorrect tube placement increased from 41% to 56%; correct position for night feeding increased from 38% to 56%; and feed ingredient storage decreased from 87% to 38%. The HETF techniques of caregivers of children with IMD declined over time. Caregivers need to understand that HETF, particularly in IMD, is a serious procedure associated with life-threatening risks. Poor HETF practices may cause feed contamination, incorrect feed concentration, feed intolerance, aspiration, peritonitis and even metabolic decompensation. HETF skills should be reassessed annually, with compulsory retraining if basic 'core' HETF competencies are not demonstrated. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Johansen, Martin Blok
In recent years, literacy problematics and different concepts (Cooperative Learning, Learning Styles) have taken up much of the school’s literature teaching. It has pushed discussions of the professional content into the background. This article takes up the content discussion for renewed debate......, but now also with the aim of discussing the literary texts one can present to children in school. The research questions posed are: Which texts can justifiably be presented to children as part of teaching in school? What will happen if 10 to 12-year-old Danish school pupils are presented with classical...... starting point in three concepts rooted in theory, i.e. unpredictability, defamiliarization and entitlement, which are subsequently used to get to grips with the empirical part of the study. The article does not attempt to depict a hard-and-fast picture of all children being equally enthusiastic about...
Arakelian, Erebouni; Gunningberg, Lena; Larsson, Jan
Building surgical teams is one attempt to ensure the health-care system becomes more efficient, but how is 'efficiency' understood or interpreted? The aim was to study how organized surgical team members and their leaders understood operating room efficiency. Qualitative study. A 1100-bed Swedish university hospital. Eleven participants, nine team members from the same team and their two leaders were interviewed. The analysis was performed according to phenomenography, a research approach that aims to discover variations in peoples' understanding of a phenomenon. Seven ways of understanding operating room efficiency were identified: doing one's best from one's prerequisites, enjoying work and adjusting it to the situation, interacting group performing parallel tasks, working with minimal resources to produce desired results, fast work with preserved quality, long-term effects for patient care and a relative concept. When talking about the quality and benefits of delivered care, most team members invoked the patient as the central focus. Despite seven ways of understanding efficiency between the team members, they described their team as efficient. The nurses and assistant nurses were involved in the production and discussed working in a timely manner more than the leaders. The seven ways of understanding operating room efficiency appear to represent both organization-oriented and individual-oriented understanding of that concept in surgical teams. The patient is in focus and efficiency is understood as maintaining quality of care and measuring benefits of care for the patients.
Yan, David Jun; Lenoir, Vincent; Chatelain, Sibylle; Stefanelli, Salvatore; Becker, Minerva
Isolated congenital vomer agenesis is a very rare and poorly understood condition. In the context of dental work-up by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), the explored volume of the facial bones occasionally reveals incidental abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year old Caucasian female who underwent CBCT for the pre-treatment evaluation of primary failure of tooth eruption affecting the permanent right upper and inferior molars. CBCT depicted a large defect of the postero-inferior part of the nasal septum without associated soft tissue abnormality and without cranio-facial malformation or cleft palate. In the absence of a history of trauma, chronic inflammatory sinonasal disease, neoplasia and drug abuse, a posterior nasal septum defect warrants the diagnosis of vomer agenesis. A discussion of this condition and of salient CBCT features is provided.
İnce, E; Temiz, A; Ezer, S S; Gezer, H Ö; Hiçsönmez, A
Umbilical cord hernia is poorly understood and often miscategorized as "omphalocele minor". Careless clamping of the cord leads to iatrogenic gut injury in the situation of umbilical cord hernia. This study aimed to determine the characteristics and outcomes of umbilical cord hernias. We also highlight an alternative repair method for umbilical cord hernias. We recorded 15 cases of umbilical cord hernias over 10 years. The patients' data were retrospectively reviewed, and preoperative preparation of the newborn, gestational age, birth weight, other associated malformations, surgical technique used, enteral nutrition, and length of hospitalization were recorded. This study included 15 neonates with umbilical cord hernias. The mean gestational age at the time of referral was 38.2 ± 2.1 umbilical cord hernia, the body folds develop normally and form the umbilical ring. The double purse-string technique is easy to apply and produces satisfactory cosmetic results in neonates with umbilical cord hernias.
Karen van Eunen
Full Text Available A decade ago, a team of biochemists including two of us, modeled yeast glycolysis and showed that one of the most studied biochemical pathways could not be quite understood in terms of the kinetic properties of the constituent enzymes as measured in cell extract. Moreover, when the same model was later applied to different experimental steady-state conditions, it often exhibited unrestrained metabolite accumulation.Here we resolve this issue by showing that the results of such ab initio modeling are improved substantially by (i including appropriate allosteric regulation and (ii measuring the enzyme kinetic parameters under conditions that resemble the intracellular environment. The following modifications proved crucial: (i implementation of allosteric regulation of hexokinase and pyruvate kinase, (ii implementation of V(max values measured under conditions that resembled the yeast cytosol, and (iii redetermination of the kinetic parameters of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase under physiological conditions.Model predictions and experiments were compared under five different conditions of yeast growth and starvation. When either the original model was used (which lacked important allosteric regulation, or the enzyme parameters were measured under conditions that were, as usual, optimal for high enzyme activity, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and some other glycolytic intermediates tended to accumulate to unrealistically high concentrations. Combining all adjustments yielded an accurate correspondence between model and experiments for all five steady-state and dynamic conditions. This enhances our understanding of in vivo metabolism in terms of in vitro biochemistry.
Surman, O S; Saidi, R; Purtilo, R; Simmerling, M; Ko, D; Burke, T F
The global demand for human organs has set the stage for an exploding and poorly understood global business in human organs. Whenever there is demand for a product, the opportunity for business arises. The form that a business takes is dependent on a complex network of inputs and outputs, each affecting the others. Historically, the details of any specific market are drastically underestimated. Nowhere is this truer than in the market of human organs. The drivers, which propel the "goods" of human organs, form a flourishing business. Critical analysis is essential to understanding of the supply and demand sides and to determine the role of government in regulating the industry. Governmental groups have dismissed formation of a regulated market for organ sales. The concept is nonetheless a topic of active discussion, motivated by the suffering of patients in need of organs and exploitation of the victims of human trafficking. Ethical principles have been invoked on each side of the ensuing debate. Theory in the absence of sufficient data is shaky ground for enactment of new policy. The Aristotelian concept of "practical wisdom" and the pragmatism of William James illuminate the importance of scientific investigation as guide to policy formation. How will stakeholders benefit or lose? What impact might be anticipated in regard to organized medicine's social contract? What can we learn about cross-cultural differences and their effect on the global landscape?
Lambie, D; Egan, R; Walker, S; MacLeod, R
The objective of this research was to explore how spirituality is currently understood and taught in New Zealand Medical Schools. A mixed methods study was carried out involving interviews (n = 14) and a survey (n = 73). The first stage of the study involved recorded semi-structured interviews of people involved in curriculum development from the Dunedin School of Medicine (n = 14); which then informed a cross-sectional self-reported electronic survey (n = 73). The results indicate that spirituality is regarded by many involved in medical education in New Zealand as an important part of healthcare that may be taught in medical schools, but also that there is little consensus among this group as to what the topic is about. These findings provide a basis for further discussion about including spirituality in medical curricula, and in particular indicate a need to develop a shared understanding of what 'spirituality' means and how it can be taught appropriately. As a highly secular country, these New Zealand findings are significant for medical education in other secular Western countries. Addressing spirituality with patients has been shown to positively impact a range of health outcomes, but how spirituality is taught in medical schools is still developing across the globe.
Sarvimäki, Anneli; Stenbock-Hult, Bettina; Sundell, Eija; Oesch-Börman, Christine
In Finland, the care of older persons is shifting from institutional care to family care. Research shows that family caregivers experience their situation much in the same way as professional nurses. The nurses' experiences have been studied in terms of vulnerability, and the same perspective could deepen our understanding of family caregivers' experiences. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge of the vulnerability of older caregivers taking care of an ageing family member. The research questions were as follows: How do family caregivers experience vulnerability? How do their experiences relate to vulnerability as understood by nurses? The study was done as a secondary analysis of focus group interviews on the experiences and daily life of older family caregivers. Four caregivers had taken part in monthly interviews during a period of 10 months. The interviews were analysed by deductive and inductive content analysis. The results showed that the caregivers saw caregiving as part of being human. They experienced a variety of feelings and moral agony and were harmed physically, mentally and socially. They showed courage, protected themselves and recognised that being a caregiver also was a source of maturing and developing. These results corresponded with the nurses' understanding of vulnerability. Shame, the experience of duty as a burden, worry and loneliness were themes that were found only among the family caregivers. The use of a matrix may have restricted the analysis, but using it in an unconstrained way allowed for new themes to be created. The results indicate a common humanness and vulnerability in professional and family caregiving. They also show that family caregivers need more support both from society and professionals. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Amewu-Sirleaf, Lydia Valentina
This mixed method study investigated the overarching question "how global education is understood and implemented in an educator preparation program in a Colorado university". The sub-questions used to answer the research question are: (1) How is global education/perspective understood and implemented by the faculty; (2) How do students…
Saad, Khaled; Elserogy, Yasser; Abdel Rahman, Ahmed A; Al-Atram, Abdulrahman Abdullah; Mohamad, Ismail L; ElMelegy, Tarek T H; Bjørklund, Geir; El-Houfy, Amira A
The aim of this study is to evaluate the neuropsychological status in a cohort of children with early and continuously treated phenylketonuria in Assiut, Upper Egypt. The study was implemented in seventy-eight phenylketonuria (PKU) children. Only 34 patients met the inclusion criteria. Investigated patients were evaluated according to detailed history, neurological examination, Childhood Autism Rating Scale, full scale Intelligence Quotient, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, electroencephalography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study concluded that the prognosis for early diagnosed children with PKU treated from the first weeks of life is generally good. However, they are at increased risk for neurological complications and behavioral problems. So, neonatal screening for PKU is highly recommended in Egypt, for early detection and management. In addition, neuropsychological and MRI assessments in PKU children should be done.
Kabir, M L; Rahman, M; Talukder, K; Rahman, A; Hossain, Q; Mostafa, G; Mannan, M A; Kumar, S; Chowdhury, A T
Many children with rachitic deformities have been reported in southern coastal area of Bangladesh but the actual rate of prevalence was not known. A survey was conducted to determine the magnitude of rachitic problem among the children of Chakaria thana of Cox's Bazar district of Bangladesh. Nine hundred children between 1-15 years selected randomly from 30 villages of total 340 villages. Face to face interview of the parents was taken and the children were examined for evidences of rickets. Serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were estimated and radiology of limbs were done in all clinically suspected cases and in a control of every eighth child. Seventy eight children (8.7%) had physical features suggestive of rickets. Fifty eight (6.4%) children had 'clinical rickekts' (positive physical feature(s) but normal ALP and negative radiology), 12 (1.3%) children had 'biochemical rickets' (positive physical features and raised ALP but negative radiology) and 8 (0.9%) children had 'confirmed rickets' (positive physical features, raised ALP and positive radiology). Out of 78 children with rachitic feature(s), Pectus carinatum was found as the most common clinical feature in 26 (33.3%) children followed by genu valgum in 23 (29.4%) cases. Twenty two normal children (2.2%) had raised level of ALP (>300U/L). The prevalence of rickets is high in children of Chakaria and further study is needed to find out the exact aetiology of rickets in children there.
Helle-Valle, Anna; Binder, Per-Einar; Anderssen, Norman; Stige, Brynjulf
ABSTRACT ADHD can be considered an internationally recognized framework for understanding children’s restlessness. In this context, children’s restlessness is understood as a symptom of neurodevelopmental disorder. However, there are other possible understandings of children’s restlessness. In this article, we explore four boys’ collaborative and creative process as it is described and understood by three adults. The process is framed by a community music therapy project in a Norwegian kindergarten, and we describe four interrelated phases of this process: Exploring musical vitality and cooperation, Consolidating positions, Performing together, and Discovering ripple effects. We discuss these results in relation to seven qualities central to a community music therapy approach: participation, resource orientation, ecology, performance, activism, reflexivity and ethics. We argue that in contrast to a diagnostic approach that entails a focus on individual problems, a community music therapy approach can shed light on adult and systemic contributions to children’s restlessness. PMID:28532331
Apperly, Ian. A.; Williams, Emily; Williams, Joelle
In 4 experiments 120 three-to four-year-old non readers were asked the identity of a symbolic representation as it appeared with different objects. Consistent with Bialystok (2000), many children judged the identity of written words to vary according to the object with which they appeared but few made such errors with recognizable pictures.…
Bhalla, Ashish; Mehrotra, Prerna; Amawi, Falah; Lund, Jonathan N
Risk-adjusted outcome data for general surgeons practicing in the United Kingdom were published for the first time in 2013 with the aim of increasing transparency, improving standards, and providing the public with information to aid decision making. Most specialties used funnel plots to present their data. We assess the ability of members of the public (MoP), medical students, nonsurgical doctors (NSD), and surgeons to understand risk-adjusted surgical outcome data. A fictitious outcome dataset was created and presented in the form of a funnel plot to 10 participants from each of the aforementioned group. Standard explanatory text was provided. Each participant was given 5 minutes to review the funnel plot and complete a questionnaire. For each question, there was only 1 correct answer. Completion rate was 100% (n = 40). No difference existed between NSD and surgeons. A significant difference for identification of the "worst performing surgeon" was noted between surgeons and MoP (p funnel plot significantly "more difficult" to interpret than surgeons did (p < 0.01) and NSD (p < 0.01). MoP found these data significantly more "difficult to understand" and were less likely to both spot "outliers" and use this data to inform decisions than doctors. Surgeons should be aware that outcome data may require an alternative method of presentation to be understood by MoP. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nana Afia Amponsaa Opoku-Asare
Full Text Available Verbal and non-verbal interactions that occur daily between teachers and headteachers, teachers and pupils, and among pupils can generate conflict that may adversely affect teaching, learning, and schooling effectiveness. Little attention is, however, paid to the quality of relationships that exists between teachers and pupils, among teachers, among pupils, between teachers and their school heads, and between schools and their local communities. This study sought to investigate conflict prevalence in Ghana’s primary schools, and how relationship conflict is understood to affect teaching and learning at the level of headteachers as administrators, teachers as classroom managers, and pupils as learners, and direct beneficiaries of primary education. Using data gathered via interview, questionnaire administration, and observation in 30 public primary schools in 10 circuits of one district of Ashanti Region, the findings revealed a high prevalence of fighting, heckling, bullying, and other forms of relationship conflict among pupils; strained teacher–pupil relations due to insolence, indiscipline, and use of offensive language; and teacher–parent arguments and quarrels due to harsh punishment and verbal assault of pupils. Teacher–pupil conflicts may extend to teachers excluding the affected pupils from teaching and learning activities, denying them the rights to ask and answer questions, and have their class exercises marked, leading to lowered pupil self-esteem, reduced concentration during lessons, and passive involvement in learning activities, which could result in truancy and school dropout. Strengthening guidance mechanisms and encouraging peer mediation could significantly curb conflict in school environments and thereby raise educational standards in the district.
Full Text Available Background: Neuroblastoma is a malignant tumor of the sympathetic nervous system, representning about 5 % of all childhood malignancies. The aim of our study was to compare the survival of neuroblastoma patients treated in Slovenia in two time periods, 1994–2007 and 1980–1993, and analyze the influence of different factors on survival. The hypothesis was that there has been an improvement in the survival of neuroblastoma patients treated after 1994.Methods: Seventy-eight neuroblastoma patients, treated at the Department of Pediatrics and at the Institute of Oncology in Ljubljana in the period 1980–2007 were included in the retrospective study. The list of patients and their basic data were collected from the Cancer Registry of Slovenia. Furtjer data about the patients, tumor characteristics and treatment were collected from patients’ records.Results: Thirty-nine (50 % out of seventy-eight neuroblastoma patients included in the study are alive; of the 39 (50 % dead, 23 (29.5 % died during primary tumor treatment, 15 (19.2 % died after recurrent disease, and the cause of death in one (1.3 % patient remained unknown. The survival rates according to stage of disease, site of primary tumor and tumor size have improved in children treated after 1994, as compared to those treated before 1994. The most important factors influencing the prognosis in both time periods were stage of disease, patients’ age and tumor size at diagnosis while there was no statistical difference in survival according to age at diagnosis and the extent of surgery.Conclusions: The retrospective study confirmed our hypothesis that the survival of our patients treated after 1994 was better than the survival of those treated before. The most important prognostic factors in both periods were stage of the disease, age at diagnosis and tumor size.
Buhl, Mie; Werner Hansen, Siv
situation in Denmark is, as in many other countries at the moment, complex. On the one hand laws and regulations are concurrently tightened concerning residency permits, boarder control, and possession of belongings. On the other hand a nationwide humanitarian (non-political) network of citizens who have...... engages with the current societal issue of migration by instigating a co-creation experiment, which aims to convert the museum’s vision (defined by values such as ‘community’, ‘participation’, ‘responsibility’ and ‘change’) into practice. In particular, we address how the museum creates a space...... and visual ethnography (Pink, 2013; Rose, 2012) from the process of initiating and planning of the project and including visual material from the launch of the exhibition. References: Bishop, C. (2006). The Social turn: Collaboration and Its Discontents, Artforum http...
Specific features of the flare phenomenon which are important for understanding of flares are the following: (1) Fine structure of visible emission of flares, especially at the very beginning and in the pre-flare active region. This structure can be seen also in later stages of development as bright points, some of which exist from the flare beginning (Babin's observations at Crimea, 1972-1976). (2) Turbulent motion with velocities up to 250-300 km s -1 as can be estimated from broadening of emission lines. (3) Predominantly red asymmetry of emission lines in the explosive phase and during further development of flares. (4) 'Supersonic' velocities and supergravitational accelerations of separate moving masses of the flare plasma. (5) The appearance of flares in areas with high grad H, exceeding 0.1 G km -1 which is equivalent to regions of electric currents > approximately 10 11 A. (6) Strong variations of net magnetic flux through the active region, as it follows from Meudon, Crimean, and Sacramento Peak (Rust's) observations. (Auth.)
Hinzen, Wolfram; Rosselló, Joana; McKenna, Peter
ABSTRACT Delusions are widely believed to reflect disturbed cognitive function, but the nature of this remains elusive. The “un-Cartesian” cognitive-linguistic hypothesis maintains (a) that there is no thought separate from language, that is, there is no distinct mental space removed from language where “thinking” takes place; and (b) that a somewhat broadened concept of grammar is responsible for bestowing meaning on propositions, and this among other things gives them their quality of being true or false. It is argued that a loss of propositional meaning explains why delusions are false, impossible and sometimes fantastic. A closely related abnormality, failure of linguistic embedding, can additionally account for why delusions are held with fixed conviction and are not adequately justified by the patient. The un-Cartesian linguistic approach to delusions has points of contact with Frith’s theory that inability to form meta-representations underlies a range of schizophrenic symptoms. It may also be relevant to the nature of the “second factor” in monothematic delusions in neurological disease. Finally, it can inform the current debate about whether or not delusions really are beliefs. PMID:27322493
Describes a personal involvement with digital media and the origins of the conception of the "diagrammatic" poem. Reflects on what is considered to be a poem in tune with today's computerized society. (PA)
van der Cammen-van Zijp, Monique H M; Ijsselstijn, Hanneke; Takken, Tim; Willemsen, Sten P; Tibboel, Dick; Stam, Henk J; van den Berg-Emons, Rita J G
The Bruce treadmill protocol is an often-used exercise test for children and adults. Few and mainly old normative data are available for young children. In this cross-sectional observational study we determined new reference values for the original Bruce protocol in children aged 4 and 5 years. Furthermore, we compared the original protocol with the so-called 'half Bruce' protocol. In the Netherlands this half-Bruce protocol is often used for young children because of the rather large increments in workload in the original protocol. Seventy-eight healthy Dutch children participated. The maximal endurance time was the criterion of exercise capacity. The new reference values for the original Bruce protocol are presented as reference centiles. The mean (SD) endurance time using the original protocol was 10.2 (SD 1.5) min.; this was 9.4 (1.3) min. for the half-Bruce protocol. The mean difference was 50 seconds (95% CI: 29-71 s, P Bruce protocol are different and should not be considered interchangeable. Our new reference values can be used as reference values for the original Bruce protocol.
Flamini, J.R.; Konkol, R.J.; Wells, R.G.; Sty, J.R.
I-123 Iofetamine (IMP) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of the brain in 42 patients (ages 14 days to 23 years) was compared with other localizing studies in children with neurological diseases. All had an EEG and at least one imaging study of the brain (computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or both). Seventy-eight percent of the patients had an EEG within 24-72 hours of the IMP-SPECT scan. Thirty-five (83%) had a history of seizures, and the remainder had other neurological conditions without a history of seizures. In most cases, a normal EEG reading with normal CT or MRI result predicted a normal SPECT study. When the EEG was abnormal the majority of the IMP-SPECT scans were abnormal and localized the abnormality to the same region. A comparison with CT and MRI showed that structural abnormalities involving the cortex were usually well demonstrated with IMP-SPECT imaging. Structural lesions confined to the white matter were generally not detectable with IMP-SPECT. In a few cases, SPECT scans revealed abnormalities in deep brain areas not identified by EEG. IMP-SPECT imaging is a valuable technique for the detection and localization of abnormal cerebral metabolic activity in children with seizure disorders. A correlation with CT or MRI is essential for proper interpretation of abnormalities detected with IMP SPECT imaging
Wiese, Susanne; Elson, Lynne; Feldmeier, Hermann
Tungiasis (sand flea disease) is a neglected tropical skin disease caused by female sand fleas (Tunga spp.) embedded in the skin of the host. The disease is common in sub-Saharan Africa and predominantly affects children living in impoverished rural communities. In these settings tungiasis is associated with important morbidity. Whether tungiasis impairs life quality has never been studied. The study was performed in 50 children with tungiasis, living in resource-poor communities in coastal Kenya. Based on the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) a tool was developed to determine life quality impairment associated with tungiasis in children, the tungiasis-related Dermatology of Life Quality Index (tungiasis-related-DLQI). Pain and itching were assessed using visual scales ranging from 0-3 points. The intensity of infection and the acute and chronic severity of tungiasis were determined using standard methods. Seventy eight percent of the patients reported a moderate to very large effect of tungiasis on life quality at the time of the diagnosis. The degree of impairment correlated with the number of viable sand fleas present in the skin (rho = 0.64, p life quality had improved significantly. On the individual level the amelioration of life quality correlated closely with the regression of clinical pathology (rho = 0.61, p life quality in children in rural Kenya. After effective treatment, life quality improves rapidly.
Pavlinac, P B; Denno, D M; John-Stewart, G C; Onchiri, F M; Naulikha, J M; Odundo, E A; Hulseberg, C E; Singa, B O; Manhart, L E; Walson, J L
Shigella is a leading cause of childhood diarrhea mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Current World Health Organization guidelines recommend antibiotics for children in non cholera-endemic areas only in the presence of dysentery, a proxy for suspected Shigella infection. To assess the sensitivity and specificity of the syndromic diagnosis of Shigella-associated diarrhea, we enrolled children aged 6 months to 5 years presenting to 1 of 3 Western Kenya hospitals between November 2011 and July 2014 with acute diarrhea. Stool samples were tested using standard methods for bacterial culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction for pathogenic Escherichia coli. Stepwise multivariable logit models identified factors to increase the sensitivity of syndromic diagnosis. Among 1360 enrolled children, median age was 21 months (interquartile range, 11-37), 3.4% were infected with human immunodeficiency virus, and 16.5% were stunted (height-for-age z-score less than -2). Shigella was identified in 63 children (4.6%), with the most common species being Shigella sonnei (53.8%) and Shigella flexneri (40.4%). Dysentery correctly classified 7 of 63 Shigella cases (sensitivity, 11.1%). Seventy-eight of 1297 children without Shigella had dysentery (specificity, 94.0%). The combination of fecal mucous, age over 23 months, and absence of excessive vomiting identified more children with Shigella-infection (sensitivity, 39.7%) but also indicated antibiotics in more children without microbiologically confirmed Shigella (specificity, 82.7%). Reliance on dysentery as a proxy for Shigella results in the majority of Shigella-infected children not being identified for antibiotics. Field-ready rapid diagnostics or updated evidence-based algorithms are urgently needed to identify children with diarrhea most likely to benefit from antibiotic therapy. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions
AbstractBackgroundOverweight and obesity is a growing problem in Ireland. Many parents are unaware when their child is overweight or obese. Our objectives were to examine parents’ perceptions of a healthy diet and their children’s BMI; and to evaluate the food offered to children in our paediatric in-patient unit.FindingsA retrospective questionnaire was distributed to 95 patients and their families admitted over one month. Seventy-eight had BMI values calculated (42 males, 36 females). Twenty-one children (26.9%) were overweight\\/obese: 14\\/21 parents (66.7%) thought their child had a normal weight. Sixty percent of children served dinner in the hospital were given fried potatoes. Four had fruit\\/vegetables. Forty-six parents brought food into hospital, of these 14 brought purchased food.ConclusionsThis study highlights the problem of child obesity in Ireland and parental underestimation of this problem. The nutritional value of food served to children in hospital needs to be improved and hospital admissions used as opportunities to promote healthy eating habits.
Schreibman, Laura; Stahmer, Aubyn C
Presently there is no consensus on the specific behavioral treatment of choice for targeting language in young nonverbal children with autism. This randomized clinical trial compared the effectiveness of a verbally-based intervention, Pivotal Response Training (PRT) to a pictorially-based behavioral intervention, the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) on the acquisition of spoken language by young (2-4 years), nonverbal or minimally verbal (≤9 words) children with autism. Thirty-nine children were randomly assigned to either the PRT or PECS condition. Participants received on average 247 h of intervention across 23 weeks. Dependent measures included overall communication, expressive vocabulary, pictorial communication and parent satisfaction. Children in both intervention groups demonstrated increases in spoken language skills, with no significant difference between the two conditions. Seventy-eight percent of all children exited the program with more than 10 functional words. Parents were very satisfied with both programs but indicated PECS was more difficult to implement.
Chotai, Pranit N; Nollan, Richard; Huang, Eunice Y; Gosain, Ankush
The purpose of the article was to analyze current literature on surgeon and parents' understanding and role in the informed consent process for children undergoing surgery. A systematic database search (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and EBM Reviews) was performed to identify articles concerning any aspect of the surgical informed consent for children undergoing an invasive procedure. Articles analyzing informed consent in research studies, non-English-language articles, review articles, case reports and/or series, letters-commentaries, and dentistry and/or nursing-related articles were excluded. Articles meeting inclusion criteria were analyzed to identify common themes related to the process of informed consent. One hundred seventy-eight articles were identified on primary search, after removing duplicates and screening titles for relevance, 83 abstracts were reviewed. Thirty-two additional abstracts were identified by secondary search. Twelve of 115 articles met inclusion criteria. Analysis identified five different study themes. Information delivered during consent (Content) was studied in five articles (42%), three (25%) studied the mechanics or delivery of the information (Delivery), three (25%) studied parent participation and discussion (Interchange), six articles (50%) discussed surgeons' perceptions or the parents' ability to understand or recall the information (Comprehension), and five articles (42%) evaluated surgeon or parent satisfaction or anxiety (Satisfaction). None of the articles studied all five categories. Studies of the surgical informed consent process in children are scarce. Prospective studies evaluating surgeon and parent perception regarding the Content, Delivery, and Interchange of information as well as Comprehension and Satisfaction are needed to understand barriers to the surgeon-patient relationship and to optimize the informed consent process in children undergoing surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Werker, C L; de Wilde, H; Mink van der Molen, A B; Breugem, C C
The treatment approach for internationally adopted children with cleft lip and/or palate differs from locally born children with cleft lip and/or palate. They are older at initial presentation, may have had treatment abroad of different quality, and are establishing new and still fragile relationships with their adoptive parents. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics and initial care and treatment of this group. A retrospective cohort study was performed including all internationally adopted children with cleft lip and/or palate presenting to the cleft team outpatient clinic in the Wilhelmina Children's Hospital between January 1994 and December 2014. Medical records of all patients were reviewed; information concerning demographic characteristics, characteristics at initial presentation, and treatment were obtained. A total number of 132 adopted patients were included: 15% had cleft lip, 7% had cleft palate, and 78% had cleft lip and palate. The average age at the time of adoption was 26.5 months. In most cases, China was the country of origin. Seventy-eight percent had surgery in their country of origin, primarily lip repair. Fistulae in need of revision surgery were found in 8% of the patients. Pharyngoplasty was needed in 48% of the patients. No significant differences were found for mean age at adoption, gender, cleft type, and one- or two-stage palatal closure. Internationally adopted children with cleft lip and/or palate are a very diverse group of patients with challenging treatment. These children undergo surgery late and frequently need additional surgery. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Alpha-2 adenoreceptors as an adjuvant to local anesthetic during caudal analgesia in children prolongs the duration of analgesia. This study was designed to compare the analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of dexmedetomidine and clonidine when added to ropivacaine for caudal analgesia in children undergoing lower abdominal surgeries. Methods: In a prospective study, Seventy-eight children received block with either 0.2% ropivacaine 1.5 mg/kg (Group R; n = 26 or 0.2% ropivacaine 1.5 mg/kg + 1 mcg/kg clonidine (Group RC; n = 26 or 0.2% ropivacaine 1.5 mg/kg + dexmedetomidine 1 mcg/kg (Group RD; n = 26. Results: Duration of analgesia was 7.15 ± 1.00 h in Group R, 11.57 ± 1.27 h in Group R + C, and 14.73 ± 1.53 h in Group R + D (P 0.05. Conclusion: Addition of clonidine and dexmedetomidine to caudal ropivacaine significantly prolongs the duration of analgesia without adverse effects.
Vanelli, Maurizio; Iovane, Brunella; Bernardini, Anna; Chiari, Giovanni; Errico, Maria Katrin; Gelmetti, Chiara; Corchia, Matteo; Ruggerini, Anna; Volta, Elio; Rossetti, Stefano
Very little is known about the differences in breakfast of children performing physical activity in the morning. This paper analyzed the breakfast habits of 747 boys and 455 girls, distributed in 2 homogeneous age groups, 6-10 and 11-14 year-old, participating in a Summer Sport School. Children were asked whether, when, where, how and with whom they consumed breakfast; who prepared meals; what they ate and drank; what they did during breakfast. Weight, height and BMI were recorded. Seventy-eight percent of children usually had breakfast, but 22% reported skipping breakfast. In the non-breakfast consumer subjects, 27.5% were overweight and 9.6% obese vs 9.1 and 4.5% respectively in breakfast eaters. Bakery products (76%) and milk (71%) were the most frequently consumed foods. Only 15% of parents encouraged their children to consume additional foods at breakfast before exercising, and 42% of children believed that this extra nutrition was unnecessary. In 80% of cases, the chief decision-maker for breakfast was the mother, the father played little part (1%). During breakfast, 48% of children ate and drank in silence, 26% played with brothers and sisters, 18% watched television and only 8% talked with parents. A high prevalence of over-weight and obesity was found among non-breakfast consumer children. Breakfast omission in children exercising conflicts with their increased energy requirements and may be connected to the trend of parents and children to under-estimate the importance of breakfast for nutritional balance and for environment promotion of physical performance.
Galeano, Maria Eugenia; Martinez, Magaly; Amarilla, Alberto A; Russomando, Graciela; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira; Parra, Gabriel I; Leite, José Paulo
Noroviruses (NoV) have been shown to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children worldwide, only second after Group A rotaviruses (RVA). In Paraguay, acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is the third cause of mortality in children ≤5 years old. To analyze the presence and diversity of NoV in Paraguayan children ≤5 years old presenting AGE. Three hundred seventy eight fecal samples, negative for pathogenic bacteria and RVA, were collected from children admitted as ambulatory and hospitalized patients in a large private hospital from Asuncion, Paraguay from 2004 to 2005. The presence and diversity of NoV was determined by two different RT-PCR strategies and nucleotide sequencing. One hundred and sixty one samples were positive for NoV by partial amplification of the viral polymerase gene (RdRp). No seasonality or differences in the viral prevalence for the different age-groups were detected. GII and GI NoVs were associated to 58% and 42% of the infections, respectively. The genotype was determined in 18% (29/161) NoV-positive samples. The genotypes detected were: GII.4 (18%), GII.17 (18%), GII.6 (14%), GII.7 (14%), GII.3 (10%), GII.5 (3%), GII.8 (3%), GII.16 (3%), GI.3 (14%) and GI.8 (3%). Amplification of the ORF2 from the GII.4 strains showed the presence of a new GII.4 variant. The results showed a continuous circulation of NoV in children throughout the two years of study and an extensive diversity of genotypes co-circulating, highlighting the need for better surveillance of NoV in Paraguayan children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wallace, John P
Virginia, B. W. Wooster, and Jeeves take up physics with the hope of understanding quantum mechanics. In the process they take a rather grand tour on an old sailing ship and aid a sow in distress. On their journey they discover that physics is not as difficult a subject as they imagined. When they dismantled physics and reassembled it in a form where gravity, strong, electromagnetic and the weak forces all stem from understanding the gaming strategy known as the fair-game. That great cultural divide first expounded by the novelist C.P.Snow was found to be a mere ditch that can be stepped over. The sins of the past were violations of energy conservation and strange notions about what mass actually represents. Now mass is defined without the assistance of the Standard Model. Things will not be the same. Singularities have been banished. The electron now has a scale and is no longer captive in a point. The gluon is no longer essential along with the single virtual photon.
Swain and Larry G. Heysteck (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: CMH , Desert Storm Interviews, 1991), 33. 91Purvis, et al., 17. 40...Sullivan. "Interview: Centcom Planning Cell." In Unedited Transcript, edited by Richard Swain and Larry G. Heysteck. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: CMH
Self-development is closely related to the idea of formation (or what is referred to as Bildung in German). But when speaking of formation, we have to address the question, ‘what are we formed by?’ Is the human being formed by him- or herself, or by resources originating from outside the self? Fr...
... children; Streptococcus viridians - endocarditis - children; Candida - endocarditis - children; Bacterial endocarditis - children; Infective endocarditis - children; Congenital heart disease - endocarditis - ...
Visions of technology: : Big data lessons understood by EU policy makers in their review of the legal frameworks on intellectual property rights, access to and re-use of PSI and the protection of personal data
Lammerant, Hans; de Hert, Paul; Gutwirth, Serge; Leenes, Ronald; De Hert, Paul
This article’s focus is on how the advent of big data technology and practices has been understood and addressed by policy makers in the EU. We start with a reflection on of how big data affects business processes and how it con- tributes to the creation of a data economy. Then we look at EU policy
El-Koofy, Nehal; El-Karaksy, Hanaa; El-Akel, Wafaa; Helmy, Heba; Anwar, Ghada; El-Sayed, Rokaya; El-Hennawy, Ahmad
Introduction: Liver biopsy, although a gold standard in diagnosis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), is an invasive and expensive tool. Aim: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of abdominal ultrasound in detecting NAFLD among a group of overweight/obese children having one or more liver abnormality (clinical hepatomegaly, raised ALT or echogenic liver parenchyma by ultrasound). Methods: Seventy-eight overweight/obese children were referred to the Pediatric Hepatology Unit, Cairo University Pediatric Hospital, Egypt, for assessment for hepatic abnormalities. Out of the 78 children, 34 had one or more abnormality in the form of clinical hepatomegaly, raised alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and/or echogenic liver parenchyma by ultrasound. All 34 cases underwent liver biopsy for evaluation for NAFLD. Results: Histological NAFLD was detected in 15 cases; 8 simple steatosis and 7 nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Sonographic evaluation of hepatic parenchymal echogenicity revealed: 11 with grade 1 echogenicity, 12 with grade 2 and 9 with grade 3 while only 2 had normal liver echopattern. Ultrasonography was 100% sensitive and 100% specific in detecting histological NAFLD, while the positive predictive value (PPV) was 47% and negative predictive value (NPV) was 11%. After consolidating the included children into 2 groups: the first including normal and grade 1 echogenicity and the second including grades 2 and 3, the sensitivity of ultrasonography in detecting histological NAFLD was still 100%, while negative predictive value increased to 100% with an accuracy of 82%. Conclusion: We conclude that ultrasonography is an important non invasive tool in assessment for NAFLD. Normal or grade 1 hepatic echogenicity can soundly exclude histological NAFLD and obviates the need for liver biopsy.
El-Koofy, Nehal [Department of Pediatrics, Cairo University (Egypt); El-Karaksy, Hanaa, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Pediatrics, Cairo University (Egypt); El-Akel, Wafaa [Tropical Medicine, Cairo University (Egypt); Helmy, Heba; Anwar, Ghada; El-Sayed, Rokaya [Department of Pediatrics, Cairo University (Egypt); El-Hennawy, Ahmad [Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University (Egypt)
Introduction: Liver biopsy, although a gold standard in diagnosis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), is an invasive and expensive tool. Aim: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of abdominal ultrasound in detecting NAFLD among a group of overweight/obese children having one or more liver abnormality (clinical hepatomegaly, raised ALT or echogenic liver parenchyma by ultrasound). Methods: Seventy-eight overweight/obese children were referred to the Pediatric Hepatology Unit, Cairo University Pediatric Hospital, Egypt, for assessment for hepatic abnormalities. Out of the 78 children, 34 had one or more abnormality in the form of clinical hepatomegaly, raised alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and/or echogenic liver parenchyma by ultrasound. All 34 cases underwent liver biopsy for evaluation for NAFLD. Results: Histological NAFLD was detected in 15 cases; 8 simple steatosis and 7 nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Sonographic evaluation of hepatic parenchymal echogenicity revealed: 11 with grade 1 echogenicity, 12 with grade 2 and 9 with grade 3 while only 2 had normal liver echopattern. Ultrasonography was 100% sensitive and 100% specific in detecting histological NAFLD, while the positive predictive value (PPV) was 47% and negative predictive value (NPV) was 11%. After consolidating the included children into 2 groups: the first including normal and grade 1 echogenicity and the second including grades 2 and 3, the sensitivity of ultrasonography in detecting histological NAFLD was still 100%, while negative predictive value increased to 100% with an accuracy of 82%. Conclusion: We conclude that ultrasonography is an important non invasive tool in assessment for NAFLD. Normal or grade 1 hepatic echogenicity can soundly exclude histological NAFLD and obviates the need for liver biopsy.
