WorldWideScience

Sample records for understood increasing evidence

  1. How is evidence to be understood in modern coaching psychology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spaten, Ole Michael; Løkken, Lillith Olesen

    2015-01-01

    The hunt for evidence in modern coaching psychology could be counter-productive, and possibly lead to a simplified approach to research, practice, searching for “definitive truths”. The article discuss a critical approach to evidence hierarchies, and the prevalent (medical) understanding...

  2. Poorly Understood Aspects of Striated Muscle Contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alf Månsson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscle contraction results from cyclic interactions between the contractile proteins myosin and actin, driven by the turnover of adenosine triphosphate (ATP. Despite intense studies, several molecular events in the contraction process are poorly understood, including the relationship between force-generation and phosphate-release in the ATP-turnover. Different aspects of the force-generating transition are reflected in the changes in tension development by muscle cells, myofibrils and single molecules upon changes in temperature, altered phosphate concentration, or length perturbations. It has been notoriously difficult to explain all these events within a given theoretical framework and to unequivocally correlate observed events with the atomic structures of the myosin motor. Other incompletely understood issues include the role of the two heads of myosin II and structural changes in the actin filaments as well as the importance of the three-dimensional order. We here review these issues in relation to controversies regarding basic physiological properties of striated muscle. We also briefly consider actomyosin mutation effects in cardiac and skeletal muscle function and the possibility to treat these defects by drugs.

  3. Socialization understood in a dynamic way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Milorad R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In psychology, the process of socialization often gets the meaning it does not actually have and it also gets attached to things that are related to other processes. Here, socialization is understood only as the entering of a subject into a socio-symbolic order where he acquires his own identity. This entering into a separating order places the good on one side, and the bad on the other, and it is essentially a process that strongly designates the world by giving a man's instinctive nature the social contours obtained through imposed standards. Every form of anti-social behaviour, as well as every great psychological deviation, shows the lack of proper integration into the symbolic. Psychology, as a general theory of the psyche, and social psychology especially, indicates the social and cultural conditions that influence the mental construction. Without the dynamics of psychology, which depicts the psychological life through mental dynamics, psychological etiologies especially of those forms of behaviour that have no social verification would be neglected. Starting from the social and cultural conditions that build the 'psychological', it explains how the motives for suppression of all impulsive tendencies, aggression and libido are built. Mastering the impulses involves the construction of a moral instance (super-ego that differentiates and exists as a constant threat to the ego who tries to smuggle certain instinctive tendencies. Given that it is known, ever since Freud, that - from the standpoint of limiting the impulses, from the standpoint of morality - a man has a completely immoral part (instinctive, id; a part that is struggling to be moral (ego; and a super-ego that can be hyper-moral, and then become utterly cruel (Freud 2006a: 120, it can be observed that socialization is involved in the good part and in the bad part of a man. Success in a man's defense from Eros and Thanatos, on the one hand, and in his defense from the impulses of

  4. How self-reliance is understood: viewpoints from one local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    How self-reliance is understood: viewpoints from one local community in Malawi. ... model that resists dependence on external aid, empowers community development, and provides opportunities to sustain development activity through local initiative, can be employed to increase social capital leading to sustainable growth.

  5. Donors in Semiconductors - are they Understood in Electronic Era?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmochowski, Janusz E

    2007-01-01

    The physics of semiconductors and contemporary electronics cannot be understood without impurities. The hydrogen-like shallow donor (and acceptor) state of electron (hole) bound by Coulomb electrostatic force of excess charge of impurity is used to control conductivity of semiconductors and construct semiconductor diodes, transistors and numerous types of semiconductor electronic and optoelectronic devices, including lasers. Recently, surprisingly, the physics of impurity donors appeared to be much reacher. Experimental evidence has been provided for universal existence of other types of electronic states of the same donor impurity: i) mysterious, deep, DX-type state resulting in metastability - slow hysteresis phenomena - understood as two-electron, acceptor-like state of donor impurity, formed upon large lattice distortion or rearrangement around impurity and accompanying capture of second electron, resulting in negative electron correlation energy U; ii) deep, localized, fully symmetric, A1, one-electron donor state of substitutional impurity. The latter state can be formed from the 'ordinary' shallow hydrogen-like state in the process of strong localization of electron by short range, local potential of impurity core, preserving full (A 1 ) symmetry of the substitutional impurity in the host lattice. The 'anticrossing' of the two A 1 (shallow hydrogenic and deep localized) energy levels upon transformation is observed. All types of electronic states of impurity can be universally observed for the same donor impurity and mutual transformation between different states occur upon changing experimental conditions. The knowledge about existence and properties of these n ew , molecular type, donor states in semiconductors seems still await general recognition and positive application in contemporary material and device science and engineering

  6. Increasing evidence that bats actively forage at wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Cecily F; Bennett, Victoria J; Hale, Amanda M; Korstian, Jennifer M; Schildt, Alison J; Williams, Dean A

    2017-01-01

    Although the ultimate causes of high bat fatalities at wind farms are not well understood, several lines of evidence suggest that bats are attracted to wind turbines. One hypothesis is that bats would be attracted to turbines as a foraging resource if the insects that bats prey upon are commonly present on and around the turbine towers. To investigate the role that foraging activity may play in bat fatalities, we conducted a series of surveys at a wind farm in the southern Great Plains of the US from 2011-2016. From acoustic monitoring we recorded foraging activity, including feeding buzzes indicative of prey capture, in the immediate vicinity of turbine towers from all six bat species known to be present at this site. From insect surveys we found Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, and Orthoptera in consistently high proportions over several years suggesting that food resources for bats were consistently available at wind turbines. We used DNA barcoding techniques to assess bat diet composition of (1) stomach contents from 47 eastern red bat ( Lasiurus borealis ) and 24 hoary bat ( Lasiurus cinereus ) carcasses collected in fatality searches, and (2) fecal pellets from 23 eastern red bats that were found on turbine towers, transformers, and tower doors. We found that the majority of the eastern red bat and hoary bat stomachs, the two bat species most commonly found in fatality searches at this site, were full or partially full, indicating that the bats were likely killed while foraging. Although Lepidoptera and Orthoptera dominated the diets of these two bat species, both consumed a range of prey items with individual bats having from one to six insect species in their stomachs at the time of death. The prey items identified from eastern red bat fecal pellets showed similar results. A comparison of the turbine insect community to the diet analysis results revealed that the most abundant insects at wind turbines, including terrestrial insects such as crickets and several

  7. Dual protection: more needed than practised or understood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berer, Marge

    2006-11-01

    Although non-barrier contraceptive use has become a global norm, unprotected sex in relation to sexually transmitted infections remains the norm almost everywhere. Dual protection is protection from unwanted pregnancy, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, and is a form of safer sex for heterosexual couples that is more needed than practised or understood. This paper draws on a review of the literature in family planning, obstetrics and gynaecology, and AIDS-related journals from 1998 to early 2005. Definitions of dual protection, found mainly in family planning literature, are very narrow. Condoms remain the mainstay of dual protection, but the aim of this paper is to provide an expanded list of dual protection methods to show that there is a range of options. These include non-penetrative sex and the increasing use of condoms with the back-up of emergency contraception on the part of young people. The fact that people may fail to use dual protection consistently and correctly is not a valid reason not to promote it. It is never too late for those providing family planning and STI/HIV prevention services to start promoting condoms and dual protection. In the long-term, the development of highly efficacious and highly acceptable methods of dual protection is an urgent research priority, starting with a wider range of condoms that will appeal to more people.

  8. Feeling (Mis)Understood and Intergroup Friendships in Interracial Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Nicole; Douglass, Sara; Garcia, Randi L; Yip, Tiffany; Trail, Thomas E

    2014-09-01

    The present research investigated whether having out-group friends serves as a buffer for feeling misunderstood in interracial interactions. Across three experience sampling studies, we found that among ethnic minorities who have few White friends or are not interacting with White friends, daily interracial interactions are associated with feeling less understood. By contrast, we found that among ethnic minorities who have more White friends or are interacting with White friends, the relationship between daily interracial interactions and feeling understood is not significant. We did not find similar results for Whites; that is, having ethnic minority friends did not play a role in the relationship between daily interracial interactions and feeling understood. Together, these studies demonstrate the beneficial effects of intergroup friendships for ethnic minorities. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  9. Experimental evidence that wildflower strips increase pollinator visits to crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltham, Hannah; Park, Kirsty; Minderman, Jeroen; Goulson, Dave

    2015-08-01

    Wild bees provide a free and potentially diverse ecosystem service to farmers growing pollination-dependent crops. While many crops benefit from insect pollination, soft fruit crops, including strawberries are highly dependent on this ecosystem service to produce viable fruit. However, as a result of intensive farming practices and declining pollinator populations, farmers are increasingly turning to commercially reared bees to ensure that crops are adequately pollinated throughout the season. Wildflower strips are a commonly used measure aimed at the conservation of wild pollinators. It has been suggested that commercial crops may also benefit from the presence of noncrop flowers; however, the efficacy and economic benefits of sowing flower strips for crops remain relatively unstudied. In a study system that utilizes both wild and commercial pollinators, we test whether wildflower strips increase the number of visits to adjacent commercial strawberry crops by pollinating insects. We quantified this by experimentally sowing wildflower strips approximately 20 meters away from the crop and recording the number of pollinator visits to crops with, and without, flower strips. Between June and August 2013, we walked 292 crop transects at six farms in Scotland, recording a total of 2826 pollinators. On average, the frequency of pollinator visits was 25% higher for crops with adjacent flower strips compared to those without, with a combination of wild and commercial bumblebees (Bombus spp.) accounting for 67% of all pollinators observed. This effect was independent of other confounding effects, such as the number of flowers on the crop, date, and temperature. Synthesis and applications. This study provides evidence that soft fruit farmers can increase the number of pollinators that visit their crops by sowing inexpensive flower seed mixes nearby. By investing in this management option, farmers have the potential to increase and sustain pollinator populations over time.

  10. Urachal tumour: case report of a poorly understood carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallarino Luigi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urachal carcinoma is an uncommon neoplasm associated with poor prognosis. Case presentation A 45-year-old man was admitted with complaints of abdominal pain and pollakisuria. A soft mass was palpable under his navel. TC-scan revealed a 11 × 6 cm tumor, which was composed of a cystic lesion arising from the urachus and a solid mass component at the urinary bladder dome. The tumor was removed surgically. Histological examination detected poor-differentiated adenocarcinoma, which had invaded the urinary bladder. The patient has been followed up without recurrence for 6 months. Conclusion The urachus is the embryological remnant of urogenital sinus and allantois. Involution usually happens before birth and urachus is present as a median umbilical ligament. The pathogenesis of urachal tumours is not fully understood. Surgery is the treatment of choice and role of adjuvant treatment is not clearly understood.

  11. Kynurenine pathway in psychosis: evidence of increased tryptophan degradation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barry, Sandra

    2009-05-01

    The kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation may serve to integrate disparate abnormalities heretofore identified in research aiming to elucidate the complex aetiopathogenesis of psychotic disorders. Post-mortem brain tissue studies have reported elevated kynurenine and kynurenic acid in the frontal cortex and upregulation of the first step of the pathway in the anterior cingulate cortex of individuals with schizophrenia. In this study, we examined kynurenine pathway activity by measuring tryptophan breakdown, a number of pathway metabolites and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), which is the preferential activator of the first-step enzyme, indoleamine dioxygenase (IDO), in the plasma of patients with major psychotic disorder. Plasma tryptophan, kynurenine pathway metabolites were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in 34 patients with a diagnosis on the psychotic spectrum (schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder) and in 36 healthy control subjects. IFN-gamma was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The mean tryptophan breakdown index (kynurenine\\/tryptophan) was significantly higher in the patient group compared with controls (P < 0.05). IFN-gamma measures did not differ between groups (P = 0.23). No relationship was found between measures of psychopathology, symptom severity and activity in the first step in the pathway. A modest correlation was established between the tryptophan breakdown index and illness duration. These results provide evidence for kynurenine pathway upregulation, specifically involving the first enzymatic step, in patients with major psychotic disorder. Increased tryptophan degradation in psychoses may have potential consequences for the treatment of these disorders by informing the development of novel therapeutic compounds.

  12. Changing tides: increasing evidence to embrace a patient classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloch, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    The effective use of a patient classification system (PCS) in a way that provides value to all health care organizations has yet to be realized given the challenging developmental pathway of these systems. As the science and technology of workforce management emerges along with evidence to support the relationships between nurse work and patient care needs, it is no longer appropriate to rely on systems that provide aggregated and minimal data to address the need for safer patient care and retention of nurses. Specificity about patient care needs in a valid and reliable PCS is essential on our pathway to improved resource utilization, improved decision making, integration of nurse cognitive and knowledge work, and management of variances from planned resource use. Advancements with technology, the ability to create and monitor equitable nurse-patient assignments, conceptual clarity, evidence, regulatory requirements, and professional role development point to a new receptiveness for PCSs.

  13. Do Creditor Rights Increase Employment Risk? Evidence from Loan Covenants

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, J. Nellie; Falato, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Using a regression discontinuity design, we provide evidence that incentive conflicts between firms and their creditors have a large impact on employees. There are sharp and substantial employment cuts following loan covenant violations, when creditors exercise their ex post control rights. The negative impact of violations on employment is stronger for firms that face more severe agency and financing frictions and those whose employees have weaker bargaining power. Employment cuts following ...

  14. Does ICT Increase Years of Education? Evidence from Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Julian Cristia; Alejo Czerwonko; Pablo Garofalo

    2010-01-01

    In policy circles a lively debate exists regarding the effects on educational outcomes of introducing computers in schools. A number of empirical studies have measured its effect on test scores. There is a lack of empirical evidence, however, on the effects of this type of intervention on drop-out and repetition rates, variables that have a direct impact on years of education. This paper aims to fill this gap in the literature. To this end, we analyze rich longitudinal censal data from Peru a...

  15. Increasing Need for Uniqueness in Contemporary China: Empirical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huajian Cai

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Past research has documented various cultural and psychological changes in contemporary China. In two studies, we examine how Chinese people’s need for uniqueness (NFU also has changed. In Study 1, we found a significant cross-generational increase in Chinese participants’ self-reported NFU. In Study 2, we sampled the names of Chinese newborn babies over the last five decades and found that parents have been increasingly likely to use unique characters to name their children. These findings suggest that the NFU has been rising in China, a historically collectivistic-oriented society. Theoretical and practical implications of our findings were discussed.

  16. Observational evidence for aerosols increasing upper tropospheric humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Riuttanen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol–cloud interactions are the largest source of uncertainty in the radiative forcing of the global climate. A phenomenon not included in the estimates of the total net forcing is the potential increase in upper tropospheric humidity (UTH by anthropogenic aerosols via changes in the microphysics of deep convection. Using remote sensing data over the ocean east of China in summer, we show that increased aerosol loads are associated with an UTH increase of 2.2 ± 1.5 in units of relative humidity. We show that humidification of aerosols or other meteorological covariation is very unlikely to be the cause of this result, indicating relevance for the global climate. In tropical moist air such an UTH increase leads to a regional radiative effect of 0.5 ± 0.4 W m−2. We conclude that the effect of aerosols on UTH should be included in future studies of anthropogenic climate change and climate sensitivity.

  17. Financing increasing flood risk: evidence from millions of buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongman, B.; Koks, E. E.; Husby, T. G.; Ward, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of disaster risk management and financing mechanisms depends on the accurate assessment of current and future hazard exposure. The increasing availability of detailed data offers policy makers and the insurance sector new opportunities to understand trends in risk, and to make informed decisions on the ways to deal with these trends. In this paper we show how comprehensive property level information can be used for the assessment of exposure to flooding on a national scale, and how this information can contribute to discussions on possible risk financing practices. The case-study used is the Netherlands, which is one of the countries most exposed to flooding globally, and which is currently undergoing a debate on strategies for the compensation of potential losses. Our results show that flood exposure has increased rapidly between 1960 and 2012, and that the growth of the building stock and its economic value in flood prone areas has been higher than in not flood prone areas. We also find that property values in flood prone areas are lower than those in not flood prone areas. We argue that the increase in the share of economic value located in potential flood prone areas can have a negative effect on the feasibility of private insurance schemes in the Netherlands. The methodologies and results presented in this study are relevant for many regions around the world where the effects of rising flood exposure create a challenge for risk financing.

  18. Clinical governance; How been understood, what is needed? Nurses' perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homayoun Sadeghi Bazargani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Clinical Governance (CG is an overarching concept, using organizational capacity, safeguards high standards of the health services and provides a safe care for patients.  The aim of this research was to study nurses’ perception about Clinical Governance. Materials and Methods: A qualitative study was done with Focus Group Discussions (FGD. Purposeful Sampling was used to select the objectives including 65 participants. Actually 7 FGD’s were held. Content analysis was used to extract the meaningful themes. Results:Nurses believed that patient centeredness and evidence based practice is the core of the CG concept. Also they mentioned that cultural change, staffs training, adequate financial and human resources are required to successfully implementation of CG in hospitals.  Conclusion: Spreading up a shared vision about CG and providing the required infrastructures in hospitals would be facilitate CG initiatives. Proper commitment of the managers and staff participation could lead an effective CG implementation.

  19. Deep time evidence for climate sensitivity increase with warming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaffer, Gary; Huber, Matthew; Rondanelli, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    warming analogue. We obtain constrained estimates of CO2 and climate sensitivity before and during the PETM and of the PETM carbon input amount and nature. Sensitivity increased from 3.3-5.6 to 3.7-6.5K (Kelvin) into the PETM. When taken together with Last Glacial Maximum and modern estimates, this result...... world, but past warming events may provide insight. Here we employ paleoreconstructions and new climate-carbon model simulations in a novel framework to explore a wide scenario range for the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) carbon release and global warming event 55.8Ma ago, a possible future...

  20. Helping others increases meaningful work: Evidence from three experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Blake A; Duffy, Ryan D; Collisson, Brian

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the current research was to examine whether manipulating task significance increased the meaningfulness of work among students (Study 1), an online sample of working adults (Study 2), and public university employees (Study 3). In Study 1, students completed a typing task for the benefit of themselves, a charity, or someone they knew would directly benefit from their work. People who worked to benefit someone else, rather than themselves, reported greater task meaningfulness. In Study 2, a representative, online sample of employees reflected on a time when they worked to benefit themselves or someone else at work. Results revealed that people who reflected on working to benefit someone else, rather than themselves, reported greater work meaningfulness. In Study 3, public university employees participated in a community intervention by working as they normally would, finding new ways to help people each day, or finding several new ways to help others on a single day. People who helped others many times in a single day experienced greater gains in work meaningfulness over time. Across 3 experimental studies, we found that people who perceived their work as helping others experienced more meaningfulness in their work. This highlights the potential mechanisms practitioners, employers, and other parties can use to increase the meaningfulness of work, which has implications for workers' well-being and productivity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. English in Dutch commercials: Not understood and not appreciated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Meurs, W.F.J. van; Gijsbers, I.

    2000-01-01

    Dutch consumers are increasingly exposed to English in commercials on television. Advertising agencies appear to use English because of financial and image reasons. This article investigates how often commercials that contain English occur in the Netherlands and whether consumers comprehend the

  2. Default options in the ICU: widely used but insufficiently understood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Joanna; Halpern, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Default options dramatically influence the behavior of decision makers and may serve as effective decision support tools in the ICU. Their use in medicine has increased in an effort to improve efficiency, reduce errors, and harness the potential of healthcare technology. Recent findings Defaults often fall short of their predicted influence when employed in critical care settings as quality improvement interventions. Investigations reporting the use of defaults are often limited by variations in the relative effect across sites. Preimplementation experiments and long-term monitoring studies are lacking. Summary Defaults in the ICU may help or harm patients and clinical efficiency depending on their format and use. When constructing and encountering defaults, providers should be aware of their powerful and complex influences on decision making. Additional evaluations of the appropriate creation of healthcare defaults and their resulting intended and unintended consequences are needed. PMID:25203352

  3. The Late Ordovician Extinction: How it became the best understood of the five major extinctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, P.

    2003-04-01

    The end Ordovician extinction has become arguably the best-understood major extinction event in Earth History. A plethora of workers have established the pattern of faunal change and causes of the extinction with remarkably little disagreement. The first indication of increased extinction at the end of the Ordovician was a graph of global diversity patterns by Norman Newell in 1967, although he did not recognize it as a major event. The presence of a major extinction event became clear as William Berry and Art Boucot assembled data for Silurian correlation charts in the late 1960s. The first reports of North African glaciation in the late 1960s provided a cause for the extinction and study of the event snowballed. It was no accident that recognition of the extinction began in North America, because it was there that the extinction completely overturned faunas in the epicontinental seas. Glacio-eustatic regression of shallow seaway coincided with the disappearance of endemic Laurentian faunas and replacement by a highly cosmopolitan fauna in the Silurian. Once the event was established in North America, paleontologists soon found evidence of the event around the globe. The well-documented Hirnantia Fauna was found to correspond to the glacial interval, and Pat Brenchley soon recognized that there were two pulses of extinction, at the beginning and end of the glaciation. At the same time that the faunal changes were being documented geologic studies of the glaciation provided information on the environmental changes associated with the extinction. The timing of the glacial maximum was established in Africa and by the presence of dropstones in high latitude marine rocks. The 1990s saw geochemical techniques employed that allowed examination of atmospheric CO2 and temperature changes. In many places carbonate deposition declined. Glacio-eustatic regression was obvious in many areas, and a sea-level decline in the range of 50-100 m was established. Shallow

  4. Increasing evidence for the important role of Labyrinthulomycetes in marine ecosystems

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, S.; Damare, V.S.

    This review summarizes increasing evidence for the role of Labyrinthulomycetes in marine ecosystems gathered over the last six decades. It focuses on their diversity, habitats, biomass, productivity and overall role in food webs and remineralization...

  5. Do evidence summaries increase policy-makers' use of evidence from systematic reviews: A systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkovic, Jennifer; Welch, Vivian; Tugwell, Peter

    2015-09-28

    Systematic reviews are important for decision-makers. They offer many potential benefits but are often written in technical language, are too long, and do not contain contextual details which makes them hard to use for decision-making. There are many organizations that develop and disseminate derivative products, such as evidence summaries, from systematic reviews for different populations or subsets of decision-makers. This systematic review will assess the effectiveness of systematic review summaries on increasing policymakers' use of systematic review evidence and to identify the components or features of these summaries that are most effective. We will include studies of policy-makers at all levels as well as health-system managers. We will include studies examining any type of "evidence summary," "policy brief," or other products derived from systematic reviews that present evidence in a summarized form. The primary outcomes are the following: (1) use of systematic review summaries decision-making (e.g., self-reported use of the evidence in policy-making, decision-making) and (2) policy-maker understanding, knowledge, and/or beliefs (e.g., changes in knowledge scores about the topic included in the summary). We will conduct a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomized controlled trials (NRCTs), controlled before-after studies (CBA), and interrupted time series (ITS) studies. The results of this review will inform the development of future systematic review summaries to ensure that systematic review evidence is accessible to and used by policy-makers making health-related decisions.

  6. Evidence for an increase in cosmogenic 10Be during a geomagnetic reversal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisbeck, G.M.; Yiou, F.; Bourles, D.

    1985-01-01

    The authors report evidence in marine sediments for an increase in cosmogenic 10 Be production in the Earth's atmosphere during the Brunhes-Matuyama reversal 730,000 yr ago. In addition to confirming an increase in cosmogenic isotope production, the results provide information on the magnitude and duration of the geomagnetic intensity decrease during such an event, and the depth at which remanent magnetism is acquired in marine sediments. (author)

  7. Increasing Use of Research Findings in Improving Evidence-Based Health Policy at the National Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiwita Budiharsana

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In February 2016, the Minister of Health decided to increase the use of research findings in improving the quality of the national health policy and planning. The Ministry of Health has instructed the National Institute of Health Research and Development or NIHRD to play a stronger role of monitoring and evaluating all health programs, because “their opinion and research findings should be the basis for changes in national health policies and planning”. Compared to the past, the Ministry of Health has increased the research budget for evidence-based research tremendously. However, there is a gap between the information needs of program and policy-makers and the information offered by researchers. A close dialogue is needed between the users (program managers, policy makers and planners and the suppliers (researchers and evaluators to ensure that the evidence-based supplied by research is useful for programs, planning and health policy.

  8. Evidence that BDNF regulates heart rate by a mechanism involving increased brainstem parasympathetic neuron excitability

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Ruiqian; Weigand, Letitia A.; Bateman, Ryan; Griffioen, Kathleen; Mendelowitz, David; Mattson, Mark P.

    2014-01-01

    Autonomic control of heart rate is mediated by cardioinhibitory parasympathetic cholinergic neurons located in the brainstem and stimulatory sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. During embryonic development the survival and cholinergic phenotype of brainstem autonomic neurons is promoted by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). We now provide evidence that BDNF regulates heart rate by a mechanism involving increased brainstem cardioinhibitory parasympathetic activity. Mice with a BDNF haplo...

  9. Contemporary management of benign parotid tumours - the increasing evidence for extracapsular dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, P A; Ammar, M; Matharu, J

    2017-01-01

    Benign parotid tumours have historically often been managed surgically by superficial parotidectomy. While this approach usually gives a generous cuff of surrounding normal parotid tissue to increase tumour margins, it requires a much larger incision than the increasingly used extracapsular dissection (ECD) technique. Furthermore, superficial parotidectomy can result in marked facial hollowing, Frey syndrome and an increased risk of both temporary and permanent facial nerve weakness. ECD has been popularised as a safe alternative to parotidectomy primarily for the removal of mobile, benign parotid tumours with safe outcomes and reduced risk to the facial nerve. In this article, we review the growing body of evidence for ECD and include our own experience confirming the move away from superficial parotidectomy in contemporary practice for the treatment of benign parotid tumours. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. High-Frequency Binaural Beats Increase Cognitive Flexibility: Evidence from Dual-Task Crosstalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommel, Bernhard; Sellaro, Roberta; Fischer, Rico; Borg, Saskia; Colzato, Lorenza S

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that cognitive-control processes can be configured to optimize either persistence of information processing (by amplifying competition between decision-making alternatives and top-down biasing of this competition) or flexibility (by dampening competition and biasing). We investigated whether high-frequency binaural beats, an auditory illusion suspected to act as a cognitive enhancer, have an impact on cognitive-control configuration. We hypothesized that binaural beats in the gamma range bias the cognitive-control style toward flexibility, which in turn should increase the crosstalk between tasks in a dual-task paradigm. We replicated earlier findings that the reaction time in the first-performed task is sensitive to the compatibility between the responses in the first and the second task-an indication of crosstalk. As predicted, exposing participants to binaural beats in the gamma range increased this effect as compared to a control condition in which participants were exposed to a continuous tone of 340 Hz. These findings provide converging evidence that the cognitive-control style can be systematically biased by inducing particular internal states; that high-frequency binaural beats bias the control style toward more flexibility; and that different styles are implemented by changing the strength of local competition and top-down bias.

  11. High-frequency binaural beats increase cognitive flexibility: evidence from dual-task crosstalk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Hommel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that cognitive-control processes can be configured to optimize either persistence of information processing (by amplifying competition between decision-making alternatives and top-down biasing of this competition or flexibility (by dampening competition and biasing. We investigated whether high-frequency binaural beats, an auditory illusion suspected to act as a cognitive enhancer, have an impact on cognitive-control configuration. We hypothesized that binaural beats in the gamma range bias the cognitive-control style towards flexibility, which in turn should increase the crosstalk between tasks in a dual-task paradigm. We replicated earlier findings that the reaction time in the first-performed task is sensitive to the compatibility between the responses in the first and the second task—an indication of crosstalk. As predicted, exposing participants to binaural beats in the gamma range increased this effect as compared to a control condition in which participants were exposed to a continuous tone of 340 Hz. These findings provide converging evidence that the cognitive-control style can be systematically biased by inducing particular internal states; that high-frequency binaural beats bias the control style towards more flexibility; and that different styles are implemented by changing the strength of local competition and top-down bias.

  12. Bilingualism and increased attention to speech: Evidence from event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Jan Rouke; Thierry, Guillaume

    2015-10-01

    A number of studies have shown that from an early age, bilinguals outperform their monolingual peers on executive control tasks. We previously found that bilingual children and adults also display greater attention to unexpected language switches within speech. Here, we investigated the effect of a bilingual upbringing on speech perception in one language. We recorded monolingual and bilingual toddlers' event-related potentials (ERPs) to spoken words preceded by pictures. Words matching the picture prime elicited an early frontal positivity in bilingual participants only, whereas later ERP amplitudes associated with semantic processing did not differ between groups. These results add to the growing body of evidence that bilingualism increases overall attention during speech perception whilst semantic integration is unaffected. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. No evidence of increased fire risk due to agricultural land abandonment in Sardinia (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ricotta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Different land cover types are related to different levels of fire hazard through their vegetation structure and fuel load composition. Therefore, understanding the relationships between landscape changes and fire behavior is of crucial importance for developing adequate fire fighting and fire prevention strategies for a changing world. In the last decades the abandonment of agricultural lands and pastoral activities has been the major driver of landscape transformations in Mediterranean Europe. As agricultural land abandonment typically promotes an increase in plant biomass (fuel load, a number of authors argue that vegetation succession in abandoned fields and pastures is expected to increase fire hazard. In this short paper, based on 28 493 fires in Sardinia (Italy in the period 2001–2010, we show that there is no evidence of increased probability of fire ignition in abandoned rural areas. To the contrary, in Sardinia the decreased human impact associated with agricultural land abandonment leads to a statistically significant decrease of fire ignition probability.

  14. Evidence of a 50-year increase in tropospheric ozone in Upper Bavaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schmidt

    Full Text Available In a series of ozone-sonde soundings at the Hohenpeißenberg observatory, starting in 1967, the most striking features are increases of sim2.2% per year in all tropospheric heights up to 8 km during the past 24 years. These facts have recently been published and discussed by several authors. In this paper, we present some evidence for the increase of tropospheric ozone concentrations during the past 50 years 1940-1990 in the territory of the northern edge of the Bavarian Alps, including the Hohenpeißenberg data. In December 1940 and August 1942, probably the first exact wet-chemical vertical soundings of ozone up to 9 km height were made by an aircraft in the region mentioned. These results were published in the earlier literature. We have converted the results of the flights on 4 days in December 1940 and on 6 days in August 1942 to modern units and have compared them with the Hohenpeißenberg ozone-sonde data of the December and August months. We also compared the data at the ground with the August results of Paris-Montsouris 1886-1898. Our results show an increase of ozone concentration at all tropospheric heights in Upper Bavaria during the past 50 years, compared with the Montsouris data in August during the past 105 years. In the recently published papers, the increases since 1967 were approximated linearly.Our results, extended to the past, show non-linear trends, with steeper increases since 1975-1979. Possible reasons for these findings are discussed. Quite recently (in case of the December months since 1986/87, the August months since 1990, the ozone mixing ratios at and above Hohenpeißenberg seem to have decreased.

  15. Evidence of a 50-year increase in tropospheric ozone in Upper Bavaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schmidt

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available In a series of ozone-sonde soundings at the Hohenpeißenberg observatory, starting in 1967, the most striking features are increases of \\sim2.2% per year in all tropospheric heights up to 8 km during the past 24 years. These facts have recently been published and discussed by several authors. In this paper, we present some evidence for the increase of tropospheric ozone concentrations during the past 50 years 1940-1990 in the territory of the northern edge of the Bavarian Alps, including the Hohenpeißenberg data. In December 1940 and August 1942, probably the first exact wet-chemical vertical soundings of ozone up to 9 km height were made by an aircraft in the region mentioned. These results were published in the earlier literature. We have converted the results of the flights on 4 days in December 1940 and on 6 days in August 1942 to modern units and have compared them with the Hohenpeißenberg ozone-sonde data of the December and August months. We also compared the data at the ground with the August results of Paris-Montsouris 1886-1898. Our results show an increase of ozone concentration at all tropospheric heights in Upper Bavaria during the past 50 years, compared with the Montsouris data in August during the past 105 years. In the recently published papers, the increases since 1967 were approximated linearly.Our results, extended to the past, show non-linear trends, with steeper increases since 1975-1979. Possible reasons for these findings are discussed. Quite recently (in case of the December months since 1986/87, the August months since 1990, the ozone mixing ratios at and above Hohenpeißenberg seem to have decreased.

  16. Evidence for increased glutamatergic cortical facilitation in children and adolescents with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croarkin, Paul E; Nakonezny, Paul A; Husain, Mustafa M; Melton, Tabatha; Buyukdura, Jeylan S; Kennard, Betsy D; Emslie, Graham J; Kozel, F Andrew; Daskalakis, Zafiris J

    2013-03-01

    Converging lines of evidence implicate the glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid neurotransmitter systems in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder. Transcranial magnetic stimulation cortical excitability and inhibition paradigms have been used to assess cortical glutamatergic and γ-aminobutyric acid-mediated tone in adults with major depressive disorder, but not in children and adolescents. To compare measures of cortical excitability and inhibition with 4 different paradigms in a group of children and adolescents with major depressive disorder vs healthy controls. Cross-sectional study examining medication-free children and adolescents (aged 9-17 years) with major depressive disorder compared with healthy controls. Cortical excitability was assessed with motor threshold and intracortical facilitation measures. Cortical inhibition was measured with cortical silent period and intracortical inhibition paradigms. University-based child and adolescent psychiatry clinic and neurostimulation laboratory. Twenty-four participants with major depressive disorder and 22 healthy controls matched for age and sex. Patients with major depressive disorder were medication naive and had moderate to severe symptoms based on an evaluation with a child and adolescent psychiatrist and scores on the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised. Motor threshold, intracortical facilitation, cortical silent period, and intracortical inhibition. Compared with healthy controls, depressed patients had significantly increased intracortical facilitation at interstimulus intervals of 10 and 15 milliseconds bilaterally. There were no significant group differences in cortical inhibition measures. These findings suggest that major depressive disorder in children and adolescents is associated with increased intracortical facilitation and excessive glutamatergic activity.

  17. Photorespiratory Bypasses Lead to Increased Growth in Arabidopsis thaliana: Are Predictions Consistent with Experimental Evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basler, Georg; Küken, Anika; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Nikoloski, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Arguably, the biggest challenge of modern plant systems biology lies in predicting the performance of plant species, and crops in particular, upon different intracellular and external perturbations. Recently, an increased growth of Arabidopsis thaliana plants was achieved by introducing two different photorespiratory bypasses via metabolic engineering. Here, we investigate the extent to which these findings match the predictions from constraint-based modeling. To determine the effect of the employed metabolic network model on the predictions, we perform a comparative analysis involving three state-of-the-art metabolic reconstructions of A. thaliana. In addition, we investigate three scenarios with respect to experimental findings on the ratios of the carboxylation and oxygenation reactions of Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO). We demonstrate that the condition-dependent growth phenotypes of one of the engineered bypasses can be qualitatively reproduced by each reconstruction, particularly upon considering the additional constraints with respect to the ratio of fluxes for the RuBisCO reactions. Moreover, our results lend support for the hypothesis of a reduced photorespiration in the engineered plants, and indicate that specific changes in CO2 exchange as well as in the proxies for co-factor turnover are associated with the predicted growth increase in the engineered plants. We discuss our findings with respect to the structure of the used models, the modeling approaches taken, and the available experimental evidence. Our study sets the ground for investigating other strategies for increase of plant biomass by insertion of synthetic reactions. PMID:27092301

  18. No evidence of increasing Haemophilus influenzae non-b infection in Australian Aboriginal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert I. Menzies

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. High, or increasing, rates of invasive Haemophilus influenzae (Hi type a disease have been reported from North American native children from circumpolar regions, raising the question of serotype replacement being driven by vaccination against Hi type b (Hib. Indigenous Australians from remote areas had high rates of invasive Hib disease in the past, comparable to those in North American Indigenous populations. Objective. Evaluate incidence rates of invasive Hi (overall and by serotype in Indigenous Australian children over time. Design. Descriptive study of Hi incidence rates by serotype, in the Northern Territory (NT and South Australia (SA from 2001 to 2011. Comparison of NT data with a study that was conducted in the NT in 1985–1988, before Hib vaccine was introduced. Results. The average annual rate of invasive Hi type a (Hia disease in Indigenous children aged <5 years was 11/100,000 population. Although the incidence of Hi infection in Indigenous children in 2001–2003 was lower than during 2004–2011, this may be due to changes in surveillance. No other trend over time in individual serotypes or total invasive Hi disease, in Indigenous or non-Indigenous people, was identified. Compared to 1985–1988, rates in 2001–2011 were lower in all serotype groupings, by 98% for Hib, 75% for Hia, 79% for other serotypes and 67% for non-typeable Hi. Conclusions. There is no evidence of increases in invasive disease due to Hia, other specific non-b types, or non-typeable Hi in Australian Indigenous children. These data suggest that the increase in Hia some time after the introduction of Hib vaccine, as seen in the North American Arctic Region, is not common to all populations with high pre-vaccine rates of invasive Hib disease. However, small case numbers and the lack of molecular subtyping and PCR confirmation of pre-vaccine results complicate comparisons with North American epidemiology.

  19. Further evidence for increased macrophage migration inhibitory factor expression in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iczkowski Kenneth A

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF is a cytokine associated with prostate cancer, based on histologic evidence and circulating (serum levels. Recent studies from another laboratory failed to document these results. This study's aims were to extend and confirm our previous data, as well as to define possible mechanisms for the discrepant results. Additional aims were to examine MIF expression, as well as the location of MIF's receptor, CD74, in human prostatic adenocarcinoma compared to matched benign prostate. Methods MIF amounts were determined in random serum samples remaining following routine PSA screening by ELISA. Native, denaturing and reducing polyacrylamide gels and Western blot analyses determined the MIF form in serum. Prostate tissue arrays were processed for MIF in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry for MIF and CD74. MIF released into culture medium from normal epithelial, LNCaP and PC-3 cells was detected by Western blot analysis. Results Median serum MIF amounts were significantly elevated in prostate cancer patients (5.87 ± 3.91 ng/ml; ± interquartile range; n = 115 compared with patients with no documented diagnosis of prostate cancer (2.19 ± 2.65 ng/ml; n = 158. ELISA diluent reagents that included bovine serum albumin (BSA significantly reduced MIF serum detection (p Conclusion Increased serum MIF was associated with prostate cancer. Diluent reagents that included BSA resulted in MIF serum immunoassay interference. In addition, significant amounts of complexed MIF (180 kDa under denaturing conditions by Western blot found in the serum do not bind to the MIF capture antibody. Increased MIF mRNA expression was observed in prostatic adenocarcinoma compared to benign tissue from matched samples, supporting our earlier finding of increased MIF gene expression in prostate cancer.

  20. Bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus population increases in Placentia Bay, Newfoundland: evidence for habitat saturation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla R. Letto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Across North America, Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus populations appear to be recovering following bans of DDT. A limited number of studies from across North America have recorded a surplus of nonbreeding adult Bald Eagles in dense populations when optimal habitat and food become limited. Placentia Bay, Newfoundland is one of these. The area has one of the highest densities of Bald Eagles in eastern North America, and has recently experienced an increase in the proportion of nonbreeding adults within the population. We tested whether the observed Bald Eagle population trends in Placentia Bay, Newfoundland during the breeding seasons 1990-2009 are due to habitat saturation. We found no significant differences in habitat or food resource characteristics between occupied territories and pseudo-absence data or between nest sites with high vs. low nest activity/occupancy rates. Therefore there is no evidence for habitat saturation for Bald Eagles in Placentia Bay and alternative hypotheses for the high proportion of nonbreeding adults should be considered. The Newfoundland population provides an interesting case for examination because it did not historically appear to be affected by pollution. An understanding of Bald Eagle population dynamics in a relatively pristine area with a high density can be informative for restoration and conservation of Bald Eagle populations elsewhere.

  1. Further evidence for increased macrophage migration inhibitory factor expression in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer-Siegler, Katherine L; Iczkowski, Kenneth A; Vera, Pedro L

    2005-01-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a cytokine associated with prostate cancer, based on histologic evidence and circulating (serum) levels. Recent studies from another laboratory failed to document these results. This study's aims were to extend and confirm our previous data, as well as to define possible mechanisms for the discrepant results. Additional aims were to examine MIF expression, as well as the location of MIF's receptor, CD74, in human prostatic adenocarcinoma compared to matched benign prostate. MIF amounts were determined in random serum samples remaining following routine PSA screening by ELISA. Native, denaturing and reducing polyacrylamide gels and Western blot analyses determined the MIF form in serum. Prostate tissue arrays were processed for MIF in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry for MIF and CD74. MIF released into culture medium from normal epithelial, LNCaP and PC-3 cells was detected by Western blot analysis. Median serum MIF amounts were significantly elevated in prostate cancer patients (5.87 ± 3.91 ng/ml; ± interquartile range; n = 115) compared with patients with no documented diagnosis of prostate cancer (2.19 ± 2.65 ng/ml; n = 158). ELISA diluent reagents that included bovine serum albumin (BSA) significantly reduced MIF serum detection (p < 0.01). MIF mRNA was localized to prostatic epithelium in all samples, but cancer showed statistically greater MIF expression. MIF and its receptor (CD74) were localized to prostatic epithelium. Increased secreted MIF was detected in culture medium from prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP and PC-3). Increased serum MIF was associated with prostate cancer. Diluent reagents that included BSA resulted in MIF serum immunoassay interference. In addition, significant amounts of complexed MIF (180 kDa under denaturing conditions by Western blot) found in the serum do not bind to the MIF capture antibody. Increased MIF mRNA expression was observed in prostatic

  2. Evident?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind......Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind...

  3. Does autonomy for public hospitals in developing countries increase performance? Evidence-based case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geyndt, Willy

    2017-04-01

    Governments in middle and low income countries have sought ways for the past decades to make their public hospitals more performing. The objectives of this assessment are to: (a) synthesize the experience of eleven countries at granting autonomy to their public hospitals and the obstacles encountered; (b) deduce which autonomy policies have or have not been effective documenting successes and failures; and (c) propose evidence-based recommendations to policy makers. Data for five countries are derived from the author's participation in the autonomy process augmented by current updates provided by national colleagues. Data for the other six countries are derived from publications available in the literature. Policies granting autonomy to public hospitals have had limited success. In all cases Boards of Directors have been created. Governance of autonomized hospitals by Boards however is obstructed by the resistance of central level entities to have their authority diminished. The Ministry of Finance tends to maintain control over revenues and expenditures. The Public Service Commission resists abdicating its role to hire, promote, transfer and dismiss government employees. The Ministry of Health attempts to keep its authority to appoint hospital staff, procure medical supplies and equipment; it may do so directly or indirectly by selecting and appointing Board members. Management information systems continue to collect activity measures to be aggregated at the national level for statistical purposes and do not provide financial and clinical data useful for decision making by the Boards and by senior management. Decentralizing decision making to the operational level has had limited success. Stakeholders at the central level devise strategies to maintain their power. Two main obstacles are delegating authority over human resources and finances that are sine qua non conditions for governing and increasing the performance of public hospitals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  4. Thallium isotope evidence for a permanent increase in marine organic carbon export in the early Eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, S.G.; Mar-Gerrison, S.; Gannoun, A.; LaRowe, D.; Klemm, V.; Halliday, A.N.; Burton, K.W.; Hein, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    The first high resolution thallium (Tl) isotope records in two ferromanganese crusts (Fe-Mn crusts), CD29 and D11 from the Pacific Ocean are presented. The crusts record pronounced but systematic changes in 205Tl/203Tl that are unlikely to reflect diagenetic overprinting or changes in isotope fractionation between seawater and Fe-Mn crusts. It appears more likely that the Fe-Mn crusts track the Tl isotope composition of seawater over time. The present-day oceanic residence time of Tl is estimated to be about 20,000??yr, such that the isotopic composition should reflect ocean-wide events. New and published Os isotope data are used to construct age models for these crusts that are consistent with each other and significantly different from previous age models. Application of these age models reveals that the Tl isotope composition of seawater changed systematically between ~ 55??Ma and ~ 45??Ma. Using a simple box model it is shown that the present day Tl isotope composition of seawater depends almost exclusively on the ratio between the two principal output fluxes of marine Tl. These fluxes are the rate of removal of Tl from seawater via scavenging by authigenic Fe-Mn oxyhydroxide precipitation and the uptake rate of Tl during low temperature alteration of oceanic crust. It is highly unlikely that the latter has changed greatly. Therefore, assuming that the marine Tl budget has also not changed significantly during the Cenozoic, the low 205Tl/203Tl during the Paleocene is best explained by a more than four-fold higher sequestration of Tl by Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides compared with at the present day. The calculated Cenozoic Tl isotopic seawater curve displays a striking similarity to that of S, providing evidence that both systems may have responded to the same change in the marine environment. A plausible explanation is a marked and permanent increase in organic carbon export from ~ 55??Ma to ~ 45??Ma, which led to higher pyrite burial rates and a significantly reduced

  5. Vitamin D Status and the Host Resistance to Infections: What It Is Currently (Not) Understood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Pierre Olivier; Aspinall, Richard

    2017-05-01

    Vitamin D is increasingly thought to play a role in regulating immunity. This comprehensive review updates the current understanding regarding ways in which we believe that vitamin D regulates responsiveness of the immune system and how serum status modulates the host defense against pathogens. The literature was searched by using PubMed and Scopus with the following key words: vitamin D, immunity, innate and adaptive immunity, infectious disease, and vaccine response. Vitamin D deficiency remains a major public health concern worldwide. The overall body of evidence confirms that vitamin D plays an important role in modulating the immune response to infections. Epidemiologic studies suggest a clear association between vitamin D deficiency and susceptibility to various pathogens. However, translation of vitamin D use into the clinic as a means of controlling infections is fraught with methodologic and epidemiologic challenges. The recent discovery of alternative activation pathways, different active forms of vitamin D, and possible interaction with non-vitamin D receptors provide further complications to an already complex interaction between vitamin D and the immune system. Moreover, it has become apparent that the individual responsiveness to supplementation is more dynamic than presumed from the static assessment of 25-hydroxy vitamin D status. Furthermore, the epigenetic response at the level of the individual to environmental changes and lifestyle or health conditions provides greater variation than those resulting from vitamin D receptor polymorphisms. To understand the future of vitamin D with respect to clinical applications in the prevention and better control of infectious diseases, it is necessary to determine all aspects of vitamin D metabolism, as well as the mechanisms by which active forms interact with the immune system globally. For the most part, we are unable to identify tissue-specific applications of supplementation except for those subjects at

  6. Measuring Collaboration and Communication to Increase Implementation of Evidence-Based Practices: The Cultural Exchange Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Garcia, Antonio; Aarons, Gregory; Finno-Velasquez, Megan; Fuentes, Dahlia; Holloway, Ian; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2018-01-01

    The Cultural Exchange Inventory (CEI) is a 15-item instrument designed to measure the process (7 items) and outcomes (8 items) of exchanges of knowledge, attitudes and practices between members of different organisations collaborating in implementing evidence-based practice. We conducted principal axis factor analyses and parallel analyses of data…

  7. The Intertemporal Substitution and Income Effects of a VAT Rate Increase: Evidence from Japan

    OpenAIRE

    David CASHIN; UNAYAMA Takashi

    2011-01-01

    One of the biggest political issues in Japan is an increase in the rate of value added tax (VAT). In this paper, we evaluate its impact on household expenditure, using Japan's April 1997 VAT rate increase from three to five percent as a case study. A rate increase induces price hikes, and provided this increase in price levels is anticipated, households should engage in intertemporal substitution of purchases. In addition, if households are not compensated for the rate increase, it has the po...

  8. Promoting community practitioners' use of evidence-based approaches to increase breast cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, Jennifer; Moore, Alexis; Teal, Randall; Barrett, Nadine; Leighton, Ashely; Steckler, Allan

    2013-07-01

    Many women do not get mammography screenings at the intervals recommended for early detection and treatment of breast cancer. The Guide to Community Preventive Services (Community Guide) recommends a range of evidence-based strategies to improve mammography rates. However, nurses and others working in community-based settings make only limited use of these strategies. We report on a dissemination intervention that partnered the University of North Carolina with the Susan G. Komen Triangle Affiliate to disseminate Community Guide breast cancer screening strategies to community organizations. The intervention was guided by social marketing and diffusion of innovation theory and was designed to provide evidence and support via Komen's existing relationships with grantee organizations. The present study reports the findings from a formative evaluation of the intervention, which included a content analysis of 46 grant applications pre- and post intervention and focus groups with 20 grant recipients. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Poorly understood and often miscategorized congenital umbilical cord hernia: an alternative repair method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İnce, E; Temiz, A; Ezer, S S; Gezer, H Ö; Hiçsönmez, A

    2017-06-01

    Umbilical cord hernia is poorly understood and often miscategorized as "omphalocele minor". Careless clamping of the cord leads to iatrogenic gut injury in the situation of umbilical cord hernia. This study aimed to determine the characteristics and outcomes of umbilical cord hernias. We also highlight an alternative repair method for umbilical cord hernias. We recorded 15 cases of umbilical cord hernias over 10 years. The patients' data were retrospectively reviewed, and preoperative preparation of the newborn, gestational age, birth weight, other associated malformations, surgical technique used, enteral nutrition, and length of hospitalization were recorded. This study included 15 neonates with umbilical cord hernias. The mean gestational age at the time of referral was 38.2 ± 2.1

  10. The market of human organs: a window into a poorly understood global business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surman, O S; Saidi, R; Purtilo, R; Simmerling, M; Ko, D; Burke, T F

    2008-03-01

    The global demand for human organs has set the stage for an exploding and poorly understood global business in human organs. Whenever there is demand for a product, the opportunity for business arises. The form that a business takes is dependent on a complex network of inputs and outputs, each affecting the others. Historically, the details of any specific market are drastically underestimated. Nowhere is this truer than in the market of human organs. The drivers, which propel the "goods" of human organs, form a flourishing business. Critical analysis is essential to understanding of the supply and demand sides and to determine the role of government in regulating the industry. Governmental groups have dismissed formation of a regulated market for organ sales. The concept is nonetheless a topic of active discussion, motivated by the suffering of patients in need of organs and exploitation of the victims of human trafficking. Ethical principles have been invoked on each side of the ensuing debate. Theory in the absence of sufficient data is shaky ground for enactment of new policy. The Aristotelian concept of "practical wisdom" and the pragmatism of William James illuminate the importance of scientific investigation as guide to policy formation. How will stakeholders benefit or lose? What impact might be anticipated in regard to organized medicine's social contract? What can we learn about cross-cultural differences and their effect on the global landscape?

  11. Does price efficiency increase with trading volume? Evidence of nonlinearity and power laws in ETFs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caginalp, Gunduz; DeSantis, Mark

    2017-02-01

    Whether efficiency increases with increasing volume is an important issue that may illuminate trader strategies and distinguish between market theories. This relationship is tested using 124,236 daily observations comprising 68 large and liquid U.S. equity exchange traded funds (ETFs). ETFs have the advantage that efficiency can be measured in terms of the deviation between the trading price and the underlying net asset value that is reported each day. Our findings support the hypothesis that the relationship between volume and efficiency is nonlinear. Indeed, efficiency increases as volume increases from low to moderately high levels, but then decreases as volume increases further. The first part tends to support the idea that higher volume simply facilitates transactions and maintains efficiency, while the latter part, i.e., even higher volumes, supports the ansatz that increased volume is associated with increased speculation that ignores valuation and decreases efficiency. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that valuation is only part of the motivation for traders. Our methodology accounts for fund heterogeneity and contemporaneous correlations. Similar results are obtained when daily price volatility is introduced as an additional independent variable.

  12. Motivated Reasoning and Political Parties: Evidence for Increased Processing in the Face of Party Cues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Bang; Skov, Martin; Serritzlew, Søren

    2013-01-01

    . As part of the latter processes, the presence of party cues would make individuals engage in effortful motivated reasoning to produce arguments for the correctness of their party’s position. Following psychological research, we use response latency to measure processing effort and, in support......Extant research in political science has demonstrated that citizens’ opinions on policies are influenced by their attachment to the party sponsoring them. At the same time, little evidence exists illuminating the psychological processes through which such party cues are filtered. From...... the psychological literature on source cues, we derive two possible hypotheses: (1) party cues activate heuristic processing aimed at minimizing the processing effort during opinion formation, and (2) party cues activate group motivational processes that compel citizens to support the position of their party...

  13. Evidence of Climate Change (Global Warming) and Temperature Increases in Arctic Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Kojo Wu Aikins

    2012-01-01

    This paper contributes to the debate on the proximate causes of climate change. Also, it discusses the impact of the global temperature increases since the beginning of the twentieth century and the effectiveness of climate change models in isolating the primary cause (anthropogenic influences or natural variability in temperature) of the observed temperature increases that occurred within this period. The paper argues that if climate scientist and policymakers ignore the...

  14. Can Standards Increase Consumer Welfare? Evidence from a Change in Clothes Washer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiaomei [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Roberts, Michael J. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Univ. of Hawaii, Manoa, HI (United States); Yang, Hung-Chia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dale, Larry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-12-08

    We study prices and sales of individual clothes washer models before, during and after a 2007 standard that banned manufacture (but not sale) of low-e ciency units and increased the threshold for Energy Star certi cation. While quantities sold of washer models banned from manufacture decreased sharply, prices for banned models increased only modestly. At the same time, sales of higher-e ciency units rose markedly while prices for high-e ciency units declined. On average, washer e ciency increased but prices changed little. A simple welfare analysis indicates that consumer welfare loss from banned washers was far outweighed by gains from lower-priced high-e ciency units. While a full cost-bene t analysis is not feasible with the available data, we estimate a lower-bound gain in consumer surplus equal to 6-16 percent of total sales. This result may accord with earlier theoretical research that shows quality standards can increase welfare in monopolistically competitive industries that possess increasing returns to scale (Ronnen, 1991). Thus, if energy e ciency is a close proxy for quality, energy e ciency standards may increase competition, market e ciency and welfare.

  15. Evidence for increasingly variable Palmer Drought Severity Index in the United States since 1895.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayne, Sierra; Forest, Kaya

    2016-02-15

    Annual and summertime trends towards increasingly variable values of the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) over a sub-decadal period (five years) were investigated within the contiguous United States between 1895 and the present. For the contiguous United States as a whole, there is a significant increasing trend in the five-year running minimum-maximum ranges for the annual PDSI (aPDSI5 yr(min|max, range)). During this time frame, the average aPDSI5 yr(min|max, range) has increased by about one full unit, indicating a substantial increase in drought variability over short time scales across the United States. The end members of the running aPDSI5 yr(min|max, range) highlight even more rapid changes in the drought index variability within the past 120 years. This increasing variability in the aPDSI5 yr(min|max, range) is driven primarily by changes taking place in the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean coastal climate regions, climate regions which collectively comprise one-third the area of the contiguous United States. Similar trends were found for the annual and summertime Palmer Hydrological Drought Index (PHDI), the Palmer Modified Drought Index (PMDI), and the Palmer Z Index (PZI). Overall, interannual drought patterns in the contiguous United States are becoming more extreme and difficult to predict, posing a challenge to agricultural and other water-resource related planning efforts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Whole body and forearm substrate metabolism in hyperthyroidism: evidence of increased basal muscle protein breakdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riis, Anne Lene Dalkjaer; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde; Gjedde, Signe; Nørrelund, Helene; Jurik, Anne Grethe; Nair, K S; Ivarsen, Per; Weeke, Jørgen; Møller, Niels

    2005-06-01

    Thyroid hormones have significant metabolic effects, and muscle wasting and weakness are prominent clinical features of chronic hyperthyroidism. To assess the underlying mechanisms, we examined seven hyperthyroid women with Graves' disease before (Ht) and after (Eut) medical treatment and seven control subjects (Ctr). All subjects underwent a 3-h study in the postabsorptive state. After regional catheterization, protein dynamics of the whole body and of the forearm muscles were measured by amino acid tracer dilution technique using [15N]phenylalanine and [2H4]tyrosine. Before treatment, triiodothyronine was elevated (6.6 nmol/l) and whole body protein breakdown was increased 40%. The net forearm release of phenylalanine was increased in hyperthyroidism (microg.100 ml(-1).min(-1)): -7.0 +/- 1.2 Ht vs. -3.8 +/- 0.8 Eut (P = 0.04), -4.2 +/- 0.3 Ctr (P = 0.048). Muscle protein breakdown, assessed by phenylalanine rate of appearance, was increased (microg.100 ml(-1).min(-1)): 15.5 +/- 2.0 Ht vs. 9.6 +/- 1.4 Eut (P = 0.03), 9.9 +/- 0.6 Ctr (P = 0.02). Muscle protein synthesis rate did not differ significantly. Muscle mass and muscle function were decreased 10-20% before treatment. All abnormalities were normalized after therapy. In conclusion, our results show that hyperthyroidism is associated with increased muscle amino acid release resulting from increased muscle protein breakdown. These abnormalities can explain the clinical manifestations of sarcopenia and myopathy.

  17. Evidence of increasing drought severity caused by temperature rise in southern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M; Lopez-Moreno, Juan-I; Lorenzo-Lacruz, Jorge; García-Ruiz, José M; Azorin-Molina, Cesar; Morán-Tejeda, Enrique; Revuelto, Jesús; Beguería, Santiago; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo; Trigo, Ricardo; Coelho, Fatima; Espejo, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    We use high quality climate data from ground meteorological stations in the Iberian Peninsula (IP) and robust drought indices to confirm that drought severity has increased in the past five decades, as a consequence of greater atmospheric evaporative demand resulting from temperature rise. Increased drought severity is independent of the model used to quantify the reference evapotranspiration. We have also focused on drought impacts to drought-sensitive systems, such as river discharge, by analyzing streamflow data for 287 rivers in the IP, and found that hydrological drought frequency and severity have also increased in the past five decades in natural, regulated and highly regulated basins. Recent positive trend in the atmospheric water demand has had a direct influence on the temporal evolution of streamflows, clearly identified during the warm season, in which higher evapotranspiration rates are recorded. This pattern of increase in evaporative demand and greater drought severity is probably applicable to other semiarid regions of the world, including other Mediterranean areas, the Sahel, southern Australia and South Africa, and can be expected to increasingly compromise water supplies and cause political, social and economic tensions among regions in the near future. (paper)

  18. Is there evidence that social class at birth increases risk of psychosis? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Wingfai

    2014-12-01

    In the 1950s, researchers showed an association between low socio-economic status (SES) and psychosis. Two competing theories social causation and social drift were proposed to explain the findings. In the intervening years, contrasting evidence emerged as some studies showed no association between SES and schizophrenia. At present, the nature of the relationship is still unclear; currently, there are no reviews in the literature examining the association between social class at birth and psychosis. To search the literature to clarify the relationship between social class at birth, measured by paternal occupation at birth, and the risk of adult-onset psychosis. A systematic search of the literature using a combination of keywords in Group 1 together with the keywords in Group 2 was performed in October 2012 in the following online databases: (a) MEDLINE (1946-2012), (b) PubMed, (c) Embase (1980-2012), (d) PsycINFO (1806-2012) and (e) Web of Science (1899-2012). Reference lists were also hand searched. The search provided 3,240 studies; following screening of the titles and abstracts by inclusion and exclusion criteria and quality assessment of the full text, 14 studies were identified to be appropriate for the review. The keywords used for the search were as follows: Group 1 - social class, social status, socioeconomic, socio-economic, SES; Group 2 - psychosis, psychoses, schizophrenia. Seven studies showed an association between low SES and psychosis. Four studies showed no association, and three studies showed an association with high SES. There is not enough evidence to support the association between social class and psychosis. While some findings showed an association between low social class and psychosis, there were a number of conflicting studies showing no association or a link with higher social class. Interestingly, the results followed a temporal pattern, as all the studies conducted after 2001 supported an association between low SES at birth and

  19. Automatic control of negative emotions: evidence that structured practice increases the efficiency of emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou-Champi, Spyros; Farrow, Tom F D; Webb, Thomas L

    2015-01-01

    Emotion regulation (ER) is vital to everyday functioning. However, the effortful nature of many forms of ER may lead to regulation being inefficient and potentially ineffective. The present research examined whether structured practice could increase the efficiency of ER. During three training sessions, comprising a total of 150 training trials, participants were presented with negatively valenced images and asked either to "attend" (control condition) or "reappraise" (ER condition). A further group of participants did not participate in training but only completed follow-up measures. Practice increased the efficiency of ER as indexed by decreased time required to regulate emotions and increased heart rate variability (HRV). Furthermore, participants in the ER condition spontaneously regulated their negative emotions two weeks later and reported being more habitual in their use of ER. These findings indicate that structured practice can facilitate the automatic control of negative emotions and that these effects persist beyond training.

  20. A review of the evidence for and against increased mortality in hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thvilum, Marianne; Brandt, Frans; Brix, Thomas H

    2012-01-01

    The lifetime risk of overt hypothyroidism is around 5%, and this disease is usually preceded by subclinical hypothyroidism, which has an even higher prevalence (estimated to be up to 9%). Hypothyroidism has been linked with cardiac dysfunction, atherosclerosis, hypertension and coagulopathy....... Intuitively, this increased morbidity is expected to shorten patients' lifespan, but definitive data are lacking on whether either of these hypothyroid states (particularly overt hypothyroidism) increase mortality. Study findings are inconsistent and, overall, the pooled data do not demonstrate increased...... mortality in patients with either subclinical or overt hypothyroidism. However, none of the available studies was adequately designed to answer this question. This Review discusses major shortcomings in those studies, such as population dissimilarities, hypothyroid state classification and misclassification...

  1. Tuberculosis in inner London: evidence for an increase in young adults and immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkham, T. M.; Drury, A.; Pearson, A. D.; Dybowski, R.; Atkinson, H.

    1995-01-01

    We report a marked increase in the rate of notifications of tuberculosis in young adults in the London Borough of Lambeth. Analysis of notifications made to the Proper Officer over a 10-year period showed that the age specific notification rate in the cohort aged 20-44 years increased from 30/100,000 in 1983 to 51/100,000 in 1992. Analysis of St. Thomas' Hospital laboratory records of patients seen between 1984 and 1991 from whom Mycobacterium tuberculosis was isolated showed an increase in the number of patients of African origin from five in the first half of the study period (1984-7) to 25 in the second half (1988-91): 21 of these 25 had immigrated into England within 4 years of their illness. This finding is being further investigated in a prospective study of ethnicity, travel history and date of immigration of Lambeth residents notified with tuberculosis. PMID:7641826

  2. Lung heparan sulfates modulate Kfc during increased vascular pressure: evidence for glycocalyx-mediated mechanotransduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluff, Mark; Kingston, Joseph; Hill, Denzil; Chen, Haiyan; Hoehne, Soeren; Malleske, Daniel T.; Kaur, Rajwinederjit

    2012-01-01

    Lung endothelial cells respond to changes in vascular pressure through mechanotransduction pathways that alter barrier function via non-Starling mechanism(s). Components of the endothelial glycocalyx have been shown to participate in mechanotransduction in vitro and in systemic vessels, but the glycocalyx's role in mechanosensing and pulmonary barrier function has not been characterized. Mechanotransduction pathways may represent novel targets for therapeutic intervention during states of elevated pulmonary pressure such as acute heart failure, fluid overload, and mechanical ventilation. Our objective was to assess the effects of increasing vascular pressure on whole lung filtration coefficient (Kfc) and characterize the role of endothelial heparan sulfates in mediating mechanotransduction and associated increases in Kfc. Isolated perfused rat lung preparation was used to measure Kfc in response to changes in vascular pressure in combination with superimposed changes in airway pressure. The roles of heparan sulfates, nitric oxide, and reactive oxygen species were investigated. Increases in capillary pressure altered Kfc in a nonlinear relationship, suggesting non-Starling mechanism(s). nitro-l-arginine methyl ester and heparanase III attenuated the effects of increased capillary pressure on Kfc, demonstrating active mechanotransduction leading to barrier dysfunction. The nitric oxide (NO) donor S-nitrosoglutathione exacerbated pressure-mediated increase in Kfc. Ventilation strategies altered lung NO concentration and the Kfc response to increases in vascular pressure. This is the first study to demonstrate a role for the glycocalyx in whole lung mechanotransduction and has important implications in understanding the regulation of vascular permeability in the context of vascular pressure, fluid status, and ventilation strategies. PMID:22160307

  3. Subfertility increases risk of testicular cancer: evidence from population-based semen samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Heidi A; Anderson, Ross E; Aston, Kenneth I; Carrell, Douglas T; Smith, Ken R; Hotaling, James M

    2016-02-01

    To further understand the association between semen quality and cancer risk by means of well defined semen parameters. Retrospective cohort study. Not applicable. A total of 20,433 men who underwent semen analysis (SA) and a sample of 20,433 fertile control subjects matched by age and birth year. None. Risk of all cancers as well as site-specific results for prostate cancer, testicular cancer, and melanoma. Compared with fertile men, men with SA had an increased risk of testicular cancer (hazard rate [HR] 3.3). When the characterization of infertility was refined using individual semen parameters, we found that oligozoospermic men had an increased risk of cancer compared with fertile control subjects. This association was particularly strong for testicular cancer, with increased risk in men with oligozoospermia based on concentration (HR 11.9) and on sperm count (HR 10.3). Men in the in the lowest quartile of motility (HR 4.1), viability (HR 6.6), morphology (HR 4.2), or total motile count (HR 6.9) had higher risk of testicular cancer compared with fertile men. Men with sperm concentration and count in the 90th percentiles of the distribution (≥178 and ≥579 × 10(6)/mL, respectively), as well as total motile count, had an increased risk of melanoma (HRs 2.1, 2.7, and 2.0, respectively). We found no differences in cancer risk between azoospermic and fertile men. Men with SA had an increased risk of testicular cancer which varied by semen quality. Unlike earlier work, we did not find an association between azoospermia and increased cancer risk. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Increased foot-stretcher height improves rowing performance: evidence from biomechanical perspectives on water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Gao, Binghong; Li, Jiru; Ma, Zuchang; Sun, Yining

    2018-06-07

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether changes on foot-stretcher height were associated with characteristics of better rowing performance. Ten male rowers performed a 200 m rowing trial at their racing rate at each of three foot-stretcher heights. A single scull was equipped with an accelerometer to collect boat acceleration, an impeller with embedded magnets to collect boat speed, specially designed gate sensors to collect gate force and angle, and a compact string potentiometer to collect leg drive length. All sensor signals were sampled at 50 Hz. A one-way repeated measures ANOVA showed that raising foot-stretcher position had a significant reduction on total gate angle and leg drive length. However, a raised foot-stretcher position had a deeper negative peak of boat acceleration at the catch, a lower boat fluctuation, a faster leg drive speed, a larger gate force for the port and starboard side separately. This could be attributed to the optimisation of the magnitude and direction of the foot force with a raised foot-stretcher position. Although there was a significant negative influence of a raised foot-stretcher position on two kinematic variables, biomechanical evidence suggested that a raised foot-stretcher position could contribute to the improvement of rowing performance.

  5. Does increase in the depreciation expensing allowance spur economic growth? Evidence from USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Yuan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite substantial evidence that economic growth is influenced by taxation, the impact of Section 179 on GDP is unclear. Section 179 of the Internal Revenue Code enacted in 1958 has operated for several decades in the United States. In addition, in late 2010, two congressional acts affecting Section 179 have been passed, i.e. The Tax Relief Act of 2010 and The Small Business Jobs Act of 2010. The essence of these adoptions is to provide incentives for corporate as well as individual taxpayers. However, there are concerns as to the degree of economic growth these adoptions will provide. This research is therefore focused on showing the correlation between these Section 179 deductions, depreciation and economic growth as the Section 179 figures are debated and changed annually. The study suggests that annual increments of capital depreciation deductions will aid corporate growth as well as other variables that affect economic growth in the United States. However, the benefits for small business are lower than for corporations.

  6. Mindfulness training increases cooperative decision making in economic exchanges: Evidence from fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Ulrich; Gu, Xiaosi; Sharp, Carla; Hula, Andreas; Fonagy, Peter; Montague, P Read

    2016-09-01

    Emotions have been shown to exert influences on decision making during economic exchanges. Here we investigate the underlying neural mechanisms of a training regimen which is hypothesized to promote emotional awareness, specifically mindfulness training (MT). We test the hypothesis that MT increases cooperative economic decision making using fMRI in a randomized longitudinal design involving 8weeks of either MT or active control training (CT). We find that MT results in an increased willingness to cooperate indexed by higher acceptance rates to unfair monetary offers in the Ultimatum Game. While controlling for acceptance rates of monetary offers between intervention groups, subjects in the MT and CT groups show differential brain activation patterns. Specifically, a subset of more cooperative MT subjects displays increased activation in the septal region, an area linked to social attachment, which may drive the increased willingness to express cooperative behavior in the MT cohort. Furthermore, MT resulted in attenuated activity in anterior insula compared with the CT group in response to unfair monetary offers post-training, which may suggest that MT enables greater ability to effectively regulate the anterior insula and thereby promotes social cooperation. Finally, functional connectivity analyses show a coupling between the septal region and posterior insula in the MT group, suggesting an integration of interoceptive inputs. Together, these results highlight that MT may be employed in contexts where emotional regulation is required to promote social cooperation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The evolution of urban sprawl: evidence of spatial heterogeneity and increasing land fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Elena G; Bockstael, Nancy E

    2007-12-26

    We investigate the dynamics and spatial distribution of land use fragmentation in a rapidly urbanizing region of the United States to test key propositions regarding the evolution of sprawl. Using selected pattern metrics and data from 1973 and 2000 for the state of Maryland, we find significant increases in developed and undeveloped land fragmentation but substantial spatial heterogeneity as well. Estimated fragmentation gradients that describe mean fragmentation as a function of distance from urban centers confirm the hypotheses that fragmentation rises and falls with distance and that the point of maximum fragmentation shifted outward over time. However, rather than outward increases in sprawl balanced by development infill, we find substantial and significant increases in mean fragmentation values along the entire urban-rural gradient. These findings are in contrast to the results of Burchfield et al. [Burchfield M, Overman HG, Puga D, Turner MA (2006) Q J Econ 121:587-633], who conclude that the extent of sprawl remained roughly unchanged in the Unites States between 1976 and 1992. As demonstrated here, both the data and pattern measure used in their study are systematically biased against recording low-density residential development, the very land use that we find is most strongly associated with fragmentation. Other results demonstrate the association between exurban growth and increasing fragmentation and the systematic variation of fragmentation with nonurban factors. In particular, proximity to the Chesapeake Bay is negatively associated with fragmentation, suggesting that an attraction effect associated with this natural amenity has concentrated development.

  8. Language Shift or Increased Bilingualism in South Africa: Evidence from Census Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posel, Dorrit; Zeller, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    In the post-apartheid era, South Africa has adopted a language policy that gives official status to 11 languages (English, Afrikaans, and nine Bantu languages). However, English has remained the dominant language of business, public office, and education, and some research suggests that English is increasingly being spoken in domestic settings.…

  9. Increase in Operator's Sympathetic Nerve Activity during Complicated Hepatobiliary Surgery: Evidence for Surgeons' Mental Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanouchi, Kosho; Hayashida, Naomi; Kuba, Sayaka; Sakimura, Chika; Kuroki, Tamotsu; Togo, Michita; Katayama, Noritada; Takamura, Noboru; Eguchi, Susumu

    2015-11-01

    Surgeons often experience stress during operations. The heart rate variability (HRV) is the variability in the beat-to-beat interval, which has been used as parameters of stress. The purpose of this study was to evaluate mental stress of surgeons before, during and after operations, especially during pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Additionally, the parameters were compared in various procedures during the operations. By frequency domain method using electrocardiograph, we measured the high frequency (HF) component, representing the parasympathetic activity, and the low frequency (LF)/HF ratio, representing the sympathetic activity. In all 5 cases of PD, the surgeon showed significantly lower HF component and higher LF/HF during operation, indicating predominance of sympathetic nervous system and increased stress, than those before the operation (p operation. Out of the 4 LDLT cases, the value of HF was decreased in two and the LF/HF increased in three cases (p operation compared to those before the operation. In all cases, the value of HF was decreased and/or the LF/HF increased significantly during the reconstruction of the vessels or bile ducts than during the removal of the liver. Thus, sympathetic nerve activity increased during hepatobiliary surgery compared with the level before the operation, and various procedures during the operations induced diverse changes in the autonomic nervous activities. The HRV analysis could assess the chronological changes of mental stress by measuring the autonomic nervous balances.

  10. Population increase, economic growth, educational inequality, and income distribution: some recent evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, R

    1984-04-01

    The relationship between population increase, economic growth, education and income inequality was examined in a cross-section study based on data from 26 developing and 2 developed countries. As other studies have noted, high population growth is associated with a less equal income distribution. A 1 percentage point reduction in the rate of population growth tends to raise the income share of the poorest 80% in the less developed world by almost 5 percentage points and is associated with a 1.7 percentage point increase in the income share of the poorest 40%. The relationship between short-run income growth and equality, on the other hand, is strong and positive. Estimates suggest that a 1 percentage point increase in the short-run rate of growth of the gross domestic product (GDP) increases the income share of the bottom 80% by about 2 percentage points and that of the poorest 40% by almost 1 percentage point. Although higher mean schooling appears to be a mild equalizer, educational inequality does not appear to have an adverse effect on income distribution. Overall, these results challenge the widely held belief that there must be a growth-equity trade-off. Moreover, they suggest that the impact of educational inequality on income distribution may be different from that observed in earlier studies, implying a need for caution in using these earlier results as a basis for educational policy development.

  11. Can Distance Education Increase Educational Equality? Evidence from the Expansion of Chinese Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengliang; Zhou, Mengying; Fan, Baolong

    2014-01-01

    Since China decided to expand its higher education, we have seen an increasing number of discussions of the relationship between educational expansion and equality. However, few studies have examined whether the expansion of distance higher education will improve educational equality among different regions. In this study, we analyzed the changes…

  12. Atmospheric evidence for a global secular increase in carbon isotopic discrimination of land photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Ralph F.; Graven, Heather D.; Welp, Lisa R.; Resplandy, Laure; Bi, Jian; Piper, Stephen C.; Sun, Ying; Bollenbacher, Alane; Meijer, Harro A. J.

    2017-09-01

    A decrease in the 13C/12C ratio of atmospheric CO2 has been documented by direct observations since 1978 and from ice core measurements since the industrial revolution. This decrease, known as the 13C-Suess effect, is driven primarily by the input of fossil fuel-derived CO2 but is also sensitive to land and ocean carbon cycling and uptake. Using updated records, we show that no plausible combination of sources and sinks of CO2 from fossil fuel, land, and oceans can explain the observed 13C-Suess effect unless an increase has occurred in the 13C/12C isotopic discrimination of land photosynthesis. A trend toward greater discrimination under higher CO2 levels is broadly consistent with tree ring studies over the past century, with field and chamber experiments, and with geological records of C3 plants at times of altered atmospheric CO2, but increasing discrimination has not previously been included in studies of long-term atmospheric 13C/12C measurements. We further show that the inferred discrimination increase of 0.014 ± 0.007‰ ppm-1 is largely explained by photorespiratory and mesophyll effects. This result implies that, at the global scale, land plants have regulated their stomatal conductance so as to allow the CO2 partial pressure within stomatal cavities and their intrinsic water use efficiency to increase in nearly constant proportion to the rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration.

  13. No strong evidence for increasing liana abundance in the Myristicaceae of a Neotropical aseasonal rain forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James R; Queenborough, Simon A; Alvia, Pablo; Romero-Saltos, Hugo; Valencia, Renato

    2017-02-01

    The "liana dominance hypothesis" posits that lianas are increasing in abundance in tropical forests, thereby potentially reducing tree biomass due to competitive interactions between trees and lianas. This scenario has implications not only for forest ecosystem function and species composition, but also climate change given the mass of carbon stored in tropical trees. In 2003 and 2013, all Myristicaceae trees in the 50-ha Yasuní Forest Dynamics Plot, Ecuador, were surveyed for liana presence and load in their crowns. We tested the hypothesis that the proportion of trees with lianas increased between 2003 and 2013 in line with the liana dominance hypothesis. Contrary to expectations, the total proportion of trees with lianas decreased from 35% to 32%, and when only trees ≥10 cm diameter at breast height were considered liana incidence increased 44-48%. Liana load was dynamic with a large proportion of trees losing or gaining lianas over the 10-yr period; large trees with intermediate liana loads increased in proportion at the expense of those with low and high loads. Lianas also impacted performance: trees with 26-75% crown cover by lianas in 2003 had reduced growth rates of 80% compared to of liana-free trees, and trees with >75% crown cover had 33% the growth rate and a log odds of mortality eight times that of liana-free trees. We suggest that the lack of strong support found for the liana dominance hypothesis is likely due to the aseasonal climate of Yasuní, which limits the competitive advantage lianas maintain over trees during dry seasons due to their efficient capture and use of water. We propose further research of long-term liana dynamics from aseasonal forests is required to determine the generality of the increasing liana dominance hypothesis in Neotropical forests. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  14. Getting physicians to open the survey: little evidence that an envelope teaser increases response rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziegenfuss Jeanette Y

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physician surveys are an important tool to assess attitudes, beliefs and self-reported behaviors of this policy relevant group. In order for a physician to respond to a mailed survey, they must first open the envelope. While there is some evidence that package elements can impact physician response rates, the impact of an envelope teaser is unknown. Here we assess this by testing the impact of adding a brightly colored "$25 incentive" sticker to the outside of an envelope on response rates and nonresponse bias in a survey of physicians. Methods In the second mailing of a survey assessing physicians' moral beliefs and views on controversial health care topics, initial nonrespondents were randomly assigned to receive a survey in an envelope with a colored "$25 incentive" sticker (teaser group or an envelope without a sticker (control group. Response rates were compared between the teaser and control groups overall and by age, gender, region of the United States, specialty and years in practice. Nonresponse bias was assessed by comparing the demographic composition of the respondents to the nonrespondents in the experimental and control condition. Results No significant differences in response rates were observed between the experimental and control conditions overall (p = 0.38 or after stratifying by age, gender, region, or practice type. Within the teaser condition, there was some variation in response rate by years since graduation. There was no independent effect of the teaser on response when simultaneously controlling for demographic characteristics (OR = 0.875, p = 0.4112. Conclusions Neither response rates nor nonresponse bias were impacted by the use of an envelope teaser in a survey of physicians in the United States.

  15. Evidence-based practices to increase hand hygiene compliance in health care facilities: An integrated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neo, Jun Rong Jeffrey; Sagha-Zadeh, Rana; Vielemeyer, Ole; Franklin, Ella

    2016-06-01

    Hand hygiene (HH) in health care facilities is a key component to reduce pathogen transmission and nosocomial infections. However, most HH interventions (HHI) have not been sustainable. This review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of recently published evidence-based HHI designed to improve HH compliance (HHC) that will enable health care providers to make informed choices when allocating limited resources to improve HHC and patient safety. The Medline electronic database (using PubMed) was used to identify relevant studies. English language articles that included hand hygiene interventions and related terms combined with health care environments or related terms were included. Seventy-three studies that met the inclusion criteria were summarized. Interventions were categorized as improving awareness with education, facility design, and planning, unit-level protocols and procedures, hospital-wide programs, and multimodal interventions. Past successful HHIs may not be as effective when applied to other health care environments. HH education should be interactive and engaging. Electronic monitoring and reminders should be implemented in phases to ensure cost-effectiveness. To create hospitalwide programs that engage end users, policy makers should draw expertise from interdisciplinary fields. Before implementing the various components of multimodal interventions, health care practitioners should identify and examine HH difficulties unique to their organizations. Future research should seek to achieve the following: replicate successful HHI in other health care environments, develop reliable HHC monitoring tools, understand caregiver-patient-family interactions, examine ways (eg, hospital leadership, financial support, and strategies from public health and infection prevention initiatives) to sustain HHC, and use simulated lab environments to refine study designs. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc

  16. Increased temperatures negatively affect Juniperus communis seeds: evidence from transplant experiments along a latitudinal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruwez, R; De Frenne, P; Vander Mijnsbrugge, K; Vangansbeke, P; Verheyen, K

    2016-05-01

    With a distribution range that covers most of the Northern hemisphere, common juniper (Juniperus communis) has one of the largest ranges of all vascular plant species. In several regions in Europe, however, populations are decreasing in size and number due to failing recruitment. One of the main causes for this failure is low seed viability. Observational evidence suggests that this is partly induced by climate warming, but our mechanistic understanding of this effect remains incomplete. Here, we experimentally assess the influence of temperature on two key developmental phases during sexual reproduction, i.e. gametogenesis and fertilisation (seed phase two, SP2) and embryo development (seed phase three, SP3). Along a latitudinal gradient from southern France to central Sweden, we installed a transplant experiment with shrubs originating from Belgium, a region with unusually low juniper seed viability. Seeds of both seed phases were sampled during three consecutive years, and seed viability assessed. Warming temperatures negatively affected the seed viability of both SP2 and SP3 seeds along the latitudinal gradient. Interestingly, the effect on embryo development (SP3) only occurred in the third year, i.e. when the gametogenesis and fertilisation also took place in warmer conditions. We found strong indications that this negative influence mostly acts via disrupting growth of the pollen tube, the development of the female gametophyte and fertilisation (SP2). This, in turn, can lead to failing embryo development, for example, due to nutritional problems. Our results confirm that climate warming can negatively affect seed viability of juniper. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  17. Moral concerns increase attention and response monitoring during IAT performance: ERP evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellemers, Naomi; Derks, Belle; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has revealed that people value morality as a more important person characteristic than competence. In this study, we tested whether people adjust their less explicit behavior more to moral than competence values. Participants performed an Implicit Association Test (IAT) that was either framed as a test of their morality or as a test of their competence. The behavioral results revealed a smaller IAT effect (i.e. a weaker negative implicit bias toward Muslims) in the morality condition than in the competence condition. Moreover, event-related potentials indicated increased social categorization of faces (as indexed by the N1 and P150) and enhanced conflict- and error monitoring (N450 and error-related negativity) in the morality condition compared to the competence condition. These findings indicate that an emphasis on morality can increase attentional and motivational processes that help to improve people’s task performance. PMID:23175679

  18. Evidence brief – Plain packaging of tobacco products: measures to decrease smoking initiation and increase cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Céline E J L Brassart

    2015-01-01

    to women and young people. They also show that, when combined with large pictorial health warnings, plain-packaging measures increase awareness about the risks related to tobacco consumption, encouraging more people to quit and fewer to start. In that these measures merely regulate the use of logos...... or colours for public health purposes, they are in compliance with international trade and intellectual property law....

  19. Increasing Wage Gap, Spatial Structure and Market Access: Evidence from Swedish Micro Data

    OpenAIRE

    Nabavi, Pardis

    2015-01-01

    The new economic geography predicts that the wage gap will increase with accessibility to markets but does not consider the impact of spatial proximity. In contrast, urban economic theory explains wage differences by density without accounting for accessibility. Using a rich Swedish micro-panel, we empirically examine the two rival theories for males and females separately, controlling for individual, firm and regional characteristics. The regression results indicate that wage dispersion is c...

  20. Education increases reserve against Alzheimer's disease - evidence from structural MRI analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yawu; Julkunen, Valtteri; Paajanen, Teemu; Soininen, Hilkka; Westman, Eric; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Aitken, Andrew; Sobow, Tomasz; Mecocci, Patrizia; Tsolaki, Magda; Vellas, Bruno; Muehlboeck, Sebastian; Spenger, Christian; Lovestone, Simon; Simmons, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether years of schooling influences regional cortical thicknesses and volumes in Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy age-matched controls. Using an automated image analysis pipeline, 33 regional cortical thickness and 15 regional volumes measures from MRI images were determined in 121 subjects with MCI, 121 patients with AD, and 113 controls from AddNeuroMed study. Correlations with years of schooling were determined and more highly and less highly educated subjects compared, controlling for intracranial volume, age, gender, country of origin, cognitive status, and multiple testing. After controlling for confounding factors and multiple testing, in the control group, subjects with more education had larger regional cortical thickness in transverse temporal cortex, insula, and isthmus of cingulate cortex than subjects with less education. However, in the AD group, the subjects with more education had smaller regional cortical thickness in temporal gyrus, inferior and superior parietal gyri, and lateral occipital cortex than the subjects with less education. No significant difference was found in the MCI group. Education may increase regional cortical thickness in healthy controls, leading to increased brain reserve, as well as helping AD patients to cope better with the effects of brain atrophy by increasing cognitive reserve. (orig.)

  1. Education increases reserve against Alzheimer's disease - evidence from structural MRI analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yawu [University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio University Hospital, Department of Neurology, P.O.Box 1627, Kuopio (Finland); University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio University Hospital, Department of Clinical Radiology, Kuopio (Finland); Julkunen, Valtteri; Paajanen, Teemu; Soininen, Hilkka [University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio University Hospital, Department of Neurology, P.O.Box 1627, Kuopio (Finland); Westman, Eric; Wahlund, Lars-Olof [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Section of Clinical Geriatrics, Stockholm (Sweden); Aitken, Andrew [South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust and King' s College London, NIHR Biomedical Research Centre for Mental Health, London (United Kingdom); Sobow, Tomasz [Medical University of Lodz, Department of Old Age Psychiatry and Psychotic Disorders, Lodz (Poland); Mecocci, Patrizia [University of Perugia, Institute of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Perugia (Italy); Tsolaki, Magda [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Third Department of Neurology, Thessaloniki (Greece); Vellas, Bruno [Universite Paul Sabatier, INSERM U 558, Toulouse Gerontopole University Hospital, Toulouse (France); Muehlboeck, Sebastian [McGill University, McConnell Brain Imaging Center, Montreal (Canada); Spenger, Christian [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Lovestone, Simon; Simmons, Andrew [South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust and King' s College London, NIHR Biomedical Research Centre for Mental Health, London (United Kingdom); King' s College London, MRC Centre for Neurodegeneration Research, Institute of Psychiatry, London (United Kingdom); Collaboration: AddNeuroMed Consortium

    2012-09-15

    The aim of this study was to determine whether years of schooling influences regional cortical thicknesses and volumes in Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy age-matched controls. Using an automated image analysis pipeline, 33 regional cortical thickness and 15 regional volumes measures from MRI images were determined in 121 subjects with MCI, 121 patients with AD, and 113 controls from AddNeuroMed study. Correlations with years of schooling were determined and more highly and less highly educated subjects compared, controlling for intracranial volume, age, gender, country of origin, cognitive status, and multiple testing. After controlling for confounding factors and multiple testing, in the control group, subjects with more education had larger regional cortical thickness in transverse temporal cortex, insula, and isthmus of cingulate cortex than subjects with less education. However, in the AD group, the subjects with more education had smaller regional cortical thickness in temporal gyrus, inferior and superior parietal gyri, and lateral occipital cortex than the subjects with less education. No significant difference was found in the MCI group. Education may increase regional cortical thickness in healthy controls, leading to increased brain reserve, as well as helping AD patients to cope better with the effects of brain atrophy by increasing cognitive reserve. (orig.)

  2. Epidemiologic Evidence That Excess Body Weight Increases Risk of Cervical Cancer by Decreased Detection of Precancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Megan A; Fetterman, Barbara; Cheung, Li C; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Gage, Julia C; Katki, Hormuzd A; Befano, Brian; Demarco, Maria; Schussler, John; Kinney, Walter K; Raine-Bennett, Tina R; Lorey, Thomas S; Poitras, Nancy E; Castle, Philip E; Schiffman, Mark

    2018-04-20

    Purpose Obesity has been inconsistently linked to increased cervical cancer incidence and mortality; however, the effect of obesity on cervical screening has not been explored. We investigated the hypothesis that increased body mass might decrease detection of cervical precancer and increase risk of cervical cancer even in women undergoing state-of-the-art screening. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 944,227 women age 30 to 64 years who underwent cytology and human papillomavirus DNA testing (ie, cotesting) at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (January 2003 to December 2015). Body mass index was categorized as normal/underweight (< 25 kg/m 2 ), overweight (25 to < 30 kg/m 2 ), or obese (≥ 30 kg/m 2 ). We estimated 5-year cumulative risks of cervical precancer and cancer by category of body mass index using logistic Weibull survival models. Results We observed lower risk of cervical precancer (n = 4,489) and higher risk of cervical cancer (n = 490) with increasing body mass index. Specifically, obese women had the lowest 5-year risk of precancer (0.51%; 95% CI, 0.48% to 0.54% v 0.73%; 95% CI, 0.70% to 0.76% in normal/underweight women; P trend < .001). In contrast, obese women had the highest 5-year risk of cancer (0.083%; 95% CI, 0.072% to 0.096% v 0.056%; 95% CI, 0.048% to 0.066% in normal/underweight women; P trend < .001). Results were consistent in subgroups defined by age (30 to 49 v 50 to 64 years), human papillomavirus status (positive v negative), and histologic subtype (glandular v squamous). Approximately 20% of cervical cancers could be attributed to overweight or obesity in the women in our study who underwent routine cervical screening. Conclusion In this large, screened population, overweight and obese women had an increased risk of cervical cancer, likely because of underdiagnosis of cervical precancer. Improvements in equipment and/or technique to assure adequate sampling and visualization of women with elevated body mass

  3. Small vessel disease, neurovascular regulation and cognitive impairment: post-mortem studies reveal a complex relationship, still poorly understood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Seth; Miners, J Scott

    2017-07-15

    The contribution of vascular disease to cognitive impairment is under-recognized and the pathogenesis is poorly understood. This information gap has multiple causes, including a lack of post-mortem validation of clinical diagnoses of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) or vascular dementia (VaD), the exclusion of cases with concomitant neurodegenerative disease when diagnosing VCI/VaD, and a lack of standardization of neuropathological assessment protocols for vascular disease. Other contributors include a focus on end-stage destructive lesions to the exclusion of more subtle types of diffuse brain injury, on structural abnormalities of arteries and arterioles to the exclusion of non-structural abnormalities and capillary damage, and the use of post-mortem sampling strategies that are biased towards the identification of neurodegenerative pathologies. Recent studies have demonstrated the value of detailed neuropathology in characterizing vascular contributions to cognitive impairment (e.g. in diabetes), and highlight the importance of diffuse white matter changes, capillary damage and vasoregulatory abnormalities in VCI/VaD. The use of standardized, evidence-based post-mortem assessment protocols and the inclusion of biochemical as well as morphological methods in neuropathological studies should improve the accuracy of determination of the contribution of vascular disease to cognitive impairment and clarify the relative contribution of different pathogenic processes to the tissue damage. © 2017 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  4. Increased recovery of touch DNA evidence using FTA paper compared to conventional collection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirgiz, Irina A; Calloway, Cassandra

    2017-04-01

    21 samples (69%) and a partial profile was observed for nine samples (25%); STR analysis failed for two samples collected using tape (6%). In conclusion, we show that the FTA paper scraping method has the potential to collect higher DNA yields from touch DNA evidence deposited on non-porous surfaces often encountered in criminal cases compared to conventional methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  5. Are lower income smokers more price sensitive?: the evidence from Korean cigarette tax increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seng Eun

    2016-03-01

    The cigarette excise taxes and the price of a typical pack of cigarettes in Korea have not increased since 2005, and effective tax rate as a fraction of price and real price of cigarettes have both been falling. As smoking prevalence is higher among lower income people than among higher income people in Korea, the regressivity of cigarette excise taxes is often cited as a barrier to tobacco tax and price policy. While studies in several other high-income countries have shown that higher income individuals are less price sensitive, few studies have examined the differential impact of cigarette tax increases by income group in Korea. Most of the Korean literature has estimated the demand for cigarettes using time-series aggregate sales data or household level survey data, which record household cigarette expenditures rather than individual cigarette consumption. Studies using survey data often lack time-series variation and estimate cigarette demand using household expenditure data, while studies using time-series aggregate sales data lack cross-sectional variation. I examine differences in the effects of cigarette price on the cigarette consumption of various income groups using individual-level cigarette consumption records from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KHNNES). I also analyse the implications of cigarette taxes and price increases on the relative tax burdens of different income groups. I use pooled data from the KNHNES for the 1998-2011 period to estimate the price elasticity of cigarette consumption of four income groups. Treating cigarette consumption as a latent variable, I employ an econometric procedure that corrects for non-random sample selection, or the fact that some non-smokers might have smoked at a low enough price, and estimate the price elasticity of cigarette consumption by income group. The estimated price elasticities include the responsiveness of potential smokers as well as current smokers. Lower income Korean

  6. Increasing negativity of age stereotypes across 200 years: evidence from a database of 400 million words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Reuben; Allore, Heather G; Trentalange, Mark; Monin, Joan K; Levy, Becca R

    2015-01-01

    Scholars argue about whether age stereotypes (beliefs about old people) are becoming more negative or positive over time. No previous study has systematically tested the trend of age stereotypes over more than 20 years, due to lack of suitable data. Our aim was to fill this gap by investigating whether age stereotypes have changed over the last two centuries and, if so, what may be associated with this change. We hypothesized that age stereotypes have increased in negativity due, in part, to the increasing medicalization of aging. This study applied computational linguistics to the recently compiled Corpus of Historical American English (COHA), a database of 400 million words that includes a range of printed sources from 1810 to 2009. After generating a comprehensive list of synonyms for the term elderly for these years from two historical thesauri, we identified 100 collocates (words that co-occurred most frequently with these synonyms) for each of the 20 decades. Inclusion criteria for the collocates were: (1) appeared within four words of the elderly synonym, (2) referred to an old person, and (3) had a stronger association with the elderly synonym than other words appearing in the database for that decade. This yielded 13,100 collocates that were rated for negativity and medicalization. We found that age stereotypes have become more negative in a linear way over 200 years. In 1880, age stereotypes switched from being positive to being negative. In addition, support was found for two potential explanations. Medicalization of aging and the growing proportion of the population over the age of 65 were both significantly associated with the increase in negative age stereotypes. The upward trajectory of age-stereotype negativity makes a case for remedial action on a societal level.

  7. Increasing negativity of age stereotypes across 200 years: evidence from a database of 400 million words.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuben Ng

    Full Text Available Scholars argue about whether age stereotypes (beliefs about old people are becoming more negative or positive over time. No previous study has systematically tested the trend of age stereotypes over more than 20 years, due to lack of suitable data. Our aim was to fill this gap by investigating whether age stereotypes have changed over the last two centuries and, if so, what may be associated with this change. We hypothesized that age stereotypes have increased in negativity due, in part, to the increasing medicalization of aging. This study applied computational linguistics to the recently compiled Corpus of Historical American English (COHA, a database of 400 million words that includes a range of printed sources from 1810 to 2009. After generating a comprehensive list of synonyms for the term elderly for these years from two historical thesauri, we identified 100 collocates (words that co-occurred most frequently with these synonyms for each of the 20 decades. Inclusion criteria for the collocates were: (1 appeared within four words of the elderly synonym, (2 referred to an old person, and (3 had a stronger association with the elderly synonym than other words appearing in the database for that decade. This yielded 13,100 collocates that were rated for negativity and medicalization. We found that age stereotypes have become more negative in a linear way over 200 years. In 1880, age stereotypes switched from being positive to being negative. In addition, support was found for two potential explanations. Medicalization of aging and the growing proportion of the population over the age of 65 were both significantly associated with the increase in negative age stereotypes. The upward trajectory of age-stereotype negativity makes a case for remedial action on a societal level.

  8. Better Fitness in Captive Cuvier's Gazelle despite Inbreeding Increase: Evidence of Purging?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulalia Moreno

    Full Text Available Captive breeding of endangered species often aims at preserving genetic diversity and to avoid the harmful effects of inbreeding. However, deleterious alleles causing inbreeding depression can be purged when inbreeding persists over several generations. Despite its great importance both for evolutionary biology and for captive breeding programmes, few studies have addressed whether and to which extent purging may occur. Here we undertake a longitudinal study with the largest captive population of Cuvier's gazelle managed under a European Endangered Species Programme since 1975. Previous results in this population have shown that highly inbred mothers tend to produce more daughters, and this fact was used in 2006 to reach a more appropriate sex-ratio in this polygynous species by changing the pairing strategy (i.e., pairing some inbred females instead of keeping them as surplus individuals in the population. Here, by using studbook data we explore whether purging has occurred in the population by investigating whether after the change in pairing strategy a inbreeding and homozygosity increased at the population level, b fitness (survival increased, and c the relationship between inbreeding and juvenile survival, was positive. Consistent with the existence of purging, we found an increase in inbreeding coefficients, homozygosity and juvenile survival. In addition, we showed that in the course of the breeding programme the relationship between inbreeding and juvenile survival was not uniform but rather changed over time: it was negative in the early years, flat in the middle years and positive after the change in pairing strategy. We highlight that by allowing inbred individuals to mate in captive stocks we may favour sex-ratio bias towards females, a desirable managing strategy to reduce the surplus of males that force most zoos to use ethical culling and euthanizing management tools. We discuss these possibilities but also acknowledge that many

  9. Performance-based financing to increase utilization of maternal health services: Evidence from Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Steenland

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Performance-based financing (PBF programs are increasingly implemented in low and middle-income countries to improve health service quality and utilization. In April 2011, a PBF pilot program was launched in Boulsa, Leo and Titao districts in Burkina Faso with the objective of increasing the provision and quality of maternal health services. We evaluate the impact of this program using facility-level administrative data from the national health management information system (HMIS. Primary outcomes were the number of antenatal care visits, the proportion of antenatal care visits that occurred during the first trimester of pregnancy, the number of institutional deliveries and the number of postnatal care visits. To assess program impact we use a difference-in-differences approach, comparing changes in health service provision post-introduction with changes in matched comparison areas. All models were estimated using ordinary least squares (OLS regression models with standard errors clustered at the facility level. On average, PBF facilities had 2.3 more antenatal care visits (95% CI [0.446–4.225], 2.1 more deliveries (95% CI [0.034–4.069] and 9.5 more postnatal care visits (95% CI [6.099, 12.903] each month after the introduction of PBF. Compared to the service provision levels prior to the interventions, this implies a relative increase of 27.7 percent for ANC, of 9.2 percent for deliveries, and of 118.7 percent for postnatal care. Given the positive results observed during the pre-pilot period and the limited resources available in the health sector, the PBF program in Burkina Faso may be a low-cost, high impact intervention to improve maternal and child health.

  10. Evidence of more efficient whistler-mode transmission during periods of increased magnetic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. Thomson

    Full Text Available In a previous study it was reported that whistler- mode signals received at Faraday, Antarctica (65°S,64°W and Dunedin, New Zealand (46°S,171°E with entry regions in Pacific longitudes (typically from the VLF transmitter NLK, Seattle, USA showed an increase in transmission of wave energy as magnetic activity increased. However, signals with entry regions in Atlantic longitudes (typically from the NSS transmitter, Annapolis, USA did not appear to show such a relationship. This paper reports the results of a study of the same two longitude ranges but with the opposite transmitter providing additional whistler-mode signal information, with L-values in the range 1.8–2.6. Transmissions from NLK once again indicate a relationship between the transmission of wave energy and magnetic activity even though the signals were propagating in Atlantic longitudes, not Pacific. Any trend in NSS events observed at Dunedin was obscured by a limited range of magnetic activity, and duct exit regions so close to the receiver that small-scale excitation effects appeared to be occurring. However, by combining data from both longitudes, i.e Pacific and Atlantic, and using only ducts with exit regions that were >500km from the receiver, NSS events were found to show the same trend as NLK events. No significant longitude-dependent or transmitter-dependent variations in duct efficiency could be detected. Duct efficiency increases by a factor of about 30 with Kp=2–8 and this result is discussed in terms of changes in wave-particle interactions and duct size.

  11. Evidence of more efficient whistler-mode transmission during periods of increased magnetic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. Thomson

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study it was reported that whistler- mode signals received at Faraday, Antarctica (65°S,64°W and Dunedin, New Zealand (46°S,171°E with entry regions in Pacific longitudes (typically from the VLF transmitter NLK, Seattle, USA showed an increase in transmission of wave energy as magnetic activity increased. However, signals with entry regions in Atlantic longitudes (typically from the NSS transmitter, Annapolis, USA did not appear to show such a relationship. This paper reports the results of a study of the same two longitude ranges but with the opposite transmitter providing additional whistler-mode signal information, with L-values in the range 1.8–2.6. Transmissions from NLK once again indicate a relationship between the transmission of wave energy and magnetic activity even though the signals were propagating in Atlantic longitudes, not Pacific. Any trend in NSS events observed at Dunedin was obscured by a limited range of magnetic activity, and duct exit regions so close to the receiver that small-scale excitation effects appeared to be occurring. However, by combining data from both longitudes, i.e Pacific and Atlantic, and using only ducts with exit regions that were >500km from the receiver, NSS events were found to show the same trend as NLK events. No significant longitude-dependent or transmitter-dependent variations in duct efficiency could be detected. Duct efficiency increases by a factor of about 30 with Kp=2–8 and this result is discussed in terms of changes in wave-particle interactions and duct size.

  12. No evidence of age-related increases in unconscious plagiarism during free recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfect, Timothy John; Defeldre, Anne-Catherine; Elliman, Rachel; Dehon, Hedwige

    2011-07-01

    In three experiments younger and older participants took part in a group generation task prior to a delayed recall task. In each, participants were required to recall the items that they had generated, avoiding plagiarism errors. All studies showed the same pattern: older adults did not plagiarise their partners any more than younger adults did. However, older adults were more likely than younger adults to intrude with entirely novel items not previously generated by anyone. These findings stand in opposition to the single previous demonstration of age-related increases in plagiarism during recall.

  13. Multiple sclerosis in the province of Ferrara : evidence for an increasing trend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granieri, E; Economou, N-T; De Gennaro, R; Tola, M R; Caniatti, L; Govoni, V; Fainardi, E; Casetta, I

    2007-12-01

    Epidemiological studies on the distribution of multiple sclerosis (MS) conducted in the Mediterranean area in the last two decades have disclosed a significant increase in frequency of the disease, indicating caution when a latitude-related model of MS is accepted. Previous descriptive surveys in the province of Ferrara, northern Italy, carried out by our own epidemiological research group, have established that this area is at high risk for MS. To confirm the above assumption and to update MS frequency estimates in this area. We conducted a community-based intensive prevalence and incidence study, by adopting a complete enumeration approach. On December 31, 2004, 423 patients (300 women and 123 men) suffering from definite or probable MS (Poser's criteria) living in the province of Ferrara, yielded a crude prevalence rate of 120.93 (95 % CI, 110.05-134.23) per 100,000, 164.26 for women and 73.59 for men. The average incidence from 1990 to 2003 was 4.35 per 100,000 (95 % CI, 3.77-4.99), 5.91 for women and 2.63 for men. The incidence rate,which was relatively stable during the previous 25 years (1965-1989) with a mean rate of 2.3 per 100,000, increased to a value of 3.39 per 100,000 in the period 1990-1994, 4.09 per 100,000 in the period 1995-1999 and 3.84 per 100,000 in the period 2000-2003. These results confirm that in Ferrara MS occurs more frequently than suggested by the geographic- related distribution model and, based on other recent national surveys, support the view that northern Italy is a high-risk area for the disease. The marked increase in MS prevalence rate, in comparison with previous investigations, is in part due to the increasing survival of patients as a result of improved supportive care and the accumulation of new incidence cases owing to the reduction in diagnostic latency for better quality of neurological diagnostic procedures. The incidence in the province of Ferrara was found to slowly change with an incremental trend,which cannot only be

  14. Does Green Investment Increase Financial Performance? Empirical Evidence from Indonesian Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chariri, Anis; Bukit, Gretta Ratna Sari Br; Eklesia, Octrine Bethary; Christi, Bourinta Uly; Tarigan, Daisy Meirisa

    2018-02-01

    The negative effects of globalization and rapid growth of industries on environment have changed the business paradigm from profit issues to profit, people and planet (triple bottom line). Consequently, a number of companies have invested their money in environmental issues (called as green investment). This study aims to investigate the effect of firm characteristics on green investment and how green investment influences financial performance. Using annual reports of companies receiving the Program for Pollution Control, Evaluation and Rating (PROPER) award and listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchanges in the year of 2009-2014 as research data, the findings showed that firm size, foreign ownership, industry profile, and frequency of audit committee meeting significantly influenced green investment whereas ISO14001 management certification had no effect on it. Interestingly, green investment positively determined an increase in firm financial performance. This reveals that the better the green investment, the higher the financial performance of the companies. The findings contribute to the importance of adopting green investment as a company's strategy to increase profit without destroying the environment. Secondly, this finding can be used by government as a reference for formulating any regulations concerning business and environment. Finally, the finding contributes to the importance of including environmental issues in business education.

  15. Does Green Investment Increase Financial Performance? Empirical Evidence from Indonesian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chariri Anis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The negative effects of globalization and rapid growth of industries on environment have changed the business paradigm from profit issues to profit, people and planet (triple bottom line. Consequently, a number of companies have invested their money in environmental issues (called as green investment. This study aims to investigate the effect of firm characteristics on green investment and how green investment influences financial performance. Using annual reports of companies receiving the Program for Pollution Control, Evaluation and Rating (PROPER award and listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchanges in the year of 2009-2014 as research data, the findings showed that firm size, foreign ownership, industry profile, and frequency of audit committee meeting significantly influenced green investment whereas ISO14001 management certification had no effect on it. Interestingly, green investment positively determined an increase in firm financial performance. This reveals that the better the green investment, the higher the financial performance of the companies. The findings contribute to the importance of adopting green investment as a company's strategy to increase profit without destroying the environment. Secondly, this finding can be used by government as a reference for formulating any regulations concerning business and environment. Finally, the finding contributes to the importance of including environmental issues in business education.

  16. Increasing water availability during afterschool snack: evidence, strategies, and partnerships from a group randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Catherine M; Kenney, Erica L; Gortmaker, Steven L; Lee, Rebekka M; Thayer, Julie C; Mont-Ferguson, Helen; Cradock, Angie L

    2012-09-01

    Providing drinking water to U.S. children during school meals is a recommended health promotion strategy and part of national nutrition policy. Urban school systems have struggled with providing drinking water to children, and little is known about how to ensure that water is served, particularly in afterschool settings. To assess the effectiveness of an intervention designed to promote water as the beverage of choice in afterschool programs. The Out of School Nutrition and Physical Activity Initiative (OSNAP) used a community-based collaboration and low-cost strategies to provide water after school. A group RCT was used to evaluate the intervention. Data were collected in 2010-2011 and analyzed in 2011. Twenty afterschool programs in Boston were randomized to intervention or control (delayed intervention). Intervention sites participated in learning collaboratives focused on policy and environmental changes to increase healthy eating, drinking, and physical activity opportunities during afterschool time (materials available at www.osnap.org). Collaboration between Boston Public Schools Food and Nutrition Services, afterschool staff, and researchers established water-delivery systems to ensure children were served water during snack time. Average ounces of water served to children per day was recorded by direct observation at each program at baseline and 6-month follow-up over 5 consecutive school days. Secondary measures directly observed included ounces of other beverages served, other snack components, and water-delivery system. Participation in the intervention was associated with an increased average volume of water served (+3.6 ounces/day; p=0.01) during snack. On average, the intervention led to a daily decrease of 60.9 kcals from beverages served during snack (p=0.03). This study indicates the OSNAP intervention, including strategies to overcome structural barriers and collaboration with key actors, can increase offerings of water during afterschool snack

  17. Semantic priming increases word frequency judgments: Evidence for the role of memory strength in frequency estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woltz, Dan J; Gardner, Michael K

    2015-09-01

    Previous research has demonstrated a systematic, nonlinear relationship between word frequency judgments and values from word frequency norms. This relationship could reflect a perceptual process similar to that found in the psychophysics literature for a variety of sensory phenomena. Alternatively, it could reflect memory strength differences that are expected for words of varying levels of prior exposure. Two experiments tested the memory strength explanation by semantically priming words prior to frequency judgments. Exposure to related word meanings produced a small but measurable increase in target word frequency ratings. Repetition but not semantic priming had a greater impact on low compared to high frequency words. These findings are consistent with a memory strength view of frequency judgments that assumes a distributed network with lexical and semantic levels of representation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Increased alcohol consumption as a cause of alcoholism, without similar evidence for depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Orsted, David Dynnes; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased alcohol consumption has been associated with depression and alcoholism, but whether these associations are causal remains unclear. We tested whether alcohol consumption is causally associated with depression and alcoholism. METHODS: We included 78 154 men and women aged 20...... randomization design with antidepressant medication use and hospitalization/death, with depression and alcoholism as outcomes. RESULTS: In prospective analyses, the multifactorially adjusted hazard ratio for participants reporting >6 drinks/day vs participants reporting 0.1-1 drinks/day was 1.28 (95% confidence...... interval, 1.00-1.65) for prescription antidepressant use, with a corresponding hazard ratio of 0.80 (0.45-1.45) for hospitalization/death with depression and of 11.7 (8.77-15.6) for hospitalization/death with alcoholism. For hospitalization/death with alcoholism, instrumental variable analysis yielded...

  19. Retailing research: increasing the role of evidence in clinical services for childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomas, J

    1993-01-01

    A current review of the structures and assumptions of research transfer for clinical care reveals some progress from "passive diffusion" to "active dissemination" models, but little or no progress has been made toward targeting local influences on practitioner behavior for "coordinated implementation" of clinically relevant research into childbirth (or other) medical practices. The implementation of scientifically valid research syntheses, such as Effective Care in Pregnancy and Childbirth (ECPC), is therefore constrained by a poorly developed marketplace for retailing research information to practitioners. A survey in Canada of the four most significant potential retailing groups demonstrated that whereas clinical and community groups were adopting the necessary knowledge and attitudes, public policy makers and administrators trailed well behind them. To increase the probability of thorough retailing of ECPC, a three-phase plan could be instituted that would identify product champions within potential retailing groups, develop implementation activities for each retailing group, and convene annual conferences.

  20. Evidence for Increased neutron and proton excitations between Mn51−63

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Babcock

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The hyperfine structures of the odd-even 51−63Mn atoms (N=26−38 were measured using bunched beam collinear laser spectroscopy at ISOLDE, CERN. The extracted spins and magnetic dipole moments have been compared to large-scale shell-model calculations using different model spaces and effective interactions. In the case of 61,63Mn, the results show the increasing importance of neutron excitations across the N=40 subshell closure, and of proton excitations across the Z=28 shell gap. These measurements provide the first direct proof that proton and neutron excitations across shell gaps are playing an important role in the ground state wave functions of the neutron-rich Mn isotopes.

  1. Atmospheric mercury inputs in montane soils increase with elevation: evidence from mercury isotope signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Yin, Run-sheng; Feng, Xin-bin; Sommar, Jonas; Anderson, Christopher W N; Sapkota, Atindra; Fu, Xue-wu; Larssen, Thorjørn

    2013-11-25

    The influence of topography on the biogeochemical cycle of mercury (Hg) has received relatively little attention. Here, we report the measurement of Hg species and their corresponding isotope composition in soil sampled along an elevational gradient transect on Mt. Leigong in subtropical southwestern China. The data are used to explain orography-related effects on the fate and behaviour of Hg species in montane environments. The total- and methyl-Hg concentrations in topsoil samples show a positive correlation with elevation. However, a negative elevation dependence was observed in the mass-dependent fractionation (MDF) and mass-independent fractionation (MIF) signatures of Hg isotopes. Both a MIF (Δ(199)Hg) binary mixing approach and the traditional inert element method indicate that the content of Hg derived from the atmosphere distinctly increases with altitude.

  2. The evidence for increased L1 activity in the site of human adult brain neurogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A Kurnosov

    Full Text Available Retroelement activity is a common source of polymorphisms in human genome. The mechanism whereby retroelements contribute to the intraindividual genetic heterogeneity by inserting into the DNA of somatic cells is gaining increasing attention. Brain tissues are suspected to accumulate genetic heterogeneity as a result of the retroelements somatic activity. This study aims to expand our understanding of the role retroelements play in generating somatic mosaicism of neural tissues. Whole-genome Alu and L1 profiling of genomic DNA extracted from the cerebellum, frontal cortex, subventricular zone, dentate gyrus, and the myocardium revealed hundreds of somatic insertions in each of the analyzed tissues. Interestingly, the highest concentration of such insertions was detected in the dentate gyrus-the hotspot of adult neurogenesis. Insertions of retroelements and their activity could produce genetically diverse neuronal subsets, which can be involved in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory.

  3. First evidence of immunomodulation in bivalves under seawater acidification and increased temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Matozzo

    Full Text Available Water acidification, temperature increases and changes in seawater salinity are predicted to occur in the near future. In such a global climate change (GCC scenario, there is growing concern for the health status of both wild and farmed organisms. Bivalve molluscs, an important component of coastal marine ecosystems, are at risk. At the immunological level, the ability of an organism to maintain its immunosurveillance unaltered under adverse environmental conditions may enhance its survival capability. To our knowledge, only a few studies have investigated the effects of changing environmental parameters (as predicted in a GCC scenario on the immune responses of bivalves. In the present study, the effects of both decreased pH values and increased temperature on the important immune parameters of two bivalve species were evaluated for the first time. The clam Chamelea gallina and the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, widespread along the coast of the Northwestern Adriatic Sea, were chosen as model organisms. Bivalves were exposed for 7 days to three pH values (8.1, 7.7 and 7.4 at two temperatures (22 and 28°C. Three independent experiments were carried out at salinities of 28, 34 and 40 PSU. The total haemocyte count, Neutral Red uptake, haemolymph lysozyme activity and total protein levels were measured. The results obtained demonstrated that tested experimental conditions affected significantly most of the immune parameters measured in bivalves, even if the variation pattern of haemocyte responses was not always linear. Between the two species, C. gallina appeared more vulnerable to changing pH and temperature than M. galloprovincialis. Overall, this study demonstrated that climate changes can strongly affect haemocyte functionality in bivalves. However, further studies are needed to clarify better the mechanisms of action of changing environmental parameters, both individually and in combination, on bivalve haemocytes.

  4. Does training people to administer take-home naloxone increase their knowledge? Evidence from Australian programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, Paul M; Draper, Bridget; Olsen, Anna; Chronister, Karen J; van Beek, Ingrid; Lintzeris, Nicholas; Dwyer, Robyn; Nelson, Marina; Lenton, Simon

    2018-02-22

    Take-home naloxone (THN) programs have been operating in Australia since 2012 in a variety of settings. We examine whether THN programs were effective in increasing knowledge about opioid overdose and appropriate responses in program participants. Data were obtained from pre- and post-training questionnaires administered as part of the early evaluations of THN naloxone programs operated in Sydney (n = 67), Melbourne (n = 280), Perth (n = 153) and Canberra (n = 183). Pooled data from comparable items, analysed in the domains specified in previously-developed evaluation scales, were compared using repeated-measures analysis of variance and random effects logistic regression. Results pre- and post-training were compared as well as results across sites. High levels of knowledge about overdose risks and signs and appropriate actions to take were observed at baseline and this generally improved over time. No substantial differences were identified across cities. Knowledge also increased with participant age but the improvements over time were similar in each age group. There were small differences by participant gender with knowledge generally higher among females. THN programs are effective in improving knowledge related to overdose response. Major improvements in knowledge were limited to overdose recognition and effect of naloxone suggesting that education may best be focused on overdose signs and the use of naloxone among populations accessed through these programs. A focus on younger people also appears warranted. Further work is needed to understand the impact of training and knowledge on actual behaviours around overdose events. © 2018 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  5. Fifty Years of Family Planning: New Evidence on the Long-Run Effects of Increasing Access to Contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Martha J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper assembles new evidence on some of the longer-term consequences of U.S. family planning policies, defined in this paper as those increasing legal or financial access to modern contraceptives. The analysis leverages two large policy changes that occurred during the 1960s and 1970s: first, the interaction of the birth control pill’s introduction with Comstock-era restrictions on the sale of contraceptives and the repeal of these laws after Griswold v. Connecticut in 1965; and second, the expansion of federal funding for local family planning programs from 1964 to 1973. Building on previous research that demonstrates both policies’ effects on fertility rates, I find suggestive evidence that individuals’ access to contraceptives increased their children’s college completion, labor force participation, wages, and family incomes decades later. PMID:25339778

  6. Increasing convergence between imagined and executed movement across development: evidence for the emergence of movement representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caeyenberghs, Karen; Wilson, Peter H; van Roon, Dominique; Swinnen, Stephan P; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M

    2009-04-01

    Motor imagery (MI) has become a principal focus of interest in studies on brain and behavior. However, changes in MI across development have received virtually no attention so far. In the present study, children (N = 112, 6 to 16 years old) performed a new, computerized Virtual Radial Fitts Task (VRFT) to determine their MI ability as well as the age-related confluence between performance in executed and imagined movement conditions. Participants aimed at five targets, which were positioned along radial axes from a central target circle. The targets differed in width (2.5, 5, 10, 20 or 40 mm), resulting in an index of difficulty (ID) that varied from 6.9 to 2.9 bits. Performance was indexed by the linear relationship between ID and Movement Time (MT). The findings showed that executed task performance was slower than imagined performance. Moreover, conformance to Fitts' Law during executed movement performance was obtained from a very young age. Most importantly, correlations between imagined and executed movements were low in the young participants but gradually increased across age. These age-related changes in MI are hypothesized to reflect the children's emerging ability to represent internal models for prospective actions, consistent with the gradual unfolding of feedforward control processes.

  7. HIV-infected persons with type 2 diabetes show evidence of endothelial dysfunction and increased inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove-Skovsgaard, Malene; Gaardbo, Julie Christine; Kolte, Lilian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in both HIV infection and type 2 diabetes (T2D) compared to the general population has been described. Little is known about the combined effect of HIV infection and T2D on inflammation and endothelial function, both of which may...... contribute to elevated risk of CVD. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 50 HIV-infected persons on combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART), with HIV RNA 2D (HIV + T2D+), n = 25 without T2D (HIV + T2D-)) and 50 uninfected persons (n = 22 with T2D (HIV-T2D+) and n = 28...... without T2D (HIV-T2D-)). Groups were matched on age and sex. High sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) was used to determine inflammation (cut-off 3 mg/L). The marker of endothelial dysfunction asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) was measured using high performance liquid chromatography. Trimethylamine...

  8. Intervention Mapping to Adapt Evidence-Based Interventions for Use in Practice: Increasing Mammography among African American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Highfield, Linda; Hartman, Marieke A.; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Rodriguez, Serena A.; Fernandez, Maria E.; Bartholomew, L. Kay

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes and demonstrates the use of the systematic planning process, Intervention Mapping, to adapt an evidence-based public health intervention (EBI). We used a simplified version of Intervention Mapping (IM Adapt) to increase an intervention's fit with a new setting and population. IM Adapt guides researchers and practitioners in selecting an EBI, making decisions about whether and what to adapt, and executing the adaptation while guarding the EBI's essential elements (those re...

  9. Minority Shareholders' Wealth Effects and Stock Market Development: Evidence from Increase-in-Ownership M&As

    OpenAIRE

    Petmezas, D

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines, using a global M&A data set, the relationship between the target firm’s minority shareholders’ returns and a country’s stock market development in deals in which large shareholders increase their ownership stakes. For the purpose of this study, we use two measures of stock market development: (1) turnover over GDP, and (2) turnover over market capitalization. We provide evidence supporting the view that minority shareholders in target firms gain significantly more in coun...

  10. Evidence of an increased pathogenic footprint in the lingual microbiome of untreated HIV infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dang Angeline T

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Opportunistic oral infections can be found in over 80% of HIV + patients, often causing debilitating lesions that also contribute to deterioration in nutritional health. Although appreciation for the role that the microbiota is likely to play in the initiation and/or enhancement of oral infections has grown considerably in recent years, little is known about the impact of HIV infection on host-microbe interactions within the oral cavity. In the current study, we characterize modulations in the bacterial composition of the lingual microbiome in patients with treated and untreated HIV infection. Bacterial species profiles were elucidated by microarray assay and compared between untreated HIV infected patients, HIV infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy, and healthy HIV negative controls. The relationship between clinical parameters (viral burden and CD4+ T cell depletion and the loss or gain of bacterial species was evaluated in each HIV patient group. Results In untreated HIV infection, elevated viremia was associated with significantly higher proportions of potentially pathogenic Veillonella, Prevotella, Megasphaera, and Campylobacter species in the lingual microbiome than observed in healthy controls. The upsurge in the prevalence of potential pathogens was juxtaposed by diminished representation of commensal Streptococcus and Veillonella species. Colonization of Neisseria flavescens was lower in the lingual microbiome of HIV infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy than in uninfected controls. Conclusions Our findings provide novel insights into the potential impact of HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy on the community structure of the oral microbiome, and implicate potential mechanisms that may increase the capacity of non-commensal species to gain a stronger foothold.