I. 'Street of twins': multiple births in Cuba II. The Cuban twin registry: an update / twin research reports: cord entanglement; heritability of clubfoot; school separation / twins and twin researchers in the news: reunited at seventy-eight; basketball duo dissolved; delivered holding hands; the better brew; award winners.
Segal, Nancy L; Marcheco-Teruel, Beatriz
I was part of a people-to-people tour of Havana, Cuba during the first week in April 2014. Among the many highlights of that adventure were an informal meeting with Dr Beatriz Marcheco-Teruel, from Cuba's National Center for Medical Genetics, and a visit to the famous 'Street of Twins'. A fortuitous meeting with parents of twins in the fishing town of Jaimanitas was also an extraordinary event. The Cuban experience is followed by summaries of recent twin research, covering umbilical cord entanglement, the heritability of clubfoot and school separation policies for twins. Media reports include twins reunited at age 78, the future of UCLA's twin basketball players, MZ twins born holding hands, a twin conflict over beer and a pair of American Psychological Association honors for Drs Nancy L. Segal and Thomas J. Bouchard, Jr.
Kostogianni, N; Andronikof, A
There is an ongoing debate of how giftedness affects social-emotional adjustment. Self-esteem may be an indicator of social-emotional adjustment but insufficient in its explanatory capacity, especially high self-esteem which tends to produce opposite responses in regards to adjustment. A distinction between defensive and genuine high self-esteem could account for these results. In order to understand how self-esteem operates on social-emotional adjustment, it should be associated with other measurements relating to self-concern. In the Rorschach comprehensive system (CS), egocentricity index measures self-centeredness, which can be defined as the balance between self-concern and concern for others. High self-concern is associated with a neglect of the others. Operationalized here, as the interaction of high self-esteem and excessive self-concern, defensive high self-esteem should predict maladaptive outcomes. Participants were aged from 9 to 15 years old, with an IQ greater or equal to 130 on the WISC-III. They were attending regular classes and were not in counseling or psychotherapy. Children and adolescents were administrated the Rorschach CS and the Coopersmith self-esteem inventory. Parents completed the child behaviour checklist (CBCL) which assesses general psychopathology. Seventy-eight subjects' data satisfy the conditions of validity of the instruments used. Gifted boys present more behavior and emotional problems than gifted girls in this study. Self-esteem predicts social-emotional adjustment. There is an interaction between self-esteem and self-concern on psychopathology only for high values of self-esteem. Gifted with high self-esteem associated with high self-concern are more vulnerable to maladjustment than high self-esteem associated with low self-concern. Gifted children and adolescents with low self-esteem experience more problems anyhow. These findings reinforce the view that the gifted are a diverse group in terms of social-emotional adjustment
Survival Outcome of Filipino Children With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treated With Modified Berlin-Frankfurt-Muenster/Hong Kong Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (BFM95/HKALL97) Protocol in a Tertiary General Hospital From January 2005 to December 2009: A Retrospective Cohort Study.
Dujua, Amanda Christina C; Hernandez, Flerida G
This retrospective cohort study is primarily aimed to evaluate the outcome of children ages 0 to 18 years old, with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and treated with a modified Berlin-Frankfurt-Muenster/Hong Kong Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (BFM95-HKALL97) protocol at University of Santo Tomas Hospital from January 2005 to December 2009. Seventy-eight patients were included. Majority were between 1 and 10 years old (87.2%), male (61.5%), with normal nutritional status, and classified as upper socioeconomic class (65.3%), mainly from National Capital Region (24.3%). Eighty percent had mild anemia and a white cell count FAB L1 morphology and pre-B immunophenotype. Five-year overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) rates were 86.94% and 86.2%, respectively. Among the 69 patients in the efficacy subset analysis, the 5-year OS and EFS rates were 98.36% and 86.80%, respectively. Relapse rate was 14.5%. Only FAB morphology and risk classification were correlated with relapse. Most common complications were febrile neutropenia, sepsis, and oral mucositis during induction phase. No deaths occurred due to treatment complications. In conclusion, using higher doses of methotrexate during consolidation phase improved the 5-year OS and EFS rates of our patients, without an increase in complications or deaths. Other contributing factors include improved adherence to treatment and risk-based treatment classification.
Villegas-Valle, Rosa Consuelo; Valencia, Mauro E; Sotelo-Cruz, Norberto; Antunez-Roman, Lesley Evelyn; Lopez-Jimenez, Cesar A; Monreal-Barraza, Brianda I; Robles-Valenzuela, Edna L; Hurtado-Valenzuela, Jaime Gabriel
Full text: Background. Until recently deuterium (2H2O) analysis has been performed almost exclusively by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). The IAEA has promoted the FTIR methodology to measure deuterium (2H2O) enrichment, but there is limited information in infants and small children, which have different hydration status than adults. Due to the limited information available, the optimum deuterium dose amount to be administered to children in these studies has also been controversial. The aim of this investigation were to measure body composition and determine the hydration factors in infants and young children using multi-compartment models generating algorithms for prediction of body composition. Subjects and Methods. Seventy-eight male and female infants and young children (ages 3-24 months), from the urban and agricultural zones of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico participated. We measured weight, length and circumferences to evaluate nutritional status using the WHO Growth Reference 2006. We also measured total body water (TBW) by deuterium oxide dilution, bone mineral content (BMC) through a DXA scan and body density was estimated through published algorithms. Bioimpedance analysis (BIA) was also measured to explore the prediction of body composition using this technique. Results. In general, children from the urban area had better nutritional indicators than children from the agricultural area. Eleven (16.1%) children had some type of malnutrition (any nutritional index below -2 Z cutoff point) and 2 were overweight. Optimal amount of deuterium for dosing in this age range was 0.53 to 0.83 mg/kg body weight, which has implications for future studies of body composition in infants and young children. DXA overestimated body fat percentage compared to other 2, 3 and 4 compartment models (p < 0.0001). Hydration of fat-free mass was not different between children with normal nutritional indexes and those with some type of malnutrition (p>0.05). Resistance or
A comparison of intravenous immunoglobulin (2 g/kg totally) and single doses of anti-D immunoglobulin at 50 μg/kg, 75 μg/kg in newly diagnosed children with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura: Ankara hospital experience.
Alioglu, Bulent; Ercan, Sirma; Tapci, Ayse Esra; Zengin, Tugba; Yazarli, Esra; Dallar, Yildiz
We conducted this prospective randomized trial of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment in children with newly diagnosed immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) to compare the efficacy of IVIG to standard and higher doses of anti-D IVIG. Seventy-eight patients who were previously untreated and between the age of 1 and 18 years with newly diagnosed acute ITP and a platelet concentration less than 20×10/l were eligible for enrollment. In this study IVIG treatment was compared with two different doses of anti-D. Study patients were randomized to receive treatment according to one of the two single anti-D IVIG doses [50 μg/kg (n=19) or 75 μg/kg (n=20)] or 2 g/kg (400 mg/kg per day, 5 day) total dose of IVIG (n=39). There is a significant increase of 24th hour, 48th hour, 72nd hour, 7th day and 30th day platelet counts in IVIG (2 g/kg, total dose) group compared to anti-D IVIG 50 μg/kg and anti-D IVIG 75 μg/kg groups. However, there were no difference between 24th hour, 48th hour, 72nd hour, 7th day and 30th day platelet counts across anti-D IVIG 50 μg/kg and anti-D IVIG 75 μg/kg groups. In conclusion, this study suggests that IVIG is well tolerated and significantly more effective than standard and high-dose anti-D IVIG for the treatment of newly diagnosed ITP in children. Apart from this, we believe that IVIG might be the first-line treatment of these patients. Regarding this issue further prospective studies comparing different IVIG treatment regimens with anti-D IVIG treatment regimens are needed.
Full Text Available Purpose : In autumn 2009, the swine-origin influenza A (H1N1 virus spread throughout South Korea. The aims of this study were to determine the clinical characteristics of children infected by the 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus, and to compare the rapid antigen and realtime polymerase chain reaction (PCR tests. Methods : We conducted a retrospective review of patients ?#241;8 years of age who presented to Soonchunhyang University Hospital in Seoul with respiratory symptoms, including fever, between September 2009 and January 2010. A real-time PCR test was used to definitively diagnose 2009 H1N1 influenza A infection. Medical records of confirmed cases were reviewed for sex, age, and the time of infection. The decision to perform rapid antigen testing was not influenced by clinical conditions, but by individual factors such as economic conditions. Its sensitivity and specificity were evaluated compared to real-time PCR test results. Results : In total, 934 patients tested positive for H1N1 by real-time PCR. The highest number of patients (48.9% was diagnosed in November. Most patients (48.2% were aged between 6 and 10 years. Compared with the H1N1 real-time PCR test results, the rapid antigen test showed 22% sensitivity and 83% specificity. Seventy-eight patients were hospitalized for H1N1 influenza A virus infection, and fever was the most common symptom (97.4%. Conclusion : For diagnosis of 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus infection, the rapid antigen test was inferior to the real-time PCR test in both sensitivity and specificity. This outcome suggests that the rapid antigen test is inappropriate for screening.
Xu, Wen-Wen; Li, Feng-Jiao; Wang, Li-Hua
Purpose To assess the accuracy of the Plusoptix A09 photoscreener in detecting amblyopia risk factors in children and determine referral criteria when using Plusoptix A09 for a large-scale vision screening. Methods Pediatric patients attending our eye clinic underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination that included photorefraction, orthoptic examination, anterior segment assessment, fundus examination and cycloplegic retinoscopy. The measurements were collected for statistical analyses. Results One hundred and seventy-eight children (mean age ± SD: 6.2±2.4 years, range: 2.2 to 14.1 years) were included in the study. The mean spherical equivalent (SE) obtained using Plusoptix A09 (PSE) was 0.57 D lower than that obtained from cycloplegic retinoscopy (CRSE) (P = 0.00). However, there was no statistically significant difference of Jackson cross cylinder J0 and J45 between Plusoptix A09 (PJ) and cycloplegic retinoscopy (CRJ) (P = 0.14, P = 0.26). The relationship of SE obtained from Plusoptix A09 and SE obtained from cycloplegic retinoscopy was presented as the equation: CRSE = 0.358 + 0.776 PSE + 0.064 PSE2 + 0.011 PSE3. Based on the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve, the Plusoptix A09 had an overall sensitivity of 94.9% and specificity of 67.5% for detecting refractive amblyopia risk factors. The sensitivity and specificity of the Plusoptix A09 for detection of strabismus were 40.7% and 98.3%, respectively; detection of amblyopia and/or strabismus was 84.7% and 63.2%, respectively. Conclusions The Plusoptix A09 photoscreener underestimated hyperopia and overestimated myopia according to SE when compared with cycloplegic retinoscopy. The accuracy of the Plusoptix A09 in detecting amblyopia risk factors in children could be improved by the regression equation and optimized criteria for refractive amblyopia risk factors developed in the present study. Moreover, the Plusoptix A09 photoscreener is not suitable for a large-scale strabismus screening when
Mazurek, Micah O.; Sohl, Kristin
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at high risk for sleep disturbance and behavioral dysregulation. However, the relationships between these difficulties are not fully understood. The current study examined the relationships between specific types of sleep and behavioral problems among 81 children with ASD. Sleep problems were…
Mallon, Gerald P.; DeCrescenzo, Teresa
Using an ecological framework, the existing literature and research, and the authors' combined 60 years of clinical practice with children, youth, and families, this article examines gender variant childhood development from a holistic viewpoint where children, youth, and environments are understood as a unit in the context of their relationship…
Discusses how "The Butter Battle Book" by Dr. Seuss can be used to introduce the moral issue of war to young children. Studies the written responses of 1,187 children in grades kindergarten to 6 to the story. Notes that only the fourth- through sixth-grade students (who felt themselves beyond Dr. Seuss) understood the allegorical nature…
Bowyer-Crane, Claudine; Fricke, Silke; Schaefer, Blanca; Lervåg, Arne; Hulme, Charles
Many children learning English as an additional language (EAL) show reading comprehension difficulties despite adequate decoding. However, the relationship between early language and reading comprehension in this group is not fully understood. The language and literacy skills of 80 children learning English from diverse language backgrounds and 80…
Brummelman, Eddie; Thomaes, Sander; Nelemans, Stefanie A.; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Overbeek, Geertjan; Bushman, Brad J.
Narcissism levels have been increasing among Western youth, and contribute to societal problems such as aggression and violence. The origins of narcissism, however, are not well understood. Here, we report, to our knowledge, the first prospective longitudinal evidence on the origins of narcissism in children. We compared two perspectives: social learning theory (positing that narcissism is cultivated by parental overvaluation) and psychoanalytic theory (positing that narcissism is cultivated ...
Werner, Nicole E.
Relatively little is understood about the role of hostile attributions in children's use of relational aggression with peers, or about the impact of family processes on children's attributions about ambiguous provocations. This cross-sectional study investigated associations among hostile attributions made by children, mothers, and fathers, and…
The technological knowledge the children bring with them into early childhood settings is not well documented or understood. This article discusses the technological knowledge and understanding of the nature of technology present within children's collaborative play in two New Zealand early childhood settings. The children incorporated a wide…
Payne, Jonathan M.; Arnold, Shelley S.; Pride, Natalie A.; North, Kathryn N.
Aim: Although approximately 40% of children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) meet diagnostic criteria for attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the impact of ADHD on the executive functioning of children with NF1 is not understood. We investigated whether spatial working memory and response inhibition are impaired in children with…
Nelson, Jackie A.; de Lucca Freitas, Lia Beatriz; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart
Developmental precursors to children's early understanding of gratitude were examined. A diverse group of 263 children was tested for emotion and mental state knowledge at ages 3 and 4, and their understanding of gratitude was measured at age 5. Children varied widely in their understanding of gratitude, but most understood some aspects of…
Kochanska, Grazyna; Barry, Robin A.; Stellern, Sarah A.; O'Bleness, Jessica J.
This multimethod study of 101 mothers, fathers, and children elucidates poorly understood role of children's attachment security as "moderating" a common maladaptive trajectory: from parental power assertion, to child resentful opposition, to child antisocial conduct. Children's security was assessed at 15 months, parents' power assertion observed…
Cothran, Donetta; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges
The authors present two beginning studies. One investigated the teaching-style preferences of young adults, and the other looked at physical activity trends within this age group. One key to understanding young adults and physical activity is to recognize the importance of participant cognition on physical activity patterns. From this…
Parkinson, Carolyn; Walker, Trent T; Memmi, Sarah; Wheatley, Thalia
Patterns of bodily movement can be used to signal a wide variety of information, including emotional states. Are these signals reliant on culturally learned cues or are they intelligible across individuals lacking exposure to a common culture? To find out, we traveled to a remote Kreung village in Ratanakiri, Cambodia. First, we recorded Kreung portrayals of 5 emotions through bodily movement. These videos were later shown to American participants, who matched the videos with appropriate emotional labels with above chance accuracy (Study 1). The Kreung also viewed Western point-light displays of emotions. After each display, they were asked to either freely describe what was being expressed (Study 2) or choose from 5 predetermined response options (Study 3). Across these studies, Kreung participants recognized Western point-light displays of anger, fear, happiness, sadness, and pride with above chance accuracy. Kreung raters were not above chance in deciphering an American point-light display depicting love, suggesting that recognizing love may rely, at least in part, on culturally specific cues or modalities other than bodily movement. In addition, multidimensional scaling of the patterns of nonverbal behavior associated with each emotion in each culture suggested that similar patterns of nonverbal behavior are used to convey the same emotions across cultures. The considerable cross-cultural intelligibility observed across these studies suggests that the communication of emotion through movement is largely shaped by aspects of physiology and the environment shared by all humans, irrespective of differences in cultural context. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Theresa A. Nicklas
Full Text Available This review article discusses the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA in support of a total diet approach to achieving diet and health goals, especially as they relate to the obesity epidemic. However, some scientists and organizations have identified one food, food group, or nutrient as the cause of the obesity epidemic and recommend that simply reducing that food/food group/nutrient will solve the problem. This is simplistic and unlikely to be effective in long term management of the obesity problem. This article also acknowledges discrepancies in the literature and the lack of consensus opinions from systematic reviews. Failure to consider the evidence as a whole can lead to inaccurate reports which may, in turn, adversely influence clinical practice, public policy, and future research. This article also considers where the line should be drawn between individual choice and responsibility and public regulation. Using sugar sweetened beverages as an example, the article considers the lack of a consistent association between added sugars and weight in the literature and calls for policy recommendations that are based on science and emphasizes the need for evidence-based policies rather than policy-based evidence.
In the context of the ''1/N Dual Unitarization'' scheme, an explicit dynamical study of the triple bare pomeron mechanism which governs the interaction term in Gribov's Lagrangian is presented. Together with the previously established bare pomeron slope and intercept, controlling respectively, the kinetic and mass terms in Gribov's Lagrangian, this work demonstrates the viability of the ''1/N Dual Unitarization'' approach for a field theory of interaction bare pomerons. (author)
In a similar way, 3D structures of bio- logical systems constructed by computer can serve as a data base which can be applied to research, education and practical purposes. 2.1 Construction of human lung airway. The lung airway is constructed within the amniotic fluid by branching of a duct. Since it does not touch other tis-.
Abdul Ghafar Ismail
Full Text Available The concept of happiness has been discussed long time ago by economists. Recently, it became the most related and important thing to be studied because of its impact in societies. Discussion about happiness basically interprets within two separate views. First, happiness related with economic variable, for instance, how money can create happiness. Second happiness is discussed within the context of religion. However, the discussion did not combine both contexts, economic variable and religion, to interpret happiness. Therefore, it is important to highlight the concept of happiness in a different way such as in this article. Different cultures will have their own perspective on the determination of happiness. From just “individual perspective” of happiness, they then formed an ism through involvement of a big society from the same culture. Some isms such as hedonism and materialism are synonyms in characterizing the concept of happiness in this modern world. At the same time, the isms are actually working with the economic and non-economic indicators as elements to strengthen the ism itself. On the other hand, the concept of happiness from the perspective of religion will also be a part of discussion in this article. Therefore, this article will reveal that the meaning of happiness is different in terms of religion and ism. So, to carry out both ism and religion simultaneously in shaping a more intrinsic value of happiness is not an easy task. Furthermore, religion is always associated with spiritual value that makes it hard for some people to practice religion and their isms at the same time. Thus, this article will propose that the right interpretation of isms based on their faith in religion can contribute to the concept of genuine happiness.
Corradini, Antonella; Antonietti, Alessandro
The current renewal of interest in empathy is closely connected to the recent neurobiological discovery of mirror neurons. Although the concept of empathy has been widely deployed, we shall focus upon one main psychological function it serves: enabling us to understand other peoples' intentions. In this essay we will draw on neuroscientific, psychological, and philosophical literature in order to investigate the relationships between mirror neurons and empathy as to intention understanding. Firstly, it will be explored whether mirror neurons are the neural basis of our empathic capacities: a vast array of empirical results appears to confirm this hypothesis. Secondly, the higher level capacity of reenactive empathy will be examined and the question will be addressed whether philosophical analysis alone is able to provide a foundation for this more abstract level of empathy. The conclusion will be drawn that both empirical evidence and philosophical analysis can jointly contribute to the clarification of the concept of empathy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
My passion for improving mental health services started after a young woman I knew took her own life. She was part of a theatre group I volunteered for, and the distress experienced by fellow members prompted me to take action.
Hart, Joanna; Halpern, Scott D.
Purpose of review Default options dramatically influence the behavior of decision makers and may serve as effective decision support tools in the ICU. Their use in medicine has increased in an effort to improve efficiency, reduce errors, and harness the potential of healthcare technology. Recent findings Defaults often fall short of their predicted influence when employed in critical care settings as quality improvement interventions. Investigations reporting the use of defaults are often limited by variations in the relative effect across sites. Preimplementation experiments and long-term monitoring studies are lacking. Summary Defaults in the ICU may help or harm patients and clinical efficiency depending on their format and use. When constructing and encountering defaults, providers should be aware of their powerful and complex influences on decision making. Additional evaluations of the appropriate creation of healthcare defaults and their resulting intended and unintended consequences are needed. PMID:25203352
Full Text Available Q fever is a bacterial infection affecting mainly the lungs, liver, and heart. It is found around the world and is caused by the bacteria Coxiella burnetii. The bacteria affects sheep, goats, cattle, dogs, cats, birds, rodents, and ticks. Infected animals shed this bacteria in birth products, feces, milk, and urine. Humans usually get Q fever by breathing in contaminated droplets released by infected animals and drinking raw milk. People at highest risk for this infection are farmers, laboratory workers, sheep and dairy workers, and veterinarians. Chronic Q fever develops in people who have been infected for more than 6 months. It usually takes about 20 days after exposure to the bacteria for symptoms to occur. Most cases are mild, yet some severe cases have been reported. Symptoms of acute Q fever may include: chest pain with breathing, cough, fever, headache, jaundice, muscle pains, and shortness of breath. Symptoms of chronic Q fever may include chills, fatigue, night sweats, prolonged fever, and shortness of breath. Q fever is diagnosed with a blood antibody test. The main treatment for the disease is with antibiotics. For acute Q fever, doxycycline is recommended. For chronic Q fever, a combination of doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine is often used long term. Complications are cirrhosis, hepatitis, encephalitis, endocarditis, pericarditis, myocarditis, interstitial pulmonary fibrosis, meningitis, and pneumonia. People at risk should always: carefully dispose of animal products that may be infected, disinfect any contaminated areas, and thoroughly wash their hands. Pasteurizing milk can also help prevent Q fever.
Spaten, Ole Michael; Løkken, Lillith Olesen
The hunt for evidence in modern coaching psychology could be counter-productive, and possibly lead to a simplified approach to research, practice, searching for “definitive truths”. The article discuss a critical approach to evidence hierarchies, and the prevalent (medical) understanding of evide......The hunt for evidence in modern coaching psychology could be counter-productive, and possibly lead to a simplified approach to research, practice, searching for “definitive truths”. The article discuss a critical approach to evidence hierarchies, and the prevalent (medical) understanding...
criterion for DT use, Tapscott (1998) referred to current digital users as the Net Generation, and later Prensky. (2001) referred to them as Digital natives, implying that as they are born in the digital era, it predisposes them to learning via digital technologies. The normalisation of technology in the everyday life of learners ...
Gous, Jennifer Glenda; Eloff, Irma; Moen, Melanie Carmen
Inclusive education has become a practice that has been adopted by many schools across the globe and most usually in first-world countries. As a whole-school system, it occurs less frequently in developing countries including South Africa which unlike many developing countries has a sound infrastructure and many excellent schools in both the state…
Homayoun Sadeghi Bazargani
Full Text Available Introduction: Clinical Governance (CG is an overarching concept, using organizational capacity, safeguards high standards of the health services and provides a safe care for patients. The aim of this research was to study nurses’ perception about Clinical Governance. Materials and Methods: A qualitative study was done with Focus Group Discussions (FGD. Purposeful Sampling was used to select the objectives including 65 participants. Actually 7 FGD’s were held. Content analysis was used to extract the meaningful themes. Results:Nurses believed that patient centeredness and evidence based practice is the core of the CG concept. Also they mentioned that cultural change, staffs training, adequate financial and human resources are required to successfully implementation of CG in hospitals. Conclusion: Spreading up a shared vision about CG and providing the required infrastructures in hospitals would be facilitate CG initiatives. Proper commitment of the managers and staff participation could lead an effective CG implementation.
The following text, featured in the special issue of the Journal of Visual Culture (vol. 13, n. 1, April 2014) celebrating the 50th anniversary of Marshall McLuhan's 'Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man' is based on the talk given by Antonio A. Casilli at the McLuhan centenary conference 'McLuhan 100 Then Now Next' (7-11 November 2011, University of Toronto).
Rodriguez Buritica, Julia M.; Eppinger, Ben; Schuck, Nicolas W.; Heekeren, Hauke R.; Li, Shu-Chen
Observational learning is an important mechanism for cognitive and social development. However, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying observational learning in children are not well understood. In this study, we used a probabilistic reward-based observational learning paradigm to compare behavioral and electrophysiological markers of…
Presents a case study of one kindergarten class in which the mathematics center is the popular area in the room. Focuses on how math is best understood if activities follow the five-C formula: collaborative, concrete, comprehensive, connecting, and cavorting. Describes how children used manipulatives to construct mathematics concepts…
Psychological characteristics of 56 Colombian male street children, aged 7 to 16, were examined from participant observations and results of three psychological tests given the children. The Kohs Block Design measured their intelligence; and the Human Figure Drawing and the Bender Gestalt measured emotional and neurological functioning. The test data showed the sample to be relatively healthy, intelligent, and emotionally intact. The children's relatively good scores on the tests may be understood by placing their abandonment in a cultural perspective, which includes the children's strong peer support system, their access to adult benefactors, and the fact that the children were developing in an orderly fashion from matrifocal families. The premise is made that by understanding the children more accurately more appropriate help may be given.
Siegler, Robert S.
A new field of children's learning is emerging. This new field differs from the old in recognizing that children's learning includes active as well as passive mechanisms and qualitative as well as quantitative changes. Children's learning involves substantial variability of representations and strategies within individual children as well as…
Results: A total of 506 street children and women participated in the study. A considerable proportion (63.0%) of ... hundred seventy eight (58.0%) of the children were homeless. Two hundred eighty (55.3%) of the ... iiiiii. i'ojiiiioii piroiiioiiiis oi' STUK'US'YK oi'iiioi'oii oiio'. Wiiiiioi'i iii Awomsii. ii 'Wiii ziieso ziiioiiigiij io.
Children’s rights and their increasing voice in families have made relations between parents and children more democratic. Despite this, child-parent relationships have been claimed to be relationships between unequals from the perspective of power. Often, power is understood as top-down with parents as wielders of power over their children and children as recipients of parental demands. The generational ordering of relations between children and adults poses the challenge of how to conceptua...
Ederaldo José Lopes
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os mecanismos de processamento da informação viso-espacial em crianças. Setenta e oito crianças participaram do experimento em que foram manipulados os fatores idade, posição espacial, similaridade visual e cor dos estímulos memorizados. Os resultados mostraram que todos os fatores principais alcançaram significância estatística. As crianças mais velhas tiveram uma freqüência de acertos maior que as crianças mais novas. Os estímulos dos conjuntos com similaridade baixa foram mais bem recordados que os estímulos com similaridade alta. A taxa de recordação foi melhor nas provas em que as letras de um conjunto foram todas apresentadas com a mesma cor, assim como a porcentagem de respostas corretas variou de forma significativa em função da posição espacial dos estímulos. Os resultados foram interpretados de acordo com modelos que enfatizam aspectos do desenvolvimento de estratégias cognitivas ao longo do desenvolvimento humano, especialmente o modelo de memória de trabalho.This study aimed to evaluate the mechanisms of visual-spatial memory in children. Seventy eight children took part in an experiment with four factors: children's age, stimuli spatial position, stimuli visual similarity, stimuli set color. The results have shown that all main factors are statistically meaningful. The oldest children presented a better performance than the youngest ones. Stimuli set formed by low similarity letters were better recollected than the stimuli set formed by high similarity letters. The recall of the spatial position of letters was better in trials where the letters of a set were presented in the same color. The percentage of correct recall changed meaningfully as a function of the spatial position in which the target had been presented. The results were interpreted according to models that emphasize aspects of development of cognitive strategies along with the human development, especially
Silberg, Judy L.; Maes, Hermine; Eaves, Lindon J.
Background: Despite the increased risk of depression and conduct problems in children of depressed parents, the mechanism by which parental depression affects their children's behavioral and emotional functioning is not well understood. The present study was undertaken to determine whether parental depression represents a genuine environmental…
... Viral infection Englarged lymph node in the intestine Polyp or tumor The reason for the problem is more likely to be found in older children. Intussusception can affect both children and adults. However, ...
Your child's health includes physical, mental and social well-being. Most parents know the basics of keeping children healthy, like offering ... for children to get regular checkups with their health care provider. These visits are a chance to ...
Polišenská, Kamila; Kapalková, Svetlana
This study investigated early language profiles in two groups of children with developmental disability: children with Down Syndrome (DS, n=13) and children with Language Impairment (LI, n=16). Vocabulary and grammatical skills in the two groups were assessed and compared to language skills of typically developing (TD) children matched on size of either their receptive or expressive vocabulary (n=58). The study aimed to establish if language development in these groups is delayed or fundamentally different than the TD groups, and if the group with DS showed a similar language profile to the group with LI. There is a clinical motivation to identify possible key risk characteristics that may distinguish children who are likely to have LI from the variation observed in TD children. Three clear findings emerged from the data. Firstly, both receptive and expressive vocabulary compositions did not significantly differ in the clinical groups (DS and LI) after being matched to the vocabulary size of TD children. This provides further support for the idea that word learning for the children in the clinical groups is delayed rather than deviant. Secondly, children with LI showed a significantly larger gap between expressive and receptive word knowledge, but children with DS showed a pattern comparable to TD children. Thirdly, children with LI who understood a similar number of words as the TD children still had significantly poorer grammatical skills, further underlining the dissociation between lexical and grammatical skills in children with LI. Grammatical skills of children with DS were commensurate with their lexical skills. The findings suggest that language intervention should be specifically tailored to etiology rather than focused on general communication strategies, particularly in children with LI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Seizure disorder - children; Convulsion - childhood epilepsy; Medically refractory childhood epilepsy; Anticonvulsant - childhood epilepsy; Antiepileptic drug - childhood epilepsy; AED - childhood epilepsy
Anderson, Sally Dean
Drawing on fieldwork in small-town schools with children of Muslim background whose families came to Denmark as United Nation refugees, the chapter explores how pedagogical ideologies of school-based peer sociability inflect children’s experiences of ‘being Muslim.’ Danish provincial schools......, with their permanent classes, emphasis on class-based sociability, and particular understandings of what constitutes religion, represent a particular context for children’s school experiences. An analysis of two contrasting cases reveals that participation in peer sociability in and beyond school tends to erase...
Education is often understood as a process whereby children come to conform to the norms teachers believe should govern our practices. This picture problematically presumes that educators know in advance what it means for children to go on the way that is expected of them. In this essay Viktor Johansson suggests a revision of education, through…
Matton, Annelies; Goossens, Lien; Braet, Caroline; Van Durme, Kim
Eating problems are highly prevalent and seem to show continuity in children. Nevertheless, the effect of different maternal and paternal feeding practices on changes in these problems is not fully understood yet. This study examines short-term continuity in primary school children's overeating, loss of control (over eating), restraint and…
Rrajindrajith, S.; Devanarayana, N. M.; Rajapakshe, N. N.; Benninga, M. A.
The aetiology of functional constipation (FC) in children is not been fully understood.Exposure to physical, emotional and sexual abuse are known to predispose children to develop FC. No paediatric study has evaluated traumatic life events other than abuse as a potential predisposing factor for FC
Mykyta, Anne D.; Zhou, Zheng
Mobile applications (apps) are increasingly being used with children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to supplement their intervention packages; however, the Apps' educational utility is not yet understood. The lack of such knowledge results in young children's inequity of accessing quality intervention. The present qualitative study addressed…
Lillemyr, Ole Fredrik
In the book the author presents from different perspectives what is understood by the phenomenon of children's play, why it is important, and how children's play challenge and stimulate the educator or caregiver in regard of educational values and practice, with the conclusion: play has to be taken seriously. A selection of theories is introduced…
This study examines the location of British health visiting in contemporary policy discourses concerned with public health and safeguarding children. It argues that professional identity and orientation can be understood through health visiting's long history of public health work with children and families, which has included an engagement with…
Green, Monica; Duhn, Iris
School gardens are becoming increasingly recognised as important sites for learning and for bringing children into relationship with food. Despite the well-known educational and health benefits of gardening, children's interactions with the non-human entities and forces within garden surroundings are less understood and examined in the wider…
St. Clair-Thompson, Helen L.
Previous research has suggested that working memory difficulties play an integral role in children's underachievement at school. However, working memory is just one of several executive functions. The extent to which problems in working memory extend to other executive functions is not well understood. In the current study 38 children with a poor…
Falk, Nicholas Henry; Norris, Kimberley; Quinn, Michael G.
The factors predicting stress, anxiety and depression in the parents of children with autism remain poorly understood. In this study, a cohort of 250 mothers and 229 fathers of one or more children with autism completed a questionnaire assessing reported parental mental health problems, locus of control, social support, perceived parent-child…
Wen, Li Ming; Kite, James; Merom, Dafna; Rissel, Chris
Abstract Background Time spent outdoors is positively associated with physical activity and has been suggested as a proxy for physical activity of children. The role of children's independence in physical activity and time spent outdoors is less understood. This study aimed to assess how much time children spent playing outdoors after school, and to explore the relationship between outdoor play and independence among children aged 10–12 years. Method Children recorded how much time they spent...
Hong-Po Chang; Tsau-Mau Chou
The association between cranial-base morphology and Class III malocclusion is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the morphologic characteristics of the cranial base in children with Class III malocclusion. Lateral cephalograms from 100 children with Class III malocclusion were compared with those from 100 subjects with normal occlusion. Ten landmarks on the cranial base were identified and digitized. Cephalometric assessment using seven angular and 18 linear me...
Peptic esophagitis - children; Reflux esophagitis - children; GERD - children; Heartburn - chronic - children; Dyspepsia - GERD - children ... GERD. Certain factors can lead to GERD in children, including: Birth defects, such as hiatal hernia , a ...
Li, Jing; Zhu, Liqi; Chen, Zhe
This study examined judgment about punishment and whether punishment promoted cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game (PDG) in children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and typically developing (TD) children. In total, 66 6- to 12-year-olds participated in this study. Children were first asked about judgments regarding rewards and punishment in stories, and then they were asked to play the PDG with a partner in conditions with and without punishment. Results showed that children with HFA believed that hitting others should deserve punishment to a greater extent than TD children did. It indicated that children with HFA understood that bad acts should be punished, suggesting that these children have already acquired the general concept of "punishment." Children displayed higher levels of cooperation in the condition with punishment than in the condition without punishment in the PDG, suggesting that punishment promoted cooperation in the PDG in both children with HFA and TD children. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bowyer-Crane, C.; Fricke, S.; Schaefer, B.; Lervåg, A.; Hulme, C.
Many children learning English as an additional language (EAL) show reading comprehension difficulties despite adequate decoding. However, the relationship between early language and reading comprehension in this group is not fully understood. The language and literacy skills of 80 children learning English from diverse language backgrounds and 80 monolingual English-speaking peers with language weaknesses were assessed at school entry (mean age = 4 years, 7 months) and after two years of sch...
DeBaun, Michael R.; Derdeyn, Colin P.; McKinstry, Robert C., III
The most devastating complication of sickle cell anemia is cerebral infarction, affecting [approximately]30% of all individuals with sickle cell anemia. Despite being one of the most common causes of stroke in infants and children, the mechanism of cerebral infarction in this population has not been extensively studied and is poorly understood.…
Backer van Ommeren, Tineke; Koot, Hans M; Scheeren, Anke M; Begeer, Sander
Differences in the social limitations of girls compared to boys on the autism spectrum are still poorly understood. Impaired social-emotional reciprocity is a core diagnostic criterion for an autism spectrum disorder. This study compares sex differences in reciprocal behaviour in children with
... of Jesus' public ministry within the context of Jesus' relationship to children. Jesus' baptism by John (Mt 3:15) and Jesus' entry into Jerusalem (Mt 21:1-17) form the two poles of his ministry in Matthew. Both episodes are described as a kind of “cleansing of the temple”. Both incidents were (in a midrash fashion) understood ...
Rance, Gary; Ryan, Monique M.; Bayliss, Kristen; Gill, Kathryn; O'Sullivan, Caitlin; Whitechurch, Marny
The peripheral manifestations of the inherited neuropathies are increasingly well characterized, but their effects upon cranial nerve function are not well understood. Hearing loss is recognized in a minority of children with this condition, but has not previously been systemically studied. A clear understanding of the prevalence and degree of…
Ojalehto, Bethany; Wang, Qi
This article provides a synthesis of current research and theories of spiritual development in forced displacement from a human rights perspective. Spirituality, understood as a cognitive-cultural construct, has shown positive impact on children's development through both collective and individual processes and across ecological domains of the…
Backer van Ommeren, Tineke; Koot, Hans M; Scheeren, Anke M; Begeer, Sander
Differences in the social limitations of girls compared to boys on the autism spectrum are still poorly understood. Impaired social-emotional reciprocity is a core diagnostic criterion for an autism spectrum disorder. This study compares sex differences in reciprocal behaviour in children with
Adderley, Rebecca J.; Hope, Max A.; Hughes, Gill C.; Jones, Lisa; Messiou, Kyriaki; Shaw, Patricia A.