  11. Evidence of increased chromosomal abnormalities in French Polynesian thyroid cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Violot, D.; M'kacher, R.; Dossou, J.; Adjadj, E.; Vathaire, F. de; Parmentier, C.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities in thyroid cancer patients before and after radioactive iodine administration in order to assess cytogenetic particularity in Polynesian thyroid cancer patients. Chromosomal abnormalities were studied in 30 Polynesian patients with differentiated thyroid cancer, prior to and 4 days after 131 I administration. Unstable chromosomal abnormalities were counted in peripheral blood lymphocytes using a conventional cytogenetic method. Peripheral blood was irradiated in vitro at different doses (0.5, 1 and 2 Gy) in order to establish the dose-response of the lymphocytes. Control groups were composed of 50 European thyroid cancer patients before and after first administration of 131 I, and of ten European healthy donors. In addition, in vitro irradiation assays were performed at different doses (0.5, 1 and 2 Gy). The relative risk of spontaneous dicentrics before any radiation treatment was 2.9 (95% CI 1.7-5.1) times higher among Polynesian thyroid patients than among European thyroid cancer patients. After in vitro irradiation, the rise in frequency of dicentrics was similar in the Polynesian thyroid cancer group and the European thyroid patients and healthy donors. Four days after administration of 3.7 GBq 131 I, the relative risk for a dicentric per cell was 1.3 (95% CI 1.0-1.5) times higher in Polynesian than in European patients. This can be explained by higher 131 I retention in Polynesian compared with European patients. The results obtained revealed an increased frequency of cytogenetic abnormalities in Polynesian thyroid cancer patients compared with European control patients. These preliminary findings are compatible with possible previous environmental aggression and therefore imply a need for further investigations on larger series including, in particular, French Polynesian healthy donors. In addition to French Polynesians, Maori and Hawaiian control groups could be useful. (orig.)

  12. Increasing the public health impact of evidence-based interventions in behavioral medicine: new approaches and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscemi, Joanna; Janke, E Amy; Kugler, Kari C; Duffecy, Jenna; Mielenz, Thelma J; St George, Sara M; Sheinfeld Gorin, Sherri N

    2017-02-01

    The dissemination and implementation of evidence-based behavioral medicine interventions into real world practice has been limited. The purpose of this paper is to discuss specific limitations of current behavioral medicine research within the context of the RE-AIM framework, and potential opportunities to increase public health impact by applying novel intervention designs and data collection approaches. The MOST framework has recently emerged as an alternative approach to development and evaluation that aims to optimize multicomponent behavioral and bio-behavioral interventions. SMART designs, imbedded within the MOST framework, are an approach to optimize adaptive interventions. In addition to innovative design strategies, novel data collection approaches that have the potential to improve the public-health dissemination include mHealth approaches and considering environment as a potential data source. Finally, becoming involved in advocacy via policy related work may help to improve the impact of evidence-based behavioral interventions. Innovative methods, if increasingly implemented, may have the ability to increase the public health impact of evidence-based behavioral interventions to prevent disease.

  13. Can broader diffusion of value-based insurance design increase benefits from US health care without increasing costs? Evidence from a computer simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, R Scott; Omokaro, Cynthia; Justice, Amy C; Nucifora, Kimberly; Roberts, Mark S

    2010-02-16

    Evidence suggests that cost sharing (i.e.,copayments and deductibles) decreases health expenditures but also reduces essential care. Value-based insurance design (VBID) has been proposed to encourage essential care while controlling health expenditures. Our objective was to estimate the impact of broader diffusion of VBID on US health care benefits and costs. We used a published computer simulation of costs and life expectancy gains from US health care to estimate the impact of broader diffusion of VBID. Two scenarios were analyzed: (1) applying VBID solely to pharmacy benefits and (2) applying VBID to both pharmacy benefits and other health care services (e.g., devices). We assumed that cost sharing would be eliminated for high-value services (value services ($100,000-$300,000 per life-year or unknown), and would be increased for low-value services (>$300,000 per life-year). All costs are provided in 2003 US dollars. Our simulation estimated that approximately 60% of health expenditures in the US are spent on low-value services, 20% are spent on intermediate-value services, and 20% are spent on high-value services. Correspondingly, the vast majority (80%) of health expenditures would have cost sharing that is impacted by VBID. With prevailing patterns of cost sharing, health care conferred 4.70 life-years at a per-capita annual expenditure of US$5,688. Broader diffusion of VBID to pharmaceuticals increased the benefit conferred by health care by 0.03 to 0.05 additional life-years, without increasing costs and without increasing out-of-pocket payments. Broader diffusion of VBID to other health care services could increase the benefit conferred by health care by 0.24 to 0.44 additional life-years, also without increasing costs and without increasing overall out-of-pocket payments. Among those without health insurance, using cost saving from VBID to subsidize insurance coverage would increase the benefit conferred by health care by 1.21 life-years, a 31% increase

  14. Early tracheostomy in severe traumatic brain injury: evidence for decreased mechanical ventilation and increased hospital mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, C Michael; Cutrona, Anthony F; Gruber, Brian S; Calderon, Javier E; Ransom, Kenneth J; Flowers, Laurie L

    2014-01-01

    tracheostomy (OR 1.97; p tracheostomy. Further, this study implies that mechanical ventilation is reduced with early tracheostomy. Both the randomized trial and retrospective meta-analysis indicate that risk for hospital death increases with early tracheostomy. Findings imply that early tracheostomy for severe brain injury is not a prudent routine policy. PMID:24624310

  15. Can broader diffusion of value-based insurance design increase benefits from US health care without increasing costs? Evidence from a computer simulation model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Scott Braithwaite

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that cost sharing (i.e.,copayments and deductibles decreases health expenditures but also reduces essential care. Value-based insurance design (VBID has been proposed to encourage essential care while controlling health expenditures. Our objective was to estimate the impact of broader diffusion of VBID on US health care benefits and costs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used a published computer simulation of costs and life expectancy gains from US health care to estimate the impact of broader diffusion of VBID. Two scenarios were analyzed: (1 applying VBID solely to pharmacy benefits and (2 applying VBID to both pharmacy benefits and other health care services (e.g., devices. We assumed that cost sharing would be eliminated for high-value services ($300,000 per life-year. All costs are provided in 2003 US dollars. Our simulation estimated that approximately 60% of health expenditures in the US are spent on low-value services, 20% are spent on intermediate-value services, and 20% are spent on high-value services. Correspondingly, the vast majority (80% of health expenditures would have cost sharing that is impacted by VBID. With prevailing patterns of cost sharing, health care conferred 4.70 life-years at a per-capita annual expenditure of US$5,688. Broader diffusion of VBID to pharmaceuticals increased the benefit conferred by health care by 0.03 to 0.05 additional life-years, without increasing costs and without increasing out-of-pocket payments. Broader diffusion of VBID to other health care services could increase the benefit conferred by health care by 0.24 to 0.44 additional life-years, also without increasing costs and without increasing overall out-of-pocket payments. Among those without health insurance, using cost saving from VBID to subsidize insurance coverage would increase the benefit conferred by health care by 1.21 life-years, a 31% increase. CONCLUSION: Broader diffusion of VBID may amplify benefits from

  16. Simultaneous or Early Sequential Rupture of Multiple Intracranial Aneurysms: A Rare and Insufficiently Understood Entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Kun; Zhao, Jinchuan; Zhang, Yang; Zhu, Xiaobo; Zhao, Yan; Li, Guichen

    2016-05-01

    Simultaneous or early sequential rupture of multiple intracranial aneurysms (MIAs) is encountered rarely, with no more than 10 cases having been reported. As a result of its rarity, there are a lot of questions concerning this entity need to be answered. A 67-year-old woman was admitted to the First Hospital of Jilin University (Eastern Division) from a local hospital after a sudden onset of severe headache, nausea, and vomiting. Head computed tomography (CT) at the local hospital revealed diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) that was concentrated predominately in the suprasellar cistern and interhemispheric fissure. During her transfer to our hospital, she experienced another episode of sudden headache. CT on admission to our hospital revealed that the SAH was increased with 2 isolated hematomas both in the interhemispheric fissure and the left paramedian frontal lobe. Further CT angiography and intraoperative findings were in favor of early sequential rupture of 2 intracranial aneurysms. To further elucidate the characteristics, mechanism, management, and prognosis of this specific entity, we conducted a comprehensive review of the literature. The mechanism of simultaneous or early sequential rupture of MIAs is still obscure. Transient elevation of blood pressure might play a role in the process, and preventing the sudden elevation of blood pressure might be beneficial for patients with aneurysmal SAH and MIAs. The management of simultaneously or early sequentially ruptured aneurysms is more complex for its difficulty in responsible aneurysm determination, urgency in treatment, toughness in intraoperative manipulation and poorness in prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Google Searches for "Cheap Cigarettes" Spike at Tax Increases: Evidence from an Algorithm to Detect Spikes in Time Series Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputi, Theodore L

    2018-05-03

    Online cigarette dealers have lower prices than brick-and-mortar retailers and advertise tax-free status.1-8 Previous studies show smokers search out these online alternatives at the time of a cigarette tax increase.9,10 However, these studies rely upon researchers' decision to consider a specific date and preclude the possibility that researchers focus on the wrong date. The purpose of this study is to introduce an unbiased methodology to the field of observing search patterns and to use this methodology to determine whether smokers search Google for "cheap cigarettes" at cigarette tax increases and, if so, whether the increased level of searches persists. Publicly available data from Google Trends is used to observe standardized search volumes for the term, "cheap cigarettes". Seasonal Hybrid Extreme Studentized Deviate and E-Divisive with Means tests were performed to observe spikes and mean level shifts in search volume. Of the twelve cigarette tax increases studied, ten showed spikes in searches for "cheap cigarettes" within two weeks of the tax increase. However, the mean level shifts did not occur for any cigarette tax increase. Searches for "cheap cigarettes" spike around the time of a cigarette tax increase, but the mean level of searches does not shift in response to a tax increase. The SHESD and EDM tests are unbiased methodologies that can be used to identify spikes and mean level shifts in time series data without an a priori date to be studied. SHESD and EDM affirm spikes in interest are related to tax increases. • Applies improved statistical techniques (SHESD and EDM) to Google search data related to cigarettes, reducing bias and increasing power • Contributes to the body of evidence that state and federal tax increases are associated with spikes in searches for cheap cigarettes and may be good dates for increased online health messaging related to tobacco.

  18. Surgeon-level reporting presented by funnel plot is understood by doctors but inaccurately interpreted by members of the public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Ashish; Mehrotra, Prerna; Amawi, Falah; Lund, Jonathan N

    2015-01-01

    Risk-adjusted outcome data for general surgeons practicing in the United Kingdom were published for the first time in 2013 with the aim of increasing transparency, improving standards, and providing the public with information to aid decision making. Most specialties used funnel plots to present their data. We assess the ability of members of the public (MoP), medical students, nonsurgical doctors (NSD), and surgeons to understand risk-adjusted surgical outcome data. A fictitious outcome dataset was created and presented in the form of a funnel plot to 10 participants from each of the aforementioned group. Standard explanatory text was provided. Each participant was given 5 minutes to review the funnel plot and complete a questionnaire. For each question, there was only 1 correct answer. Completion rate was 100% (n = 40). No difference existed between NSD and surgeons. A significant difference for identification of the "worst performing surgeon" was noted between surgeons and MoP (p plot significantly "more difficult" to interpret than surgeons did (p < 0.01) and NSD (p < 0.01). MoP found these data significantly more "difficult to understand" and were less likely to both spot "outliers" and use this data to inform decisions than doctors. Surgeons should be aware that outcome data may require an alternative method of presentation to be understood by MoP. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Modeling Evidence-Based Application: Using Team-Based Learning to Increase Higher Order Thinking in Nursing Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget Moore

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nursing practice is comprised of knowledge, theory, and research [1]. Because of its impact on the profession, the appraisal of research evidence is critically important. Future nursing professionals must be introduced to the purpose and utility of nursing research, as early exposure provides an opportunity to embed evidence-based practice (EBP into clinical experiences. The AACN requires baccalaureate education to include an understanding of the research process to integrate reliable evidence to inform practice and enhance clinical judgments [1]. Although the importance of these knowledge competencies are evident to healthcare administrators and nursing leaders within the field, undergraduate students at the institution under study sometimes have difficulty understanding the relevance of nursing research to the baccalaureate prepared nurse, and struggle to grasp advanced concepts of qualitative and quantitative research design and methodologies. As undergraduate nursing students generally have not demonstrated an understanding of the relationship between theoretical concepts found within the undergraduate nursing curriculum and the practical application of these concepts in the clinical setting, the research team decided to adopt an effective pedagogical active learning strategy, team-based learning (TBL. Team-based learning shifts the traditional course design to focus on higher thinking skills to integrate desired knowledge [2]. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the impact of course design with the integration of TBL in an undergraduate nursing research course on increasing higher order thinking. [1] American Association of Colleges of Nursing, The Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice, Washington, DC: American Association of Colleges of Nursing, 2008. [2] B. Bloom, Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Handbook I: Cognitive Domain, New York: McKay, 1956.

  20. Diabetes mellitus during pregnancy and increased risk of schizophrenia in offspring: a review of the evidence and putative mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Voruganti, Lakshmi P

    2008-09-01

    neurodevelopmental anomalies and an enhanced risk of schizophrenia. On the basis of the evidence presented and taking into consideration the projected increases in the rates of diabetes mellitus among younger women of child-bearing potential, it is imperative that the neurodevelopmental sequelae of diabetic pregnancy in general, and the increased risk for schizophrenia in particular, receive further study.

  1. Increasing access to evidence-based smoking cessation treatment: effectiveness of a free nicotine patch program among Chinese immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, Donna; Nguyen, Nam; Peng, Cha-Hui; Chin, Margaret; Chang, Ming-der; Fahs, Marianne

    2010-04-01

    Pharmacotherapy substantially increases smoking cessation rates. However, programs to reduce barriers to this evidence-based treatment may not improve access among high risk immigrant non English speaking populations. This study estimates the effectiveness of a tailored free nicotine patch (NRT) program among Chinese American smokers living in New York City (NYC). Between July 2004 and May 2005 NRT was distributed to 375 smokers through two community-based organizations that serve the Asian American population in NYC. Participants completed an in person baseline survey and a 4-month follow-up telephone survey. Using an intention to treat analysis the abstinence rate at 4 months was 26.7% (100/375). Predictors of cessation included higher levels of self efficacy at baseline, not smoking while using the patch and concern about personal health risks. Distribution through easy to access, culturally competent local community organizations increased the reach of a free nicotine patch program and assisted smokers in quitting.

  2. In Vivo Evidence of Increased nNOS Activity in Acute MPTP Neurotoxicity: A Functional Pharmacological MRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiing Yee Siow

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP is a neurotoxin commonly used to produce an animal model of Parkinson’s disease. Previous studies have suggested a critical role for neuronal nitric oxide (NO synthase- (nNOS- derived NO in the pathogenesis of MPTP. However, NO activity is difficult to assess in vivo due to its extremely short biological half-life, and so in vivo evidence of NO involvement in MPTP neurotoxicity remains scarce. In the present study, we utilized flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery sequences, in vivo localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and diffusion-weighted imaging to, respectively, assess the hemodynamics, metabolism, and cytotoxicity induced by MPTP. The role of NO in MPTP toxicity was clarified further by administering a selective nNOS inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole (7-NI, intraperitoneally to some of the experimental animals prior to MPTP challenge. The transient increase in cerebral blood flow (CBF in the cortex and striatum induced by systemic injection of MPTP was completely prevented by pretreatment with 7-NI. We provide the first in vivo evidence of increased nNOS activity in acute MPTP-induced neurotoxicity. Although the observed CBF change may be independent of the toxicogenesis of MPTP, this transient hyperperfusion state may serve as an early indicator of neuroinflammation.

  3. Evidence-based tailoring of behavior-change campaigns: increasing fluoride-free water consumption in rural Ethiopia with persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Alexandra C; Tobias, Robert; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2014-03-01

    Two hundred million people worldwide are at risk of developing dental and skeletal fluorosis due to excessive fluoride uptake from their water. Since medical treatment of the disease is difficult and mostly ineffective, preventing fluoride uptake is crucial. In the Ethiopian Rift Valley, a fluoride-removal community filter was installed. Despite having access to a fluoride filter, the community used the filter sparingly. During a baseline assessment, 173 face-to-face interviews were conducted to identify psychological factors that influence fluoride-free water consumption. Based on the results, two behavior-change campaigns were implemented: a traditional information intervention targeting perceived vulnerability, and an evidence-based persuasion intervention regarding perceived costs. The interventions were tailored to household characteristics. The campaigns were evaluated with a survey and analyzed in terms of their effectiveness in changing behavior and targeted psychological factors. While the intervention targeting perceived vulnerability showed no desirable effects, cost persuasion decreased the perceived costs and increased the consumption of fluoride-free water. This showed that altering subjective perceptions can change behavior even without changing objective circumstances. Moreover, interventions are more effective if they are based on evidence and tailored to specific households. © 2013 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  4. Lack of evidence for increased tolerance of rat spinal cord with decreasing fraction doses below 2 Gy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, K.K.; van der Kogel, A.J.; van der Schueren, E.

    1985-01-01

    The radiation tolerance of the spinal cord, both in man and in rats, has been shown to depend strongly on the size of the dose per fraction. With fraction doses down to about 2 Gy, the spinal cord tolerance can be predicted by a modified Ellis formula. More recently alternative isoeffect formulas were based on the linear-quadratic (LQ) model of cell survival where the effect of dose fractionation is characterized by the ratio α/β which varies from tissue to tissue. For the spinal cord, as well as for other late responding tissues, the ratio α/β is small, in contrast to most acutely responding tissues. Both the Ellis-type formula, and to a lesser extent the LQ-model, predict a continuously increasing tolerance dose with decreasing fraction size. From previous experiments on the rat cervical spinal cord with doses per fraction down to about 2 Gy, the ratio α/β was determined to be 1.7 Gy, and the LQ-model would predict a rise in tolerance with a reduction in fraction size to far below 2 Gy. Based on these predictions clinical studies have been initiated assuming a significantly increased tolerance by reduction of fraction size to about 1 Gy. However, in the present experiments no evidence was found for such an increase in tolerance with fraction sizes below 2 Gy

  5. Can yeast glycolysis be understood in terms of in vitro kinetics of the constituent enxymes? Testing biochemistry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teusink, B.; Passarge, J.R.; Reijenga, C.A.; Esgalhado, M.E.L.M.; van der Weijden, C.C.; Schepper, M.; Walsh, M.C.; Bakker, B.M.; van Dam, K.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Snoep, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines whether the in vivo behavior of yeast glycolysis can be understood in terms of the in vitro kinetic properties of the constituent enzymes. In nongrowing, anaerobic, compressed Saccharomyces cerevisiae the values of the kinetic parameters of most glycolytic enzymes were

  6. Increasing utilization of Internet-based resources following efforts to promote evidence-based medicine: a national study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yi-Hao; Kuo, Ken N; Yang, Chun-Yuh; Lo, Heng-Lien; Shih, Ya-Hui; Chen, Chiehfeng; Chiu, Ya-Wen

    2013-01-07

    Since the beginning of 2007, the National Health Research Institutes has been promoting the dissemination of evidence-based medicine (EBM). The current study examined longitudinal trends of behaviors in how hospital-based physicians and nurses have searched for medical information during the spread of EBM. Cross-sectional postal questionnaire surveys were conducted in nationally representative regional hospitals of Taiwan thrice in 2007, 2009, and 2011. Demographic data were gathered concerning gender, age, working experience, teaching appointment, academic degree, and administrative position. Linear and logistic regression models were used to examine predictors and changes over time. Data from physicians and nurses were collected in 2007 (n = 1156), 2009 (n = 2975), and 2011 (n = 3999). There were significant increases in the use of four Internet-based resources - Web portals, online databases, electronic journals, and electronic books - across the three survey years among physicians and nurses (p Internet-based resources and users' characteristics. Age and faculty position were important predictors in relation to the usage among physicians and nurses, while academic degree served as a critical factor among nurses only. Physicians and nurses used a variety of sources to look for medical information. There was a steady increase in use of Internet-based resources during the diffusion period of EBM. The findings highlight the importance of the Internet as a prominent source of medical information for main healthcare professionals.

  7. Does the evidence about health risks associated with nitrate ingestion warrant an increase of the nitrate standard for drinking water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Grinsven, Hans JM; Ward, Mary H; Benjamin, Nigel; de Kok, Theo M

    2006-01-01

    Several authors have suggested that it is safe to raise the health standard for nitrate in drinking water, and save money on measures associated with nitrate pollution of drinking water resources. The major argument has been that the epidemiologic evidence for acute and chronic health effects related to drinking water nitrate at concentrations near the health standard is inconclusive. With respect to the chronic effects, the argument was motivated by the absence of evidence for adverse health effects related to ingestion of nitrate from dietary sources. An interdisciplinary discussion of these arguments led to three important observations. First, there have been only a few well-designed epidemiologic studies that evaluated ingestion of nitrate in drinking water and risk of specific cancers or adverse reproductive outcomes among potentially susceptible subgroups likely to have elevated endogenous nitrosation. Positive associations have been observed for some but not all health outcomes evaluated. Second, the epidemiologic studies of cancer do not support an association between ingestion of dietary nitrate (vegetables) and an increased risk of cancer, because intake of dietary nitrate is associated with intake of antioxidants and other beneficial phytochemicals. Third, 2–3 % of the population in Western Europe and the US could be exposed to nitrate levels in drinking water exceeding the WHO standard of 50 mg/l nitrate, particularly those living in rural areas. The health losses due to this exposure cannot be estimated. Therefore, we conclude that it is not possible to weigh the costs and benefits from changing the nitrate standard for drinking water and groundwater resources by considering the potential consequences for human health and by considering the potential savings due to reduced costs for nitrate removal and prevention of nitrate pollution. PMID:16989661

  8. Does the evidence about health risks associated with nitrate ingestion warrant an increase of the nitrate standard for drinking water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Grinsven, Hans J M; Ward, Mary H; Benjamin, Nigel; de Kok, Theo M

    2006-09-21

    Several authors have suggested that it is safe to raise the health standard for nitrate in drinking water, and save money on measures associated with nitrate pollution of drinking water resources. The major argument has been that the epidemiologic evidence for acute and chronic health effects related to drinking water nitrate at concentrations near the health standard is inconclusive. With respect to the chronic effects, the argument was motivated by the absence of evidence for adverse health effects related to ingestion of nitrate from dietary sources. An interdisciplinary discussion of these arguments led to three important observations. First, there have been only a few well-designed epidemiologic studies that evaluated ingestion of nitrate in drinking water and risk of specific cancers or adverse reproductive outcomes among potentially susceptible subgroups likely to have elevated endogenous nitrosation. Positive associations have been observed for some but not all health outcomes evaluated. Second, the epidemiologic studies of cancer do not support an association between ingestion of dietary nitrate (vegetables) and an increased risk of cancer, because intake of dietary nitrate is associated with intake of antioxidants and other beneficial phytochemicals. Third, 2-3 % of the population in Western Europe and the US could be exposed to nitrate levels in drinking water exceeding the WHO standard of 50 mg/l nitrate, particularly those living in rural areas. The health losses due to this exposure cannot be estimated. Therefore, we conclude that it is not possible to weigh the costs and benefits from changing the nitrate standard for drinking water and groundwater resources by considering the potential consequences for human health and by considering the potential savings due to reduced costs for nitrate removal and prevention of nitrate pollution.

  9. Does the evidence about health risks associated with nitrate ingestion warrant an increase of the nitrate standard for drinking water?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Nigel

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several authors have suggested that it is safe to raise the health standard for nitrate in drinking water, and save money on measures associated with nitrate pollution of drinking water resources. The major argument has been that the epidemiologic evidence for acute and chronic health effects related to drinking water nitrate at concentrations near the health standard is inconclusive. With respect to the chronic effects, the argument was motivated by the absence of evidence for adverse health effects related to ingestion of nitrate from dietary sources. An interdisciplinary discussion of these arguments led to three important observations. First, there have been only a few well-designed epidemiologic studies that evaluated ingestion of nitrate in drinking water and risk of specific cancers or adverse reproductive outcomes among potentially susceptible subgroups likely to have elevated endogenous nitrosation. Positive associations have been observed for some but not all health outcomes evaluated. Second, the epidemiologic studies of cancer do not support an association between ingestion of dietary nitrate (vegetables and an increased risk of cancer, because intake of dietary nitrate is associated with intake of antioxidants and other beneficial phytochemicals. Third, 2–3 % of the population in Western Europe and the US could be exposed to nitrate levels in drinking water exceeding the WHO standard of 50 mg/l nitrate, particularly those living in rural areas. The health losses due to this exposure cannot be estimated. Therefore, we conclude that it is not possible to weigh the costs and benefits from changing the nitrate standard for drinking water and groundwater resources by considering the potential consequences for human health and by considering the potential savings due to reduced costs for nitrate removal and prevention of nitrate pollution.

  10. Increased alcohol consumption as a cause of alcoholism, without similar evidence for depression: a Mendelian randomization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne

    2015-04-01

    Increased alcohol consumption has been associated with depression and alcoholism, but whether these associations are causal remains unclear. We tested whether alcohol consumption is causally associated with depression and alcoholism. We included 78,154 men and women aged 20-100 years randomly selected in 1991-2010 from the general population of Copenhagen, Denmark, and genotyped 68,486 participants for two genetic variants in two alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes, ADH-1B (rs1229984) and ADH-1C (rs698). We performed observational and causal analyses using a Mendelian randomization design with antidepressant medication use and hospitalization/death, with depression and alcoholism as outcomes. In prospective analyses, the multifactorially adjusted hazard ratio for participants reporting >6 drinks/day vs participants reporting 0.1-1 drinks/day was 1.28 (95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.65) for prescription antidepressant use, with a corresponding hazard ratio of 0.80 (0.45-1.45) for hospitalization/death with depression and of 11.7 (8.77-15.6) for hospitalization/death with alcoholism. For hospitalization/death with alcoholism, instrumental variable analysis yielded a causal odds ratio of 28.6 (95 % confidence interval 6.47-126) for an increase of 1 drink/day estimated from the combined genotype combination, whereas the corresponding multifactorially adjusted observational odds ratio was 1.28 (1.25-1.31). Corresponding odds ratios were 1.11 (0.67-1.83) causal and 1.04 (1.03-1.06) observational for prescription antidepressant use, and 4.52 (0.99-20.5) causal and 0.98 (0.94-1.03) observational for hospitalization/death with depression. These data indicate that the association between increased alcohol consumption and alcoholism is causal, without similar strong evidence for depression. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  11. Capacity to adapt to environmental change: evidence from a network of organizations concerned with increasing wildfire risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Paige. Fischer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Because wildfire size and frequency are expected to increase in many forested areas in the United States, organizations involved in forest and wildfire management could arguably benefit from working together and sharing information to develop strategies for how to adapt to this increasing risk. Social capital theory suggests that actors in cohesive networks are positioned to build trust and mutual understanding of problems and act collectively to address these problems, and that actors engaged with diverse partners are positioned to access new information and resources that are important for innovation and complex problem solving. We investigated the patterns of interaction within a network of organizations involved in forest and wildfire management in Oregon, USA, for evidence of structural conditions that create opportunities for collective action and learning. We used descriptive statistical analysis of social network data gathered through interviews to characterize the structure of the network and exponential random graph modeling to identify key factors in the formation of network ties. We interpreted our findings through the lens of social capital theory to identify implications for the network's capacity to engage in collective action and complex problem-solving about how to adapt to environmental change. We found that tendencies to associate with others with similar management goals, geographic emphases, and attitudes toward wildfire were strong mechanisms shaping network structure, potentially constraining interactions among organizations with diverse information and resources and limiting opportunities for learning and complex problem-solving needed for adaptation. In particular, we found that organizations with fire protection and forest restoration goals comprised distinct networks despite sharing concern about the problem of increasing wildfire risk.

  12. MRI and mammography surveillance of women at increased risk for breast cancer: recommendations using an evidence-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granader, Elon J; Dwamena, Ben; Carlos, Ruth C

    2008-12-01

    To evaluate breast cancer screening with mammography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in high-risk populations, including women with the BRCA mutation, using an evidence-based approach. The MEDLINE, PubMed, EBM Reviews, ACP Journal Club, Cochrane Database MEDSEARCH, and SCOPUS databases were accessed and searched for articles up to August 2007. Articles were collected using the following terms and medical subject headings (MeSH) that applied to the focused clinical question: "BRCA1" and "BRCA2" with "mammography," "MRI," "prevention," "screening," and "surveillance." References from retrieved articles were also used to identify relevant papers. Abstracts were screened and relevant papers retrieved. Retrieved papers were graded for quality. Summary performance measures were obtained by random effects modeling of study-specific performance estimates and standard errors derived from the multiple 2 x 2 tables. Additionally, studies meeting the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine level 2b quality were reviewed. In women with an increased risk without the BRCA gene, cancer detection rates by MRI were 0.011 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.003-0.019), by mammography 0.005 (95% CI 0.002-0.008), and by a combination of both, 0.012 (95% CI 0.004-0.020). False-positive rates by MRI, mammography, or a combination of both were 0.10 (95% CI 0.03-0.18), 0.05 (95% CI 0.03-0.06), and 0.14 (95% CI 0.04-0.24). In BRCA positive women, cancer detection rates by MRI were 0.027 (95% CI 0.015-0.040), by mammography 0.010 (95% CI 0.005-0.016), and by a combination of both 0.031 (95% CI 0.018-0.045). False-positive rates by MRI, mammography, or a combination of both were 0.10 (95% CI 0.01-0.19), 0.05 (95% CI 0.03-0.07), and 0.14 (95% CI 0.04-0.24), respectively. The data support an essential role for screening MRI in women with an increased risk for breast cancer.

  13. Is restlessness best understood as a process? Reflecting on four boys’ restlessness during music therapy in kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helle-Valle, Anna; Binder, Per-Einar; Anderssen, Norman; Stige, Brynjulf

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT ADHD can be considered an internationally recognized framework for understanding children’s restlessness. In this context, children’s restlessness is understood as a symptom of neurodevelopmental disorder. However, there are other possible understandings of children’s restlessness. In this article, we explore four boys’ collaborative and creative process as it is described and understood by three adults. The process is framed by a community music therapy project in a Norwegian kindergarten, and we describe four interrelated phases of this process: Exploring musical vitality and cooperation, Consolidating positions, Performing together, and Discovering ripple effects. We discuss these results in relation to seven qualities central to a community music therapy approach: participation, resource orientation, ecology, performance, activism, reflexivity and ethics. We argue that in contrast to a diagnostic approach that entails a focus on individual problems, a community music therapy approach can shed light on adult and systemic contributions to children’s restlessness. PMID:28532331

  14. GLP-2: A POORLY UNDERSTOOD MEDIATOR ENROLLED IN VARIOUS BARIATRIC/METABOLIC SURGERY-RELATED PATHOPHYSIOLOGIC MECHANISMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAZZO, Everton; GESTIC, Martinho Antonio; UTRINI, Murillo Pimentel; CHAIM, Felipe David Mendonça; GELONEZE, Bruno; PAREJA, José Carlos; CHAIM, Elinton Adami; MAGRO, Daniéla Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a gastrointestinal hormone whose effects are predominantly trophic on the intestinal mucosa. Aim: Critically evaluate the current literature on the influence of bariatric/metabolic surgery on the levels of GLP-2 and its potential clinical implications. Method s: Narrative review through online research on the databases Medline and Lilacs. There were six prospective human studies, two cross-sectional human studies, and three experimental animal studies selected. Results: There is evidence demonstrating significant increase in the levels of GLP-2 following gastric bypass, Scopinaro operation, and sleeve gastrectomy. There are no differences between gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy in regards to the increase in the GLP-2 levels. There is no correlation between the postoperative levels of GLP-2 and the occurrence of adequate or insufficient postoperative weight loss. Conclusion: GLP-2 plays significant roles on the regulation of nutrient absorption, permeability of gut mucosa, control of bone resorption, and regulation of satiety. The overall impact of these effects potentially exerts a significant adaptive or compensatory effect within the context of varied bariatric surgical techniques. PMID:28076485

  15. Did the Great Recession increase suicides in the USA? Evidence from an interrupted time-series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Sam; Bruckner, Tim A

    2017-07-01

    Research suggests that the Great Recession of 2007-2009 led to nearly 5000 excess suicides in the United States. However, prior work has not accounted for seasonal patterning and unique suicide trends by age and gender. We calculated monthly suicide rates from 1999 to 2013 for men and women aged 15 and above. Suicide rates before the Great Recession were used to predict the rate during and after the Great Recession. Death rates for each age-gender group were modeled using Poisson regression with robust variance, accounting for seasonal and nonlinear suicide trajectories. There were 56,658 suicide deaths during the Great Recession. Age- and gender-specific suicide trends before the recession demonstrated clear seasonal and nonlinear trajectories. Our models predicted 57,140 expected suicide deaths, leading to 482 fewer observed than expected suicides (95% confidence interval -2079, 943). We found little evidence to suggest that the Great Recession interrupted existing trajectories of suicide rates. Suicide rates were already increasing before the Great Recession for middle-aged men and women. Future studies estimating the impact of recessions on suicide should account for the diverse and unique suicide trajectories of different social groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Behavioral and neural evidence of increased attention to the bottom half of the face in deaf signers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Teresa V.; Letourneau, Susan M.; Maslin, Melissa T.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the effects of deafness and sign language use on the distribution of attention across the top and bottom halves of faces. Methods In a composite face task, congenitally deaf signers and typically hearing controls made same/different judgments of the top or bottom halves of faces presented with the halves aligned or spatially misaligned, while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Results Both groups were more accurate when judging misaligned than aligned faces, which indicates holistic face processing. Misalignment affected all ERP components examined, with effects on the N170 resembling those of face inversion. Hearing adults were similarly accurate when judging the top and bottom halves of the faces, but deaf signers were more accurate when attending to the bottom than the top. Attending to the top elicited faster P1 and N170 latencies for both groups; within the deaf group, this effect was greatest for individuals who produced the highest accuracies when attending to the top. Conclusions These findings dovetail with previous research by providing behavioral and neural evidence of increased attention to the bottom half of the face in deaf signers, and by documenting that these effects generalize to a speeded task, in the absence of gaze shifts, with neutral facial expressions. PMID:23142816

  17. Intervention Mapping to Adapt Evidence-Based Interventions for Use in Practice: Increasing Mammography among African American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Highfield

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes and demonstrates the use of the systematic planning process, Intervention Mapping, to adapt an evidence-based public health intervention (EBI. We used a simplified version of Intervention Mapping (IM Adapt to increase an intervention’s fit with a new setting and population. IM Adapt guides researchers and practitioners in selecting an EBI, making decisions about whether and what to adapt, and executing the adaptation while guarding the EBI’s essential elements (those responsible for effectiveness. We present a case study of a project in which we used IM Adapt to find, adapt, implement, and evaluate an EBI to improve mammography adherence for African American women in a new practice setting in Houston, Texas. IM Adapt includes the following (1 assess needs and organizational capacity; (2 find EBIs; (3 plan adaptations based on fit assessments; (4 make adaptations; (5 plan for implementation; and (6 plan for evaluation of the adapted EBI. The case study shows an example of how public health researchers and practitioners can use the tool to make it easier to find and use EBIs, thus encouraging greater uptake. IM Adapt adds to existing dissemination and adaptation models by providing detailed guidance on how to decide on effective adaptation, while maintaining the essential elements of the EBI.

  18. Intervention Mapping to Adapt Evidence-Based Interventions for Use in Practice: Increasing Mammography among African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highfield, Linda; Hartman, Marieke A; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Rodriguez, Serena A; Fernandez, Maria E; Bartholomew, L Kay

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes and demonstrates the use of the systematic planning process, Intervention Mapping, to adapt an evidence-based public health intervention (EBI). We used a simplified version of Intervention Mapping (IM Adapt) to increase an intervention's fit with a new setting and population. IM Adapt guides researchers and practitioners in selecting an EBI, making decisions about whether and what to adapt, and executing the adaptation while guarding the EBI's essential elements (those responsible for effectiveness). We present a case study of a project in which we used IM Adapt to find, adapt, implement, and evaluate an EBI to improve mammography adherence for African American women in a new practice setting in Houston, Texas. IM Adapt includes the following (1) assess needs and organizational capacity; (2) find EBIs; (3) plan adaptations based on fit assessments; (4) make adaptations; (5) plan for implementation; and (6) plan for evaluation of the adapted EBI. The case study shows an example of how public health researchers and practitioners can use the tool to make it easier to find and use EBIs, thus encouraging greater uptake. IM Adapt adds to existing dissemination and adaptation models by providing detailed guidance on how to decide on effective adaptation, while maintaining the essential elements of the EBI.

  19. Evidence That in Uncontrolled Diabetes, Hyperglucagonemia Is Required for Ketosis but Not for Increased Hepatic Glucose Production or Hyperglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Thomas H; Dorfman, Mauricio D; Matsen, Miles E; Fischer, Jonathan D; Cubelo, Alexis; Kumar, Monica R; Taborsky, Gerald J; Morton, Gregory J

    2015-07-01

    Several lines of evidence implicate excess glucagon secretion in the elevated rates of hepatic glucose production (HGP), hyperglycemia, and ketosis characteristic of uncontrolled insulin-deficient diabetes (uDM), but whether hyperglucagonemia is required for hyperglycemia in this setting is unknown. To address this question, adult male Wistar rats received either streptozotocin (STZ) to induce uDM (STZ-DM) or vehicle and remained nondiabetic. Four days later, animals received daily subcutaneous injections of either the synthetic GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide in a dose-escalating regimen to reverse hyperglucagonemia or its vehicle for 10 days. As expected, plasma glucagon levels were elevated in STZ-DM rats, and although liraglutide treatment lowered glucagon levels to those of nondiabetic controls, it failed to attenuate diabetic hyperglycemia, elevated rates of glucose appearance (Ra), or increased hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression. In contrast, it markedly reduced levels of both plasma ketone bodies and hepatic expression of the rate-limiting enzyme involved in ketone body production. To independently confirm this finding, in a separate study, treatment of STZ-DM rats with a glucagon-neutralizing antibody was sufficient to potently lower plasma ketone bodies but failed to normalize elevated levels of either blood glucose or Ra. These data suggest that in rats with uDM, hyperglucagonemia is required for ketosis but not for increased HGP or hyperglycemia. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  20. Increased intra-participant variability in children with autistic spectrum disorder: Evidence from single trial analyses of evoked EEG.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth eMilne

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Intra-participant variability in clinical conditions such as autistic spectrum disorder (ASD is an important indicator of pathophysiological processing. The data reported here illustrate that trial-by-trial variability can be reliably measured from EEG, and that intra-participant EEG variability is significantly greater in those with ASD than in neuro-typical matched controls. EEG recorded at the scalp is a linear mixture of activity arising from muscle artifacts and numerous concurrent brain processes. To minimise these additional sources of variability, EEG data were subjected to two different methods of spatial filtering. (i The data were decomposed using infomax Independent Component Analysis (ICA, a method of blind source separation which un-mixes the EEG signal into components with maximally independent time-courses, and (ii a surface Laplacian transform was performed (Current Source Density interpolation in order to reduce the effects of volume conduction. Data are presented from thirteen high functioning adolescents with ASD without co-morbid ADHD, and twelve neuro-typical age- IQ- and gender-matched controls. Comparison of variability between the ASD and neuro-typical groups indicated that intra-participant variability of P1 latency and P1 amplitude was greater in the participants with ASD, and inter-trial α-band phase coherence was lower in the participants with ASD. These data support the suggestion that individuals with ASD are less able to synchronise the activity of stimulus-related cell assemblies than neuro-typical individuals, and provide empirical evidence in support of theories of increased neural noise in ASD.

  1. A Policy-into-Practice Intervention to Increase the Uptake of Evidence-Based Management of Low Back Pain in Primary Care: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Helen; Davies, Stephanie Joy; Parsons, Richard; Quintner, John Louis; Schug, Stephan Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Background Persistent non-specific low back pain (nsLBP) is poorly understood by the general community, by educators, researchers and health professionals, making effective care problematic. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a policy-into-practice intervention developed for primary care physicians (PCPs). Methods To encourage PCPs to adopt practical evidence-based approaches and facilitate time-efficient, integrated management of patients with nsLBP, we developed an interdisciplinary evidence-based, practical pain education program (gPEP) based on a contemporary biopsychosocial framework. One hundred and twenty six PCPs from primary care settings in Western Australia were recruited. PCPs participated in a 6.5-hour gPEP. Self-report measures recorded at baseline and at 2 months post-intervention included PCPs' attitudes, beliefs (modified Health Care Providers Pain and Impairment Relationship Scale (HC-PAIRS), evidence-based clinical practices (knowledge and skills regarding nsLBP management: 5-point Likert scale with 1 =  nil and 5 =  excellent) and practice behaviours (recommendations based on a patient vignette; 5-point Likert scale). Results Ninety one PCPs participated (attendance rate of 72%; post-intervention response rate 88%). PCP-responders adopted more positive, guideline-consistent beliefs, evidenced by clinically significant HC-PAIRS score differences (mean change  = −5.6±8.2, ppain education program set within a framework that aligns health policy and practice, encourages PCPs to adopt more self-reported evidence-based attitudes, beliefs and clinical behaviours in their management of patients with nsLBP. However, further research is required to determine cost effectiveness of this approach when compared with other modes of educational delivery and to examine PCP behaviours in actual clinical practice. PMID:22662264

  2. Can Broader Diffusion of Value-Based Insurance Design Increase Benefits from US Health Care without Increasing Costs? Evidence from a Computer Simulation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Braithwaite, R.; Omokaro, Cynthia; Justice, Amy C.; Nucifora, Kimberly; Roberts, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background More money is spent per person on health care in the US than in any other country. US health care expenditure accounts for 16.2% of the gross domestic product and this figure is rising. Indeed, the increase in health care costs is outstripping the economy's growth rate. Consequently, US policy makers and providers of health insurance?health care in the US is largely provided by the private sector and is paid for through private health insurance or through governmen...

  3. Increased default-mode variability is related to reduced task-performance and is evident in adults with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasia M. Mowinckel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient suppression and connectivity of the default mode network (DMN is a potential mediator of cognitive dysfunctions across various disorders, including attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. However, it remains unclear if alterations in sustained DMN suppression, variability and connectivity during prolonged cognitive engagement are implicated in adult ADHD pathophysiology, and to which degree methylphenidate (MPH remediates any DMN abnormalities. This randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over clinical trial of MPH (clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01831622 explored large-scale brain network dynamics in 20 adults with ADHD on and off MPH, compared to 27 healthy controls, while performing a reward based decision-making task. DMN task-related activation, variability, and connectivity were estimated and compared between groups and conditions using independent component analysis, dual regression, and Bayesian linear mixed models. The results show that the DMN exhibited more variable activation patterns in unmedicated patients compared to healthy controls. Group differences in functional connectivity both between and within functional networks were evident. Further, functional connectivity between and within attention and DMN networks was sensitive both to task performance and case-control status. MPH altered within-network connectivity of the DMN and visual networks, but not between-network connectivity or temporal variability. This study thus provides novel fMRI evidence of reduced sustained DMN suppression in adults with ADHD during value-based decision-making, a pattern that was not alleviated by MPH. We infer from multiple analytical approaches further support to the default mode interference hypothesis, in that higher DMN activation variability is evident in adult ADHD and associated with lower task performance.

  4. Genomic evidence for the evolution of Streptococcus equi: host restriction, increased virulence, and genetic exchange with human pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T G Holden

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The continued evolution of bacterial pathogens has major implications for both human and animal disease, but the exchange of genetic material between host-restricted pathogens is rarely considered. Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (S. equi is a host-restricted pathogen of horses that has evolved from the zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus. These pathogens share approximately 80% genome sequence identity with the important human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes. We sequenced and compared the genomes of S. equi 4047 and S. zooepidemicus H70 and screened S. equi and S. zooepidemicus strains from around the world to uncover evidence of the genetic events that have shaped the evolution of the S. equi genome and led to its emergence as a host-restricted pathogen. Our analysis provides evidence of functional loss due to mutation and deletion, coupled with pathogenic specialization through the acquisition of bacteriophage encoding a phospholipase A(2 toxin, and four superantigens, and an integrative conjugative element carrying a novel iron acquisition system with similarity to the high pathogenicity island of Yersinia pestis. We also highlight that S. equi, S. zooepidemicus, and S. pyogenes share a common phage pool that enhances cross-species pathogen evolution. We conclude that the complex interplay of functional loss, pathogenic specialization, and genetic exchange between S. equi, S. zooepidemicus, and S. pyogenes continues to influence the evolution of these important streptococci.

  5. Mortality In Rural China Declined As Health Insurance Coverage Increased, But No Evidence The Two Are Linked.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Maigeng; Liu, Shiwei; Kate Bundorf, M; Eggleston, Karen; Zhou, Sen

    2017-09-01

    Health insurance holds the promise of improving population health and survival and protecting people from catastrophic health spending. Yet evidence from lower- and middle-income countries on the impact of health insurance is limited. We investigated whether insurance expansion reduced adult mortality in rural China, taking advantage of differences across Chinese counties in the timing of the introduction of the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS). We assembled and analyzed newly collected data on NCMS implementation, linked to data from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention on cause-specific, age-standardized death rates and variables specific to county-year combinations for seventy-two counties in the period 2004-12. While mortality rates declined among rural residents during this period, we found little evidence that the expansion of health insurance through the NCMS contributed to this decline. However, our relatively large standard errors leave open the possibility that the NCMS had effects on mortality that we could not detect. Moreover, mortality benefits might arise only after many years of accumulated coverage. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  6. How do urban households in China respond to increasing block pricing in electricity? Evidence from a fuzzy regression discontinuity approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zibin; Cai, Wenxin; Feng, Xiangzhao

    2017-01-01

    China is the largest electricity consumption country after it has passed the United States in 2011. Residential electricity consumption in China grew by 381.35% (12.85% per annum) between 2000 and 2013. In order to deal with rapid growth in residential electricity consumption, an increasing block pricing policy was introduced for residential electricity consumers in China on July 1st, 2012. Using difference-in-differences models with a fuzzy regression discontinuity design, we estimate a causal effect of price on electricity consumption for urban households during the introduction of increasing block pricing policy in Guangdong province of China. We find that consumers do not respond to a smaller (approximately 8%) increase in marginal price. However, consumers do respond to a larger increase in marginal price. An approximately 40% increase in marginal price induces an approximately 35% decrease in electricity use (284 kW h per month). Our results suggest that although the increasing block pricing could affect the behavior of households with higher electricity use, there is only a limit potential to overall energy conservation. - Highlights: • Estimate electricity consumption changes in response to the IBP in China. • Employ quasi-experimental approach and micro household level data in China. • Households do not respond to a smaller increase in marginal price. • 40% increase in marginal price induces a 35% decrease in electricity use.

  7. Does Household Gun Access Increase the Risk of Attempted Suicide?: Evidence from a National Sample of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Adam M.; Lizotte, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to assess if home firearm access increases the risk of nonfatal suicidal attempts among adolescents. Such a gun focus has largely been limited to case-control studies on completed suicides. This line of research has found that household gun access increases the risk of suicide due to features of available firearms…

  8. Neoliberal policies and urban reconfigurations. Victoria, San Fernando, province of Buenos Aires, a city understood from theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ester Donadío

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to explain from a theoretical conceptual approach the particularities that exist in Victoria, San Fernando, Buenos Aires, from its urban production. Through a series of field works, semi-structured interviews and observations, it was possible to perceive that in this locality, there are three logics of city production, market, state and necessity, according to Abramo, P. (2002. The post-development cities of Latin America, a space in which constant tensions are generated that alter the harmonious development of daily life and the interaction of those who inhabit the area. On the other hand, it is also perceived that the inhabitants naturalize that way of life, their spatial disposition, the progressive privatization of public areas and the proliferation of closed housing estates. Here is a quote that we have heard repeatedly in interviews with the neighbors: "No one in Victoria gives a ball to anyone." At the moment of understanding Victoria from the theory, we take into account such concepts as the "heterotopy" of Foucault M. (1967 - understood as the juxtaposition of spaces that would be incompatible -the term "com-fusa city" (Abramo P. - as an urban structure that interweaves two traditional models (the Mediterranean compact and the Anglo-Saxon diffused, the notion of "privatopia" by I.Rodriguez Chumillas (2005 and E. Mckenzie (1994 as private spatial consolidation, and finally the concepts: informative and dual cities of R Castells (1995 terms that emerge from the process of globalization, which may be useful to think about the reality of Victoria .

  9. Conflict Prevalence in Primary School and How It Is Understood to Affect Teaching and Learning in Ghana

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    Nana Afia Amponsaa Opoku-Asare

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Verbal and non-verbal interactions that occur daily between teachers and headteachers, teachers and pupils, and among pupils can generate conflict that may adversely affect teaching, learning, and schooling effectiveness. Little attention is, however, paid to the quality of relationships that exists between teachers and pupils, among teachers, among pupils, between teachers and their school heads, and between schools and their local communities. This study sought to investigate conflict prevalence in Ghana’s primary schools, and how relationship conflict is understood to affect teaching and learning at the level of headteachers as administrators, teachers as classroom managers, and pupils as learners, and direct beneficiaries of primary education. Using data gathered via interview, questionnaire administration, and observation in 30 public primary schools in 10 circuits of one district of Ashanti Region, the findings revealed a high prevalence of fighting, heckling, bullying, and other forms of relationship conflict among pupils; strained teacher–pupil relations due to insolence, indiscipline, and use of offensive language; and teacher–parent arguments and quarrels due to harsh punishment and verbal assault of pupils. Teacher–pupil conflicts may extend to teachers excluding the affected pupils from teaching and learning activities, denying them the rights to ask and answer questions, and have their class exercises marked, leading to lowered pupil self-esteem, reduced concentration during lessons, and passive involvement in learning activities, which could result in truancy and school dropout. Strengthening guidance mechanisms and encouraging peer mediation could significantly curb conflict in school environments and thereby raise educational standards in the district.

  10. Short-run Distributional Effects of VAT Rate Change: Evidence from a consumption tax rate increase in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    David CASHIN; UNAYAMA Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Households will purchase more items than usual prior to a value added tax (VAT) rate increase in order to avoid taxation. Since this type of arbitrage requires resources such as shopping time and storage space, the impacts of tax increases vary across households, which has brought distributional effects in the short-run. Using the case of a consumption tax rate increase in Japan in 1997, we show that households who are non-working, with non-working spouses and residing in larger houses, benef...

  11. Does Digital Video Advertising Increase Population-Level Reach of Multimedia Campaigns? Evidence From the 2013 Tips From Former Smokers Campaign

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Kevin C; Shafer, Paul R; Rodes, Robert; Kim, Annice; Hansen, Heather; Patel, Deesha; Coln, Caryn; Beistle, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Background Federal and state public health agencies in the United States are increasingly using digital advertising and social media to promote messages from broader multimedia campaigns. However, little evidence exists on population-level campaign awareness and relative cost efficiencies of digital advertising in the context of a comprehensive public health education campaign. Objective Our objective was to compare the impact of increased doses of digital video and television advertising fro...

  12. The highest global concentrations and increased abundance of oceanic plastic debris in the North Pacific: Evidence from seabirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robards, Martin D.; Gould, Patrick J.; Coe, James M.; Rogers, Donald B.

    1997-01-01

    Plastic pollution has risen dramatically with an increase in production of plastic resin during the past few decades. Plastic production in the United States increased from 2.9 million tons in I960 to 47.9 million tons in 1985 (Society of the Plastics Industry 1986). This has been paralleled by a significant increase in the concentration of plastic particles in oceanic surface waters of the North Pacific from the 1970s to the late 1980s (Day and Shaw 1987; Day et al. 1990a). Research during the past few decades has indicated two major interactions between marine life and oceanic plastic: entanglement and ingestion (Laist 1987). Studies in the last decade have documented the prevalence of plastic in the diets of many seabird species in the North Pacific and the need for further monitoring of those species and groups that ingest the most plastic (Day et al. 1985).

  13. Large-Scale Regeneration Patterns of Pinus nigra Subsp. salzmannii: Poor Evidence of Increasing Facilitation Across a Drought Gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Antonio Tíscar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tree recruitment is a key process underlying stand dynamics and sustainability in managed forests. Woody plant cover is known to affect the regeneration success of Pinus nigra, suggesting the existence of facilitative plant-plant interactions. The regeneration patterns of this Mediterranean pine were analyzed across its distribution area, using data from 3226 plots of the Spanish National Forest Inventory. We aimed to test the hypothesis that seedlings establishment occurs under higher values of either canopy or shrub cover in the driest populations, as predicted by the stress-gradient hypothesis. Data were analyzed by means of Generalized Linear Models and multivariate methods. Results revealed that regeneration failure occurs on a regional scale, and that regeneration is facilitated by tree canopy cover of 55%–80%. A non-linear pattern of interaction along an aridity gradient was identified, with competition at the wettest site, high facilitation at the mid-dry sites, and low facilitation at the driest site. Evidence suggests that some shrub species may facilitate recruitment in the harsher areas. Collectively, our results reduce the possibilities of adapting forest management to drying climates by the application of alternative silvicultural prescriptions involving canopy cover.

  14. Increasing evidence for the efficacy of tobacco control mass media communication programming in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, Sandra; Prasad, Vinayak; Kaur, Jagdish; Turk, Tahir

    2011-08-01

    Antitobacco mass media campaigns have had good success at changing knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors with respect to smoking in high-income countries provided they are sustained. Mass media campaigns should be a critical component of tobacco control programs in low- and lower-middle-income countries. Mounting evidence shows that graphic campaigns and those that evoke negative emotions run over long periods of time have achieved the most influence. These types of campaigns are now being implemented in low- and middle-income countries. The authors provide 3 case studies of first-ever graphic warning mass media campaigns in China, India, and Russia, 3 priority high-burden countries in the global Bloomberg Initiative to Reduce Tobacco Use. In each of these countries, message testing of core messages provided confidence in messages, and evaluations demonstrated message uptake. The authors argue that given the initial success of these campaigns, governments in low- and middle-income countries should consider resourcing and sustaining these interventions as key components of their tobacco control strategies and programs.

  15. Is There Evidence That Active Videogames Increase Energy Expenditure and Exercise Intensity for People Poststroke and with Cerebral Palsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Judith E; Guarrera-Bowlby, Phyllis; Myslinski, Mary Jane; Kafri, Michal

    2015-02-01

    This article asked and answered the question of whether there was evidence to support the use of videogames for promotion of wellness and fitness for people poststroke and those with cerebral palsy (CP). A literature search of PubMed, CINAHL, and PEDro using a population, intervention, and outcome (PIO) approach and the key words "stroke (or CP) AND video games (and synonyms) AND energy expenditure (EE) (and synonyms)" was conducted. It yielded two relevant references for people poststroke and five references for people with CP. The literature extraction and synthesis by the categories of the PIO indicated that most studies used only the population of interest, except two that compared the EE with that of healthy controls. The main finding is that both people poststroke (moderate severity) and people with CP (mild severity) can achieve moderate EE playing Wii(™) (Nintendo, Kyoto, Japan), PlayStation(®) (Sony, Tokyo, Japan), and Kinect(™) (Microsoft, Redmond, WA) games. Adults with CP of mild severity played the videogames at vigorous levels, whereas those with severe CP played them at low levels. There appears to be an interaction between development and severity that influences the exercise intensity measured by EE. The findings suggests that videogames are a gateway for wellness promotion.

  16. A Preliminary Investigation of Evidence-Based Interventions to Increase Oral Reading Fluency in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisener, Carmen D.; Lancaster, Amity Lewis; McMullin, W. Arrel; Ho, Tuan

    2014-01-01

    At present, the incidence rates of children identified with autism spectrum disorders are on the rise, leading to an increased number of school-aged children needing specialized services in public schools. Most intervention efforts in the school setting focus on behavioral interventions and/or communication and social skills remediation services…

  17. Algal blooms increase heterotrophy at the base of boreal lake food webs-Evidence from fatty acid biomarkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johansson, K.S.L.; Trigal, C.; Vrede, T.; van Rijswijk, P.; Goedkoop, W.; Johnson, R.K.

    2016-01-01

    Physical defenses and grazer avoidance of the bloom-forming microalga Gonyostomum semen may reduce the direct coupling between phytoplankton and higher trophic levels and result in an increased importance of alternative basal food resources such as bacteria and heterotrophic protozoans. To assess

  18. Increasing adolescent HIV prevalence in Eastern Zimbabwe--evidence of long-term survivors of mother-to-child transmission?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey W Eaton

    Full Text Available Recent data from the Manicaland HIV/STD Prevention Project, a general-population open HIV cohort study, suggested that between 2004 and 2007 HIV prevalence amongst males aged 15-17 years in eastern Zimbabwe increased from 1.20% to 2.23%, and in females remained unchanged at 2.23% to 2.39%, while prevalence continued to decline in the rest of the adult population. We assess whether the more likely source of the increase in adolescent HIV prevalence is recent sexual HIV acquisition, or the aging of long-term survivors of perinatal HIV acquisition that occurred during the early growth of the epidemic. Using data collected between August 2006 and November 2008, we investigated associations between adolescent HIV and (1 maternal orphanhood and maternal HIV status, (2 reported sexual behaviour, and (3 reporting recurring sickness or chronic illness, suggesting infected adolescents might be in a late stage of HIV infection. HIV-infected adolescent males were more likely to be maternal orphans (RR = 2.97, p<0.001 and both HIV-infected adolescent males and females were more likely to be maternal orphans or have an HIV-infected mother (male RR = 1.83, p<0.001; female RR = 16.6, p<0.001. None of 22 HIV-infected adolescent males and only three of 23 HIV-infected females reported ever having had sex. HIV-infected adolescents were 60% more likely to report illness than HIV-infected young adults. Taken together, all three hypotheses suggest that recent increases in adolescent HIV prevalence in eastern Zimbabwe are more likely attributable to long-term survival of mother-to-child transmission rather than increases in risky sexual behaviour. HIV prevalence in adolescents and young adults cannot be used as a surrogate for recent HIV incidence, and health systems should prepare for increasing numbers of long-term infected adolescents.

  19. Does gender inequity increase the risk of intimate partner violence among women? Evidence from a national Bangladeshi sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosiur Rahman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence from developing countries regarding the association between gender inequity and intimate partner violence (IPV victimization in women has been suggestive but inconclusive. Using nationally representative population-based data from Bangladesh, we examined the association between multidimensional aspects of gender inequity and the risk of IPV. METHODS: We used data from the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey. The analyses were based on the responses of 4,467 married women. The main explanatory variable was gender inequity, which reflects the multidimensional aspects of women's autonomy and the relationship inequality between women and their partner. The experience of physical and/or sexual IPV was the main outcome variable of interest. RESULTS: Over 53% of married Bangladeshi women experienced physical and/or sexual violence from their husbands. In the adjusted models, women who had a higher level of autonomy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.48; 99% confidence interval [CI] 0.37-0.61, a particularly high level of economic-decision-making autonomy (AOR 0.12; 99% CI 0.08-0.17, and a higher level of non-supportive attitudes towards wife beating or raping (AOR 0.61; 99% CI 0.47-0.83 were less likely to report having experienced IPV. Education level, age at marriage, and occupational discrepancy between spouses were also found to be significant predictors of IPV. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, dimensions of gender inequities were significant predictors of IPV among married women in Bangladesh. An investigation of the causal link between multidimensional aspects of gender inequity and IPV will be critical to developing interventions to reduce the risk of IPV and should be considered a public health research priority.

  20. Clinical significance of stress-related increase in blood pressure: current evidence in office and out-of-office settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munakata, Masanori

    2018-05-29

    High blood pressure is the most significant risk factor of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases worldwide. Blood pressure and its variability are recognized as risk factors. Thus, hypertension control should focus not only on maintaining optimal levels but also on achieving less variability in blood pressure. Psychosocial stress is known to contribute to the development and worsening of hypertension. Stress is perceived by the brain and induces neuroendocrine responses in either a rapid or long-term manner. Moreover, endothelial dysfunction and inflammation might be further involved in the modulation of blood pressure elevation associated with stress. White-coat hypertension, defined as high clinic blood pressure but normal out-of-office blood pressure, is the most popular stress-related blood pressure response. Careful follow-up is necessary for this type of hypertensive patients because some show organ damage or a worse prognosis. On the other hand, masked hypertension, defined as high out-of-office blood pressure but normal office blood pressure, has received considerable interest as a poor prognostic condition. The cause of masked hypertension is complex, but evidence suggests that chronic stress at the workplace or home could be involved. Chronic psychological stress could be associated with distorted lifestyle and mental distress as well as long-lasting allostatic load, contributing to the maintenance of blood pressure elevation. Stress issues are common in patients in modern society. Considering psychosocial stress as the pathogenesis of blood pressure elevation is useful for achieving an individual-focused approach and 24-h blood pressure control.

  1. Rate of duodenal-biliary reflux increases in patients with recurrent common bile duct stones: evidence from barium meal examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rongchun; Luo, Hui; Pan, Yanglin; Zhao, Lina; Dong, Junqiang; Liu, Zhiguo; Wang, Xiangping; Tao, Qin; Lu, Guohua; Guo, Xuegang

    2015-10-01

    Stone recurrence is a common late adverse event after ERCP in patients with common bile duct stones (CBDS). Duodenal-biliary reflux (DBR) is considered a major cause of CBDS recurrence. However, specific evidence is still lacking. To investigate the DBR rate in patients with recurrent CBDS after ERCP. A prospective case-control study. A tertiary center. During follow-up, patients with a history of either recurrent CBDS (recurrence group) or nonrecurrent CBDS (control group) were invited to participate in the study. All patients had previously undergone successful CBDS removal by ERCP. Patients in the control group were matched with the recurrence group by age and gender in a 1:1 ratio. Patients with gallbladder stones, hepatolithiasis, remnant CBDS, CBD strictures, or stents were excluded. Standard barium meal examination, MRCP, and enhanced abdominal CT. DBR. Thirty-two patients with a history of recurrent CBDS and 32 matched control subjects were enrolled. Baseline characteristics and parameters regarding the first ERCP were comparable between the 2 groups. The DBR rate was significantly higher in the recurrent than in the control group (68.8% vs 15.6%, P < .001). Multivariate analysis indicated that DBR (OR, 9.59; 95% CI, 2.65-34.76) and acute distal CBD angulation (OR, 5.48; 95% CI, 1.52-19.78) were independent factors associated with CBDS recurrence. DBR rates in patients with no, single, or multiple recurrences were 15.6%, 60.9%, and 88.9%, respectively (P < .001). Intrahepatic bile duct reflux was more common in patients with multiple recurrences. Small sample size. DBR is correlated with CBDS recurrence in patients who had previously undergone ERCP. DBR and acute distal CBD angulation are 2 independent risk factors related to stone recurrence. ( NCT02329977.) Copyright © 2015 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. No evidence for a decrease of nuclear decay rates with increasing heliocentric distance based on radiochronology of meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Matthias M. M.; Wieler, Rainer

    2014-03-01

    It has been argued that the decay rates of several radioactive nuclides are slightly lower at Earth's aphelion than at perihelion, and that this effect might depend on heliocentric distance. It might then be expected that nuclear decay rates be considerably lower at larger distances from the sun, e.g., in the asteroid belt at 2-3 AU from where most meteorites originate. If so, ages of meteorites obtained by analyses of radioactive nuclides and their stable daughter isotopes might be in error, since these ages are based on decay rates determined on Earth. Here we evaluate whether the large data base on nuclear cosmochronology offers any hint for discrepancies which might be due to radially variable decay rates. Chlorine-36 (t1/2 = 301,000 a) is produced in meteorites by interactions with cosmic rays and is the nuclide for which a decay rate dependence from heliocentric distance has been proposed, which, in principle, can be tested with our approach and the current data base. We show that compilations of 36Cl concentrations measured in meteorites offer no support for a spatially variable 36Cl decay rate. For very short-lived cosmic-ray produced radionuclides (half-lives uranium decay rates in different meteorite parent bodies in the asteroid belt. Moreover, the oldest U-Pb ages of meteorites agree with the main-sequence age of the sun derived from helioseismology within the formal ˜1% uncertainty of the latter. Meteorite ages also provide no evidence for a decrease of decay rates with heliocentric distance for nuclides such as 87Rb (decay mode β-) 40K (β- and electron capture), and 147Sm (α).

  3. Can hydrographic data provide evidence that the rate of oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2 is increasing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Carlisle Thacker

    Full Text Available Predictions of the rate of accumulation of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the Pacific Ocean near 32°S and 150°W based on the P16 surveys of 1991 and 2005 and on the P06 surveys of 1992 and 2003 underestimate the amount found in the P06 survey of 2009-2010, suggesting an increasing uptake rate. Assuming the accumulation rate to be constant over the two decades, analyses using all five surveys lead to upward revision of the rates based only on the first four. On the other hand, accumulation rates estimated for 2003-2010 are significantly greater than those for 1991-2003, again suggesting an increasing uptake rate. In addressing this question it is important to acknowledge the limitations of the repeat hydrography and consequent uncertainties of estimated accumulation rates.

  4. No evidence for generalized increased postoperative responsiveness to pain: a combined behavioral and serial functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kupers, Ron; Schneider, Fabien C G; Christensen, Rune

    2009-01-01

    area and to the lower forearm, a site remote from the surgical area. A group of eight age- and sex-matched control subjects underwent the same two-test procedure except that they were not submitted to an orthopedic surgical intervention. RESULTS: Subjective pain and brain responses to innocuous...... and noxious stimulation were not increased postoperatively. Actually, responses in primary and secondary somatosensory cortex for stimulation of the operated leg were significantly smaller after surgery. Brain responses in the control group did not differ significantly across the two sessions. CONCLUSION......BACKGROUND: Although it is generally accepted that increased pain responsiveness and central sensitization develop after major tissue injury, this claim has not been tested using brain imaging methods in a clinical pain setting. We tested this hypothesis using a postoperative pain model...

  5. Maternal Use of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Lengthening of the Umbilical Cord: Indirect Evidence of Increased Foetal Activity-A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Kivistö

    Full Text Available Antenatal depression affects up to 19% of pregnant women. Some of these women are also in need of antidepressant treatment. Nevertheless, the impact of maternal antidepressant treatment and prenatal depression on the course of pregnancy, foetal development and delivery outcomes is not fully understood.We analysed data from 24 818 women who gave birth at Kuopio University Hospital between 2002-2012. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate associations between the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs during pregnancy and the progression of pregnancy, development of the foetus and delivery outcomes.Altogether, 369 (1.5% women used SSRIs. A regression model adjusted for age, overweight, nulliparity, prior termination, miscarriages, smoking, maternal alcohol consumption, chronic illness and polyhydramnion showed that pregnant women exposed to SSRI medication had significantly lower Apgar scores at 1 minute (p < 0.0001 and 5 minutes (p < 0.0001 and more admissions to the neonatal intensive care unit (p < 0.0001 than unexposed pregnant women. In addition, exposed newborns had longer umbilical cords (p < 0.0001 than non-exposed newborns.In addition to the previously known associates with maternal SSRI exposure, such as lowered Apgar scores, SSRI exposure appeared to be associated with increased umbilical cord length. The observation related to increased umbilical cord length may be explained by an SSRI-induced increase in the movements of the developing foetus.

  6. Do Work-Life Balance Policies Increase a Firm's Total Factor Productivity?: Evidence from panel data of Japanese firms (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    YAMAMOTO Isamu; MATSUURA Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how firms' policies for workers' work-life balance (WLB) affect total factor productivity (TFP) in the long run, by using panel data of Japanese firms from the 1990s. Although we observed a positive correlation between firms' WLB policies and their TFP, once controlling for unobserved firm heterogeneity, we found no causal relationship where WLB policies increase a firm's TFP in the long run. Under the following conditions, however, WLB policies would likely improve a firm...

  7. Evidence for higher tropical storm risks in Haiti due to increasing population density in hazard prone urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klose, Christian D

    2011-01-01

    Since the 18th century, the Republic of Haiti has experienced numerous tropical cyclones. In 2011, the United Nations Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction outlined that the worldwide physical exposure to natural hazards, which includes tropical storms and hurricanes in Haiti, increased by 192 per cent between 1970 and 2010. Now, it can be hypothesized that the increased physical exposure to cyclones that made landfall in Haiti has affected the country's development path. This study shows that tropical storm risks in Haiti increased due to more physical exposure of the population in urban areas rather than a higher cyclone frequency in the proximity of Hispaniola island. In fact, the population density accelerated since the second half of the 20th century in regions where historically more storms made landfall, such as in the departments Ouest, Artibonite, Nord and Nord-Ouest including Haiti's four largest cities: Port-au-Prince, Gonaïves, Cap-Haïtien and Port-de-Paix. Thus, urbanization in and migration into storm hazard prone areas could be considered as one of the major driving forces of Haiti's fragility.

  8. Evidence of Increased Antibiotic Resistance in Phylogenetically-Diverse Aeromonas Isolates from Semi-Intensive Fish Ponds Treated with Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Hemant J; Benet-Perelberg, Ayana; Naor, Alon; Smirnov, Margarita; Ofek, Tamir; Nasser, Ahmed; Minz, Dror; Cytryn, Eddie

    2016-01-01

    cluster that harbored all characterized fish skin ulcer samples. Subsequent to stocking, diversity was much lower and most water column isolates in both facilities segregated into an A. veronii -associated cluster. This study demonstrated a strong correlation between aquaculture, Aeromonas diversity and antibiotic resistance. It provides strong evidence for linkage between prophylactic and systemic use of antibiotics in aquaculture and the propagation of antibiotic resistance.

  9. Evidence of increased antibiotic resistance in phylogenetically-diverse Aeromonas isolates from semi-intensive fish ponds treated with antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant J Patil

    2016-11-01

    identified, including an A. salmonicida cluster that harbored all characterized fish skin ulcer samples. Subsequent to stocking diversity was much lower and most water column isolates in both facilities segregated into an A. veronii-associated cluster. This study demonstrated a strong correlation between aquaculture, Aeromonas diversity and antibiotic resistance. It provides strong evidence for linkage between prophylactic and systemic use of antibiotics in aquaculture and the propagation of antibiotic resistance.

  10. Narrative exposure therapy for PTSD increases top-down processing of aversive stimuli - evidence from a randomized controlled treatment trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adenauer Hannah

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the neurobiological foundations of psychotherapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. Prior studies have shown that PTSD is associated with altered processing of threatening and aversive stimuli. It remains unclear whether this functional abnormality can be changed by psychotherapy. This is the first randomized controlled treatment trial that examines whether narrative exposure therapy (NET causes changes in affective stimulus processing in patients with chronic PTSD. Methods 34 refugees with PTSD were randomly assigned to a NET group or to a waitlist control (WLC group. At pre-test and at four-months follow-up, the diagnostics included the assessment of clinical variables and measurements of neuromagnetic oscillatory brain activity (steady-state visual evoked fields, ssVEF resulting from exposure to aversive pictures compared to neutral pictures. Results PTSD as well as depressive symptom severity scores declined in the NET group, whereas symptoms persisted in the WLC group. Only in the NET group, parietal and occipital activity towards threatening pictures increased significantly after therapy. Conclusions Our results indicate that NET causes an increase of activity associated with cortical top-down regulation of attention towards aversive pictures. The increase of attention allocation to potential threat cues might allow treated patients to re-appraise the actual danger of the current situation and, thereby, reducing PTSD symptoms. Registration of the clinical trial Number: NCT00563888 Name: "Change of Neural Network Indicators Through Narrative Treatment of PTSD in Torture Victims" ULR: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00563888

  11. Direct in vivo evidence for increased proliferation of CLL cells in lymph nodes compared to bone marrow and peripheral blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herndon, Thomas M; Chen, Shih-Ann; Saba, Nakhle S

    2017-01-01

    of active cell proliferation remains to be definitively determined. Based on findings that CLL cells in LNs have increased expression of B-cell activation genes, we tested the hypothesis that the fraction of 'newly born' cells would be highest in the LNs. Using a deuterium oxide ((2)H) in vivo labeling...... method in which patients consumed deuterated (heavy) water ((2)H2O), we determined CLL cell kinetics in concurrently obtained samples from LN, PB and BM. The LN was identified as the anatomical site harboring the largest fraction of newly born cells, compared to PB and BM. In fact, the calculated birth...

  12. Does temporal and locational flexibility of work increase the supply of working hours? Evidence from the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Possenriede, D.S.; Hassink, W.H.J.; Plantenga, J.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, many employees have gained more control over temporal and locational aspects of their work via a variety of flexible work arrangements, such as flexi-time and telehomework. This temporal and locational flexibility of work (TLF) is often seen as a means to facilitate the combination of work and private life. As such it has been recommended as a policy to increase the average number of working hours of part-time workers. To the best of our knowledge, the effectiveness of this p...

  13. Does Health Insurance Premium Exemption Policy for Older People Increase Access to Health Care? Evidence from Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duku, Stephen Kwasi Opuku; van Dullemen, Caroline Elisabeth; Fenenga, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Aging in Sub-Saharan Africa causes major challenges for policy makers in social protection. Our study focuses on Ghana, one of the few Sub-Saharan African countries that passed a National Policy on Aging in 2010. Ghana is also one of the first Sub-Saharan African countries that launched a National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS; NHIS Act 650, 2003) with the aim to improve access to quality health care for all citizens, and as such can be considered as a means of poverty reduction. Our study assesses whether premium exemption policy under the NHIS that grants non-payments of annual health insurance premiums for older people increases access to health care. We assessed differences in enrollment coverage among four different age groups (18-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70+). We found higher enrollment for the 70+ and 60-69 age groups. The likelihood of enrollment was 2.7 and 1.7 times higher for the 70+ and 60-69 age groups, respectively. Our results suggest the NHIS exemption policy increases insurance coverage of the aged and their utilization of health care services.

  14. Evidence for increased SOX3 dosage as a risk factor for X-linked hypopituitarism and neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauters, Marijke; Frints, Suzanna G; Van Esch, Hilde; Spruijt, Liesbeth; Baldewijns, Marcella M; de Die-Smulders, Christine E M; Fryns, Jean-Pierre; Marynen, Peter; Froyen, Guy

    2014-08-01

    Genomic duplications of varying lengths at Xq26-q27 involving SOX3 have been described in families with X-linked hypopituitarism. Using array-CGH we detected a 1.1 Mb microduplication at Xq27 in a large family with three males suffering from X-linked hypopituitarism. The duplication was mapped from 138.7 to 139.8 Mb, harboring only two annotated genes, SOX3 and ATP11C, and was shown to be a direct tandem copy number gain. Unexpectedly, the microduplication did not fully segregate with the disease in this family suggesting that SOX3 duplications have variable penetrance for X-linked hypopituitarism. In the same family, a female fetus presenting with a neural tube defect was also shown to carry the SOX3 copy number gain. Since we also demonstrated increased SOX3 mRNA levels in amnion cells derived from an unrelated t(X;22)(q27;q11) female fetus with spina bifida, we propose that increased levels of SOX3 could be a risk factor for neural tube defects. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Observational evidence of a long-term increase in precipitation due to urbanization effects and its implications for sustainable urban living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, K M; Wang, X M; Lin, T H; Wong, M S; Zeng, S K; He, N; Ng, E; Lau, K; Wang, D H

    2017-12-01

    Although projected precipitation increases in East Asia due to future climate change have aroused concern, less attention has been paid by the scientific community and public to the potential long-term increase in precipitation due to rapid urbanization. A ten-year precipitation dataset was analysed for both a rapidly urbanized megacity and nearby suburban/rural stations in southern China. Rapid urbanization in the megacity was evident from satellite observations. A statistically significant, long-term, increasing trend of precipitation existed only at the megacity station (45.6mm per decade) and not at the other stations. The increase was attributed to thermal and dynamical modifications of the tropospheric boundary layer related to urbanization, which was confirmed by the results of our WRF-SLUCM simulations. The results also suggested that a long-term regional increase in precipitation, caused by greenhouse gas-induced climate change, for instance, was not evident within the study period. The urbanization-induced increase was found to be higher than the precipitation increase (18.3mm per decade) expected from future climate change. The direct climate impacts due to rapid urbanization is highlighted with strong implications for urban sustainable development and the planning of effective adaptation strategies for issues such as coastal defenses, mosquito-borne disease spread and heat stress mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Increased psychological distress among Danish Gulf War veterans--without evidence for a neurotoxic background. The Danish Gulf War Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishøy, Torben; Knop, Joachim; Suadicani, Poul

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Compared with controls, up to six years after their return, Danish Gulf War veterans have a significantly higher prevalence of self-reported neuropsychological symptoms, potentially as a result of neurotoxic exposure during deployment. We tested the hypotheses that: 1) GW veterans...... of neuropsychological symptoms, and stratified according to SCL-90-R score, no trends were found suggesting reduced motor function with increasing symptoms. Of nine dimensions constructed on the basis of the SCL-90-R items, six were significantly associated with being a Gulf War veteran. Statistically, the strongest...... would perform less well than controls using a computerized neuromotor test battery; and that 2) GW veterans have a psychological profile different from that of controls. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 686 subjects who had been deployed in the Persian Gulf within the period August 2...

  17. Tolerance by surprise: evidence for a generalized reduction in prejudice and increased egalitarianism through novel category combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiljevic, Milica; Crisp, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    Prejudices towards different groups are interrelated, but research has yet to find a way to promote tolerance towards multiple outgroups. We devise, develop and implement a new cognitive intervention for achieving generalized tolerance based on scientific studies of social categorization. In five laboratory experiments and one field study the intervention led to a reduction of prejudice towards multiple outgroups (elderly, disabled, asylum seekers, HIV patients, gay men), and fostered generalized tolerance and egalitarian beliefs. Importantly, these effects persisted outside the laboratory in a context marked by a history of violent ethnic conflict, increasing trust and reconciliatory tendencies towards multiple ethnic groups in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. We discuss the implications of these findings for intervention strategies focused on reducing conflict and promoting peaceful intergroup relations.

  18. HLA class II (DR, DQ, DP) in patients with sarcoidosis: evidence of an increased frequency of DRw6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødum, Niels; Milman, N; Jakobsen, B K

    1991-01-01

    using primed lymphocyte typing. The frequencies of DRw6 were 41.5% in SA patients and 17.9% in controls (relative risk, RR = 3.2, p = 0.00087, p less than 0.05 when corrected). DR3 was decreased to 14.6% in SA patients compared to 25.9% in controls (RR = 0.49, p = 0.07, i.e., not statistically...... significant). The decreased frequency of DR3 was only seen in patients with severe, long-standing disease. In contrast, the DRw6 increase was most pronounced in patients with severe disease (RR = 6.4; p = 0.003). There were no statistically significant deviations in the frequencies of DQ and DP alleles...

  19. Tolerance by Surprise: Evidence for a Generalized Reduction in Prejudice and Increased Egalitarianism through Novel Category Combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiljevic, Milica; Crisp, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Prejudices towards different groups are interrelated, but research has yet to find a way to promote tolerance towards multiple outgroups. We devise, develop and implement a new cognitive intervention for achieving generalized tolerance based on scientific studies of social categorization. In five laboratory experiments and one field study the intervention led to a reduction of prejudice towards multiple outgroups (elderly, disabled, asylum seekers, HIV patients, gay men), and fostered generalized tolerance and egalitarian beliefs. Importantly, these effects persisted outside the laboratory in a context marked by a history of violent ethnic conflict, increasing trust and reconciliatory tendencies towards multiple ethnic groups in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. We discuss the implications of these findings for intervention strategies focused on reducing conflict and promoting peaceful intergroup relations. PMID:23483895

  20. Does the Visibility of Greenery Increase Perceived Safety in Urban Areas? Evidence from the Place Pulse 1.0 Dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojiang Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban green space provides a series of esthetic, environmental and psychological benefits to urban residents. However, the relationship between the visibility of green vegetation and perceived safety is still in debate. This research investigated whether green vegetation could help to increase the perceived safety based on a crowdsourced dataset: the Place Pulse 1.0 dataset. Place Pulse 1.0 dataset, which was generated from a large number of votes by online participants, includes geo-tagged Google Street View images and the corresponding perceived safety score for each image. In this study, we conducted statistical analyses to analyze the relationship between perceived safety and green vegetation characteristics, which were extracted from Google Street View images. Results show that the visibility of green vegetation plays an important role in increasing perceived safety in urban areas. For different land use types, the relationship between vegetation structures and perceived safety varies. In residential, urban public/institutional, commercial and open land areas, the visibility of vegetation higher than 2.5 m has significant positive correlations with perceived safety, but there exists no significant correlation between perceived safety and the percentage of green vegetation in transportation and industrial areas. The visibility of vegetation below 2.5 m has no significant relationship with the perceived safety in almost all land use types, except for multifamily residential land and urban public/institutional land. In general, this study provided insight for the relationship between green vegetation characteristics and the perception of environment, as well as valuable reference data for developing urban greening programs.

  1. Brain structural connectivity increases concurrent with functional improvement: Evidence from diffusion tensor MRI in children with cerebral palsy during therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoë A. Englander

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral Palsy (CP refers to a heterogeneous group of permanent but non-progressive movement disorders caused by injury to the developing fetal or infant brain (Bax et al., 2005. Because of its serious long-term consequences, effective interventions that can help improve motor function, independence, and quality of life are critically needed. Our ongoing longitudinal clinical trial to treat children with CP is specifically designed to meet this challenge. To maximize the potential for functional improvement, all children in this trial received autologous cord blood transfusions (with order randomized with a placebo administration over 2 years in conjunction with more standard physical and occupational therapies. As a part of this trial, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is used to improve our understanding of how these interventions affect brain development, and to develop biomarkers of treatment efficacy. In this report, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and subsequent brain connectome analyses were performed in a subset of children enrolled in the clinical trial (n = 17, who all exhibited positive but varying degrees of functional improvement over the first 2-year period of the study. Strong correlations between increases in white matter (WM connectivity and functional improvement were demonstrated; however no significant relationships between either of these factors with the age of the child at time of enrollment were identified. Thus, our data indicate that increases in brain connectivity reflect improved functional abilities in children with CP. In future work, this potential biomarker can be used to help differentiate the underlying mechanisms of functional improvement, as well as to identify treatments that can best facilitate functional improvement upon un-blinding of the timing of autologous cord blood transfusions at the completion of this study.

  2. Brain structural connectivity increases concurrent with functional improvement: evidence from diffusion tensor MRI in children with cerebral palsy during therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englander, Zoë A; Sun, Jessica; Laura Case; Mikati, Mohamad A; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Song, Allen W

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral Palsy (CP) refers to a heterogeneous group of permanent but non-progressive movement disorders caused by injury to the developing fetal or infant brain (Bax et al., 2005). Because of its serious long-term consequences, effective interventions that can help improve motor function, independence, and quality of life are critically needed. Our ongoing longitudinal clinical trial to treat children with CP is specifically designed to meet this challenge. To maximize the potential for functional improvement, all children in this trial received autologous cord blood transfusions (with order randomized with a placebo administration over 2 years) in conjunction with more standard physical and occupational therapies. As a part of this trial, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used to improve our understanding of how these interventions affect brain development, and to develop biomarkers of treatment efficacy. In this report, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and subsequent brain connectome analyses were performed in a subset of children enrolled in the clinical trial (n = 17), who all exhibited positive but varying degrees of functional improvement over the first 2-year period of the study. Strong correlations between increases in white matter (WM) connectivity and functional improvement were demonstrated; however no significant relationships between either of these factors with the age of the child at time of enrollment were identified. Thus, our data indicate that increases in brain connectivity reflect improved functional abilities in children with CP. In future work, this potential biomarker can be used to help differentiate the underlying mechanisms of functional improvement, as well as to identify treatments that can best facilitate functional improvement upon un-blinding of the timing of autologous cord blood transfusions at the completion of this study.

  3. Evidence of increased toxic Alexandrium tamarense dinoflagellate blooms in the eastern Bering Sea in the summers of 2004 and 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsuike, Masafumi; Saito, Rui; Fujiwara, Amane; Matsuno, Kohei; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Shiga, Naonobu; Hirawake, Toru; Kikuchi, Takashi; Nishino, Shigeto; Imai, Ichiro

    2017-01-01

    The eastern Bering Sea has a vast continental shelf, which contains various endangered marine mammals and large fishery resources. Recently, high numbers of toxic A. tamarense resting cysts were found in the bottom sediment surface of the eastern Bering Sea shelf, suggesting that the blooms have recently occurred. However, little is known about the presence of A. tamarense vegetative cells in the eastern Bering Sea. This study's goals were to detect the occurrence of A. tamarense vegetative cells on the eastern Bering Sea shelf and to find a relationship between environmental factors and their presence. Inter-annual field surveys were conducted to detect A. tamarense cells and environmental factors, such as nutrients, salinity, chlorophyll a, and water temperature, along a transect line on the eastern Bering Sea shelf during the summers of 2004, 2005, 2006, 2009, 2012, and 2013. A. tamarense vegetative cells were detected during every sampling year, and their quantities varied greatly from year to year. The maximum cell densities of A. tamarense observed during the summers of 2004 and 2005 were much higher than the Paralytic shellfish poisoning warning levels, which are greater than 100-1,000 cells L-1, in other subarctic areas. Lower quantities of the species occurred during the summers of 2009, 2012, and 2013. A significant positive correlation between A. tamarense quantity and water temperature and significant negative correlations between A. tamarense quantity and nutrient concentrations (of phosphate, silicate, and nitrite and nitrate) were detected in every sampling period. The surface- and bottom-water temperatures varied significantly from year to year, suggesting that water temperatures, which have been known to affect the cell growth and cyst germination of A. tamarense, might have affected the cells' quantities in the eastern Bering Sea each summer. Thus, an increase in the Bering Sea shelf's water temperature during the summer will increase the

  4. Increase in female liver cancer in the Gambia, West Africa: evidence from 19 years of population-based cancer registration (1988-2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Sighoko

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a common malignancy worldwide with a high burden in West Africa. Male to female ratios show consistent bias toward males, the biological bases and variations of which are not well understood. We have used data from the Gambian National Cancer Registry to compare trends in incidence of HCC in both genders. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Two periods were compared, 1988-1997 (early and 1998-2006 (recent. In addition, the regression program joinpoint was used to assess trends over 19 years. Differences with self-reported ethnicity were assessed for the recent period using population data from 2003 census. Male to female ratio showed a significant decrease between the two periods from 3.28∶1 (95% CI, [2.93-3.65] to 2.2∶1 (95% CI, [1.99-2.43]. Although rates in males were relatively stable (38.36 and 32.84 for, respectively, early and recent periods, they increased from 11.71 to 14.9 in females with a significant Annual Percentage Change of 3.01 [0.3-5.8] over 19 years and an increase in number of cases of 80.28% (compared to 26% in males. Significant variations in HCC risk, but not in gender ratio were observed in relation with ethnicity. CONCLUSION: This analysis of the only national, population-based cancer registry in West Africa shows a significant increase in HCC in females over recent years. This increase may be the consequence of major changes in lifestyle or viral risk factors, in particular obesity and hepatitis C, which have both been documented to increase in West Africa during recent years.

  5. Targeting condom distribution at high risk places increases condom utilization-evidence from an intervention study in Livingstone, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandøy Ingvild

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The PLACE-method presumes that targeting HIV preventive activities at high risk places is effective in settings with major epidemics. Livingstone, Zambia, has a major HIV epidemic despite many preventive efforts in the city. A baseline survey conducted in 2005 in places where people meet new sexual partners found high partner turnover and unprotected sex to be common among guests. In addition, there were major gaps in on-site condom availability. This study aimed to assess the impact of a condom distribution and peer education intervention targeting places where people meet new sexual partners on condom use and sexual risk taking among people socializing there. Methods The 2005 baseline survey assessed the presence of HIV preventive activities and sexual risk taking in places where people meet new sexual partners in Livingstone. One township was selected for a non-randomised intervention study on condom distribution and peer education in high risk venues in 2009. The presence of HIV preventive activities in the venues during the intervention was monitored by an external person. The intervention was evaluated after one year with a follow-up survey in the intervention township and a comparison township. In addition, qualitative interviews and focus group discussions were conducted. Results Young people between 17-32 years of age were recruited as peer educators, and 40% were females. Out of 72 persons trained before the intervention, 38 quit, and another 11 had to be recruited. The percentage of venues where condoms were reported to always be available at least doubled in both townships, but was significantly higher in the intervention vs. the control venues in both surveys (84% vs. 33% in the follow-up. There was a reduction in reported sexual risk taking among guests socializing in the venues in both areas, but reporting of recent condom use increased more among people interviewed in the intervention (57% to 84% than in the

  6. Targeting condom distribution at high risk places increases condom utilization-evidence from an intervention study in Livingstone, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandøy, Ingvild Fossgard; Zyaambo, Cosmas; Michelo, Charles; Fylkesnes, Knut

    2012-01-05

    The PLACE-method presumes that targeting HIV preventive activities at high risk places is effective in settings with major epidemics. Livingstone, Zambia, has a major HIV epidemic despite many preventive efforts in the city. A baseline survey conducted in 2005 in places where people meet new sexual partners found high partner turnover and unprotected sex to be common among guests. In addition, there were major gaps in on-site condom availability. This study aimed to assess the impact of a condom distribution and peer education intervention targeting places where people meet new sexual partners on condom use and sexual risk taking among people socializing there. The 2005 baseline survey assessed the presence of HIV preventive activities and sexual risk taking in places where people meet new sexual partners in Livingstone. One township was selected for a non-randomised intervention study on condom distribution and peer education in high risk venues in 2009. The presence of HIV preventive activities in the venues during the intervention was monitored by an external person. The intervention was evaluated after one year with a follow-up survey in the intervention township and a comparison township. In addition, qualitative interviews and focus group discussions were conducted. Young people between 17-32 years of age were recruited as peer educators, and 40% were females. Out of 72 persons trained before the intervention, 38 quit, and another 11 had to be recruited. The percentage of venues where condoms were reported to always be available at least doubled in both townships, but was significantly higher in the intervention vs. the control venues in both surveys (84% vs. 33% in the follow-up). There was a reduction in reported sexual risk taking among guests socializing in the venues in both areas, but reporting of recent condom use increased more among people interviewed in the intervention (57% to 84%) than in the control community (55% to 68%). It is likely that the

  7. Evidence of increased toxic Alexandrium tamarense dinoflagellate blooms in the eastern Bering Sea in the summers of 2004 and 2005.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masafumi Natsuike

    Full Text Available The eastern Bering Sea has a vast continental shelf, which contains various endangered marine mammals and large fishery resources. Recently, high numbers of toxic A. tamarense resting cysts were found in the bottom sediment surface of the eastern Bering Sea shelf, suggesting that the blooms have recently occurred. However, little is known about the presence of A. tamarense vegetative cells in the eastern Bering Sea. This study's goals were to detect the occurrence of A. tamarense vegetative cells on the eastern Bering Sea shelf and to find a relationship between environmental factors and their presence. Inter-annual field surveys were conducted to detect A. tamarense cells and environmental factors, such as nutrients, salinity, chlorophyll a, and water temperature, along a transect line on the eastern Bering Sea shelf during the summers of 2004, 2005, 2006, 2009, 2012, and 2013. A. tamarense vegetative cells were detected during every sampling year, and their quantities varied greatly from year to year. The maximum cell densities of A. tamarense observed during the summers of 2004 and 2005 were much higher than the Paralytic shellfish poisoning warning levels, which are greater than 100-1,000 cells L-1, in other subarctic areas. Lower quantities of the species occurred during the summers of 2009, 2012, and 2013. A significant positive correlation between A. tamarense quantity and water temperature and significant negative correlations between A. tamarense quantity and nutrient concentrations (of phosphate, silicate, and nitrite and nitrate were detected in every sampling period. The surface- and bottom-water temperatures varied significantly from year to year, suggesting that water temperatures, which have been known to affect the cell growth and cyst germination of A. tamarense, might have affected the cells' quantities in the eastern Bering Sea each summer. Thus, an increase in the Bering Sea shelf's water temperature during the summer will

  8. Increasing access into higher education: Insights from the 2011 African Network on Evidence-to-Action on Disability Symposium – Education Commission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Lyner-Cleophas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article provides some insights into the challenges regarding inclusion in higher education of students with disabilities. It does this by elucidating aspects of the proceedings of the Education Commission at the African Network on Evidence-to-Action on Disability (AfriNEAD Symposium, which took place in Zimbabwe in November 2011. The presentations specifically focused on the education of people with disabilities from early childhood through to higher education. This article, however, is informed by presentations focusing on increasing access to higher education. The article is focused on the implementation of evidence in practice, research and policies stemming from rigorous debate and scientific foundations, whilst taking into account the dynamic realities of the higher education context. Themes such as the systemic approach needed for inclusion to be successful, increasing access and the dynamic role of students with disabilities are highlighted.

  9. Increasing access into higher education: Insights from the 2011 African Network on Evidence-to-Action on Disability Symposium – Education Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, Estelle; Chataika, Tsitsi; Bell, Diane

    2014-01-01

    This article provides some insights into the challenges regarding inclusion in higher education of students with disabilities. It does this by elucidating aspects of the proceedings of the Education Commission at the African Network on Evidence-to-Action on Disability (AfriNEAD) Symposium, which took place in Zimbabwe in November 2011. The presentations specifically focused on the education of people with disabilities from early childhood through to higher education. This article, however, is informed by presentations focusing on increasing access to higher education. The article is focused on the implementation of evidence in practice, research and policies stemming from rigorous debate and scientific foundations, whilst taking into account the dynamic realities of the higher education context. Themes such as the systemic approach needed for inclusion to be successful, increasing access and the dynamic role of students with disabilities are highlighted. PMID:28730011

  10. Increasing access into higher education: Insights from the 2011 African Network on Evidence-to-Action on Disability Symposium - Education Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyner-Cleophas, Marcia; Swart, Estelle; Chataika, Tsitsi; Bell, Diane

    2014-01-01

    This article provides some insights into the challenges regarding inclusion in higher education of students with disabilities. It does this by elucidating aspects of the proceedings of the Education Commission at the African Network on Evidence-to-Action on Disability (AfriNEAD) Symposium, which took place in Zimbabwe in November 2011. The presentations specifically focused on the education of people with disabilities from early childhood through to higher education. This article, however, is informed by presentations focusing on increasing access to higher education. The article is focused on the implementation of evidence in practice, research and policies stemming from rigorous debate and scientific foundations, whilst taking into account the dynamic realities of the higher education context. Themes such as the systemic approach needed for inclusion to be successful, increasing access and the dynamic role of students with disabilities are highlighted.

  11. Evidence of an association between the Arg72 allele of the peptide YY and increased risk of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torekov, Signe S; Larsen, Lesli H; Glümer, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that variants in the gene encoding the prepropeptide YY (PYY) associate with type 2 diabetes and/or obesity. Mutation analyses of DNA from 84 patients with obesity and familial type 2 diabetes identified two polymorphisms, IVS3 + 68C>T and Arg72Thr, and one rare variant......, +151C>A of PYY. The common allele of the Arg72Thr variant associated with type 2 diabetes with an allele frequency of the Arg allele of 0.667 (95% CI 0.658-0.677) among 4,639 glucose-tolerant subjects and 0.692 (0.674-0.710) among 1,326 patients with type 2 diabetes (P = 0.005, odds ratio 1.19 [95% CI...... tolerance test (OGTT) (P = 0.03), an increased area under the curve for the post-OGTT plasma glucose level (P = 0.03), and a lower insulinogenic index (P = 0.01). In conclusion, the common Arg allele of the PYY Arg72Thr variant modestly associates with type 2 diabetes and with type 2 diabetes...

  12. Cholinergic blockade under working memory demands encountered by increased rehearsal strategies: evidence from fMRI in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Bianca; Thienel, Renate; Reske, Martina; Kellermann, Thilo; Sheldrick, Abigail J; Halfter, Sarah; Radenbach, Katrin; Shah, Nadim J; Habel, Ute; Kircher, Tilo T J

    2012-06-01

    The connection between cholinergic transmission and cognitive performance has been established in behavioural studies. The specific contribution of the muscarinic receptor system on cognitive performance and brain activation, however, has not been evaluated satisfyingly. To investigate the specific contribution of the muscarinic transmission on neural correlates of working memory, we examined the effects of scopolamine, an antagonist of the muscarinic receptors, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Fifteen healthy male, non-smoking subjects performed a fMRI scanning session following the application of scopolamine (0.4 mg, i.v.) or saline in a placebo-controlled, repeated measure, pseudo-randomized, single-blind design. Working memory was probed using an n-back task. Compared to placebo, challenging the cholinergic transmission with scopolamine resulted in hypoactivations in parietal, occipital and cerebellar areas and hyperactivations in frontal and prefrontal areas. These alterations are interpreted as compensatory strategies used to account for downregulation due to muscarinic acetylcholine blockade in parietal and cerebral storage systems by increased activation in frontal and prefrontal areas related to working memory rehearsal. Our results further underline the importance of cholinergic transmission to working memory performance and determine the specific contribution of muscarinic transmission on cerebral activation associated with executive functioning.

  13. Increase in peripheral oxidative stress during hypercholesterolemia is not reflected in the central nervous system: evidence from two mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Tao; Yao, Yeumang; Praticò, Domenico

    2005-05-01

    In recent years oxidative stress has been widely implicated as a pathogenetic mechanism of several diseases, and a variety of indices and assays have been developed to assess this phenomenon in complex biological systems. Most of these biomarkers can be measured virtually in every biological fluid and tissue, providing us with the opportunity to assess their formation at local site of oxidative injury. However, despite their widespread use, it is still not completely clear how their peripheral formation correlates with the levels measured in the central nervous system. For this reason, we utilized two well-characterized animal models of chronic peripheral oxidative stress, low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR)-deficient and C57BL/6 mice on a high fat diet. After 8 weeks on the diet, we assessed isoprostane, marker of lipid peroxidation, and carbonyls, marker of protein oxidation, in several organs of these animals. Compared with animals on chow, mice on the high fat diet showed a significant increase in both biomarkers in plasma, heart, aorta and liver but not in brain tissues. This observation was confirmed by the selective accumulation of radioactivity in the peripheral organs but not in the brains of mice injected with tritiated isoprostane. Our findings indicate that in hypercholesterolemia the peripheral formation of oxidative products does not contribute to their levels found in the central nervous system.

  14. Human embryonic stem cell derived islet progenitors mature inside an encapsulation device without evidence of increased biomass or cell escape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Kaitlyn; Hao, Ergeng; Lahmy, Reyhaneh; Itkin-Ansari, Pamela

    2014-05-01

    There are several challenges to successful implementation of a cell therapy for insulin dependent diabetes derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESC). Among these are development of functional insulin producing cells, a clinical delivery method that eliminates the need for chronic immunosuppression, and assurance that hESC derived tumors do not form in the patient. We and others have shown that encapsulation of cells in a bilaminar device (TheraCyte) provides immunoprotection in rodents and primates. Here we monitored human insulin secretion and employed bioluminescent imaging (BLI) to evaluate the maturation, growth, and containment of encapsulated islet progenitors derived from CyT49 hESC, transplanted into mice. Human insulin was detectable by 7 weeks post-transplant and increased 17-fold over the course of 8 weeks, yet during this period the biomass of encapsulated cells remained constant. Remarkably, by 20 weeks post-transplant encapsulated cells secreted sufficient levels of human insulin to ameliorate alloxan induced diabetes. Further, bioluminescent imaging revealed for the first time that hESCs remained fully contained in encapsulation devices for up to 150 days, the longest period tested. Collectively, the data suggest that encapsulated hESC derived islet progenitors hold great promise as an effective and safe cell replacement therapy for insulin dependent diabetes. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Preliminary evidence for increased parasympathetic activity during social inclusion and exclusion in adolescents with functional abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulewitsch, Marco Daniel; Jusyte, Aiste; Mazurak, Nazar; Weimer, Katja; Schönenberg, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Peer victimization (e.g. social exclusion) has been shown to be associated with physical health problems such as functional somatic complaints and especially symptoms of pain. To date, no study has investigated the mechanisms underlying this association in clinical pediatric samples. The aim of this study was to evaluate the parasympathetic activity during a social exclusion experience in adolescents with functional abdominal pain (FAP). Twenty adolecents with FAP and 21 matched healthy participants were compared regarding parameters of parasympathetic activation before, during, and after participating in the Cyberball-game, a well-established paradigm to induce social exclusion. Adolescents with FAP showed an increase in parasympathetic activation during both consecutive phases of the Cyberball game (inclusion as well as exclusion condition) whereas the healthy control group remained stable. There were no differences in subjective experience of in- and exclusion between the groups. The parasympathetic activation pattern may indicate altered processing of social stimuli in adolescents with FAP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Increased Adoption of Quality Improvement Interventions to Implement Evidence-Based Practices for Pressure Ulcer Prevention in U.S. Academic Medical Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, William V; Mishra, Manish K; Makic, Mary Beth F; Wald, Heidi L; Campbell, Jonathan D; Nair, Kavita V; Valuck, Robert J

    2015-12-01

    In 2008, the U.S. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services enacted a nonpayment policy for stage III and IV hospital-acquired pressure ulcers (HAPUs), which incentivized hospitals to improve prevention efforts. In response, hospitals looked for ways to support implementation of evidence-based practices for HAPU prevention, such as adoption of quality improvement (QI) interventions. The objective of this study was to quantify adoption patterns of QI interventions for supporting evidence-based practices for HAPU prevention. This study surveyed wound care specialists working at hospitals within the University HealthSystem Consortium. A questionnaire was used to retrospectively describe QI adoption patterns according to 25 HAPU-specific QI interventions into four domains: leadership, staff, information technology (IT), and performance and improvement. Respondents indicated QI interventions implemented between 2007 and 2012 to the nearest quarter and year. Descriptive statistics defined patterns of QI adoption. A t-test and statistical process control chart established statistically significant increase in adoption following nonpayment policy enactment in October 2008. Increase are described in terms of scope (number of QI domains employed) and scale (number of QI interventions within domains). Fifty-three of the 55 hospitals surveyed reported implementing QI interventions for HAPU prevention. Leadership interventions were most frequent, increasing in scope from 40% to 63% between 2008 and 2012; "annual programs to promote pressure ulcer prevention" showed the greatest increase in scale. Staff interventions increased in scope from 32% to 53%; "frequent consult driven huddles" showed the greatest increase in scale. IT interventions increased in scope from 31% to 55%. Performance and improvement interventions increased in scope from 18% to 40%, with "new skin care products . . ." increasing the most. Academic medical centers increased adoption of QI interventions

  17. Standardised (plain) cigarette packaging increases attention to both text-based and graphical health warnings: experimental evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankleman, M; Sykes, C; Mandeville, K L; Di Costa, S; Yarrow, K

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether standardised cigarette packaging increases the time spent looking at health warnings, regardless of the format of those warnings. A factorial (two pack styles x three warning types) within-subject experiment, with participants randomised to different orders of conditions, completed at a university in London, UK. Mock-ups of cigarette packets were presented to participants with their branded portion in either standardised (plain) or manufacturer-designed (branded) format. Health warnings were present on all packets, representing all three types currently in use in the UK: black & white text, colour text, or colour images with accompanying text. Gaze position was recorded using a specialised eye tracker, providing the main outcome measure, which was the mean proportion of a five-second viewing period spent gazing at the warning-label region of the packet. An opportunity sample of 30 (six male, mean age = 23) young adults met the following inclusion criteria: 1) not currently a smoker; 2) 50% viewing time. These participants spent a greater proportion of the available time gazing at the warning-label region when the branded section of the pack was standardised (following current Australian guidelines) rather than containing the manufacturer's preferred design (mean difference in proportions = 0.078, 95% confidence interval 0.049 to 0.106, p interaction p = 0.295). During incidental viewing of cigarette packets, young adult never-smokers are likely to spend more time looking at health warnings if manufacturers are compelled to use standardised packaging, regardless of the warning design. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessing the potential impact of increased participation in higher education on mortality: evidence from 21 European populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulhánová, Ivana; Hoffmann, Rasmus; Judge, Ken; Looman, Caspar W N; Eikemo, Terje A; Bopp, Matthias; Deboosere, Patrick; Leinsalu, Mall; Martikainen, Pekka; Rychtaříková, Jitka; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Menvielle, Gwenn; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2014-09-01

    Although higher education has been associated with lower mortality rates in many studies, the effect of potential improvements in educational distribution on future mortality levels is unknown. We therefore estimated the impact of projected increases in higher education on mortality in European populations. We used mortality and population data according to educational level from 21 European populations and developed counterfactual scenarios. The first scenario represented the improvement in the future distribution of educational attainment as expected on the basis of an assumption of cohort replacement. We estimated the effect of this counterfactual scenario on mortality with a 10-15-year time horizon among men and women aged 30-79 years using a specially developed tool based on population attributable fractions (PAF). We compared this with a second, upward levelling scenario in which everyone has obtained tertiary education. The reduction of mortality in the cohort replacement scenario ranged from 1.9 to 10.1% for men and from 1.7 to 9.0% for women. The reduction of mortality in the upward levelling scenario ranged from 22.0 to 57.0% for men and from 9.6 to 50.0% for women. The cohort replacement scenario was estimated to achieve only part (4-25% (men) and 10-31% (women)) of the potential mortality decrease seen in the upward levelling scenario. We concluded that the effect of on-going improvements in educational attainment on average mortality in the population differs across Europe, and can be substantial. Further investments in education may have important positive side-effects on population health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evidence for increased cardiovascular events in the fathers but not mothers of women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mary C; Reema Kar, A; Kunselman, Allen R; Stetter, Christy M; Dunaif, Andrea; Legro, Richard S

    2011-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a familial syndrome, associated with multiple cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Thus, parents of affected women may have a higher prevalence of CVD events than the general population. PCOS probands (n = 410) and their participating parents (n = 180 fathers and 211 mothers) were queried for CVD events in themselves and non-participating family members. In order to include the family CVD history of all parents, agreement between the proband and parental reports of CVD events was assessed. Estimated 10-year coronary heart disease (CHD) risk was calculated using the Framingham risk calculator. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2002 database was used to generate gender, age and body mass index-relevant population parameters of CVD prevalence in the USA population. Ninety-eight percent of the parents' self-reporting of CVD events agreed with the proband's report of parental heart attack history [Kappa = 0.82; 95% CI: (0.69, 0.94)] and 99% with parental stroke history [Kappa = 0.79; 95% CI: (0.62, 0.97)]. Fathers of women with PCOS had a higher prevalence of heart attack and stroke compared with the reference NHANES population (heart attack: 11.1 versus 5.3%, P PCOS had an elevated 10-year risk for CHD (11.5 versus 9.9% in NHANES, P = 0.03). No statistically significant increased prevalence of CVD events or 10-year risk was noted in probands or mothers. Fathers, and not mothers, may be disproportionately burdened with CVD in PCOS families. The strengths of this study include the size of our cohort, the consistent phenotyping and the validation of proband's reporting of parental CVD events.

  20. Herpes simplex virus type 1 and Alzheimer's disease: increasing evidence for a major role of the virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Frances Itzhaki

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractHSV1, when present in brain of carriers of the type 4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE, has been implicated as a major factor in AD. It is proposed that virus is normally latent in many elderly brains but reactivates periodically (as in the peripheral nervous system under certain conditions, for example stress, immunosuppression, and peripheral infection, causing cumulative damage and eventually development of AD. Diverse approaches have provided data that explicitly support, directly or indirectly, these concepts. Several have confirmed HSV1 DNA presence in human brains, and the HSV1-APOE-ε4 association in AD. Further, studies on HSV1-infected APOE-transgenic mice have shown that APOE-e4 animals display a greater potential for viral damage. Reactivated HSV1 can cause direct and inflammatory damage, probably involving increased formation of beta amyloid (Aβ and of AD-like tau (P-tau - changes found to occur in HSV1-infected cell cultures. Implicating HSV1 further in AD is the discovery that HSV1 DNA is specifically localised in amyloid plaques in AD. Other relevant, harmful effects of infection include the following: dynamic interactions between HSV1 and amyloid precursor protein (APP, which would affect both viral and APP transport; induction of toll-like receptors in HSV1-infected astrocyte cultures, which has been linked to the likely effects of reactivation of the virus in brain. Several epidemiological studies have shown, using serological data, an association between systemic infections and cognitive decline, with HSV1 particularly implicated. Genetic studies too have linked various pathways in AD with those occurring on HSV1 infection. In relation to the potential usage of antivirals to treat AD patients, acyclovir (ACV is effective in reducing HSV1-induced AD-like changes in cell cultures, and valacyclovir, the bioactive form of ACV, might be most effective if combined with an antiviral that acts by a different

  1. Increased Toxoplasma gondii positivity relative to age in 125 Scottish sheep flocks; evidence of frequent acquired infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence was determined in 3333 sheep sera from 125 distinct sheep flocks in Scotland, with the majority of flocks being represented by 27 samples, which were collected between July 2006 and August 2008. The selected farms give a representative sample of 14 400 sheep holdings identified in the Scottish Government census data from 2004. Overall T. gondii seroprevalence, at individual sheep level, was determined to be 56.6%; each flock tested, had at least a single positive animal and in four flocks all ewes tested positive. The seroprevalence of sheep increased from 37.7% in one year old stock to 73.8% in ewes that were older than six years, showing that acquired infections during the life of the animals is frequent and that environmental contamination by T. gondii oocysts must be significant. The median within-flock seroprevalence varied significantly across Scotland, with the lowest seroprevalence of 42.3% in the South and the highest seroprevalence of 69.2% in the far North of Scotland and the Scottish Islands, while the central part of Scotland had a seroprevalence of 57.7%. This distribution disequilibrium may be due to the spread and survival of oocysts on pasture and lambing areas. A questionnaire accompanying sampling of flocks identified farms that used Toxovax®, a commercial vaccine that protects sheep from abortion due to T. gondii infection. Only 24.7% of farmers used the vaccine and the vaccine did not significantly affect the within flock seroprevalence for T. gondii. The implications for food safety and human infection are discussed. PMID:22189159

  2. An experimental study of the job demand-control model with measures of heart rate variability and salivary alpha-amylase: Evidence of increased stress responses to increased break autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Emma; Landolt, Kathleen; Hazi, Agnes; Dragano, Nico; Wright, Bradley J

    2015-01-01

    We assessed in an experimental design whether the stress response towards a work task was moderated by the autonomy to choose a break during the assigned time to complete the task. This setting is defined in accordance with the theoretical framework of the job-demand-control (JDC) model of work related stress. The findings from naturalistic investigations of a stress-buffering effect of autonomy (or 'buffer hypothesis') are equivocal and the experimental evidence is limited, especially with relation to physiological indices of stress. Our objective was to investigate if increased autonomy in a particular domain (break time control) was related with adaptive physiology using objective physiological markers of stress; heart rate variability (HRV) and salivary alpha amylase (sAA). We used a within-subject design and the 60 female participants were randomly assigned to an autonomy (free timing of break) and standard conditions (fixed timing of break) of a word processing task in a simulated office environment in a random order. Participants reported increased perceptions of autonomy, no difference in demand and performed worse in the task in the break-time autonomy versus the standard condition. The results revealed support for the manipulation of increased autonomy, but in the opposing direction. Increased autonomy was related with dysregulated physiological reactivity, synonymous with typical increased stress responses. Potentially, our findings may indicate that autonomy is not necessary a resource but could become an additional stressor when it adds additional complexity while the amount of work (demands) remains unchanged. Further, our findings underscore the need to collect objective physiological evidence of stress to supplement self-reported information. Self-report biases may partially explain the inconsistent findings with the buffer hypothesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evidence for widespread changes in promoter methylation profile in human placenta in response to increasing gestational age and environmental/stochastic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Jeffrey M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human placenta facilitates the exchange of nutrients, gas and waste between the fetal and maternal circulations. It also protects the fetus from the maternal immune response. Due to its role at the feto-maternal interface, the placenta is subject to many environmental exposures that can potentially alter its epigenetic profile. Previous studies have reported gene expression differences in placenta over gestation, as well as inter-individual variation in expression of some genes. However, the factors contributing to this variation in gene expression remain poorly understood. Results In this study, we performed a genome-wide DNA methylation analysis of gene promoters in placenta tissue from three pregnancy trimesters. We identified large-scale differences in DNA methylation levels between first, second and third trimesters, with an overall progressive increase in average methylation from first to third trimester. The most differentially methylated genes included many immune regulators, reflecting the change in placental immuno-modulation as pregnancy progresses. We also detected increased inter-individual variation in the third trimester relative to first and second, supporting an accumulation of environmentally induced (or stochastic changes in DNA methylation pattern. These highly variable genes were enriched for those involved in amino acid and other metabolic pathways, potentially reflecting the adaptation of the human placenta to different environments. Conclusions The identification of cellular pathways subject to drift in response to environmental influences provide a basis for future studies examining the role of specific environmental factors on DNA methylation pattern and placenta-associated adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  4. Can delusions be understood linguistically?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinzen, Wolfram; Rosselló, Joana; McKenna, Peter

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Delusions are widely believed to reflect disturbed cognitive function, but the nature of this remains elusive. The “un-Cartesian” cognitive-linguistic hypothesis maintains (a) that there is no thought separate from language, that is, there is no distinct mental space removed from language where “thinking” takes place; and (b) that a somewhat broadened concept of grammar is responsible for bestowing meaning on propositions, and this among other things gives them their quality of being true or false. It is argued that a loss of propositional meaning explains why delusions are false, impossible and sometimes fantastic. A closely related abnormality, failure of linguistic embedding, can additionally account for why delusions are held with fixed conviction and are not adequately justified by the patient. The un-Cartesian linguistic approach to delusions has points of contact with Frith’s theory that inability to form meta-representations underlies a range of schizophrenic symptoms. It may also be relevant to the nature of the “second factor” in monothematic delusions in neurological disease. Finally, it can inform the current debate about whether or not delusions really are beliefs. PMID:27322493

  5. Home is to be understood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie; Werner Hansen, Siv

    2018-01-01

    , and involved artists with refugee status (mainly from Syria), a group of local volunteers, and members of the museum staff. The project derived from the annual theme “ON THE MOVE” and culminated in an art exhibition and event on June 4th 2016. Up until then the museum had invited the artists to create artworks...... for the exhibition, while including the volunteers in the process, facilitating the meeting of those who are at home and those who are on the run. In this sense, the MFSK situates themselves as a social-political activist; a contemporary institution dealing with contemporary societal issues. The migrant and refugee...... of engaging with themes of refuge, home and exile? What are the implications of volunteering in such project? The paper’s discussions are framed by the theories of gallery education (Bishop, 2006; Mörsch, 2009), co-creation in museums (Simon, 2010), community arts (Kester, 2013), and draws on fieldwork...

  6. Can delusions be understood linguistically?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinzen, Wolfram; Rosselló, Joana; McKenna, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Delusions are widely believed to reflect disturbed cognitive function, but the nature of this remains elusive. The "un-Cartesian" cognitive-linguistic hypothesis maintains (a) that there is no thought separate from language, that is, there is no distinct mental space removed from language where "thinking" takes place; and (b) that a somewhat broadened concept of grammar is responsible for bestowing meaning on propositions, and this among other things gives them their quality of being true or false. It is argued that a loss of propositional meaning explains why delusions are false, impossible and sometimes fantastic. A closely related abnormality, failure of linguistic embedding, can additionally account for why delusions are held with fixed conviction and are not adequately justified by the patient. The un-Cartesian linguistic approach to delusions has points of contact with Frith's theory that inability to form meta-representations underlies a range of schizophrenic symptoms. It may also be relevant to the nature of the "second factor" in monothematic delusions in neurological disease. Finally, it can inform the current debate about whether or not delusions really are beliefs.

  7. How flares can be understood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severny, A.B.

    1977-01-01

    Specific features of the flare phenomenon which are important for understanding of flares are the following: (1) Fine structure of visible emission of flares, especially at the very beginning and in the pre-flare active region. This structure can be seen also in later stages of development as bright points, some of which exist from the flare beginning (Babin's observations at Crimea, 1972-1976). (2) Turbulent motion with velocities up to 250-300 km s -1 as can be estimated from broadening of emission lines. (3) Predominantly red asymmetry of emission lines in the explosive phase and during further development of flares. (4) 'Supersonic' velocities and supergravitational accelerations of separate moving masses of the flare plasma. (5) The appearance of flares in areas with high grad H, exceeding 0.1 G km -1 which is equivalent to regions of electric currents > approximately 10 11 A. (6) Strong variations of net magnetic flux through the active region, as it follows from Meudon, Crimean, and Sacramento Peak (Rust's) observations. (Auth.)

  8. We Have Not Understood Descartes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallias, Andras

    1996-01-01

    Describes a personal involvement with digital media and the origins of the conception of the "diagrammatic" poem. Reflects on what is considered to be a poem in tune with today's computerized society. (PA)

  9. Integrating evidence-based practices for increasing cancer screenings in safety net health systems: a multiple case study using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shuting; Kegler, Michelle C; Cotter, Megan; Emily, Phillips; Beasley, Derrick; Hermstad, April; Morton, Rentonia; Martinez, Jeremy; Riehman, Kara

    2016-08-02

    Implementing evidence-based practices (EBPs) to increase cancer screenings in safety net primary care systems has great potential for reducing cancer disparities. Yet there is a gap in understanding the factors and mechanisms that influence EBP implementation within these high-priority systems. Guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), our study aims to fill this gap with a multiple case study of health care safety net systems that were funded by an American Cancer Society (ACS) grants program to increase breast and colorectal cancer screening rates. The initiative funded 68 safety net systems to increase cancer screening through implementation of evidence-based provider and client-oriented strategies. Data are from a mixed-methods evaluation with nine purposively selected safety net systems. Fifty-two interviews were conducted with project leaders, implementers, and ACS staff. Funded safety net systems were categorized into high-, medium-, and low-performing cases based on the level of EBP implementation. Within- and cross-case analyses were performed to identify CFIR constructs that influenced level of EBP implementation. Of 39 CFIR constructs examined, six distinguished levels of implementation. Two constructs were from the intervention characteristics domain: adaptability and trialability. Three were from the inner setting domain: leadership engagement, tension for change, and access to information and knowledge. Engaging formally appointed internal implementation leaders, from the process domain, also distinguished level of implementation. No constructs from the outer setting or individual characteristics domain differentiated systems by level of implementation. Our study identified a number of influential CFIR constructs and illustrated how they impacted EBP implementation across a variety of safety net systems. Findings may inform future dissemination efforts of EBPs for increasing cancer screening in similar settings. Moreover

  10. Clinician-led improvement in cancer care (CLICC) - testing a multifaceted implementation strategy to increase evidence-based prostate cancer care: phased randomised controlled trial - study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical practice guidelines have been widely developed and disseminated with the aim of improving healthcare processes and patient outcomes but the uptake of evidence-based practice remains haphazard. There is a need to develop effective implementation methods to achieve large-scale adoption of proven innovations and recommended care. Clinical networks are increasingly being viewed as a vehicle through which evidence-based care can be embedded into healthcare systems using a collegial approach to agree on and implement a range of strategies within hospitals. In Australia, the provision of evidence-based care for men with prostate cancer has been identified as a high priority. Clinical audits have shown that fewer than 10% of patients in New South Wales (NSW) Australia at high risk of recurrence after radical prostatectomy receive guideline recommended radiation treatment following surgery. This trial will test a clinical network-based intervention to improve uptake of guideline recommended care for men with high-risk prostate cancer. Methods/Design In Phase I, a phased randomised cluster trial will test a multifaceted intervention that harnesses the NSW Agency for Clinical Innovation (ACI) Urology Clinical Network to increase evidence-based care for men with high-risk prostate cancer following surgery. The intervention will be introduced in nine NSW hospitals over 10 months using a stepped wedge design. Outcome data (referral to radiation oncology for discussion of adjuvant radiotherapy in line with guideline recommended care or referral to a clinical trial of adjuvant versus salvage radiotherapy) will be collected through review of patient medical records. In Phase II, mixed methods will be used to identify mechanisms of provider and organisational change. Clinicians’ knowledge and attitudes will be assessed through surveys. Process outcome measures will be assessed through document review. Semi-structured interviews will be conducted to elucidate

  11. Feeling Heard & Understood in the Hospital Environment: Benchmarking Communication Quality Among Patients with Advanced Cancer Before and After Palliative Care Consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Luke T; Saeed, Fahad; Ladwig, Susan; Norton, Sally A; Anderson, Wendy; Alexander, Stewart C; Gramling, Robert

    2018-05-02

    Maximizing value in palliative care requires continued development and standardization of communication quality indicators. To describe the basic epidemiology of a newly-adopted patient-centered communication quality indicator for hospitalized palliative care patie9nts with advanced cancer. Cross-sectional analysis of 207 advanced cancer patients who received palliative care consultation at two medical centers in the United States. Participants completed the Heard & Understood quality indicator immediately before and the day following the initial palliative care consultation: "Over the past two days ["24 hours" for the post-consultation version], how much have you felt heard and understood by the doctors, nurses and hospital staff? Completely/Quite a Bit/Moderately/Slightly/Not at All". We categorized "Completely" as indicating ideal quality. Approximately one-third indicated ideal Heard & Understood quality before palliative care consultation. Age, financial security, emotional distress, preferences for comfort-longevity tradeoffs at end-of-life, and prognosis expectations were associated with pre-consultation quality. Among those with less-than-ideal quality at baseline, 56% rated feeling more Heard & Understood the day following palliative care consultation. The greatest pre-post improvement was among people who had unformed end-of-life treatment preferences or who reported having "no idea" about their prognosis at baseline. Most patients felt incompletely heard and understood at the time of referral to palliative care consultation and more than half improved following consultation. Feeling heard and understood is an important quality indicator sensitive to interventions to improve care and key variations in the patient experience. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Environmental exposure to BDE47 is associated with increased diabetes prevalence: Evidence from community-based case-control studies and an animal experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhan; Li, Shushu; Liu, Lu; Wang, Li; Xiao, Xue; Sun, Zhenzhen; Wang, Xichen; Wang, Chao; Wang, Meilin; Li, Lei; Xu, Qiujin; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2016-06-01

    Brominated flame retardants exposure has been associated with increasing trends of diabetes and metabolic disease. Thus, the purpose of this study was to provide evidence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) exposure in relation to diabetes prevalence and to reveal the potential underlying mechanism in epidemiological and animal studies. All the participants received a questionnaire, health examination, and the detection of 7 PBDE congeners in serum in two independent community-based studies from 2011 to 2012 in China. Male rats were exposed to 2,2’4,4’-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47) for 8 weeks to explore its effects on glucose homeostasis and potential mechanisms using high-throughput genomic analysis. Among the 7 congeners, BDE47 showed significant high detection rate and concentration in cases in Study I and Study II. Every tertile of BDE47 exposure significantly increased the risk of diabetes prevalence in Study I (Ptrend = 0.001) and Study II (Ptrend treatments induced hyperglycemia in rats. Furthermore, gene microarray analysis showed that diabetes pathway and three gene ontology terms involved in glucose transport were enriched. The results indicated that environmental exposure to BDE47 was associated with increased diabetes prevalence. However, further prospective and mechanistic studies are needed to the causation of diabetes in relation to BDE47.