This paper reports a small-scale research project which took place in one primary school in the north-east of England. The study aimed to listen to children's views about how the practices of teachers helped and/or hindered their sense of inclusion in classrooms. Inclusion was understood here in a broad sense rather than specifically relating to…
Backer van Ommeren, Tineke; Koot, Hans M.; Scheeren, Anke M.; Begeer, Sander
Differences in the social limitations of girls compared to boys on the autism spectrum are still poorly understood. Impaired social-emotional reciprocity is a core diagnostic criterion for an autism spectrum disorder. This study compares sex differences in reciprocal behaviour in children with autism spectrum disorder (32 girls, 114 boys) and in…
?The past decade has seen an increase in research documenting the benefi?ts of children learning through play. However, the amount of play in American kindergarten classes remains on a steady decline. ?This article compares the ?findings from a netnographic study of seventy-eight kindergarten teachers' message board discussions about play in…
Sher, Itai; Koenig, Melissa; Rustichini, Aldo
Human strategic interaction requires reasoning about other people's behavior and mental states, combined with an understanding of their incentives. However, the ontogenic development of strategic reasoning is not well understood: At what age do we show a capacity for sophisticated play in social interactions? Several lines of inquiry suggest an important role for recursive thinking (RT) and theory of mind (ToM), but these capacities leave out the strategic element. We posit a strategic theory of mind (SToM) integrating ToM and RT with reasoning about incentives of all players. We investigated SToM in 3- to 9-y-old children and adults in two games that represent prevalent aspects of social interaction. Children anticipate deceptive and competitive moves from the other player and play both games in a strategically sophisticated manner by 7 y of age. One game has a pure strategy Nash equilibrium: In this game, children achieve equilibrium play by the age of 7 y on the first move. In the other game, with a single mixed-strategy equilibrium, children's behavior moved toward the equilibrium with experience. These two results also correspond to two ways in which children's behavior resembles adult behavior in the same games. In both games, children's behavior becomes more strategically sophisticated with age on the first move. Beyond the age of 7 y, children begin to think about strategic interaction not myopically, but in a farsighted way, possibly with a view to cooperating and capitalizing on mutual gains in long-run relationships.
Congestive heart failure - children; Cor pulmonale - children; Cardiomyopathy - children; CHF - children; Congenital heart defect - heart failure in children; Cyanotic heart disease - heart failure in children; Birth ...
Cummings, Mark E.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Cairns, Ed
The effects on children of political violence are matters of international concern, with many negative effects well-documented. At the same time, relations between war, terrorism, or other forms of political violence and child development do not occur in a vacuum. The impact can be understood as related to changes in the communities, families and…
Gopnik, A; Glymour, C; Sobel, D M; Schulz, L E; Kushnir, T; Danks, D
The authors outline a cognitive and computational account of causal learning in children. They propose that children use specialized cognitive systems that allow them to recover an accurate "causal map" of the world: an abstract, coherent, learned representation of the causal relations among events. This kind of knowledge can be perspicuously understood in terms of the formalism of directed graphical causal models, or Bayes nets. Children's causal learning and inference may involve computatio...
Catarina A. Guimarães
Full Text Available In children with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE, memory deficit is not so well understood as it is in adults. The aim of this study was to identify and describe memory deficits in children with symptomatic TLE, and to verify the influence of epilepsy variables on memory. We evaluated 25 children with TLE diagnosed on clinical, EEG and MRI findings. Twenty-five normal children were compared with the patients. All children underwent a neuropsychological assessment to estimate intellectual level, attention, visual perception, handedness, and memory processes (verbal and visual: short-term memory, learning, and delayed recall. The results allowed us to conclude: besides memory deficits, other neuropsychological disturbances may be found in children with TLE such as attention, even in the absence of overall cognitive deficit; the earlier onset of epilepsy, the worse verbal stimuli storage; mesial lesions correlate with impairment in memory storage stage while neocortical temporal lesions correlate with retrieval deficits.
To bridge the management gap between nutritional rehabilitation for severe acute malnutrition (SAM) and chronic malnutrition, ... Chronically malnourished children with superimposed SAM benefit from the use of RUTF as much as children without ... France), an energy-dense lipid paste made of peanut butter, milk powder ...
Full Text Available According to UNICEF, street child is any child under the age of 18 for whom the street has become home and/or source of income and which is not adequately protected or supervised by adult, responsible person. It has been estimated that there are between 100 and 150 million street children worldwide. Life and work on the street have long term and far-reaching consequences for development and health of these children. By living and working in the street, these children face the highest level of risk. Street children more often suffer from the acute illness, injuries, infection, especially gastrointestinal, acute respiratory infections and sexually transmitted diseases, inadequate nutrition, mental disorders, and drug abuse. They are more often victims of abuse, sexual exploitation, trafficking; they have higher rate of adolescent pregnancy than their peers from poor families. Street children and youth have higher rates of hospitalization and longer hospital stay due to seriousness of illness and delayed health care. Street children/youth are reluctant to seek health care, and when they try, they face many barriers. Street children are invisible to the state and their number in Serbia is unknown. Recently, some nongovernmental organizations from Belgrade, Novi Sad and Nis have recognized this problem and tried to offer some help to street children, by opening dropin centers, but this is not enough. To solve this problem, an engagement of the state and the whole community is necessary, and primary responsibility lies in health, social and educational sector. The best interests of the child must serve as a basic guideline in all activities aimed at improving health, quality of life and rights of children involved in the life and work in the street.
Berenguer, Carmen; Miranda, Ana; Colomer, Carla; Baixauli, Inmaculada; Roselló, Belén
Social difficulties are a key aspect of autism, but the intervening factors are still poorly understood. This study had two objectives: to compare the profile of ToM skills, executive functioning (EF), and pragmatic competence (PC) of children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and children with typical development (TD), and analyze their mediator…
St. John, Tanya; Dawson, Geraldine; Estes, Annette
The contributions of Executive Function (EF) to academic achievement in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are not well understood. Academic achievement and its association with EF is described in 32, 9-year-old children with ASD. EF at age 6 and 9, and academic achievement at age 9 were assessed as part of a larger longitudinal study.…
Father involvement in education has been shown to result in a range of positive outcomes for typically developing children. However, the nature of paternal involvement in the education of children with disabilities and especially autism has been under-researched and is little understood. This study aimed to explore the nature of the involvement of…
Bish, Joel P.; Ferrante, Samantha M.; McDonald-McGinn, Donna; Zackai, Elaine; Simon, Tony J.
Using an adaptation of the Attentional Networks Test, we investigated aspects of executive control in children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (DS22q11.2), a common but not well understood disorder that produces non-verbal cognitive deficits and a marked incidence of psychopathology. The data revealed that children with DS22q11.2…
Siu, Angela F. Y.
Overexcitabilities (OEs) are ways that an individual experiences the world and can be understood as channels of information flow. The current study examined the profile of OEs among a group of Hong Kong children. Participants included 229 non-gifted and 217 gifted children. OEs were measured using the Overexcitability Questionnaire II. Results…
Jung, Wendy P.; Kahrs, Björn A.; Lockman, Jeffrey J.
Handled artifacts are ubiquitous in human technology, but how young children engage in spatially coordinated behaviors with these artifacts is not well understood. To address this issue, children (N = 30) from 17-36 months were studied with motion tracking technology as they fit the distal segment of a handled artifact into a slot. The handle was…
Kamp, F.A.; Lennon, N.; Holmes, L.; Dallmeijer, A.J.; Henley, J.; Miller, F.
The energy cost (EC) of walking is different for typically developing (TD) and children with cerebral palsy (CP). The associated factors of EC are not fully understood in children with CP. We assessed the relationship between EC and age, body surface area (BSA), and gross motor function measure
Hayashi, Yuko; Murphy, Victoria A.
While morphological awareness has received much attention to date, little is understood about how morphological awareness develops within bilingual children learning typologically different languages. Therefore, we investigated children's knowledge of inflections and derivations in Japanese and English, and also asked whether morphological…
Vatne, Torun M; Slaugther, Laura; Ruland, Cornelia M
For clinicians to effectively help children with their illness and symptoms, it is important to communicate with them in a language they can understand. This study investigates how well children with cancer and healthy children understood 44 symptom terms; their thoughts about these symptoms in terms of causes, consequences, and cures; and what other terms the children use to express these symptoms. It also explores if there are differences in understanding and thoughts about symptoms between children who have the experience of cancer and those who do not. In all, 6 children with cancer and 8 healthy children participated in semistructured interviews. Children demonstrated a good understanding of symptom terms, yet were not always able to explain the symptoms. They had a rich vocabulary to talk about symptoms but did not use childish terms. Children with cancer had a more varied vocabulary for symptoms, but they did not use more medical terms. This study contributes to knowledge about children's understanding of symptoms that can be helpful to clinicians when communicating with children about their illness.
Cortesi, Flavia; Giannotti, Flavia; Ivanenko, Anna; Johnson, Kyle
Children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) suffer from sleep problems, particularly insomnia, at a higher rate than typically developing children, ranging from 40% to 80%. Sleep problems in ASD might occur as a result of complex interactions between biological, psychological, social/environmental, and family factors, including child rearing practices that are not conducive to good sleep. Interestingly, children with a history of developmental regression have a more disturbed sleep pattern than children without regression. Even though regulation of sleep in children with ASD is still poorly understood, circadian abnormalities in autism might be the result of genetic abnormalities related to melatonin synthesis and melatonin's role in modulating synaptic transmission. Recently a bifurcation of the sleep/wake cycle with increased sensitivity to external noise and short sleep duration causing irregular sleep onset and wake up times has been suggested. Identifying and treating sleep disorders may result not only in improved sleep, but also impact favorably on daytime behavior and family functioning. Several studies have also demonstrated effectiveness of behavioral interventions for sleep onset and maintenance problems in these populations. When behavioral interventions are not effective or lead only to a partial response, pharmacological treatment options should be considered. Studies of melatonin use in children with ASD provide evidence for its effectiveness and safety in the long run. The clinician assessing a child with an ASD should screen carefully for sleep disorders and make referrals as indicated. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Brummelman, Eddie; Thomaes, Sander; Nelemans, Stefanie A; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Overbeek, Geertjan; Bushman, Brad J
Narcissism levels have been increasing among Western youth, and contribute to societal problems such as aggression and violence. The origins of narcissism, however, are not well understood. Here, we report, to our knowledge, the first prospective longitudinal evidence on the origins of narcissism in children. We compared two perspectives: social learning theory (positing that narcissism is cultivated by parental overvaluation) and psychoanalytic theory (positing that narcissism is cultivated by lack of parental warmth). We timed the study in late childhood (ages 7-12), when individual differences in narcissism first emerge. In four 6-mo waves, 565 children and their parents reported child narcissism, child self-esteem, parental overvaluation, and parental warmth. Four-wave cross-lagged panel models were conducted. Results support social learning theory and contradict psychoanalytic theory: Narcissism was predicted by parental overvaluation, not by lack of parental warmth. Thus, children seem to acquire narcissism, in part, by internalizing parents' inflated views of them (e.g., "I am superior to others" and "I am entitled to privileges"). Attesting to the specificity of this finding, self-esteem was predicted by parental warmth, not by parental overvaluation. These findings uncover early socialization experiences that cultivate narcissism, and may inform interventions to curtail narcissistic development at an early age.
The purpose of this paper is to put focus on families and children who have had contact to the social service department because of problems related children’s well-being, health or development. Problems that are recognized by the families themselves and by the authorities as problems that put...... the family in a poor position regarding the children’s well-being, health and development, but not so severe that the child is to be placed out of home. The paper concentrates attention on differences between families with and without contact to the social service department for reasons related to the child....... Especially on children and their development in social relations to children at the same age, on how the mothers experience their child and on the parent’s resources concerning health, education and job situation. The paper presents results from the first two data collections (1996 and 1999) in a prospective...
... Information Children/Pediatric Chronic Pancreatitis in Children Chronic Pancreatitis in Children What symptoms would my child have? ... will develop diabetes in adolescence. Who gets chronic pancreatitis? Those at risk for chronic pancreatitis are children ...
Bronchopneumonia - children; Community-acquired pneumonia - children; CAP - children ... Viruses are the most common cause of pneumonia in infants and children. Ways your child can get CAP include: Bacteria and viruses living in the nose, sinuses, or mouth may spread ...
Gopnik, Alison; Glymour, Clark; Sobel, David M; Schulz, Laura E; Kushnir, Tamar; Danks, David
The authors outline a cognitive and computational account of causal learning in children. They propose that children use specialized cognitive systems that allow them to recover an accurate "causal map" of the world: an abstract, coherent, learned representation of the causal relations among events. This kind of knowledge can be perspicuously understood in terms of the formalism of directed graphical causal models, or Bayes nets. Children's causal learning and inference may involve computations similar to those for learning causal Bayes nets and for predicting with them. Experimental results suggest that 2- to 4-year-old children construct new causal maps and that their learning is consistent with the Bayes net formalism.
Bartenfeld, Michael T; Peacock, Georgina; Griese, Stephanie E
Children represent nearly a quarter of the US population, but their unique needs in chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) emergencies may not be well understood by public health and emergency management personnel or even clinicians. Children are different from adults physically, developmentally, and socially. These characteristics have implications for providing care in CBRN disasters, making resulting illness in children challenging to prevent, identify, and treat. This article discusses these distinct physical, developmental, and social traits and characteristics of children in the context of the science behind exposure to, health effects from, and treatment for the threat agents potentially present in CBRN incidents.
understood and there is a paucity of data objectivizing this association in young children. The aim of this thesis was to describe pathology in the upper and lower airways in young children from the COPSAC birth cohort with investigator-diagnosed allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis. Nasal congestion is a key...... nasal eosinophilia albeit less than children with allergic rhinitis. These findings suggest different pathology in allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis which may have important clinical implications for early pharmacological treatment of rhinitis in young children. In paper II, we utilized the nasal...
Avis, Kristin T; Shen, Jiabin; Weaver, Patrick; Schwebel, David C
Hypersomnia of central origin from narcolepsy or idiopathic hypersomnia (IHS) is characterized by pathological levels of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Central hypersomnia has historically been underdiagnosed and poorly understood, especially with respect to its impact on daytime functioning and quality of life in children. Describe the psychosocial adjustment of children treated for narcolepsy or IHS on school performance, quality of life, and physical/extracurricular activities. Using a matched case control design, we compared child self- and parent-reported data from thirty-three 8- to 16-year-olds with an established diagnosis of narcolepsy or IHS, according to ICSD-2 criteria, to that of 33 healthy children matched by age, race/ethnicity, gender, and household income. Assessments evaluated academic performance, quality of life and wellness, sleepiness, and participation in extracurricular activities. Compared to healthy controls, children with central hypersomnia had poorer daytime functioning in multiple domains. Children with hypersomnia missed more days of school and had lower grades than healthy controls. Children with hypersomnia had poorer quality of life by both parent and child report. Children with hypersomnia were significantly sleepier, had higher BMI, and were more likely to report a history of recent injury. Finally, children with hypersomnia engaged in fewer after-school activities than healthy controls. A range of significant psychosocial consequences are reported in children with hypersomnia even after a diagnosis has been made and treatments initiated. Health care professionals should be mindful of the psychosocial problems that may present in children with hypersomnia over the course of treatment. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.
Schlene, Vickie J.
Provides a sampling of citations in the ERIC database on children's rights. Includes human rights education, United Nations' conventions, state takeovers of local school districts, and federal law as it affects student rights. Covers child abuse, corporal punishment, child welfare, and child advocacy. (DK)
In this article, the author, a Forest School Leader with Shropshire Wildlife Trust, shows how nature is the best teacher. She describes a new approach to out-of-classroom learning during which qualified leaders use simple challenges and achievable tasks to encourage child-initiated learning in the great outdoors. At Forest School, children are…
Nowicki, Elizabeth A; Brown, Jason D; Dare, Lynn
Reasons underlying the social exclusion of children with intellectual or learning disabilities are not entirely understood. Although it is important to heed the voices of children on this issue, it is also important to consider the degree to which these ideas are informed. The present authors invited educators to evaluate the content of children's ideas on the causes of social exclusion. Educators thematically sorted and rated children's ideas on why classmates with intellectual or learning disabilities are socially excluded. Sorted data were analysed with multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis. Six thematic clusters were identified differing in content to those provided by children in an earlier study. Educators generally rated children's ideas as showing somewhat uninformed ideas about why social exclusion occurs. Educators indicated that children need to be better informed about intellectual and learning disabilities. Limitations and implications are discussed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hollegaard, Birgitte; Lykke, Jacob A; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan
Background and objectives: Pre-eclampsia often has detrimental health effects for pregnant women and their fetuses, but whether exposure in the womb has long-term health-consequences for children as they grow up remains poorly understood. We assessed overall morbidity of children following exposu...... in the complex clinical management of mild pre-eclampsia.......Background and objectives: Pre-eclampsia often has detrimental health effects for pregnant women and their fetuses, but whether exposure in the womb has long-term health-consequences for children as they grow up remains poorly understood. We assessed overall morbidity of children following exposure...... to either mild or severe pre-eclampsia up to 30 years after birth and related disease risks to duration of exposure, i.e. the time from diagnosis to delivery. Methodology: We did a registry-based retrospective cohort study in Denmark covering the years 1979-2009, using the separate diagnoses of mild...
Merenda no dia alimentar de crianças matriculadas em Centros de Educação e Alimentação do Pré-Escolar School-lunch as part of the eating habits of children enrolled in Pre-school Education and Feeding Centers
Rosa Nilda Mazzilli
Full Text Available Estudou-se o papel da merenda no comportamento alimentar de 346 pré-escolares (PE matriculados em Centros de Educação e Alimentação do Pré-Escolar (CEAPEs de seis municípios do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Em entrevista domiciliar com a mãe ou responsável pela alimentação do PE, obteve-se o número e a quantidade dos alimentos ingeridos pela criança antes e após sua participação no CEAPE. Verificou-se que essa refeição escolar interfere tanto na quantidade dos alimentos consumidos quanto no número das refeições diárias feitas no lar. Os resultados mostraram que 178 (51,4% PE reduziram a ingestão alimentar de casa, mediante exclusão de refeições e/ou diminuição da quantidade de alimentos habitualmente ingerida, após receberem a merenda no CEAPE. Destas, 115 (64,6% apresentaram dieta insuficiente em energia; 48 (13,9% aumentaram a quantidade dos alimentos habituais e/ou incluíram refeições. Ainda assim, 23 (47,9% apresentaram consumo energético deficiente. Entre os 120 (34,7% que não tiveram nenhuma modificação em seu dia alimentar, 61 (51,7% mostraram ingestão calórica inadequada. Concluiu-se ser necessário orientar a família sobre o papel da merenda como suplemento alimentar e não como substituto de refeições no lar.It was studied the role of the school lunch in the dietary behaviour of the three hundred and forty-six preschool children drawn from the Preschool Education and Feeding Centre (CEAPE, in six towns of the State of S. Paulo, Brazil. In home entreviews, the mothers or persons responsible for the preschool children's diet gave the number of meals and the quantity of their food intake before and after their participation in the Program. It was noted that the school lunch as interfered in the dietary intake of children insofar as quantity of food and number of meals usually eaten at home is concerned. The results showed that one hundred and seventy-eight (51.4% preschool children decrease their
Kaufmann, Liane; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph
ADHD (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) and academic difficulties are frequently associated, but to date this link is poorly understood. In order to explore which components of number processing and calculation skills may be disturbed in children with ADHD we presented a series of respective tasks to 9- to 12-year-old children with…
Peterson, Candida C.; Slaughter, Virginia; Wellman, Henry M.
Persuasion is an essential social skill. Yet its development and underpinnings are poorly understood. In 2 studies, a total of 167 children aged 3 to 12 years took theory of mind (ToM) tests and participated in unscripted, seminaturalistic persuasive conversations. Children were typically developing (TD) or had deafness or autism spectrum disorder…
Full Text Available Background. Autism is a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders with manifestation within 3 years after birth. Manifestations of autism include behavior problems (hyperactivity, toys destruction, self-harm, and agression and sleep and eating disorders. Etiology of autism is poorly understood. Oxidative stress and antioxidants can participate in pathobiochemical mechanisms of autism. Methods. Twenty-four children, aged 3–6 years, with autism according to the DSM IV criteria and using CARS were included in the study. Concentrations of CoQ10-TOTAL, γ- and α-tocopherol, β-carotene, and lipid peroxidation were determined in plasma before and after three months of supportive therapy with ubiquinol at a daily dose 2×50 mg. Data on behavior of the children were collected from parents at the same time. Results. Ubiquinol supportive therapy improved symptoms in children with autism, as communication with parents (in 12%, verbal communication (in 21%, playing games of children (in 42%, sleeping (in 34%, and food rejection (in 17%, with CoQ10-TOTAL plasma level above 2.5 μmol/L. Conclusions. Beneficial effect of ubiquinol in children with autism has been demonstrated for the first time. We assume that plasma concentration of CoQ10-TOTAL and lipid peroxidation could be used as relevant biomarkers of ubiquinol supportive therapy.
Gvozdjáková, Anna; Kucharská, Jarmila; Ostatníková, Daniela; Babinská, Katarína; Nakládal, Dalibor; Crane, Fred L
Autism is a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders with manifestation within 3 years after birth. Manifestations of autism include behavior problems (hyperactivity, toys destruction, self-harm, and aggression) and sleep and eating disorders. Etiology of autism is poorly understood. Oxidative stress and antioxidants can participate in pathobiochemical mechanisms of autism. Twenty-four children, aged 3-6 years, with autism according to the DSM IV criteria and using CARS were included in the study. Concentrations of CoQ10-TOTAL, γ- and α-tocopherol, β-carotene, and lipid peroxidation were determined in plasma before and after three months of supportive therapy with ubiquinol at a daily dose 2 × 50 mg. Data on behavior of the children were collected from parents at the same time. Ubiquinol supportive therapy improved symptoms in children with autism, as communication with parents (in 12%), verbal communication (in 21%), playing games of children (in 42%), sleeping (in 34%), and food rejection (in 17%), with CoQ10-TOTAL plasma level above 2.5 μmol/L. Beneficial effect of ubiquinol in children with autism has been demonstrated for the first time. We assume that plasma concentration of CoQ10-TOTAL and lipid peroxidation could be used as relevant biomarkers of ubiquinol supportive therapy.
Penny, Helen; Haddock, Geoffrey
The aim of the present study was to assess the content, favourability and generality of perceptions held about overweight children. The research also addressed whether anti-fat biases change with age and whether they result from a strong association between overweight and bad behaviour, a weak association between overweight and good behaviour or…
Potvin, Marie-Christine; Snider, Laurie; Prelock, Patricia A.; Wood-Dauphinee, Sharon; Kehayia, Eva
The health-related quality of life of school-aged children with high-functioning autism is poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the health-related quality of life of children with high-functioning autism to that of typically developing peers and to compare child-self and parent-proxy reports of health-related quality of…
Pinto, Cláudia Gabriela Queirós; Anastácio, Zélia
Resumo publicado em Mayo 2013 na Edição Especial Congreso I da revista científica internacional Atención Primaria indexada nas bases de dados Medline, Embase, Scopus y Science Citation Index Expanded Introduction: Human sexuality should be understood in all its multiple dimensions and children previous conceptions need to be considered in sex education. This research aims to identify primary school children conceptions about sexuality, considering individual and socio cultural factors, and...
Bøttcher, Louise; Dammeyer, Jesper
, preschool and early school age, to track the developmental trajectories of disability through the dialectical processes of cultural, social, individual, and biological processes. It discusses a number of themes that are relevant for the early development and support for children with various types......This book introduces current theories and research on disability, and builds on the premise that disability has to be understood from the dialectical dynamics of biology, psychology, and culture over time. Based on the newest empirical research on children with disabilities, the book overcomes...
Backer van Ommeren, Tineke; Koot, Hans M; Scheeren, Anke M; Begeer, Sander
Differences in the social limitations of girls compared to boys on the autism spectrum are still poorly understood. Impaired social-emotional reciprocity is a core diagnostic criterion for an autism spectrum disorder. This study compares sex differences in reciprocal behaviour in children with autism spectrum disorder (32 girls, 114 boys) and in typically developing children (24 girls, 55 boys). While children with autism spectrum disorder showed clear limitations in reciprocal behaviour compared to typically developing children, sex differences were found only in the autism spectrum disorder group: girls with autism spectrum disorder had higher reciprocity scores than boys with autism spectrum disorder. However, compared to typically developing girls, girls with autism spectrum disorder showed subtle differences in reciprocal behaviour. The sex-specific response patterns in autism spectrum disorder can inform and improve the diagnostic assessment of autism in females.
Nurko, S; Scott, SM
The coexistence of constipation and fecal incontinence has long been recognized in pediatric and geriatric populations, but is grossly underappreciated in the rest of the adult population. In children, functional fecal incontinence is usually associated with constipation, stool retention and incomplete evacuation, and is frequently allied to urinary incontinence. Pathophysiology of the incontinence is incompletely understood, although both in children and adults, it is thought to be secondary to overflow, while in adults it may also be related to pelvic floor dysfunction and denervation. Incontinence has an important impact on quality of life and daily functioning, and in children may be associated with behavior problems. The treatment of underlying constipation usually results in improvement in incontinence. This review broadly addresses the epidemiology and pathophysiology of coexistent constipation and incontinence in both children and adults, and also reviews clinical presentation and treatment response in pediatrics. PMID:21382577
Leah T Hiller
Full Text Available Affective processing, known to influence attention, motivation and emotional regulation is poorly understood in young children, especially for those with neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by language impairments. Here we faithfully adapt a well-established animal paradigm used for affective processing, conditioned place preference for use in typically developing children between the ages of 30-55 months. Children displayed a conditioned place preference, with an average 2.4 fold increase in time spent in the preferred room. Importantly, associative learning as assessed with conditioned place preference was not correlated with scores on the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, indicating that conditioned place preference can be used with children with a wide range of cognitive skills.
Full Text Available Introduction. Chronic rhinitis in children may have different causes, both local – with changes being present only in the nasalcavity – or systemic, with nasal congestion as one of the symptoms of a bigger clinical picture.Aim. the aim of this study was to draw attention to a very rare congenital cause of chronic rhinitis in children – which is hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia.Material and methods. A 6-month-old boy was admitted to the department of pediatric otolaryngology of Warsaw medicalUniversity due to chronic nasal obstruction present from birth. Clinical investigation included anterior and posterior rhinoscopy and fiberoscopy of nasopharynx. the mri was also performed before admission. Complete blood count, serum iron level,serum thyroid hormones and level of igG, igA, igm were examined to exclude anaemia, ozaena and hypothyroidism. Antinuclear antibodies (AnA and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (AnCA tests were also ordered to exclude granulomatosiswith polyangiitis. next, a mucosal biopsy of the nasal cavity was performed to exclude primary ciliary dyskinesia. Allergic pricktests were also performed.Results. After genetic tests, hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia was diagnosed.Conclusions. 1. every case of chronic nasal congestion in children requires not only adequate treatment, but also thoroughclinical investigation. 2. nasal obstruction may be due to local causes, systemic diseases and genetic disorders. 3. hypohidroticectodermal dysplasia is a very rare genetic disorder that causes severe, even life threatening symptoms, one of which is chronicrhinitis.
After the accident of TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, a variety of information has been complicatedly prevailing on the health effects of radiation exposure, which forces residents to spend uneasy days. Its cause is that the information on radiation cannot properly be understood by them. For the healthy growth of children, in particular, it is important to properly understand the situation, and raise children without losing to anxiety and rumors. Fukushima City has held lectures in order to eliminate the anxiety of parents in child-rearing, where some misunderstandings were seen judging from questions about radiation there. In the form of answering to the misconceptions of them, this paper explains the effect of low-dose exposure, provisional reference value of the radioactive cesium in foods, and thyroid cancer and health damage caused by radiation. In addition, it comparatively analyzed the health survey results in Fukushima prefecture with those of residents in other prefectures. (A.O.)
Johansen, Stine Liv
a very early age, also becoming consumers in their own right. Through media, children are exposed to a wide range of consumer goods,not only through traditional spot commercials, but especially through different kinds of merchandise related to program content. This process, the paper argues, takes place...... in a complex socialization, in which the child through daily interactions with family members and media texts learns how to act and behave as a competent media user......This paper presents some main results from the PhD-project ‘Toddlers watching TV'1. Young children, aged 1½ to three, are in this project understood and examined as active participants in the process of becoming regular viewers of both public service and commercial television, and thereby, from...
Johansen, Martin Blok
In recent years, literacy problematics and different concepts (Cooperative Learning, Learning Styles) have taken up much of the school's literature teaching. It has pushed discussions of the professional content into the background. This article takes up the content discussion for renewed debate, but now also with the aim of discussing the…
Hull, John M.
Describes the main features of a new method for teaching religious education to children. Compares this method to other British religious education approaches. The "gift method" approach begins with the child receiving some easily understood component of a religion (song, prayer, material object) then progresses to a more complex…
Born, A P; Rostrup, E; Miranda, M J
Sleeping and sedated children can respond to visual stimulation with a decrease in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) functional MRI signal response. The contribution of metabolic and hemodynamic parameters to this inverse signal response is incompletely understood. It has been hypothesized...
Nijman, Rien J. M.
The ability to maintain normal continence for urine and stools is not achievable in all children by a certain age. Gaining control of urinary and fecal continence is a complex process, and not all steps and factors involved are fully understood. While normal development of anatomy and physiology are
Rakhlin, Natalia; Kornilov, Sergey A.; Reich, Jodi; Grigorenko, Elena L.
We examined anaphora resolution in children with and without Developmental Language Disorder (DLD) to clarify whether (i) DLD is best understood as missing knowledge of certain linguistic operations/elements or as unreliable performance and (ii) if comprehension of sentences with anaphoric expressions as objects and exceptionally case marked (ECM)…
Miller, Alison L.; Lumeng, Carey N.; Delproposto, Jennifer; Florek, Brian; Wendorf, Kristin; Lumeng, Julie C.
Mechanisms underlying socioeconomic disparities in school readiness and health outcomes, particularly obesity, among preschool-aged children are complex and poorly understood. Obesity can induce changes in proteins in the circulation that contribute to the negative impact of obesity on health; such changes may relate to cognitive and emotion…
Wirix, Aleid J. G.; Finken, Martijn J. J.; Von Rosenstiel-Jadoul, Ines A.; Heijboer, Annemieke C.; Nauta, Jeroen; Groothoff, Jaap W.; Chinapaw, Mai J. M.; Kist-van Holthe, Joana E.
The precise mechanisms behind the development of hypertension in overweight or obese children are not yet completely understood. Alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity may play a role. We aimed to investigate the association between cortisol parameters and hypertension in
Simmons, Shannon; Alexander, Jeffrey L.; Ewing, Helen; Whetzel, Stephanie
Background: An increased prevalence of overweight and obesity for adults on government-funded nutrition assistance, such as the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), has been observed; however, this association among preschool-aged children is not well understood. Longitudinal research designs tracking changes in body mass…
Hasson, Ramzi; Fine, Jodene Goldenring
Objective: Gender differences among children with ADHD are not well understood. The continuous performance test (CPT) is the most frequently used direct measure of inattention and impulsivity. This meta-analysis compared CPT performance between boys and girls with and without ADHD. Method: All peer-reviewed ADHD studies published between 1980 and…
At the same time, it is through the brief emphasised by the Skopos theory that the target audience is understood – their age, level of education, etc. The aim of this presentation is to critically review two translated isiXhosa children's books, looking at their target reader friendliness. The findings are that most parts of the text ...
Rhemtulla, Mijke; Hall, D. Geoffrey
Children's toys provide a rich arena for investigating conceptual flexibility, because they often can be understood as possessing an individual identity at multiple levels of abstraction. For example, many dolls (e.g., Winnie-the-Pooh) and action figures (e.g., Batman) can be construed either as characters from a fictional world or as physical…
Wright, M.; Banerjee, R.; Hoek, W.; Rieffe, C.J.; Novin Farahbakhsh, S.
Strategies that children use for coping with stressors are known to be related to emotional adjustment, but not enough is understood about specific links with social anxiety and depression. The present investigation tested differentiated associations of social anxiety and depression with specific
Although there is widespread recognition that arts experiences enhance children's social-emotional development, the mechanisms through which this process takes place are little understood. This article provides insight into the role of the arts in development, through a review of recent research on child development and interviews with inner-city…
George, Melissa R. W.; Cummings, Edward Mark; Davies, Patrick T.
Past research suggests that maternal and paternal parenting processes differentially contribute to children's adjustment. However, the contribution of paternal warmth and responsiveness, to childhood attachment security is less understood, especially beyond the preschool years. The current study examined relations between parenting and attachment…
Van den Berg, L.; Pieterse, K.; Malik, J.A.; Luman, M.; Willems van Dijk, K.; Oosterlaan, J.; Delemarre-van de Waal, H.A.
Background:Childhood obesity is a major health problem. An association between children's body mass index (BMI) and overeating has been established, but mechanisms leading to overeating are poorly understood. The personality characteristics impulsivity and reward responsiveness may be involved in
Meyer, M.; Bekkering, H.; Paulus, M.A.; Hunnius, S.
When acting jointly with others, adults can be as proficient as when acting individually. However, how young children coordinate their actions with another person and how their action coordination develops during early childhood is not well understood. By means of a sequential button-pressing game,
Wright, Mark; Banerjee, Robin; Hoek, Willemijn; Rieffe, Carolien; Novin, Sheida
Strategies that children use for coping with stressors are known to be related to emotional adjustment, but not enough is understood about specific links with social anxiety and depression. The present investigation tested differentiated associations of social anxiety and depression with specific types of coping strategies, and evaluated the…
Blepharoptosis - children; Congenital ptosis; Eyelid drooping - children; Eyelid drooping - amblyopia; Eyelid drooping - astigmatism ... Ptosis in infants and children is often due to a problem with the muscle that raises the eyelid. A nerve problem in the eyelid can ...
... Children and Adolescents Go Back Treating Children and Adolescents Email Print + Share For the most part, the ... tailored, based upon the child's weight. Children and adolescents are moving through a period of physical and ...
Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging ... the limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch ...
... these inherited conditions. What are the symptoms of polyps? Children with polyps usually pass blood in the stools. ... to have another colonoscopy. Children that have several polyps, or children whose families have special polyposis syndromes, may need ...
Full Text Available ... What are the limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is ... this time is PET/MRI. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Children's ( ...
Cook, Alicia S.; McBride, Jean
Examines children's reactions to the divorce process and explores ways in which adults can promote growth and adjustment in children of divorce. Suggests ways in which parents, teachers, and counselors can help children. (RC)
... children; Hodgkin disease - children; Cancer - Hodgkin lymphoma - children; Childhood Hodgkin lymphoma ... of cancer is unknown. But, certain factors may play a role in ... Common early childhood infections also may increase the risk.
Milk and children; Cow's milk allergy - children; Lactose intolerance - children ... You may have heard that cow's milk should not be given to babies younger than 1 year old. This is because cow's milk doesn't provide enough of ...
Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses ... limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of ...
Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small ... of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical ...
... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...
Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...
Johnson, Samantha; Strauss, Victoria; Gilmore, Camilla; Jaekel, Julia; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter
Children born extremely preterm are at high risk for intellectual disability, learning disabilities, executive dysfunction and special educational needs, but little is understood about the comorbidity of intellectual and learning disabilities in this population. This study explored comorbidity in intellectual disability (ID) and learning disabilities (LD) in children born extremely preterm (EP; disabilities. LD were associated with a 3 times increased risk for SEN. However, EP children with ID alone had poorer neuropsychological abilities and curriculum-based attainment than children with no disabilities, yet there was no increase in SEN provision among this group. EP children are at high risk for comorbid intellectual and learning disabilities. Education professionals should be aware of the complex nature of EP children's difficulties and the need for multi-domain assessments to guide intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rytter, Maren Johanne Heilskov; Namusoke, Hanifa; Babirekere-Iriso, Esther
BACKGROUND: Severe acute malnutrition is a serious public health problem, and a challenge to clinicians. Why some children with malnutrition develop oedema (kwashiorkor) is not well understood. The objective of this study was to investigate socio-demographic, dietary and clinical correlates...... of oedema, in children hospitalised with severe acute malnutrition. METHODS: We recruited children with severe acute malnutrition admitted to Mulago Hospital, Uganda. Data was collected using questionnaires, clinical examination and measurement of blood haemoglobin, plasma c-reactive protein and α1-acid...... glycoprotein. Correlates of oedema were identified using multiple logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Of 120 children included, 77 (64%) presented with oedematous malnutrition. Oedematous children were slightly older (17.7 vs. 15.0 months, p = 0.006). After adjustment for age and sex, oedematous children...
Næss, Kari-Anne B; Lervåg, Arne; Lyster, Solveig-Alma Halaas; Hulme, Charles
Children with Down syndrome are at risk for language difficulties, the nature of which is not well understood. This study compared the longitudinal predictors of language skills in children with Down syndrome with those in typically developing control children matched for initial level of nonverbal mental ability. An age cohort of children with Down syndrome (n=43) and 57 typically developing control children was assessed on measures of vocabulary, grammar, and verbal short-term memory three times at yearly intervals. Children with Down syndrome showed slower development on all measures than the typically developing controls. Longitudinal analyses showed moderate to high stability of language and verbal short-term memory skills. Our results confirm earlier evidence of pervasive language learning difficulties in this group and suggest that early language intervention should be given high priority. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Putois, Benjamin; Leslie, Wendy; Gustin, Marie Paule; Challamel, Marie-Josèphe; Raoux, Aude; Guignard-Perret, Anne; Weick, Diane; Sauzeau, Jean-Baptiste; Herbillon, Vania; Zourou, Filio; Spruyt, Karen; Franco, Patricia
The psychometric properties of the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC) have been shown to be accurate, even when translated into several languages. The aim of the present study was to translate, adapt, and validate the SDSC for a French-speaking population. After forward- and back-translation, the tool was further translated and adapted into the French language. It was then pretested in terms of clarity on 33 French-speaking parents. Pretesting demonstrated that the questionnaire was well understood, indicating good clarity. During the validation phase, a total of 447 French-speaking parents of children aged between 4 and 16 years completed the SDSC. Among these, 66 children were diagnosed with sleep disorders by a pediatric specialist after a sleep consultation and polysomnographic recordings. The factor analysis revealed five factors: difficulty in initiating and maintaining sleep (DIMS), sleep breathing disorders (SBD), disorders of excessive somnolence (DOES), parasomnias (PARA) and non-restorative sleep (NRS). This psychometric structure is reliable and logical in comparison with the experts' diagnoses. Convergent validity, divergent and internal reliability are very good. Inter-parental concordance in scoring the child's sleep problem does show differences in the ways in which parents report their children's sleep patterns. Cut-off was calculated for the total score (45). This study validated a 25-item French version of the questionnaire. The French SDSC could therefore be used to aid screening of sleep disorders in the general population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Epps, H; Ginnelly, L; Utley, M; Southwood, T; Gallivan, S; Sculpher, M; Woo, P
To compare the effects of combined hydrotherapy and land-based physiotherapy (combined) with land-based physiotherapy only (land) on cost, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and outcome of disease in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Also to determine the cost-effectiveness of combined hydrotherapy and land-based physiotherapy in JIA. A multicentre randomised controlled, partially blinded trial was designed with 100 patients in a control arm receiving land-based physiotherapy only (land group) and 100 patients in an intervention arm receiving a combination of hydrotherapy and land-based physiotherapy (combined group). Three tertiary centres in the UK. Patients aged 4-19 years diagnosed more than 3 months with idiopathic arthritides, onset before their 16th birthday, stable on medication with at least one active joint. Patients in the combined and land groups received 16 1-hour treatment sessions over 2 weeks followed by local physiotherapy attendances for 2 months. Disease improvement defined as a decrease of > or =30% in any three of six core set variables without there being a 30% increase in more than one of the remaining three variables was used as the primary outcome measure and assessed at 2 months following completion of intervention. Health services resource use (in- and outpatient care, GP visits, drugs, interventions, and investigations) and productivity costs (parents' time away from paid work) were collected at 6 months follow-up. HRQoL was measured at baseline and 2 and 6 months following intervention using the EQ-5D, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were calculated. Secondary outcome measures at 2 and 6 months included cardiovascular fitness, pain, isometric muscle strength and patient satisfaction. Seventy-eight patients were recruited into the trial and received treatment. Two months after intervention 47% patients in the combined group and 61% patients in the land group had improved disease with 11 and 5% with worsened
Hargitai, H. I.