  13. A thirty year, fine-scale, characterization of area burned in Canadian forests shows evidence of regionally increasing trends in the last decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coops, Nicholas C; Hermosilla, Txomin; Wulder, Michael A; White, Joanne C; Bolton, Douglas K

    2018-01-01

    Fire as a dominant disturbance has profound implications on the terrestrial carbon cycle. We present the first ever multi-decadal, spatially-explicit, 30 meter assessment of fire regimes across the forested ecoregions of Canada at an annual time-step. From 1985 to 2015, 51 Mha burned, impacting over 6.5% of forested ecosystems. Mean annual area burned was 1,651,818 ha and varied markedly (σ = 1,116,119), with 25% of the total area burned occurring in three years: 1989, 1995, and 2015. Boreal forest types contained 98% of the total area burned, with the conifer-dominated Boreal Shield containing one-third of all burned area. While results confirm no significant national trend in burned area for the period of 1985 to 2015, a significant national increasing trend (α = 0.05) of 11% per year was evident for the past decade (2006 to 2015). Regionally, a significant increasing trend in total burned area from 1985 to 2015 was observed in the Montane Cordillera (2.4% increase per year), while the Taiga Plains and Taiga Shield West displayed significant increasing trends from 2006 to 2015 (26.1% and 12.7% increases per year, respectively). The Atlantic Maritime, which had the lowest burned area of all ecozones (0.01% burned per year), was the only ecozone to display a significant negative trend (2.4% decrease per year) from 1985 to 2015. Given the century-long fire return intervals in many of these ecozones, and large annual variability in burned area, short-term trends need to be interpreted with caution. Additional interpretive cautions are related to year used for trend initiation and the nature and extents of spatial regionalizations used for summarizing findings. The results of our analysis provide a baseline for monitoring future national and regional trends in burned area and offer spatially and temporally detailed insights to inform science, policy, and management.

  14. Evidence for a role of the rare p.A152T variant in MAPT in increasing the risk for FTD-spectrum and Alzheimer's diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Giovanni; Chinnathambi, Subashchandrabose; Lee, Jason JiYong; Dombroski, Beth A.; Baker, Matt C.; Soto-Ortolaza, Alexandra I.; Lee, Suzee E.; Klein, Eric; Huang, Alden Y.; Sears, Renee; Lane, Jessica R.; Karydas, Anna M.; Kenet, Robert O.; Biernat, Jacek; Wang, Li-San; Cotman, Carl W.; DeCarli, Charles S.; Levey, Allan I.; Ringman, John M.; Mendez, Mario F.; Chui, Helena C.; Le Ber, Isabelle; Brice, Alexis; Lupton, Michelle K.; Preza, Elisavet; Lovestone, Simon; Powell, John; Graff-Radford, Neill; Petersen, Ronald C.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Lippa, Carol F.; Bigio, Eileen H.; Mackenzie, Ian; Finger, Elizabeth; Kertesz, Andrew; Caselli, Richard J.; Gearing, Marla; Juncos, Jorge L.; Ghetti, Bernardino; Spina, Salvatore; Bordelon, Yvette M.; Tourtellotte, Wallace W.; Frosch, Matthew P.; Vonsattel, Jean Paul G.; Zarow, Chris; Beach, Thomas G.; Albin, Roger L.; Lieberman, Andrew P.; Lee, Virginia M.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M.; Bird, Thomas D.; Galasko, Douglas R.; Masliah, Eliezer; White, Charles L.; Troncoso, Juan C.; Hannequin, Didier; Boxer, Adam L.; Geschwind, Michael D.; Kumar, Satish; Mandelkow, Eva-Maria; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.; Uitti, Ryan J.; Dickson, Dennis W.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Mayeux, Richard; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Ross, Owen A.; Rademakers, Rosa; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Miller, Bruce L.; Mandelkow, Eckhard; Geschwind, Daniel H.

    2012-01-01

    Rare mutations in the gene encoding for tau (MAPT, microtubule-associated protein tau) cause frontotemporal dementia-spectrum (FTD-s) disorders, including FTD, progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal syndrome, and a common extended haplotype spanning across the MAPT locus is associated with increased risk of PSP and Parkinson's disease. We identified a rare tau variant (p.A152T) in a patient with a clinical diagnosis of PSP and assessed its frequency in multiple independent series of patients with neurodegenerative conditions and controls, in a total of 15 369 subjects. Tau p.A152T significantly increases the risk for both FTD-s (n = 2139, OR = 3.0, CI: 1.6–5.6, P = 0.0005) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n = 3345, OR = 2.3, CI: 1.3–4.2, P = 0.004) compared with 9047 controls. Functionally, p.A152T (i) decreases the binding of tau to microtubules and therefore promotes microtubule assembly less efficiently; and (ii) reduces the tendency to form abnormal fibers. However, there is a pronounced increase in the formation of tau oligomers. Importantly, these findings suggest that other regions of the tau protein may be crucial in regulating normal function, as the p.A152 residue is distal to the domains considered responsible for microtubule interactions or aggregation. These data provide both the first genetic evidence and functional studies supporting the role of MAPT p.A152T as a rare risk factor for both FTD-s and AD and the concept that rare variants can increase the risk for relatively common, complex neurodegenerative diseases, but since no clear significance threshold for rare genetic variation has been established, some caution is warranted until the findings are further replicated. PMID:22556362

  15. Demand-side financing measures to increase maternal health service utilisation and improve health outcomes: a systematic review of evidence from low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Susan F; Hunter, Benjamin M; Bisht, Ramila; Ensor, Tim; Bick, Debra

    2012-01-01

    In many countries financing for health services has traditionally been disbursed directly from governmental and non-governmental funding agencies to providers of services: the 'supply-side' of healthcare markets. Demand-side financing offers a supplementary model in which some funds are instead channelled through, or to, prospective users. In this review we considered evidence on five forms of demand-side financing that have been used to promote maternal health in developing countries: OBJECTIVES: The overall review objective was to assess the effects of demand-side financing interventions on maternal health service utilisation and on maternal health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. Broader effects on perinatal and infant health, the situation of underprivileged women and the health care system were also assessed. This review considered poor, rural or socially excluded women of all ages who were either pregnant or within 42 days of the conclusion of pregnancy, the limit for postnatal care as defined by the World Health Organization. The review also considered the providers of services.The intervention of interest was any programme that incorporated demand-side financing as a mechanism to increase the consumption of goods and services that could impact on maternal health outcomes. This included the direct consumption of maternal health care goods and services as well as related 'merit goods' such as improved nutrition. We included systems in which potential users of maternal health services are financially empowered to make restricted decisions on buying maternal health-related goods or services - sometimes known as consumer-led demand-side financing. We also included programmes that provided unconditional cash benefits to pregnant women (for example in the form of maternity allowances), or to families with children under five years of age where there was evidence concerning maternal health outcomes.We aimed to include quantitative studies (experimental

  16. Does Digital Video Advertising Increase Population-Level Reach of Multimedia Campaigns? Evidence From the 2013 Tips From Former Smokers Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kevin C; Shafer, Paul R; Rodes, Robert; Kim, Annice; Hansen, Heather; Patel, Deesha; Coln, Caryn; Beistle, Diane

    2016-09-14

    Federal and state public health agencies in the United States are increasingly using digital advertising and social media to promote messages from broader multimedia campaigns. However, little evidence exists on population-level campaign awareness and relative cost efficiencies of digital advertising in the context of a comprehensive public health education campaign. Our objective was to compare the impact of increased doses of digital video and television advertising from the 2013 Tips From Former Smokers (Tips) campaign on overall campaign awareness at the population level. We also compared the relative cost efficiencies across these media platforms. We used data from a large national online survey of approximately 15,000 US smokers conducted in 2013 immediately after the conclusion of the 2013 Tips campaign. These data were used to compare the effects of variation in media dose of digital video and television advertising on population-level awareness of the Tips campaign. We implemented higher doses of digital video among selected media markets and randomly selected other markets to receive similar higher doses of television ads. Multivariate logistic regressions estimated the odds of overall campaign awareness via digital or television format as a function of higher-dose media in each market area. All statistical tests used the .05 threshold for statistical significance and the .10 level for marginal nonsignificance. We used adjusted advertising costs for the additional doses of digital and television advertising to compare the cost efficiencies of digital and television advertising on the basis of costs per percentage point of population awareness generated. Higher-dose digital video advertising was associated with 94% increased odds of awareness of any ad online relative to standard-dose markets (Pdigital advertising was associated with a marginally nonsignificant increase (46%) in overall campaign awareness regardless of media format (P=.09). Higher

  17. Does Digital Video Advertising Increase Population-Level Reach of Multimedia Campaigns? Evidence From the 2013 Tips From Former Smokers Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Paul R; Rodes, Robert; Kim, Annice; Hansen, Heather; Patel, Deesha; Coln, Caryn; Beistle, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Background Federal and state public health agencies in the United States are increasingly using digital advertising and social media to promote messages from broader multimedia campaigns. However, little evidence exists on population-level campaign awareness and relative cost efficiencies of digital advertising in the context of a comprehensive public health education campaign. Objective Our objective was to compare the impact of increased doses of digital video and television advertising from the 2013 Tips From Former Smokers (Tips) campaign on overall campaign awareness at the population level. We also compared the relative cost efficiencies across these media platforms. Methods We used data from a large national online survey of approximately 15,000 US smokers conducted in 2013 immediately after the conclusion of the 2013 Tips campaign. These data were used to compare the effects of variation in media dose of digital video and television advertising on population-level awareness of the Tips campaign. We implemented higher doses of digital video among selected media markets and randomly selected other markets to receive similar higher doses of television ads. Multivariate logistic regressions estimated the odds of overall campaign awareness via digital or television format as a function of higher-dose media in each market area. All statistical tests used the .05 threshold for statistical significance and the .10 level for marginal nonsignificance. We used adjusted advertising costs for the additional doses of digital and television advertising to compare the cost efficiencies of digital and television advertising on the basis of costs per percentage point of population awareness generated. Results Higher-dose digital video advertising was associated with 94% increased odds of awareness of any ad online relative to standard-dose markets (Pdigital advertising was associated with a marginally nonsignificant increase (46%) in overall campaign awareness regardless of

  18. Electrophysiological evidence of increased glycine receptor-mediated phasic and tonic inhibition by blockade of glycine transporters in spinal superficial dorsal horn neurons of adult mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misa Oyama

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To understand the synaptic and/or extrasynaptic mechanisms underlying pain relief by blockade of glycine transporter subtypes GlyT1 and GlyT2, whole-cell recordings were made from dorsal horn neurons in spinal slices from adult mice, and the effects of NFPS and ALX-1393, selective GlyT1 and GlyT2 inhibitors, respectively, on phasic evoked or miniature glycinergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (eIPSCs or mIPSCs were examined. NFPS and ALX-1393 prolonged the decay phase of eIPSCs without affecting their amplitude. In the presence of tetrodotoxin to record mIPSCs, NFPS and ALX-1393 induced a tonic inward current that was reversed by strychnine. Although NFPS had no statistically significant influences on mIPSCs, ALX-1393 significantly increased their frequency. We then further explored the role of GlyTs in the maintenance of glycinergic IPSCs. To facilitate vesicular release of glycine, repetitive high-frequency stimulation (HFS was applied at 10 Hz for 3 min during continuous recordings of eIPSCs at 0.1 Hz. Prominent suppression of eIPSCs was evident after HFS in the presence of ALX-1393, but not NFPS. Thus, it appears that phasic and tonic inhibition may contribute to the analgesic effects of GlyT inhibitors. However, reduced glycinergic inhibition due to impaired vesicular refilling could hamper the analgesic efficacy of GlyT2 inhibitors.

  19. Evidence of increased STI/HIV-related risk behavior among male perpetrators of intimate partner violence in Guatemala: results from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hembling, John; Andrinopoulos, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem with a demonstrated link to increased sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV-related risk and vulnerability. While IPV is an important issue in Central America, the link to STI/HIV risk has not been explored in this region. In this study, the relationship between emotional and physical/sexual IPV and the STI/HIV-related risk behaviors of sex worker patronage and infidelity is assessed among male IPV perpetrators using data from a national survey conducted in 2009 in Guatemala (n = 4773 married/partnered men). Bivariate associations between background characteristics and emotional and physical IPV perpetration were explored. Logistic regression models were run to test associations between IPV for each sexual risk behavior. Perpetration of emotional and physical/sexual IPV was more common among married/partnered men who were older than 24, had more education, lived in urban areas, or were in common law versus married unions. Reports of past-year emotional IPV perpetration increased as wealth quintile increased. After adjusting for demographics and other characteristics, physical/sexual IPV perpetration was associated with past-year infidelity (AOR 1.9, 95% CI: 1.1-3.6). Lifetime emotional IPV (AOR 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.7) and physical/sexual IPV 1.6 (95% CI 1.2-2.0) were positively associated with a history of sex worker patronage. Endorsement of traditional gender role norms showed a marginally positive association with past-year infidelity in the adjusted model (AOR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.8). The study findings from Guatemala reinforce the growing evidence globally that male IPV perpetrators are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior, including sex worker patronage and main partner infidelity. The concurrency of violence and increased STI/HIV risk may compound the health risks for female victims of IPV who also face injury and psychological trauma. Integration of prevention and screening of

  20. Evaluating whether direct-to-consumer marketing can increase demand for evidence-based practice among parents of adolescents with substance use disorders: rationale and protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Sara J

    2015-02-10

    Fewer than one in 10 adolescents with substance use disorders (ASUDs) will receive specialty treatment, and even fewer will receive treatment designated as evidence-based practice (EBP). Traditional efforts to increase the utilization of EBP by ASUDs typically focus on practitioners-either in substance use clinics or allied health settings. Direct-to-consumer (DTC) marketing that directly targets parents of ASUDs represents a potentially complementary paradigm that has yet to be evaluated. The current study is the first to evaluate the relevance of a well-established marketing framework (the Marketing Mix) and measurement approach (measurement of perceived service quality [PSQ]) with parents of ASUDs in need of treatment. A mixed-methods design is employed across three study phases, consistent with well-established methods used in the field of marketing science. Phase 1 consists of formative qualitative research with parents (and a supplementary sample of adolescents) in order to evaluate and potentially adapt a conceptual framework (Marketing Mix) and measure of PSQ. Phase 2 is a targeted survey of ASUD parents to elucidate their marketing preferences, using the adapted Marketing Mix framework, and to establish the psychometric properties of the PSQ measure. The survey will also gather data on parents' preferences for different targeted marketing messages. Phase 3 is a two-group randomized controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of targeted marketing messages versus standard clinical information. Key outcomes will include parents' ratings of PSQ (using the new measure), behavioral intentions to seek out information about EBP, and actual information-seeking behavior. The current study will inform the field whether a well-established marketing framework and measurement approach can be used to increase demand for EBP among parents of ASUDs. Results of this study will have the potential to immediately inform DTC marketing efforts by professional organizations

  1. Severe depression is associated with increased microglial quinolinic acid in subregions of the anterior cingulate gyrus: Evidence for an immune-modulated glutamatergic neurotransmission?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mawrin Christian

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immune dysfunction, including monocytosis and increased blood levels of interleukin-1, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor α has been observed during acute episodes of major depression. These peripheral immune processes may be accompanied by microglial activation in subregions of the anterior cingulate cortex where depression-associated alterations of glutamatergic neurotransmission have been described. Methods Microglial immunoreactivity of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA glutamate receptor agonist quinolinic acid (QUIN in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sACC, anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC and pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC of 12 acutely depressed suicidal patients (major depressive disorder/MDD, n = 7; bipolar disorder/BD, n = 5 was analyzed using immunohistochemistry and compared with its expression in 10 healthy control subjects. Results Depressed patients had a significantly increased density of QUIN-positive cells in the sACC (P = 0.003 and the aMCC (P = 0.015 compared to controls. In contrast, counts of QUIN-positive cells in the pACC did not differ between the groups (P = 0.558. Post-hoc tests showed that significant findings were attributed to MDD and were absent in BD. Conclusions These results add a novel link to the immune hypothesis of depression by providing evidence for an upregulation of microglial QUIN in brain regions known to be responsive to infusion of NMDA antagonists such as ketamine. Further work in this area could lead to a greater understanding of the pathophysiology of depressive disorders and pave the way for novel NMDA receptor therapies or immune-modulating strategies.

  2. Deaths ascribed to non-communicable diseases among rural Kenyan adults are proportionately increasing: evidence from a health and demographic surveillance system, 2003-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope A Phillips-Howard

    Full Text Available Non-communicable diseases (NCDs result in more deaths globally than other causes. Monitoring systems require strengthening to attribute the NCD burden and deaths in low and middle-income countries (LMICs. Data from health and demographic surveillance systems (HDSS can contribute towards this goal.Between 2003 and 2010, 15,228 deaths in adults aged 15 years (y and older were identified retrospectively using the HDSS census and verbal autopsy in rural western Kenya, attributed into broad categories using InterVA-4 computer algorithms; 37% were ascribed to NCDs, 60% to communicable diseases (CDs, 3% to injuries, and <1% maternal causes. Median age at death for NCDs was 66y and 71y for females and males, respectively, with 43% (39% male, 48% female of NCD deaths occurring prematurely among adults aged below 65y. NCD deaths were mainly attributed to cancers (35% and cardio-vascular diseases (CVDs; 29%. The proportionate mortality from NCDs rose from 35% in 2003 to 45% in 2010 (χ2 linear trend 93.4; p<0.001. While overall annual mortality rates (MRs for NCDs fell, cancer-specific MRs rose from 200 to 262 per 100,000 population, mainly due to increasing deaths in adults aged 65y and older, and to respiratory neoplasms in all age groups. The substantial fall in CD MRs resulted in similar MRs for CDs and NCDs among all adult females by 2010. NCD MRs for adults aged 15y to <65y fell from 409 to 183 per 100,000 among females and from 517 to 283 per 100,000 population among males. NCD MRs were higher among males than females aged both below, and at or above, 65y.NCDs constitute a significant proportion of deaths in rural western Kenya. Evidence of the increasing contribution of NCDs to overall mortality supports international recommendations to introduce or enhance prevention, screening, diagnosis and treatment programmes in LMICs.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of repeated sodium salicylate administration to laying hens: evidence for time dependent increase in drug elimination from plasma and eggs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błażej Poźniak

    Full Text Available Salicylates were the first non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs to be used in any species and are still widely used in humans and livestock. However, the data on their pharmacokinetics in animals is limited, especially after repeated administration. Evidence exist that in chickens (Gallus gallus salicylate (SA may induce its own elimination. The aim of this study was to investigate salicylate pharmacokinetics and egg residues during repeated administration of sodium salicylate (SS to laying hens. Pharmacokinetics of SA was assessed during 14 d oral administration of SS at daily doses of 50 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg body weight to laying hens. On the 1st, 7th and 14th d a 24 h-long pharmacokinetic study was carried out, whereas eggs were collected daily. Salicylate concentrations in plasma and eggs were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection and pharmacokinetic variables were calculated using a non-compartmental model. Mean residence time (MRT, minimal plasma concentration (Cmin, C16h and elimination half-life (T1/2el of SA showed gradual decrease in layers administered with a lower dose. Total body clearance (ClB increased. Layers administered with the higher dose showed a decrease only in the T1/2el. In the low dose group, SA was found only in the egg white and was low throughout the experiment. Egg whites from the higher dose group showed initially high SA levels which significantly decreased during the experiment. Yolk SA levels were lower and showed longer periods of accumulation and elimination. Repeated administration of SS induces SA elimination, although this effect may differ depending on the dose and production type of a chicken. Decreased plasma drug concentration may have clinical implications during prolonged SS treatment.

  4. Preliminary evidences of CCM operation and its down regulation in relation to increasing CO2 levels in natural phytoplankton assemblages from the coastal waters of Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Haimanti; Rahman Shaik, Aziz Ur; Bandyopadhyay, Debasmita

    2014-05-01

    Bay of Bengal (BoB), a low productive part of the North Indian Ocean, often possesses low CO2 levels in its surface water and diatoms dominate the phytoplankton communities. Virtually no studies are available from this area reporting how this diatom dominated phytoplankton community would respond any increase in dissolved CO2 levels either naturally or anthopogenically. In most of the marine phytoplankton, the inefficiency of the sole carbon fixing enzyme Rubisco necessitates the need of concentrating dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) (mostly as HCO3) inside the cell in excess of the ambient water concentrations in order to maintain high rate of photosynthesis under low CO2 levels through an energy consuming carbon concentration mechanisms (CCMs). The ubiquitous enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) plays a vital role in CCMs by converting HCO3- to CO2 and usually utilizes the trace metal zinc (Zn) as a cofactor. However, it is evident in many marine phytoplankton species that with increasing external CO2 levels, CCMs can be down-regulated leading to energetic savings which can be reallocated to growth; although exceptions occur. Hence, in order to predict their responses to the projected changes, it is imperative to understand their carbon metabolism patterns. We have conducted a series of incubation experiments in microcosms with natural phytoplankton communities from the coastal waters of BoB under different CO2 levels. Our results revealed that the rate of net photosynthetic oxygen evolution and biomass build-up increased in response to increasing CO2 levels. The depletion in δ13CPOM values were more in the high CO2 treatments relative to the low CO2 treated cells (control), indicating that dissolved CO2 uptake was higher when CO2 levels were increased. When additional Zn was added to the low CO2 treated cells, net photosynthetic oxygen evolution rate was increased significantly than that of the untreated control. It is likely that upon the supply of Zn under low CO2

  5. [Development of an evidence-based media campaign to promote walking among physically inactive women and increased physical activity among adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalon, Hélène; Serry, Anne-Juliette; Nguyen-Thanh, Viêt; Vuillemin, Anne; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Sarrazin, Philippe; Verlhiac, Jean-Francois; Salanave, Benoît; Simon, Chantal; Tausan, Simona; Dailly, Olivier; Arwidson, Pierre

    2016-06-08

    This paper demonstrates the feasibility of developing a multimodal media campaign-based intervention to promote physical activity using theory, evidence and media campaign construction expertise. An evaluation of this media campaign and its various components is the next stage of this work..

  6. Using evidence-based policy, systems, and environmental strategies to increase access to healthy food and opportunities for physical activity among Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shilpa; Kwon, Simona; Arista, Pedro; Tepporn, Ed; Chung, Marianne; Ko Chin, Kathy; Rideout, Catlin; Islam, Nadia; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2015-07-01

    Recent initiatives have focused on the dissemination of evidence-based policy, systems, and environmental (EBPSE) strategies to reduce health disparities. Targeted, community-level efforts are needed to supplement these approaches for comparable results among Asian Americans and Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPIs).The STRIVE Project funded 15 Asian American and NHPI community-based organizations (CBOs) to implement culturally adapted strategies. Partners reached more than 1.4 million people at a cost of $2.04 per person. CBOs are well positioned to implement EBPSE strategies to reduce health disparities.

  7. Family lifestyle dynamics and childhood obesity: evidence from the millennium cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Laura A; Hernandez Alava, Monica; Kelly, Michael P; Campbell, Michael J

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background The prevalence of childhood obesity has been increasing but the causes are not fully understood. Recent public health interventions and guidance aiming to reduce childhood obesity have focused on the whole family, as opposed to just the child but there remains a lack of empirical evidence examining this relationship. Methods Using data from the ...

  8. Health, trust, or "just understood": explicit and implicit condom decision-making processes among black, white, and interracial same-sex male couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Chadwick K; Gómez, Anu Manchikanti; Dworkin, Shari; Wilson, Patrick A; Grisham, Kirk K; McReynolds, Jaih; Vielehr, Peter; Hoff, Colleen

    2014-05-01

    Among gay and bisexual men, primary partners are a leading source of HIV infection. Trust, intimacy, and advancements in HIV treatment may impact same-sex male (SSM) couples' decisions to engage in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). This qualitative study explored how Black, White and interracial couples discussed, and made decisions regarding condoms. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 48 SSM couples in the New York and San Francisco metropolitan areas. Stratified purposive sampling was used to include Black (n = 16), White (n = 17), and interracial (Black-White) (n = 15) couples. Twenty-six couples were concordant HIV-negative and 22 were HIV-discordant. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Some couples described explicit processes, which involved active discussion, while others described implicit processes, where condom-use decisions occurred without any explicit discussion. These processes also differed by race and HIV status. Black couples tended to report condom-use as "just understood." White, HIV-discordant couples decided not to use condoms, with some identifying the HIV-positive partner's suppressed viral load and high CD4 count as deciding factors. After an unplanned episode of UAI, White, HIV-negative couples tended to discontinue condom use while Black HIV-negative couples decided to revert to using condoms. HIV prevention efforts focused on same-sex, male couples must consider the explicit/implicit nature of condom decision-making processes. Understanding differences in these processes and considering relationship dynamics, across race and HIV status, can promote the development of innovative couple-level, HIV prevention interventions.

  9. Cost and Price Increases in Higher Education: Evidence of a Cost Disease on Higher Education Costs and Tuition Prices and the Implications for Higher Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombella, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    As concern over rapidly rising college costs and tuition sticker prices have increased, a variety of research has been conducted to determine potential causes. Most of this research has focused on factors unique to higher education. In contrast, cost disease theory attempts to create a comparative context to explain cost increases in higher…

  10. Intrinsic properties of lumbar motor neurones in the adult G127insTGGG superoxide dismutase-1 mutant mouse in vivo: evidence for increased persistent inward currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meehan, Claire Francesca; Moldovan, Mihai; Marklund, Stefan L.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by a preferential loss of motoneurones. Previous publications using in vitro neonatal preparations suggest an increased excitability of motoneurones in various superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) mutant mice...... of an increased PIC and less spike frequency adaptation which may contribute to excitotoxity of these neurones as the disease progresses....

  11. The Role of Transition, Increased Competition and Decentralized Wage Setting in Changing the Czech Wage Structure: Evidence from Linked Employer-Employee Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Pytlikova, Mariola; Warzynski, Frederic

    returns to human capital, especially to education. We investigate various hypotheses to explain that pattern. Moreover, we document a strong increase in within-firm wage dispersion and an only moderate increase in between-firm dispersion. We investigate various hypotheses related to transition towards...

  12. Increased risk of schizophrenia from additive interaction between infant motor developmental delay and obstetric complications: evidence from a population-based longitudinal study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Clarke, Mary C

    2011-12-01

    Obstetric complications and developmental delay are well-established risk factors for schizophrenia. The authors investigated whether these risk factors interact in an additive manner to further increase risk for schizophrenia.

  13. Major limitations to achieving "4 per 1000" increases in soil organic carbon stock in temperate regions: Evidence from long-term experiments at Rothamsted Research, United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, Paul; Johnston, Johnny; Macdonald, Andy; White, Rodger; Powlson, David

    2018-01-21

    We evaluated the "4 per 1000" initiative for increasing soil organic carbon (SOC) by analysing rates of SOC increase in treatments in 16 long-term experiments in southeast United Kingdom. The initiative sets a goal for SOC stock to increase by 4‰ per year in the 0-40 cm soil depth, continued over 20 years. Our experiments, on three soil types, provided 114 treatment comparisons over 7-157 years. Treatments included organic additions (incorporated by inversion ploughing), N fertilizers, introducing pasture leys into continuous arable systems, and converting arable land to woodland. In 65% of cases, SOC increases occurred at >7‰ per year in the 0-23 cm depth, approximately equivalent to 4‰ per year in the 0-40 cm depth. In the two longest running experiments (>150 years), annual farmyard manure (FYM) applications at 35 t fresh material per hectare (equivalent to approx. 3.2 t organic C/ha/year) gave SOC increases of 18‰ and 43‰ per year in the 23 cm depth during the first 20 years. Increases exceeding 7‰ per year continued for 40-60 years. In other experiments, with FYM applied at lower rates or not every year, there were increases of 3‰-8‰ per year over several decades. Other treatments gave increases between zero and 19‰ per year over various periods. We conclude that there are severe limitations to achieving the "4 per 1000" goal in practical agriculture over large areas. The reasons include (1) farmers not having the necessary resources (e.g. insufficient manure); (2) some, though not all, practices favouring SOC already widely adopted; (3) practices uneconomic for farmers-potentially overcome by changes in regulations or subsidies; (4) practices undesirable for global food security. We suggest it is more realistic to promote practices for increasing SOC based on improving soil quality and functioning as small increases can have disproportionately large beneficial impacts, though not necessarily translating into increased crop yield

  14. Increased reaction time variability in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder as a response-related phenomenon: evidence from single-trial event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saville, Christopher W N; Feige, Bernd; Kluckert, Christian; Bender, Stephan; Biscaldi, Monica; Berger, Andrea; Fleischhaker, Christian; Henighausen, Klaus; Klein, Christoph

    2015-07-01

    Increased intra-subject variability (ISV) in reaction times (RTs) is a promising endophenotype for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and among the most robust hallmarks of the disorder. ISV has been assumed to represent an attentional deficit, either reflecting lapses in attention or increased neural noise. Here, we use an innovative single-trial event-related potential approach to assess whether the increased ISV associated with ADHD is indeed attributable to attention, or whether it is related to response-related processing. We measured electroencephalographic responses to working memory oddball tasks in patients with ADHD (N = 20, aged 11.3 ± 1.1) and healthy controls (N = 25, aged 11.7 ± 1.1), and analysed these data with a recently developed method of single-trial event-related potential analysis. Estimates of component latency variability were computed for the stimulus-locked and response-locked forms of the P3b and the lateralised readiness potential (LRP). ADHD patients showed significantly increased ISV in behavioural ISV. This increased ISV was paralleled by an increase in variability in response-locked event-related potential latencies, while variability in stimulus-locked latencies was equivalent between groups. This result held across the P3b and LRP. Latency of all components predicted RTs on a single-trial basis, confirming that all were relevant for speed of processing. These data suggest that the increased ISV found in ADHD could be associated with response-end, rather than stimulus-end processes, in contrast to prevailing conceptions about the endophenotype. This mental chronometric approach may also be useful for exploring whether the existing lack of specificity of ISV to particular psychiatric conditions can be improved upon. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  15. Multi-proxy evidence of long-term changes in ecosystem structure in a Danish marine estuary, linked to increased nutrient loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Marianne; Clarke, A.L.; Reuss, Nina Steenberg

    2006-01-01

    and prompting debate on the causes. This paper reports a multi-proxy survey of 210Pb-dated sediment cores from the anoxic basin. Analyses of diatoms, dinoflagellates, pigments and geochemical proxies were used to determine changes in ecosystem structure over the past 100 years. The aim was to establish ‘base......-line conditions', for management purposes, of the biological structure prior to 1900, and to examine possible causes of changes observed. Geochemical proxies total nitrogen (TN), total carbon (TC) and biogenic silica (BSi) were consistently high throughout the sediment record. Increased concentrations of pigments...... and natural isotopes (d13C, d15N) suggested increasing production and nutrient loading. The main changes in the biological proxies occurred between 1915 and the 1940s, and indicated that the estuary has been somewhat eutrophic since 1900, but that the eutrophication process increased over the past 100 years...

  16. PKA increases in the olfactory bulb act as unconditioned stimuli and provide evidence for parallel memory systems: pairing odor with increased PKA creates intermediate- and long-term, but not short-term, memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Matthew T; Harley, Carolyn W; Darby-King, Andrea; McLean, John H

    2012-02-21

    Neonatal odor-preference memory in rat pups is a well-defined associative mammalian memory model dependent on cAMP. Previous work from this laboratory demonstrates three phases of neonatal odor-preference memory: short-term (translation-independent), intermediate-term (translation-dependent), and long-term (transcription- and translation-dependent). Here, we use neonatal odor-preference learning to explore the role of olfactory bulb PKA in these three phases of mammalian memory. PKA activity increased normally in learning animals 10 min after a single training trial. Inhibition of PKA by Rp-cAMPs blocked intermediate-term and long-term memory, with no effect on short-term memory. PKA inhibition also prevented learning-associated CREB phosphorylation, a transcription factor implicated in long-term memory. When long-term memory was rescued through increased β-adrenoceptor activation, CREB phosphorylation was restored. Intermediate-term and long-term, but not short-term odor-preference memories were generated by pairing odor with direct PKA activation using intrabulbar Sp-cAMPs, which bypasses β-adrenoceptor activation. Higher levels of Sp-cAMPs enhanced memory by extending normal 24-h retention to 48-72 h. These results suggest that increased bulbar PKA is necessary and sufficient for the induction of intermediate-term and long-term odor-preference memory, and suggest that PKA activation levels also modulate memory duration. However, short-term memory appears to use molecular mechanisms other than the PKA/CREB pathway. These mechanisms, which are also recruited by β-adrenoceptor activation, must operate in parallel with PKA activation.

  17. Laser assisted decontamination of metal surface: Evidence of increased surface absorptivity due to field enhancement caused by transparent/semi-transparent contaminant particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilaya, J. Padma; Biswas, Dhruba J.

    2010-01-01

    Small signal absorption measurements of the incident coherent radiation by the metal surface have revealed an increase in the absorption by the surface in presence of transparent/semi-transparent particulates on it. This effect, identified as field enhanced surface absorption, has been found to increase with reduction in the average particulate size. Consequently higher laser assisted removal efficiency of contamination from a metal surface has been observed for smaller contaminant particulates. These measurements have been carried out utilizing coherent radiations of two different wavelengths so chosen that for one the particulates are totally transparent while for the other they are partially transparent.

  18. Weak evidence for increased motivated forgetting of trauma-related words in dissociated or traumatised individuals in a directed forgetting experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patihis, Lawrence; Place, Patricia J

    2018-05-01

    Motivated forgetting is the idea that people can block out, or forget, upsetting or traumatic memories, because there is a motivation to do so. Some researchers have cited directed forgetting studies using trauma-related words as evidence for the theory of motivated forgetting of trauma. In the current article subjects used the list method directed forgetting paradigm with both trauma-related words and positive words. After one list of words was presented subjects were directed to forget the words previously learned, and they then received another list of words. Each list was a mix of positive and trauma-related words, and the lists were counterbalanced. Later, subjects recalled as many of the words as they could, including the ones they were told to forget. Based on the theory that motivated forgetting would lead to recall deficits of trauma-related material, we created eight hypotheses. High dissociators, trauma-exposed, sexual trauma-exposed, and high dissociators with trauma-exposure participants were hypothesised to show enhanced forgetting of trauma words. Results indicated only one of eight hypotheses was supported: those higher on dissociation and trauma recalled fewer trauma words in the to-be-forgotten condition, compared to those low on dissociation and trauma. These results provide weak support for differential motivated forgetting.

  19. No Evidence of Increase in Calcitonin Concentrations or Development of C-Cell Malignancy in Response to Liraglutide for Up to 5 Years in the LEADER Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegedüs, Laszlo; Sherman, Steven I; Tuttle, R Michael

    2018-01-01

    of increase in calcitonin concentrations in male (estimated treatment ratio [ETR] 1.03 [95% CI 1.00, 1.06]; P = 0.068) and female (ETR 1.00 [95% CI 0.97, 1.02]; P = 0.671) subgroups. There were no episodes of C-cell hyperplasia or medullary thyroid carcinoma in liraglutide-treated patients. CONCLUSIONS...

  20. Increased Brain Activation for Foot Movement During 70-Day 6 Deg Head-Down Bed Rest (HDBR): Evidence from Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, P.; Koppelmans, V.; Cassady, K.; Cooke, K.; De Dios, Y. E.; Stepanyan, V.; Szecsy, D.; Gadd, N.; Wood, S. J.; Reuter-Lorenz, P. A.; hide

    2015-01-01

    Bed rest has been widely used as a simulation of weightlessness in studying the effects of microgravity exposure on human physiology and cognition. Changes in muscle function and functional mobility have been reported to be associated with bed rest. Understanding the effect of bed rest on neural control of movement would provide helpful information for spaceflight. In the current study, we evaluated how the brain activation for foot movement changed as a function of bed rest. Eighteen healthy men (aged 25 to 39 years) participated in this HDBR study. They remained continuously in the 6deg head-down tilt position for 70 days. Functional MRI was acquired during 1-Hz right foot tapping, and repeated at 7 time points: 12 days pre-, 8 days pre-, 7 days in-, 50 days in-, 70 days in-, 8 days post-, and 12 days post- HDBR. In all 7 sessions, we observed increased activation in the left motor cortex, right cerebellum and right occipital cortex during foot movement blocks compared to rest. Compared to the pre-HDBR baseline (1st and 2nd sessions), foot movement-induced activation in the left hippocampus increased during HDBR. This increase emerged in the 4th session, enlarged in the 5th session, and remained significant in the 6th and 7th sessions. Furthermore, increased activation relative to the baseline in left precuneus was observed in the 5th, 6th and 7th sessions. In addition, in comparison with baseline, increased activation in the left cerebellum was found in the 4th and 5th sessions, whereas increased activation in the right cerebellum was observed in the 4th, 6th and 7th sessions. No brain region exhibited decreased activation during bed rest compared to baseline. The increase of foot movement related brain activation during HDBR suggests that in a long-term head-down position, more neural control is needed to accomplish foot movements. This change required a couple of weeks to develop in HDBR (between 3rd and 4th sessions), and did not return to baseline even 12

  1. Replacing the Transfusion of 1–2 Units of Blood with Plasma Expanders that Increase Oxygen Delivery Capacity: Evidence from Experimental Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy G. Tsai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available At least a third of the blood supply in the world is used to transfuse 1–2 units of packed red blood cells for each intervention and most clinical trials of blood substitutes have been carried out at this level of oxygen carrying capacity (OCC restoration. However, the increase of oxygenation achieved is marginal or none at all for molecular hemoglobin (Hb products, due to their lingering vasoactivity. This has provided the impetus for the development of “oxygen therapeutics” using Hb-based molecules that have high oxygen affinity and target delivery of oxygen to anoxic areas. However it is still unclear how these oxygen carriers counteract or mitigate the functional effects of anemia due to obstruction, vasoconstriction and under-perfusion. Indeed, they are administered as a low dosage/low volume therapeutic Hb (subsequently further diluted in the circulatory pool and hence induce extremely small OCC changes. Hyperviscous plasma expanders provide an alternative to oxygen therapeutics by increasing the oxygen delivery capacity (ODC; in anemia they induce supra-perfusion and increase tissue perfusion (flow by as much as 50%. Polyethylene glycol conjugate albumin (PEG-Alb accomplishes this by enhancing the shear thinning behavior of diluted blood, which increases microvascular endothelial shear stress, causes vasodilation and lowering peripheral vascular resistance thus facilitating cardiac function. Induction of supra-perfusion takes advantage of the fact that ODC is the product of OCC and blood flow and hence can be maintained by increasing either or both. Animal studies suggest that this approach may save a considerable fraction of the blood supply. It has an additional benefit of enhancing tissue clearance of toxic metabolites.

  2. The effect of cigarette price increase on the cigarette consumption in Taiwan: evidence from the National Health Interview Surveys on cigarette consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jie-Min; Hwang, Tsorng-Chyi; Ye, Chun-Yuan; Chen, Sheng-Hong

    2004-12-14

    This study uses cigarette price elasticity to evaluate the effect of a new excise tax increase on cigarette consumption and to investigate responses from various types of smokers. Our sample consisted of current smokers between 17 and 69 years old interviewed during an annual face-to-face survey conducted by Taiwan National Health Research Institutes between 2000 to 2003. We used Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) procedure to estimate double logarithmic function of cigarette demand and cigarette price elasticity. In 2002, after Taiwan had enacted the new tax scheme, cigarette price elasticity in Taiwan was found to be -0.5274. The new tax scheme brought about an average annual 13.27 packs/person (10.5%) reduction in cigarette consumption. Using the cigarette price elasticity estimate from -0.309 in 2003, we calculated that if the Health and Welfare Tax were increased by another NT 3 dollars per pack and cigarette producers shifted this increase to the consumers, cigarette consumption would be reduced by 2.47 packs/person (2.2%). The value of the estimated cigarette price elasticity is smaller than one, meaning that the tax will not only reduce cigarette consumption but it will also generate additional tax revenues. Male smokers who had no income or who smoked light cigarettes were found to be more responsive to changes in cigarette price. An additional tax added to the cost of cigarettes would bring about a reduction in cigarette consumption and increased tax revenues. It would also help reduce incidents smoking-related illnesses. The additional tax revenues generated by the tax increase could be used to offset the current financial deficiency of Taiwan's National Health Insurance program and provide better public services.

  3. The effect of cigarette price increase on the cigarette consumption in Taiwan: evidence from the National Health Interview Surveys on cigarette consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Chun-Yuan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study uses cigarette price elasticity to evaluate the effect of a new excise tax increase on cigarette consumption and to investigate responses from various types of smokers. Methods Our sample consisted of current smokers between 17 and 69 years old interviewed during an annual face-to-face survey conducted by Taiwan National Health Research Institutes between 2000 to 2003. We used Ordinary Least Squares (OLS procedure to estimate double logarithmic function of cigarette demand and cigarette price elasticity. Results In 2002, after Taiwan had enacted the new tax scheme, cigarette price elasticity in Taiwan was found to be -0.5274. The new tax scheme brought about an average annual 13.27 packs/person (10.5% reduction in cigarette consumption. Using the cigarette price elasticity estimate from -0.309 in 2003, we calculated that if the Health and Welfare Tax were increased by another NT$ 3 per pack and cigarette producers shifted this increase to the consumers, cigarette consumption would be reduced by 2.47 packs/person (2.2%. The value of the estimated cigarette price elasticity is smaller than one, meaning that the tax will not only reduce cigarette consumption but it will also generate additional tax revenues. Male smokers who had no income or who smoked light cigarettes were found to be more responsive to changes in cigarette price. Conclusions An additional tax added to the cost of cigarettes would bring about a reduction in cigarette consumption and increased tax revenues. It would also help reduce incidents smoking-related illnesses. The additional tax revenues generated by the tax increase could be used to offset the current financial deficiency of Taiwan's National Health Insurance program and provide better public services.

  4. Multi-proxy evidence of long-term changes in ecosystem structure in a Danish marine estuary, linked to increased nutrient loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Marianne; Clarke, A.L.; Reuss, Nina Steenberg

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a study of changes in eutrophication over the past 100 years in a fertile estuary. The Danish estuary Mariager Fjord is a long, narrow sill-fjord with a permanently anoxic basin. In 1997 anoxia spread from the basin to the entire inner estuary, killing almost all eukaryotes...... and prompting debate on the causes. This paper reports a multi-proxy survey of 210Pb-dated sediment cores from the anoxic basin. Analyses of diatoms, dinoflagellates, pigments and geochemical proxies were used to determine changes in ecosystem structure over the past 100 years. The aim was to establish ‘base...... and natural isotopes (d13C, d15N) suggested increasing production and nutrient loading. The main changes in the biological proxies occurred between 1915 and the 1940s, and indicated that the estuary has been somewhat eutrophic since 1900, but that the eutrophication process increased over the past 100 years...

  5. Evidence of increasing sedentarism in Mexico City during the last decade: Sitting time prevalence, trends, and associations with obesity and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Catalina; Tolentino-Mayo, Lizbeth; López-Ridaura, Ruy; Barquera, Simón

    2017-01-01

    Sedentary behaviors such as sitting time are associated with obesity and diabetes independently of total reported physical activity. This study aimed to describe the current sitting time/day prevalence and trends and to examine the association of sitting time with sociodemographic and clinical variables in Mexico City. Two cross-sectional representative surveys in Mexico City were used for this analysis (2006: n = 1148 and 2015: n = 1329). Sedentary behavior questions from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire included time spent sitting on a weekday in the last week or on a Wednesday. Sitting time /day was divided into deciles, and participants in the highest decile (≥ 420 minutes/day) were classified within the high sitting category; others were classified in the low sitting time category. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations of sitting time with sociodemographic and clinical indicators, controlling for confounders and testing for potential interactions. A total of 13.7% (2006) and 14.8% (2015) adults were classified in the highest sitting time category (≥ 420 minutes/day). There was a significant increase in the average sitting time/day between the surveys (216.0 minutes in 2006 vs. 233.3 minutes in 2015, p obesity (OR = 2.37, 95% CI: 1.11, 5.09) and those with high glucose levels (survey finding) (OR = 2.34, 95% CI: 1.04, 5.25) were more likely to report sitting time in the highest category. Sitting time/day prevalence increased 8%, and average daily sitting minutes significantly increased by 8.2% (18 minutes) in the nine-year study period (2006-2015). Current public health policies should consider strategies not only for increasing physical activity levels, but also for reducing sitting time/day among the population as a measure to fight the growing epidemic of obesity and diabetes in Mexico.

  6. C-Peptide, Baseline and Postprandial Insulin Resistance after a Carbohydrate-Rich Test Meal - Evidence for an Increased Insulin Clearance in PCOS Patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stassek, J; Erdmann, J; Ohnolz, F; Berg, F D; Kiechle, M; Seifert-Klauss, V

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Known characteristics of patients with PCOS include infertility, menstrual disorders, hirsutism and also often insulin resistance. These symptoms increase with increasing body weight. In the LIPCOS study ( L ifestyle I ntervention for Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome [ PCOS ]) long-term changes of the PCOS in dependence on pregnancy and parenthood were systematically assessed. In the framework of the LIPCOS study, PCOS patients were given a standardised carbohydrate-rich test meal in order to examine glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion. The results were compared with those of a eumenorrhoeic control group who all had corresponding BMI values and corresponding ages. Methods and Patients 41 PCOS patients (without diabetes) and 68 controls received a standardised carbohydrate-rich test meal (260 kcal, 62 % carbohydrates, 32 % fat, 6 % proteins) in order to generate a submaximal insulin and glucose stimulation. The values were determined at baseline and postprandial after 60, 120 and 180 minutes. In addition, the corresponding C-peptide levels were recorded. Results In the PCOS patients (n = 41), the insulin secretion test after a standardised test meal showed almost identical baseline and postprandial insulin levels when compared with those of the age- and BMI-matched eumenorrhoeic controls (n = 68). In the PCOS patients, the baseline and postprandial glucose levels were significantly elevated (92.88 ± 10.28 [PCOS] vs. 85.07 ± 9.42 mg/dL [controls]; p PCOS patients formally exhibit a higher fasting insulin resistance than controls. In spite of the higher stimulated C-peptide levels, the insulin levels did not increase more strongly with increasing glucose levels than in controls which may be indicative of a higher insulin clearance in PCOS patients.

  7. Increased risk of Group B Streptococcus invasive infection in HIV-exposed but uninfected infants : a review of the evidence and possible mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLAS DAUBY

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Group B streptococcus (GBS is a major cause of neonatal sepsis and mortality worldwide. Studies from both developed and developing countries have shown that HIV exposed but uninfected (HEU infants are at increased risk of infectious morbidity, as compared to HIV unexposed uninfected infants (HUU. A higher susceptibility to GBS infections has been reported in HEU infants, particularly late-onset diseases (LOD and more severe manifestations of GBS diseases. We review here the possible explanations for increased susceptibility to GBS infection. Maternal GBS colonization during pregnancy is a major risk factor for early-onset GBS invasive disease but colonization rates are not higher in HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected pregnant women, while selective colonization with more virulent strains in HIV-infected women is suggested in some studies. Lower serotype specific GBS maternal antibody transfer and quantitative and qualitative defects of innate immune responses in HEU infants may play a role in the increased risk of GBS invasive disease. The impact of maternal antiretroviral treatment and its consequences on immune activation in HEU newborns is important to study. Maternal immunization presents a promising intervention to reduce GBS burden in the growing HEU population.

  8. Increased evidence for the prognostic value of primary tumor asphericity in pretherapeutic FDG PET for risk stratification in patients with head and neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofheinz, Frank; Lougovski, Alexandr [Institute of Radiopharmaceutical Cancer Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, PET Center, Dresden (Germany); Zoephel, Klaus; Hentschel, Maria [University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Dresden (Germany); Steffen, Ingo G.; Wedel, Florian; Buchert, Ralph; Brenner, Winfried [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Berlin (Germany); Apostolova, Ivayla [Universitaetsklinikum Magdeburg A.oe.R., Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Magdeburg (Germany); Baumann, Michael [University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Department of Radiation Oncology, Dresden (Germany); OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Dresden (Germany); Institute of Radiooncology, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Kotzerke, Joerg; Hoff, Joerg van den [Institute of Radiopharmaceutical Cancer Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, PET Center, Dresden (Germany); University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Dresden (Germany)

    2014-11-22

    In a previous study, we demonstrated the first evidence that the asphericity (ASP) of pretherapeutic FDG uptake in the primary tumor provides independent prognostic information in patients with head and neck cancer. The aim of this work was to confirm these results in an independent patient group examined at a different site. FDG-PET/CT was performed in 37 patients. The primary tumor was delineated by an automatic algorithm based on adaptive thresholding. For the resulting ROIs, the metabolically active part of the tumor (MTV), SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub mean}, total lesion glycolysis (TLG) and ASP were computed. Univariate Cox regression with respect to progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was performed. For survival analysis, patients were divided in groups of high and low risk according to the parameter cut-offs defined in our previous work. In a second step, the cut-offs were adjusted to the present data. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression was performed for the pooled data consisting of the current and the previously described patient group (N = 68). In multivariate Cox regression, clinically relevant parameters were included. Univariate Cox regression using the previously published cut-off values revealed TLG (hazard ratio (HR) = 3) and ASP (HR = 3) as significant predictors for PFS. For OS MTV (HR = 2.7) and ASP (HR = 5.9) were significant predictors. Using the adjusted cutoffs MTV (HR = 2.9/3.3), TLG (HR = 3.1/3.3) and ASP (HR = 3.1/5.9) were prognostic for PFS/OS. In the pooled data, multivariate Cox regression revealed a significant prognostic value with respect to PFS/OS for MTV (HR = 2.3/2.1), SUV{sub max} (HR = 2.1/2.5), TLG (HR = 3.5/3.6), and ASP (HR = 3.4/4.4). Our results confirm the independent prognostic value of ASP of the pretherapeutic FDG uptake in the primary tumor in patients with head and neck cancer. Moreover, these results demonstrate that ASP can be determined unambiguously across different sites. (orig.)

  9. EVIDENCE FOR NON-STELLAR REST-FRAME NEAR-IR EMISSION ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED STAR FORMATION IN GALAXIES AT z ∼ 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, Johannes U.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Momcheva, Ivelina G.; Nelson, Erica J.; Leja, Joel; Brammer, Gabriel; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Franx, Marijn

    2016-01-01

    We explore the presence of non-stellar rest-frame near-IR (2–5 μm) emission in galaxies at z ∼ 1. Previous studies identified this excess in relatively small samples and suggested that such non-stellar emission, which could be linked to the 3.3 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons feature or hot dust emission, is associated with an increased star formation rate (SFR). In this Letter, we confirm and quantify the presence of an IR excess in a significant fraction of galaxies in the 3D-HST GOODS catalogs. By constructing a matched sample of galaxies with and without strong non-stellar near-IR emission, we find that galaxies with such emission are predominantly star-forming galaxies. Moreover, star-forming galaxies with an excess show increased mid- and far-IR and Hα emission compared to other star-forming galaxies without. While galaxies with a near-IR excess show a larger fraction of individually detected X-ray active galactic nuclei (AGNs), an X-ray stacking analysis, together with the IR-colors and Hα profiles, shows that AGNs are unlikely to be the dominant source of excess in the majority of galaxies. Our results suggest that non-stellar near-IR emission is linked to increased SFRs and is ubiquitous among star-forming galaxies. As such, the near-IR emission might be a powerful tool to measure SFRs in the era of the James Webb Space Telescope

  10. Does insurance enrolment increase healthcare utilisation among rural-dwelling older adults? Evidence from the National Health Insurance Scheme in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wielen, Nele; Channon, Andrew Amos; Falkingham, Jane

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between national health insurance enrolment and the utilisation of inpatient and outpatient healthcare for older adults in rural areas in Ghana. The Ghanaian National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) aims to improve affordability and increase the utilisation of healthcare. However, the system has been criticised for not being responsive to the needs of older adults. The majority of older adults in Ghana live in rural areas with poor accessibility to healthcare. With an ageing population, a specific assessment of whether the scheme has benefitted older adults, and also if the benefit is equitable, is needed. Using the Ghanaian Living Standards Survey from 2012 to 2013, this paper uses propensity score matching to estimate the effect of enrolment within the NHIS on the utilisation of inpatient and outpatient care among older people aged 50 and over. The raw results show higher utilisation of healthcare among NHIS members, which persists after matching. NHIS members were 6% and 9% more likely to use inpatient and outpatient care, respectively, than non-members. When these increases were disaggregated for outpatient care, the non-poor and females were seen to benefit more than their poor and male counterparts. For inpatient care, the benefits of enrolment were equal by poverty status and sex. However, overall, poor older adults use health services much less than the non-poor older adults even when enrolled. The results indicate that NHIS coverage does increase healthcare utilisation among rural older adults but that inequalities remain. The poor are still at a great disadvantage in their use of health services overall and benefit less from enrolment for outpatient care. The receipt of healthcare is significantly influenced by a set of auxiliary barriers to access to healthcare even where insurance should remove the financial burden of ad hoc out of pocket payments.

  11. Measured and modeled evidence for a two-fold increase in water use efficiency at an old-growth forest site in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y.; Rastogi, B.; Kim, J. B.; Voelker, S.; Meinzer, F. C.; Still, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    Water use efficiency (WUE), the ratio of carbon uptake to transpiration, has been widely recognized as an important measure of carbon and water cycling in plants, and is used to track forest ecosystem responses to climate change and rising atmospheric CO2concentrations. In this study we used eddy covariance measurement data and Ecosystem Demography model (ED2) simulations to explore the patterns and physiological and biophysical controls of WUE at Wind River Experimental Forest, an old-growth coniferous forest in the Pacific Northwest. We characterized how observed and simulated WUE vary between wet and dry years, and explored the drivers of the differences in WUE between the wet and dry years. Through this explorative process, we evaluated the utility of various ways that WUE have been computed in literature. Measurement-based and simulated WUE at the old-growth forest increased over twofold from 1998 to 2015. The primary driver of this trend is a decreasing trend in evapotranspiration (ET). There were significant inter-annual variations. For example, during drought years, higher air temperature drove increases in early season ET, thereby depleting soil water and decreasing GPP. Lower GPP in turn resulted in lower WUE. This mechanism might drive changes in future carbon and water budgets under warming climate. Our evaluation of multiple WUE metrics demonstrates that each metric has a distinct sensitivity to climate anomalies, but also indicates a robust increasing trend of WUE. Statistical (multiple linear regression) and machine learning (Random Forest) analyses of flux measurements indicated that atmospheric CO2 concentration, air temperature and radiation were the most important predictors of WUE at monthly, daily and half-hourly time scale, respectively. In contrast, WUE mechanism was stable across all time scales in ED2 simulations: vapor pressure deficit was consistently the most important predictor of WUE at the monthly, daily and half-hourly time scales.

  12. Evidence for increasing digestive and metabolic efficiency of energy utilization with age of dairy cattle as determined in two feeding regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandl, F; Zeitz, J O; Clauss, M; Furger, M; Kreuzer, M; Schwarm, A

    2018-03-01

    The changes taking place with age in energy turnover of dairy cattle are largely unknown. It is unclear whether the efficiency of energy utilization in digestion (characterized by faecal and methane energy losses) and in metabolism (characterized by urine and heat energy losses) is altered with age. In the present study, energy balance data were obtained from 30 lactating Brown Swiss dairy cows aged between 2 and 10 years, and 12 heifers from 0.5 to 2 years of age. In order to evaluate a possible dependence of age effects on diet type, half of the cattle each originated from two herds kept at the same farm, which were fed either on a forage-only diet or on the same forage diet but complemented with 5 kg/day of concentrate since their first calving. During 2 days, the gaseous exchange of the animals was quantified in open-circuit respiration chambers, followed by an 8-day period of feed, faeces, urine and milk collection. Daily amounts and energy contents were used to calculate complete energy balances. Age and feeding regime effects were analysed by parametric regression analysis where BW, milk yield and hay proportion in forage as consumed were considered as covariates. Relative to intake of gross energy, the availability of metabolizable energy (ME) increased with age. This was not the result of an increasing energy digestibility, but of proportionately lower energy losses with methane (following a curvilinear relationship with the greatest losses in middle-aged cows) and urine (continuously declining). The efficiency of utilization of ME for milk production (k l) increased with age. Potential reasons include an increase in the propionate-to-acetate ratio in the rumen because of a shift away from fibre degradation and methane formation as well as lower urine energy losses. The greater k l allowed older cows to accrete more energy reserves in the body. As expected, offering concentrate enhanced digestibility, metabolizability and metabolic utilization of energy

  13. Evidence of increasing sedentarism in Mexico City during the last decade: Sitting time prevalence, trends, and associations with obesity and diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Medina

    Full Text Available Sedentary behaviors such as sitting time are associated with obesity and diabetes independently of total reported physical activity. This study aimed to describe the current sitting time/day prevalence and trends and to examine the association of sitting time with sociodemographic and clinical variables in Mexico City.Two cross-sectional representative surveys in Mexico City were used for this analysis (2006: n = 1148 and 2015: n = 1329. Sedentary behavior questions from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire included time spent sitting on a weekday in the last week or on a Wednesday. Sitting time /day was divided into deciles, and participants in the highest decile (≥ 420 minutes/day were classified within the high sitting category; others were classified in the low sitting time category. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations of sitting time with sociodemographic and clinical indicators, controlling for confounders and testing for potential interactions.A total of 13.7% (2006 and 14.8% (2015 adults were classified in the highest sitting time category (≥ 420 minutes/day. There was a significant increase in the average sitting time/day between the surveys (216.0 minutes in 2006 vs. 233.3 minutes in 2015, p < 0.001. In 2015, men, those aged 20-49 years, those in low-intensity jobs, students, and those with a high socioeconomic level were more likely to be in the highest sitting time category. Participants with overweight/obesity (OR = 2.37, 95% CI: 1.11, 5.09 and those with high glucose levels (survey finding (OR = 2.34, 95% CI: 1.04, 5.25 were more likely to report sitting time in the highest category.Sitting time/day prevalence increased 8%, and average daily sitting minutes significantly increased by 8.2% (18 minutes in the nine-year study period (2006-2015. Current public health policies should consider strategies not only for increasing physical activity levels, but also for reducing sitting

  14. Clinical Evidence of Increase in Hair Growth and Decrease in Hair Loss without Adverse Reactions Promoted by the Commercial Lotion ECOHAIR®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, María Rosario; Anesini, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Hair exerts protection, sensory functions, thermoregulation, and sexual attractiveness. Hair loss (alopecia) is caused by several diseases, drug intake, hormone imbalance, stress, and infections (Malassesia furfur). Drugs usually used in alopecia produce irreversible systemic and local side effects. An association of extracts of Coffea arabica and Larrea divaricata (ECOHAIR®) is successfully being commercialized in Argentina for hair growth. The aim of this study was to provide scientific support for the efficacy and innocuousness of ECOHAIR® in patients with noncicatricial alopecia during a 3-month treatment. The efficacy was determined through the assessment of an increase in hair volume, improvement in hair looks, growth of new hair, and a decrease in hair loss by the test of hair count and hair traction. The capacity to decrease the amount of dandruff was also evaluated as well as the adverse local effects caused by the treatment. ECOHAIR® spray improved the overall hair volume and appearance; it increased its thickness, induced hair growth, and decreased hair loss. Besides, no adverse local reactions were observed upon treatment with the product. This study provides scientific support for the clinical use of ECOHAIR® as a treatment to be used in noncicatricial alopecia. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Maternal separation increases later immobility during forced swim in guinea pig pups: evidence for sensitization of a depressive-like state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Michael B; Schreibeis, Amanda D; Schiml, Patricia A; Deak, Terrence

    2017-01-01

    Early-life stress is thought to increase later vulnerability for developing depressive illness by sensitizing underlying stress-responsive systems. Guinea pig pups separated from their mother and isolated in a novel cage for 3 hr exhibit a sensitized depressive-like behavioral response when separated again the following day as well as weeks later. The behavioral response and its sensitization appear to be mediated by inflammatory factors. To determine if this sensitization is specific to the separation response or if it reflects a broader underlying depressive-like state, guinea pig pups that had either been separated for 3 hr or remained with their mothers were observed in the forced swim test the following 3 days. Earlier separation was found to increase the duration of immobility, a measure sensitive to antidepressant treatment. These results support the use of the guinea pig as a model for examining mechanisms of inflammatory-mediated sensitization of depression following stress in early life. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The G Allele of CaSR R990G Polymorphism Increases Susceptibility to Urolithiasis and Hypercalciuria: Evidences from a Comprehensive Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The calcium-sensing receptor gene (CaSR is a candidate to explain urolithiasis. A number of case-control studies were conducted to investigate associations between CaSR polymorphisms with risks of hypercalciuria and urolithiasis in humans. But the results were still inconsistent. Methods. A meta-analysis was performed to address this issue. Crude odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated to estimate the strength of associations between CaSR polymorphisms and the risk of urolithiasis. The pooled standardized mean difference (SMD with 95% CI was used for the meta-analysis of CaSR polymorphisms and urine calcium concentration. Results. For urolithiasis association, the SS genotype of A986S polymorphism was a risk factor for urolithiasis in Asians and PHPT patients, but a protective factor in Caucasians. The GG genotype of R990 polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of urolithiasis, especially in Caucasians and healthy population. Regarding urine calcium concentration association, individuals with the G allele had a higher level of urine calcium than the noncarriers. Conclusions. This meta-analysis revealed that the G allele of CaSR R990G polymorphism increases susceptibility to urolithiasis and hypercalciuria. The A986S and Q1011E polymorphisms were associated with urolithiasis and hypercalciuria in specific populations.

  17. Diffusion-weighted MRI measures suggest increased white-matter integrity in Internet gaming disorder: Evidence from the comparison with recreational Internet game users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guangheng; Wu, Lingdan; Wang, Ziliang; Wang, Yifan; Du, Xiaoxia; Potenza, Marc N

    2018-06-01

    Several studies have suggested that Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is related to altered brain white matter integrity. However, seeming inconsistencies exist and may reflect comparison groups not matched well for certain gaming characteristics. In order to address this possible concern, we recruited in the present study individuals with recreational Internet game use (RGU) comprised of individuals who spend similar amounts of time as IGD subjects playing online games without developing IGD. Diffusion tensor imaging data were collected from 42 IGD and 44 RGU subjects. Whole-brain comparisons showed that IGD subjects demonstrated increased fractional anisotropy (FA) in the bilateral anterior thalamic radiation, anterior limb of the internal capsule, bilateral corticospinal tract, bilateral inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, corpus callosum, and bilateral inferior longitudinal fasciculus. In addition, Internet-addiction severity was positively correlated with FA values. Taken together, we conclude that IGD is associated with measures of increased white-matter integrity in tracts linking reward circuitry and sensory and motor control systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Context-specific, evidence-based planning for scale-up of family planning services to increase progress to MDG 5: health systems research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Abbey; Morgan, Alison; Soto, Eliana Jimenez; Dettrick, Zoe

    2012-11-12

    Unmet need for family planning is responsible for 7.4 million disability-adjusted life years and 30% of the maternity-related disease burden. An estimated 35% of births are unintended and some 200 million couples state a desire to delay pregnancy or cease fertility but are not using contraception. Unmet need is higher among the poorest, lesser educated, rural residents and women under 19 years. The barriers to, and successful strategies for, satisfying all demand for modern contraceptives are heavily influenced by context. Successfully overcoming this to increase the uptake of family planning is estimated to reduce the risk of maternal death by up to 58% as well as contribute to poverty reduction, women's empowerment and educational, social and economic participation, national development and environmental protection. To strengthen health systems for delivery of context-specific, equity-focused reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health services (RMNCH), the Investment Case study was applied in the Asia-Pacific region. Staff of local and central government and non-government organisations analysed data indicative of health service delivery through a supply-demand oriented framework to identify constraints to RMNCH scale-up. Planners developed contextualised strategies and the projected coverage increases were modelled for estimates of marginal impact on maternal mortality and costs over a five year period. In Indonesia, Philippines and Nepal the constraints behind incomplete coverage of family planning services included: weaknesses in commodities logistic management; geographical inaccessibility; limitations in health worker skills and numbers; legislation; and religious and cultural ideologies. Planned activities included: streamlining supply systems; establishment of Community Health Teams for integrated RMNCH services; local recruitment of staff and refresher training; task-shifting; and follow-up cards. Modelling showed varying marginal impact and costs

  19. Context-specific, evidence-based planning for scale-up of family planning services to increase progress to MDG 5: health systems research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byrne Abbey

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unmet need for family planning is responsible for 7.4 million disability-adjusted life years and 30% of the maternity-related disease burden. An estimated 35% of births are unintended and some 200 million couples state a desire to delay pregnancy or cease fertility but are not using contraception. Unmet need is higher among the poorest, lesser educated, rural residents and women under 19 years. The barriers to, and successful strategies for, satisfying all demand for modern contraceptives are heavily influenced by context. Successfully overcoming this to increase the uptake of family planning is estimated to reduce the risk of maternal death by up to 58% as well as contribute to poverty reduction, women’s empowerment and educational, social and economic participation, national development and environmental protection. Methods To strengthen health systems for delivery of context-specific, equity-focused reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health services (RMNCH, the Investment Case study was applied in the Asia-Pacific region. Staff of local and central government and non-government organisations analysed data indicative of health service delivery through a supply–demand oriented framework to identify constraints to RMNCH scale-up. Planners developed contextualised strategies and the projected coverage increases were modelled for estimates of marginal impact on maternal mortality and costs over a five year period. Results In Indonesia, Philippines and Nepal the constraints behind incomplete coverage of family planning services included: weaknesses in commodities logistic management; geographical inaccessibility; limitations in health worker skills and numbers; legislation; and religious and cultural ideologies. Planned activities included: streamlining supply systems; establishment of Community Health Teams for integrated RMNCH services; local recruitment of staff and refresher training; task-shifting; and follow

  20. Quantitative analysis of T-wave morphology increases confidence in drug-induced cardiac repolarization abnormalities: evidence from the investigational IKr inhibitor Lu 35-138

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, Claus; Matz, Jørgen; Christensen, Ellen B

    2009-01-01

    prolongation. Seventy-nine healthy subjects were included in this parallel study. After a baseline day during which no drug was given, 40 subjects received an I(Kr)-blocking antipsychotic compound (Lu 35-138) on 7 consecutive days while 39 subjects received placebo. Resting ECGs were recorded and used...... to determine a combined measure of repolarization morphology (morphology combination score [MCS]), based on asymmetry, flatness, and notching. Replicate measurements were used to determine reliable change and study power for both measures. Lu 35-138 increased the QTc interval with corresponding changes in T......-wave morphology as determined by MCS. For subjects taking Lu 35-138, T-wave morphology was a more reliable indicator of I(Kr) inhibition than QTcF (chi(2) = 20.3, P = .001). At 80% study power for identifying a 5-millisecond placebo-adjusted change from baseline for QTcF, the corresponding study power for MCS...

  1. Do socioeconomic inequalities in pain, psychological distress and oral health increase or decrease over the life course? Evidence from Sweden over 43 years of follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeste, Roger Keller; Fritzell, Johan

    2018-02-01

    Inequalities over the life course may increase due to accumulation of disadvantage or may decrease because ageing can work as a leveller. We report how absolute and relative socioeconomic inequalities in musculoskeletal pain, oral health and psychological distress evolve with ageing. Data were combined from two nationally representative Swedish panel studies: the Swedish Level-of-Living Survey and the Swedish Panel Study of Living Conditions of the Oldest Old. Individuals were followed up to 43 years in six waves (1968, 1974, 1981, 1991/1992, 2000/2002, 2010/2011) from five cohorts: 1906-1915 (n=899), 1925-1934 (n=906), 1944-1953 (n=1154), 1957-1966 (n=923) and 1970-1981 (n=1199). The participants were 15-62 years at baseline. Three self-reported outcomes were measured as dichotomous variables: teeth not in good conditions, psychological distress and musculoskeletal pain. The fixed-income groups were: (A) never poor and (B) poor at least once in life. The relationship between ageing and the outcomes was smoothed with locally weighted ordinary least squares, and the relative and absolute gaps were calculated with Poisson regression using generalised estimating equations. All outcomes were associated with ageing, birth cohort, sex and being poor at least once in live. Absolute inequalities increased up to the age of 45-64 years, and then they decreased. Relative inequalities were large already in individuals aged 15-25 years, showing a declining trend over the life course. Selective mortality did not change the results. The socioeconomic gap was larger for current poverty than for being poor at least once in life. Inequalities persist into very old age, though they are more salient in midlife for all three outcomes observed. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. PNF 2.0? Initial evidence that gamification can increase the efficacy of brief, web-based personalized normative feedback alcohol interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Sarah C; Earle, Andrew M; LaBrie, Joseph W; Smith, Daniel J

    2017-04-01

    Gamified interventions exploit the motivational characteristics of a game in order to provide prevention information and promote behavior change. Despite the modest effect sizes observed in increasingly popular web-based personalized normative feedback (PNF) alcohol interventions for college students, previous research has yet to consider how gamification might be used to enhance efficacy. This study examines whether a novel, gamified PNF intervention format, which includes a point-based reward system, the element of chance, and personal icons to visually represent users, is more effective in reducing short-term alcohol use than the standard web-based style of PNF currently used on college campuses. Two-hundred and thirty-seven college students were randomly assigned to receive either a standard brief, web-based PNF alcohol intervention or the same alcohol intervention components delivered within a Facebook-connected social game called CampusGANDR (Gamified Alcohol Norm Discovery and Readjustment). In both study conditions participants answered identical questions about their perceptions of peer drinking norms and own drinking and then received the same PNF slides. Two weeks following PNF delivery, participants again reported their perceptions of peers' alcohol use and own drinking. Students in the CampusGANDR condition reported significantly reduced peer drinking norms and alcohol use at the two-week follow-up relative to students who received identical PNF delivered by standard online survey. Further, a mediation model demonstrated that this effect was driven by larger reductions in perceived drinking norms among participants assigned to receive CampusGANDR, relative to control. As web-based PNF is becoming an increasingly universal prevention strategy, findings from this study suggest gamification may represent one method by which intervention efficacy could be substantially improved. The potential methodological and economic benefits associated with gamified

  3. The evolution of the epidemiological landscape of head and neck cancer in Italy: Is there evidence for an increase in the incidence of potentially HPV-related carcinomas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Boscolo-Rizzo

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to investigate the incidence and survival patterns of HNSCCs arising from different anatomic sites, potentially related (the oropharynx or unrelated (the oral cavity, the larynx/hypopharynx to HPV, to provide clues on possible growing impact of HPV in the epidemiology of HNSCC in Italy. Epidemiological data were retrieved from ten long-term Cancer Registries covering a population of 7.8 million inhabitants. Trends were described by means of the estimated annual percent change (APC stratified by age and gender, and compared between HPV-related and HPV-unrelated anatomical sites. The data regarding 28,295 HNSCCs diagnosed in Italy between 1988 and 2012 were analyzed. In males, the incidence rate (IR of cancers arising from sites unrelated to HPV infection significantly decreased in all age groups (APC:-3.31 for larynx/hypopharynx; APC:-1.77 for oral cavity, whereas stable IR were observed for cancers arising from sites related to HPV infection. In females, IR for cancers from HPV-related sites increased significantly over the observed period; the largest increment was noted in those over 60 (APC:2.92% who also showed a significantly lower number of HNSCCs from the larynx/hypopharynx (APC:- 0.84 and a significantly higher number of oral cavity tumors (APC = 2.15. The five-year relative survival remained largely unchanged in the patients with laryngeal/hypopharyngeal SCC and, conversely, significantly improved in the patients with SCC at HPV-related sites. The trends observed suggest a potential increasing impact of HPV infection on the epidemiology of HNSCC in Italy, but to a lesser extent and with a different pattern from that observed in other Western countries.

  4. Increased signal intensities in the dentate nucleus and globus pallidus on unenhanced T1-weighted images: evidence in children undergoing multiple gadolinium MRI exams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Houchun H.; Pokorney, Amber; Towbin, Richard B.; Miller, Jeffrey H. [Phoenix Children' s Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging and Radiology, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Recent reports have suggested residual gadolinium deposition in the brain in subjects undergoing multiple contrast-enhanced MRI exams. These findings have raised some concerns regarding gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA) usage and retention in brain tissues. To summarize findings of hyperintense brain structures on precontrast T1-weighted images in 21 children undergoing multiple GBCA MRI exams. This retrospective study involved 21 patients, each of whom received multiple MRI examinations (range: 5-37 exams) with GBCA over the course of their medical treatment (duration from first to most recent exam: 1.2-12.9 years). The patients were between 0.9 and 14.4 years of age at the time of their first GBCA exam. Regions of interest were drawn in the dentate nucleus and the globus pallidus on 2-D fast spin echo images acquired at 1.5 T. The signal intensities of these two structures were normalized by that of the corpus callosum genu. Signal intensity ratios from these patients were compared to control patients of similar ages who have never received GBCA. Signal intensity ratios increased between the first and the most recent MRI exam in all 21 patients receiving GBCA, with an increase of 18.6%±12.7% (range: 0.5% to 47.5%) for the dentate nucleus and 12.4%±7.4% (range: -1.2% to 33.7%) for the globus pallidus (P<0.0001). Signal intensity ratios were also higher in GBCA patients than in controls (P<0.01). The degree of signal intensity enhancement did not correlate with statistical significance to the cumulative number or volume of GBCA administrations each patient received, the patient's age or the elapsed time between the first and most recent GBCA MRI exams. These results in children are consistent with recent findings in adults, suggesting possible gadolinium deposition in the brain. (orig.)

  5. Hedonic Hunger Is Related to Increased Neural and Perceptual Responses to Cues of Palatable Food and Motivation to Consume: Evidence from 3 Independent Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Kyle S; Sanders, Abigail J; Gilbert, Jennifer R

    2016-09-01

    The Power of Food Scale (PFS) seeks to identify individuals who experience high appetitive drive in response to food cues, which is a construct termed "hedonic hunger." The purpose of this study was to assess cross-sectional correlates and predictive power of PFS scores to probe the construct of hedonic hunger. Separate data from 3 studies (study 1, n = 44; study 2, n = 398; study 3, n = 100) were used to evaluate the construct of hedonic hunger. We examined the correlations between the PFS and neural responsivity during intake and anticipated intake of palatable foods, behavioral food reinforcement, perceptual hedonic ratings of food images, and change in body mass index (BMI) and binge eating over time. Hedonic hunger was strongly related to bilateral brain response in regions implicated in oral somatosensory processing during cue-elicited anticipation of food intake (study 1; right postcentral gyrus: r = 0.67, P hunger was not associated with baseline BMI (studies 1-3: P = 0.14, 0.21, and 0.37, respectively) or change in BMI over the 2-y follow-up (studies 1 and 2: P = 0.14 and 0.37, respectively) but was significantly correlated with baseline binge eating in 2 samples (study 1: r = 0.58, P = 0.001; study 2: r = 0.31, P = 0.02; and study 3: P = 0.02). Hedonic hunger was not predictive of weight regulation. However, individuals who report high hedonic hunger are likely to show increased neural and perceptual responses to cues of palatable foods, increased motivation to consume such foods, and a greater likelihood of current binge eating. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Hedonic Hunger Is Related to Increased Neural and Perceptual Responses to Cues of Palatable Food and Motivation to Consume: Evidence from 3 Independent Investigations12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Kyle S; Sanders, Abigail J; Gilbert, Jennifer R

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Power of Food Scale (PFS) seeks to identify individuals who experience high appetitive drive in response to food cues, which is a construct termed “hedonic hunger.” Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess cross-sectional correlates and predictive power of PFS scores to probe the construct of hedonic hunger. Methods: Separate data from 3 studies (study 1, n = 44; study 2, n = 398; study 3, n = 100) were used to evaluate the construct of hedonic hunger. We examined the correlations between the PFS and neural responsivity during intake and anticipated intake of palatable foods, behavioral food reinforcement, perceptual hedonic ratings of food images, and change in body mass index (BMI) and binge eating over time. Results: Hedonic hunger was strongly related to bilateral brain response in regions implicated in oral somatosensory processing during cue-elicited anticipation of food intake (study 1; right postcentral gyrus: r = 0.67, P hunger was not associated with baseline BMI (studies 1–3: P = 0.14, 0.21, and 0.37, respectively) or change in BMI over the 2-y follow-up (studies 1 and 2: P = 0.14 and 0.37, respectively) but was significantly correlated with baseline binge eating in 2 samples (study 1: r = 0.58, P = 0.001; study 2: r = 0.31, P = 0.02; and study 3: P = 0.02). Conclusions: Hedonic hunger was not predictive of weight regulation. However, individuals who report high hedonic hunger are likely to show increased neural and perceptual responses to cues of palatable foods, increased motivation to consume such foods, and a greater likelihood of current binge eating. PMID:27489006

  7. First evidence for glial pathology in late life minor depression:S100B is increased in males with minor depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryna ePolyakova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Minor depression is diagnosed when a patient suffers from two to four depressive symptoms for at least two weeks. Though minor depression is a widespread phenomenon, its pathophysiology has hardly been studied. To get a first insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this disorder we assessed serum levels of biomarkers for plasticity, glial and neuronal function: brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, S100B and neuron specific enolase (NSE. 27 subjects with minor depressive episode and 82 healthy subjects over 60 years of age were selected from the database of the Leipzig population-based study of civilization diseases (LIFE. Serum levels of BDNF, S100B and NSE were compared between groups, and correlated with age, body-mass index, and degree of white matter hyperintensities (score on Fazekas scale. S100B was significantly increased in males with minor depression in comparison to healthy males, whereas other biomarkers did not differ between groups (p=0.10-0.66. NSE correlated with Fazekas score in patients with minor depression (r=0.436, p=0.048 and in the whole sample (r=0.252, p=0.019. S100B correlated with body mass index (r=0.246, p=0.031 and with age in healthy subjects (r=0.345, p=0.002. Increased S100B in males with minor depression, without alterations in BDNF and NSE, supports the glial hypothesis of depression. Correlation between white matter hyperintensities and NSE underscores the vascular hypothesis of late life depression.

  8. Evidence of Increased Anthropogenic Emissions of Platinum in Coastal Systems from Time-Series Analysis of Mussels Samples (1991-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Neira Del Río

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Platinum Group Elements (PGEs, which include platinum (Pt, palladium (Pd, iridium (Ir, rhodium (Rh, osmium (Os and ruthenium (Ru, are amongst the rarest trace elements in the Earth’s crust. They have similar physical and chemical properties, and tend to occur together in the same mineral deposits. Their properties are resistance to chemical corrosion over a wide temperature range, high melting point, high mechanical strength and good ductility, as well as outstanding catalytic properties, being therefore critical in many emerging technologies. Although natural environmental concentrations of PGEs are extremely low – generally at or below the ng/g –, levels of Pt, Pd and Rh are increasing, mainly because of their use in catalytic converters of motor vehicles (Zereini et al., 2007. The automobile catalysts converters use noble metals as active components, and were developed with the aim of reducing emissions of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides (Sures et al., 2005. Since the beginning of the 1980s, the PGEs represent a relatively new category of trace metals in the environment, especially in relation to automobile traffic (Haus et al., 2007. The PGEs of automobile catalytic converters are eroded from the surface of the catalyst and subsequently emitted in metallic form or as oxides (Turner and Price, 2008. The PGEs are subject to various physical and chemical transformations after deposition, and can potentially result in migration into environmental compartments (Moldovan et al., 2001; Vaughan and Florence, 1992. The concentration of PGEs has much increased in traffic exposed environmental samples (Lesniewska et al., 2004; Ely et al., 2001; Zereini et al., 2001; Schäfer et al., 1999; Fritsche and Meisel, 2004. However, what constituted a decrease in greenhouse gas emissions has resulted in increased levels of PGEs in the environment as shown in some studies in the dust of the road, roadsides, river sediments, sewage

  9. Repeated oral administration of a cathepsin K inhibitor significantly suppresses bone resorption in exercising horses with evidence of increased bone formation and maintained bone turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, H; Dulin, J; Smanik, L; Drost, W T; Russell, D; Wellman, M; Bertone, A

    2017-08-01

    Our investigations evaluated the effect of VEL-0230, a highly specific irreversible inhibitor of cathepsin K (CatK). The objectives of our study were to determine whether repeated dosing of a CatK inhibitor (CatKI) produced a desired inhibition of the bone resorption biomarker (CTX-1), and document the effect of repeated dosing on bone homeostasis, structure, and dynamics of bone resorption and formation in horses. Twelve young exercising horses were randomized in a prospective, controlled clinical trial and received 4 weekly doses of a CatKI or vehicle. Baseline and poststudy nuclear scintigraphy, blood sampling and analysis of plasma bone biomarkers (CTX-1 and osteocalcin), poststudy bone fluorescent labeling, and bone biopsy were performed. Bone specimens were further processed for microcomputed tomography and bone histomorphometry. Each dose of this CatKI transiently inhibited plasma CTX-1 (reflecting inhibition of bone collagen resorption) and increased bone plasma osteocalcin concentrations, with no detectable adverse effect on normal bone turnover in the face of exercise. Bone morphology, density, and formation rate were not different between control and treated group. Further investigation of CatK inhibition in abnormal bone turnover is required in animals with bone diseases. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Danish Gulf War Veterans Revisited: No Evidence of Increased Sickness Absence or Reduced Labor Market Outcome After Deployment to the Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Stoltenberg, Christian; Nielsen, Anni B Sternhagen; Vedtofte, Mia S; Marott, Jacob L; Gyntelberg, Finn; Guldager, Bernadette

    2016-11-01

    To examine the assumption that postdeployment incidence of sickness and other absence from work are higher among Gulf War Veterans compared with nonveterans. A prospective registry study including a cohort of 721 Danish Gulf War Veterans and a control cohort of 3,629 nonveterans selected from the general Danish population. Outcome measures were up to 23 years postdeployment incidence of (1) long-term sickness absence and (2) long-term all types of absence from work. Long term with regard to sickness and other absence was defined as exceeding 8 weeks. The association between outcomes and information on deployment history was studied using time-to-event analysis. The index date was the return date from the last deployment to the Gulf. The follow-up period was the time from index date until April 27, 2014. As the main finding, no difference was found between veterans and nonveterans in the incidence rate of long-term sickness absence. After an initial short period (3 months) with elevated incidence rate of long-term absence from work among veterans, there was no difference between the cohorts. Among Danish Gulf War Veterans, no postdeployment increased risk of long-term sickness absence or long-term absence from work was found as compared with nonveterans. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  11. HLA-DP antigens and HTLV-1 antibody status among Japanese with multiple sclerosis: evidence for an increased frequency of HLA-DPw4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødum, Niels; Saida, T; Ohta, M

    1989-01-01

    , personal communication). Sera from all 34 patients and 38 controls (both from the HTLV-1 nonendemic, Kyoto region) were examined for the presence of HTLV-1 reacting antibodies by a highly sensitive radioimmuno assay (RIA) using two sources of HTLV-1 antigens, namely total crude protein preparations from...... disrupted HTLV-1 virions and affinity purified p24 HTLV-1 core proteins. The frequency of DPw4 was significantly increased to 35.3% in Japanese MS patients compared to 16.5% in controls (Relative Risk, RR = 2.8, p = 1.9 x 10(-2)). 41.6% of the MS patients gave clear typing responses with a PLT reagent which...... recognized a Dw2+ related specificity, which is higher than the frequency of Dw2 (6.8%) in Japanese. Fourteen of the 34 patient sera contrasting to none of the sera from 38 controls contained antibodies of IgG and/or IgM subclasses reacting with the HTLV-1 derived antigens. This difference is highly...

  12. Evidence for increased cellular uptake of glutamate and aspartate in the rat hippocampus during kainic acid seizures. A microdialysis study using the "indicator diffusion' method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, T; Christensen, Thomas; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    1997-01-01

    Using a newly developed technique, based on microdialysis, which allows cellular uptake of glutamate and aspartate to be studied in awake animals, we investigated uptake of glutamate and aspartate in the hippocampal formation of rats during limbic seizures induced by systemical administration of ....... The results indicate that during KA-induced seizures, uptake of glutamate and aspartate is increased, possibly aimed at maintaining the extracellular homeostasis of these two excitatory amino acids.......Using a newly developed technique, based on microdialysis, which allows cellular uptake of glutamate and aspartate to be studied in awake animals, we investigated uptake of glutamate and aspartate in the hippocampal formation of rats during limbic seizures induced by systemical administration...... of kainic acid (KA). With [14C]mannitol as an extracellular reference substance, the cellular extraction of the test substance [3H]D-aspartate was measured at different stages of seizure-activity. The results were compared to those obtained in a sham operated control group. During severe generalized clonic...

  13. Hyperthyroidism is characterized by both increased sympathetic and decreased vagal modulation of heart rate: evidence from spectral analysis of heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin-Long; Chiu, Hung-Wen; Tseng, Yin-Jiun; Chu, Woei-Chyn

    2006-06-01

    The clinical manifestations of hyperthyroidism resemble those of the hyperadrenergic state. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of hyperthyroidism on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and to investigate the relationship between serum thyroid hormone concentrations and parameters of spectral heart rate variability (HRV) analysis in hyperthyroidism. Thirty-two hyperthyroid Graves' disease patients (mean age 31 years) and 32 sex-, age-, and body mass index (BMI)-matched normal control subjects were recruited to receive one-channel electrocardiogram (ECG) recording. The cardiac autonomic nervous function was evaluated by the spectral analysis of HRV, which indicates the autonomic modulation of the sinus node. The correlation coefficients between serum thyroid hormone concentrations and parameters of the spectral HRV analysis were also computed. The hyperthyroid patients revealed significant differences (P hyperthyroidism in 28 patients, all of the above parameters were restored to levels comparable to those of the controls. In addition, serum thyroid hormone concentrations showed significant correlations with spectral HRV parameters. Hyperthyroidism is in a sympathovagal imbalanced state, characterized by both increased sympathetic and decreased vagal modulation of the heart rate. These autonomic dysfunctions can be detected simultaneously by spectral analysis of HRV, and the spectral HRV parameters could reflect the disease severity in hyperthyroid patients.

  14. Exposure to welding fumes increases lung cancer risk among light smokers but not among heavy smokers: evidence from two case–control studies in Montreal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallières, Eric; Pintos, Javier; Lavoué, Jérôme; Parent, Marie-Élise; Rachet, Bernard; Siemiatycki, Jack

    2012-01-01

    We investigated relationships between occupational exposure to gas and arc welding fumes and the risk of lung cancer among workers exposed to these agents throughout the spectrum of industries. Two population-based case–control studies were conducted in Montreal. Study I (1979–1986) included 857 cases and 1066 controls, and Study II (1996–2001) comprised 736 cases and 894 controls. Detailed job histories were obtained by interview and evaluated by an expert team of chemist–hygienists to estimate degree of exposure to approximately 300 substances for each job. Gas and arc welding fumes were among the agents evaluated. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of lung cancer using logistic regression, adjusting for smoking history and other covariates. The two studies provided similar results, so a pooled analysis was conducted. Among all subjects, no significant association was found between lung cancer and gas welding fumes (OR = 1.1; 95% CI = 0.9–1.4) or arc welding fumes (OR = 1.0; 95% CI = 0.8–1.2). However, when restricting attention to light smokers, there was an increased risk of lung cancer in relation to gas welding fumes (OR = 2.9; 95% CI = 1.7–4.8) and arc welding fumes (OR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.3–3.8), with even higher OR estimates among workers with the highest cumulative exposures. In conclusion, there was no detectable excess risk of lung cancer due to welding fumes among moderate to heavy smokers; but among light smokers we found an excess risk related to both types of welding fumes. PMID:23342253

  15. Exposure to welding fumes increases lung cancer risk among light smokers but not among heavy smokers: evidence from two case-control studies in Montreal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallières, Eric; Pintos, Javier; Lavoué, Jérôme; Parent, Marie-Élise; Rachet, Bernard; Siemiatycki, Jack

    2012-08-01

    We investigated relationships between occupational exposure to gas and arc welding fumes and the risk of lung cancer among workers exposed to these agents throughout the spectrum of industries. Two population-based case-control studies were conducted in Montreal. Study I (1979-1986) included 857 cases and 1066 controls, and Study II (1996-2001) comprised 736 cases and 894 controls. Detailed job histories were obtained by interview and evaluated by an expert team of chemist-hygienists to estimate degree of exposure to approximately 300 substances for each job. Gas and arc welding fumes were among the agents evaluated. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of lung cancer using logistic regression, adjusting for smoking history and other covariates. The two studies provided similar results, so a pooled analysis was conducted. Among all subjects, no significant association was found between lung cancer and gas welding fumes (OR = 1.1; 95% CI = 0.9-1.4) or arc welding fumes (OR = 1.0; 95% CI = 0.8-1.2). However, when restricting attention to light smokers, there was an increased risk of lung cancer in relation to gas welding fumes (OR = 2.9; 95% CI = 1.7-4.8) and arc welding fumes (OR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.3-3.8), with even higher OR estimates among workers with the highest cumulative exposures. In conclusion, there was no detectable excess risk of lung cancer due to welding fumes among moderate to heavy smokers; but among light smokers we found an excess risk related to both types of welding fumes.

  16. Bumetanide increases Cl--dependent short-circuit current in late distal colon: Evidence for the presence of active electrogenic Cl- absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lieqi; Fang, Xiefan; Winesett, Steven P; Cheng, Catherine Y; Binder, Henry J; Rivkees, Scott A; Cheng, Sam X

    2017-01-01

    Mammalian colonic epithelia consist of cells that are capable of both absorbing and secreting Cl-. The present studies employing Ussing chamber technique identified two opposing short-circuit current (Isc) responses to basolateral bumetanide in rat distal colon. Apart from the transepithelial Cl--secretory Isc in early distal colon that was inhibited by bumetanide, bumetanide also stimulated Isc in late distal colon that had not previously been identified. Since bumetanide inhibits basolateral Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC) in crypt cells and basolateral K+-Cl- cotransporter (KCC) in surface epithelium, we proposed this stimulatory Isc could represent a KCC-mediated Cl- absorptive current. In support of this hypothesis, ion substitution experiments established Cl- dependency of this absorptive Isc and transport inhibitor studies demonstrated the involvement of an apical Cl- conductance. Current distribution and RNA sequencing analyses revealed that this Cl- absorptive Isc is closely associated with epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) but is not dependent on ENaC activity. Thus, inhibition of ENaC by 10 μM amiloride or benzamil neither altered the direction nor its activity. Physiological studies suggested that this Cl- absorptive Isc senses dietary Cl- content; thus when dietary Cl- was low, Cl- absorptive Isc was up-regulated. In contrast, when dietary Cl- was increased, Cl- absorptive Isc was down-regulated. We conclude that an active Cl- extrusion mechanism exists in ENaC-expressing late distal colon and likely operates in parallel with ENaC to facilitate NaCl absorption.

  17. Valuation of Go Stimuli or Devaluation of No-Go Stimuli? Evidence of an Increased Preference for Attended Go Stimuli Following a Go/No-Go Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kazuya; Sato, Nobuya

    2017-01-01

    Attentional inhibition that occurs during discrimination tasks leads to the negative evaluation of distractor stimuli. This phenomenon, known as the distractor devaluation effect also occurs when go/no-go tasks require response inhibition. However, it remains unclear whether there are interactions between attention and response controls when the distractor devaluation effect occurs. The aims of this study were to investigate whether attention to stimuli in the go/no-go task plays a facilitative role in distractor devaluation through response inhibition, and to clarify whether this effect reflects a decreased preference for no-go stimuli. Participants evaluated the preference for pictures before and after a go/no-go task. In Experiments 1 and 2, they made a go or no-go response depending on the category of pictures displayed (gummy candies or rice crackers), whereas in Experiment 3 they did on the basis digit category, even or odd numbers, superimposed on such pictures. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that the pictures presented as no-go stimuli in the preceding go/no-go task were evaluated as less positive than the pictures presented as go stimuli. This devaluation effect reflected an increased preference for the go stimuli but not a decreased preference for the no-go stimuli. Experiment 3 indicated that response inhibition did not affect the preference for the pictures that had not received attention in a preceding go/no-go task. These results suggest that although attention plays an important role in differential ratings for go and no-go stimuli, such differences, in fact, reflect the valuation of go stimuli.

  18. New evidence of connections between increased O-GlcNAcylation and inflammasome in the oral mucosa of patients with oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi Do, T; Phoomak, C; Champattanachai, V; Silsirivanit, A; Chaiyarit, P

    2018-04-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is considered a chronic inflammatory immune-mediated disease of the oral mucosa. Immunopathogenesis of OLP is thought to be associated with cell-mediated immune dysregulation. O-GlcNAcylation is a form of reversible glycosylation. It has been demonstrated that O-GlcNAcylation promoted nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signalling. Activation of NF-кB can induce expression of nucleotide-binding domain-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, which is a large intracellular multi-protein complex involving an immune response. Dysregulated expression of the NLRP3 inflammasome was reported to be associated with autoinflammatory diseases. No integrative studies between O-GlcNAcylation and NLRP3 inflammasome in OLP patients have been reported. The present study aimed to determine the immunohistochemical expression of O-GlcNAcylation, NF-κB signalling molecules and NLRP3 inflammasome in oral mucosae of OLP patients. Oral tissue samples were collected from 30 OLP patients and 30 healthy individuals. Immunohistochemical staining and analyses of immunostaining scores were performed to evaluate expression of O-GlcNAcylation, NF-κB signalling molecules and NLRP3 inflammasome. According to observations in this study, significantly higher levels of O-GlcNAcylation, NF-κB signalling molecules and NLRP3 inflammasome were demonstrated in OLP patients compared with control subjects (P O-GlcNAcylation, NF-κB signalling molecules and NLRP3 inflammasome were also observed in OLP samples (P O-GlcNAcylation is associated with increased expression of NLRP3 inflammasome via the NF-κB signalling pathway. These findings provide a new perspective on immunopathogenesis of OLP in relation to autoinflammation. © 2017 British Society for Immunology.

  19. Increasing the quantity and quality of searching for current best evidence to answer clinical questions: protocol and intervention design of the MacPLUS FS Factorial Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agoritsas, Thomas; Iserman, Emma; Hobson, Nicholas; Cohen, Natasha; Cohen, Adam; Roshanov, Pavel S; Perez, Miguel; Cotoi, Chris; Parrish, Rick; Pullenayegum, Eleanor; Wilczynski, Nancy L; Iorio, Alfonso; Haynes, R Brian

    2014-09-20

    Finding current best evidence for clinical decisions remains challenging. With 3,000 new studies published every day, no single evidence-based resource provides all answers or is sufficiently updated. McMaster Premium LiteratUre Service--Federated Search (MacPLUS FS) addresses this issue by looking in multiple high quality resources simultaneously and displaying results in a one-page pyramid with the most clinically useful at the top. Yet, additional logistical and educational barriers need to be addressed to enhance point-of-care evidence retrieval. This trial seeks to test three innovative interventions, among clinicians registered to MacPLUS FS, to increase the quantity and quality of searching for current best evidence to answer clinical questions. In a user-centered approach, we designed three interventions embedded in MacPLUS FS: (A) a web-based Clinical Question Recorder; (B) an Evidence Retrieval Coach composed of eight short educational videos; (C) an Audit, Feedback and Gamification approach to evidence retrieval, based on the allocation of 'badges' and 'reputation scores.' We will conduct a randomized factorial controlled trial among all the 904 eligible medical doctors currently registered to MacPLUS FS at the hospitals affiliated with McMaster University, Canada. Postgraduate trainees (n=429) and clinical faculty/staff (n=475) will be randomized to each of the three following interventions in a factorial design (AxBxC). Utilization will be continuously recorded through clinicians’ accounts that track logins and usage, down to the level of individual keystrokes. The primary outcome is the rate of searches per month per user during the six months of follow-up. Secondary outcomes, measured through the validated Impact Assessment Method questionnaire, include: utility of answers found (meeting clinicians’ information needs), use (application in practice), and perceived usefulness on patient outcomes. Built on effective models for the point

  20. Health Informatics 3.0 and other increasingly dispersed technologies require even greater trust: promoting safe evidence-based health informatics. Contribution of the IMIA Working Group on Technology Assessment & Quality Development in Health Informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, M; Ammenwerth, E; Talmon, J; Nykänen, P; Brender, J; de Keizer, N

    2011-01-01

    Health informatics is generally less committed to a scientific evidence-based approach than any other area of health science, which is an unsound position. Introducing the new Web 3.0 paradigms into health IT applications can unleash a further great potential, able to integrate and distribute data from multiple sources. The counter side is that it makes the user and the patient evermore dependent on the 'black box' of the system, and the re-use of the data remote from the author and initial context. Thus anticipatory consideration of uses, and proactive analysis of evidence of effects, are imperative, as only when a clinical technology can be proven to be trustworthy and safe should it be implemented widely - as is the case with other health technologies. To argue for promoting evidence-based health informatics as systems become more powerful and pro-active yet more dispersed and remote; and evaluation as the means of generating the necessary scientific evidence base. To present ongoing IMIA and EFMI initiatives in this field. Critical overview of recent developments in health informatics evaluation, alongside the precedents of other health technologies, summarising current initiatives and the new challenges presented by Health Informatics 3.0. Web 3.0 should be taken as an opportunity to move health informatics from being largely unaccountable to one of being an ethical and responsible science-based domain. Recent and planned activities of the EFMI and IMIA working groups have significantly progressed key initiatives. Concurrent with the emergence of Web 3.0 as a means of new-generation diffuse health information systems comes an increasing need for an evidence-based culture in health informatics.

  1. Available studies fail to provide strong evidence of increased risk of diarrhea mortality due to measles in the period 4-26 weeks after measles rash onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Bianca D; Black, Robert E

    2017-11-07

    Measles vaccination effectiveness studies showed dramatic decreases in all-cause mortality in excess of what would be expected from the prevention of measles disease alone. This invited speculation that measles infection may increase the risk of diarrhea morbidity and mortality subsequent to the acute phase of the disease. The aim of the present systematic review is to summarize the existing evidence in the publically available literature pertaining to the putative causal link between measles and diarrhea in the period 4-26 weeks following measles rash onset. We searched the PubMed, Embase, Open Grey and Grey Literature Report databases for relevant literature using broad search terms. Prospective, retrospective and case-control studies in low- and middle-income countries involving children under five wherein relevant evidence were presented were included. Data were extracted from the articles and summarized. Fifty abstracts retrieved through the database searches met the initial screening criteria. Twelve additional documents were identified by review of the references of the documents found in the initial searches. Six documents representing five unique studies that presented evidence relevant to the research question were found. Four of the included studies took place in Bangladesh. One of the included studies took place in Sudan. Some measles vaccine effectiveness studies show lower diarrhea morbidity and mortality among the vaccinated. However, children who received vaccine may have differed in important ways from children who did not, such as health service utilization. Additionally, cohort studies following unvaccinated children showed no difference in diarrhea morbidity and mortality between cases and controls more than 4 weeks after measles rash onset. One study showed some evidence that severe measles may predispose children to gastroenteritis, but was not able to show a corresponding increase in the risk of diarrhea mortality. The available evidence

  2. Yes Virginia, quantum mechanics can be understood

    CERN Document Server

    Wallace, John P

    2017-01-01

    Virginia, B. W. Wooster, and Jeeves take up physics with the hope of understanding quantum mechanics. In the process they take a rather grand tour on an old sailing ship and aid a sow in distress. On their journey they discover that physics is not as difficult a subject as they imagined. When they dismantled physics and reassembled it in a form where gravity, strong, electromagnetic and the weak forces all stem from understanding the gaming strategy known as the fair-game. That great cultural divide first expounded by the novelist C.P.Snow was found to be a mere ditch that can be stepped over. The sins of the past were violations of energy conservation and strange notions about what mass actually represents. Now mass is defined without the assistance of the Standard Model. Things will not be the same. Singularities have been banished. The electron now has a scale and is no longer captive in a point. The gluon is no longer essential along with the single virtual photon.

  3. Evil Understood as the Absence of Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabjerg, Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    Self-development is closely related to the idea of formation (or what is referred to as Bildung in German). But when speaking of formation, we have to address the question, ‘what are we formed by?’ Is the human being formed by him- or herself, or by resources originating from outside the self? Fr...

  4. The Center of Gravity, Systemically Understood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    manner that gave him the time to pursue and destroy the retreating army. Centuries later, another great captain – Napoléon Bonaparte – employed...Jena-Auerstadt 1806 In 1806, Napoléon Bonaparte became the first operational artist in the history of modern war when he defeated the Prussian... Napoleon , Operational Art, and the Jena Campaign,” in Historical Perspectives of the Operational Art, ed. Michael D. Krause and R. Cody Phillips

  5. Using Intervention Mapping for Program Design and Production of iCHAMPSS: An Online Decision Support System to Increase Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance of Evidence-Based Sexual Health Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa F. Peskin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In Texas and across the United States, unintended pregnancy, HIV, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs among adolescents remain serious public health issues. Sexual risk-taking behaviors, including early sexual initiation, contribute to these public health problems. Over 35 sexual health evidence-based programs (EBPs have been shown to reduce sexual risk behaviors and/or prevent teen pregnancies or STIs. Because more than half of these EBPs are designed for schools, they could reach and impact a considerable number of adolescents if implemented in these settings. Most schools across the U.S. and in Texas, however, do not implement these programs. U.S. school districts face many barriers to the successful dissemination (i.e., adoption, implementation, and maintenance of sexual health EBPs, including lack of knowledge about EBPs and where to find them, perceived lack of support from school administrators and parents, lack of guidance regarding the adoption process, competing priorities, and lack of specialized training on sexual health. Therefore, this paper describes how we used intervention mapping (Steps 3 and 4, in particular, a systematic design framework that uses theory, empirical evidence, and input from the community to develop CHoosing And Maintaining Effective Programs for Sex Education in Schools (iCHAMPSS, an online decision support system to help school districts adopt, implement, and maintain sexual health EBPs. Guided by this systematic intervention design approach, iCHAMPSS has the potential to increase dissemination of sexual health EBPs in school settings.

  6. Using Intervention Mapping for Program Design and Production of iCHAMPSS: An Online Decision Support System to Increase Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance of Evidence-Based Sexual Health Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peskin, Melissa F; Hernandez, Belinda F; Gabay, Efrat K; Cuccaro, Paula; Li, Dennis H; Ratliff, Eric; Reed-Hirsch, Kelly; Rivera, Yanneth; Johnson-Baker, Kimberly; Emery, Susan Tortolero; Shegog, Ross

    2017-01-01

    In Texas and across the United States, unintended pregnancy, HIV, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among adolescents remain serious public health issues. Sexual risk-taking behaviors, including early sexual initiation, contribute to these public health problems. Over 35 sexual health evidence-based programs (EBPs) have been shown to reduce sexual risk behaviors and/or prevent teen pregnancies or STIs. Because more than half of these EBPs are designed for schools, they could reach and impact a considerable number of adolescents if implemented in these settings. Most schools across the U.S. and in Texas, however, do not implement these programs. U.S. school districts face many barriers to the successful dissemination (i.e., adoption, implementation, and maintenance) of sexual health EBPs, including lack of knowledge about EBPs and where to find them, perceived lack of support from school administrators and parents, lack of guidance regarding the adoption process, competing priorities, and lack of specialized training on sexual health. Therefore, this paper describes how we used intervention mapping (Steps 3 and 4, in particular), a systematic design framework that uses theory, empirical evidence, and input from the community to develop CH oosing A nd M aintaining Effective P rograms for S ex Education in S chools ( iCHAMPSS ), an online decision support system to help school districts adopt, implement, and maintain sexual health EBPs. Guided by this systematic intervention design approach, iCHAMPSS has the potential to increase dissemination of sexual health EBPs in school settings.

  7. Lactose binding to human galectin-7 (p53-induced gene 1) induces long-range effects through the protein resulting in increased dimer stability and evidence for positive cooperativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakova, Elena; Miller, Michelle C; Nesmelova, Irina V; López-Merino, Lara; Berbís, Manuel Alvaro; Nesmelov, Yuri; Tkachev, Yaroslav V; Lagartera, Laura; Daragan, Vladimir A; André, Sabine; Cañada, F Javier; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Solís, Dolores; Gabius, Hans-Joachim; Mayo, Kevin H

    2013-01-01

    The product of p53-induced gene 1 is a member of the galectin family, i.e., galectin-7 (Gal-7). To move beyond structural data by X-ray diffraction, we initiated the study of the lectin by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and circular dichroism spectroscopies, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In concert, our results indicate that lactose binding to human Gal-7 induces long-range effects (minor conformational shifts and changes in structural dynamics) throughout the protein that result in stabilization of the dimer state, with evidence for positive cooperativity. Monte Carlo fits of 15N-Gal-7 HSQC titrations with lactose using a two-site model yield K1 = 0.9 ± 0.6 × 103 M−1 and K2 = 3.4 ± 0.8 × 103 M−1. Ligand binding-induced stabilization of the Gal-7 dimer was supported by several lines of evidence: MD-based calculations of interaction energies between ligand-loaded and ligand-free states, gel filtration data and hetero-FRET spectroscopy that indicate a highly reduced tendency for dimer dissociation in the presence of lactose, CD-based thermal denaturation showing that the transition temperature of the lectin is significantly increased in the presence of lactose, and saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR using a molecular probe of the monomer state whose presence is diminished in the presence of lactose. MD simulations with the half-loaded ligand-bound state also provided insight into how allosteric signaling may occur. Overall, our results reveal long-range effects on Gal-7 structure and dynamics, which factor into entropic contributions to ligand binding and allow further comparisons with other members of the galectin family. PMID:23376190

  8. Short-Term Effectiveness of a Mobile Phone App for Increasing Physical Activity and Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet in Primary Care: A Randomized Controlled Trial (EVIDENT II Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recio-Rodriguez, Jose I; Agudo-Conde, Cristina; Martin-Cantera, Carlos; González-Viejo, Mª Natividad; Fernandez-Alonso, Mª Del Carmen; Arietaleanizbeaskoa, Maria Soledad; Schmolling-Guinovart, Yolanda; Maderuelo-Fernandez, Jose-Angel; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Emiliano; Gomez-Marcos, Manuel A; Garcia-Ortiz, Luis

    2016-12-19

    , although no difference was found when comparing the increase between the two groups. Counseling accompanied by printed materials appears to be effective in improving adherence to the Mediterranean diet, although the app does not increase adherence. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02016014; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02016014 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6mnopADbf). ©Jose I Recio-Rodriguez, Cristina Agudo-Conde, Carlos Martin-Cantera, Mª Natividad González-Viejo, Mª Del Carmen Fernandez-Alonso, Maria Soledad Arietaleanizbeaskoa, Yolanda Schmolling-Guinovart, Jose-Angel Maderuelo-Fernandez, Emiliano Rodriguez-Sanchez, Manuel A Gomez-Marcos, Luis Garcia-Ortiz, EVIDENT Investigators. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 19.12.2016.

  9. Increased Insulin following an Oral Glucose Load, Genetic Variation near the Melatonin Receptor MTNR1B, but No Biochemical Evidence of Endothelial Dysfunction in Young Asian Men and Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A Matuszek

    Full Text Available To identify biochemical and genetic variation relating to increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease in young, lean male and female adults of different ethnicities.Fasting blood and urine and non-fasting blood following oral glucose intake were analysed in 90 Caucasians, South Asians and South East/East Asians.There were no differences in age, birthweight, blood pressure, body mass index, percent body fat, total energy, percentage of macronutrient intake, microalbumin, leptin, cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, nitric oxide metabolites, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, von Willebrand factor, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and tissue plasminogen activator. Fasting total cholesterol (P = .000, triglycerides (P = .050, low density lipoprotein (P = .009 and non-fasting blood glucose (15 min (P = .024 were elevated in South Asians compared with Caucasians, but there was no significant difference in glucose area under curve (AUC. Non-fasting insulin in South Asians (15-120 min, in South East/East Asians (60-120 min, and insulin AUC in South Asians and South East/East Asians, were elevated compared with Caucasians (P≤0.006. The molar ratio of C-peptide AUC/Insulin AUC (P = .045 and adiponectin (P = .037 were lower in South Asians compared with Caucasians. A significant difference in allele frequency distributions in Caucasians and South Asians was found for rs2166706 (P = 0.022 and rs10830963 (P = 0.009, which are both near the melatonin receptor MTNR1B.Elevated non-fasting insulin exists in young South Asians of normal fasting glucose and insulin. Hepatic clearance of insulin may be reduced in South Asians. No current biochemical evidence exists of endothelial dysfunction at this stage of development. MTNR1B signalling may be a useful therapeutic target in Asian populations in the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  10. Increased Insulin following an Oral Glucose Load, Genetic Variation near the Melatonin Receptor MTNR1B, but No Biochemical Evidence of Endothelial Dysfunction in Young Asian Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszek, Maria A; Anton, Angelyn; Thillainathan, Sobana; Armstrong, Nicola J

    2015-01-01

    To identify biochemical and genetic variation relating to increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease in young, lean male and female adults of different ethnicities. Fasting blood and urine and non-fasting blood following oral glucose intake were analysed in 90 Caucasians, South Asians and South East/East Asians. There were no differences in age, birthweight, blood pressure, body mass index, percent body fat, total energy, percentage of macronutrient intake, microalbumin, leptin, cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, nitric oxide metabolites, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, von Willebrand factor, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and tissue plasminogen activator. Fasting total cholesterol (P = .000), triglycerides (P = .050), low density lipoprotein (P = .009) and non-fasting blood glucose (15 min) (P = .024) were elevated in South Asians compared with Caucasians, but there was no significant difference in glucose area under curve (AUC). Non-fasting insulin in South Asians (15-120 min), in South East/East Asians (60-120 min), and insulin AUC in South Asians and South East/East Asians, were elevated compared with Caucasians (P≤0.006). The molar ratio of C-peptide AUC/Insulin AUC (P = .045) and adiponectin (P = .037) were lower in South Asians compared with Caucasians. A significant difference in allele frequency distributions in Caucasians and South Asians was found for rs2166706 (P = 0.022) and rs10830963 (P = 0.009), which are both near the melatonin receptor MTNR1B. Elevated non-fasting insulin exists in young South Asians of normal fasting glucose and insulin. Hepatic clearance of insulin may be reduced in South Asians. No current biochemical evidence exists of endothelial dysfunction at this stage of development. MTNR1B signalling may be a useful therapeutic target in Asian populations in the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  11. On Evidence and Argument in Phenomenological Research | Walsh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Set against a background of calls for evidence-based practice, this paper explores the role of evidence and argument in phenomenological research. Drawing on Smith's (1998) analysis of original argument, the author considers how evidence can be discerned, understood, and communicated, and the resulting kinds and ...

  12. Evidence for Resistance Training as a Treatment Therapy in Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Strasser

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, investigators have paid increasing attention to the effects of resistance training (RT on several metabolic syndrome variables. Evidence suggests that skeletal muscle is responsible for up to 40% of individuals' total body weight and may be influential in modifying metabolic risk factors via muscle mass development. Due to the metabolic consequences of reduced muscle mass, it is understood that normal aging and/or decreased physical activity may lead to a higher prevalence of metabolic disorders. The purpose of this review is to (1 evaluate the potential clinical effectiveness and biological mechanisms of RT in the treatment of obesity and (2 provide up-to-date evidence relating to the impact of RT in reducing major cardiovascular disease risk factors (including dyslipidaemia and type 2 diabetes. A further aim of this paper is to provide clinicians with recommendations for facilitating the use of RT as therapy in obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders.

  13. Evidence logics with relational evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltag, Alexandru; Occhipinti, Andrés

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a family of logics for reasoning about relational evidence: evidence that involves an ordering of states in terms of their relative plausibility. We provide sound and complete axiomatizations for the logics. We also present several evidential actions and prove soundness...

  14. Similarity increases altruistic punishment in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussweiler, Thomas; Ockenfels, Axel

    2013-11-26

    Humans are attracted to similar others. As a consequence, social networks are homogeneous in sociodemographic, intrapersonal, and other characteristics--a principle called homophily. Despite abundant evidence showing the importance of interpersonal similarity and homophily for human relationships, their behavioral correlates and cognitive foundations are poorly understood. Here, we show that perceived similarity substantially increases altruistic punishment, a key mechanism underlying human cooperation. We induced (dis)similarity perception by manipulating basic cognitive mechanisms in an economic cooperation game that included a punishment phase. We found that similarity-focused participants were more willing to punish others' uncooperative behavior. This influence of similarity is not explained by group identity, which has the opposite effect on altruistic punishment. Our findings demonstrate that pure similarity promotes reciprocity in ways known to encourage cooperation. At the same time, the increased willingness to punish norm violations among similarity-focused participants provides a rationale for why similar people are more likely to build stable social relationships. Finally, our findings show that altruistic punishment is differentially involved in encouraging cooperation under pure similarity vs. in-group conditions.

  15. Digital evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although computer makes human activities faster and easier, innovating and creating new forms of work and other kinds of activities, it also influenced the criminal activity. The development of information technology directly affects the development of computer forensics without which, it can not even imagine the discovering and proving the computer offences and apprehending the perpetrator. Information technology and computer forensic allows us to detect and prove the crimes committed by computer and capture the perpetrators. Computer forensics is a type of forensics which can be defined as a process of collecting, preserving, analyzing and presenting digital evidence in court proceedings. Bearing in mind, that combat against crime, in which computers appear as an asset or object of the offense, requires knowledge of digital evidence as well as specific rules and procedures, the author in this article specifically addresses the issues of digital evidence, forensic (computer investigation, specific rules and procedures for detecting, fixing and collecting digital evidence and use of this type of evidence in criminal proceedings. The author also delas with international standards regarding digital evidence and cyber-space investigation.

  16. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced, as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  17. Price increase

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  18. Evidence-based radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafslund, Bjorg; Clare, Judith; Graverholt, Birgitte; Wammen Nortvedt, Monica

    2008-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) offers the integration of the best research evidence with clinical knowledge and expertise and patient values. EBP is a well known term in health care. This paper discusses the implementation of EBP into radiography and introduces the term evidence-based radiography. Evidence-based radiography is radiography informed and based on the combination of clinical expertise and the best available research-based evidence, patient preferences and resources available. In Norway, EBP in radiography is being debated and radiographers are discussing the challenges of implementing EBP in both academic and clinical practice. This discussion paper explains why EBP needs to be a basis for a radiography curriculum and a part of radiographers' practice. We argue that Norwegian radiographers must increase participation in research and developing practice within their specific radiographic domain

  19. Thyroid autoantibodies and thyroid function in subjects exposed to Chernobyl fallout during childhood: evidence for a transient radiation-induced elevation of serum thyroid antibodies without an increase in thyroid autoimmune disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agate, Laura; Mariotti, Stefano; Elisei, Rossella

    2008-01-01

    An increase in the prevalence of thyroid autoantibodies (ATAs) was reported 6-8 yr after the Chernobyl accident in radiation-exposed children and adolescents.......An increase in the prevalence of thyroid autoantibodies (ATAs) was reported 6-8 yr after the Chernobyl accident in radiation-exposed children and adolescents....

  20. Evidence and evidence gaps - an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreier, Gabriele; Löhler, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Medical treatment requires the implementation of existing evidence in the decision making process in order to be able to find the best possible diagnostic, therapeutic or prognostic measure for the individual patient based on the physician's own expertise. Clinical trials form the evidence base and ideally, their results are assembled, analyzed, summarized, and made available in systematic review articles. Beside planning, conducting, and evaluating clinical trials in conformity with GCP (good clinical practice), it is essential that all results of conducted studies are publicly available in order to avoid publication bias. This includes also the public registration of planned and cancelled trials. History: During the last 25 years, evidence-based medicine became increasingly important in medical care and research. It is closely associated with the names of Archibald Cochrane and David Sackett. About 15 years ago, the Deutsche Cochrane Zentrum (Cochrane Germany) and the Deutsche Netzwerk Evidenzbasierte Medizin e.V. (German Network for Evidence-based Medicine, DNEbM) were founded in Germany. In the International Cochrane Collaboration, clinicians and methodologists come together on an interdisciplinary level to further develop methods of evidence-based medicine and to discuss the topics of evidence generation and processing as well as knowledge transfer. Problem: Evidence is particularly important for physicians in the process of decision making, however, at the same time it is the base of a scientific proof of benefit for the patient and finally for the payers in health care. The closure of evidence gaps requires enormously high staff and financial resources, significant organizational efforts, and it is only successful when clinical and methodical expertise as well as specific knowledge in the field of clinical research are included. On the other hand, the knowledge has to be transferred into practice. For this purpose, practice guidelines, meetings

  1. [Evidence and Evidence Gaps - an Introduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreier, G; Löhler, J

    2016-04-01

    Treating patients requires the inclusion of existing evidence in any health care decision, to be able to choose the best diagnosis or treatment measure or to make valid prognosis statements for a particular patient in consideration of the physician's own expertise.The basis are clinical trials, the results of which are ideally gathered in systematic reviews, rated, summarized and published. In addition to the GCP (Good Clinical Practice)-compliant planning, conducting and analysis of clinical studies it is essential, that all study results are made publicly available, in order to avoid publication bias. This includes the public registration of planned and discontinued trials. In the last 25 years, the evidence-based medicine (EbM) has increasingly found its way into clinical practice and research. Here EbM is closely associated with the names Archibald Cochrane and David Sackett. In Germany, both the German Cochrane Centre (DCZ) and the network of evidence-based medicine (DNEbM) were established approximately 15 years ago. In the international Cochrane Collaboration clinicians and other scientists like statisticians interdisciplinary work side by side to develop the methods of evidence-based medicine and to address the topics of evidence generation and processing as well as the transfer of knowledge. Challenge: Existing evidence primarily serves doctors to support their decision-making, but is also the basis for providing scientific proof for a health care intervention's benefit to patients and ultimately payers/health insurances. The closure of existing evidence gaps requires substantial human and financial resources, a complex organizational structure and can only succeed with the involvement of clinical and methodological expertise and specific knowledge in the field of clinical research. In addition, the knowledge must be transferred into practice, using journals, guidelines, conferences, databases, information portals with processed evidence and not least the

  2. Common pitfalls in statistical analysis: "No evidence of effect" versus "evidence of no effect"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Ranganathan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is the first in a series exploring common pitfalls in statistical analysis in biomedical research. The power of a clinical trial is the ability to find a difference between treatments, where such a difference exists. At the end of the study, the lack of difference between treatments does not mean that the treatments can be considered equivalent. The distinction between "no evidence of effect" and "evidence of no effect" needs to be understood.

  3. Evidence for the Association of a Deleted Variant in the 5′-Flanking Region of the Chicken serotonin transporter (5-HTT Gene with a Temporary Increase in Feed Intake and Growth Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joergen B. Kjaer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The serotonergic system has been shown to be implicated in the regulation of mood and feeding behavior. Previous studies have identified a polymorphism in the 5′-flanking region of the serotonin transporter ( 5 - HTT gene of Lohmann Brown (LB laying hens. The deleted variant D was found to be associated with increased body weight. The objective of this study was to address whether the increased body weight may be due to an increased feed intake. After hatching, hens were kept under ad libitum feeding conditions, and their body weight and feed intake were weekly determined. From 5 weeks of age, the body weight of hens with the D/D and W/D genotypes was significantly greater than that of W/W carrying hens. Interestingly, we found that the feed intake of D/D carrying hens, relative to body weight, was transiently increased only between 4 and 7 weeks of age ( p < 0.05, leading to a higher growth rate ( p < 0.05, compared with that of W/W carrying hens. These results suggest that the presence of variant D may be correlated with a transiently increased appetite of D/D carrying hens.