Cartography is a powerful tool in the scientific visualization and communication of spatial data. Cartographic visualization for children requires special methods. Although almost all known solid surface bodies in the Solar System have been mapped in detail during the last more than 5 decades, books and publications that target children, tweens and teens never include any of the cartographic results of these missions. We have developed a series of large size planetary maps with the collaboration of planetary scientists, cartographers and graphic artists. The maps are based on photomosaics and DTMs that were redrawn as artwork. This process necessarily involved generalization, interpretation and transformation into the visual language that can be understood by children. In the first project we selected six planetary bodies (Venus, the Moon, Mars, Io, Europa and Titan) and invited six illustrators of childrens'books. Although the overall structure of the maps look similar, the visual approach was significantly different. An important addition was that the maps contained a narrative: different characters - astronauts or "alien-like lifeforms" - interacted with the surface. The map contents were translated into 11 languages and published online at https://childrensmaps.wordpress.com.We report here on the new map of the series. Following the New Horizons' Pluto flyby we have started working on a map that, unlike the others, depicts a planetary system, not only one body. Since only one hemisphere was imaged in high resolution, this map is showing the encounter hemispheres of Pluto and Charon. Projected high resolution image mosaics with informal nomenclature were provided by the New Horizons Team. The graphic artist is Adrienn Gyöngyösi. Our future plan is to produce a book format Children's Atlas of Solar System bodies that makes planetary cartographic and astrogeologic results more accessible for children, and the next generation of planetary scientists among them.
Mehta, Kaye; Coveney, John; Ward, Paul; Magarey, Anthea; Spurrier, Nicola; Udell, Tuesday
This study explored children's views about food advertising on television in the light of recent public interest in childhood obesity and obesogenic environments. Thirty-seven children aged between 8 and 11 years, discussed their perceptions of food advertising, in focus groups. The children engaged as consumers of advertising, noticing technical aspects, and expressing their likes and dislikes of particular techniques. While they understood the persuasive intent of advertising, they nevertheless desired products and made purchase requests. They particularly desired energy-dense nutrient-poor foods. The children demonstrated sophisticated levels of advertising literacy through their articulation of problems such as deception, impacts on children's health and wellbeing, and family conflict. They revealed themselves as sentient beings, with the capacity to react, respond and reflect on their experience of advertising. This study makes a contribution to research on consumer socialisation by introducing the perspective of Australian children. As stakeholders in the childhood obesity problem, the views of children should also be of interest to health policymakers. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Geraldine Jody Macdonald
Full Text Available This article addresses the complex contexts within which Canadian health professionals engage in immunizing children and focuses on the Canadian practice guidelines and current scientific evidence that direct Canadian health professional competencies. The article begins by presenting two current global vaccine initiatives and links these to immunization in Canada. A selected literature review identifies current best immunization practices. With the purpose of promoting quality improvement, three key Canadian immunization competencies for health professional are highlighted: communication with parents, including those who are experiencing vaccine hesitancy; administration of immunizing agents; and documentation of immunizations. Health professionals are encouraged to reflect on immunization competencies and ensure evidence-based practices underpin vaccine delivery in their primary care settings.
Jordan, R R
Eleven autistic children were compared to normally developing children and mentally handicapped children, matched by receptive vocabulary age, on their understanding and use of the personal pronouns 'you' and 'me'. There were no significant differences between the groups in their comprehension of these terms, where the terms could be understood simply as referential labels. There was, however, a marked difference in the production of 'me' and 'you'. Only two autistic children showed the same pattern of responses that was shown by all but 4 of the 22 control children. The autistic children showed almost no 'pronoun reversal'. Instead, they used incorrect case pronouns or proper names for self or other reference. The results are interpreted in the light of significant difficulties in the acquisition of person deixis in autistic children.
Iyabode Omolara Akewo Daniel
Full Text Available Children literature remains the focus of discussions among those concerned with the positive socialisation of children within the African society. However, how it can serve for the socialisation of children by the home has not been clearly understood. This paper discusses the tangible role children literature can play in the socialisation process. It specifically focuses on the way the absentee parent(s can effectively use children literature as a tool of child training. It outlined the nature of children literature as it exists in the Nigerian society. It identified some important techniques such as didactism, journey motif, child abuse, characterisation, etc. which writers use to convey their messages in Nigerian children literature. It identified how writers use aesthetics to attract, keep and teach children the needed morality in the society. It concludes by outlining the way that the teacher/parent can effectively bring to life children literature to youngsters and thus engage it for positive socialisation of children within the African social milieu. Keywords: children literature, didactism, socialisation process, aesthetics, absentee parent(s
Telep, Valya Goodwin, 1955-
This series of lessons was prepared for parents like you - parents who want to do a better job of disciplining their children. The lessons were especially written for parents of preschool children, ages two to six, but some of the discipline methods are appropriate for older children, too. This lesson focuses on why children misbehavior.
De Bono, Edward
A group of children were presented with several tasks, including the invention of a sleep machine and a machine to weigh elephants. The tasks were chosen to involve the children in coping with problems of a distinct character. A study of the children's drawings and interpretations shows that children's thinking ability is not very different from…
Full Text Available ... in the body. jaundice in newborns and older children. epilepsy . location, anatomy and function of the thyroid gland. ... General Nuclear Medicine Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Epilepsy Images related to Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Videos related to Children's (Pediatric) ...
Full Text Available Philosophy of childhood is a field of inquiry in which the protagonists are adults, who are trying to understand children, and children, who are trying to be understood by adults. These two operating agents must find a common ground that renders their communication possible. This piece develops and illustrates the notion that no theorisation can exist if the authors of the theories do not know the subjects of their study, and thus that philosophers of childhood cannot contribute to knowledge about childhood unless they create occasions for the voices of children to be heard. Therefore, when activities are devised for the free expression of childhood, they cannot meaningfully be categorised as separate from philosophy of childhood. The latter cannot exist without the former. Philosophy of childhood and philosophy for children are interlaced in their work with children. Once the nature of childhood is understood through what children tell about themselves, instead of narrated through the interpretive frameworks of adults, the rights of the children can be effectively protected.
Sobel, David M; Letourneau, Susan M
What do children know about learning? Children between 4 and 10 years of age were asked what they thought the word learning meant and then engaged in a structured interview about what kinds of things they learned and how they learned those things. Most of the 4- and 5-year-olds' responses to these questions indicated a lack of awareness about the nature of learning or how learning occurs. In contrast, the 8- to 10-year-olds showed a strong understanding of learning as a process and could often generate explicit metacognitive responses indicating that they understood under what circumstances learning would occur. The 6- and 7-year-olds were in a transitional stage between these two levels of understanding. We discuss the implications of this development with children's theory-of-mind development more generally. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Freire, Wilma B; Waters, William F; Rivas-Mariño, Gabriela; Nguyen, Tien; Rivas, Patricio
To analyse patterns of knowledge, comprehension, attitudes and practices regarding the traffic light label placed on processed food packages to inform Ecuadorian consumers about levels of added fat, sugar and salt. Twenty-one focus group discussions organized by age group, sex and place of residence. Interviews with representatives of companies that manufacture or market processed foods. Analysis of regulations and structured observations of processed food labels. Cities and towns in Ecuador's coastal, highland and eastern lowland regions. One hundred and seventy-eight participants in twenty-one focus group discussions and nine key informants. Focus group participants knew about the traffic light label and understood the information it conveys, but not all changed their attitudes and practices related to the purchase and consumption of processed foods. Children, adolescents and adult males reported using the information infrequently; adolescents interested in health and adult women used the label the most to select products. Representatives of companies that manufacture or market processed foods generally opposed the policy, stating that the information is misleading. Nevertheless, some companies have reduced levels of added fat, sugar or salt in their products. The traffic light label is an effective tool for conveying complex information. Its potential contribution to reduce consumption of products with high levels of fat, sugar and salt could be enhanced by promoting healthy diets among consumers who have not changed purchasing and consumption behaviour, by placing the label on front panels and by monitoring the production and marketing of processed foods.
This is a review article that studies the problem of torture in children. Torture in children is a significant worldwide problem, but there are no official or reliable independent statistics to measure the magnitude of the problem. The definition of torture in the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment applies to adults and children. The Convention on the Rights of the Child defines children as "every human being below the age of eighteen years". Torture in children happens during peace times and during political violence and war conflicts. The majority of torture victims happen during peace times. The high-risk groups are impoverished children living in the street, children deprived of parental care, children in conflict with the law, and children in detention. During political violence and war the high risk children are the children detained during political violence, child soldiers, children internally displaced in refugee camps, detained children during the war against terrorism and children tortured by peacekeeping forces. The perpetrators of torture in children are the members of the same forces that torture adults, generally the police, civil police, security guards trained by police, prison guards, and military forces. The paper identifies some preventive measure and develops recommendations for action at the local, national and international level.
Fonvig, Cilius E; Bille, Dorthe S; Chabanova, Elizaveta
The degree of fat deposition in muscle and its implications for obesity-related complications in children and youths are not well understood. One hundred and fifty-nine patients (mean age: 13.3 years; range: 6-20) with a body mass index (BMI) >90(th) percentile for age and sex were included. Muscle...
Franz, Claudia; Wedderkopp, Niels; Jespersen, Eva
BACKGROUND: Back pain is reported to occur already in childhood, but its development at that age is not well understood. The aims of this study were to describe BP in children aged 6-12 years, and to investigate any sex and age differences. METHODS: Data on back pain (defined as pain in the neck,...
Verdine, Brian N.; Lucca, Kelsey R.; Golinkoff, Roberta M.; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathryn; Newcombe, Nora S.
How do toddlers learn the names of geometric forms? Previous work suggests that preschoolers have fragmentary knowledge and that defining properties are not understood until well into elementary school. The current study investigated when children first begin to understand shape names and how they apply those labels to unusual instances. We tested…
Full Text Available Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI and children with Developmental Dyslexia (DD have problems comprehending relative clauses (RCs and find object RCs more difficult than subject RCs, as do typically developing children. Few studies have compared these groups directly, leaving it unclear whether the problems observed in children with DD are similar to those described in SLI. Work with typically developing children has shown that the comprehension of passive RCs is less challenging than that of object RCs. It is argued that this asymmetry depends on intervention effects as modelized in a Relativized Minimality framework. Since movement is challenging for children with SLI and those with DD, examining and comparing their comprehension of object RCs and passive RCs can broaden our understanding of their language deficits. In fact, both structures involve movement, but the moved element and the movement configuration are different. In our study we investigated the comprehension of subject RCs, object RCs and passive RCs in 12 Italian monolingual children with SLI (mean age: 7;6, 13 Italian monolingual children with DD (mean age: 10;7 and 50 typically developing controls matched for age, grammar and vocabulary. Results from a picture selection task show that: (i subject RCs are unproblematic for all children; (ii object RCs are challenging for children with SLI, children with DD and younger typically developing controls; (iii passive RCs are better understood than object RCs in all groups, but still problematic for children with SLI and younger typically developing controls. Our data show that intervention effects are found in children with SLI and children with DD and that those with SLI have a deficit in transferring thematic roles to moved elements. Our results point out that some of the children with DD have a mild grammatical deficit that was undetected or escaped standardized tests.
Uddin, Lucina Q; Supekar, Kaustubh; Lynch, Charles J; Khouzam, Amirah; Phillips, Jennifer; Feinstein, Carl; Ryali, Srikanth; Menon, Vinod
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affects 1 in 88 children and is characterized by a complex phenotype, including social, communicative, and sensorimotor deficits. Autism spectrum disorder has been linked with atypical connectivity across multiple brain systems, yet the nature of these differences in young children with the disorder is not well understood. To examine connectivity of large-scale brain networks and determine whether specific networks can distinguish children with ASD from typically developing (TD) children and predict symptom severity in children with ASD. Case-control study performed at Stanford University School of Medicine of 20 children 7 to 12 years old with ASD and 20 age-, sex-, and IQ-matched TD children. Between-group differences in intrinsic functional connectivity of large-scale brain networks, performance of a classifier built to discriminate children with ASD from TD children based on specific brain networks, and correlations between brain networks and core symptoms of ASD. We observed stronger functional connectivity within several large-scale brain networks in children with ASD compared with TD children. This hyperconnectivity in ASD encompassed salience, default mode, frontotemporal, motor, and visual networks. This hyperconnectivity result was replicated in an independent cohort obtained from publicly available databases. Using maps of each individual's salience network, children with ASD could be discriminated from TD children with a classification accuracy of 78%, with 75% sensitivity and 80% specificity. The salience network showed the highest classification accuracy among all networks examined, and the blood oxygen-level dependent signal in this network predicted restricted and repetitive behavior scores. The classifier discriminated ASD from TD in the independent sample with 83% accuracy, 67% sensitivity, and 100% specificity. Salience network hyperconnectivity may be a distinguishing feature in children with ASD. Quantification of
Uddin, Lucina Q.; Supekar, Kaustubh; Lynch, Charles J.; Khouzam, Amirah; Phillips, Jennifer; Feinstein, Carl; Ryali, Srikanth; Menon, Vinod
IMPORTANCE Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affects 1 in 88 children and is characterized by a complex phenotype, including social, communicative, and sensorimotor deficits. Autism spectrum disorder has been linked with atypical connectivity across multiple brain systems, yet the nature of these differences in young children with the disorder is not well understood. OBJECTIVES To examine connectivity of large-scale brain networks and determine whether specific networks can distinguish children with ASD from typically developing (TD) children and predict symptom severity in children with ASD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Case-control study performed at Stanford University School of Medicine of 20 children 7 to 12 years old with ASD and 20 age-, sex-, and IQ-matched TD children. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Between-group differences in intrinsic functional connectivity of large-scale brain networks, performance of a classifier built to discriminate children with ASD from TD children based on specific brain networks, and correlations between brain networks and core symptoms of ASD. RESULTS We observed stronger functional connectivity within several large-scale brain networks in children with ASD compared with TD children. This hyperconnectivity in ASD encompassed salience, default mode, frontotemporal, motor, and visual networks. This hyperconnectivity result was replicated in an independent cohort obtained from publicly available databases. Using maps of each individual’s salience network, children with ASD could be discriminated from TD children with a classification accuracy of 78%, with 75% sensitivity and 80% specificity. The salience network showed the highest classification accuracy among all networks examined, and the blood oxygen–level dependent signal in this network predicted restricted and repetitive behavior scores. The classifier discriminated ASD from TD in the independent sample with 83% accuracy, 67% sensitivity, and 100% specificity. CONCLUSIONS
Meyer, Jessica A.; Mundy, Peter C.; Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan; Durocher, Jennifer Stella
The factors that place children with Asperger syndrome at risk for comorbid psychiatric symptoms, such as anxiety and depression, remain poorly understood. We investigated the possibility that the children’s emotional and behavioral difficulties are associated with social information and attribution processing. Participants were children with either Asperger syndrome (n = 31) or typical development (n = 33).To assess social information and attribution processing, children responded to hypothetical social vignettes.They also completed self-report measures of social difficulties and psychological functioning. Their parents provided information on social competence and clinical presentation. Children with Asperger syndrome showed poor psychosocial adjustment, which was related to their social information and attribution processing patterns. Cognitive and social-cognitive abilities were associated with aspects of social information processing tendencies, but not with emotional and behavioral difficulties. Results suggest that the comorbid symptoms of children with Asperger syndrome may be associated with their social perception, understanding, and experience. PMID:16908481
Wellman, Henry M; Song, Ju-Hyun; Peskin-Shepherd, Hope
A crucial human cognitive goal is to understand and to be understood. But understanding often takes active management. Two studies investigated early developmental processes of understanding management by focusing on young children's comprehension monitoring. We ask: When and how do young children actively monitor their comprehension of social-communicative interchanges and so seek to clarify and correct their own potential miscomprehension? Study 1 examined the parent-child conversations of 13 children studied longitudinally in everyday situations from the time the children were approximately 2 years through 3 years. Study 2 used a seminaturalistic situation in the laboratory to address these questions with more precision and control with 36 children aged 2-3 years. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Marcus, N E; Lindahl, K M; Malik, N M
Although correlations between interparental conflict and child maladjustment are well-established, the processes connecting these 2 phenomena are less understood. The present study tested whether an aggressogenic cognitive style mediates the relationship between interparental conflict and child aggression. A multiethnic sample of 115 families with a child between the ages of 7 and 13 years participated. Questionnaires were used to assess parents' and children's perceptions of interparental conflict, children's social problem-solving strategies and beliefs about aggression, and parent and teacher reports of child aggression. Support was found for the mediating effect of aggressogenic cognitions on children's school aggression but not on children's aggression at home. Implications for understanding the associations among interparental conflict, children's social cognitions, and child aggression in different environmental contexts are discussed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma prevalence among Chinese immigrant children is poorly understood and attempts to screen these children have produced varied outcomes. We sought to learn how to improve screening for asthma in Chinese immigrant children. Methods Children (n = 152 were administered the Brief Pediatric Asthma Screen in either Cantonese or English, they then viewed and reacted to a video showing people wheezing and subsequently took a pulmonary function test. Results The diagnosed asthma prevalence for our study population was 27.0%, with another 5.3% having possible undiagnosed asthma. Very few children had spirometry findings below normal. In multivariate analysis, being native born (p = 0.002 and having a family history of asthma (p = 0.003 were statistically associated with diagnosis of asthma. After viewing the video, 35.6% of respondents indicated that the images differed from their conception of wheezing. Of four translations of the word "wheeze" no single word was chosen by a majority. Conclusion Our findings suggest that asthma diagnoses are higher for Chinese children who were born in the US suggesting that desegregation of data might reveal at risk subpopulations. Care needs to be taken when diagnosing asthma for Cantonese speakers because of the centrality of the word wheeze and the challenges of translation.
Van Niekerk, A; Govender, R; Hornsby, N; Swart, L
This study examines adult safety knowledge and practices regarding the use of paraffin cooking appliances. The use of these is common in South Africa with injury risks that are poorly understood. This cross-sectional study was in an informal settlement in Johannesburg, South Africa, where children were reportedly at high risk for burns. This study sought to clarify relationships between key risks and developed individual and composite variables from theoretical constructs and operational definitions of risks for burns. Risks included Child Use of Paraffin Appliances, Child Proximity to Cooking, Risky Stove Use, Caregiver's Burn Treatment Knowledge, Children Locked in House, Children Alone in House. Number of children remains as in proof as this was not a composite scale. Child Proximity to Cooking was associated with more children in the home. Households where children were in greater proximity to cooking were 6 times more likely to be left alone at home, with caregivers with no education over 100 times more likely to lock their children at home. Children locked in were often from homes where caregivers used appliances unsafely. In settings with hazardous energy use, compressed household configurations, and families with multiple children, Risky Stove Use and the practice of locking children in the home may be catastrophic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
Malik, Jyoti; Bhan, Maharaj K; Ray, Pratima
Annual deaths in infants and young children due to rotavirus (RV) infection are around 100,000 in India and about 600,000 globally. Development of a vaccine for this disease is a high priority. The protective mechanisms for RV diarrhea in human are not fully understood, but it is known that children develop natural immunity against RV. Early exposure to RV results in most severe episode of diarrhea and subsequent infections are milder or asymptomatic. Of the immune responses measured during natural infection, RV-specific antibodies have been well documented, whereas data on cellular immunity in humans are sparse. It is generally thought that two outer capsid proteins VP4 and VP7 play a critical role in protective immunity by stimulating production of neutralizing antibodies. While serotype- specific protection mediated by antibodies directed against the outer capsid proteins may be a mechanism of protection, such a correlate for protection has been difficult to demonstrate in humans during clinical trials. Increasing evidences suggest that viral proteins that lack a capacity of eliciting neutralizing antibody response also induce protective immunity. Limited efforts have focused on the role of non-structural proteins in protective immunity. This review describes current understanding of antibody responses in children with focus on responses specific to viral antigens with their possible role in protective immunity. We have also briefly reviewed the responses elicited to non-antibody effectors during RV infection in human subjects.
The most important consideration when deciding whether or not to perform a nuclear medicine procedure in a child is whether the benefit of the information obtained exceeds the potential risk. In most circumstances the potential benefits are well define. No patient should be studied unless the question to be answered is clearly understood and there is a reasonable change to answer it. To properly perform procedures in children one must not only have a schedule to scale the radiopharmaceutical dose to be administered to the child's body surface area but also one must have an established minimum dose for small babies and infants. There is no point in under-dosing the patient as then the information will not be obtained from the nuclear medicine society. The value of nuclear medicine in the pediatric population cannot be underestimated. It is often the single most important test that can be performed diagnostically. For these reasons it is very important to understand the proper relationship of an adequate study versus the minimization of radiation. 3 references
Fernandes Davies, Vanessa; Kupek, Emil; Faria Di Pietro, Patricia; Altenburg de Assis, Maria Alice; Gk Vieira, Francilene; Perucchi, Clarice; Mafra, Rafaella; Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Thomas
The use of computers to administer dietary assessment questionnaires has shown potential, particularly due to the variety of interactive features that can attract and sustain children's attention. Cognitive interviews can help researchers to gain insights into how children understand and elaborate their response processes in this type of questionnaire. To present the cognitive interview results of children who answered the WebCAAFE, a Web-based questionnaire, to obtain an in-depth understanding of children's response processes. Cognitive interviews were conducted with children (using a pretested interview script). Analyses were carried out using thematic analysis within a grounded theory framework of inductive coding. A total of 40 children participated in the study, and 4 themes were identified: (1) the meaning of words, (2) understanding instructions, (3) ways to resolve possible problems, and (4) suggestions for improving the questionnaire. Most children understood questions that assessed nutritional intake over the past 24 hours, although the structure of the questionnaire designed to facilitate recall of dietary intake was not always fully understood. Younger children (7 and 8 years old) had more difficulty relating the food images to mixed dishes and foods eaten with bread (eg, jam, cheese). Children were able to provide suggestions for improving future versions of the questionnaire. More attention should be paid to children aged 8 years or below, as they had the greatest difficulty completing the WebCAAFE. ©Vanessa Fernandes Davies, Emil Kupek, Patricia Faria Di Pietro, Maria Alice Altenburg de Assis, Francilene GK Vieira, Clarice Perucchi, Rafaella Mafra, Debbe Thompson, Thomas Baranowski. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 28.11.2016.
Sikorskaia, L. E.
In 2006 the author and her colleagues carried out the sociological survey "Tolerance in Volunteer Social Work." They sought to determine the attitudes that young Russian and German volunteers of social work have when it comes to tolerance as a concept, a trait of personality, a principle of life and activity. They studied the various…
Farooq, Muhammad Ansar; Dietz, Karl-Josef
Silicon (Si) serves as bioactive beneficial element. Si is highly abundant in soil, and occurs ubiquitously in all organisms including plants and humans. During the last three decades, nutritional significance of Si for plant and human health has received increasing attention. Plant Si plays a pivotal role in growth and development, and this beneficial effect depends usually on accumulation in plant tissues, which are then protected from various forms of biotic and abiotic stresses. Likewise, human exposure to Si imparts health benefits and essentially occurs through plant-derived food products. Si bioavailability in human diet, e.g., strengthens bones and improves immune response, as well as neuronal and connective tissue health. Despite this empiric knowledge, the essentiality of Si still remains enigmatic. Thus the link between Si availability for plant development and its profound implication for human welfare should receive attention. This review aims to provide a broad perspective on Si as important element for plant and human nutrition and to define research fields for interdisciplinary research.
Khoza, Simon Bheki
This article draws on a case study of six facilitators who were teaching Publishing Research in 2011 at one of the universities in South Africa. Publishing Research was offered by two campuses of this institution. This article gives these facilitators a voice and also identifies and defines the intended, implemented and attained learning outcomes…
This study aims to explore Chinese international students' academic and personal transformation under the influences of formal education in schools and informal education outside of the classroom. A qualitative inquiry using in-depth, semi-structured interviews was employed with eight senior undergraduate Chinese international students attending…
Basel, Donald; Steiner, Robert D
Osteogenesis imperfecta is a systemic heritable disorder of connective tissue whose cardinal manifestation is bone fragility. In approximately 90% of individuals with osteogenesis imperfecta, mutations in either of the genes encoding the pro-alpha1 or pro-alpha2 chains of type I collagen (COL1A1 or COL1A2) can be identified. Of those without collagen mutations, a number of them will have mutations involving the enzyme complex responsible for posttranslational hydroxylation of the position 3 proline residue of COL1A1. Two of the genes encoding proteins involved in that enzyme complex, LEPRE1 and cartilage-associated protein, when mutated have been shown to cause autosomal recessive osteogenesis imperfecta, which has a moderate to severe clinical phenotype, often indistinguishable from osteogenesis imperfecta types II or III. Mutations in COL1A1 or COL1A2 which result in an abnormal protein still capable of forming a triple helix cause a more severe phenotype than mutations that lead to decreased collagen production as a result of the dominant negative effect mediated by continuous protein turnover. The current standard of care includes a multidisciplinary approach with surgical intervention when necessary, proactive physiotherapy, and consideration for the use of bisphosphonates all in attempts to improve quality of life.
Lang, Pierre Olivier; Aspinall, Richard
Vitamin D is increasingly thought to play a role in regulating immunity. This comprehensive review updates the current understanding regarding ways in which we believe that vitamin D regulates responsiveness of the immune system and how serum status modulates the host defense against pathogens. The literature was searched by using PubMed and Scopus with the following key words: vitamin D, immunity, innate and adaptive immunity, infectious disease, and vaccine response. Vitamin D deficiency remains a major public health concern worldwide. The overall body of evidence confirms that vitamin D plays an important role in modulating the immune response to infections. Epidemiologic studies suggest a clear association between vitamin D deficiency and susceptibility to various pathogens. However, translation of vitamin D use into the clinic as a means of controlling infections is fraught with methodologic and epidemiologic challenges. The recent discovery of alternative activation pathways, different active forms of vitamin D, and possible interaction with non-vitamin D receptors provide further complications to an already complex interaction between vitamin D and the immune system. Moreover, it has become apparent that the individual responsiveness to supplementation is more dynamic than presumed from the static assessment of 25-hydroxy vitamin D status. Furthermore, the epigenetic response at the level of the individual to environmental changes and lifestyle or health conditions provides greater variation than those resulting from vitamin D receptor polymorphisms. To understand the future of vitamin D with respect to clinical applications in the prevention and better control of infectious diseases, it is necessary to determine all aspects of vitamin D metabolism, as well as the mechanisms by which active forms interact with the immune system globally. For the most part, we are unable to identify tissue-specific applications of supplementation except for those subjects at high risk of osteomalacia and osteoporosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.
expansion of the universe therefore is an example of the coming together of theoretical work and innovation in technology in the advancement of science. This year, we are celebrating the International Year of Astronomy. Four hundred years ago, in 1609, Galileo held his telescope to view the starry heavens, and changed ...
Hedges, Helen; Lee, Debora
"Partnership between parents and teachers" is a taken-for-granted feature of the philosophy and practice of early childhood education. Yet, the literature suggests this rhetoric belies a more complex and problematic reality for teachers. Making connections with the families and communities they will serve may help teacher education…
Tomlinson, John M., Jr.; Bailey, Todd M.; Bott, Lewis
Scalar implicatures often incur a processing cost in sentence comprehension tasks. We used a novel mouse-tracking technique in a sentence verification paradigm to test different accounts of this effect. We compared a two-step account, in which people access a basic meaning and then enrich the basic meaning to form the scalar implicature, against a…
to avoid the effects of turbulence in the lower atmosphere. A set of telescopes were built atop Mount Wilson in the western coast of USA just before Hubble began his work. The discovery of the expansion of the universe therefore is an example of the coming together of theoretical work and innovation in technology in the.
Frandsen-Thorlacius, Olaf; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren; Hertzum, Morten
, who differ in how they understand and prioritize different aspects of usability. Chinese users appear to be more concerned with visual appearance, satisfaction, and fun than Danish users; Danish users prioritize effectiveness, efficiency, and lack of frustration higher than Chinese users. The results...... suggest that culture influences perceptions of usability. We discuss implications for usability research and for usability practice....
For decades Catalan, a language minoritized and endangered by the hegemony of other state languages, has been experimenting with a process of revitalization driven by social activism and political autonomy, which has been particularly strong in some of its historical regions. Recently, however, serious doubts about the success of this process have…
Nisbett, Richard E.; Aronson, Joshua; Blair, Clancy; Dickens, William; Flynn, James; Halpern, Diane F.; Turkheimer, Eric
Responds to the comments by J. P. Rushton (see record 2012-24333-012); M. A. Woodley and G. Meisenberg (see record 2012-24333-013); and J. D. Mayer, D. R. Caruso, A. T. Panter, and P. Salovey (see record 2012-24333-014) on the present authors' original article, "Intelligence: New findings and theoretical developments" (see record…
Full Text Available Built environment carbon reduction strategies materialize predominantly in city-level greenhouse gas (GHG management, where new residential development appears as one of the key instruments. However, city-level assessments are often incapable of producing data at a community or neighborhood level and thus they may heavily underestimate the emissions from new construction. This paper explores the implications of low-energy residential construction as an instrument of climate change mitigation in the built environment and demonstrates why city-level approaches easily fail to identify the significance of the emissions from construction. We employ a hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA approach to demonstrate that, when the temporal allocation of emissions from the construction and use phases is taken into account, construction phase emissions come to have a central role in finding effective GHG mitigation strategies—even when the emissions from all consumption activities during the use phase are included in the assessment. In fact, their role would seem to be so central that new residential construction cannot be utilized as an instrument of city carbon management, even over a relatively long period. While we analyze a case study from Finland, the analysis intends to highlight the situation throughout the globe.
Despite the number of articles devoted to the topic of content-based instruction (CBI), little attempt has been made to link the claims for CBI to research in cognitive science. In this article, I review the CBI model of foreign language (FL) instruction in the context of its close alignment with two emergent frameworks in cognitive science:…
Full text: Part of my work involves tutoring trainee radiologists on the physics of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). I have observed that a full understanding of the physics involved with MRI, or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to be more specific, seems to be beyond the hopes of many people working in the field. All diagnostic radiology textbooks that I have read touch very superficially on the physics of NMR and sometimes the explanations and models used are quite inaccurate and misleading. After further investigation, I found some very good coverage on the subject in chemistry texts. The physics of NMR is based on some very difficult quantum mechanical concepts. What I have managed to understand has been tremendously satisfying and has shed light on several conceptual difficulties which I initially struggled with. The physics of MRI is based on the motion of the hydrogen proton when subjected to an external magnetic field. Protons, which are positively charged particles, have an intrinsic spin and as a result, a magnetic field. A proton, when placed in an external magnetic field, undergoes several changes in its motion. The laws of quantum mechanics govern these changes. Diagnostic radiology textbook models describing the motion of a proton tend to be poor and inaccurate leading to confusion. For example, subatomic particles are subject to laws of quantum mechanics and are forbidden to align exactly with an applied magnetic field thus creating precession. Some textbooks make no attempt to explain this phenomenon whereas others attempt a superficial but inadequate quantum mechanical explanation. I am interested to canvas opinions from others involved in MRI as to difficulties they have encountered with the understanding of the physics of MRI and how they have been overcome. Copyright (2000) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine
Bruinessen, M.M. van
This article surveys various attempts to make sociological sense of the diverse Muslim movements often lumped together under the label of fundamentalism. Explanations of fundamentalism as a form of resistance to modernization or those reducing it to social and economic discontent may have some
Simons, Michele; Harris, Roger
Ongoing reform in vocational education and training (VET) has placed significant pressure on leaders in private training organisations in terms of striking an 'appropriate' balance between educational and business imperatives. This paper draws on data from 34 interviews with leaders from 16 private registered training organisations in Australia to…
The purpose of the present study is to explore the role of static media in textbooks, as defined by Mayer (2001) in the form of printed images and text, and how these media are viewed and used by high school science teachers. Textbooks appeared in the United States in the late 1800s, and since then pictorial aids have been used extensively in them to support the teacher's work in the classroom (Giordano, 2003). According to Woodward, Elliott, and Nagel (1988/2013) the research on textbooks prior to the 1970s doesn't present relevant work related to the curricular role and the quality and instructional design of textbooks. Since then there has been abundant research, specially on the use of visual images in textbooks that has been approached from: (a) the text/image ratio (Evans, Watson, & Willows, 1987; Levin & Mayer, 1993; Mayer, 1993; Woodward, 1993), and (b) the instructional effectiveness of images (Woodward, 1993). The theoretical framework for this study comes from multimedia learning (Mayer, 2001), information design (Pettersson, 2002), and visual literacy (Moore & Dwyer, 1994). Data was collected through in-depth interviews of three high school science teachers and the graphic analyses of three textbooks used by the interviewed teachers. The interview data were compared through an analytic model developed from the literature, and the graphic analyses were performed using Mayer's multimedia learning principles (Mayer, 2001) and the Graphic Analysis Protocol (GAP) (Slough & McTigue, 2013). The conclusions of this study are: (1) pictures are specially useful for teaching science because science is a difficult subject to teach, (2) due this difficulty, pictures are very important to make the class dynamic and avoid students distraction, (3) static and dynamic media when used together can be more effective, (4) some specific type of graphics were found in the science textbooks used by the participants, in this case they were naturalistic drawings, stylized drawings, scale diagram, flow chart - cycle, flow chart - sequence, and hybrids, no photographs were found, (5) graphics can be related not only to the general text but specifically to the captions, (6) the textbooks analyzed had a balanced proportion of text and graphics, and (7) to facilitate the text-graphics relationship the spatial contiguity of both elements is key to their semantic integration.
Muhammad Ansar Farooq
Full Text Available Silicon (Si serves as bioactive beneficial element. Si is highly abundant in soil, and occurs ubiquitously in all organisms including plants and humans. During the last three decades, nutritional significance of Si for plant and human health has received increasing attention. Plant Si plays a pivotal role in growth and development, and this beneficial effect depends usually on accumulation in plant tissues, which are then protected from various forms of biotic and abiotic stresses. Likewise, human exposure to Si imparts health benefits and essentially occurs through plant-derived food products. Si bioavailability in human diet e.g. strengthens bones and improves immune response, as well as neuronal and connective tissue health. Despite this empiric knowledge, the essentiality of Si still remains enigmatic. Thus the link between Si availability for plant development and its profound implication for human welfare should receive attention. This review aims to provide a broad perspective on Si as important element for plant and human nutrition and to define research fields for interdisciplinary research.
Shattuck, Steve; Cover, Stefan
The North American ant fauna has a long and detailed taxonomic history, and the fauna is relatively well characterized compared with those of many other regions. The vast majority of taxon names are clearly defined, being treated as either valid or invalid (primarily junior synonyms). Because of this, though considerable revisionary work will be necessary in the future, specimens collected from this region may often be placed with reasonable confidence either to species, or in some cases, to species complexes even if the status of the specific taxa involved are uncertain.
Children from families of alcoholics and drug addicts are a high-risk group for developing a mental or substance-related disorder. The parental substance-related disorder can cause different effects on the physical, mental, and cognitive health of children in various stages of development, particularly internalizing and externalizing disorders. For the development of the mental health of these children, the promotion of resilience and protective factors play a crucial role. General and specific resilience and protective factors, which are relevant for prevention and intervention for children of alcoholics and substance users, are presented based on empirical studies. Resilience is commonly understood as a mental hardiness of children and adolescents to biological, mental, and psychosocial developmental risks. Important is the multilevel consideration of internal and external protective factors. In doing so, resilience is understood as a process that is subject to fluctuations over the course of life. The "stress-strain-coping-support" model is suitable for the theoretical concept of preventive measures for children of alcoholics and drug addicts.
24 cases were revised, of patient with thyroid tumors in the period understood between 1983 and 1995. Of these tumors 14 were papillars, 3 medullar, 3 children with high levels of thyro calcitonine, 2 with follicular adenomas, a boy with hyperplasia and a doubtful cytology to the one who two years later it was made a total thyroidectomy. Most of the patients were bigger than the 10 years, globally there was not great difference in the distribution for sex, being lightly bigger the number of patient of feminine sex; in the medullar, the relationship was of 2:1 feminine: Masculine, similar to that reported in the literature. To the date, they are alive and without illness 12 patients; 3 evolve with lung metastasis, 2 (with lung metastasis) they abandoned the controls, 3 died with illness and 1 present metastasis and cardiac illness. Iodine 1 31 was used in eleven patients
Children and tonsillectomies ... many parents wonder if it is wise for children to have the tonsils taken out. Tonsillectomy may be recommended if your child has any of the following: Difficulty swallowing Obstructed ...