  4. Epidemiology and etiology of Parkinson's disease: a review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirdefeldt, Karin; Adami, Hans-Olov; Cole, Philip; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Mandel, Jack

    2011-06-01

    The etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) is not well understood but likely to involve both genetic and environmental factors. Incidence and prevalence estimates vary to a large extent-at least partly due to methodological differences between studies-but are consistently higher in men than in women. Several genes that cause familial as well as sporadic PD have been identified and familial aggregation studies support a genetic component. Despite a vast literature on lifestyle and environmental possible risk or protection factors, consistent findings are few. There is compelling evidence for protective effects of smoking and coffee, but the biologic mechanisms for these possibly causal relations are poorly understood. Uric acid also seems to be associated with lower PD risk. Evidence that one or several pesticides increase PD risk is suggestive but further research is needed to identify specific compounds that may play a causal role. Evidence is limited on the role of metals, other chemicals and magnetic fields. Important methodological limitations include crude classification of exposure, low frequency and intensity of exposure, inadequate sample size, potential for confounding, retrospective study designs and lack of consistent diagnostic criteria for PD. Studies that assessed possible shared etiological components between PD and other diseases show that REM sleep behavior disorder and mental illness increase PD risk and that PD patients have lower cancer risk, but methodological concerns exist. Future epidemiologic studies of PD should be large, include detailed quantifications of exposure, and collect information on environmental exposures as well as genetic polymorphisms.

  5. Effect of exogenous cholecystokinin (CCK)-8 on food intake and plasma CCK, leptin, and insulin concentrations in older and young adults: evidence for increased CCK activity as a cause of the anorexia of aging.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacIntosh, C.G.; Morley, J.E.; Wishart, J.M.; Morris, H.A.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.; Horowitz, M.M.; Chapman, I.M.

    2001-01-01

    Healthy aging is associated with reductions in appetite and food intake--the so-called anorexia of aging, which may predispose to protein-energy malnutrition. One possible cause of the anorexia of aging is an increased satiating effect of cholecystokinin (CCK). To investigate the impact of aging on

  6. Increased Contextual Fear Conditioning in iNOS Knockout Mice: Additional Evidence for the Involvement of Nitric Oxide in Stress-Related Disorders and Contribution of the Endocannabinoid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Felipe V.; Silva, Andréia L.; Uliana, Daniela L.; Camargo, Laura H. A.; Guimarães, Francisco S.; Cunha, Fernando Q.; Joca, Sâmia R. L.; Resstel, Leonardo B. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Inducible or neuronal nitric oxide synthase gene deletion increases or decreases anxiety-like behavior in mice, respectively. Since nitric oxide and endocannabinoids interact to modulate defensive behavior, the former effect could involve a compensatory increase in basal brain nitric oxide synthase activity and/or changes in the endocannabinoid system. Thus, we investigated the expression and extinction of contextual fear conditioning of inducible nitric oxide knockout mice and possible involvement of endocannabinoids in these responses. Methods: We evaluated the effects of a preferential neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, 7-nitroindazol, nitric oxide synthase activity, and mRNA changes of nitrergic and endocannabinoid systems components in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of wild-type and knockout mice. The effects of URB597, an inhibitor of the fatty acid amide hydrolase enzyme, which metabolizes the endocannabinoid anandamide, WIN55,212-2, a nonselective cannabinoid agonist, and AM281, a selective CB1 antagonist, on contextual fear conditioning were also evaluated. Results: Contextual fear conditioning expression was similar in wild-type and knockout mice, but the latter presented extinction deficits and increased basal nitric oxide synthase activity in the medial prefrontal cortex. 7-Nitroindazol decreased fear expression and facilitated extinction in wild-type and knockout mice. URB597 decreased fear expression in wild-type and facilitated extinction in knockout mice, whereas WIN55,212-2 and AM281 increased it in wild-type mice. Nonconditioned knockout mice showed changes in the mRNA expression of nitrergic and endocannabinoid system components in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus that were modified by fear conditioning. Conclusion: These data reinforce the involvement of the nitric oxide and endocannabinoids (anandamide) in stress-related disorders and point to a deregulation of the endocannabinoid system in

  7. Repeated noxious stimulation of the skin enhances cutaneous pain perception of migraine patients in-between attacks: clinical evidence for continuous sub-threshold increase in membrane excitability of central trigeminovascular neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman-Fogel, Irit; Sprecher, Elliot; Granovsky, Yelena; Yarnitsky, David

    2003-08-01

    Recent clinical studies showed that acute migraine attacks are accompanied by increased periorbital and bodily skin sensitivity to touch, heat and cold. Parallel pre-clinical studies showed that the underlying mechanism is sensitization of primary nociceptors and central trigeminovascular neurons. The present study investigates the sensory state of neuronal pathways that mediate skin pain sensation in migraine patients in between attacks. The assessments of sensory perception included (a) mechanical and thermal pain thresholds of the periorbital area, electrical pain threshold of forearm skin, (b) pain scores to phasic supra-threshold stimuli in the same modalities and areas as above, and (c) temporal summation of pain induced by applying noxious tonic heat pain and brief trains of noxious mechanical and electrical pulses to the above skin areas. Thirty-four pain-free migraine patients and 28 age- and gender-matched controls were studied. Patients did not differ from controls in their pain thresholds for heat (44+/-2.6 vs. 44.6+/-1.9 degrees C), and electrical (4.8+/-1.6 vs. 4.3+/-1.6 mA) stimulation, and in their pain scores for supra-threshold phasic stimuli for all modalities. They did, however, differ in their pain threshold for mechanical stimulation, just by one von Frey filament (P=0.01) and in their pain scores of the temporal summation tests. Increased summation of pain was found in migraineurs for repeated mechanical stimuli (delta visual analog scale (VAS) +2.32+/-0.73 in patients vs. +0.16+/-0.83 in controls, P=0.05) and repeated electrical stimuli (delta VAS +3.83+/-1.91 vs -3.79+/-2.31, P=0.01). Increased summation corresponded with more severe clinical parameters of migraine and tended to depend on interval since last migraine attack. The absence of clinically or overt laboratory expressed allodynia suggests that pain pathways are not sensitized in the pain-free migraine patients. Nevertheless, the increased temporal summation, and the slight

  8. Methyl isobutyl ketone exposure-related increases in specific measures of α2u-globulin (α2u) nephropathy in male rats along with in vitro evidence of reversible protein binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghoff, S.J.; Poet, T.S.; Green, S.; Davis, J.; Hughes, B.; Mensing, T.; Sarang, S.S.; Lynch, A.M.; Hard, G.C.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exposure to methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) resulted in an increase in the incidence of renal tubule adenomas and occurrence of renal tubule carcinomas in male, but not female Fischer 344 rats. Since a number of chemicals have been shown to cause male rat renal tumors through the α2u nephropathy-mediated mode of action, the objective of this study is to evaluate the ability of MIBK to induce measures of α2u nephropathy including renal cell proliferation in male and female F344 rats following exposure to the same inhalation concentrations used in the National Toxicology Program (NTP) cancer bioassay (0, 450, 900, or 1800 ppm). Rats were exposed 6 h/day for 1 or 4 weeks and kidneys excised approximately 18 h post exposure to evaluate hyaline droplet accumulation (HDA), α2u staining of hyaline droplets, renal cell proliferation, and to quantitate renal α2u concentration. There was an exposure-related increase in all measures of α2u nephropathy in male, but not female rat kidneys. The hyaline droplets present in male rat kidney stained positively for α2u. The changes in HDA and α2u concentration were comparable to D-limonene, an acknowledged inducer of α2u nephropathy. In a separate in vitro study using a two-compartment vial equilibration model to assess the interaction between MIBK and α2u, the dissociation constant (K d ) was estimated to be 1.27 × 10 −5 M. This K d is within the range of other chemicals known to bind to α2u and cause nephropathy. Together, the exposure-related increase in measures of α2u nephropathy, sustained increase in renal cell proliferation along with an indication of reversible binding of MIBK to α2u, support the inclusion of MIBK in the category of chemicals exerting renal effects through a protein droplet α2u nephropathy-mediated mode of action (MoA)

  9. Expert opinion vs. empirical evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Rod A; Raybould, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Expert opinion is often sought by government regulatory agencies when there is insufficient empirical evidence to judge the safety implications of a course of action. However, it can be reckless to continue following expert opinion when a preponderance of evidence is amassed that conflicts with this opinion. Factual evidence should always trump opinion in prioritizing the information that is used to guide regulatory policy. Evidence-based medicine has seen a dramatic upturn in recent years spurred by examples where evidence indicated that certain treatments recommended by expert opinions increased death rates. We suggest that scientific evidence should also take priority over expert opinion in the regulation of genetically modified crops (GM). Examples of regulatory data requirements that are not justified based on the mass of evidence are described, and it is suggested that expertise in risk assessment should guide evidence-based regulation of GM crops. PMID:24637724

  10. FORUM Models for increasing the health workforce

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stewardship of the anticipated growth of private education and services ... The Global Health Workforce Alliance3 recognises the importance of increasing ... Action 2010 - 2014 to advance economic growth and development, to be realised by ... of the private higher education sector must be better understood and supported.

  11. Delayed, but not immediate, feedback after multiple-choice questions increases performance on a subsequent short-answer, but not multiple-choice, exam: evidence for the dual-process theory of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Neha; Glass, Arnold Lewis

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments, two performed in the laboratory and one embedded in a college psychology lecture course, investigated the effects of immediate versus delayed feedback following a multiple-choice exam on subsequent short answer and multiple-choice exams. Performance on the subsequent multiple-choice exam was not affected by the timing of the feedback on the prior exam; however, performance on the subsequent short answer exam was better following delayed than following immediate feedback. This was true regardless of the order in which immediate versus delayed feedback was given. Furthermore, delayed feedback only had a greater effect than immediate feedback on subsequent short answer performance following correct, confident responses on the prior exam. These results indicate that delayed feedback cues a student's prior response and increases subsequent recollection of that response. The practical implication is that delayed feedback is better than immediate feedback during academic testing.

  12. Smoking is associated with an increased risk of developing ACPA-positive but not ACPA-negative rheumatoid arthritis in Asian populations: evidence from the Malaysian MyEIRA case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, Abqariyah; Bengtsson, Camilla; Lai, Too Chun; Larsson, Per T; Mustafa, Amal Nasir; Abdullah, Nor Aini; Muhamad, Norasiah; Hussein, Heselynn; Klareskog, Lars; Alfredsson, Lars; Murad, Shahnaz

    2012-08-01

    We investigated the association between cigarette smoking and the risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in the Malaysian population. A total of 1,056 RA patients and 1,416 matched controls aged 18-70 years within a defined area of Peninsular Malaysia were evaluated in a case-control study between August 2005 and December 2009. A case was defined as a person with early diagnosed RA using the 1987 American College of Rheumatology criteria for RA. Controls were randomly selected matched for sex, age, and residential area. Cases and controls answered a questionnaire on a broad range of issues, including lifestyle factors and smoking habits wherein current and former smoking was classified as ever-smoking. The presence of anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA) was determined for cases and controls. We found that ever-smokers had an increased risk of developing ACPA-positive RA [odds ratio (OR) = 4.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9-9.2] but not ACPA-negative RA (OR = 0.7, 95% CI 0.3-2.0), compared with never-smokers. A significant dose-response relationship between cumulative dose of smoking and risk of ACPA-positive RA was observed (<20 pack-years OR = 3.3, 95% CI 1.1-9.8; at least 20 pack-years OR = 5.2, 95% CI 1.6-17.6). Hence, smoking is associated with an increased risk of ACPA-positive RA in the Malaysian population, in which the genetic context is similar to several other Asian countries.

  13. Evidence that NMDA-dependent limbic neural plasticity in the right hemisphere mediates pharmacological stressor (FG-7142)-induced lasting increases in anxiety-like behavior. Study 1--Role of NMDA receptors in efferent transmission from the cat amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamec, R E

    1998-01-01

    The anxiogenic beta-carboline, FG-7142, produces intense anxiety in humans and anxiety-like behavior in animals. FG-7142 also mimics the effects of exogenous stressors. In cats, FG-7142 lastingly changes defensive and aggressive behavior. Long-term potentiation (LTP) of neural transmission between limbic structures known to modulate feline defensive response to threat accompany behavioral changes. A series of three reports describes experiments designed to test the hypothesis that behavioral changes depend upon an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-based LTP of efferent transmission from the amygdala. This first study characterizes the dose and time effects of injection of the NMDA receptor blocker 7-amino-phosphono-heptanoic acid (AP7) on efferent transmission from the cat amygdala to the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH). Effects of doses of 0.5-10mg/kg (i.v.) of AP7 on potentials evoked in the VMH by single pulse stimulation of the basal amygdala were examined. In order to localize the action of the drug, concurrent measurements were taken of potentials evoked in the VMH by stimulation of the efferent fibers from the amygdala to the VMH (ventral amygdalofugal pathway, VAF). There was a dose-dependent reduction in the amygdalo-VMH evoked potential. The greatest reduction occurred at 5 mg/kg. Effects peaked at 10 min, and persisted for at least 1 h after injection. In contrast, AP7 increased the VAF-VMH-evoked potential at 10 min after injection, with a maximal increase at 5mg/kg. The data suggest that NMDA receptors intrinsic to the amygdala modulate excitatory efferent transmission from amygdala to VMH in the cat. It is speculated that a glutamatergic projection to gamma-aminobutyric acid tonic inhibitory systems in the VMH accounts for the VAF-VMH results.

  14. Effects of T cell depletion in radiation bone marrow chimeras. I. Evidence for a donor cell population which increases allogeneic chimerism but which lacks the potential to produce GVHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, M.; Sheard, M.; Sachs, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    The opposing problems of graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) and failure of alloengraftment present major obstacles to the application of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) across complete MHC barriers. The addition of syngeneic T-cell-depleted (TCD) bone marrow (BM) to untreated fully allogeneic marrow inocula in lethally irradiated mice has been previously shown to provide protection from GVHD. We have used this model to study the effects of allogeneic T cells on levels of chimerism in recipients of mixed marrow inocula. The results indicate that T cells in allogeneic BM inocula eliminate both coadministered recipient-strain and radioresistant host hematopoietic elements to produce complete allogeneic chimerism without clinical GVHD. To determine the role of GVH reactivity in this phenomenon, we performed similar studies in an F1 into parent combination, in which the genetic potential for GVHD is lacking. The presence of T cells in F1 marrow inocula led to predominant repopulation with F1 lymphocytes in such chimeras, even when coadministered with TCD-recipient-strain BM. These results imply that the ability of allogeneic BM cells removed by T cell depletion to increase levels of allochimerism may be mediated by a population which is distinct from that which produces GVHD. These results may have implications for clinical BM transplantation

  15. Evidence of Increase in Mortality After the Introduction of Diphtheria–Tetanus–Pertussis Vaccine to Children Aged 6–35 Months in Guinea-Bissau: A Time for Reflection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Aaby

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWhole-cell diphtheria–tetanus–pertussis (DTP and oral polio vaccine (OPV were introduced to children in Guinea-Bissau in 1981. We previously reported that DTP in the target age group from 3 to 5 months of age was associated with higher overall mortality. DTP and OPV were also given to older children and in this study we tested the effect on mortality in children aged 6–35 months.MethodsIn the 1980s, the suburb Bandim in the capital of Guinea-Bissau was followed with demographic surveillance and tri-monthly weighing sessions for children under 3 years of age. From June 1981, routine vaccinations were offered at the weighing sessions. We calculated mortality hazard ratio (HR for DTP-vaccinated and DTP-unvaccinated children aged 6–35 months using Cox proportional hazard models. Including this study, the introduction of DTP vaccine and child mortality has been studied in three studies; we made a meta-estimate of these studies.ResultsAt the first weighing session after the introduction of vaccines, 6–35-month-old children who received DTP vaccination had better weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ than children who did not receive DTP; one unit increase in WAZ was associated with an odds ratio of 1.32 (95% CI = 1.13–1.55 for receiving DTP vaccination. Though lower mortality compared with not being DTP-vaccinated was, therefore, expected, DTP vaccination was associated with a non-significant trend in the opposite direction, the HR being 2.22 (0.82–6.04 adjusted for WAZ. In a sensitivity analysis, including all children weighed at least once before the vaccination program started, DTP (±OPV as the most recent vaccination compared with live vaccines or no vaccine was associated with a HR of 1.89 (1.00–3.55. In the three studies of the introduction of DTP in rural and urban Guinea-Bissau, DTP-vaccinated children had an HR of 2.14 (1.42–3.23 compared to DTP-unvaccinated children; this effect was separately significant for

  16. Uranium Isotope Compositions of Mid-Proterozoic Organic-rich Mudrocks: Evidence for an Episode of Increased Ocean Oxygenation at ca. 1.36 Ga and Evaluation of the Effect of Post-Depositional Hydrothermal Fluid Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, B.; Yang, S.; Lu, X.; Zhang, F.; Zheng, W.

    2016-12-01

    The U isotope system represents a relatively new paleoredox proxy that can help trace the evolution of global ocean redox chemistry, but has rarely been applied to the Mid-Proterozoic. We report U isotope data for marine black shales of the early Mesoproterozoic Velkerri Formation (Roper Group) and late Paleoproterozoic Wollogorang Formation (Tawallah Group) from the McArthur Basin, Northern Australia. An average authigenic δ238U of 0.13 ± 0.04‰ (1SD; relative to standard CRM145) was obtained for six euxinic shales from a 1 m interval that previously yielded a precise Re-Os depositional age of 1361 ± 21 Ma. After correcting for a U isotope fractionation of 0.60-0.85‰ between seawater and open-ocean euxinic sediments, we infer that coeval global seawater had a δ238U of -0.47‰ to -0.72‰, which is 0.1-0.3‰ lighter than modern seawater (-0.40 ± 0.03‰). A U isotope mass-balance model suggests that anoxic marine environments accounted for 25-50% of the global oceanic U sink at 1.36 Ga, which is 3-7 times greater than today. The model suggests that a significant proportion, potentially even a majority, of the seafloor was not covered by anoxic waters. Hence, we infer that a significant extent of the ocean floor was covered by O2-bearing waters at 1.36 Ga. The O2 concentrations of those waters were not necessarily high, and a large expanse of weakly to mildly oxygenated deep waters is consistent with the U isotope data. Uranium isotope data from a 1 m interval in the lower Velkerri Formation, deposited at 1417 ± 29 Ma based on Re-Os geochronology, yield a greater estimate for the extent of ocean anoxia. Hence, the upper Velkerri Formation may capture a transient episode of increased ocean oxygenation. Previous Re-Os isotope data from black shales of the ca. 1.73 Ga Paleoproterozoic Wollogorang Formation yielded an erroneously young date of 1359 ± 150 Ma because hydrothermal fluids percolated through the Tawallah Group rocks at ca. 1640 Ma. Higher δ238U

  17. Molecular Evidence of Increased Resistance to Anti-Folate Drugs in Plasmodium falciparum in North-East India: A Signal for Potential Failure of Artemisinin Plus Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine Combination Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Pradyumna Kishore; Sarma, Devojit Kumar; Prakash, Anil; Bora, Khukumoni; Ahmed, Md. Atique; Sarma, Bibhas; Goswami, Basanta Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Dibya Ranjan; Mahanta, Jagadish

    2014-01-01

    North-east India, being a corridor to South-east Asia, is believed to play an important role in transmitting drug resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria to India and South Asia. North-east India was the first place in India to record the emergence of drug resistance to chloroquine as well as sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine. Presently chloroquine resistance is widespread all over the North-east India and resistance to other anti-malarials is increasing. In this study both in vivo therapeutic efficacy and molecular assays were used to screen the spectrum of drug resistance to chloroquine and sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine in the circulating P. falciparum strains. A total of 220 P. falciparum positives subjects were enrolled in the study for therapeutic assessment of chloroquine and sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine and assessment of point mutations conferring resistances to these drugs were carried out by genotyping the isolates following standard methods. Overall clinical failures in sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine and chloroquine were found 12.6 and 69.5% respectively, while overall treatment failures recorded were 13.7 and 81.5% in the two arms. Nearly all (99.0%) the isolates had mutant pfcrt genotype (76T), while 68% had mutant pfmdr-1 genotype (86Y). Mutation in dhps 437 codon was the most prevalent one while dhfr codon 108 showed 100% mutation. A total of 23 unique haplotypes at the dhps locus and 7 at dhfr locus were found while dhps-dhfr combined loci revealed 49 unique haplotypes. Prevalence of double, triple and quadruple mutations were common while 1 haplotype was found with all five mutated codons (F/AGEGS/T) at dhps locus. Detection of quadruple mutants (51I/59R/108N/164L) in the present study, earlier recorded from Car Nicobar Island, India only, indicates the presence of high levels of resistance to sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine in north-east India. Associations between resistant haplotypes and the clinical outcomes and emerging resistance in sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine in

  18. Does private tutoring increase students' academic performance? Evidence from Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berberoğlu, Giray; Tansel, Aysit

    2014-10-01

    This paper investigates the effectiveness of private tutoring in Turkey. The authors introduce their study by providing some background information on the two major national examinations and three different kinds of tutoring. They then describe how they aimed to analyse whether attending private tutoring centres (PTCs) enhances Turkish students' academic performance. By way of multiple linear regression analysis, their study sought to evaluate whether the impact of private tutoring varies in different subject areas, taking into account several student-related characteristics such as family and academic backgrounds as well as interest in and perception of academic success. In terms of subject areas, the results indicate that while private tutoring does have a positive impact on academic performance in mathematics and Turkish language, this is not the case in natural sciences. However, as evidenced by the effect sizes, these impacts are rather small compared to the impacts of other variables such as interest in and perception of academic success, high school graduation fields of study, high school cumulative grade point average (CGPA), parental education and students' sociocultural background. While the authors point out that more research on the impact of further important variables needs to be done, their view is that school seems to be an important factor for determining students' academic performance.

  19. Economic inequality increases risk taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, B Keith; Brown-Iannuzzi, Jazmin L; Hannay, Jason W

    2017-05-02

    Rising income inequality is a global trend. Increased income inequality has been associated with higher rates of crime, greater consumer debt, and poorer health outcomes. The mechanisms linking inequality to poor outcomes among individuals are poorly understood. This research tested a behavioral account linking inequality to individual decision making. In three experiments ( n = 811), we found that higher inequality in the outcomes of an economic game led participants to take greater risks to try to achieve higher outcomes. This effect of unequal distributions on risk taking was driven by upward social comparisons. Next, we estimated economic risk taking in daily life using large-scale data from internet searches. Risk taking was higher in states with greater income inequality, an effect driven by inequality at the upper end of the income distribution. Results suggest that inequality may promote poor outcomes, in part, by increasing risky behavior.

  20. Evidence-based dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    Both panegyric and criticism of evidence-based dentistry tend to be clumsy because the concept is poorly defined. This analysis identifies several contributions to the profession that have been made under the EBD banner. Although the concept of clinicians integrating clinical epidemiology, the wisdom of their practices, and patients' values is powerful, its implementation has been distorted by a too heavy emphasis of computerized searches for research findings that meet the standards of academics. Although EBD advocates enjoy sharing anecdotal accounts of mistakes others have made, faulting others is not proof that one's own position is correct. There is no systematic, high-quality evidence that EBD is effective. The metaphor of a three-legged stool (evidence, experience, values, and integration) is used as an organizing principle. "Best evidence" has become a preoccupation among EBD enthusiasts. That overlong but thinly developed leg of the stool is critiqued from the perspectives of the criteria for evidence, the difference between internal and external validity, the relationship between evidence and decision making, the ambiguous meaning of "best," and the role of reasonable doubt. The strongest leg of the stool is clinical experience. Although bias exists in all observations (including searches for evidence), there are simple procedures that can be employed in practice to increase useful and objective evidence there, and there are dangers in delegating policy regarding allowable treatments to external groups. Patient and practitioner values are the shortest leg of the stool. As they are so little recognized, their integration in EBD is problematic and ethical tensions exist where paternalism privileges science over patient's self-determined best interests. Four potential approaches to integration are suggested, recognizing that there is virtually no literature on how the "seat" of the three-legged stool works or should work. It is likely that most dentists

  1. Weighing evidence: quantitative measures of the importance of bitemark evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittelson, J M; Kieser, J A; Buckingham, D M; Herbison, G P

    2002-12-01

    Quantitative measures of the importance of evidence such as the "likelihood ratio" have become increasingly popular in the courtroom. These measures have been used by expert witnesses formally to describe their certainty about a piece of evidence. These measures are commonly interpreted as the amount by which the evidence should revise the opinion of guilt, and thereby summarize the importance of a particular piece of evidence. Unlike DNA evidence, quantitative measures have not been widely used by forensic dentists to describe their certainty when testifying about bitemark evidence. There is, however, no inherent reason why they should not be used to evaluate bitemarks. The purpose of this paper is to describe the likelihood ratio as it might be applied to bitemark evidence. We use a simple bitemark example to define the likelihood ratio, its application, and interpretation. In particular we describe how the jury interprets the likelihood ratio from a Bayesian perspective when evaluating the impact of the evidence on the odds that the accused is guilty. We describe how the dentist would calculate the likelihood ratio based on frequentist interpretations. We also illustrate some of the limitations of the likelihood ratio, and show how those limitations apply to bitemark evidence. We conclude that the quality of bitemark evidence cannot be adequately summarized by the likelihood ratio, and argue that its application in this setting may be more misleading than helpful.

  2. Louisiana physician population trends: will increase in supply meet demand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Julie A; Sessions, Blane A; Ali, Juzar; Rigby, Perry C

    2012-01-01

    Physician shortages in the United States are now recognized broadly and widespread by specialty and geography. While supply is increasing, demand inexorably rises. This situation will probably be further stressed post implementation of healthcare reform. The variations by region and by state are many and significant; this complexity is not fully understood nor yet characterized. Trends similar to the averages of the US have been identified in Louisiana, including the aging of physicians. Lack of physicians, both specialists and generalists, has been reported to compromise quality and effectiveness of healthcare. Thus, the importance of matching up supply and demand is evident. The supply of physicians is increasing in absolute number and in the physicians-to-population ratio. Variations in population, aging, geography, and specialties indicate, in some areas, that this may not be enough to deal with the increasing demand. This paper aims to assess historically how physician shortages may affect the balance of supply and demand in future healthcare delivery, particularly in Louisiana.

  3. Learning Outcomes of 'Understanding Research' as understood by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simon Bhekumuzi

    vision) for using Turnitin as a deterrent, in order to help learners to learn in the process. .... such as the American Psychological Association. (APA) ..... from other people. ..... and enduring concerns (2nd ed). ... Generations: The history of.

  4. How Self-Reliance Is Understood: Viewpoints from One Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    intervention makes it easy to see why there is less commitment to ... funding for countries where crisis' stretch government ability to respond ... National agencies such as DfID (UK), Norad (Norway), USAID (USA) and GIZ .... This case study uses a qualitative research design consistent with DiCicco- ..... Swedish International.

  5. Q Fever: An Old but Still a Poorly Understood Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Honarmand

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Q fever is a bacterial infection affecting mainly the lungs, liver, and heart. It is found around the world and is caused by the bacteria Coxiella burnetii. The bacteria affects sheep, goats, cattle, dogs, cats, birds, rodents, and ticks. Infected animals shed this bacteria in birth products, feces, milk, and urine. Humans usually get Q fever by breathing in contaminated droplets released by infected animals and drinking raw milk. People at highest risk for this infection are farmers, laboratory workers, sheep and dairy workers, and veterinarians. Chronic Q fever develops in people who have been infected for more than 6 months. It usually takes about 20 days after exposure to the bacteria for symptoms to occur. Most cases are mild, yet some severe cases have been reported. Symptoms of acute Q fever may include: chest pain with breathing, cough, fever, headache, jaundice, muscle pains, and shortness of breath. Symptoms of chronic Q fever may include chills, fatigue, night sweats, prolonged fever, and shortness of breath. Q fever is diagnosed with a blood antibody test. The main treatment for the disease is with antibiotics. For acute Q fever, doxycycline is recommended. For chronic Q fever, a combination of doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine is often used long term. Complications are cirrhosis, hepatitis, encephalitis, endocarditis, pericarditis, myocarditis, interstitial pulmonary fibrosis, meningitis, and pneumonia. People at risk should always: carefully dispose of animal products that may be infected, disinfect any contaminated areas, and thoroughly wash their hands. Pasteurizing milk can also help prevent Q fever.

  6. Emotions are understood from biological motion across remote cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Carolyn; Walker, Trent T; Memmi, Sarah; Wheatley, Thalia

    2017-04-01

    Patterns of bodily movement can be used to signal a wide variety of information, including emotional states. Are these signals reliant on culturally learned cues or are they intelligible across individuals lacking exposure to a common culture? To find out, we traveled to a remote Kreung village in Ratanakiri, Cambodia. First, we recorded Kreung portrayals of 5 emotions through bodily movement. These videos were later shown to American participants, who matched the videos with appropriate emotional labels with above chance accuracy (Study 1). The Kreung also viewed Western point-light displays of emotions. After each display, they were asked to either freely describe what was being expressed (Study 2) or choose from 5 predetermined response options (Study 3). Across these studies, Kreung participants recognized Western point-light displays of anger, fear, happiness, sadness, and pride with above chance accuracy. Kreung raters were not above chance in deciphering an American point-light display depicting love, suggesting that recognizing love may rely, at least in part, on culturally specific cues or modalities other than bodily movement. In addition, multidimensional scaling of the patterns of nonverbal behavior associated with each emotion in each culture suggested that similar patterns of nonverbal behavior are used to convey the same emotions across cultures. The considerable cross-cultural intelligibility observed across these studies suggests that the communication of emotion through movement is largely shaped by aspects of physiology and the environment shared by all humans, irrespective of differences in cultural context. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Well Researched, Yet Little Understood: Young Adults and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cothran, Donetta; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges

    2005-01-01

    The authors present two beginning studies. One investigated the teaching-style preferences of young adults, and the other looked at physical activity trends within this age group. One key to understanding young adults and physical activity is to recognize the importance of participant cognition on physical activity patterns. From this…

  8. Happiness in Economics as Understood Across Ism and Religion

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Ghafar Ismail; Nurfaradilla Haron

    2014-01-01

    The concept of happiness has been discussed long time ago by economists. Recently, it became the most related and important thing to be studied because of its impact in societies. Discussion about happiness basically interprets within two separate views. First, happiness related with economic variable, for instance, how money can create happiness. Second happiness is discussed within the context of religion. However, t...

  9. Happiness in Economics as Understood Across Ism and Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Ghafar Ismail

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of happiness has been discussed long time ago by economists. Recently, it became the most related and important thing to be studied because of its impact in societies. Discussion about happiness basically interprets within two separate views. First, happiness related with economic variable, for instance, how money can create happiness. Second happiness is discussed within the context of religion. However, the discussion did not combine both contexts, economic variable and religion, to interpret happiness. Therefore, it is important to highlight the concept of happiness in a different way such as in this article. Different cultures will have their own perspective on the determination of happiness. From just “individual perspective” of happiness, they then formed an ism through involvement of a big society from the same culture. Some isms such as hedonism and materialism are synonyms in characterizing the concept of happiness in this modern world. At the same time, the isms are actually working with the economic and non-economic indicators as elements to strengthen the ism itself. On the other hand, the concept of happiness from the perspective of religion will also be a part of discussion in this article. Therefore, this article will reveal that the meaning of happiness is different in terms of religion and ism. So, to carry out both ism and religion simultaneously in shaping a more intrinsic value of happiness is not an easy task. Furthermore, religion is always associated with spiritual value that makes it hard for some people to practice religion and their isms at the same time. Thus, this article will propose that the right interpretation of isms based on their faith in religion can contribute to the concept of genuine happiness.

  10. Prevalence of obesity: A public health problem poorly understood

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review article discusses the Dietary Guidelines for Americans in support of a total diet approach to achieving diet and health goals, especially as they relate to the obesity epidemic. However, some scientists and organizations have identified one food, food group, or nutrient as the cause of t...

  11. The bare parameters of Gribov's Langrangian are understood and determined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishari, M.

    1977-01-01

    In the context of the ''1/N Dual Unitarization'' scheme, an explicit dynamical study of the triple bare pomeron mechanism which governs the interaction term in Gribov's Lagrangian is presented. Together with the previously established bare pomeron slope and intercept, controlling respectively, the kinetic and mass terms in Gribov's Lagrangian, this work demonstrates the viability of the ''1/N Dual Unitarization'' approach for a field theory of interaction bare pomerons. (author)

  12. Learning Outcomes of 'Understanding Research' as understood by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simon Bhekumuzi

    2015-11-23

    Nov 23, 2015 ... Can Turnitin come to the rescue: From teachers' reflections? Simon Bheki Khoza ... In South Africa, however, there are very few schools that expose teachers to Turnitin in order to ... Turnitin program by John M. Barrie, when he was a graduate ... Questions. This article intended to explore and explain teach-.

  13. How Inclusive Education Is Understood by Principals of Independent Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gous, Jennifer Glenda; Eloff, Irma; Moen, Melanie Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Inclusive education has become a practice that has been adopted by many schools across the globe and most usually in first-world countries. As a whole-school system, it occurs less frequently in developing countries including South Africa which unlike many developing countries has a sound infrastructure and many excellent schools in both the state…

  14. Inclusion understood from the perspectives of children with disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy; Watkinson, E Jane

    2010-10-01

    This study explored the perspectives of children with disabilities regarding the concept of inclusion in physical activity. Participants were children (two girls, nine boys, Mage = 10 years, five months, age range: 8-12 years) with disabilities, including cerebral palsy, fine and gross motor delays, developmental coordination disorder, muscular dystrophy, nemaline myopathy, brachial plexus injury, and severe asthma. Children's perspectives on inclusion in physical activity (e.g., sports, games, and play) were explored through semistructured interviews. Interviews were digitally audio taped and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed through content analysis. Three themes emerged from the data: gaining entry to play, feeling like a legitimate participant, and having friends. These themes were associated with feeling included to varying degrees in sports, games, and play. In essence, it was the actions of others that were the prominent features identified by children that contributed to feeling more or less included in physical activity contexts. These results are discussed in relation to inclusion in physical education, recreation, and unstructured free play.

  15. On being understood: clarity and jargon in radiation protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Daniel J; Watson, Charles R

    2002-03-01

    While much of the language used to express the concepts of radiation protection works effectively, there are many ill-chosen names and phrases and much jargon that permeate our professional speech and writing. From the oxymoron "internal exposure" to the "snarl word" "decay," there is much room for improvement. This essay identifies many of the problems and suggests solutions. We examine the kinds of confusions that can result from using familiar words with unfamiliar meanings and the need for neology. We offer insights into specific and unambiguous naming of physical quantities and explore the seemingly unlimited kinds of "dose." We disaggregate exposure from irradiation following intakes, and unmask units like "gram rad per microcurie hour." We call for a definition of radiation weighting factor that doesn't result in a violation of the law of conservation of energy. We examine the subtleties of distinguishing between radiation and radioactive materials. Some words, such as "exposure," have multiple meanings, while at other times there are different words or phrases with the same meaning, such as "critical level" and "decision level" or "detection level" and "minimum detectable amount." Sometimes phrases are used whose meaning is unclear or not agreed upon, such as "lower limit of detection." Sometimes there are words that are simply not apt, such as "disintegration" applied to the emission of a subatomic particle from a nucleus.

  16. Synthesizing Quantitative Evidence for Evidence-based Nursing: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Eui Geum

    2016-06-01

    As evidence-based practice has become an important issue in healthcare settings, the educational needs for knowledge and skills for the generation and utilization of healthcare evidence are increasing. Systematic review (SR), a way of evidence generation, is a synthesis of primary scientific evidence, which summarizes the best evidence on a specific clinical question using a transparent, a priori protocol driven approach. SR methodology requires a critical appraisal of primary studies, data extraction in a reliable and repeatable way, and examination for validity of the results. SRs are considered hierarchically as the highest form of evidence as they are a systematic search, identification, and summarization of the available evidence to answer a focused clinical question with particular attention to the methodological quality of studies or the credibility of opinion and text. The purpose of this paper is to introduce an overview of the fundamental knowledge, principals and processes in SR. The focus of this paper is on SR especially for the synthesis of quantitative data from primary research studies that examines the effectiveness of healthcare interventions. To activate evidence-based nursing care in various healthcare settings, the best and available scientific evidence are essential components. This paper will include some examples to promote understandings. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Synthesizing Quantitative Evidence for Evidence-based Nursing: Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eui Geum Oh, PhD, RN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As evidence-based practice has become an important issue in healthcare settings, the educational needs for knowledge and skills for the generation and utilization of healthcare evidence are increasing. Systematic review (SR, a way of evidence generation, is a synthesis of primary scientific evidence, which summarizes the best evidence on a specific clinical question using a transparent, a priori protocol driven approach. SR methodology requires a critical appraisal of primary studies, data extraction in a reliable and repeatable way, and examination for validity of the results. SRs are considered hierarchically as the highest form of evidence as they are a systematic search, identification, and summarization of the available evidence to answer a focused clinical question with particular attention to the methodological quality of studies or the credibility of opinion and text. The purpose of this paper is to introduce an overview of the fundamental knowledge, principals and processes in SR. The focus of this paper is on SR especially for the synthesis of quantitative data from primary research studies that examines the effectiveness of healthcare interventions. To activate evidence-based nursing care in various healthcare settings, the best and available scientific evidence are essential components. This paper will include some examples to promote understandings.

  18. Common pitfalls in statistical analysis: “No evidence of effect” versus “evidence of no effect”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Priya; Pramesh, C. S.; Buyse, Marc

    2015-01-01

    This article is the first in a series exploring common pitfalls in statistical analysis in biomedical research. The power of a clinical trial is the ability to find a difference between treatments, where such a difference exists. At the end of the study, the lack of difference between treatments does not mean that the treatments can be considered equivalent. The distinction between “no evidence of effect” and “evidence of no effect” needs to be understood. PMID:25657905

  19. Finding and applying evidence during clinical rounds: the "evidence cart".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackett, D L; Straus, S E

    1998-10-21

    %) corrected a previous clinical skill, diagnostic test, or treatment. When the cart was removed, the perceived need for evidence rose sharply, but a search for it was carried out only 12% of the time (5 searches performed out of the 41 times evidence was needed). Making evidence quickly available to clinicians on a busy medical inpatient service using an evidence cart increased the extent to which evidence was sought and incorporated into patient care decisions.

  20. Recent increase in aerosol loading over the Australian arid zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, R. M.; Campbell, S. K.; Qin, Y.

    2009-10-01

    Collocated sun photometer and nephelometer measurements at Tinga Tingana in the Australian Outback over the decade 1997-2007 show a significant increase in aerosol loading following the onset of severe drought conditions in 2002. The mean mid-visible scattering coefficient obtained from nephelometer measurements over the period 2003-2007 is approximately double that recorded over the preceding 5 yr, with consistent trends in the column aerosol optical depth derived from the sun photometer. This increase is confined to the season of dust activity, particularly September to March. In contrast, background aerosol levels during May, June and July remained stable. The enhanced aerosol loadings during the latter 5 yr of the study period can be understood as a combination of dune destabilisation through loss of ephemeral vegetation and surface crust, and the changing supply of fluvial sediments to ephemeral lakes and floodplains within the Lake Eyre Basin. Major dust outbreaks are generally highly localised, although significant dust activity was observed at Tinga Tingana on 50% of days when a major event occurred elsewhere in the Lake Eyre Basin, suggesting frequent basin-wide dust mobilisation. Combined analysis of aerosol optical depth and scattering coefficient shows weak correlation between the surface and column aerosol (R2=0.24). The aerosol scale height is broadly distributed with a mode typically between 2-3 km, with clearly defined seasonal variation. Climatological analysis reveals bimodal structure in the annual cycle of aerosol optical depth, with a summer peak related to maximal dust activity, and a spring peak related to lofted fine-mode aerosol. There is evidence for an increase in near-surface aerosol during the period 2003-2007 relative to 1997-2002, consistent with an increase in dust activity. This accords with an independent finding of increasing aerosol loading over the Australian region as a whole, suggesting that rising dust activity over the Lake

  1. Evidence-based cancer imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinagare, Atul B.; Khorasani, Ramin [Dept. of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    With the advances in the field of oncology, imaging is increasingly used in the follow-up of cancer patients, leading to concerns about over-utilization. Therefore, it has become imperative to make imaging more evidence-based, efficient, cost-effective and equitable. This review explores the strategies and tools to make diagnostic imaging more evidence-based, mainly in the context of follow-up of cancer patients.

  2. Mechanical stimulation of C2C12 cells increases m-calpain expression, focal adhesion plaque protein degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Alberto; Karlsson, Anders H; Lawson, Moira Ann

    2008-01-01

    . Stimulation due to stretch- or load-induced signaling is now beginning to be understood as a factor which affects gene sequences, protein synthesis and an increase in Ca2+ influx in myocytes. Evidence of the involvement of Ca2+ -dependent activity in myoblast fusion, cell membrane and cytoskeleton component...... reorganization due to the activity of the ubiquitous proteolytic enzymes, calpains, has been reported. Whether there is a link between stretch- or load-induced signaling and calpain expression and activation is not known. Using a magnetic bead stimulation assay and C2C12 mouse myoblasts cell population, we have...... demonstrated that mechanical stimulation via laminin receptors leads to an increase in m-calpain expression, but no increase in the expression of other calpain isoforms. Our study revealed that after a short period of stimulation, m-calpain relocates into focal adhesion complexes and is followed by a breakdown...

  3. 21 CFR 314.610 - Approval based on evidence of effectiveness from studies in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... based on evidence of effectiveness from studies in animals. (a) FDA may grant marketing approval for a... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval based on evidence of effectiveness from... the effectiveness of these products only when: (1) There is a reasonably well-understood...

  4. Hazardous factories: Nigerian evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloyede, Olajide

    2005-06-01

    The past 15 years have seen an increasing governmental and corporate concern for the environment worldwide. For governments, information about the environmental performance of the industrial sector is required to inform macro-level decisions about environmental targets such as those required to meet UN directives. However, in many African, Asian, and Latin American countries, researching and reporting company environmental performance is limited. This article serves as a contribution to filling the gap by presenting evidence of physical and chemical risk in Nigerian factories. One hundred and three factories with a total of 5,021 workers were studied. One hundred and twenty physical and chemical hazards were identified and the result shows a high number of workers exposed to such hazards. The study also reveals that workers' awareness level of chemical hazards was high. Yet the danger was perceived in behavioral terms, especially by manufacturing firms, which tend to see environmental investment in an increasingly global economy as detrimental to profitability.

  5. Transient increases in methylbutenol emission following partial defoliation of Pinus ponderosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Dennis W.

    Methybutenol (MBO or 2-methyl-3-butene-2-ol) is a five-carbon alcohol produced and emitted in large amounts by many species of pine native to Western North America. Upon entering the atmosphere, MBO may engage in a series of chemical reactions which may ultimately lead to the production of tropospheric ozone which is a damaging pollutant. While the physical factors controlling MBO emission are well understood, the ecological factors controlling MBO emission have yet to be addressed. This study examines the response of MBO emission from Pinus ponderosa to herbivory simulated by needle clipping. Following defoliation early in the season, MBO emission from some plants tripled but similar increase did not occur later in the season. Anecdotal evidence suggests that the variable response of MBO emission to defoliation may have been due to the action of insect herbivores early in the season, or may have been due to phenological changes in the plants over the course of the season.

  6. Molecular and Microbial Mechanisms Increasing Soil C Storage Under Future Rates of Anthropogenic N Deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zak, Donald R. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2017-11-17

    A growing body of evidence reveals that anthropogenic N deposition can reduce the microbial decay of plant detritus and increase soil C storage across a wide range of terrestrial ecosystems. This aspect of global change has the potential to constrain the accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 in the Earth’s atmosphere, and hence slow the pace of climate warming. The molecular and microbial mechanisms underlying this biogeochemical response are not understood, and they are not a component of any coupled climate-biogeochemical model estimating ecosystem C storage, and hence, the future climate of an N-enriched Earth. Here, we report the use of genomic-enabled approaches to identify the molecular underpinnings of the microbial mechanisms leading to greater soil C storage in response to anthropogenic N deposition, thereby enabling us to better anticipate changes in soil C storage.

  7. Evidence at a glance: error matrix approach for overviewing available evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keus, Frederik; Wetterslev, Jørn; Gluud, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Clinical evidence continues to expand and is increasingly difficult to overview. We aimed at conceptualizing a visual assessment tool, i.e., a matrix for overviewing studies and their data in order to assess the clinical evidence at a glance....

  8. The role of Victorian emergency nurses in the collection and preservation of forensic evidence: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillivray, Bree

    2005-04-01

    Emergency Departments (ED) are providing care for increasing numbers of patients who present as a result of criminal or interpersonal violence and patients may be victims, suspects or perpetrators. As a result, the role of emergency nurses in the recognition, collection and preservation of forensic evidence is increasing. There is little published literature about the role and responsibilities of emergency nurses regarding the collection and preservation of evidence in the state of Victoria and this is complicated by a lack of department and organisation policy and the need for more specific educational preparation of emergency nurses in this area. While it is well accepted that the primary focus of nursing care will always be the physical and emotional care of the patient, the increasing importance of the role of emergency nurses in the recognition and collection of forensic evidence in Victoria is now being recognized and the need for education of emergency nurses in this area understood. This paper reviews the literature related to the recognition, collection and preservation, of forensic materials in EDs by emergency nurses in the state of Victoria and discusses the role of emergency nurses in Victoria in caring for patients who present as victims of violence and in whom the collection and preservation of forensic evidence is required.

  9. Reasoning about Evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douven, Igor

    Bayesians understand the notion of evidential support in terms of probability raising. Little is known about the logic of the evidential support relation, thus understood. We investigate a number of prima facie plausible candidate logical principles for the evidential support relation and show which

  10. Heavier smoking increases coffee consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørngaard, Johan H; Nordestgaard, Ask Tybjærg; Taylor, Amy E

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is evidence for a positive relationship between cigarette and coffee consumption in smokers. Cigarette smoke increases metabolism of caffeine, so this may represent a causal effect of smoking on caffeine intake. Methods: We performed Mendelian randomization analyses in the UK...... Biobank ( N  = 114 029), the Norwegian HUNT study ( N  = 56 664) and the Copenhagen General Population Study (CGPS) ( N  = 78 650). We used the rs16969968 genetic variant as a proxy for smoking heaviness in all studies and rs4410790 and rs2472297 as proxies for coffee consumption in UK Biobank and CGPS....... Analyses were conducted using linear regression and meta-analysed across studies. Results: Each additional cigarette per day consumed by current smokers was associated with higher coffee consumption (0.10 cups per day, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.17). There was weak evidence for an increase in tea consumption per...

  11. Price Increases from Online Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Michael R.; Chen, Yu-Ching

    2001-01-01

    Consumers value keeping some information about them private from potential marketers. E-commerce dramatically increases the potential for marketers to accumulate otherwise private information about potential customers. Online marketers claim that this information enables them to better market their products. Policy makers are currently drafting rules to regulate the way in which these marketers can collect, store, and share this information. However, there is little evidence yet either of con...

  12. Evidence and evidence gaps in tinnitus therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    A nearly endless number of procedures has been tried and in particular sold for the treatment of tinnitus, unfortunately they have not been evaluated appropriately in an evidence-based way. A causal therapy, omitting the tinnitus still does not exist, actually it cannot exist because of the various mechanisms of its origin. However or perhaps because of that, medical interventions appear and reappear like fashion trends that can never be proven by stable and reliable treatment success. This contribution will discuss and acknowledge all current therapeutic procedures and the existing or non-existing evidence will be assessed. Beside external evidence, the term of evidence also encompasses the internal evidence, i.e. the experience of the treating physician and the patient’s needs shall be included. While there is no evidence for nearly all direct procedures that intend modulating or stimulating either the cochlea or specific cervical regions such as the auditory cortex, there are therapeutic procedures that are acknowledged in clinical practice and have achieved at least a certain degree of evidence and generate measurable effect sizes. Those are in particular habituation therapy and psychotherapeutic measures, especially if they are combined with concrete measures for improved audio perception (hearing aids, CI, hearing therapies). PMID:28025604

  13. Food allergy: is prevalence increasing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mimi L K; Mullins, Raymond J

    2017-03-01

    It is generally accepted that the prevalence of food allergy has been increasing in recent decades, particularly in westernised countries, yet high-quality evidence that is based on challenge confirmed diagnosis of food allergy to support this assumption is lacking because of the high cost and potential risks associated with conducting food challenges in large populations. Accepting this caveat, the use of surrogate markers for diagnosis of food allergy (such as nationwide data on hospital admissions for food anaphylaxis or clinical history in combination with allergen-specific IgE (sIgE) measurement in population-based cohorts) has provided consistent evidence for increasing prevalence of food allergy at least in western countries, such as the UK, United States and Australia. Recent reports that children of East Asian or African ethnicity who are raised in a western environment (Australia and United States respectively) have an increased risk of developing food allergy compared with resident Caucasian children suggest that food allergy might also increase across Asian and African countries as their economies grow and populations adopt a more westernised lifestyle. Given that many cases of food allergy persist, mathematical principles would predict a continued increase in food allergy prevalence in the short to medium term until such time as an effective treatment is identified to allow the rate of disease resolution to be equal to or greater than the rate of new cases. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  14. Epistemologic inquiries in evidence-based medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Guyatt, Gordon H; Ashcroft, Richard E

    2009-04-01

    Since the term "evidence-based medicine" (EBM) first appeared in the scientific literature in 1991, the concept has had considerable influence in many parts of the world. Most professional societies, the public,and funding agencies have accepted EBM with remarkable enthusiasm. The concept of evidence-based practice is now applied in management, education, criminology, and social work. Yet, EBM has attracted controversy: its critics allege that EBM uses a narrow concept of evidence and a naive conception of the relationships between evidence, theory, and practice. They also contend that EBM presents itself as a radical restructuring of medical knowledge that discredits more traditional ways of knowing in medicine, largely in the interests of people with a particular investment in the enterprise of large-scale clinical trials. Because EBM proposes aspecific relationship between theory, evidence, and knowledge, its theoretical basis can be understood as an epistemological system. Undertaking epistemological inquiry is important because the adoption of a particular epistemological view defines how science is conducted. In this paper, we challenge this critical view of EBM by examining how EBM fits into broad epistemological debates within the philosophy of science. We consider how EBM relates to some classical debates regarding the nature of science and knowledge. We investigate EBM from the perspective of major epistemological theories (logical-positivism/inductivism, deductivism/falsificationism/theory-ladeness of observations, explanationism/holism, instrumentalism, underdetermination theory by evidence). We first explore the relationship between evidence and knowledge and discuss philosophical support for the main way that evidence is used in medicine: (1) in the philosophical tradition that "rational thinkers respect their evidence," we show that EBM refers to making medical decisions that are consistent with evidence, (2) as a reliable sign, symptom, or mark to

  15. The European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) increase in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raab, K.E.

    2013-01-01

    Small pelagic fish such as anchovy are of high socio-economic importance worldwide. They are known for strong fluctuations in abundance, for which the mechanisms are not always understood. European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) increased its population in the North Sea starting in

  16. "The Political Business Cycle: New Evidence from the Nixon Tapes"

    OpenAIRE

    Burton A. Abrams; James L. Butkiewicz

    2011-01-01

    Drawing from the personal tape recordings made during the presidency of Richard Nixon, we uncover and report in this paper new evidence that Nixon manipulated Arthur Burns and the Federal Reserve Bank into creating a political business cycle that helped secure Nixon’s reelection victory in 1972. Nixon understood the risks that his desired monetary policy imposed, but chose to trade longer-term economic costs to the economy for his own short-term political benefit.

  17. Ego involvement increases doping likelihood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Christopher; Kavussanu, Maria

    2018-08-01

    Achievement goal theory provides a framework to help understand how individuals behave in achievement contexts, such as sport. Evidence concerning the role of motivation in the decision to use banned performance enhancing substances (i.e., doping) is equivocal on this issue. The extant literature shows that dispositional goal orientation has been weakly and inconsistently associated with doping intention and use. It is possible that goal involvement, which describes the situational motivational state, is a stronger determinant of doping intention. Accordingly, the current study used an experimental design to examine the effects of goal involvement, manipulated using direct instructions and reflective writing, on doping likelihood in hypothetical situations in college athletes. The ego-involving goal increased doping likelihood compared to no goal and a task-involving goal. The present findings provide the first evidence that ego involvement can sway the decision to use doping to improve athletic performance.

  18. Seasonal influenza vaccination of healthcare workers: systematic review of qualitative evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo Lorenc

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most countries recommend that healthcare workers (HCWs are vaccinated seasonally against influenza in order to protect themselves and patients. However, in many cases coverage remains low. A range of strategies have been implemented to increase uptake. Qualitative evidence can help in understanding the context of interventions, including why interventions may fail to achieve the desired effect. This study aimed to synthesise evidence on HCWs’ perceptions and experiences of vaccination for seasonal influenza. Methods Systematic review of qualitative evidence. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL and included English-language studies which reported substantive qualitative data on the vaccination of HCWs for seasonal influenza. Findings were synthesised thematically. Results Twenty-five studies were included in the review. HCWs may be motivated to accept vaccination to protect themselves and their patients against infection. However, a range of beliefs may act as barriers to vaccine uptake, including concerns about side-effects, scepticism about vaccine effectiveness, and the belief that influenza is not a serious illness. HCWs value their autonomy and professional responsibility in making decisions about vaccination. The implementation of interventions to promote vaccination uptake may face barriers both from HCWs’ personal beliefs and from the relationships between management and employees within the targeted organisations. Conclusions HCWs’ vaccination behaviour needs to be understood in the context of HCWs’ relationships with each other, with management and with patients. Interventions to promote vaccination should take into account both the individual beliefs of targeted HCWs and the organisational context within which they are implemented.

  19. Requests for body computed tomography: increasing workload, increasing indications and increasing age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toms, A.P.; Cash, C.J.C.; Dixon, A.K.; Linton, S.J.

    2001-01-01

    Increasing numbers of increasingly elderly patients were being examined in our Body CT department. At the same time, some of our clinical colleagues perceived that their patients might be discriminated against on the basis of their age when allocating CT time. We therefore studied the population trends in our department over a 10-year period. The ages of patients attending the Body CT department were collected from the hospital's computer information system from 1995 to 2000 and from handwritten logbooks for the months of September 1988 and 1998. Comparison was made with population trends within the hospital and local demographic data. There has been an average increase of 11% per annum in the number of examinations performed in the Body CT unit. The average age of patients examined increased from 52.7 years in 1988 to 58.9 years in 1998. The largest increase occurred in the over 75-year population (18% rise per annum). Hospital and local demographic population profiles changed little during the same period. We are performing increasing numbers of body CT examinations on increasingly elderly patients. This is probably due to an increased willingness to investigate and treat elderly patients, rather than changes in the local population. There is no evidence of a general discriminatory policy on the basis of age. (orig.)

  20. Increased SRP reactor power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacAfee, I.M.

    1983-01-01

    Major changes in the current reactor hydraulic systems could be made to achieve a total of about 1500 MW increase of reactor power for P, K, and C reactors. The changes would be to install new, larger heat exchangers in the reactor buildings to increase heat transfer area about 24%, to increase H 2 O flow about 30% per reactor, to increase D 2 O flow 15 to 18% per reactor, and increase reactor blanket gas pressure from 5 psig to 10 psig. The increased reactor power is possible because of reduced inlet temperature of reactor coolant, increased heat removal capacity, and increased operating pressure (larger margin from boiling). The 23% reactor power increase, after adjustment for increased off-line time for reactor reloading, will provide a 15% increase of production from P, K, and C reactors. Restart of L Reactor would increase SRP production 33%

  1. LTDNA evidence on trial

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Adopting the interpretative/hermeneutical method typical of much legal scholarship, this article considers two sets of issues pertaining to LTDNA profiles as evidence in criminal proceedings. The section titled Expert Evidence as Forensic Epistemic Warrant addresses some rather large questions about the epistemic status and probative value of expert testimony in general. It sketches a theoretical model of expert evidence, highlighting five essential criteria: (1) expert competence; (2) discip...

  2. Evidence based practice readiness: A concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Jessica D; Welton, John M

    2018-01-15

    To analyse and define the concept "evidence based practice readiness" in nurses. Evidence based practice readiness is a term commonly used in health literature, but without a clear understanding of what readiness means. Concept analysis is needed to define the meaning of evidence based practice readiness. A concept analysis was conducted using Walker and Avant's method to clarify the defining attributes of evidence based practice readiness as well as antecedents and consequences. A Boolean search of PubMed and Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature was conducted and limited to those published after the year 2000. Eleven articles met the inclusion criteria for this analysis. Evidence based practice readiness incorporates personal and organisational readiness. Antecedents include the ability to recognize the need for evidence based practice, ability to access and interpret evidence based practice, and a supportive environment. The concept analysis demonstrates the complexity of the concept and its implications for nursing practice. The four pillars of evidence based practice readiness: nursing, training, equipping and leadership support are necessary to achieve evidence based practice readiness. Nurse managers are in the position to address all elements of evidence based practice readiness. Creating an environment that fosters evidence based practice can improve patient outcomes, decreased health care cost, increase nurses' job satisfaction and decrease nursing turnover. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Towards Evidence Based Usability in Health Informatics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcilly, Romaric; Peute, Linda W.; Beuscart-Zephir, Marie-Catherine; Jaspers, Monique W.

    2015-01-01

    In a Health Information Technology (HIT) regulatory context in which the usability of this technology is more and more a critical issue, there is an increasing need for evidence based usability practice. However, a clear definition of evidence based usability practice and how to achieve it is still

  4. Convergent evidence for mGluR5 in synaptic and neuroinflammatory pathways implicated in ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zantomio, Daniela; Chana, Gursharan; Laskaris, Liliana; Testa, Renee; Everall, Ian; Pantelis, Christos; Skafidas, Efstratios

    2015-05-01

    The pathogenesis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), a serious neurodevelopmental disorder, is poorly understood. We review evidence for alterations in glutamatergic signalling in the aetiology of ASD, with a focus on the metabotropic glutamate receptor-5 (mGluR5). mGluR5 signalling is important for synapse formation, neuroplasticity and long term potentiation as well as neuroprotection and has been shown to have a regulatory role in neuroinflammation. Evidence for neuroinflammation in ASD is supported by increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and increased number and activation of microglia in postmortem dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). mGlur5 signalling has also been shown to downregulate microglial activation. Therefore, we focus on mGluR5 as a potential unifying explanation for synapse alteration and neuroinflammation seen in ASD. Data from mGluR5 knockout mouse models, and syndromic and non syndromic forms of ASD are discussed in relation to how alterations in mGluR5 are associated with ASD symptoms. This review supports altered mGluR5 functioning as a convergent point in ASD pathogenesis and indicates more research is warranted into mGluR5 as a potential therapeutic target. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. What is Evidence? (editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lately, I have been pondering what we really mean when we say “evidence based practice”? In LIS, we all know the definitions that have been proposed (Booth 2000, Eldredge 2000, Crumley and Koufogiannakis 2002, and which have not ever really been challenged. But have we ever said explicitly what qualifies as evidence in this model? The underlying assumption seems to be that evidence is research, hence, we are really talking about research-based practice, but we don’t actually use that term.Higgs and Jones (2000 note that evidence is “knowledge derived from a variety of sources that has been subjected to testing and has found to be credible.” The Oxford English Dictionary states that evidence is “something serving as a proof” (OED, 2011. Neither of these definitions of evidence notes that evidence equals research; research is only one form of evidence. It certainly isn’t the only form of evidence – so what, then, constitutes evidence?Rycroff-Malone et al. (2004 state that that in order for evidence based practice to create a broader evidence base in nursing, “the external, scientific and the internal, intuitive” need to be brought together. The external, scientific is what evidence based practice has been focused on, in the form of scientific research, but Rycroff-Malone et al. note that other elements such as clinical experience, patient experience, and information from the local context also need to be considered.In library and information practice, what are the other forms of evidence we need to consider? I propose that while research evidence is of high importance to our profession and knowledge, LIS practitioners need to first of all consider local evidence. Local evidence is found in our working environment and specific to the context in which we carry out our work. It includes such things as our experiences with patrons in particular contexts, and what we observe to work in such situations, assessment of programs

  6. Hermeneutics, evidence ad judgment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Taruffo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The text analyzes several topics of the judicial process from the point of view of the important contributions offered by the hermeneutical philosophy. It deals mainly with the construction of factual narratives, the presentation of evidence and the discovery of truth made by the judge in his final judgment based upon the evidence.

  7. The Evidence Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hanne Foss; Rieper, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    The evidence movement and the idea of systematic reviews, defined as summaries of the results of already existing evaluation and research projects, have gained considerable support in recent years as many international as well as national evidence-producing organizations have been established...