... Clinical Digest for health professionals Children and Dietary Supplements Share: September 2012 © Matthew Lester Research has shown that many children use herbs and other dietary supplements. However, there are little data available on their ...
Healthy Lifestyle Children's health You want your child to eat healthy foods, but do you know which nutrients ... 15, 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/childrens-health/in-depth/nutrition-for-kids/art- ...
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001542.htm Separation anxiety in children To use the sharing features on this page, ... to test their independence. To get over separation anxiety, children need to: Feel safe in their home. Trust ...
... Facts for Families Guide Facts for Families - Vietnamese TV Violence and Children No. 13; Updated December 2014 ... violent. Hundreds of studies of the effects of TV violence on children and teenagers have found that ...
... Library ▸ Allergy Library ▸ Cough in children TTR Share | Cough in Children This article has been reviewed by ... MD, FAAAAI As a parent, hearing your child cough may make you feel uneasy. Yet an occasional ...
Full Text Available ... patient story here Images × Image Gallery Radiologist and patient consultation. View full size with caption Related Articles and Media General Nuclear Medicine Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Epilepsy Images related to Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine ...
Hoffman, La Vinia Jean
Discusses children's books which have caused controversies pertaining to ethnic stereotyping, labeling, sex instruction, and offensive language, and maintains that controversy is beneficial in that it keeps librarians aware of children's interests. (FM)
More often than not, cancer immunotherapies that work in adults are used in modified ways in children. Seldom are new therapies developed just for children, primarily because of the small number of pediatric patients relative to the adult cancer patient
... not suit the child's needs. Small crackers, unsugared cereals, and string cheese make good snacks. Some children can eat fruit without problems. Cookies and sugared cereals make for sticky children. When flying with babies ...
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000942.htm Cold medicines and children To use the sharing features on ... children younger than age 4. About OTC Cold Medicines Cold medicines do not cure or shorten a ...
Full Text Available ... used in children with cancer, epilepsy and back pain. top of page What does the equipment look ... being recorded. Though nuclear imaging itself causes no pain, children may experience some discomfort from having to ...
Elkind, David; Rinaldi, Carla; Flemmert Jensen, Anne
Proceedings from the conference "Children, Time, and Play". Danish University of Education, January 30th 2003.......Proceedings from the conference "Children, Time, and Play". Danish University of Education, January 30th 2003....
... event. It is most often triggered by poor sleep habits. In children, sleepwalking starts between ages 6 and 12. It occurs more often in boys than girls. Children outgrow ... to stick to a bedtime routine may help reduce the problem.
... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips ADHD in Young Children Use recommended treatment first Language: ... The recommended first treatment for young children with ADHD is underused. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends ...
Full Text Available ... the body. jaundice in newborns and older children. epilepsy . location, anatomy and function of the thyroid gland. ... are most often used in children with cancer, epilepsy and back pain. top of page What does ...
... Facts for Families Guide Facts for Families - Vietnamese Divorce and Children No. 1; Updated December 2013 One out of every two marriages today ends in divorce and many divorcing families include children. Parents who ...
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000355.htm Screen time and children To use the sharing features on ... videos is considered unhealthy screen time. Current Screen Time Guidelines Children under age 2 should have no ...
Full Text Available The article considers the main milestones of Slovak children's literature and how it is represented in the translation into foreign languages. The work of writers who have contributed to the development of children's literature most of all is analyzed in the article, as well as the work of the translators who have contributed to the promotion of Slovak literature abroad.
Ainsworth, Alan Patrick; Axelsen, Anne Reiss; Rasmussen, Lars
It is recommended that children with typical clinical signs of biliary colic should be offered surgery if gallstones are present. The aim of this study was to describe a population of children having undergone cholecystectomy.......It is recommended that children with typical clinical signs of biliary colic should be offered surgery if gallstones are present. The aim of this study was to describe a population of children having undergone cholecystectomy....
Meguid, Nagwa A; Anwar, Mona; Bjørklund, Geir; Hashish, Adel; Chirumbolo, Salvatore; Hemimi, Maha; Sultan, Eman
Although the etiology and pathology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is still poorly understood, a number of environmental, anthropological, neurobiological and genetic factors have been related to the pathophysiology of ASD, even the impact of oxidative stress response related to the environment and nutrition intake. Usual recommended dietary habits are based on the combination of behavioral and dietary or nutraceutical interventions together with pharmacotherapy. Investigations about a reliable relationship between diet and ASD are still lacking. The present study aimed at comparing dietary regimens and habits of normally developing apparently healthy children, without diagnosed ASD, with a pediatric population of individuals affected by autistic disorder. Assessments of nutritional and anthropometric data, in addition to biochemical evaluation for nutrient deficiencies, were performed. A total of 80 children with autistic disorder and 80 healthy, normally developing pediatric individuals were enrolled in the study. Parents were asked to complete the standardized questionnaire regarding the different types of food and the proportion of a serving for their children. Biochemical analysis of micro- and macronutrients were also done. Plotting on the Egyptian sex-specific anthropometric growth (auximetric) chart, absolute weights as well as weight-related for age classes, were significantly higher in cases than healthy controls. No differences between groups were observed in regard to total kilocalories (kcal), carbohydrates, and fat intake. A total of 23.8% of children with autistic disorder vs. 11.3% in the healthy control group had a nutrient intake with features below the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of protein. Children with autistic disorder showed low dietary intake of some micronutrients; calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), selenium (Se) and sodium (Na), also they had significantly high intake of potassium (K) and vitamin C compared to healthy
... lie about what is going on. Children are smart. They pick up on dishonesty and will wonder why you are lying. NOT force children who are afraid to go to funerals. Find other ways for your children to remember and honor the deceased. For example, you can light a candle, pray, float a balloon to the ...
GAD - children; Anxiety disorder - children ... The cause of GAD is unknown. Genes may play a role. Children with family members who have an anxiety disorder also may be more likely to have one. Stress may be a factor in developing GAD. Things ...
Waldman, H B
Limited attention has been directed in the dental literature to the emotional, economic and associated consequences of divorces on children. A general introduction is provided on 1) the numbers of children involved in divorces in different single-parent population groups, with 2) emphasis on the emotional impact of divorce on children and 3) the potential significance for pediatric dental practices.
Buck, Beverly; Baker, Robin
The "Colorado Children's Budget" presents and analyzes investments and spending trends during the past five state fiscal years on services that benefit children. The "Children's Budget" focuses mainly on state investment and spending, with some analysis of federal investments and spending to provide broader context of state…
Keller, Suzanne M.
The four reports contained in this document examine the effects of the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES), which entered the lives of many children in the United States in 1986. The first report discusses a study of children's interaction with the game hardware. The study of fourth- and fifth-grade students indicated that children's interaction…
What is Kidney Cancer in Children? Kidney (renal) tumors are very rare in children. Still, the three most common renal tumors found ... treatable and curable. What are the Types of Kidney Cancer in Children? Male urinary tract Medical Illustration Copyright © ...
Gulløv, Eva; Bundgaard, Helle
an apparent paradox in daily practice where on the one hand staff attempt to mute differences between children on the assumption that all children are equal and should be treated as such, while on the other hand distinctions are in practice established when children behave in ways considered inappropriate...
Johansson, Barbro; Mäkelä, Johanna; Roos, Gun
A study of the different food messages that children encounter and their own reflections of these messages was carried out among fifty-nine children from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden.The children took photos of their "foodscapes," including school, home, shops, streets, cafés and restauran...
Gombert, Jean Emile; Fayol, Michel
Dictated words and pictures by 48 young French children, aged 3 to 6 years, demonstrated that young children have the capacity to produce graphics that exhibit some of the characteristics of writing. Developmental stages in children's recognition that their own efforts were not true writing were identified. (SLD)
Tabbers, Merit M.; Boluyt, Nicole; Berger, Marjolein Y.; Benninga, Marc A.
Prevalence of childhood constipation has been estimated at 0.7% to 29.6% in the general population worldwide; most children have no obvious aetiological factors. One third of children with chronic constipation continue to have problems beyond puberty. Half of children with chronic faecal impaction
Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...
The present article is a reflection on the desire of the analyst on the clinical psychoanalysis with children, where the desire of the analyst is understood as a transference device, central element of the treatment’s direction and the end of the analysis. The analyst’s desire is a “warned desire”, that does not aim happiness, which those analyzed wish for themselves. In accordance with the psychoanalysis ethics, described by Freud in The Malaise in Culture and by Lacan in the Seminar, Book 7...
The prevalence of functional constipation in children is almost 10%. The etiology is multifactorial and not fully understood. In the majority of cases, there is no organic explanation for the symptoms. However, it is very important to exclude organic causes, particularly in neonates and infants. There are warning symptoms, such as delayed passage of meconium, bilious vomiting and abdominal distention that should prompt further investigations. Fecal incontinence is a very common symptom secondary to fecal impaction. The first-line treatment for both disimpaction and maintenance is use of laxatives. Parental education is extremely important. There are very limited data on surgical approaches for functional constipation.
Kelemen, Deborah; Emmons, Natalie A; Seston Schillaci, Rebecca; Ganea, Patricia A
Adaptation by natural selection is a core mechanism of evolution. It is also one of the most widely misunderstood scientific processes. Misconceptions are rooted in cognitive biases found in preschoolers, yet concerns about complexity mean that adaptation by natural selection is generally not comprehensively taught until adolescence. This is long after untutored theoretical misunderstandings are likely to have become entrenched. In a novel approach, we explored 5- to 8-year-olds' capacities to learn a basic but theoretically coherent mechanistic explanation of adaptation through a custom storybook intervention. Experiment 1 showed that children understood the population-based logic of natural selection and also generalized it. Furthermore, learning endured 3 months later. Experiment 2 replicated these results and showed that children understood and applied an even more nuanced mechanistic causal explanation. The findings demonstrate that, contrary to conventional educational wisdom, basic natural selection is teachable in early childhood. Theory-driven interventions using picture storybooks with rich explanatory structure are beneficial.
Mills, Brian D; Lai, Janie; Brown, Timothy T; Erhart, Matthew; Halgren, Eric; Reilly, Judy; Dale, Anders; Appelbaum, Mark; Moses, Pamela
This study investigated the relationship between white matter microstructure and the development of morphosyntax in a spoken narrative in typically developing children (TD) and in children with high functioning autism (HFA). Autism is characterized by language and communication impairments, yet the relationship between morphosyntactic development in spontaneous discourse contexts and neural development is not well understood in either this population or typical development. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used to assess multiple parameters of diffusivity as indicators of white matter tract integrity in language-related tracts in children between 6 and 13 years of age. Children were asked to spontaneously tell a story about at time when someone made them sad, mad, or angry. The story was evaluated for morphological accuracy and syntactic complexity. Analysis of the relationship between white matter microstructure and language performance in TD children showed that diffusivity correlated with morphosyntax production in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), a fiber tract traditionally associated with language. At the anatomical level, the HFA group showed abnormal diffusivity in the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) relative to the TD group. Within the HFA group, children with greater white matter integrity in the right ILF displayed greater morphological accuracy during their spoken narrative. Overall, the current study shows an association between white matter structure in a traditional language pathway and narrative performance in TD children. In the autism group, associations were only found in the ILF, suggesting that during real world language use, children with HFA rely less on typical pathways and more on alternative ventral pathways that possibly mediate visual elements of language. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mills, Brian; Lai, Janie; Brown, Timothy T.; Erhart, Matthew; Halgren, Eric; Reilly, Judy; Dale, Anders; Appelbaum, Mark; Moses, Pamela
This study investigated the relationship between white matter microstructure and the development of morphosyntax in a spoken narrative in typically developing children (TD) and in children with high functioning autism (HFA). Autism is characterized by language and communication impairments, yet the relationship between morphosyntactic development in spontaneous discourse contexts and neural development is not well understood in either this population or typical development. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used to assess multiple parameters of diffusivity as indicators of white matter tract integrity in language-related tracts in children between 6 and 13 years of age. Children were asked to spontaneously tell a story about at time when someone made them sad, mad, or angry. The story was evaluated for morphological accuracy and syntactic complexity. Analysis of the relationship between white matter microstructure and language performance in TD children showed that diffusivity correlated with morphosyntax production in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), a fiber tract traditionally associated with language. At the anatomical level, the HFA group showed abnormal diffusivity in the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) relative to the TD group. Within the HFA group, children with greater white matter integrity in the right ILF displayed greater morphological accuracy during their spoken narrative. Overall, the current study shows an association between white matter structure in a traditional language pathway and narrative performance in TD children. In the autism group, associations were only found in the ILF, suggesting that during real world language use, children with HFA rely less on typical pathways and instead rely on alternative ventral pathways that possibly mediate visual elements of language. PMID:23810972
Shelleby, Elizabeth C; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Shaw, Daniel S; Dishion, Thomas J; Wilson, Melvin N; Gardner, Frances
Children from low-income households tend to exhibit higher levels of conduct problems and emotional problems, yet the pathways linking economic disadvantage to children's behavioral functioning are not well understood. This study uses data from the Early Steps Multisite (ESM) project (N = 731) to investigate associations between family income in early childhood and children's conduct problems and emotional problems in middle childhood. The study explores whether the associations from income to child conduct problems and emotional problems operate through maternal depressive symptoms and 3 family risk factors in early childhood-harsh parenting, parenting hassles, and chaos in the home environment. Results of a sequential mediation model revealed significant indirect effects of family income on children's conduct problems operating through maternal depressive symptoms and parenting hassles and indirect effects of family income on children's emotional problems operating through maternal depressive symptoms, chaos in the home environment, and parenting hassles. Implications of these findings for understanding processes through which income influences child functioning are discussed.
Labuda, Lucja A; de Jong, Sanne E; Meurs, Lynn; Amoah, Abena S; Mbow, Moustapha; Ateba-Ngoa, Ulysse; van der Ham, Alwin J; Knulst, André C; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Adegnika, Ayola A
Although differences in immunological responses between populations have been found in terms of vaccine efficacy, immune responses to infections and prevalence of chronic inflammatory diseases, the mechanisms responsible for these differences are not well understood. Therefore, innate cytokine responses mediated by various classes of pattern-recognition receptors including Toll-like receptors (TLR), C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) and nucleotide-binding oligomerisation domain-like receptors (NLRs) were compared between Dutch (European), semi-urban and rural Gabonese (African) children. Whole blood was stimulated for 24 hours and the pro-inflammatory tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and the anti-inflammatory/regulatory interleukin-10 (IL-10) cytokines in culture supernatant were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Gabonese children had a lower pro-inflammatory response to poly(I:C) (TLR3 ligand), but a higher pro-inflammatory response to FSL-1 (TLR2/6 ligand), Pam3 (TLR2/1 ligand) and LPS (TLR4 ligand) compared to Dutch children. Anti-inflammatory responses to Pam3 were also higher in Gabonese children. Non-TLR ligands did not induce substantial cytokine production on their own. Interaction between various TLR and non-TLR receptors was further assessed, but no differences were found between the three populations. In conclusion, using a field applicable assay, significant differences were observed in cytokine responses between European and African children to TLR ligands, but not to non-TLR ligands.
Lucja A Labuda
Full Text Available Although differences in immunological responses between populations have been found in terms of vaccine efficacy, immune responses to infections and prevalence of chronic inflammatory diseases, the mechanisms responsible for these differences are not well understood. Therefore, innate cytokine responses mediated by various classes of pattern-recognition receptors including Toll-like receptors (TLR, C-type lectin receptors (CLRs and nucleotide-binding oligomerisation domain-like receptors (NLRs were compared between Dutch (European, semi-urban and rural Gabonese (African children. Whole blood was stimulated for 24 hours and the pro-inflammatory tumor necrosis factor (TNF and the anti-inflammatory/regulatory interleukin-10 (IL-10 cytokines in culture supernatant were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Gabonese children had a lower pro-inflammatory response to poly(I:C (TLR3 ligand, but a higher pro-inflammatory response to FSL-1 (TLR2/6 ligand, Pam3 (TLR2/1 ligand and LPS (TLR4 ligand compared to Dutch children. Anti-inflammatory responses to Pam3 were also higher in Gabonese children. Non-TLR ligands did not induce substantial cytokine production on their own. Interaction between various TLR and non-TLR receptors was further assessed, but no differences were found between the three populations. In conclusion, using a field applicable assay, significant differences were observed in cytokine responses between European and African children to TLR ligands, but not to non-TLR ligands.
Payne, Jonathan M; Porter, Melanie; Pride, Natalie A; North, Kathryn N
Neurofibromatosis Type I (NF1) is a single gene disorder associated with cognitive and behavioral deficits. While there is clear evidence for poorer social outcomes in NF1, the factors underlying reduced social function are not well understood. This study examined theory of mind (ToM) in children with NF1 and unaffected controls. ToM was assessed in children with NF1 (n = 26) and unaffected controls (n = 36) aged 4-12 years using a nonverbal picture sequencing task. The task assessed understanding of ToM (unrealized goals, false belief, pretence, intention), while controlling for social script knowledge and physical cause-and-effect reasoning. Children with NF1 made significantly more errors than unaffected controls on most ToM stories while demonstrating no difficulty sequencing physical cause-and-effect stories. Performance on the picture sequencing task was not related to lower intellectual function, symptoms of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or parent ratings of executive function. Results suggest a generalized ToM deficit in children with NF1 that appears to be independent of general cognitive abilities and ADHD symptoms. The study refines understanding of the clinical presentation of NF1 and identifies psychological constructs that may contribute to the higher prevalence of social dysfunction in children with NF1. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Andersen, Lars Bo; Lauritsen, Peter; Danholt, Peter
Teledialogue is a combined research and design project aimed at improving communications between social workers and children under their custody living in foster care or youth institutions. While social workers are responsible for the welfare of placed children they are under heavy workload...... and often only communicate with children at biannual meetings - the minimum required by law. The purpose of Teledialogue is to use participatory methods to develop an IT-enabled concept for children and social workers to maintain communication between the biannual meetings. Social workers and children...... are thus the primary participants in this design process. This presentation describes the inclusion and participation of the placed children in Teledialogue. With an outset in Actor-Network Theory (ANT) two points are made: 1) that children were participating in shaping the design long before they were...
Systematic ethnography of school-age children with bleeding disorders and other chronic illnesses: exploring children's perceptions of partnership roles in family-centred care of their chronic illness.
Pritchard Kennedy, A
In this qualitative study, school-age children between 7 and 11 years, living with a bleeding disorder or other chronic illness, defined how they understand their partnership role in family-centred care (FCC), and recommended FCC strategies. This systematic ethnography had three phases: unstructured interviews explored how children understood FCC partnership roles (phase I); document review provided FCC institutional context (phase II); and validation interviews generated FCC partnership recommendations (phase III). This study took place within the area served by a Western Canadian children's hospital. Interviews were held at the hospital or children's home. In phase I, purposive sampling was used to recruit children receiving outpatient care for a bleeding disorder (n = 4) or another chronic illness (n = 4). In phase II, policies and legislation were compared with how children understand their FCC partnership role. In phase III, validation interviews were conducted with children (n = 3) to confirm domains and generate FCC supporting strategies. Data collection and analysis were based on domain analysis and qualitative ethnographic content analysis. Phase I outcomes included seven domains regarding how children understood their role as partners in FCC: my best interests, virtues, talking and listening, being involved, knowing, making decisions and being connected. Phase II outcomes revealed how these domains were represented in institutional contexts. Phase III outcomes confirmed domains and generated key strategies to support children's role as FCC partners through graphic representation of FCC as a treasure map, interactive workshop and online game. School-age children, living with a bleeding disorder or other chronic illness, similarly want to learn how to be FCC partners by developing competence as healthcare team members, identifying their own best interests, learning how to communicate with 'grown-ups', clarifying roles and goals, and guided opportunities for
Vizzi, Esmeralda; Calviño, Eva; González, Rosabel; Pérez-Schael, Irene; Ciarlet, Max; Kang, Gagandeep; Estes, Mary K.; Liprandi, Ferdinando; Ludert, Juan E.
The immune response elicited by the rotavirus nonstructural protein NSP4 and its potential role in protection against rotavirus disease are not well understood. We investigated the serological response to NSP4 and its correlation with disease protection in sera from 110 children suffering acute diarrhea, associated or not with rotavirus, and from 26 children who were recipients of the rhesus rotavirus tetravalent (RRV-TV) vaccine. We used, as antigens in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (...
Bank, Micha I; Lundegaard, Pia Rengtved; Carstensen, Henrik
PURPOSE: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare pediatric and adult disease causing skin rashes, osteolytic bone lesions, tumorous growth in various organs, and in some patients, organ dysfunction. The cause of the disease is obscure, and it is not yet understood why some patients develop...... in biopsies from children with LCH and correlate it with clinical manifestation and outcome in a broad range of organs. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study was performed on 50 specimens from 32 children (19 boys and 13 girls), median age 3 1/4 years, range 5 months to 12 1/3 years with a definite diagnosis of LCH...
Watling, Dawn; Bourne, Victoria J
Strength of lateralization for processing facial emotion becomes more right hemisphere lateralized throughout childhood, but sex differences in this development are not currently understood. This study examines patterns of lateralization for emotion discrimination in 185 6-10-year-olds. Strength of right hemisphere lateralization was stronger in the older children, and right hemisphere dominance emerged at around age 8. Children who were more strongly lateralized performed with greater accuracy on a behavioral test of emotion discrimination and this relationship was significant for boys but not girls, demonstrating that there is a relationship between lateralization and performance (particularly, the discrimination of emotions).
Rosas, Lisa G.; Guendelman, Sylvia; Harley, Kim; Fernald, Lia C. H.; Neufeld, Lynnette; Mejia, Fabiola
The prevalence of childhood obesity is high among young children of Mexican origin in the United States, however, the determinants are poorly understood. We conducted a binational study with a sample from California (CA) and Mexico (MX), to identify and compare the most important factors associated with overweight and obesity among children of Mexican descent. Significantly more children were classified as overweight or obese in CA compared to MX (53.3 vs. 14.9%, P obese mother was significantly associated with being overweight or obese. In MX, male gender, high socioeconomic status and very low food insecurity were associated with being overweight or obese. These data offer hypotheses for how migration may influence the high prevalence of overweight among the Mexican children in California. PMID:20217234
Gosselin, Pierre; Warren, Madeleine; Diotte, Michèle
The authors investigated the extent to which children's understanding of the distinction between real and apparent emotions varied according to the motivation to hide emotions. Children, aged 6-7 and 10-11 years, were read stories designed to elicit either prosocial or self-protective motivated display rules and were asked to predict the facial expressions the protagonists would make to hide felt emotions. Children were found to understand the distinction between real and apparent emotions very well, independently of the type of motivation. Contrary to predictions, boys understood this distinction better than did girls when the motivation to hide positive emotions was prosocial. Children perceived neutralization as the most appropriate strategy to hide felt emotions, followed by masking.
Program developers in India's mass media are turning to the discipline of child development to increase their sensitivity to the special needs and capacities of child audiences. Children are particularly susceptible to having their thoughts, feelings, values, and behavior influenced by media programming. In India, radio is the medium with the greatest opportunity to communicate with children and programming for young people includes educational material, variety programs, quiz shows, drama, and live programs in which children participate. The 1st Children's Film Festival was held in India in 1952 and India participates in the International Center of Films for Children and Young People. Television enjoys popularity among children, illiterates, and the poor, but its potential to create social awareness, change behaviors, and raise the standard of living of the Indian people has not been fully realized. Drama is less able to reach large numbers of children, but offers children the opportunity to participate directly in the portrayal of different characters and emotions. Recently, the tradition of puppetry has been rivived and integrated into India's school curriculum. Finally, India is taking steps to expand the number of books available to children and the Government has established 2 trusts to support the publication of children's literature. Regardless of the form of media, it is important for parents to play a role in ensuring the appropriateness of the programming for the child and processing its content.
Bøttcher, Louise; Dammeyer, Jesper
, preschool and early school age, to track the developmental trajectories of disability through the dialectical processes of cultural, social, individual, and biological processes. It discusses a number of themes that are relevant for the early development and support for children with various types......This book introduces current theories and research on disability, and builds on the premise that disability has to be understood from the dialectical dynamics of biology, psychology, and culture over time. Based on the newest empirical research on children with disabilities, the book overcomes...... the limitations of the medical and social models of disability by arguing for a dialectical biopsychosocial model. The proposed model builds on Vygotsky’s cultural-historical ideas of developmental incongruence, implying that the disability emerges from the misfit between individual abilities and the cultural...
Chang, Hong-Po; Hsieh, Shu-Hui; Tseng, Yu-Chuan; Chou, Tsau-Mau
The association between cranial-base morphology and Class III malocclusion is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the morphologic characteristics of the cranial base in children with Class III malocclusion. Lateral cephalograms from 100 children with Class III malocclusion were compared with those from 100 subjects with normal occlusion. Ten landmarks on the cranial base were identified and digitized. Cephalometric assessment using seven angular and 18 linear measurements was performed by univariate and multivariate analyses. The results revealed that the greatest between-group differences occurred in the posterior cranial-base region. It was concluded that shortening and angular bending of the cranial base, and a diminished angle between the cranial base and mandibular ramus, may lead to Class III malocclusion associated with Class III facial morphology. The association between cranial-base morphology and other types of malocclusion needs clarification. Further study of regional changes in the cranial base, with geometric morphometric analysis, is warranted.
The role of diet quality and nutrient adequacy in the etiology of childhood obesity is poorly understood. The specific aims of these analyses were to assess overall diet quality and nutrient adequacy, and test for association between weight status and diet in children from low socioeconomic status (...
Ozsivadjian, Ann; Knott, Fiona; Magiati, Iliana
Anxiety disorders are common among children and young people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Despite growing knowledge about the prevalence, phenomenology and treatment of anxiety disorders, relatively little is understood about the nature and impact of anxiety in this group and little is known about autism-specific factors that may have a…
Lind, Catherine; Mirchandani, Gita G.; Castrucci, Brian C.; Chavez, Noel; Handler, Arden; Hoelscher, Deanna M.
Background: Childhood obesity is a national epidemic that disproportionately affects Hispanic children. Evidence suggests that increased acculturation among this population adversely affects diet and other healthy lifestyle characteristics, leading to higher rates of overweight and obesity. Healthy lifestyle characteristics must be understood in…
Geva, Esther; Yaghoub Zadeh, Zohreh
The research examined the extent to which (a) Grade 2 English-as-a-second-language (ESL) and English-as-a-first-language (EL1) children resemble each other on word and text reading efficiency and (b) whether individual differences in word and text reading efficiency in the two language groups can be understood in terms of similar underlying…
Pitchford, Nicola; Johnson, Samantha; Scerif, Gaia; Marlow, Neil
Cognitive impairment often follows preterm birth but its early underlying nature is not well understood. We used a novel approach by investigating the development of colour cognition in 54 very preterm children born less than or equal to 30 weeks gestational age without severe neurosensory impairment and 37 age-matched term-born controls, aged 2-5…
Ochoa, Theresa J; Contreras, Carmen A
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is an important diarrheal pathogen of young children. As the diagnosis of EPEC is now based mainly on molecular criteria, there has been an important change in its prevalence. The purpose of this study is to review the current epidemiology of EPEC infection and the new insights into its physiopathology. Recent epidemiological studies indicate that atypical EPEC (aEPEC) is more prevalent than typical EPEC (tEPEC) in both developed and developing countries, and that aEPEC is important in both pediatric endemic diarrhea and diarrhea outbreaks. Therefore, it is important to further characterize the pathogenicity of these emerging strains. The virulence mechanisms and physiopathology of the attaching and effacing lesion (A/E) and the type three secretion-system (T3SS) are complex but well studied. A/E strains use their pool of locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE)-encoded and non-LEE-encoded effector proteins to subvert and modulate cellular and barrier properties of the host. However, the exact mechanisms of diarrhea in EPEC infection are not completely understood. Remarkable progress has been made to identify virulence determinants required to mediate the pathogenesis of EPEC. However, fast, easy, and inexpensive diagnostic methods are needed in order to define optimal treatment and prevention for children in endemic areas.
Haebig, Eileen; Saffran, Jenny R; Ellis Weismer, Susan
Word learning is an important component of language development that influences child outcomes across multiple domains. Despite the importance of word knowledge, word-learning mechanisms are poorly understood in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined underlying mechanisms of word learning, specifically, statistical learning and fast-mapping, in school-aged children with typical and atypical development. Statistical learning was assessed through a word segmentation task and fast-mapping was examined in an object-label association task. We also examined children's ability to map meaning onto newly segmented words in a third task that combined exposure to an artificial language and a fast-mapping task. Children with SLI had poorer performance on the word segmentation and fast-mapping tasks relative to the typically developing and ASD groups, who did not differ from one another. However, when children with SLI were exposed to an artificial language with phonemes used in the subsequent fast-mapping task, they successfully learned more words than in the isolated fast-mapping task. There was some evidence that word segmentation abilities are associated with word learning in school-aged children with typical development and ASD, but not SLI. Follow-up analyses also examined performance in children with ASD who did and did not have a language impairment. Children with ASD with language impairment evidenced intact statistical learning abilities, but subtle weaknesses in fast-mapping abilities. As the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH) predicts, children with SLI have impairments in statistical learning. However, children with SLI also have impairments in fast-mapping. Nonetheless, they are able to take advantage of additional phonological exposure to boost subsequent word-learning performance. In contrast to the PDH, children with ASD appear to have intact statistical learning, regardless of
Knighting, K; Rowa-Dewar, N; Malcolm, C; Kearney, N; Gibson, F
Few studies have explored young children's understanding of cancer and health-related behaviours yet this is essential to develop health promotion initiatives that build on young children's current knowledge levels and awareness. An exploratory descriptive design using the 'draw and write' technique was used to investigate children's views of cancer and health behaviours. The sample included 195 children aged eight to 11 years from five schools in deprived, affluent and rural locations in Scotland. When asked about cancer children demonstrated a good level of awareness by responding with text and drawings about the what they understood cancer to be; types of cancer; causes of cancer; what happens to people who have cancer; their personal experience of cancer and the emotions they associated with cancer. Older children, and children attending affluent schools, have more defined ideas about the causes of cancer and awareness of broader issues such as the risk of passive smoking or the potential impact on the family. Factors such as alcohol and illegal drugs were only reported by children attending schools in deprived locations. Children demonstrated considerable knowledge about healthy and unhealthy lifestyle behaviours; however, it is not clear whether this knowledge translates into their behaviours or the choices offered within their home environment. Children view cancer in a negative way from an early age, even without personal experience. There is a need to demystify cancer in terms of its causes, how to recognize it, how it is treated and to publicize improved survival rates. There is a need for targeted and developmentally appropriate approaches to be taken to health education in schools, with an awareness of the influence of the media on children's information. Strategies should take into consideration the socio-economic and cultural contexts of children's lives which influence their choices and behaviours. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Bowyer-Crane, Claudine; Fricke, Silke; Schaefer, Blanca; Lervåg, Arne; Hulme, Charles
Many children learning English as an additional language (EAL) show reading comprehension difficulties despite adequate decoding. However, the relationship between early language and reading comprehension in this group is not fully understood. The language and literacy skills of 80 children learning English from diverse language backgrounds and 80 monolingual English-speaking peers with language weaknesses were assessed at school entry (mean age = 4 years, 7 months) and after 2 years of schooling in the UK (mean age = 6 years, 3 months). The EAL group showed weaker language skills and stronger word reading than the monolingual group but no difference in reading comprehension. Individual differences in reading comprehension were predicted by variations in decoding and language comprehension in both groups to a similar degree.
Montgomery, Kathryn C; Chester, Jeff; Milosevic, Tijana
This article focuses on the privacy implications of advertising on social media, mobile apps, and games directed at children. Academic research on children's privacy has primarily focused on the safety risks involved in sharing personal information on the Internet, leaving market forces (such as commercial data collection) as a less discussed aspect of children's privacy. Yet, children's privacy in the digital era cannot be fully understood without examining marketing practices, especially in the context of "big data." As children increasingly consume content on an ever-expanding variety of digital devices, media and advertising industries are creating new ways to track their behaviors and target them with personalized content and marketing messages based on individual profiles. The advent of the so-called Internet of Things, with its ubiquitous sensors, is expanding these data collection and profiling practices. These trends raise serious concerns about digital dossiers that could follow young people into adulthood, affecting their access to education, employment, health care, and financial services. Although US privacy law provides some safeguards for children younger than 13 years old online, adolescents are afforded no such protections. Moreover, scholarship on children and privacy continues to lag behind the changes taking place in global media, advertising, and technology. This article proposes collaboration among researchers from a range of fields that will enable cross-disciplinary studies addressing not only the developmental issues related to different age groups but also the design of digital media platforms and the strategies used to influence young people. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Rrajindrajith, S; Devanarayana, N M; Rajapakshe, N N; Benninga, M A
The aetiology of functional constipation (FC) in children is not been fully understood.Exposure to physical, emotional and sexual abuse are known to predispose children to develop FC. No paediatric study has evaluated traumatic life events other than abuse as a potential predisposing factor for FC in children. We aimed to assess the association between traumatic life events and development of FC in children. We conducted a cross sectional, school based study.Children aged 13-18 years were selected from four semi-urban schools in the Gampaha district, Sri Lanka. A validated, self-administered questionnaires were used for collect data on functional gastrointestinal disease and traumatic life events. FC was defined using the Rome III criteria. A total of1792 children were included in the analysis [males 975 (54.4%), mean age 14.4 years, SD 1.3 yearsyears]. Out of them, 138(7.7%) had FC. Prevalence of FC was significantly higher in those exposed to traumatic life events compared to controls (53.6% vs.32.9%,p children to develop FC. Parental substance abuse (12.8% vs. 7.4%), domestic violence (14.8 vs. 7.5%) were not associated with FC (p > 0.05). FC is associated with childhoodtraumatic experiences. This provides further insight intohow traumatic childhood events are associated withdevelopment and perpetuation of FC in children.
Bahrami Mahneh, Sedigheh; Movahedi, Masoud; Aryan, Zahra; Bahar, Mohammad Ali; Rezaei, Arezou; Sadr, Maryam; Rezaei, Nima
The role of IL-33, a member of the IL-1 family, in airway hyperresponsiveness and asthma has still to be fully understood. This study is aimed at investigating serum IL-33 in children with asthma and its association with asthma severity. This age- and sex-matched case-control study comprised 61 children with asthma and 63 healthy controls. The mean age of the participants was 9.21 years (range: 6-14). Serum IL-33 was measured using ELISA and was compared between children with asthma and controls. In addition, the association of serum IL-33 with asthma severity was investigated. The level of serum IL-33 was significantly higher in children with asthma than in controls (15.17 ± 32.3 vs. 0.61 ± 2.16 pg/ml; p = 0.028). It was significantly increased proportionately to asthma severity, namely 9.92 ± 30.26 pg/ml in children with mild asthma, 13.68 ± 29.27 pg/ml in children with moderate asthma and 31.92 ± 41.45 pg/ml in children with severe asthma (p = 0.026). Serum IL-33 is increased in children with asthma and is associated with disease severity. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Katsos, Napoleon; Roqueta, Clara Andrés; Estevan, Rosa Ana Clemente; Cummins, Chris
Specific Language Impairment (SLI) is understood to be a disorder that predominantly affects phonology, morphosyntax and/or lexical semantics. There is little conclusive evidence on whether children with SLI are challenged with regard to Gricean pragmatic maxims and on whether children with SLI are competent with the logical meaning of quantifying expressions. We use the comprehension of statements quantified with 'all', 'none', 'some', 'some…not', 'most' and 'not all' as a paradigm to study whether Spanish-speaking children with SLI are competent with the pragmatic maxim of informativeness, as well as with the logical meaning of these expressions. Children with SLI performed more poorly than a group of age-matched typically-developing peers, and both groups performed more poorly with pragmatics than with logical meaning. Moreover, children with SLI were disproportionately challenged by pragmatic meaning compared to their age-matched peers. However, the performance of children with SLI was comparable to that of a group of younger language-matched typically-developing children. The findings document that children with SLI do face difficulties with employing the maxim of informativeness, as well as with understanding the logical meaning of quantifiers, but also that these difficulties are in keeping with their overall language difficulties rather than exceeding them. The implications of these findings for SLI, linguistic theory, and clinical practice are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rydström, Lise-Lott; Wiklander, Maria; Ygge, Britt-Marie; Navér, Lars; Eriksson, Lars E
This aim of this study was to describe how legal guardians assessed health-related quality of life and HIV-related stigma in children with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) compared to the children's own ratings. A cross-sectional nationwide study was performed to compare how 37 children aged from eight to 16 years of age with perinatal HIV, and their legal guardians, assessed the children's health-related quality of life and HIV-related stigma. Data were collected using the 37-item DISABKIDS Chronic Generic Module and a short eight-item version of the HIV stigma scale. Intraclass correlations indicated concordance between the legal guardians' ratings and the children's own ratings of the child's health-related quality of life and HIV-related stigma. There were no statistically significant differences between the ratings of the two groups and gender did not have any impact on the results. Both groups indicated that the children had concerns about being open about their HIV status. The results of this study indicated that legal guardians understood how their children perceived their health-related quality of life and HIV-related stigma. The results also indicated the need for interventions to support both the children and legal guardians when it came to disclosing the child's HIV status. ©2015 The Authors. Acta Paediatrica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation Acta Paediatrica.
Berenguer, Carmen; Miranda, Ana; Colomer, Carla; Baixauli, Inmaculada; Roselló, Belén
Social difficulties are a key aspect of autism, but the intervening factors are still poorly understood. This study had two objectives: to compare the profile of ToM skills, executive functioning (EF), and pragmatic competence (PC) of children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and children with typical development (TD), and analyze their mediator role in social functioning. The participants were 52 children with HFA and 37 children with TD matched on age, intelligence quotient, and expressive vocabulary. Significant differences were found on measures of ToM, both explicit and applied, EF, and PC between children with HFA and TD. Multiple mediation analysis revealed that applied ToM skills and PC mediated the relations between autism symptoms and social functioning. Implications for social cognitive interventions to address these findings are discussed.
Ortqvist, M.; Roos, E. M.; Brostrom, E. W.
of separate subscale scores as a profile. However, its applicability in children has not been established. In this study, we examined how well the KOOS could be understood in a cohort of children with knee injury, with a view to preparing a pediatric version (KOOS-Child). Material and methods A trained...... researcher conducted cognitive interviews with 34 Swedish children who had symptomatic knee injuries (either primary or repeated). They were 10-16 years of age, and were selected to allow for equal group representation of age and sex. All the interviews were recorded. 4 researchers analyzed the data...... and modified the original KOOS questionnaire. Results Many children (n = 14) had difficulty in tracking items based on the time frame and an equivalent number of children had trouble in understanding several terms. Mapping errors resulted from misinterpretation of items and from design issues related...
Tantoco, F G
Almost 2 million of Manila's 2.5 million children younger than 15 years old live on or below the poverty line. 75,000 of these children live on the streets after having run away from home or being abandoned. They beg, steal, scavenge for food, and sell newspapers, cigarettes, and leis. About 20,000 of the street children prostitute themselves. It is these latter children and adolescents who are at particular risk of HIV infection. Studies in the Philippines indicate that 91% of reported HIV infections are among individuals aged 15-44, the male/female infection ratio is one to one, the transmission rate is 45%, and the most common mode of transmission is through heterosexual intercourse. The high incidence of child sexual abuse and child prostitution in the Philippines would suggest that there are a significant number of children and adolescents under age 15 who are infected with HIV. Caritas Manila has developed an information, education, and communication program for HIV/AIDS prevention focusing upon individuals who have direct influence upon and are in direct contact with people: clergy, religious and civic associations, educators, and social and health workers. Caritas has also to a limited extent reached out directly to populations at risk, while collaborating with human rights advocacy groups and networking with other children-oriented agencies in the interest of providing resources to street children. Efforts must be made to protect the rights of children and provide them with an environment conducive to their growth and development. The author notes how off-duty policemen in Manila help real estate developers forcibly eject the poor from their shelters to clear the way for the construction of new infrastructure without concern for the legal processes and requirements in the humane and peaceful relocation of the homeless poor. Many women and children are hurt and killed in the process. It has also been reported that off-duty policemen in Rio de Janeiro
Full Text Available The author briefly interprets the research – results, referring to the phenomenon of children of alcoholics, especially the psychological and psychopathological characteristics of children of alcoholics in adolescence and young adulthood. The author presents a screening study of adolescents. The sample contains 200 high school students at age 18. The aim of the survey was to discover the relationship between alcohol consumption of parents, PTSD - related psychopathological symptoms and reported life quality of their children. The study confirmed the hypothesis about a substantial correlation between high alcohol consumption of parents, higher psychopathological symptom - expression and lower reported life quality score of their children. Higher PTSD-related symptomatology in children of alcoholics is probably resulted by home violence, which is very often present in family of alcoholics. The article also evaluated the results regarding suicide ideation of children of alcoholics, which is definitely more frequent and more intense than in their peers living in non alcohol – dependent families.
... Read MoreDepression in Children and TeensRead MoreBMI Calculator Fever in Infants and ChildrenBecause young children are not ... Facial Swelling Feeding Problems in Infants and Children Fever Fever in Infants and Children Foot Problems Genital ...
MORANTE BONET, MIRIAM; Costa Ferrer, María; Rodríguez Calatayud, María Nuria
Are children under 2 years old exposed to apps? Which ones? How often? What kind of apps would be best suited for small children based on their physical and cognitive development, the evolution of their play patterns and their ability to interact with mobile devices? How to design apps as appropriate as possible for children under 2 years old? These are some of the main questions that are answered through the research presented in this publication. An investigation that demonstra...
Victor R. Fuchs
Data from the 1960, 1970, and 1980 Censuses of Population and the Current Population Surveys of 1980 and 1985 are used to describe and analyze the economic position of children with special emphasis on cross-section differences and variation over time in the incidence of poverty. Between 1959 and 1979 the income available to children tended to follow the same pattern as adult income, but between 1979 and 1984 the trends for children were very unfavorable. Poverty rose, average income fell, an...
Mihić Biljana D.
Full Text Available In this paper the author is analysing definitions and basic notions related to domestic violence against children, as one of the most serious forms of violence. The special chapter deals with effects of violence against children and causes of domestic violence against them. Also, the author is analysing different forms of social reaction and considering the problem of legal regulation of mandatory reporting domestic violence against children.
Sita Jayalakshmi; Sudhindra Vooturi; Swapan Gupta; Manas Panigrahi
Approximately 60% of all patients with epilepsy suffer from focal epilepsy syndromes. In approximately 15% of these patients, the seizures are not adequately controlled with anticonvulsive drugs, and such patients are potential candidates for surgical treatment and majority are children. Epilepsy surgery in children, who have been carefully chosen, can result in either seizure freedom or a marked (>90%) reduction in seizures in approximately two-third of children with intractable seizures. In...
Lask, B; Britten, C; Kroll, L; Magagna, J; Tranter, M
Four children are described with a potentially life threatening condition manifested by profound and pervasive refusal to eat, drink, walk, talk, or care for themselves in any way over a period of several months. The multiplicity and severity of the symptoms in these children do not fit comfortably into any existing diagnostic category. Long term and highly skilled nursing and psychiatric care is required to help these children to recover. The possible causes of this syndrome are discussed.
Mihić Biljana D.
In this paper the author is analysing definitions and basic notions related to domestic violence against children, as one of the most serious forms of violence. The special chapter deals with effects of violence against children and causes of domestic violence against them. Also, the author is analysing different forms of social reaction and considering the problem of legal regulation of mandatory reporting domestic violence against children.
Li-Chun Wang; Hung-Chang Lee; Chun-Yan Yeung; Wai-Tao Chan; Chuen-Bin Jiang
Gastrointestinal polyps are common in children. The purpose of this study was to review the clinical manifestations, diagnostic procedures, endoscopic findings, management, pathology, and recurrence of gastrointestinal polyps in children at Mackay Memorial Hospital. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 50 children with a diagnosis of gastrointestinal polyps managed at Mackay Memorial Hospital between January 1984 and April 2007. Demographic data; clinical features; polyp size...
Van Cleve, William; Kernic, Mary A.; Ellenbogen, Richard G.; Wang, Jin; Zatzick, Douglas F.; Bell, Michael J.; Wainwright, Mark S.; Groner, Jonathan I.; Mink, Richard B.; Giza, Christopher C.; Boyle, Linda Ng; Mitchell, Pamela H.; Rivara, Frederick P.; Vavilala, Monica S.
BACKGROUND Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant cause of mortality and disability in children. Intracranial pressure monitoring (ICPM) and craniotomy/craniectomy (CRANI) may affect outcomes. Sources of variability in the use of these interventions remain incompletely understood. OBJECTIVE To analyze sources of variability in the use of ICPM and CRANI. METHODS Retrospective cross-sectional study of patients with moderate/severe pediatric TBI with the use of data submitted to the American College of Surgeons National Trauma Databank. RESULTS We analyzed data from 7140 children at 156 US hospitals during 7 continuous years. Of the children, 27.4% had ICPM, whereas 11.7% had a CRANI. Infants had lower rates of ICPM and CRANI than older children. A lower rate of ICPM was observed among children hospitalized at combined pediatric/adult trauma centers than among children treated at adult-only trauma centers (relative risk = 0.80; 95% confidence interval 0.66-0.97). For ICPM and CRANI, 18.5% and 11.6%, respectively, of residual model variance was explained by between-hospital variation in care delivery, but almost no correlation was observed between within-hospital tendency toward performing these procedures. CONCLUSION Infants received less ICPM than older children, and children hospitalized at pediatric trauma centers received less ICPM than children at adult-only trauma centers. In addition, significant between-hospital variability existed in the delivery of ICPM and CRANI to children with moderate-severe TBI. PMID:23863766
Strachan, J G
The records of 79 children whose firesetting led to referral to a Children's Hearing (the Scottish equivalent of a juvenile court) were examined. All but one of the children were boys. They had very disturbed backgrounds, with much family disruption and absent or unemployed fathers. Firesetting was predominantly a group activity and the damage caused was extensive. Although the children frequently engaged in other offences, in over 90 per cent there was no recurrence of reported firesetting within the limited period of possible follow-up.
Doletskiĭ, S Ia; korol'kova, I A; Shanidze, V V
Anatomo-topographic features of the kidneys in children mostly condition a great incidence of its damage, compared with adults. One hundred and fifty children with renal injuries were observed, 147 of them with closed injuries and 3 -- with open ones. In 10 cases a trauma of anomalously developed kidneys was noted. 124 children were treated conservatively, 26 children were operated upon, in 16 of them organ-preserving operations were performed, in 10 children -- nephrectomay. Late results were followed up in 51 children in terms from 6 months to 10 years (40 patients were treated conservatively and 11 -- were operated upon). As a result of the conducted control investigation all patients were subdivided into three groups: practically healthy children (25), children with roentgenoradiological changes on the part of the injured kidney but without signs of clinico-laboratory symptomatics (11) children with posttraumatic complications (15). An analysis of late results enabled to revise indications to surgery in an acute period of trauma in behalf of their extension.
Jat, Kana Ram
Respiratory disorders are responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality in children. Spirometry is a useful investigation for diagnosing and monitoring a variety of paediatric respiratory diseases, but it is underused by primary care physicians and paediatricians treating children with respiratory disease. We now have a better understanding of respiratory physiology in children, and newer computerised spirometry equipment is available with updated regional reference values for the paediatric age group. This review evaluates the current literature for indications, test procedures, quality assessment, and interpretation of spirometry results in children. Spirometry may be useful for asthma, cystic fibrosis, congenital or acquired airway malformations and many other respiratory diseases in children. The technique for performing spirometry in children is crucial and is discussed in detail. Most children, including preschool children, can perform acceptable spirometry. Steps for interpreting spirometry results include identification of common errors during the test by applying acceptability and repeatability criteria and then comparing test parameters with reference standards. Spirometry results depict only the pattern of ventilation, which may be normal, obstructive, restrictive, or mixed. The diagnosis should be based on both clinical features and spirometry results. There is a need to encourage primary care physicians and paediatricians treating respiratory diseases in children to use spirometry after adequate training.
Mims, James W; Veling, Maria C
Children with chronic or recurrent upper respiratory inflammatory disease (rhinitis) should be considered for inhalant allergies. Risk factors for inhalant allergies in children include a first-degree relative with allergies, food allergy in infancy, and atopic dermatitis. Although inhalant allergies are rare in infancy, inhalant allergies are common in older children and impair quality of life and productivity. Differentiating between viral and allergic rhinitis can be challenging in children, but the child's age, history, and risk factors can provide helpful information. Allergic rhinitis is a risk factor for asthma, and if one is present, medical consideration of the other is warranted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Pediatric computed tomography (CT) ... are the limitations of Children's CT? What is Children's CT? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a ...
... hospital or in the neighborhood. Learn more about: Feeding Tips Children's Special Needs Learn more about your child and ... Cardiac Catheterizations Heart Transplants Preparing Children for Surgery - Feeding Tips - Children's Special Needs Physical Activity Recommendations for Heart Health • ...
Full Text Available ... risks? What are the limitations of Children's CT? What is Children's CT? Computed tomography, more commonly known ... newborns, infants and older children. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT ...
... Protection Agency Search Search America's Children and the Environment (ACE) Contact Us Share ACE presents key information ... of updates to ACE . America's Children and the Environment (ACE) America's Children and the Environment (ACE) is ...
Wegener, Signy; Wang, Hua-Chen; de Lissa, Peter; Robidoux, Serje; Nation, Kate; Castles, Anne
There is an established association between children's oral vocabulary and their word reading but its basis is not well understood. Here, we present evidence from eye movements for a novel mechanism underlying this association. Two groups of 18 Grade 4 children received oral vocabulary training on one set of 16 novel words (e.g., 'nesh', 'coib'), but no training on another set. The words were assigned spellings that were either predictable from phonology (e.g., nesh) or unpredictable (e.g., koyb). These were subsequently shown in print, embedded in sentences. Reading times were shorter for orally familiar than unfamiliar items, and for words with predictable than unpredictable spellings but, importantly, there was an interaction between the two: children demonstrated a larger benefit of oral familiarity for predictable than for unpredictable items. These findings indicate that children form initial orthographic expectations about spoken words before first seeing them in print. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: https://youtu.be/jvpJwpKMM3E. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Abnormal body weight poses a risk of the development of various health disorders, having a negative impact on the quality and length of life. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among European children is estimated to be 10–20%. In Poland this figure reaches 18%. A war on the epidemic obesity waged from the youngest age of the child is a strategy that brings long-term health benefits for the entire population. Apart from the family, the school is the second important educational environment responsible for conducting health education activities among children and teenagers. School health education programs should be implementing by teachers in collaboration with other school staff, parents and the broadly understood local community. Comprehensive health education aiming at combating obesity should cover the entire population of school children and teenagers, with special attention given to high risk groups. The school, undertaking health education activities aimed at preventing abnormal body weight, should implement nationwide programs for the prevention of obesity, and should also pursue its own health education program based on its curriculum. In most cases, development of obesity at children results from improper eating habits and insufficient physical activity, and therefore school health education programs aimed at the prevention of overweight and obesity should focus on these two most important modifiable risk factors of abnormal body weight.
Nabi, Zaheer; Talukdar, Rupjyoti; Reddy, D Nageshwar
The incidence of acute pancreatitis in children has increased over the last few decades. The development of pancreatic fluid collection is not uncommon after severe acute pancreatitis, although its natural course in children and adolescents is poorly understood. Asymptomatic fluid collections can be safely observed without any intervention. However, the presence of clinically significant symptoms warrants the drainage of these fluid collections. Endoscopic management of pancreatic fluid collection is safe and effective in adults. The use of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided procedure has improved the efficacy and safety of drainage of pancreatic fluid collections, which have not been well studied in pediatric populations, barring a scant volume of small case series. Excellent results of EUS-guided drainage in adult patients also need to be verified in children and adolescents. Endoprostheses used to drain pancreatic fluid collections include plastic and metal stents. Metal stents have wider lumens and become clogged less often than plastic stents. Fully covered metal stents specifically designed for pancreatic fluid collection are available, and initial studies have shown encouraging results in adult patients. The future of endoscopic management of pancreatic fluid collection in children appears promising. Prospective studies with larger sample sizes are required to establish their definitive role in the pediatric age group.
Kurdziel, Laura; Duclos, Kasey; Spencer, Rebecca M C
Despite the fact that midday naps are characteristic of early childhood, very little is understood about the structure and function of these sleep bouts. Given that sleep benefits memory in young adults, it is possible that naps serve a similar function for young children. However, children transition from biphasic to monophasic sleep patterns in early childhood, eliminating the nap from their daily sleep schedule. As such, naps may contain mostly light sleep stages and serve little function for learning and memory during this transitional age. Lacking scientific understanding of the function of naps in early childhood, policy makers may eliminate preschool classroom nap opportunities due to increasing curriculum demands. Here we show evidence that classroom naps support learning in preschool children by enhancing memories acquired earlier in the day compared with equivalent intervals spent awake. This nap benefit is greatest for children who nap habitually, regardless of age. Performance losses when nap-deprived are not recovered during subsequent overnight sleep. Physiological recordings of naps support a role of sleep spindles in memory performance. These results suggest that distributed sleep is critical in early learning; when short-term memory stores are limited, memory consolidation must take place frequently.
van den Bogaerde, B.; Baker, A.E.; Gertz, G.; Boudreault, P.
The hearing children of Deaf parents grow up in two cultures with two languages. They are similar to other bilingual, bicultural children in many ways but are special also. They can be in conflict between two worlds and often carry an extra burden of responsibility in functioning as a bridge between
In 1999, a coalition of child advocacy groups, the Canadian Foundation for Children, Youth, and the Law, challenged Section 43 of Canada's criminal code, which permits "reasonable force" in disciplining children. The heavily debated issue turns on judges' varied interpretations. A court decision is expected by year's end. (MLH)
New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque. American Indian Law Center.
The Model Children's Code was developed to provide a legally correct model code that American Indian tribes can use to enact children's codes that fulfill their legal, cultural and economic needs. Code sections cover the court system, jurisdiction, juvenile offender procedures, minor-in-need-of-care, and termination. Almost every Code section is…
sent in persistent allergic rhinitis will eventually occur in the mucous mem- branes of the ostiomeatal units in the middle meati leading ultimately to allergic inflammation of the sinuses. The other important factor is that sinusi- tis may also occur as a result of viral infections in these allergic children as it does in normal children.
Sathiyasekaran, Malathi; Biradar, Vishnu; Ramaswamy, Ganesh; Srinivas, S; Ashish, B; Sumathi, B; Nirmala, D; Geetha, M
Pancreatic disease in children has a wide clinical spectrum and may present as Acute pancreatitis (AP), Acute recurrent pancreatitis (ARP), Chronic pancreatitis (CP) and Pancreatic disease without pancreatitis. This article highlights the etiopathogenesis and management of pancreatitis in children along with clinical data from five tertiary care hospitals in south India [Chennai (3), Cochin and Pune].
Full Text Available ... also very helpful. Often, a monitor with children's programming and/or children’s DVDs are available in the ... The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media General Nuclear Medicine Children's (Pediatric) CT ( ...
... Helping Children in Rural Areas Children's Mental Health Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Mental health in childhood means reaching developmental and emotional milestones, and learning healthy social skills and how to cope when ...
Colorado Children's Campaign, 2010
The "Children's Budget 2010" is intended to be a resource guide for policymakers and advocates who are interested in better understanding how Colorado funds children's programs and services. It attempts to clarify often confusing budget information and describe where the state's investment trends are and where those trends will lead the…
McFadden, Emily Jean
This guide on counseling abused children was written to help counselors meet the needs of children and adolescents and to provide ways of working with the child's family. Chapter 1 presents an overview of child maltreatment by identifying types of maltreatment (neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse and exploitation, and emotional abuse or neglect)…
in up to one third of children at some stage during their development.1 Up to 25% of children who are referred ... a daily soft bowel action, which should be maintained for at least three months prior to gradual withdrawal while .... intervention as being effective in treatment.10. So what are the cornerstones of treatment?
Sheldon, George H.
This paper discusses some of the major concerns associated with the instructional process of our homeless children. The reader is provided with a brief overview of the prevalence of this population. According to the National Center on Family Homelessness the number of school children who are homeless is growing rapidly with 1.4 to 1.5 million…
Maslova, T. F.; Smagina, M. V.
The causes of punishment including violence are perceived, first and foremost, as in the nature of family relations. The authors' survey focused on children's interaction with their parents, and the risk of violence is clearly present. Russian sociological research on violence against children within families shows a lack of consensus on what…
Kyle, Sarah, Ed.
The federal government makes more than 200 distinct investments in children. These include traditional children's initiatives like education and child abuse and neglect prevention. They also include other investments that improve the lives of kids, like Medicaid and the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (formerly Food Stamps). Following a…
Various agencies are attempting to meet the needs of latchkey children through programs run by parent alliances, community organizations, social service agencies, youth groups, schools, businesses, churches, and private day care centers. Studies of latchkey children during the past 15 years have concentrated on measuring the effects of self-care…
Literature that addresses young children's learning in galleries and museums typically concentrates on what is already offered and discusses what has proven to be effective, or not, in accommodating their needs. This article offers insight into how objects can be explored with early years children at school, to create greater understanding of…
Hammond, Janice M.
An increasing number of children live in single-parent homes due to the rise in the divorce rate. Teachers must become aware of teaching and counseling approaches which will offset the negative effects of divorce on children and minimize the period of adjustment. (JN)
Kittleson, Mark J.
The traumatic effect of divorce on young children is discussed, noting the typical changes in behavior evidenced by children in such a situation. Suggestions are made on ways parents can cope with the child's emotional reactions and alleviate the stress that is natural when a marriage dissolves. (JD)
Although bipolar disorder historically was thought to only occur rarely in children and adolescents, there has been a significant increase in children and adolescents who are receiving this diagnosis more recently (Carlson, 2005). Nonetheless, the applicability of the current bipolar disorder diagnostic criteria for children, particularly preschool children, remains unclear, even though much work has been focused on this area. As a result, more work needs to be done to further the understanding of bipolar symptoms in children. It is hoped that this paper can assist psychologists and other health service providers in gleaning a snapshot of the literature in this area so that they can gain an understanding of the diagnostic criteria and other behaviors that may be relevant and be informed about potential approaches for assessment and treatment with children who meet bipolar disorder criteria. First, the history of bipolar symptoms and current diagnostic criteria will be discussed. Next, assessment strategies that may prove helpful for identifying bipolar disorder will be discussed. Then, treatments that may have relevance to children and their families will be discussed. Finally, conclusions regarding work with children who may have a bipolar disorder diagnosis will be offered. PMID:24800202
Because ready role models for today's children are media-created superheroes and celebrities of television and film, children need real-life role models who guide them into realistic personal and social pathways. As principal adult contacts, teachers can be such role models. Specific strategies for encouraging teachers in this role are presented.…
Siegal, Michael; Butterworth, George; Newcombe, Peter A.
In this investigation, we examined children's knowledge of cosmology in relation to the shape of the earth and the day-night cycle. Using explicit questioning involving a choice of alternative answers and 3D models, we carried out a comparison of children aged 4-9 years living in Australia and England. Though Australia and England have a close…
Edelman, Marian Wright
For imperative moral and practical reasons, our commitment to children must transcend political rhetoric and produce a continuum of programs beginning before birth and sustained until adulthood. Children need defenses against preventable infant mortality, childhood diseases, homelessness, unsafe childcare, and early sex and parenthood. Families…
Broström professor m.so., Stig
In (post) modern society children are seen as active subjects and participants who have a legitimate basis in the United Nations Convention of the Rights of the Child. As a consequence of this, children are able to play an active role in the 10 planning of/and participation in both education...
Almarsdóttir, Anna B.; Zimmer, Catherine
of the path analytic model analyzed. Children, aged 7 and 10 years, and their primary caregivers were interviewed during 1992 and 1993. Recruiting was done at summer camps in Chapel Hill, North Carolina and environs, resulting in a convenience sample of 101 children, all white and middle class. Ordinary least...
Graham, Louise B.; Lindsey, Allison
A review of Animal-Assisted Therapy and related terms such as "Animal-Assisted Activities" is presented as an introduction to the exploration of additional equine applications with children. Animal-Assisted Therapy has been studied, but Animal-Assisted Activities with children facing normal developmental struggles has not received much…
... Care > Adopted Children & Discipline Family Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Adopted Children & Discipline Page Content Article Body Some parents are hesitant to discipline the child they have adopted. They may set fewer limits than they would for a birth child. They ...
Verhagen, L.M.; Groot, R. de
Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease of expanding geographical range and increasing incidence. The vast majority of dengue cases are children less than 15 years of age. Dengue causes a spectrum of illness from mild fever to severe disease with plasma leakage and shock. Infants and children with
Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of poliomyelitis in children. The history of this disease and the current state of morbidity in Ukraine are considered. The features of the clinical pattern in children are described. Diagnostic criteria and treatment methods are presented.
Dudley, John; Karnes, Frances A.
Divorce is often a contentious process with multiple issues to decide, especially in cases in which there are children involved. Divorce raises several legal issues when considering the well-being of children, including those who are gifted. In this article, the authors discuss these issues which include school choice, child support, and custody…
The article discusses questions of classification, anatomic and physiological peculiarities and pathogenetic aspects of chronic constipations forming in children. The problems of diagnostics of chronic constipation and its treatment with spasmolytics are analyzed.Key words: children, chronic constipation, diagnostics, treatment.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (2): 173–179)
Pijnenburg, Mariëlle W; Baraldi, Eugenio; Brand, Paul L P; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Eber, Ernst; Frischer, Thomas; Hedlin, Gunilla; Kulkarni, Neeta; Lex, Christiane; Mäkelä, Mika J; Mantzouranis, Eva; Moeller, Alexander; Pavord, Ian; Piacentini, Giorgio; Price, David; Rottier, Bart L; Saglani, Sejal; Sly, Peter D; Szefler, Stanley J; Tonia, Thomy; Turner, Steve; Wooler, Edwina; Lødrup Carlsen, Karin C
The goal of asthma treatment is to obtain clinical control and reduce future risks to the patient. To reach this goal in children with asthma, ongoing monitoring is essential. While all components of asthma, such as symptoms, lung function, bronchial hyperresponsiveness and inflammation, may exist in various combinations in different individuals, to date there is limited evidence on how to integrate these for optimal monitoring of children with asthma. The aims of this ERS Task Force were to describe the current practise and give an overview of the best available evidence on how to monitor children with asthma. 22 clinical and research experts reviewed the literature. A modified Delphi method and four Task Force meetings were used to reach a consensus. This statement summarises the literature on monitoring children with asthma. Available tools for monitoring children with asthma, such as clinical tools, lung function, bronchial responsiveness and inflammatory markers, are described as are the ways in which they may be used in children with asthma. Management-related issues, comorbidities and environmental factors are summarised. Despite considerable interest in monitoring asthma in children, for many aspects of monitoring asthma in children there is a substantial lack of evidence. Copyright ©ERS 2015.
Full Text Available Although bipolar disorder historically was thought to only occur rarely in children and adolescents, there has been a significant increase in children and adolescents who are receiving this diagnosis more recently (Carlson, 2005. Nonetheless, the applicability of the current bipolar disorder diagnostic criteria for children, particularly preschool children, remains unclear, even though much work has been focused on this area. As a result, more work needs to be done to further the understanding of bipolar symptoms in children. It is hoped that this paper can assist psychologists and other health service providers in gleaning a snapshot of the literature in this area so that they can gain an understanding of the diagnostic criteria and other behaviors that may be relevant and be informed about potential approaches for assessment and treatment with children who meet bipolar disorder criteria. First, the history of bipolar symptoms and current diagnostic criteria will be discussed. Next, assessment strategies that may prove helpful for identifying bipolar disorder will be discussed. Then, treatments that may have relevance to children and their families will be discussed. Finally, conclusions regarding work with children who may have a bipolar disorder diagnosis will be offered.
I.M. van der Sluis (Inge)
textabstractThe thesis can be divided in two main parts. In the first part (Chapter 2 to 5) bone mineral density, bone metabolism and body composition in healthy children and young adults have been evaluated, while in the second part (Chapter 6 to 10) these issues were studied in children
Bray, Jemma; Brewer, Neil; Cameron, Kate; Nixon, Reginald D V
How well children remember negative events is not fully understood. Previous research has failed to simultaneously test memory and perceptions of memory for both negative and positive events. Children (n = 38, 7-17 years) recruited from a hospital following accidental injury were tested for their memory of an injury-producing accident (negative event) and a positive event (unexpectedly receiving a $50 gift voucher). Objective accuracy of memory, memory quality characteristics (e.g., how coherently the event was recalled), children's judgments of their memory (meta-cognitive), and posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms were assessed 2 months post-injury. Children's memories for their experiences were verified using witness/parent reports. Memory quality characteristics of children's free recollection were coded with a previously used standardized system. Overall, children showed high levels of accuracy for both events, with little degradation over time. High PTS children showed little evidence of deficits in coherence or organization in their narratives relative to low PTS children. Although in some instances high PTS children judged their memory quality to be poor compared to low PTS children, this depended on how this was assessed (e.g., self-report questionnaire vs. coded narratives). In terms of limitations, it is unclear whether the findings will generalize for memories of repeated events. Witness verification of the accident details itself could be prone to error. In conclusion, the findings are broadly supportive of the proposal made by theorists who argue that trauma memories are recalled no less accurately than other distinctive memories. The role of meta-cognitive elements of children's memory and reporting in PTS is less clear. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Chi, Donald L.; Momany, Elizabeth T.; Neff, John; Jones, Michael P.; Warren, John J.; Slayton, Rebecca L.; Weber-Gasparoni, Karin; Damiano, Peter C.
Background Although Medicaid-enrolled children with a chronic condition (CC) may be less likely to use dental care because of factors related to their CC, dental utilization for this population is poorly understood. Objective To assess the relationship between CC status and CC severity, respectively, on dental utilization for Iowa Medicaid-enrolled children. Research Design Retrospective cohort study of Iowa Medicaid data (January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2006). Subjects Medicaid-enrolled children aged 3 to 14 (N = 71,115) years. Measures The 3M Corporation Clinical Risk Grouping methods were used to assess CC status (no/yes) and CC severity (episodic/life-long/malignancy/complex). The outcome variable was any dental utilization in 2006. Secondary outcomes included use of diagnostic, preventive, routine restorative, or complex restorative dental care. Results After adjusting for model covariates, Iowa Medicaid-enrolled children with a CC were significantly more likely to use each type of dental care except routine restorative care (P = 0.86) than those without a CC, although the differences in the odds were small (4%–6%). Compared with Medicaid-enrolled children with an episodic CC, children with a life-long CC were less likely to use routine restorative care (P children with a malignancy were more likely to use complex restorative care (P children with a complex CC were less likely to use each type of dental care except complex restorative care (P = 0.97). Conclusions There were differences in dental utilization for Iowa Medicaid-enrolled children by CC status and CC severity. Children with complex CCs were the least likely to use dental care. Future research efforts should seek to understand why subgroups of Medicaid-enrolled children with a CC exhibit lower dental utilization. PMID:21150799
Ali, Wail; Bubolz, Beth A; Nguyen, Linh; Castro, Danny; Coss-Bu, Jorge; Quach, Michael M; Kennedy, Curtis E; Anderson, Anne E; Lai, Yi-Chen
Convulsive status epilepticus can exert profound cardiovascular effects in adults including ventricular depolarization-repolarization abnormalities. Whether status epilepticus adversely affects ventricular electrical properties in children is less understood. Therefore, we sought to characterize ventricular alterations and the associated clinical factors in children following convulsive status epilepticus. We conducted a 2-year retrospective, case-control study. Children between 1 month and 21 years of age were included if they were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit with primary diagnosis of convulsive status epilepticus and had 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) within 24 hours of admission. Children with heart disease, ion channelopathy, or on vasoactive medications were excluded. Age-matched control subjects had no history of seizures or epilepsy. The primary outcome was ventricular abnormalities represented by ST segment changes, abnormal T wave, QRS axis deviation, and corrected QT (QTc) interval prolongation. The secondary outcomes included QT/RR relationship, beat-to-beat QTc interval variability, ECG interval measurement between groups, and clinical factors associated with ECG abnormalities. Of 317 eligible children, 59 met the inclusion criteria. History of epilepsy was present in 31 children (epileptic) and absent in 28 children (non-epileptic). Compared with the control subjects (n = 31), the status epilepticus groups were more likely to have an abnormal ECG with overall odds ratio of 3.8 and 7.0 for the non-epileptic and the epileptic groups respectively. Simple linear regression analysis demonstrated that children with epilepsy exhibited impaired dependence and adaptation of the QT interval on heart rate. Beat-to-beat QTc interval variability, a marker of ventricular repolarization instability, was increased in children with epilepsy. Convulsive status epilepticus can adversely affect ventricular electrical properties and stability in children
Jenkins, Helen E.; Yuen, Courtney M.; Rodriguez, Carly A.; Nathavitharana, Ruvandhi R.; McLaughlin, Megan M.; Donald, Peter; Marais, Ben J.; Becerra, Mercedes C.
Background Case fatality ratios among children with tuberculosis disease are poorly understood, particularly among HIV-infected cases and those not receiving tuberculosis treatment. Methods We carried out a systematic review of the published literature to identify studies of population-representative samples of pediatric (tuberculosis cases. We used random effects meta-analysis to produce pooled estimates of case fatality ratios. We stratified our analyses by whether or not children received tuberculosis treatment, age (0–4 years, 5–14 years), and HIV status. Findings We identified 31 papers comprising 35 datasets representing 82,436 children with tuberculosis disease, of whom 9,273 died. Among children with tuberculosis from the pretreatment era, the pooled case fatality ratio was 21.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 18.1%, 26.4%). The pooled case fatality ratio was significantly higher among children aged 0–4 years (43.6%; 95% CI: 36.8%, 50.6%) than among children aged 5–14 years (14.9%; 95% CI: 11.5%, 19.1%). In recent studies where the majority of children had tuberculosis treatment, the pooled case fatality ratio was 0.9% (95% CI: 0.5%, 1.6%). USA surveillance data suggest a substantially higher case fatality ratio among HIV-infected children receiving TB treatment, compared with HIV-uninfected children, especially without antiretroviral treatment. Interpretation Without adequate treatment, children with tuberculosis disease, especially those under five years of age, are at high risk of death. HIV-infected children have an increased mortality risk, even when receiving tuberculosis treatment. Funding US National Institutes of Health, Janssen Global Public Health PMID:27964822
Full Text Available ... and Media Catheter Angiography Magnetic Resonance, Functional (fMRI) - Brain Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Safety Contrast Materials Children ...
Stokes, Victoria J; Nielsen, Morten F; Hannan, Fadil M
Hypercalcemia is defined as a serum calcium concentration that is greater than 2 standard deviations above the normal mean, which in children may vary with age and sex, reflecting changes in the normal physiology at each developmental stage. Hypercalcemic disorders in children may present...... with hypotonia, poor feeding, vomiting, constipation, abdominal pain, lethargy, polyuria, dehydration, failure to thrive and seizures. In severe cases renal failure, pancreatitis and reduced consciousness may also occur and older children and adolescents may present with psychiatric symptoms. The causes...... of hypercalcemia in children can be classified as parathyroid hormone (PTH)-dependent or PTH-independent, and may be congenital or acquired. PTH-independent hypercalcemia, i.e. hypercalcemia associated with a suppressed PTH, is commoner in children than PTH-dependent hypercalcemia. Acquired causes of PTH...
Dammeyer, Jesper Herup
Background: Mental and behavioral disorders among adults with Usher syndrome have been discussed and reported in some case studies but no research has been reported on children with Usher syndrome. Methods: This article investigates the prevalence and characteristics of mental and behavioral...... disorders among 26 children, 3-17 years of age, with Usher syndrome. Results: Six of the 26 children were diagnosed with a mental or behavioral disorder (1 with schizophrenia and mild mental retardation, 1 with atypical autism and severe mental retardation, 1 with atypical autism and mild mental retardation......, 1 with mild mental retardation, and 2 with conduct disorder). Another 3 children had had a mental or behavioral disorder previously in their childhood. Conclusion: Even though vision impairment first manifests in late childhood, some children with Usher syndrome seem to develop mental and behavioral...
Garry, Vincent F.
Prevention and control of damage to health, crops, and property by insects, fungi, and noxious weeds are the major goals of pesticide applications. As with use of any biologically active agent, pesticides have unwanted side-effects. In this review, we will examine the thesis that adverse pesticide effects are more likely to occur in children who are at special developmental and behavioral risk. Children's exposures to pesticides in the rural and urban settings and differences in their exposure patterns are discussed. The relative frequency of pesticide poisoning in children is examined. In this connection, most reported acute pesticide poisonings occur in children younger than age 5. The possible epidemiological relationships between parental pesticide use or exposure and the risk of adverse reproductive outcomes and childhood cancer are discussed. The level of consensus among these studies is examined. Current concerns regarding neurobehavioral toxicity and endocrine disruption in juxtaposition to the relative paucity of toxicant mechanism-based studies of children are explored
Full Text Available We investigated the speech processing and production of 2-year-old children acquiring isiXhosa in South Africa. Two children (2 years, 5 months; 2 years, 8 months are presented as single cases. Speech input processing, stored phonological knowledge and speech output are described, based on data from auditory discrimination, naming, and repetition tasks. Both children were approximating adult levels of accuracy in their speech output, although naming was constrained by vocabulary. Performance across tasks was variable: One child showed a relative strength with repetition, and experienced most difficulties with auditory discrimination. The other performed equally well in naming and repetition, and obtained 100% for her auditory task. There is limited data regarding typical development of isiXhosa, and the focus has mainly been on speech production. This exploratory study describes typical development of isiXhosa using a variety of tasks understood within a psycholinguistic framework. We describe some ways in which speech and language therapists can devise and carry out assessment with children in situations where few formal assessments exist, and also detail the challenges of such work. Keywords: psycholinguistic assessment; phonology; psycholinguistic framework; naming; repetition; auditory discrimination
Full Text Available This study aims to estimate the prevalence of behavioral problems among left-behind children, migrant children and local children in China, and to compare the risks of behavioral problems among the three types of children. Data on 4479 children aged 6–16 used in this study were from a survey conducted in China in 2017. The school-age version of the Children Behavior Checklist was used to measure children’s behavioral problems. Descriptive analysis, correlation analysis, and logistic regressions were conducted. The prevalence of behavioral problems was 18.80% and 13.59% for left-behind children and migrant children, respectively, both of which were higher than that of local children. Logistic regression analysis showed that after adjustments for individual and environmental variables, the likelihood of total, internalizing and externalizing behavior problems for left-behind children and migrant children were higher than those for local children; left-behind children had a higher likelihood of internalizing problems than externalizing problems, while migrant children had a higher prevalence of externalizing problems. Left-behind children had a higher prevalence of each specific syndrome than migrant and local children. Both individual and environmental factors were associated with child behavioral problems, and family migration may contribute to the increased risks. Left-behind and migrant children were more vulnerable than local children to behavioral problems.