  8. Teaching with Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocco, Margaret; Halvorsen, Anne-Lise; Jacobsen, Rebecca; Segall, Avner

    2017-01-01

    In this age of real and fake news, students need to be able to assess the trustworthiness of evidence. The authors' current research examines students' use of evidence in secondary social studies classrooms as students deliberate contemporary public policy issues. The authors found that students shifted their evaluations of the trustworthiness of…

  9. Observational Evidence for Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Edwin R., Jr.; Childers, Richard L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the development of the concept of atomicity and some of the many which can be used to establish its validity. Chemical evidence, evidence from crystals, Faraday's law of electrolysis, and Avogadro's number are among the areas which show how the concept originally developed from a purely philosophical idea. (JN)

  10. Increased chromosome radiosensitivity during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricoul, Michelle; Sabatier, Laure; Dutrillaux, Bernard

    1997-01-01

    It was necessary to consider the risks of exposure of pregnant women, not only in relation to the child, but also in relation to their own hypersensitivity. We have demonstrated that pregnancy increases radiosensitivity of chromosome in the mouse at the end of gestation. This is of importance since it may have implications on radioprotection of pregnant women and give experimental guidelines to the problems of hypersensitivity to drugs and cancer aggravation during pregnancy. Blood obtained from women at various times of pregnancy was exposed to ionizing radiations. By comparison to non-pregnant women, an increase in chromosome breakage was observed in metaphases from lymphocytes, after short-term culture in the presence of the serum of the same donor. Immediately after delivery, this increase in radiosensitivity disappeared. In a prospective study, serial analyses showed a very strong correlation between the amount of pregnancy hormones, progesterone in particular, and the increase in radiosensitivity. Pregnant women may have an increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation during the second half of their pregnancy. This study provides the first evidence in human that radiosensitivity may vary in relation to physiological conditions

  11. Vertical leaf mass per area gradient of mature sugar maple reflects both height-driven increases in vascular tissue and light-driven increases in palisade layer thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, Adam P; Cavaleri, Molly A

    2017-10-01

    A key trait used in canopy and ecosystem function modeling, leaf mass per area (LMA), is influenced by changes in both leaf thickness and leaf density (LMA = Thickness × Density). In tall trees, LMA is understood to increase with height through two primary mechanisms: (i) increasing palisade layer thickness (and thus leaf thickness) in response to light and/or (ii) reduced cell expansion and intercellular air space in response to hydrostatic constraints, leading to increased leaf density. Our objective was to investigate within-canopy gradients in leaf anatomical traits in order to understand environmental factors that influence leaf morphology in a sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall) forest canopy. We teased apart the effects of light and height on anatomical traits by sampling at exposed and closed canopies that had different light conditions at similar heights. As expected, palisade layer thickness responded strongly to cumulative light exposure. Mesophyll porosity, however, was weakly and negatively correlated with light and height (i.e., hydrostatic gradients). Reduced mesophyll porosity was not likely caused by limitations on cell expansion; in fact, epidermal cell width increased with height. Palisade layer thickness was better related to LMA, leaf density and leaf thickness than was mesophyll porosity. Vein diameter and fraction of vascular tissue also increased with height and LMA, density and thickness, revealing that greater investment in vascular and support tissue may be a third mechanism for increased LMA with height. Overall, decreasing mesophyll porosity with height was likely due to palisade cells expanding into the available air space and also greater investments in vascular and support tissue, rather than a reduction of cell expansion due to hydrostatic constraints. Our results provide evidence that light influences both palisade layer thickness and mesophyll porosity and indicate that hydrostatic gradients influence leaf vascular and support

  12. Evidence-Based Psychotherapy: Advantages and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Sarah C; Schwartz, Ann C; Kaslow, Nadine J

    2017-07-01

    Evidence-based psychotherapies have been shown to be efficacious and cost-effective for a wide range of psychiatric conditions. Psychiatric disorders are prevalent worldwide and associated with high rates of disease burden, as well as elevated rates of co-occurrence with medical disorders, which has led to an increased focus on the need for evidence-based psychotherapies. This chapter focuses on the current state of evidence-based psychotherapy. The strengths and challenges of evidence-based psychotherapy are discussed, as well as misperceptions regarding the approach that may discourage and limit its use. In addition, we review various factors associated with the optimal implementation and application of evidence-based psychotherapies. Lastly, suggestions are provided on ways to advance the evidence-based psychotherapy movement to become truly integrated into practice.

  13. “Triple M” Effect: A Proposed Mechanism to Explain Increased Dental Amalgam Microleakage after Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Gh.; Mortazavi, S.A.R.; Mehdizadeh, A.R.

    2018-01-01

    A large body of evidence now indicates that the amount of mercury released from dental amalgam fillings can be significantly accelerated by exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) such as common mobile phones and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Studies performed on the increased microleakage of dental amalgam restorations after exposure to RF-EMFs have further supported these findings. Although the accelerated microleakage induced by RF-EMFs is clinically significant, the entire mechanisms of this phenomenon are not clearly understood. In this paper, we introduce “Triple M” effect, a new evidence-based theory which can explain the accelerated microleakage of dental amalgam fillings after exposure to different sources of electromagnetic radiation. Based on this theory, there are saliva-filled tiny spaces between amalgam and the tooth. Exposure of the oral cavity to RF-EMFs increases the energy of these small amounts of saliva. Due to the small mass of saliva in these tiny spaces, a small amount of energy will be required for heating. Moreover, reflection of the radiofrequency radiation on the inner walls of the tiny spaces causes interference which in turn produces some “hot spots” in these spaces. Finally, formation of gas bubbles in response to increased temperature and very rapid expansion of these bubbles will accelerate the microleakage of amalgam. Experiments that confirm the validity of this theory are discussed. PMID:29732349

  14. "Triple M" Effect: A Proposed Mechanism to Explain Increased Dental Amalgam Microleakage after Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Gh; Mortazavi, S A R; Mehdizadeh, A R

    2018-03-01

    A large body of evidence now indicates that the amount of mercury released from dental amalgam fillings can be significantly accelerated by exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) such as common mobile phones and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Studies performed on the increased microleakage of dental amalgam restorations after exposure to RF-EMFs have further supported these findings. Although the accelerated microleakage induced by RF-EMFs is clinically significant, the entire mechanisms of this phenomenon are not clearly understood. In this paper, we introduce "Triple M" effect, a new evidence-based theory which can explain the accelerated microleakage of dental amalgam fillings after exposure to different sources of electromagnetic radiation. Based on this theory, there are saliva-filled tiny spaces between amalgam and the tooth. Exposure of the oral cavity to RF-EMFs increases the energy of these small amounts of saliva. Due to the small mass of saliva in these tiny spaces, a small amount of energy will be required for heating. Moreover, reflection of the radiofrequency radiation on the inner walls of the tiny spaces causes interference which in turn produces some "hot spots" in these spaces. Finally, formation of gas bubbles in response to increased temperature and very rapid expansion of these bubbles will accelerate the microleakage of amalgam. Experiments that confirm the validity of this theory are discussed.

  15. Acidosis increases the susceptibility of respiratory epithelial cells to Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Iviana M; Demirdjian, Sally; Vargas, Jennifer; Goodale, Britton C; Berwin, Brent

    2017-07-01

    Bacterial infection can lead to acidosis of the local microenvironment, which is believed to exacerbate disease pathogenesis; however, the mechanisms by which changes in pH alter disease progression are poorly understood. We test the hypothesis that acidosis enhances respiratory epithelial cell death in response to infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa Our findings support the idea that acidosis in the context of P. aeruginosa infection results in increased epithelial cell cytotoxicity due to ExoU intoxication. Importantly, enforced maintenance of neutral pH during P. aeruginosa infection demonstrates that cytotoxicity is dependent on the acidosis. Investigation of the underlying mechanisms revealed that host cell cytotoxicity correlated with increased bacterial survival during an acidic infection that was due to reduced bactericidal activity of host-derived antimicrobial peptides. These findings extend previous reports that the activities of antimicrobial peptides are pH-dependent and provide novel insights into the consequences of acidosis on infection-derived pathology. Therefore, this report provides the first evidence that physiological levels of acidosis increase the susceptibility of epithelial cells to acute Pseudomonas infection and demonstrates the benefit of maintaining pH homeostasis during a bacterial infection. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Increasing temperature reduces the coupling between available nitrogen and phosphorus in soils of Chinese grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yan; Baumann, Frank; Song, Chao; Zhang, Mi; Shi, Yue; Kühn, Peter; Scholten, Thomas; He, Jin-Sheng

    2017-03-01

    Changes in climatic conditions along geographical gradients greatly affect soil nutrient cycling processes. Yet how climate regimes such as changes in temperature influence soil nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations and their stoichiometry is not well understood. This study investigated the spatial pattern and variability of soil N and P availability as well as their coupling relationships at two soil layers (0-10 and 10-20 cm) along a 4000-km climate transect in two grassland biomes of China, the Inner Mongolian temperate grasslands and the Tibetan alpine grasslands. Our results found that in both grasslands, from cold to warm sites the amounts of soil total N, total P and available P all decreased. By contrast, the amount of available N was positively related to mean annual temperature in the Tibetan grasslands. Meanwhile, with increasing temperature ratio of available N to P significantly increased but the linear relationship between them was considerably reduced. Thus, increasing temperature may not only induce a stoichiometric shift but also loose the coupling between available N and P. This N-P decoupling under warmer conditions was more evident in the Tibetan alpine grasslands where P limitation might become more widespread relative to N as temperatures continue to rise.

  17. Evidence-Based Psychological Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Robert F

    2017-01-01

    In recent years there has been increasing emphasis on evidence-based practice in psychology (EBPP), and as is true in most health care professions, the primary focus of EBPP has been on treatment. Comparatively little attention has been devoted to applying the principles of EBPP to psychological assessment, despite the fact that assessment plays a central role in myriad domains of empirical and applied psychology (e.g., research, forensics, behavioral health, risk management, diagnosis and classification in mental health settings, documentation of neuropsychological impairment and recovery, personnel selection and placement in organizational contexts). This article outlines the central elements of evidence-based psychological assessment (EBPA), using the American Psychological Association's tripartite definition of EBPP as integration of the best available research with clinical expertise in the context of patient characteristics, culture, and preferences. After discussing strategies for conceptualizing and operationalizing evidence-based testing and evidence-based assessment, 6 core skills and 3 meta-skills that underlie proficiency in psychological assessment are described. The integration of patient characteristics, culture, and preferences is discussed in terms of the complex interaction of patient and assessor identities and values throughout the assessment process. A preliminary framework for implementing EBPA is offered, and avenues for continued refinement and growth are described.

  18. Autonomy, evidence and intuition: nurses and decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traynor, Michael; Boland, Maggie; Buus, Niels

    2010-07-01

    This paper is a report of a study conducted to examine how nurses represent professional clinical decision-making processes, and to determine what light Jamous and Peloille's 'Indeterminacy/Technicality ratio' concept can shed on these representations. Classic definitions of professional work feature autonomy of decision-making and control over the field of work. Sociologists Jamous and Peloille have described professional work as being high in 'indeterminacy' (the use of tacit judgements) relative to technicality (activity able to be codified). The rise of the evidence-based practice movement has been seen as increasing the realm of technical decision-making in healthcare, and it is relevant to analyse nurses' professional discourse and study how they respond to this increase. Three focus groups with qualified nurses attending post-qualifying courses at a London university were held in 2008. Participants were asked to talk about influences on their decision-making. The discussions were tape-recorded, transcribed and subjected to discourse analysis. Participants described their decision-making as influenced by both indeterminate and technical features. They acknowledged useful influences from both domains, but pointed to their personal 'experience' as the final arbiter of decision-making. Their accounts of decision-making created a sense of professional autonomy while at the same time protecting it against external critique. Pre- and post-registration nurse education could encourage robust discussion of the definition and roles of 'irrational' aspects of decision-making and how these might be understood as components of credible professional practice.

  19. Increasing Megadrought Risk at the Intersection of Decadal to Centennial Variability and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overpeck, J. T.; Parsons, L. A.; Loope, G. R.; Ault, T.; Cole, J. E.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.; Buckle, N.; Stevenson, S.; Fasullo, J.

    2016-12-01

    Even more than the 1930's U.S. Dust Bowl Drought, the 20th century Sahel drought stands out as the most unprecedented drought of the instrumental era, in part because it extended over multiple decades. Paleoclimatic evidence makes it clear that this Sahel drought was nonetheless not really unprecedented - droughts many decades long have occurred in sub-Saharan Africa regularly over the last several thousand years, and these constitute what is now increasingly referred to as "megadrought." Paleoclimatic evidence also makes it clear that all drought-prone semi-arid and arid regions of the globe, including southwestern North America, southeastern Australia, and the Mediterranean/Middle Eastern region likely experienced multiple such multidecadal megadroughts in recent pre-Anthropocene Earth history. In other regions of the globe, including parts of South Asia and Amazonia, short but devastating droughts of the last 50-150 years, were also eclipsed in recent Earth history by much more serious megadrought, although these megadroughts were shorter than the multidecadal droughts of Africa or SW North America. In the past, megadroughts have occurred for reasons that are increasingly well understood in terms of ocean-atmosphere dynamics that led to unusually persistent precipitation deficits. Many of these same dynamics are well simulated in state-of-the-art Earth System Models, and yet comparisons between simulated and observed paleohydroclimatic variability suggests the models generally underestimate the risk of megadrought. Paleohydroclimatic records in some cases overestimate drought persistence, but there appear to be other issues at play that need to be better understood and simulated: positive land-atmosphere feedbacks, overly energetic interannual (i.e., ENSO) modes of variability, and insufficient internal multidecadal to centennial coupled climate system variability. Taking these issues and the impact of anthropogenic climate change into account means that the

  20. Evidence synthesis software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sophie Elizabeth; Thomas, James

    2018-06-07

    It can be challenging to decide which evidence synthesis software to choose when doing a systematic review. This article discusses some of the important questions to consider in relation to the chosen method and synthesis approach. Software can support researchers in a range of ways. Here, a range of review conditions and software solutions. For example, facilitating contemporaneous collaboration across time and geographical space; in-built bias assessment tools; and line-by-line coding for qualitative textual analysis. EPPI-Reviewer is a review software for research synthesis managed by the EPPI-centre, UCL Institute of Education. EPPI-Reviewer has text mining automation technologies. Version 5 supports data sharing and re-use across the systematic review community. Open source software will soon be released. EPPI-Centre will continue to offer the software as a cloud-based service. The software is offered via a subscription with a one-month (extendible) trial available and volume discounts for 'site licences'. It is free to use for Cochrane and Campbell reviews. The next EPPI-Reviewer version is being built in collaboration with National Institute for Health and Care Excellence using 'surveillance' of newly published research to support 'living' iterative reviews. This is achieved using a combination of machine learning and traditional information retrieval technologies to identify the type of research each new publication describes and determine its relevance for a particular review, domain or guideline. While the amount of available knowledge and research is constantly increasing, the ways in which software can support the focus and relevance of data identification are also developing fast. Software advances are maximising the opportunities for the production of relevant and timely reviews. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise

  1. Situational and Generalised Conduct Problems and Later Life Outcomes: Evidence from a New Zealand Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson, David M.; Boden, Joseph M.; Horwood, L. John

    2009-01-01

    Background: There is considerable evidence suggesting that many children show conduct problems that are specific to a given context (home; school). What is less well understood is the extent to which children with situation-specific conduct problems show similar outcomes to those with generalised conduct problems. Methods: Data were gathered as…

  2. Latent interface-trap building in power VDMOSFETs: new experimental evidence and numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristic, G.F.; Jaksic, A.B.; Pejovic, M.M.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents new experimental evidence of the latent interface-trap buildup during annealing of gamma-ray irradiated power VDMOSFETs. We try to reveal the nature of this still ill-understood phenomenon by isothermal annealing, switching temperature annealing and switching bias annealing experiments. The results of numerical simulation of interface-trap kinetics during annealing are also shown. (authors)

  3. Crop diversity for yield increase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengyun Li

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional farming practices suggest that cultivation of a mixture of crop species in the same field through temporal and spatial management may be advantageous in boosting yields and preventing disease, but evidence from large-scale field testing is limited. Increasing crop diversity through intercropping addresses the problem of increasing land utilization and crop productivity. In collaboration with farmers and extension personnel, we tested intercropping of tobacco, maize, sugarcane, potato, wheat and broad bean--either by relay cropping or by mixing crop species based on differences in their heights, and practiced these patterns on 15,302 hectares in ten counties in Yunnan Province, China. The results of observation plots within these areas showed that some combinations increased crop yields for the same season between 33.2 and 84.7% and reached a land equivalent ratio (LER of between 1.31 and 1.84. This approach can be easily applied in developing countries, which is crucial in face of dwindling arable land and increasing food demand.

  4. Prior AICAR stimulation increases insulin sensitivity in mouse skeletal muscle in an AMPK-dependent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøbsted, Rasmus; Treebak, Jonas Thue; Fentz, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Acute exercise increases glucose uptake in skeletal muscle by an insulin-independent mechanism. In the period after exercise insulin sensitivity to increase glucose uptake is enhanced. The molecular mechanisms underpinning this phenomenon are poorly understood, but appear to involve an increased ...

  5. Evidence: Study Guide. Revision

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    ...) correct application of principles of military rules of evidence. This study guide is also intended to be a convenient reference for use by Navy and Marine Corps judge advocates and Coast Guard law...

  6. LTDNA Evidence on Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Roberts; Paul Roberts; Paul Roberts

    2016-01-01

    Adopting the interpretative/hermeneutical method typical of much legal scholarship, this article considers two sets of issues pertaining to LTDNA profiles as evidence in criminal proceedings. Section 1 addresses some rather large questions about the epistemic status and probative value of expert testimony in general. It sketches a theoretical model of expert evidence, highlighting five essential criteria: (1) expert competence; (2) disciplinary domain; (3) methodological validity; (4) materia...

  7. Increasing Public Expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Ben Zaed

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze and interpret the phenomenon of increased public expenditures and test explanatory theories as well as to analyze Abstract the relationship between public spending and GDP in the short and long term where you see the Wagner hypothesis that causal heading of GDP to government spending while there is a causal relationship analysis positive trending of government spending to GDP according to the Keynesian hypothesis in this study will be used descriptive analytical method to validate these hypotheses. Results in the short and long term made it clear that there is a difference in the outcome of Applied Studies where we find that each supports a relationship Wagner in the sense that the causal trending of real GDP to government spending and more precisely to increase the economic growth lead to increased aggregate demand which leads in turn increasing the need to increase government spending and to increase the resources available to the government sector to finance the increase in spending by the additional resources resulting from the economic growth while others opines opposes the existence of the relationship.

  8. LTDNA Evidence on Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Adopting the interpretative/hermeneutical method typical of much legal scholarship, this article considers two sets of issues pertaining to LTDNA profiles as evidence in criminal proceedings. The section titled Expert Evidence as Forensic Epistemic Warrant addresses some rather large questions about the epistemic status and probative value of expert testimony in general. It sketches a theoretical model of expert evidence, highlighting five essential criteria: (1) expert competence; (2) disciplinary domain; (3) methodological validity; (4) materiality; and (5) legal admissibility. This generic model of expert authority, highlighting law's fundamentally normative character, applies to all modern forms of criminal adjudication, across Europe and farther afield. The section titled LTDNA Evidence in UK Criminal Trials then examines English and Northern Irish courts' attempts to get to grips with LTDNA evidence in recent cases. Better appreciating the ways in which UK courts have addressed the challenges of LTDNA evidence may offer some insights into parallel developments in other legal systems. Appellate court rulings follow a predictable judicial logic, which might usefully be studied and reflected upon by any forensic scientist or statistician seeking to operate effectively in criminal proceedings. Whilst each legal jurisdiction has its own unique blend of jurisprudence, institutions, cultures and historical traditions, there is considerable scope for comparative analysis and cross-jurisdictional borrowing and instruction. In the spirit of promoting more nuanced and sophisticated international interdisciplinary dialogue, this article examines UK judicial approaches to LTDNA evidence and begins to elucidate their underlying institutional logic. Legal argument and broader policy debates are not confined to considerations of scientific validity, contamination risks and evidential integrity, or associated judgments of legal admissibility or exclusion. They also crucially

  9. LTDNA Evidence on Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Adopting the interpretative/hermeneutical method typical of much legal scholarship, this article considers two sets of issues pertaining to LTDNA profiles as evidence in criminal proceedings. The section titled Expert Evidence as Forensic Epistemic Warrant addresses some rather large questions about the epistemic status and probative value of expert testimony in general. It sketches a theoretical model of expert evidence, highlighting five essential criteria: (1) expert competence; (2) disciplinary domain; (3) methodological validity; (4) materiality; and (5) legal admissibility. This generic model of expert authority, highlighting law's fundamentally normative character, applies to all modern forms of criminal adjudication, across Europe and farther afield. The section titled LTDNA Evidence in UK Criminal Trials then examines English and Northern Irish courts' attempts to get to grips with LTDNA evidence in recent cases. Better appreciating the ways in which UK courts have addressed the challenges of LTDNA evidence may offer some insights into parallel developments in other legal systems. Appellate court rulings follow a predictable judicial logic, which might usefully be studied and reflected upon by any forensic scientist or statistician seeking to operate effectively in criminal proceedings. Whilst each legal jurisdiction has its own unique blend of jurisprudence, institutions, cultures and historical traditions, there is considerable scope for comparative analysis and cross-jurisdictional borrowing and instruction. In the spirit of promoting more nuanced and sophisticated international interdisciplinary dialogue, this article examines UK judicial approaches to LTDNA evidence and begins to elucidate their underlying institutional logic. Legal argument and broader policy debates are not confined to considerations of scientific validity, contamination risks and evidential integrity, or associated judgments of legal admissibility or exclusion. They also crucially

  10. Is surgical workforce diversity increasing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriole, Dorothy A; Jeffe, Donna B; Schechtman, Kenneth B

    2007-03-01

    We sought to determine the extent to which recent increases in levels of gender and racial diversity in the overall resident-physician workforce were evident among core-surgical specialty resident workforces. Chi-square tests for trend assessed the importance of changes from 1996 to 2004 in proportions of women and African Americans in the surgery-resident workforce. Surgery-resident trends were compared with overall resident workforce trends using two-tailed t-tests to compare regression slopes that quantified rates of change over time. Chi-square tests assessed differences between proportions of women and African Americans in the current overall board-certified workforce and their proportions in the surgery board-certified workforce. From 1996 to 2004, proportions of women increased in all seven surgical specialties studied. Compared with the overall trend toward increasing proportions of women in the resident workforce, the trend in one surgical specialty was larger (obstetrics/gynecology, p 0.05), and two were smaller (each p 0.05). Proportions of African Americans decreased in three specialties (each p workforce, except obstetrics/gynecology, remained lower than in the overall board-certified workforce (each p workforces have persisted since 1996 and will likely perpetuate ongoing surgery board-certified workforce disparities.

  11. Does milk increase mucus production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, Jim; McGlashan, Susan Read

    2010-04-01

    Excessive milk consumption has a long association with increased respiratory tract mucus production and asthma. Such an association cannot be explained using a conventional allergic paradigm and there is limited medical evidence showing causality. In the human colon, beta-casomorphin-7 (beta-CM-7), an exorphin derived from the breakdown of A1 milk, stimulates mucus production from gut MUC5AC glands. In the presence of inflammation similar mucus overproduction from respiratory tract MUC5AC glands characterises many respiratory tract diseases. beta-CM-7 from the blood stream could stimulate the production and secretion of mucus production from these respiratory glands. Such a hypothesis could be tested in vitro using quantitative RT-PCR to show that the addition of beta-CM-7 into an incubation medium of respiratory goblet cells elicits an increase in MUC5AC mRNA and by identifying beta-CM-7 in the blood of asthmatic patients. This association may not necessarily be simply cause and effect as the person has to be consuming A1 milk, beta-CM-7 must pass into the systemic circulation and the tissues have to be actively inflamed. These prerequisites could explain why only a subgroup of the population, who have increased respiratory tract mucus production, find that many of their symptoms, including asthma, improve on a dairy elimination diet. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Making drug policy together: reflections on evidence, engagement and participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Marcus

    2014-09-01

    This commentary considers the relationship between evidence, engagement and participation in drug policy governance. It argues that the use of various forms of evidence (for example, statistical data and service user narratives) is critical for meaningful stakeholder engagement and public participation in drug policy, as well as effective policy design and implementation. The respective roles of these different kinds of evidence in consultation processes need to be better understood. It discusses the limits of evidence, which it suggests is rarely conclusive or decisive for drug policy. This is partly because of the incompleteness of most research agendas and the lack of consensus among researchers, but also because issues in drug policy are inherently contestable, involving considerations that lie outside the competency of drug policy specialist as such. In particular, this is because they involve normative and evaluative issues that are properly political (for example, about the relative weight to be accorded to different kinds of harm and benefit). It concludes by supporting calls for a more nuanced understanding of the relationship between evidence, engagement and politics than is implicit in the term 'evidence based policy'. It also argues that we should view the inherent contestability of drug policy not as something that can or should be resolved by 'objective' evidence, but as a source of vitality and creativity in policy development and evaluation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Increasing income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Poulsen, Odile

    In recent decades most developed countries have experienced an increase in income inequality. In this paper, we use an equilibrium search framework to shed additional light on what is causing an income distribution to change. The major benefit of the model is that it can accommodate shocks...... that shocks to the employees' relative productivity, i.e., skill-biased technological change, are unlikely to have caused the increase in income inequality....

  14. Geochemical Evidence of the Seasonality, Affinity and Pigmenation of Solenopora jurassica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly E Barden

    Full Text Available Solenopora jurassica is a fossil calcareous alga that functioned as an important reef-building organism during the Palaeozoic. It is of significant palaeobiological interest due to its distinctive but poorly understood pink and white banding. Though widely accepted as an alga there is still debate over its taxonomic affinity, with recent work arguing that it should be reclassified as a chaetetid sponge. The banding is thought to be seasonal, but there is no conclusive evidence for this. Other recent work has, however demonstrated the presence of a unique organic boron-containing pink/red pigment in the pink bands of S. jurassica. We present new geochemical evidence concerning the seasonality and pigmentation of S. jurassica. Seasonal growth cycles are demonstrated by X-ray radiography, which shows differences in calcite density, and by varying δ13C composition of the bands. Temperature variation in the bands is difficult to constrain accurately due to conflicting patterns arising from Mg/Ca molar ratios and δ18O data. Fluctuating chlorine levels indicate increased salinity in the white bands, when combined with the isotope data this suggests more suggestive of marine conditions during formation of the white band and a greater freshwater component (lower chlorinity during pink band precipitation (δ18O. Increased photosynthesis is inferred within the pink bands in comparison to the white, based on δ13C. Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (Py-GCMS and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR show the presence of tetramethyl pyrrole, protein moieties and carboxylic acid groups, suggestive of the presence of the red algal pigment phycoerythrin. This is consistent with the pink colour of S. jurassica. As phycoerythrin is only known to occur in algae and cyanobacteria, and no biomarker evidence of bacteria or sponges was detected we conclude S. jurassica is most likely an alga. Pigment analysis may be a reliable classification

  15. Abrupt increases in Amazonian tree mortality due to drought–fire interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brando, Paulo Monteiro; Balch, Jennifer K.; Nepstad, Daniel C.; Morton, Douglas C.; Putz, Francis E.; Coe, Michael T.; Silvério, Divino; Macedo, Marcia N.; Davidson, Eric A.; Nóbrega, Caroline C.; Alencar, Ane; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S.

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between climate and land-use change may drive widespread degradation of Amazonian forests. High-intensity fires associated with extreme weather events could accelerate this degradation by abruptly increasing tree mortality, but this process remains poorly understood. Here we present, to our knowledge, the first field-based evidence of a tipping point in Amazon forests due to altered fire regimes. Based on results of a large-scale, long-term experiment with annual and triennial burn regimes (B1yr and B3yr, respectively) in the Amazon, we found abrupt increases in fire-induced tree mortality (226 and 462%) during a severe drought event, when fuel loads and air temperatures were substantially higher and relative humidity was lower than long-term averages. This threshold mortality response had a cascading effect, causing sharp declines in canopy cover (23 and 31%) and aboveground live biomass (12 and 30%) and favoring widespread invasion by flammable grasses across the forest edge area (80 and 63%), where fires were most intense (e.g., 220 and 820 kW⋅m−1). During the droughts of 2007 and 2010, regional forest fires burned 12 and 5% of southeastern Amazon forests, respectively, compared with Amazon forests. Future projections of vegetation responses to climate change across drier portions of the Amazon require more than simulation of global climate forcing alone and must also include interactions of extreme weather events, fire, and land-use change. PMID:24733937

  16. Evidence-Based Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Sebastian; Hartung, Thomas; Stephens, Martin

    Evidence-based toxicology (EBT) was introduced independently by two groups in 2005, in the context of toxicological risk assessment and causation as well as based on parallels between the evaluation of test methods in toxicology and evidence-based assessment of diagnostics tests in medicine. The role model of evidence-based medicine (EBM) motivated both proposals and guided the evolution of EBT, whereas especially systematic reviews and evidence quality assessment attract considerable attention in toxicology.Regarding test assessment, in the search of solutions for various problems related to validation, such as the imperfectness of the reference standard or the challenge to comprehensively evaluate tests, the field of Diagnostic Test Assessment (DTA) was identified as a potential resource. DTA being an EBM discipline, test method assessment/validation therefore became one of the main drivers spurring the development of EBT.In the context of pathway-based toxicology, EBT approaches, given their objectivity, transparency and consistency, have been proposed to be used for carrying out a (retrospective) mechanistic validation.In summary, implementation of more evidence-based approaches may provide the tools necessary to adapt the assessment/validation of toxicological test methods and testing strategies to face the challenges of toxicology in the twenty first century.

  17. Strengthening Chronic Disease Prevention Programming: The Toward Evidence-Informed Practice (TEIP) Program Evidence Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Dayna; Fortin, Rebecca; Herrera, Christine; Hanning, Rhona; Lessio, Anne; Rush, Brian

    2013-01-01

    In public health and chronic disease prevention there is increasing priority for effective use of evidence in practice. In Ontario, Canada, despite various models being advanced, public health practitioners are seeking ways to identify and apply evidence in their work in practical and meaningful ways. In a companion article, “Strengthening Chronic Disease Prevention Programming: The Toward Evidence-Informed Practice (TEIP) Program Assessment Tool,” we describe use of a tool to assess and strengthen program planning and implementation processes using 19 criteria derived from best and promising practices literature. In this article, we describe use of a complementary Program Evidence Tool to identify, synthesize, and apply a range of evidence sources to strengthen the content of chronic disease prevention programming. The Program Evidence Tool adapts tools of evidence-based medicine to the unique contexts of community-based health promotion and chronic disease prevention. Knowledge management tools and a guided dialogue process known as an Evidence Forum enable community stakeholders to make appropriate use of evidence in diverse social, political, and structural contexts. Practical guidelines and worksheets direct users through 5 steps: 1) define an evidence question, 2) develop a search strategy, 3) collect and synthesize evidence, 4) interpret and adapt evidence, and 5) implement and evaluate. We describe the Program Evidence Tool’s benefits, strengths, challenges, and what was learned from its application in 4 Ontario public health departments. The Program Evidence Tool contributes to the development and understanding of the complex use of evidence in community-based chronic disease prevention. PMID:23721788

  18. Association Between Cannabis and Psychosis: Epidemiologic Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Suzanne H; Hickman, Matthew; Zammit, Stanley

    2016-04-01

    Associations between cannabis use and psychotic outcomes are consistently reported, but establishing causality from observational designs can be problematic. We review the evidence from longitudinal studies that have examined this relationship and discuss the epidemiologic evidence for and against interpreting the findings as causal. We also review the evidence identifying groups at particularly high risk of developing psychosis from using cannabis. Overall, evidence from epidemiologic studies provides strong enough evidence to warrant a public health message that cannabis use can increase the risk of psychotic disorders. However, further studies are required to determine the magnitude of this effect, to determine the effect of different strains of cannabis on risk, and to identify high-risk groups particularly susceptible to the effects of cannabis on psychosis. We also discuss complementary epidemiologic methods that can help address these questions. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Age-associated increase in heterochromatic marks in murine and primate tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiling, Jill A; Tamamori-Adachi, Mimi; Sexton, Alec N; Jeyapalan, Jessie C; Munoz-Najar, Ursula; Peterson, Abigail L; Manivannan, Jayameenakshi; Rogers, Elizabeth S; Pchelintsev, Nikolay A; Adams, Peter D; Sedivy, John M

    2011-04-01

    Chromatin is highly dynamic and subject to extensive remodeling under many physiologic conditions. Changes in chromatin that occur during the aging process are poorly documented and understood in higher organisms, such as mammals. We developed an immunofluorescence assay to quantitatively detect, at the single cell level, changes in the nuclear content of chromatin-associated proteins. We found increased levels of the heterochromatin-associated proteins histone macro H2A (mH2A) and heterochromatin protein 1 beta (HP1β) in human fibroblasts during replicative senescence in culture, and for the first time, an age-associated increase in these heterochromatin marks in several tissues of mice and primates. Mouse lung was characterized by monophasic mH2A expression histograms at both ages, and an increase in mean staining intensity at old age. In the mouse liver, we observed increased age-associated localization of mH2A to regions of pericentromeric heterochromatin. In the skeletal muscle, we found two populations of cells with either low or high mH2A levels. This pattern of expression was similar in mouse and baboon, and showed a clear increase in the proportion of nuclei with high mH2A levels in older animals. The frequencies of cells displaying evidence of increased heterochromatinization are too high to be readily accounted for by replicative or oncogene-induced cellular senescence, and are prominently found in terminally differentiated, postmitotic tissues that are not conventionally thought to be susceptible to senescence. Our findings distinguish specific chromatin states in individual cells of mammalian tissues, and provide a foundation to investigate further the progressive epigenetic changes that occur during aging. © 2010 The Authors. Aging Cell © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  20. Exercise Ameliorates High Fat Diet Induced Cardiac Dysfunction by Increasing Interleukin 10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun eKesherwani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that a sedentary lifestyle and a high fat diet (HFD leads to cardiomyopathy. Moderate exercise ameliorates cardiac dysfunction, however underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Increased inflammation due to induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and attenuation of anti-inflammatory cytokine such as interleukin10 (IL-10 contributes to cardiac dysfunction in obese and diabetics. We hypothesized that exercise training ameliorates HFD- induced cardiac dysfunction by mitigating obesity and inflammation through upregulation of IL-10 and downregulation of TNF-α. To test this hypothesis, eight week old, female C57BL/6J mice were fed with HFD and exercised (swimming 1hr/day for 5 days/week for eight weeks. The four treatment groups: normal diet (ND, HFD, HFD + exercise (HFD + Ex and ND + Ex were analyzed for mean body weight, blood glucose level, TNF-α, IL-10, cardiac fibrosis by Masson Trichrome, and cardiac dysfunction by echocardiography. Mean body weights were increased in HFD but comparatively less in HFD + Ex. The level of TNF-α was elevated and IL-10 was downregulated in HFD but ameliorated in HFD + Ex. Cardiac fibrosis increased in HFD and was attenuated by exercise in the HFD + Ex group. The percentage ejection fraction and fractional shortening were decreased in HFD but comparatively increased in HFD + Ex. There was no difference between ND and ND + Ex for the above parameters except an increase in IL-10 level following exercise. Based on these results, we conclude that exercise mitigates HFD- induced cardiomyopathy by decreasing obesity, inducing IL-10, and reducing TNF-α in mice.

  1. Meeting increased demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Andrew

    2004-07-01

    New Zealand is a little country with a little economy but with a population that's rapidly aging. New Zealand's population is only 4.3 million people. It's GDP is only $US58.6 billion (2002). New Zealand's expenditure on health as a percentage of GDP is not out of line with that of other countries. As a nation we have been increasing expenditure on health over recent years. In 1990 we spent 7% of GDP on health. In 1995 that increased to 7.65% and is now 8.3%. However, in per capita terms our expenditure on health does not compare so well with like countries. The size of New Zealand's economy is restricting what our country spends on health. Health is already the second highest demand on the New Zealand tax dollar. The tolerance of New Zealanders would be challenged if a Government attempted to increase taxes further to meet the growing demands for expenditure on health, but at the same time the population's expectations are increasing. This is the challenging situation we face today. What lies ahead? Like all industrialized countries New Zealand is facing an aging population. The population below age 40 is decreasing, but it is increasing significantly over that age. 16% of the population is currently aged over 60. By 2051 this proportion will almost double to just over 31%. Coupled with the aging population is increased awareness and expectations, as access to options for treatment and technology becomes readily accessible to the population through such media as the internet. The extent of the impact of the aging population can be clearly represented by focusing on one specialty such as orthopaedics. The New Zealand Orthopaecic Association undertook a study in July 2003 which concluded (among other things) that as a result of the projected aging of the population, over the next 50 years: Musculo-skeletal operations will increase by over 30%. The number of hip replacements will nearly double. The incidence of osteoporosis will increase by a massive 201%. The number

  2. Pharmacovigilance: Tiens Slimming Tea Causes Increased Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... possible link between the constituents of the slimming tea and increased blood pressure and also provide evidence of other possible harmful effects that may occur with the use of the slimming tea. Keywords: Pharmacovigilance, hypertension, slimming tea. West African Journal of Pharmacology and Drug Research Vol.

  3. Evidence-Based Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Simonsen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    Systems development is replete with projects that represent substantial resource investments but result in systems that fail to meet users’ needs. Evidence-based development is an emerging idea intended to provide means for managing customer-vendor relationships and working systematically toward...... meeting customer needs. We are suggesting that the effects of the use of a system should play a prominent role in the contractual definition of IT projects and that contract fulfilment should be determined on the basis of evidence of these effects. Based on two ongoing studies of home-care management...

  4. Environmental effects of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soon, W.; Baliunas, S.L.; Robinson, A.B.; Robinson, Z.W.

    1999-01-01

    A review of the literature concerning the environmental consequences of increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide leads to the conclusion that increases during the 20th century have produced no deleterious effects upon global climate or temperature. Increased carbon dioxide has, however, markedly increased plant growth rates as inferred from numerous laboratory and field experiments. There is no clear evidence, nor unique attribution, of the global effects of anthropogenic CO 2 on climate. Meaningful integrated assessments of the environmental impacts of anthropogenic CO 2 are not yet possible because model estimates of global and regional climate changes on interannual, decadal and centennial timescales remain highly uncertain.(author)

  5. The religion of evidence-based practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigram, Tony; Gold, Christian

    2012-01-01

    This chapter begins by outlining the challenges of preparing a chapter on evidence-based practice (EBP) to underpin the use of music as a therapeutic tool in treatment, in the overall frame of music, health, and wellbeing. It then reviews the terminology of EBP and evidence-based medicine...... practice as health, education, and social services tighten their belts and the demand on their resources grows, there is increasing interest in the value of music for health and wellbeing, despite even less ‘hard’ evidence that it is effective against illness and disability....

  6. Increased urinary orosomucoid excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, M S; Iversen, K; Larsen, C T

    2009-01-01

    , impaired left ventricular function and endothelial dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of 41 patients with type 2 diabetes (17 patients with normal UOER and 24 with increased UOER) with no history of cardiovascular disease and 21 healthy...

  7. Integrated engineering increases flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Ray

    1991-01-01

    Integrated Engineering (IE) can be used to describe the best use of increasingly rare good engineering talent in an increasingly competive world. A number of organisations are now moving towards IE without any general agreement on a precise definition. The engineering division of British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) is one such organisation. This feature covers the reasoning behind the decision, and our experience to date. BNFL engineering division is responsible primarily for the provision of major facilities on BNFL operational sites. This provision includes feasibility, front end and detailed design, procurement, installation and commissioning. Task force working has been used for some of the large projects. But the future workload is expected to comprise many more smaller projects. At the same time, equipment is becoming more complex and the need for mutual understanding and appreciation between disciplines is increasing. To meet this increasing need for flexibility, BNFL has decided to move to the matrix structure of project management and functional departments described in the article. (Author)

  8. Gait as evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Larsen, Peter Kastmand

    2014-01-01

    This study examines what in Denmark may constitute evidence based on forensic anthropological gait analyses, in the sense of pointing to a match (or not) between a perpetrator and a suspect, based on video and photographic imagery. Gait and anthropometric measures can be used when direct facial...

  9. Evidence-based policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vohnsen, Nina Holm

    2013-01-01

    -makers and the research community (e.g. Boden & Epstein 2006; House of Commons 2006; Cartwright et al 2009; Rod 2010; Vohnsen 2011). This article intends to draw out some general pitfalls in the curious meeting of science and politics by focusing on a particular attempt to make evidence-based legislation in Denmark (for...

  10. Turning Evidence into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    CGH CRTA, Hillary Topazian, attended the National Cancer Institute’s 3rd Symposium on Global Cancer Research; a satellite meeting to the 6th Annual Consortium of Universities for Global Health (CUGH) Conference in Boston. The Symposium centered on the theme of implementation science, a field which studies the integration of research findings and evidence into healthcare policy and practice.

  11. Evidence of Absence software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalthorp, Daniel; Huso, Manuela M. P.; Dail, David; Kenyon, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Evidence of Absence software (EoA) is a user-friendly application used for estimating bird and bat fatalities at wind farms and designing search protocols. The software is particularly useful in addressing whether the number of fatalities has exceeded a given threshold and what search parameters are needed to give assurance that thresholds were not exceeded. The software is applicable even when zero carcasses have been found in searches. Depending on the effectiveness of the searches, such an absence of evidence of mortality may or may not be strong evidence that few fatalities occurred. Under a search protocol in which carcasses are detected with nearly 100 percent certainty, finding zero carcasses would be convincing evidence that overall mortality rate was near zero. By contrast, with a less effective search protocol with low probability of detecting a carcass, finding zero carcasses does not rule out the possibility that large numbers of animals were killed but not detected in the searches. EoA uses information about the search process and scavenging rates to estimate detection probabilities to determine a maximum credible number of fatalities, even when zero or few carcasses are observed.

  12. Fossil wood evidences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Climate has played a crucial role in assigning a different kind of topography to Rajasthan and Gujarat since the Cenozoic time. Evidently, three genera, namely, Dipterocarpus Gaert. f., Hopea Roxb. And Shorea Roxb. of the Dipterocarpaceae are described from the Neogene sediments of western India (Rajasthan and ...

  13. LTDNA Evidence on Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Roberts

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Adopting the interpretative/hermeneutical method typical of much legal scholarship, this article considers two sets of issues pertaining to LTDNA profiles as evidence in criminal proceedings. Section 1 addresses some rather large questions about the epistemic status and probative value of expert testimony in general. It sketches a theoretical model of expert evidence, highlighting five essential criteria: (1 expert competence; (2 disciplinary domain; (3 methodological validity; (4 materiality; and (5 legal admissibility. This generic model of expert authority, highlighting law’s fundamentally normative character, applies to all modern forms of criminal adjudication, across Europe and farther afield. Section 2 then examines English and Northern Irish courts’ attempts to get to grips with LTDNA evidence in recent cases. Better appreciating the ways in which UK courts have addressed the challenges of LTDNA evidence may offer some insights into parallel developments in other legal systems. Appellate court rulings follow a predictable judicial logic, which might usefully be studied and reflected upon by any forensic scientist or statistician seeking to operate effectively in criminal proceedings. Whilst each legal jurisdiction has its own unique blend of jurisprudence, institutions, cultures and historical traditions, there is considerable scope for comparative analysis and cross-jurisdictional borrowing and instruction. In the spirit of promoting more nuanced and sophisticated international interdisciplinary dialogue, this article examines UK judicial approaches to LTDNA evidence and begins to elucidate their underlying institutional logic. Legal argument and broader policy debates are not confined to considerations of scientific validity, contamination risks and evidential integrity, or associated judgments of legal admissibility or exclusion. They also crucially concern the manner in which LTDNA profiling results are presented and explained to

  14. A new perspective on delusional states: Evidence for claustrum involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Maria Patru

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Delusions are a hallmark positive symptom of schizophrenia, although they are also associated with a wide variety of other psychiatric and neurological disorders. The heterogeneity of clinical presentation and underlying disease, along with a lack of experimental animal models, make delusions exceptionally difficult to study in isolation, either in schizophrenia or other diseases. To date, no detailed studies have focused specifically on the neural mechanisms of delusion, although some studies have reported characteristic activation of specific brain areas or networks associated with them. Here we present a novel hypothesis and extant supporting evidence implicating the claustrum, a relatively poorly understood forebrain nucleus, as a potential common center for delusional states.

  15. High population increase rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    In addition to its economic and ethnic difficulties, the USSR faces several pressing demographic problems, including high population increase rates in several of its constituent republics. It has now become clear that although the country's rigid centralized planning succeeded in covering the basic needs of people, it did not lead to welfare growth. Since the 1970s, the Soviet economy has remained sluggish, which as led to increase in the death and birth rates. Furthermore, the ideology that held that demography could be entirely controlled by the country's political and economic system is contradicted by current Soviet reality, which shows that religion and ethnicity also play a significant role in demographic dynamics. Currently, Soviet republics fall under 2 categories--areas with high or low natural population increase rates. Republics with low rates consist of Christian populations (Armenia, Moldavia, Georgia, Byelorussia, Russia, Lithuania, Estonia, Latvia, Ukraine), while republics with high rates are Muslim (Tadzhikistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kirgizia, Azerbaijan Kazakhstan). The later group has natural increase rates as high as 3.3%. Although the USSR as a whole is not considered a developing country, the later group of republics fit the description of the UNFPA's priority list. Another serious demographic issue facing the USSR is its extremely high rate of abortion. This is especially true in the republics of low birth rates, where up to 60% of all pregnancies are terminated by induced abortions. Up to 1/5 of the USSR's annual health care budget is spent on clinical abortions -- money which could be better spent on the production of contraceptives. Along with the recent political and economic changes, the USSR is now eager to deal with its demographic problems.

  16. Evidence in clinical reasoning: a computational linguistics analysis of 789,712 medical case summaries 1983-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Bastian M; Campbell, Steven; Bell, Erica

    2015-03-21

    Better understanding of clinical reasoning could reduce diagnostic error linked to 8% of adverse medical events and 30% of malpractice cases. To a greater extent than the evidence-based movement, the clinical reasoning literature asserts the importance of practitioner intuition—unconscious elements of diagnostic reasoning. The study aimed to analyse the content of case report summaries in ways that explored the importance of an evidence concept, not only in relation to research literature but also intuition. The study sample comprised all 789,712 abstracts in English for case reports contained in the database PUBMED for the period 1 January 1983 to 31 December 2012. It was hypothesised that, if evidence and intuition concepts were viewed by these clinical authors as essential to understanding their case reports, they would be more likely to be found in the abstracts. Computational linguistics software was used in 1) concept mapping of 21,631,481 instances of 201 concepts, and 2) specific concept analyses examining 200 paired co-occurrences for 'evidence' and research 'literature' concepts. 'Evidence' is a fundamentally patient-centred, intuitive concept linked to less common concepts about underlying processes, suspected disease mechanisms and diagnostic hunches. In contrast, the use of research literature in clinical reasoning is linked to more common reasoning concepts about specific knowledge and descriptions or presenting features of cases. 'Literature' is by far the most dominant concept, increasing in relevance since 2003, with an overall relevance of 13% versus 5% for 'evidence' which has remained static. The fact that the least present types of reasoning concepts relate to diagnostic hunches to do with underlying processes, such as what is suspected, raises questions about whether intuitive practitioner evidence-making, found in a constellation of dynamic, process concepts, has become less important. The study adds support to the existing corpus of

  17. The many meanings of evidence: a comparative analysis of the forms and roles of evidence within three health policy processes in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Helen; Liverani, Marco; Chheng, Kannarath; Parkhurst, Justin

    2017-11-10

    Discussions within the health community routinely emphasise the importance of evidence in informing policy formulation and implementation. Much of the support for the evidence-based policy movement draws from concern that policy decisions are often based on inadequate engagement with high-quality evidence. In many such discussions, evidence is treated as differing only in quality, and assumed to improve decisions if it can only be used more. In contrast, political science scholars have described this as an overly simplistic view of the policy-making process, noting that research 'use' can mean a variety of things and relies on nuanced aspects of political systems. An approach more in recognition of how policy-making systems operate in practice can be to consider how institutions and ideas influence which pieces of evidence appear to be relevant for, and are used within, different policy processes. Drawing on in-depth interviews undertaken in 2015-2016 with key health sector stakeholders in Cambodia, we investigate the evidence perceived to be relevant to policy decisions for three contrasting health policy examples, namely tobacco control, HIV/AIDS and performance-based salary incentives. These cases allow us to examine the ways that policy-relevant evidence may differ given the framing of the issue and the broader institutional context in which evidence is considered. The three health issues show few similarities in how pieces of evidence were used in various aspects of policy-making, despite all being discussed within a broad policy environment in which evidence-based policy-making is rhetorically championed. Instead, we find that evidence use can be better understood by mapping how these health policy issues differ in terms of the issue characteristics, and also in terms of the stakeholders structurally established as having a dominant influence for each issue. Both of these have important implications for evidence use. Contrasting concerns of key stakeholders

  18. Cochrane Rapid Reviews Methods Group to play a leading role in guiding the production of informed high-quality, timely research evidence syntheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garritty, Chantelle; Stevens, Adrienne; Gartlehner, Gerald; King, Valerie; Kamel, Chris

    2016-10-28

    Policymakers and healthcare stakeholders are increasingly seeking evidence to inform the policymaking process, and often use existing or commissioned systematic reviews to inform decisions. However, the methodologies that make systematic reviews authoritative take time, typically 1 to 2 years to complete. Outside the traditional SR timeline, "rapid reviews" have emerged as an efficient tool to get evidence to decision-makers more quickly. However, the use of rapid reviews does present challenges. To date, there has been limited published empirical information about this approach to compiling evidence. Thus, it remains a poorly understood and ill-defined set of diverse methodologies with various labels. In recent years, the need to further explore rapid review methods, characteristics, and their use has been recognized by a growing network of healthcare researchers, policymakers, and organizations, several with ties to Cochrane, which is recognized as representing an international gold standard for high-quality, systematic reviews. In this commentary, we introduce the newly established Cochrane Rapid Reviews Methods Group developed to play a leading role in guiding the production of rapid reviews given they are increasingly employed as a research synthesis tool to support timely evidence-informed decision-making. We discuss how the group was formed and outline the group's structure and remit. We also discuss the need to establish a more robust evidence base for rapid reviews in the published literature, and the importance of promoting registration of rapid review protocols in an effort to promote efficiency and transparency in research. As with standard systematic reviews, the core principles of evidence-based synthesis should apply to rapid reviews in order to minimize bias to the extent possible. The Cochrane Rapid Reviews Methods Group will serve to establish a network of rapid review stakeholders and provide a forum for discussion and training. By facilitating

  19. Multiple Lines of Evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amidan, Brett G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Venzin, Alexander M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bramer, Lisa M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-03

    This paper discusses the process of identifying factors that influence the contamination level of a given decision area and then determining the likelihood that the area remains unacceptable. This process is referred to as lines of evidence. These lines of evidence then serve as inputs for the stratified compliance sampling (SCS) method, which requires a decision area to be divided into strata based upon contamination expectations. This is done in order to focus sampling efforts more within stratum where contamination is more likely and to use the domain knowledge about these likelihoods of the stratum remaining unacceptable to buy down the number of samples necessary, if possible. Two different building scenarios were considered as an example (see Table 3.1). SME expertise was elicited concerning four lines of evidence factors (see Table 3.2): 1) amount of contamination that was seen before decontamination, 2) post-decontamination air sampling information, 3) the applied decontaminant information, and 4) the surface material. Statistical experimental design and logistic regression modelling were used to help determine the likelihood that example stratum remained unacceptable for a given example scenario. The number of samples necessary for clearance was calculated by applying the SCS method to the example scenario, using the estimated likelihood of each stratum remaining unacceptable as was determined using the lines of evidence approach. The commonly used simple random sampling (SRS) method was also used to calculate the number of samples necessary for clearance for comparison purposes. The lines of evidence with SCS approach resulted in a 19% to 43% reduction in total number of samples necessary for clearance (see Table 3.6). The reduction depended upon the building scenario, as well as the level of percent clean criteria. A sensitivity analysis was also performed showing how changing the estimated likelihoods of stratum remaining unacceptable affect the number

  20. Global Increases in Individualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Henri C; Varnum, Michael E W; Grossmann, Igor

    2017-09-01

    Individualism appears to have increased over the past several decades, yet most research documenting this shift has been limited to the study of a handful of highly developed countries. Is the world becoming more individualist as a whole? If so, why? To answer these questions, we examined 51 years of data on individualist practices and values across 78 countries. Our findings suggest that individualism is indeed rising in most of the societies we tested. Despite dramatic shifts toward greater individualism around the world, however, cultural differences remain sizable. Moreover, cultural differences are primarily linked to changes in socioeconomic development, and to a lesser extent to shifts in pathogen prevalence and disaster frequency.

  1. Evidence on acne therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Sousa Costa

    Full Text Available Among the current treatments available for acne vulgaris, many widely practiced options lack support from studies at the best level of scientific evidence. The aim of this narrative review was to present the very latest information on topical and systemic treatments for acne vulgaris. Information from systematic reviews and well-designed clinical trials, obtained through a systematic search of the major medical databases, is emphasized. There are important issues regarding the clinical management of acne that still lack consistent grounding in scientific evidence. Among these are the optimum dose and duration of treatment with oral antibiotics that can be given without inducing bacterial resistance, and the safety of oral isotretinoin.

  2. ORIC Beam Energy Increase

    CERN Document Server

    Mallory, Merrit L; Dowling, Darryl; Hudson, Ed; Lord, Dick; Tatum, Alan

    2005-01-01

    The detection of and solution to a beam interference problem in the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC) extraction system has yielded a 20% increase in the proton beam energy. The beam from ORIC was designed to be extracted before the nu r equal one resonance. Most cyclotrons extract after the nu r equal one resonance, thus getting more usage of the magnetic field for energy acceleration. We have now determined that the electrostatic deflector septum interferes with the last accelerated orbit in ORIC, with the highest extraction efficiency obtained near the maximum nu r value. This nu r provides a rotation in the betatron oscillation amplitude that is about the same length as the electrostatic septum thus allowing the beam to jump over the interference problem with the septum. With a thinned septum we were able to tune the beam through the nu r equal one resonance and achieve a 20% increase in beam energy. This nu r greater than one extraction method may be desirable for very high field cyclotrons since it...

  3. Observational evidence for mergers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer, F.

    1983-01-01

    Theory has long suggested that dynamical friction between colliding galaxies must lead to mergers. The problem for observers has been to find which galaxies are mergers. The author first reviews the available evidence for mergers in various kinds of galaxies, then proposes a tentative classification scheme for mergers, and finally discusses mergers in giant ellipticals and their relation to the evolution and perhaps even the formation of ellipticals. (Auth.)

  4. Evidence informed decision making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Tarang; Choudhury, Moni; Kaur, Bindweep

    2015-01-01

    from the literature and a combined best practice checklist has been proposed. CONCLUSIONS: As decisions often need to be made in areas where there is a lack of published scientific evidence, CE is employed. Therefore to ensure its appropriateness the development of a validated CE data quality check......-list to assist decision makers is essential and further research in this area is a priority....

  5. Evidence-based management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Jeffrey; Sutton, Robert I

    2006-01-01

    For the most part, managers looking to cure their organizational ills rely on obsolete knowledge they picked up in school, long-standing but never proven traditions, patterns gleaned from experience, methods they happen to be skilled in applying, and information from vendors. They could learn a thing or two from practitioners of evidence-based medicine, a movement that has taken the medical establishment by storm over the past decade. A growing number of physicians are eschewing the usual, flawed resources and are instead identifying, disseminating, and applying research that is soundly conducted and clinically relevant. It's time for managers to do the same. The challenge is, quite simply, to ground decisions in the latest and best knowledge of what actually works. In some ways, that's more difficult to do in business than in medicine. The evidence is weaker in business; almost anyone can (and many people do) claim to be a management expert; and a motley crew of sources--Shakespeare, Billy Graham,Jack Welch, Attila the Hunare used to generate management advice. Still, it makes sense that when managers act on better logic and strong evidence, their companies will beat the competition. Like medicine, management is learned through practice and experience. Yet managers (like doctors) can practice their craft more effectively if they relentlessly seek new knowledge and insight, from both inside and outside their companies, so they can keep updating their assumptions, skills, and knowledge.

  6. EPR: Evidence and fallacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Joseph W; Bae, You Han

    2014-09-28

    The enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) of nanoparticles in tumors has long stood as one of the fundamental principles of cancer drug delivery, holding the promise of safe, simple and effective therapy. By allowing particles preferential access to tumors by virtue of size and longevity in circulation, EPR provided a neat rationale for the trend toward nano-sized drug carriers. Following the discovery of the phenomenon by Maeda in the mid-1980s, this rationale appeared to be well justified by the flood of evidence from preclinical studies and by the clinical success of Doxil. Clinical outcomes from nano-sized drug delivery systems, however, have indicated that EPR is not as reliable as previously thought. Drug carriers generally fail to provide superior efficacy to free drug systems when tested in clinical trials. A closer look reveals that EPR-dependent drug delivery is complicated by high tumor interstitial fluid pressure (IFP), irregular vascular distribution, and poor blood flow inside tumors. Furthermore, the animal tumor models used to study EPR differ from clinical tumors in several key aspects that seem to make EPR more pronounced than in human patients. On the basis of this evidence, we believe that EPR should only be invoked on a case-by-case basis, when clinical evidence suggests the tumor type is susceptible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Case histories as evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herxheimer, Andrew; Healy, David; Menkes, David B

    2012-01-01

    In courts case histories play a central part when a crime may have resulted from an effect of a prescribed drug; in civil cases where a person may have suffered damage from a drug; and in coroners' enquiries into the cause of unexplained deaths. The court must decide two important questions: 1. Can the suspected medication(s) cause this kind of effect? 2. Did it (or they) do so in this particular case? Many judges and coroners have not addressed these questions clearly and have not used expert witnesses consistently, on occasion disregarding scientific evidence. Courts need to appoint experts to explain and interpret the scientific evidence. Few judges are equipped to resolve contradictions between different experts. Brief accounts of five cases from four countries illustrate these points. The reluctance of legal processes to implicate drugs as a possible cause of violent behaviour leads to injustice. Courts must be required to obtain appropriate expert evidence, and be given independent data on which drugs can cause such behaviour.

  8. Evidence-based surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Rems

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surgery is setting a new ground by the reign of evidence that was brought up by the Evidence Based Medicine (EBM. While experiences and opinion of an expert count the least by the principles of EBM, randomized controlled trials (RCT and other comparative studies have gained their importance. Recommendations that were included in guidelines represent a demanding shift in surgeon’s professional thinking. Their thinking and classical education have not yet been completely based on the results of such studies and are still very very much master-pupil centred. Assessment of someone’s own experiences is threatened by objectivity as negative experiences get recorded in deeper memory. Randomized studies and meta-analyses do appear also in surgery. However, they demand an extra knowledge about critical assessment.Conclusions: Setting a patient to the foreground brings a surgeon’s decision to the field of EBM. The process has already begun and cannot be avoided. Decision hierarchy moves from the experience field to the evidence territory but to a lesser extent when compared to the rest of medicine. There exist objective restrictions with approving a new paradigm. However, these should not stop the process of EBM implementation. Finally, there is an ethic issue to be considered. Too slow activities in research, education and critical assessment can bring the surgeon to the position when a well-informed patient loses his/her trust.

  9. Age Differences in Self-Continuity: Converging Evidence and Directions for Future Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löckenhoff, Corinna E; Rutt, Joshua L

    2017-06-01

    Life-span development is inherently linked to the perception of time and associated temporal construals. Such concepts are multi-faceted in nature and have important practical implications in areas such as time management, financial planning, or medical choices. A large body of research has documented age-related limitations in global time horizons, but age differences in other aspects of temporal construal are comparatively poorly understood. The present article draws attention to developmental trajectories of self-continuity, defined as perceived associations of one's present self with past and future selves. After considering historical roots and contemporary views on self-continuity, we turn to the life-span developmental literature and review several convergent streams of research that provide indirect evidence for age-related increases in self-continuity. We then consider a small body of recent studies which have directly assessed age differences in self-continuity and summarize our current understanding of this phenomenon including associations between explicit and implicit measures, symmetry between past and future self-continuity, and differentiation from other aspects of time perception. We conclude by highlighting open theoretical questions and considering the practical implications of an increased sense of self-continuity with advancing age. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. INADMISSIBLE EVIDENCE IN CIVIL PROCEDURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlo Dika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the exclusion of specific means of evidence as instruments for determining the object of evidence, as well as the taking of evidence in the framework of the Croatian civil procedure law. The introduction lays the grounds for classifying and qualifying exclusion of evidence (general, special; absolute, relative; removable, irremovable; direct, indirect, after which greater attention is paid to the so called absolute and relative