Hanley, J Richard; Cortis, Cathleen; Budd, Mary-Jane; Nozari, Nazbanou
Although naturalistic studies of spontaneous speech suggest that young children can monitor their speech, the mechanisms for detection and correction of speech errors in children are not well understood. In particular, there is little research on monitoring semantic errors in this population. This study provides a systematic investigation of detection and correction of semantic errors in children between the ages of 5 and 8years as they produced sentences to describe simple visual events involving nine highly familiar animals (the moving animals task). Results showed that older children made fewer errors and corrected a larger proportion of the errors that they made than younger children. We then tested the prediction of a production-based account of error monitoring that the strength of the language production system, and specifically its semantic-lexical component, should be correlated with the ability to detect and repair semantic errors. Strength of semantic-lexical mapping, as well as lexical-phonological mapping, was estimated individually for children by fitting their error patterns, obtained from an independent picture-naming task, to a computational model of language production. Children's picture-naming performance was predictive of their ability to monitor their semantic errors above and beyond age. This relationship was specific to the strength of the semantic-lexical part of the system, as predicted by the production-based monitor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mayes, Rachel; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth
Despite the frequency with which mothers with intellectual disability have their children removed, little theoretical or empirical work has understood the mothers' perspectives on this. A few studies have reported mothers' feelings of grief and loss and their sense of powerlessness in the child protection system. This qualitative study explores the daily life narratives of 7 mothers with intellectual disability following the involuntarily removal of their children. For most mothers, having a child removed was not a one-off experience. The serial nature of the experience yielded 3 different narratives, lived out in different ways. In some cases, women told a different narrative for each of their removed children. All women remained focused on their children in care. The multiple and varied narratives of mothers with intellectual disability who have children in care suggest that their support needs may differ from each other and over time. How their support needs might best be met remains an unanswered question. Further research is also needed to identify any adverse health and social consequences for mothers with children in care as well as the effects on their children.
Panagiotaki, Georgia; Nobes, Gavin
This study aimed to identify the age by which children begin to demonstrate a biological understanding of the human body and the idea that the purpose of body functioning is to maintain life. The study also explored the influence of education, culturally specific experiences and religion on knowledge acquisition in this domain. Children aged between 4 and 7 years from three different cultural backgrounds (White British, British Muslim, and Pakistani Muslim) were interviewed about the human body and its functioning. At least half of the 4- to 5-year-olds in each cultural group, and almost all 6- to 7-year-olds, referred to the maintenance of life when explaining organs' functions and so were classified as 'life theorizers'. Pakistani Muslim children gave fewer biological responses to questions about organs' functions and the purpose of eating and breathing, but referred to life more than their British counterparts. Irrespective of cultural group, older children understood organ location and function better than younger children. These findings support Jaakkola and Slaughter's (2002, Br. J. Dev. Psychol., 20, 325) view that children's understanding of the body as a 'life machine' emerges around the ages of 4-5 years. They also suggest that, despite many similarities in children's ideas cross-culturally, different educational input and culturally specific experiences influence aspects of their biological understanding. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.
Stålberg, Anna; Sandberg, Anette; Larsson, Thomas; Coyne, Imelda; Söderbäck, Maja
To describe young children's demonstrated participation in healthcare situations while using an interactive communication tool. Participation is a multidimensional concept influenced by situational and contextual issues. In child participation, verbal and nonverbal communicative expressions are of interest, as both demonstrate the child's perspective. Children have a right to participate in all situations that matter to them, for instance healthcare situations. Children, understood as social actors, express a wish and a need to participate in these situations to get information and to enable preparation. In a pilot study, video observations were used to capture the children's use of the interactive communication tool in healthcare situations. A hermeneutic analysis was conducted to achieve a deeper understanding of the children's demonstrated cues of participation. The expressed cues of participation were understood as having either a curious, thoughtful or affirmative meaning of participation and there was a continuous movement between them. Curious cues were expressed when introducing or reintroducing the tool in the situation and demonstrated a wish to get knowledge of the things shown on the screen or to perform the virtual tasks. Thoughtful cues slowed down the progression of the situation when the children needed time to think or adapt to the virtual procedures. Affirmative cues were self-rewarding and demonstrated at successful task performance. An interactive communication tool used in healthcare situations can promote young children's understanding and facilitate their situated participation, which potentially reduces feelings of distress or anxiety. This innovative use of interactive technology within paediatric health care provides new ways of revealing the child's perspective in the situation. Interactive technology improves understanding and participation of children in healthcare situations, which impact them positively, both in the present and for
Tri Mega Asri
Full Text Available The ignorance of reading activity is a result of condition in which people are not accustomed to read because they are not familiar with the culture of writing. It is fueled by the entry of telecommunications technologies and broadcasting, especially children digital native generation. The ability to speak and communicate in children is very influential in the development of social interaction. Besides the language and communication skills are directly related to the process of thinking and developments in the search for solutions to problems in children. Informational books is one medium that can help the development of language and communication skills in children. Informational books can convey knowledge of all the things they want to know the child, about science, about everything that exists and happens around the child to see the writing in a language that has a characteristic and image. The method used is literature study and data collection techniques to conduct a study review of the relevant literature. Informational books children as a means of communication, various forms of media including books have a major influence in shaping attitudes and behavior of children. A wide variety of informational books that has developed its own current trend where its use on children in need of assistance.
Cuenca, Alex G; Wiggins, Alexandra; Chen, Mike K; Kays, David W; Islam, Saleem; Beierle, Elizabeth A
Equestrian activities are regarded by some as high-risk sports, and our recent experience suggested this to be true. We undertook this study to review our experience with pediatric equestrian injuries. After institutional review board approval, we reviewed emergency department and hospital admissions for children 0 to 18 years, with equestrian trauma, over an 11-year period. There were 164 encounters with 135 girls and 29 boys. Most injuries (82%) occurred after falling or being thrown from the animal, and only 12% occurred during jumping or rodeo competitions. The remaining injuries were secondary to being trampled, kicked, or trapped under the animal. Eighty-seven children required hospital admission. Lacerations and contusions (58%) or orthopedic injuries (31%) were most common in the emergency department cohort. In the admission cohort, injury sites included orthopedic (34%), head (23%), abdomen (21%), and chest (11%). Multiple injuries occurred in 13%. A significant number of children required surgical interventions, including 19 orthopedic procedures, 4 laparotomies, 3 facial reconstructions, and 2 craniotomies. The average length of stay was nearly 4 days, with 60% of the children requiring intensive care admission. There were no deaths. One child was discharged to rehab, the rest were sent home. In our experience, more than one third of the children admitted after sustaining injuries in horse-related sports required surgical interventions. Children participating in equestrian activities are at risk for substantial injury, and pediatric care providers must maintain a high index of suspicion when evaluating these children.
Fenton, L.Z.; Buonomo, C. [Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)
Background. In pediatrics, pneumatosis intestinalis (PI) is usually due to necrotizing enterocolitis in premature newborns. Beyond infancy, PI is uncommon. ''Benign pneumatosis'' is PI in patients with few or no symptoms that resolves with conservative management. Objective. Our goal was to better characterize benign PI in children. Our investigation focused on identifying underlying risk factors, symptoms at time of diagnosis, management and outcome. Materials and methods. Available medical records and radiographs of children with pneumatosis intestinalis from 1990 to 1998 were reviewed for underlying conditions, symptoms at time of radiographs, management and outcome. Results. Thirty-seven children (mean age 4 years) were included. Thirty-two children had identifiable risk factors. Twenty -five children were immunocompromised by their underlying conditions or therapeutic regimen. Thirty-five children were managed conservatively with resolution of PI. Two patients, however, required surgery and one patient died. Conclusion. Benign pneumatosis does occur in children. The majority have underlying risk factors, most commonly related to immunosuppression. Clinical deterioration is the most useful indicator for surgical intervention. In most patients PI resolves with conservative management. (orig.)
Linton, Julie M; Griffin, Marsha; Shapiro, Alan J
Immigrant children seeking safe haven in the United States, whether arriving unaccompanied or in family units, face a complicated evaluation and legal process from the point of arrival through permanent resettlement in communities. The conditions in which children are detained and the support services that are available to them are of great concern to pediatricians and other advocates for children. In accordance with internationally accepted rights of the child, immigrant and refugee children should be treated with dignity and respect and should not be exposed to conditions that may harm or traumatize them. The Department of Homeland Security facilities do not meet the basic standards for the care of children in residential settings. The recommendations in this statement call for limited exposure of any child to current Department of Homeland Security facilities (ie, Customs and Border Protection and Immigration and Customs Enforcement facilities) and for longitudinal evaluation of the health consequences of detention of immigrant children in the United States. From the moment children are in the custody of the United States, they deserve health care that meets guideline-based standards, treatment that mitigates harm or traumatization, and services that support their health and well-being. This policy statement also provides specific recommendations regarding postrelease services once a child is released into communities across the country, including a coordinated system that facilitates access to a medical home and consistent access to education, child care, interpretation services, and legal services. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Sigurgeirsson, B; Kristinsson, K G; Jonasson, P S
Onychomycosis is a rare disorder in children. Few studies exist on the incidence or prevalence of onychomycosis in children. To examine the epidemiology of childhood onychomycosis in Iceland during the period 1982-2000. Results from all mycological samples taken from children in Iceland from 1982 to 2000 were examined. Information about the requesting physician, unique social security number, date of birth, sex, results of culture and microscopy were registered. Growth of a dermatophyte was taken as an indication of a case of onychomycosis. During the period 1982-2000 a total of 493 samples from 408 Icelandic children, aged 0-17 years, were examined. Dermatophytes were cultured from 148 (30.0%) samples. During the period 1982-85, the mean annual incidence of positive cultures was 1.65 per 100,000, increasing to 21.30 per 100,000 for the years 1996-2000. Trichophyton rubrum was the dominating organism and was found in 102/148 cases positive for the growth of a dermatophyte. The incidence of positive dermatophyte cultures increased with age and was found in eight children aged 0-4, and in 57 children aged 10-14 years. Onychomycosis is rare in children, but increases with age. It seems that onychomycosis increased during the study period, but it is not clear if this was due to a true increase in the prevalence of onychomycosis or an increased awareness of onychomycosis, or both.
Jameela A Kari
Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to identify the differences between primary and secondary vesicoureteric reflux (VUR and the effect of associated bladder abnormalities on kidney function. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of children with VUR who were followed up at King Abdulaziz University Hospital from January 2005 to December 2010. The review included results of radiological investigations and kidney function tests. We used Chi-square test for statistical analysis and paired t-test to compare group means for initial and last creatinine levels. Results: Ninety-nine children were included in this study. Twenty (20.2% had primary VUR, 11 had high-grade VUR, while 9 had low-grade reflux. All children with low-grade VUR had normal dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA. Renal scars were present in 72% of the children with high-grade VUR. The mean creatinine levels (initial and last for both groups were normal. Seventy-nine (79.8% children had secondary VUR, which was due to posterior urethral valves (PUV (46.8%, neurogenic bladder caused by meningomyelocele (25.3%, non-neurogenic neurogenic bladder (NNB (21.5%, or neurogenic bladder associated with prune belly syndrome (6.3%. Children with NNB, meningomyelocele and PUV had high creatinine at presentation with no considerable worsening of their kidney functions during the last visit. Renal scars were present in 49.4% of the children with secondary VUR. Conclusion: Children with primary VUR and normal bladder had good-functioning kidneys, while those with secondary VUR associated with abnormal bladder caused by NNB, spina bifida or PUV had abnormal kidney functions. DMSA scans were useful in predicting higher grades of VUR in children with primary reflux.
Venturini, Elisabetta; Turkova, Anna; Chiappini, Elena; Galli, Luisa; de Martino, Maurizio; Thorne, Claire
HIV is the top and tuberculosis is the second leading cause of death from infectious disease worldwide, with an estimated 8.7 million incident cases of tuberculosis and 2.5 million new HIV infections annually. The World Health Organization estimates that HIV prevalence among children with tuberculosis, in countries with moderate to high prevalence, ranges from 10 to 60%. The mechanisms promoting susceptibility of people with HIV to tuberculosis disease are incompletely understood, being likely caused by multifactorial processes. Paediatric tuberculosis and HIV have overlapping clinical manifestations, which could lead to missed or late diagnosis. Although every effort should be made to obtain a microbiologically-confirmed diagnosis in children with tuberculosis, in reality this may only be achieved in a minority, reflecting their paucibacillary nature and the difficulties in obtain samples. Rapid polymerase chain reaction tests, such as Xpert MTB/RIF assay, are increasingly used in children. The use of less or non invasive methods of sample collection, such as naso-pharyngeal aspirates and stool samples for a polymerase chain reaction-based diagnostic test tests and mycobacterial cultures is promising technique in HIV negative and HIV positive children. Anti-tuberculosis treatment should be started immediately at diagnosis with a four drug regimen, irrespective of the disease severity. Moreover, tuberculosis disease in an HIV infected child is considered to be a clinical indication for initiation of antiretroviral treatment. The World Health Organization recommends starting antiretroviral treatment in children as soon as anti-tuberculosis treatment is tolerated and within 2- 8 weeks after initiating it. The treatment of choice depends on the child's age and availability of age-appropriate formulations, and potential drug interactions and resistance. Treatment of multidrug resistant tuberculosis in HIV-infected children follows same principles as for HIV uninfected
Full Text Available In order to develop oral communication, hearing impaired infants and young children must be able to hear speech comfortably and consistently. To day children with all degrees of hearing loss may be condidates for some kinds of amlification. As children differ from adults, many Factors should be consider in hearing aid selection, evaluation and fitting. For example the child age when he or she is candidate for custom instruments? Do we consider programmable Hearing aid? Are multi memory instruments appropriate for them? What about directional microphones? What style of hearing aid do we select? In this paper such questions are Answered.
S. L. Piskunova
Full Text Available The article presents the results of examination of 1849 children, entering children's infectioushospitalofVladivostokwith the clinical picture of croup of viral etiology. The clinical features of primary and recurrent croup are described. Frequency of recurrent croup inVladivostokis 8%. Children with a recurrent croup had the burdened premorbid background, and also persistent herpetic infections (cytomegalic infection in 42,9% cases, cytomegalic infection in combination with the herpes simplex virus -1. Frequency of croups substantially rose in the period of epidemic of influenza.
Thomas, Tania A
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the leading cause of death worldwide from a single bacterial pathogen. The World Health Organization estimates that annually 1 million children have tuberculosis (TB) disease and many more harbor a latent form. Accurate estimates are hindered by under-recognition and challenges in diagnosis. To date, an accurate diagnostic test to confirm TB in children does not exist. Treatment is lengthy but outcomes are generally favorable with timely initiation. With the End TB Strategy, there is an urgent need for improved diagnostics and treatment to prevent the unnecessary morbidity and mortality from TB in children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Eigenmann, P A; Atanaskovic-Markovic, M; O'B Hourihane, J
Allergic diseases are common in childhood and can cause a significant morbidity and impaired quality-of-life of the children and their families. Adequate allergy testing is the prerequisite for optimal care, including allergen avoidance, pharmacotherapy and immunotherapy. Children with persisting...... or recurrent or severe symptoms suggestive for allergy should undergo an appropriate diagnostic work-up, irrespective of their age. Adequate allergy testing may also allow defining allergic trigger in common symptoms. We provide here evidence-based guidance on when and how to test for allergy in children based...
Frank, Mary, Ed.
The special issue of the journal, Children in Contemporary Society, contains 17 brief articles on environmental design for young handicapped and normal children. Articles have the following titles: "Introduction", "Environmental Design and Architecture", "Why Is Environmental Design Important to Young Children", "Children's Hospital National…
Kelly Raley, R.; Wildsmith, Elizabeth
This study estimates how much children's family instability is missed when we do not count transitions into and out of cohabitation, and examines early life course trajectories of children to see whether children who experience maternal cohabitation face more family instability than children who do not. Using data from the 1995 National Survey of…
Noting that the death of a loved one brings grief to children as well as adults, this Digest draws on research to examine how children respond to death and the role of parents and teachers in helping children cope with loss. The Digest delineates children's "tasks" during mourning that are essential to their adjustment to loss, such as…
Children's relationship with food in early childhood programs is often a complex topic. Families have concerns about "picky eaters" and teachers feel pressure to make sure that children eat enough while in their care. Children bring snacks that teachers describe as junk food and believe this negatively impacts children's behavior. Foods marketed…
Slopen, Natalie; McLaughlin, Katie A; Fox, Nathan A; Zeanah, Charles H; Nelson, Charles A
Young children raised in institutional settings experience severe deprivation in social, emotional, and cognitive stimulation. Although this deprivation is likely to disrupt brain development in ways that increase the risk for psychopathology, neurodevelopmental mechanisms linking adverse early environments to psychopathology remain poorly understood. To examine whether abnormalities in the neural processing of facial and emotional stimuli are related to the high rates of psychopathology observed among institutionally reared children. Data were drawn from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, a cohort of children raised in institutions in Romania and an age-matched sample of community control subjects. At entry to the study (mean age, 22 months), event-related potentials were used to measure neural processing in 2 tasks: familiar and unfamiliar faces (n=114) and facial displays of emotion (n=74). Psychiatric symptoms were assessed using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment among children aged 54 months. As previously reported, institutionally reared children had elevated symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety, depression, and disruptive behavior compared with control children, and peak amplitudes of the P100 and P700 in response to facial stimuli were blunted among institutionalized children compared with community children in both tasks. Current analyses reveal that children with reduced P100 and P700 amplitudes in response to facial stimuli exhibited higher levels of ADHD and anxiety symptoms. Peak amplitude of the P700 in response to facial stimuli significantly mediated the association between institutional rearing and ADHD symptoms at 54 months. Exposure to institutional rearing disrupts the P700, conferring risk for the onset of psychopathology. The high levels of ADHD symptoms among children exposed to early life deprivation may be attributable, in part, to abnormal patterns of neurodevelopment generated by these adverse
Wirix, Aleid Jg; Finken, Martijn Jj; von Rosenstiel-Jadoul, Ines A; Heijboer, Annemieke C; Nauta, Jeroen; Groothoff, Jaap W; Chinapaw, Mai Jm; Kist-van Holthe, Joana E
The precise mechanisms behind the development of hypertension in overweight or obese children are not yet completely understood. Alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity may play a role. We aimed to investigate the association between cortisol parameters and hypertension in overweight or obese children. Random urine (n=180) and early-morning saliva samples (n=126) for assessment of cortisol and cortisone were collected from 1) hypertensive overweight children (n=50), 2) normotensive overweight children (n=145), and 3) normotensive non-overweight children (n=75). The age of participants was 10.4±3.3 years and 53% were boys. The urinary cortisol-to-cortisone ratio [β 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.19] as well as urinary cortisol/creatinine (β 1.38, 95% CI 1.09-1.54), and cortisone/creatinine ratios (β 1.26, 95% CI 1.17-1.36) were significantly higher in overweight or obese than in non-overweight children. After adjusting for body mass index-standard deviation score and urinary cortisone/creatinine ratio, but not cortisol/creatinine ratio, was significantly associated with presence of hypertension (β 1.12, 95% CI 1.02-1.23). Salivary cortisol and cortisone levels were significantly lower in overweight or obese than in non-overweight children (β -4.67, 95% CI -8.19- -1.15, and β 0.89, 95% CI 0.80-0.97 respectively). There were no significant differences in cortisol parameters between hypertensive and normotensive overweight or obese children. This study provided further evidence for an increased cortisol production rate with decreased renal 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 activity and flattening of early-morning peak cortisol and cortisone in overweight or obese children. However, there were no significant differences in cortisol parameters between hypertensive and normotensive overweight and obese children.
Whyte, Elisabeth M; Nelson, Keith E
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often have difficulties with understanding pragmatic language and also nonliteral language. However, little is understood about the development of these two language domains. The current study examines pragmatic and nonliteral language development in 69 typically developing (TD) children and 27 children with ASD, ages 5-12 years. For both groups, performance on pragmatic language and nonliteral language scores on the Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language increased significantly with chronological age, vocabulary, syntax, and theory of mind abilities both for children with ASD and TD children. Based on a cross-sectional trajectory analysis, the children with ASD showed slower rates of development with chronological age relative to TD children for both the pragmatic language and nonliteral language subtests. However, the groups did not show significant differences in the rate of development for either pragmatic language or nonliteral language abilities with regard to their vocabulary abilities or TOM abilities. It appears that children with ASD may reach levels of pragmatic language that are in line with their current levels of basic language abilities. Both basic language abilities and theory of mind abilities may aid in the development of pragmatic language and nonliteral language abilities. After reading this article, the reader will understand: (1) the relation between basic language abilities (vocabulary and syntax) and advanced language abilities (pragmatic and nonliteral language), (2) how the cross-sectional trajectory analysis differs from traditional group matching studies, and (3) how pragmatic and nonliteral language development for children with autism shows both similarities and differences compared to typically developing children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The objective of the study was to examine the aetiology of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in a paediatric population presenting to the National Centre of Medical Genetics. A retrospective chart review from 1998 to 2006. One hundred and twenty nine children were investigated for SNHL. The average age of diagnosis of hearing loss was 36 months. The degree of hearing loss was mild in 8 children, moderate in 33 children, severe in 31 children and profound in 57 children. Eighty-five children (66%) were diagnosed with a hereditary hearing loss, 11 (8%) children had an acquired hearing loss and no cause found in 33 (26%) children. This is the first report of the causes of hearing loss in Irish children. The mean age of diagnosis in our cohort is high and emphasises the need for a neonatal screening programme. There remains a number of children for whom the cause of hearing loss remains unknown.
Children's literature is simple discussion of complicated issues. Neutron stars are discussed in several children's books. Using libraries in Chicago, I will review children's books on neutron stars and compare the literature to literature from scientific discussions of neutron stars on sites like the Chandra site, Hubble Space Telescope site and NASA site. The result will be a discussion of problems and issues involved in discussion of neutron stars. Do children's books leave material out? Do children's books discuss recent observations? Do children's books discuss anything discredited or wrong? How many children's books are in resources like World Cat, the Library of Congress catalog, and the Chicago Public Library catalog? Could children's books be useful to present some of your findings or observations or projects? Children's books are useful for both children and scientist as they present simplified discussion of topics, although sometimes issues are simplified too much.
Reilev, Mette; Thomsen, Reimar W; Aabenhus, Rune
BACKGROUND: In Denmark, the use of amoxicillin is widespread among children, despite phenoxymethylpenicillin being recommended as first-line therapy. The reason for this apparent discrepancy is not fully understood. We aimed at evaluating prescribing patterns of antibiotics among Danish children...... aged 0-4 years, with emphasis on incidence of treatment episodes, choice of initial antibiotic treatment and switching patterns between different types of antibiotics. METHODS: We identified all children ≤4 years who filled a prescription of antibiotics from 2000-2015 according to the nationwide Danish...... National Prescription Registry. We estimated the incidence rate of episodes treated with antibiotics and the choice of initial antibiotic treatment over time. Further, we assessed the cumulative risk of switching within 0-3 days after initiating therapy. RESULTS: We identified 3,481,684 antibiotic...
Chawes, Bo Lk
Allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis are very common diseases in childhood in industrialized countries. Although these conditions are widely trivialized by both parents and physicians they induce a major impact on quality of life for the affected children and a substantial drainage of health care...... resources. Unfortunately, diagnostic specificity is hampered by nonspecific symptom history and lack of reliable diagnostic tests which may explain why the pathology behind such diagnoses is poorly understood. Improved understanding of the pathophysiology of allergic- and non-allergic rhinitis in young...... children may contribute to the discovery of new mechanisms involved in pathogenesis and help direct future research to develop correctly timed preventive measures as well as adequate monitoring and treatment of children with rhinitis. Asthma is a common comorbidity in subjects with allergic rhinitis...
Sly, Peter D; Boner, Attilio L; Björksten, Bengt
The long-term solution to the asthma epidemic is thought to be prevention, and not treatment of established disease. Atopic asthma arises from gene-environment interactions, which mainly take place during a short period in prenatal and postnatal development. These interactions are not completely...... understood, and hence primary prevention remains an elusive goal. We argue that primary-care physicians, paediatricians, and specialists lack knowledge of the role of atopy in early life in the development of persistent asthma in children. In this review, we discuss how early identification of children...... at high risk is feasible on the basis of available technology and important for potential benefits to the children. Identification of an asthmatic child's atopic status in early life has practical clinical and prognostic implications, and sets the basis for future preventative strategies....
Born, A.P.; Rostrup, Egill; Miranda Gimenez-Ricco, Maria Jo
Sleeping and sedated children can respond to visual stimulation with a decrease in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) functional MRI signal response. The contribution of metabolic and hemodynamic parameters to this inverse signal response is incompletely understood. It has been hypothesized...... that it is caused by a relatively greater increase of oxygen consumption compared to rCBF (regional cerebral blood flow) increase. We studied the rCBF changes during visual stimulation in four sedated children, aged 4-71 months, and four alert adults, with an arterial water spin labeling technique (FAIR) and BOLD f.......99-2.93), respectively. Thus, in the children, an rCBF increase could not be detected by perfusion MRI, but indications of a FAIR signal decrease were found. An rCBF decrease in the primary visual cortex during stimulation has not been reported previously, but it is a possible explanation for the negative BOLD response...
Roscigno, Cecelia I; Swanson, Kristen M
Little is understood about parents' experiences following children's moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Using descriptive phenomenology, we explored common experiences of parents whose children were diagnosed with moderate to severe TBI. Parents from across the United States (N = 42, from 37 families) participated in two semistructured interviews (~ 90 minutes in length and 12 to 15 months apart) in the first 5 years following children's TBI. First interviews were in person. Second interviews, done in person or by phone, facilitated updating parents' experiences and garnering their critique of the descriptive model. Parent themes were (a) grateful to still have my child, (b) grieving for the child I knew, (c) running on nerves, and (d) grappling to get what my child and family need. Parents reported cultural barriers because of others' misunderstandings. More qualitative inquiry is needed to understand how the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and culture-based expectations of others influence parents' interactions and the family's adjustment and well-being.
Full Text Available ... Physicians use nuclear medicine imaging to evaluate organ systems, including the: kidneys and bladder. bones. liver and ... PET/CT, SPECT/CT and PET/MR) are most often used in children with cancer, epilepsy and ...
... smoking also is associated with neonatal death from Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, the major cause of death ... fluid are the most common cause of childrens hearing loss. When they do not respond to medical treatment, ...
Full Text Available ... its earliest stages as well as a patient’s immediate response to therapeutic interventions. Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine ... supplements and if he or she has any allergies. Also inform your doctor of any recent illnesses ...
... to succeed in life. That is why Kenneth Ginsburg, M.D., MS Ed, FAAP, a pediatrician specializing ... resilience in children, teens, and young adults. Dr. Ginsburg has identified seven “C”s of resilience, recognizing that “ ...
Kløvgaard, Marius; Nielsen, Nina Odgaard; Sørensen, Thomas Lund
BACKGROUND: Previous studies of Greenlandic children's disease pattern and contacts to the health care system are sparse and have focused on the primary health care sector. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify the disease pattern and use of health care facilities of children aged 0-10 in two Greenlandic...... cohorts. METHODS AND DESIGN: In a retrospective, descriptive follow-up of the Ivaaq (The Greenland Child Cohort) and the CLEAR (climate changes, environmental contaminants and reproductive health) birth cohorts (total n=1,000), we reviewed medical records of children aged 6-10 in 2012 with residence...... in Nuuk or Ilulissat (n=332). Data on diseases and health care system contacts were extracted. Diagnoses were validated retrospectively. Primary health care contacts were reviewed for a random sample of 1:6. RESULTS: In 311 children with valid social security number, the total number of health care system...
Soee, Ann Britt L; Skov, Liselotte; Skovgaard, Lene Theil
Aim: The aim of this article is to evaluate the effectiveness of a specific multidisciplinary treatment programme for children with headache and to describe the concept and settings of the Children's Headache Clinic in Denmark. Method: All new patients were included and evaluations were conducted...... after six and 12 months. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments were offered by a team of specialists (physicians, headache nurses, a physiotherapist and a psychologist). Patients: The subjects comprised 169 children (mean age 11.7 (range 4-17), 91 females, 78 males), 39% of whom suffered...... from chronic headache (≥15 days/month). All children were diagnosed according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders, second edition; 20% had migraine, 34% tension-type headache, 27% mixed headache, 4% medication- overuse headache, and 15% were diagnosed with other types of headaches...
Rheinländer, Thilde; Samuelsen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders
Objectives. Ethnic minority children in Vietnam experience high levels of hygiene- and sanitation-related diseases. Improving hygiene for minority children is therefore vital for improving child health. The study objective was to investigate how kindergarten and home environments influence...... the learning of hygiene of pre-school ethnic minority children in rural Vietnam. Design. Eight months of ethnographic field studies were conducted among four ethnic minority groups living in highland and lowland communities in northern Vietnam. Data included participant observation in four kindergartens and 20...... homes of pre-school children, together with 67 semi-structured interviews with caregivers and five kindergarten staff. Thematic analysis was applied and concepts of social learning provided inputs to the analysis. Findings. This study showed that poor living conditions with lack of basic sanitation...
... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Articulos en Espanol Giving Medicine to Children Share Tweet ... right medicine and the right amount More in Articulos en Espanol Alimentos y Bebidas CosmÃ©ticos Dispositivos ...
... her own style and needs, initially because of birth order and inborn traits, and later because of experiences. ... appropriately for their child's developmental age and needs. Birth order and family size also influence your children's development. ...
Romano T. DeMarco
Full Text Available The surgical management of pediatric stone disease has evolved significantly over the last three decades. Prior to the introduction of shockwave lithotripsy (SWL in the 1980s, open lithotomy was the lone therapy for children with upper tract calculi. Since then, SWL has been the procedure of choice in most pediatric centers for children with large renal calculi. While other therapies such as percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL were also being advanced around the same time, PNL was generally seen as a suitable therapy in adults because of the concerns for damage in the developing kidney. However, recent advances in endoscopic instrumentation and renal access techniques have led to an increase in its use in the pediatric population, particularly in those children with large upper tract stones. This paper is a review of the literature focusing on the indications, techniques, results, and complications of PNL in children with renal calculi.
J Gordon Millichap
Differences in behavioral, social, and school functioning of 58 preschool-age (3 -5 years) children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and 36 normal controls were examined at Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA.
... such as: Calcium gylcerophosphate (Prelief) Yoga Relaxation techniques Pelvic floor physical therapy Oral IC therapies for children with IC include ... Prostatitis Constipation Endometriosis Fibromyalgia Irritable Bowel ... Polysulfate Sodium Bladder Instillations Immunosuppresants ...
Full Text Available ... to Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please ... is further reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of ...
... addition in elementary school cannot understand algebra in high school. The child, trying very hard to learn, becomes more and more frustrated, and develops emotional problems such as low self-esteem in the face of repeated failure. Some children ...
Full Text Available ... Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) ... molecular information. In many centers, nuclear medicine images can be superimposed with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic ...
Full Text Available ... beforehand, especially if sedation is to be used. Most nuclear medicine exams will involve an injection in ... PET/CT, SPECT/CT and PET/MR) are most often used in children with cancer, epilepsy and ...
A K Miskeen
Full Text Available A six year survey revealed 132 cases of pityriasis versicolor in children below 10 years of age. This constituted 6.70/o of all cases of pityriasis versicol and 24.8 % of cutaneous
Full Text Available ... MRI. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging ... stool. Your child should also drink plenty of water to help flush the radioactive material from his ...
Full Text Available ... at this time is PET/MRI. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Children's ( ... with cancer, epilepsy and back pain. top of page What does the equipment look like? The special camera ...
... BY POISONOUS FUMES! ...PLAYTIME ACCIDENTS... NO SWIMMING ...AND DROWNING!! 11 SO, WITH SO MANY DANGERS, WHAT CAN ... BE WELL VENTILATED! AND SMOKERS SHOULD AVOID SMOKING NEAR CHILDREN! WE MUST TAKE CARE TO PREVENT DISEASES ...
Chandar, Jayanthi; Zilleruelo, Gastón
Hypertensive crisis is rare in children and is usually secondary to an underlying disease. There is strong evidence that the renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in the genesis of hypertensive crisis. An important principle in the management of children with hypertensive crisis is to determine if severe hypertension is chronic, acute, or acute-on-chronic. When it is associated with signs of end-organ damage such as encephalopathy, congestive cardiac failure or renal failure, there is an emergent need to lower blood pressures to 25-30% of the original value and then accomplish a gradual reduction in blood pressure. Precipitous drops in blood pressure can result in impairment of perfusion of vital organs. Medications commonly used to treat hypertensive crisis in children are nicardipine, labetalol and sodium nitroprusside. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiology, differential diagnosis and recent developments in management of hypertensive crisis in children.
Larusdottir, Aldis Run
Saving human lives is the highest priority in case of fire, according to fire codes around the world. Codes state that everyone should be able to escape to safety in case of fire. In order to design buildings that enable this the available safe egress time (ASET) must be held up against...... is to provide new data and information on children’s evacuation, which is a step towards including children in evacuation models and calculations. Little is known about children’s evacuation characteristics in fire compared to other parts of the population. In recent years there has been more focus on children......, indicating that an alarm with audio signal is preferable to a light signal only or no alarm at all. Children’s evacuation cannot be described using adults’ evacuation models throughout. Young children are slower than adults and travel speed increases with age. At the age of 12 years children can be described...
Full Text Available ... MRI. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging ... computer aids in creating the images from the data obtained by the gamma camera. A probe is ...
Full Text Available ... View full size with caption Related Articles and Media General Nuclear Medicine Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) ... or your insurance provider to get a better understanding of the possible charges you will incur. Web ...
Full Text Available ... liver and gallbladder. gastrointestinal tract. heart. lungs. brain. thyroid. Nuclear medicine scans are typically used to help ... children. epilepsy . location, anatomy and function of the thyroid gland. top of page How does the nuclear ...
Full Text Available ... or hand. Your child should wear loose, comfortable clothing and may be asked to wear a gown. ... or hand. Children should wear comfortable, loose-fitting clothing to the exam, but they may be given ...
... childhood. The pediatrician will most often draw the child's growth curve on a growth chart . Children with growth ... Most cases are not preventable. Review your child's growth chart ... child's growth rate, evaluation by a specialist is recommended.
Full Text Available ... MRI. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging ... at birth) or that develop during childhood. Physicians use nuclear medicine imaging to evaluate organ systems, including ...
Bonke, Jens; Esping-Andersen, Gösta
This study examines parental time investment in their children, distinguishing between developmental and non-developmental care. Our analyses centre on three influential determinants: educational background, marital homogamy, and spouses’ relative bargaining power. We find that the emphasis on qu...
Full Text Available ... What are some common uses of the procedure? Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging is performed to help diagnose childhood disorders that are congenital (present at birth) or that develop during childhood. Physicians use nuclear medicine imaging to ...
Full Text Available ... into the kidney (reflux). bone cancer, infections and trauma. gastrointestinal bleeding and motility. tumors and the spread of cancerous cells in the body. jaundice in newborns and older children. epilepsy . location, anatomy and function of the thyroid ...
... months to 1 year. The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry and the American Dental Association recommend scheduling a ... age children and adolescents. The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry recommends scheduling regular dental checkups, with the most ...
Full Text Available ... need sedation for the imaging. During this procedure, parents are usually allowed and often encouraged to stay ... discomfort from having to remain still during imaging. Parents are encouraged to stay with their children to ...
Canadian reports and legislation are reviewed to highlight the school's role in prevention and reporting of suspicions of child sexual abuse. The vulnerability of handicapped children and child pornography are two areas of victimization emphasized. (Author/DB)
Full Text Available ... may be placed into the bladder, which may cause temporary discomfort. It is important that your child ... images are being recorded. Though nuclear imaging itself causes no pain, children may experience some discomfort from ...
Full Text Available ... child is taking as well as vitamins and herbal supplements and if he or she has any ... What are the limitations of Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine procedures can be time consuming. It ...
Full Text Available ... also very helpful. Often, a monitor with children's programming and/or children’s DVDs are available in the ... techniques for a variety of indications, and the functional information gained from nuclear medicine exams is often ...
Full Text Available The research goal of the review is to present data on etiology, prevalence, classification of different types TEN/ in children. Mechanisms of pathological foot type, indications for conservative and surgical methods of treatment have been analyzed.
Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging is performed ... the thyroid gland. top of page How does the nuclear medicine procedure work? With ordinary x-ray ...
Full Text Available ... type your comment or suggestion into the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: ... Related Articles and Media General Nuclear Medicine Children's (Pediatric) CT ( ...
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000772.htm Ibuprofen dosing for children To use the sharing features ... much of this medicine can be harmful. How Ibuprofen can Help Your Child Ibuprofen is a type ...
Ashworth, Anna; Hill, Catherine M; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Dimitriou, Dagmara
In typically developing (TD) children, sleep problems have been associated with day-time attentional difficulties. Children with developmental disabilities often suffer with sleep and attention problems, yet their relationship is poorly understood. The present study investigated this association in school-aged children with Down syndrome (DS) and Williams syndrome (WS). Actigraphy and pulse oximetry assessed sleep and sleep-disordered breathing respectively, and attention was tested using a novel visual Continuous Performance Task (CPT).Attentional deficits were evident in both disorder groups. In the TD group, higher scores on the CPT were related to better sleep quality, higher oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2), and fewer desaturation events. Sleep quality, duration, and SpO2 variables were not related to CPT performance for children with DS and WS.
Stolt, Suvi; Matomäki, Jaakko; Haataja, Leena; Lapinleimu, Helena; Lehtonen, Liisa
It is not well understood how grammar emerges in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) children. The main aim of the present study was to gain information on the emergence of grammar in this group at 2 ; 0. The Finnish version of the Communicative Development Inventory was used to collect data from VLBW children (N = 156) and full-term controls (N = 146). At a group level, the grammatical skills of the VLBW children were significantly weaker than those of the controls. However, when the effect of lexicon size and premature birth on the emergence of grammar was analyzed in detail, few significant differences were found between the groups. The results suggest that even though grammar emerges more slowly for the VLBW children, it emerges in a manner comparable to that of the controls, when the effect of lexicon size is taken into consideration.
Brendan F. Andrade
Full Text Available Children with disruptive behavior disorders experience substantial social challenges; however, the factors that account for (i.e., mediate, or influence (i.e., moderate, peer problems are not well understood. This study tested whether symptoms of Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder were associated with peer impairment and whether prosocial skills mediated or moderated these associations. Teacher ratings were gathered for 149 children (Mage = 9.09, SD = 1.71, 26% female referred for behavioral concerns to an urban child psychiatry clinic. Path-analytic linear regressions testing mediation and moderation effects showed that prosocial skills significantly moderated the negative effects of symptoms of Conduct Disorder on peer impairment. Children showed less peer impairment only when they had relatively few conduct symptoms and high prosocial skills. Measurement of prosocial skills, in addition to conduct problems, may best capture factors which contribute to peer problems of children with disruptive behaviors.
Browning, Martin; Ejrnæs, Mette
supply. We develop two tests of the extreme hypothesis that only changes in family structure matter. We estimate effects of the numbers and ages of children on consumption. These estimates allow us to rationalize all of the increase in consumption without recourse to any of the causal mechanisms. Our...... estimates can be interpreted either as giving upper bounds on the effects of children or as evidence that the other causes are not important....
Adolph, Vincent R.; Bernabe, Kathryn
Children with polyps usually present with bleeding or pain. Most pediatric intestinal polyps are sporadic and are not associated with malignancy. Polyposis syndromes are also well described in children. Peutz–Jeghers syndrome is the most common hamartomatous polyposis condition. Although the polyps are not thought to be premalignant in most patients, there is an increased risk of other cancers. Familial adenomatous polyposis is also seen in childhood and is associated with a very high risk of...
Andersen, Lars Bo; Lauritsen, Peter; Danholt, Peter
Teledialogue is a combined research and design project aimed at improving communications between social workers and children under their custody living in foster care or youth institutions. While social workers are responsible for the welfare of placed children they are under heavy workload...... that children’s participation unfolds throughout the entire project; it shapes funding proposals, research problems and design activities and is, in turn, itself being shaped by these....
Jordan M.D., Lori C.; Hillis M.D., Argye E.
Hemorrhagic stroke accounts for approximately half of stroke in childhood. Unlike arterial ischemic stroke, there are no consensus guidelines to assist in the evaluation and treatment of these children. We review the literature on the evaluation, treatment, etiology and neurologic outcome of hemorrhagic stroke in children. Important differences between pediatric and adult hemorrhage are highlighted, as treatment guidelines for adults may not be applicable in all cases. Needed future research ...
Guyot, M.; Baulieu, J.L.
Brain SPECT in child involves specific trends regarding the patient cooperation, irradiation, resolution and especially interpretation because of the rapid scintigraphic modifications related to the brain maturation. In a general nuclear medicine department, child brain SPECT represents about 2 % of the activity. The choice indications are the perfusion children: thallium and MIBI in brain tumours, pharmacological and neuropsychological interventions. In the future, brain dedicated detectors and new radiopharmaceuticals will promote the development of brain SPECT in children. (author)
Since the origins of children's literature, the image plays an important role in the construction of the meanings of this literary text, but its participation in the children's book goes from mere coadjuvant to primacy in relation to the written word. In line with the growth of the publishing production of picture books, its presence in the classroom and theoretical-critical reflections about its contribution to literary reading, I develop here some ideas about different roles played by the i...
Chawla, Jasneek; Waters, Karen Ann
Chronic snoring (≥4 nights per week) is not benign. Otherwise healthy children with chronic snoring and evidence of adenotonsillar hypertrophy can be referred directly for adenotonsillectomy. Snoring children snoring or without significant medical comorbidities can be managed with a combination of medical and surgical interventions listed herein. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Research goals were to evaluate the etiological structure of symptomatic epilepsy in children, age structure of period of disease manifestation, average length of latent period among children with different characters of lesions, dependence between frequency of seizures and character of lesion. Material and methods. A total of 180 case-records of patients with symptomatic epilepsy were analyzed by the next criteria: anamnesis, materials of electroencephalogram and neurovisualization. Results....
Montgomery, Paul; Dunne, Danielle
Sleep disorders may affect 20-30% of young children, and include excessive daytime sleepiness, problems getting to sleep (dysomnias), or undesirable phenomena during sleep (parasomnias), such as sleep terrors, and sleepwalking. Children with physical or learning disabilities are at increased risk of sleep disorders. Other risk factors include the child being the first born, having a difficult temperament or having had colic, and increased maternal responsiveness.
Bruni, Oliveiero; Novelli, Luana
Sleep disorders may affect between 20% and 30% of young children, and include problems getting to sleep (dyssomnias) or undesirable phenomena during sleep (parasomnias), such as sleep terrors and sleepwalking. Children with physical or learning disabilities are at increased risk of sleep disorders. Other risk factors include the child being the first born, having a difficult temperament or having had colic, and increased maternal responsiveness.
The purpose of this paper is to highlight the reasons that lead marketers to give greater importance to children, how to explain this increased potential that children have on the existing market and strategies that marketers and companies use in order to reach this market. To this end we analyzed a series of articles, studies and research conducted on the subject, with implications in psychology, sociology, but especially in marketing. The results obtained show very interesting issues regard...
There is an ongoing debate about the possibility of adverse health effects related to radiofrequency (RF) radiation exposure from mobile phones and their associated base stations. Of particular public concern in this context are children. In its report the Independent Expert Group on Mobile Phones (IEGMP) recommended that the widespread use of mobile phones by children should be discouraged citing that children may be more vulnerable because of their developing nervous system, their greater absorption of energy in the tissue of the head and a longer lifetime of exposure. However, more recently the Health Council of the Netherlands disagreed with the IEGMP and concluded that there is no convincing scientific data to restrict children from using mobile phones. The World Health Organization states that none of there centre views have found that exposure to the RF fields form mobile phones or their base stations causes any adverse health consequence. However there has been limited scientific research specifically focussed on children. Future research will be required to address the issue of mobile telephony and children. Copyright (2004) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc
Kumar, K T
People debating population growth in India and why adults in India choose to bear so many children seem to either not understand or overlook that people in India like children; the more the better. Indeed, children interest every Indian, with new mothers receiving advice on baby care from all quarters. The child is king in India, spoiled, but generally well-behaved. It could be that children receive so much attention from many loving relatives that they do not need to act out in order to get attention. Having a child is the focus and meaning of married life. Without a child, life loses its color and joy. Moreover, childless couples face the insecurity of not having children to care for them once they grow old. The author notes her failure to observe children who were poorly adjusted and sad because they habitually shared a bed with their parents. As concerned individuals ponder the perils of global population growth, they might consider the merit of the Indian view on the subject.
Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB in children is a neglected aspect of the TB epidemic despite it constituting 20% or more of all TB cases in many countries with high TB incidence. Childhood TB is a direct consequence of adult TB but remains overshadowed by adult TB because it is usually smear-negative. Infants and young children are more likely to develop life-threatening forms of TB than older children and adults due to their immature immune systems. Therefore, prompt diagnoses are extremely important although difficult since clinical and radiological signs of TB can be non-specific and variable in children. Despite undeniable advances in identifying definite, probable, or possible TB markers, pediatricians still face many problems when diagnosing TB diagnosis. Moreover, curing TB can be difficult when treatment is delayed and when multi-drug resistant (MDR pathogens are the cause of the disease. In these cases, the prognosis in children is particularly poor because MDR-TB treatment and treatment duration remain unclear. New studies of diagnostic tests and optimal treatment in children are urgently needed with the final goal of developing an effective anti-TB vaccine.
Oh, D; Arjandas, M; Lim, K B L; Lee, E H
Heelys, a type of shoes with stealth wheels, are extremely popular among children in Singapore. The widespread availability of cheap imitations has led to a proliferation of young users. Coupled with a total lack of safety equipment and instructions, these shoes can lead to significant injuries. The purpose of this study was to examine the incidence and type of injuries sustained by children using Heelys. During a seven-month period from February to August 2004, all children treated at the Paediatric Orthopaedic Department of the KK Women's and Children's Hospital, were asked if the injury was sustained while "heeling". All the patients were reviewed by the authors. A total of 37 patients with significant injuries sustained while "heeling" were identified. Their radiographs and clinical charts were reviewed. The patients and/or their parents were also interviewed to obtain additional information. Upper limb injuries were by far the most common. Distal radius fractures and elbow injuries predominated. None of the children used safety gear. "Heeling" can lead to serious injuries despite the relatively low velocity involved. Children and their parents need to be educated on the use of safety gear.
Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB in young children differs from adult TB in that the risk of rapid progression to active TB (aTB is higher in children than in adults. The reasons for this increased risk are not fully understood. Early differentiation remains difficult between children at risk to develop aTB from those who will remain healthy and develop a latent TB infection (LTBI. Biomarkers to differentiate aTB from LTBI in children, especially in very young children, are urgently needed. To identify M. tuberculosis-specific functional T cell subsets related to clinical manifestations in children, we enrolled 87 children exposed to M. tuberculosis. After standard clinical assessment, the children were classified as aTB, LTBI, or uninfected. Their CD4+ T cell cytokine profiles (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-17 were analyzed at the single-cell level by flow cytometry after stimulation with three mycobacterial antigens, purified protein derivative (PPD, early-secreted-antigenic target-6 (ESAT-6, or heparin-binding hemagglutinin (HBHA. This approach identified age-related discriminative markers between aTB and LTBI. Whereas among the 3- to 15-year-old children, an excellent discrimination between aTB and LTBI was provided by comparing the ratio between the proportions of ESAT-6-induced IFN-γsingle+ and ESAT-6-induced TNF-αsingle+CD4+ T lymphocytes, this was not the case for children younger than 3 years. By contrast, in this group (<3years, the analysis of HBHA-induced IL-17single+CD4+ T lymphocytes allowed us to identify children with LTBI by the high proportion of this cellular lymphocyte subset, whereas this was not the case for children with aTB. The analysis at the single-cell level of T cell immune responses induced by mycobacterial antigens are, thus, different in infected children younger or older than 3 years of age. HBHA-induced IL-17 production by CD4+ T lymphocytes was associated with protection only in children under 3 years who are at high risk
Rebok, G; Riley, A; Forrest, C; Starfield, B; Green, B; Robertson, J; Tambor, E
extreme and middle responses on a five-point scale. No pattern of gender differences in understanding or in use of response options was found. We conclude that children as young as eight are able to report on all aspects of their health experiences and can use a five-point response format. Children aged 6-7 had difficulty with some health-related terms and tended to use extreme responses, but they understood the basic task requirements and were able to report on their health experiences. These results provide the guidance needed to develop and test a pediatric health status questionnaire for children 6-11 years old.
Määttä, Suvi; Kaukonen, Riikka; Vepsäläinen, Henna; Lehto, Elviira; Ylönen, Anna; Ray, Carola; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Roos, Eva
Previous studies suggest that preschoolers from low socioeconomic backgrounds engage in more screen time. Still, the factors in the social and physical home environment driving these differences in preschool children's screen time are poorly understood. This study examines potential home environment mediators in the associations between parental educational level and preschoolers' screen time. A total of 864 children aged 3-6 years and their parents participated in a cross-sectional DAGIS study in 2015-2016. Parents recorded their children's screen time in a diary (N = 823). For the analyses, the daily average screen time at home was calculated. Parental questionnaires (N = 808) assessed educational level and eight social and physical environment factors in the home (i.e., descriptive norm for children's screen time, parental screen use in front of children, parental importance for limiting children's screen time, parental attitude toward societal pressures for children's screen time, access to screens at home, parental self-efficacy for limiting children's screen time, satisfaction of children's screen time, and rules for limiting children's screen time). Parental education was grouped into low, middle, and high education. The associations were tested by conducting mediation analyses adjusted by season and children's sex and age. The significant mediators in the single-mediator models were included in the final multiple-mediator models. Of the potential eight mediators, the following four had a significant indirect association: descriptive norm for children's screen time, parental screen use in front of children, parental importance for limiting children's screen time, and parental attitude toward societal pressures for children's screen time. Parents with high education had lower descriptive norm and used fewer screens in front of children compared to parents with middle or low education, and in turn, these factors were associated with less screen time among
Associations between abnormal body fat distribution and clinical variables are poorly understood in pediatric HIV disease. Our objective was to compare total body fat and its distribution in perinatally HIV-infected and HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) children and to evaluate associations with clin...
Wang, Jingjing; Baranowski, Tom; Lau, Patrick W C; Pitkethly, Amanda Jane; Buday, Richard
Positive changes in diet have been observed in research carried out in the United States from the use of "Escape from Diab" (Diab), a health videogame designed to lower the risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Whether the American story and characters in Diab might be perceived by Hong Kong Chinese children as interesting has not been explored. This study assessed the acceptability and applicability of Diab among Hong Kong Chinese children, whether the Diab story was understood by them, and whether it had potential to influence them both during the game and afterward. Thirty-four students (21 males, 13 females) 9-12 years of age were included. Upon completion of all the Diab episodes, children completed an immersion scale with 18 items, as well as an individual interview with 10 open-ended questions. Children achieved average immersion after playing Diab with the mean score at 39.1 (standard deviation = 9.0), higher than the median (36) of possible scores (range, 18-54). Four themes using framework analysis emerged from the interviews, including intuitive feelings about the interface, playing experience, perception of the effect of Diab on behavior change, and the applicability of Diab to Hong Kong children. The story and game developed for American children were found acceptable and applicable to Hong Kong Chinese children. The combination of quantitative and qualitative methods confirmed the acceptability and applicability of Diab to Hong Kong Chinese children.
Graham, Elspeth; Jordan, Lucy P
Many parents from South-East Asia who go overseas to work are motivated by a desire to secure a better future for their children, yet the health consequences for children who stay behind are poorly understood. This study is the first cross-country comparison to explore the relationships between parental migration and the risk of undernutrition (stunting) for primary school-aged children. The analysis uses data from the CHAMPSEA Project for children aged 9 to 11 years in the Philippines (N = 480) and Vietnam (N = 482). A series of logistic regression models compares outcomes for children living in transnational households and children living with both parents in non-migrant households in the same communities. We find no general advantage of having a migrant parent. Rather there is a reduced risk of stunting only for some left-behind children in the Philippines, whereas having a caregiver with low educational attainment is a major risk factor for all children. The findings point to a complex set of relationships between parental migration and child nutrition, possibly reflecting differential opportunities for accumulating household wealth through overseas earnings. Moreover, differences between the two countries caution against generalizing across national or cultural groups. We conclude by considering the implications of the findings for theories of transnationalism and for the UN Millennium Development Goal of reducing childhood undernutrition.
Wang, Jingjing; Baranowski, Tom; Pitkethly, Amanda Jane; Buday, Richard
Abstract Objective: Positive changes in diet have been observed in research carried out in the United States from the use of “Escape from Diab” (Diab), a health videogame designed to lower the risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Whether the American story and characters in Diab might be perceived by Hong Kong Chinese children as interesting has not been explored. This study assessed the acceptability and applicability of Diab among Hong Kong Chinese children, whether the Diab story was understood by them, and whether it had potential to influence them both during the game and afterward. Subjects and Methods: Thirty-four students (21 males, 13 females) 9–12 years of age were included. Upon completion of all the Diab episodes, children completed an immersion scale with 18 items, as well as an individual interview with 10 open-ended questions. Results: Children achieved average immersion after playing Diab with the mean score at 39.1 (standard deviation = 9.0), higher than the median (36) of possible scores (range, 18–54). Four themes using framework analysis emerged from the interviews, including intuitive feelings about the interface, playing experience, perception of the effect of Diab on behavior change, and the applicability of Diab to Hong Kong children. The story and game developed for American children were found acceptable and applicable to Hong Kong Chinese children. Conclusions: The combination of quantitative and qualitative methods confirmed the acceptability and applicability of Diab to Hong Kong Chinese children. PMID:26382015
Musiatowicz, M; Wysocka, J; Kasprzycka, E; Hassmann, E
Adenoid hypertophy is a common feature of childhood. It is currently accepted that it is caused by the antigen-stimulated increased activity of lymphocyte B (D. Bani, O. Gallo, O. Fini-Storchi, Intraepithelial lymphocyte subpopulations and dendritic accessory cells in normal and hypertrophic adenoids, Laryngoscope 10 (1994) 869-873). The adenoid decreases its size with age but the accompanying function alterations are not fully understood (L. Zawadzka-Glos, M. Chmielik, M. Wasik, Cell mediated response in hypertrophied tonsils in children, Nowa Pediatr. 4 (1997) 12-13). The understanding of the adenoid structure that undergoes some changes during the growth period is essential for evaluation of indications for adnoidectomy and assessment of its potential results. The aim of this study was to evaluate lymphocyte subpopulations in adenoid according to age. The analysed material was adenoids removed on the grounds of hypertrophy, which caused obstructive symptoms and/or otitis media with effusion onset. In the present study, we did not find any statistically significant differences among lymphocytes B, Th, and Ts subpopulations, respectively, in the adenoids of any of the age groups. We have found a statistically significant CD3(+) HLA-DR(+) cell percentage decrease in the group of children from 5 to 10 and above 10 years of age, respectively. We have also found a statistically significant increase in the percentage of NK (CD3(-) CD16(+) 56(+)) lymphocytes in relation to age. On the grounds of the current study, it may be stated that some changes in lymphocyte subpopulations in the adenoid take place with age.
Stald, Gitte Bang
the role of the “adult world” is. We need to focus more on the active role that children and adolescents play, according to age, skills and various capacities, in identifying, reflecting upon and acting according to opportunities and challenges in relation to digital media and digital rights (Hartman et al...... 2007). The paper presents a model for analyzing the intersecting levels of children as agents in relation to digital risks and rights: Children as peer-to-peer agents. Children provide mutual practical guidance; experience sharing; advice. re. to risk and harm. Children as advocates/ politicians....... Children participate in youth parliaments; media councils; Safer Internet day; IGF; NGOs, Children as informants. Children contribute to research; media coverage; content providers; reporters (of negative content/ behavior The model is primarily supported by empirical data from the Net Children Go Mobile...
Sekar, H R
In India, 69% of the children of the working class die, most of whom are child laborers. Economic pressure forces parents to make their children work. Employers want child workers because they can manipulate them and pay them low wages, thereby ensuring their viability. The caste system induces social inequality, inheritance invokes cultural inequality, and patriarchal socialization is responsible for gender inequality, all of which perpetuates exploitation of children by employers. In Sivakasi, an estimated 125,000 children make up the child labor force, comprising 30% of the entire labor force. 75% are from the lowest castes. 90% of child workers are girls because they are more obedient and accept even lower wages than boys, and girls need to save for their dowry. Girls often suffer verbal and physical abuse. Like their parents who were also child workers, child workers are illiterate and work long hours. A small rich elite in Sivakasi controls most of the trading and industrial capital, educational institutions, and voluntary organizations. Employers' agents give parents a loan and use their children's labor as security. Each day, they bring child workers to Sivakasi in factory buses from villages to work at least 12 hour days. They work under hazardous conditions, e.g., working with toxic chemicals. Coughing, sore throat, dizziness, methemoglobinemia, and anemia are common effects of ingestion or inhalation of chlorate dust. Inhalation of sulphur dust causes respiratory infections, eye infections, and chronic lung diseases (e.g., asthma). Fires and explosions are common risks for working children. Factory management seldom undertake fire prevention measures. An extensive survey of the problem of child labor is needed in Sivakasi before systematic planning to protect children could be done. Overall development, especially agricultural development, is needed. Parents, employers, enforcement authorities, trade unions, and social groups need to be sensitized to the
Jiang, Shan; Gao, Xiaoli; Jin, Lijian; Lo, Edward C. M.
Dental caries (tooth decay) is an infectious disease. Its etiology is not fully understood from the microbiological perspective. This study characterizes the diversity of microbial flora in the saliva of children with and without dental caries. Children (3–4 years old) with caries (n = 20) and without caries (n = 20) were recruited. Unstimulated saliva (2 mL) was collected from each child and the total microbial genomic DNA was extracted. DNA amplicons of the V3-V4 hypervariable region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene were generated and subjected to Illumina Miseq sequencing. A total of 17 phyla, 26 classes, 40 orders, 80 families, 151 genera, and 310 bacterial species were represented in the saliva samples. There was no significant difference in the microbiome diversity between caries-affected and caries-free children (p > 0.05). The relative abundance of several species (Rothia dentocariosa, Actinomyces graevenitzii, Veillonella sp. oral taxon 780, Prevotella salivae, and Streptococcus mutans) was higher in the caries-affected group than in the caries-free group (p caries-free children than in caries-affected children (p caries-free and caries-affected children were similar. Salivary counts of certain bacteria such as R. dentocariosa and F. periodonticum may be useful for screening/assessing children’s risk of developing caries. PMID:27898021
Dennis, Tracy A; Amodio, David M; O'Toole, Laura J
Processes through which parental ideology is transmitted to children-especially at a young age prior to the formation of political beliefs-remain poorly understood. Given recent evidence that political ideology is associated with neural responses to cognitive conflict in adults, we tested the exploratory hypothesis that children's neurocognitive responses to conflict may also differ depending on their parents' ideology. We assessed relations between parental political ideology and children's neurocognitive responses to conflict, as measured by the N2 component of the event-related potential. Children aged 5-7 completed an age-appropriate flanker task while electroencephalography was recorded, and the N2 was scored to incongruent versus congruent flankers to index conflict processing. Because previous research documents heightened liberal-conservative differences in threat-relevant contexts, each trial of the task was preceded by an angry face (threat-relevant) or comparison face (happy or neutral). An effect of parental ideology on the conflict-related N2 emerged in the threat condition, such that the N2 was larger among children of liberals compared with children of moderates and conservatives. These findings suggest that individual differences in neurocognitive responses to conflict, heightened in the context of threat, may reflect a more general pattern of individual differences that, in adults, relates to political ideology.
Demirdag, Yesim Y; Ramadan, Hassan H
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common heterogenous multifactorial disorder affecting children and adults. The exact mechanism is not completely understood. In this review, we aim to summarize our recent findings regarding etiologies and pathogenesis of CRS in children and review recent studies investigating inflammatory patterns in the upper airways in children and adults with CRS. There are only a few small studies measuring upper airway inflammation in children with CRS. These studies demonstrated more toward eosinophilic and T-cell driven inflammatory pattern. Cytokine patterns in upper airways seem to correlate with asthma symptoms in children with CRS. Adult studies demonstrate eosinophilic and Th-2 (T helper-1) driven inflammation in CRS with nasal polyps and Th-1 (T helper-2) driven inflammation in CRS without nasal polyps. Current knowledge about the characteristics of tissue inflammation in upper airways in children with CRS is limited. More studies are needed to better understand the pathogenesis and better define the subgroups of CRS. The findings of such studies will lead to identifying the biological targets to treat this condition.
Sinikumpu, Juha-Jaakko; Serlo, Willy
The incidence of forearm shaft fractures in children has increased in recent years. They are challenging to treat and they can result in several long-lasting complications. The treatment of children's fractures needs to be individualized to their needs. Nonoperative care will be satisfactory for young, preschool children and it is primarily treatment in stable fractures of children at every age. Injury mechanism must be understood to perform appropriate closed reduction. Immobilization using a long-arm cast needs to be focused against the deforming muscle forces - in particular those that rotate - in the forearm, keeping the bones in alignment until bone healing. Operative stabilization by elastic stable intramedullary nailing is the primarily method of treatment in cases of unstable fractures, in particular, in children between preschool age and adolescence. For older children near to skeletal maturity, a rigid plate and screw fixation will be justified. The most common complication after closed treatment is worsening of the alignment and need for repetitive interventions. elastic stable intramedullary nailing results usually in good outcome, and range of forearm rotation is the main feature determining the clinical result. In this article, we report the current concept of paediatric shaft fractures in the radius and ulna.
Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI symptoms are prevalent in autism spectrum disorder (ASD but the pathophysiology is poorly understood. Imbalances in the enteric microbiome have been associated with ASD and can cause GI dysfunction potentially through disruption of mitochondrial function as microbiome metabolites modulate mitochondrial function and mitochondrial dysfunction is highly associated with GI symptoms. In this study, we compared mitochondrial function in rectal and cecum biopsies under the assumption that certain microbiome metabolites, such as butyrate and propionic acid, are more abundant in the cecum as compared to the rectum. Rectal and cecum mucosal biopsies were collected during elective diagnostic colonoscopy. Using a single-blind case-control design, complex I and IV and citrate synthase activities and complex I-V protein quantity from 10 children with ASD, 10 children with Crohn's disease and 10 neurotypical children with nonspecific GI complaints were measured. The protein for all complexes, except complex II, in the cecum as compared to the rectum was significantly higher in ASD samples as compared to other groups. For both rectal and cecum biopsies, ASD samples demonstrated higher complex I activity, but not complex IV or citrate synthase activity, compared to other groups. Mitochondrial function in the gut mucosa from children with ASD was found to be significantly different than other groups who manifested similar GI symptomatology suggesting a unique pathophysiology for GI symptoms in children with ASD. Abnormalities localized to the cecum suggest a role for imbalances in the microbiome, potentially in the production of butyrate, in children with ASD.
Phelan, E; Pal, R; Henderson, L; Green, K M J; Bruce, I A
Although, the association between Down syndrome (DS) and conductive hearing loss is well recognized, the fact that a small proportion of these children may have a severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss that could benefit from cochlear implantation (CI) is less well understood. The management of significant co-morbidities in children with DS can delay initial diagnosis of hearing impairment and assessment of suitability for CI can likewise be challenging, due to difficulties conditioning to behavioural hearing tests. We performed a retrospective case note review of three children with DS referred to the Manchester Cochlear Implant Programme. Three illustrative cases are described including CI in a 4 years old. Using conventional outcome measurement instruments, the outcome could be considered to be suboptimal with a Categories of Auditory Performance score of 4 at 6 months post-op and at last follow up. In part, this is likely to reflect the delay in implantation, but the role of cognitive impairment must be considered. The cases described emphasize the importance of comprehensive radiological and audiological assessment in children with DS being considered for CI. The influence of cognitive impairment upon outcome of CI must be taken into account, but should not be considered a contra-indication to implantation in children with DS. Benefit that might be considered limited when quantified using existing general outcome measurement instruments, may have a significant impact upon psychosocial development and quality of life in children with significant cognitive impairment, or other additional needs.
Bray, Heather J; Zambrano, Sofia C; Chur-Hansen, Anna; Ankeny, Rachel A
Although Australians on average consume large quantities of meat, their attitudes to farm animal welfare are poorly understood. We know little about how farm animal production is discussed in Australian households or how children learn about the origins of meat. This study consisted of an online survey completed by 225 primary carers throughout Australia recruited through social media. Findings include that conversations about the origin of meat were generally stimulated by meal preparation within the home rather than visits to agricultural shows or similar activities. Parents preferred to initiate conversations with children about meat production before they were 5 years of age. Urban parents were more likely than rural parents to reveal that they were conflicted about eating meat and would be more empathetic to children who chose to stop eating meat. Rural parents were more likely than urban parents to feel that children should eat what they are given and that talking about meat is not a major issue. Both groups felt that it was important that children should know where their food comes from. The findings of this study suggest that parental attitudes to meat production and consumption influence conversations about meat origins with children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Murray, Lynne; Arteche, Adriane; Bingley, Caroline; Hentges, Françoise; Bishop, Dorothy V M; Dalton, Louise; Goodacre, Tim; Hill, Jonathan
Children with cleft lip are known to be at raised risk for socio-emotional difficulties, but the nature of these problems and their causes are incompletely understood; longitudinal studies are required that include comprehensive assessment of child functioning, and consideration of developmental mechanisms. Children with cleft lip (with and without cleft palate) (N = 93) and controls (N = 77), previously studied through infancy, were followed up at 7 years, and their socio-emotional functioning assessed using teacher and maternal reports, observations of social interactions, and child social representations (doll play). Direct and moderating effects of infant attachment and current parenting were investigated, as was the role of child communication difficulties and attractiveness. Children with clefts had raised rates of teacher-reported social problems, and anxious and withdrawn-depressed behaviour; direct observations and child representations also revealed difficulties in social relationships. Child communication problems largely accounted for these effects, especially in children with cleft palate as well as cleft lip. Insecure attachment contributed to risk in both index and control groups, and a poorer current parenting environment exacerbated the difficulties of those with clefts. Children with clefts are at raised risk for socio-emotional difficulties in the school years; clinical interventions should focus on communication problems and supporting parenting; specific interventions around the transition to school may be required. More generally, the findings reflect the importance of communication skills for children's peer relations.
Banai, Karen; Yifat, Rachel
Although the contribution of perceptual processes to language skills during infancy is well recognized, the role of perception in linguistic processing beyond infancy is not well understood. In the experiments reported here, we asked whether manipulating the perceptual context in which stimuli are presented across trials influences how preschool children perform visual (shape-size identification; Experiment 1) and auditory (syllable identification; Experiment 2) tasks. Another goal was to determine whether the sensitivity to perceptual context can explain part of the variance in oral language skills in typically developing preschool children. Perceptual context was manipulated by changing the relative frequency with which target visual (Experiment 1) and auditory (Experiment 2) stimuli were presented in arrays of fixed size, and identification of the target stimuli was tested. Oral language skills were assessed using vocabulary, word definition, and phonological awareness tasks. Changes in perceptual context influenced the performance of the majority of children on both identification tasks. Sensitivity to perceptual context accounted for 7% to 15% of the variance in language scores. We suggest that context effects are an outcome of a statistical learning process. Therefore, the current findings demonstrate that statistical learning can facilitate both visual and auditory identification processes in preschool children. Furthermore, consistent with previous findings in infants and in older children and adults, individual differences in statistical learning were found to be associated with individual differences in language skills of preschool children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Verdon, Sarah; McLeod, Sharynne; McDonald, Simon
The speech-language pathology workforce strives to provide equitable, quality services to multilingual people. However, the extent to which this is being achieved is unknown. Participants in this study were 2849 members of Speech Pathology Australia and 4386 children in the Birth cohort of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Statistical and geospatial analyses were undertaken to identify the linguistic diversity and geographical distribution of Australian speech-language pathology services and Australian children. One fifth of services offered by Speech Pathology Australia members (20.2%) were available in a language other than English. Services were most commonly offered in Australian Sign Language (Auslan) (4.3%), French (3.1%), Italian (2.2%), Greek (1.6%), and Cantonese (1.5%). Among 4-5-year-old children in the nationally representative LSAC, 15.3% regularly spoke and/or understood a language other than English. The most common languages spoken by the children were Arabic (1.5%), Italian (1.2%), Greek (0.9%), Spanish (0.9%), and Vietnamese (0.9%). There was a mismatch between the location of and languages in which multilingual services were offered, and the location of and languages spoken by children. These findings highlight the need for SLPs to be culturally competent in providing equitable services to all clients, regardless of the languages they speak.
Lindly, Olivia; Thorburn, Sheryl; Heisler, Karen; Reyes, Nuri; Zuckerman, Katharine
Complementary health approaches (CHA) are widely used among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). As part of shared treatment decision-making, healthcare providers are encouraged to discuss CHA with parents of children with ASD. Yet prior research suggests that parents often do not disclose CHA used for children, and their reasons for nondisclosure are poorly understood. We, therefore, aimed to identify barriers and facilitators to parent disclosure of CHA used for children with ASD. In-depth interviews were conducted with 31 parents who reported that they were currently using CHA for their child's ASD in Denver, Colorado or Portland, Oregon. We used content analysis to identify six main themes indicating that the following factors play a role in disclosure: parents' drive to optimize their child's health, parent self-efficacy discussing CHA with healthcare providers, parent beliefs about the effectiveness of CHA, parent-provider relationship quality, provider attitudes and knowledge regarding CHA and ASD, and visit characteristics. Study findings suggest that family and health system factors, together, influence parent disclosure of CHA used for children with ASD. Multifaceted intervention concurrently targeting the CHA-related knowledge, beliefs, and self-efficacy of parents whose children have been recently diagnosed with ASD, in addition to the CHA-related attitudes and knowledge of their healthcare providers may promote disclosure and shared treatment decision-making about the use of CHA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Potvin, Marie-Christine; Snider, Laurie; Prelock, Patricia A; Wood-Dauphinee, Sharon; Kehayia, Eva
The health-related quality of life of school-aged children with high-functioning autism is poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the health-related quality of life of children with high-functioning autism to that of typically developing peers and to compare child-self and parent-proxy reports of health-related quality of life of children. A cross-sectional study of children with high-functioning autism (n = 30) and peers (n = 31) was conducted using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 Generic Core Scales. Children with high-functioning autism had significantly poorer health-related quality of life than peers whether reported by themselves (p autism as compared to a sample of peers, from the child's perspective. It strengthens earlier findings that children with high-functioning autism experience poorer health-related quality of life than those without this disorder and points to the importance of clinicians working with families to identify areas in a child's life that promote or hinder their sense of well-being. © The Author(s) 2013.
Didem Behice ÖZTOP
Full Text Available Currently, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT becomes one of the leading approaches in the psychotherapy. However,use of CBT in childhood psychotherapy is considerably novel. After 1990s, it has been understood that it is an effectivemethod for children and adolescents. Anxiety disorders are one of the most common problems in the field of childhoodand adolescent psychiatry. In the studies conducted, the effectiveness of CBT was demonstrated in anxiety disorders ofthe children and adolescents. Moreover, it was suggested that this effectiveness is permanent in some studies. Prioritygoal of CBT is to change inappropriate learning and thinking patterns in the children and adolescents. By “now and here”fashion, it is attempted to reveal the origin of current problems. During the process, the factors are considered, whichcause to maintain the symptoms. It is attempted to decrease signs caused to stress by improving coping skills duringtherapy. To this end, methods including observation, relaxation training, systematic desensitization, social skills training,cognitive restructuring and exposure therapy are applied in sessions by taking child’s problems into consideration. Scalesspecific to anxiety disorders are used in the assessment and follow-up. Age and development level of the child should beparticularly taken into account while using assessment tools and therapeutic modality.
Full Text Available Currently, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT becomes one of the leading approaches in the psychotherapy. However, use of CBT in childhood psychotherapy is considerably novel. After 1990s, it has been understood that it is an effective method for children and adolescents. Anxiety disorders are one of the most common problems in the field of childhood and adolescent psychiatry. In the studies conducted, the effectiveness of CBT was demonstrated in anxiety disorders of the children and adolescents. Moreover, it was suggested that this effectiveness is permanent in some studies. Priority goal of CBT is to change inappropriate learning and thinking patterns in the children and adolescents. By now and here fashion, it is attempted to reveal the origin of current problems. During the process, the factors are considered, which cause to maintain the symptoms. It is attempted to decrease signs caused to stress by improving coping skills during therapy. To this end, methods including observation, relaxation training, systematic desensitization, social skills training, cognitive restructuring and exposure therapy are applied in sessions by taking childs problems into consideration. Scales specific to anxiety disorders are used in the assessment and follow-up. Age and development level of the child should be particularly taken into account while using assessment tools and therapeutic modality [JCBPR 2013; 2(1.000: 10-24
Alyssa N Crittenden
Full Text Available Human prosociality is one of the defining characteristics of our species, yet the ontogeny of altruistic behavior remains poorly understood. The evolution of widespread food sharing in humans helped shape cooperation, family formation, life history, language, and the development of economies of scale. While the behavioral and ecological correlates of food sharing among adults are widely studied, very little is known about food sharing among children. Here, in the first study to analyze the food sharing patterns of hunter-gatherer children, we show that while sharing may be biased towards kin, reciprocity characterizes the majority of all sharing dyads, both related and unrelated. These data lend support to the recent claim that discrimination among kin might be linked with reciprocal altruism theory. Furthermore, we show that age positively correlates with an increase in sharing, both in frequency and amount, supporting recent suggestions that prosocial behaviors and egalitarianism develop strongly in middle childhood when children acquire the normative rules of their society.
Phillips, Aaron A; Chirico, Daniele; Coverdale, Nicole S; Fitzgibbon, Laura K; Shoemaker, J Kevin; Wade, Terrance J; Cairney, John; O'Leary, Deborah D
Elevated blood pressure (BP) in adults is associated with increased arterial stiffness and thickness; however, its effect on arterial health in a pediatric population is less understood. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between childhood BP and arterial markers of arteriosclerotic progression. The study consisted of 106 children across a wide range of BP values divided into 2 BP groups: high BP (HBP; ≥ 95th percentile; n = 21) and normal BP (NBP; index (BMI) and pubertal maturation. BMI and heart rate, as well as PWV (HBP: n = 15 and NBP: n = 56), were higher in the HBP group (p < 0.001) with no difference between groups for both CCA distensibility and IMT (HBP: n = 21 and NBP: n = 83). Multivariate linear regression revealed that BP group (p = 0.003) was an independent predictor of PWV after controlling for age, sex, BMI, heart rate, and maturation. Our findings demonstrate a higher systemic PWV with no difference in CCA IMT or distensibility in children with elevated BP. Hence, markers of cardiovascular disease risk are augmented in healthy children with elevated BP.
Full Text Available The ontogeny of large-scale functional organization of the human brain is not well understood. Here we use network analysis of intrinsic functional connectivity to characterize the organization of brain networks in 23 children (ages 7-9 y and 22 young-adults (ages 19-22 y. Comparison of network properties, including path-length, clustering-coefficient, hierarchy, and regional connectivity, revealed that although children and young-adults' brains have similar "small-world" organization at the global level, they differ significantly in hierarchical organization and interregional connectivity. We found that subcortical areas were more strongly connected with primary sensory, association, and paralimbic areas in children, whereas young-adults showed stronger cortico-cortical connectivity between paralimbic, limbic, and association areas. Further, combined analysis of functional connectivity with wiring distance measures derived from white-matter fiber tracking revealed that the development of large-scale brain networks is characterized by weakening of short-range functional connectivity and strengthening of long-range functional connectivity. Importantly, our findings show that the dynamic process of over-connectivity followed by pruning, which rewires connectivity at the neuronal level, also operates at the systems level, helping to reconfigure and rebalance subcortical and paralimbic connectivity in the developing brain. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of network analysis of brain connectivity to elucidate key principles underlying functional brain maturation, paving the way for novel studies of disrupted brain connectivity in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism.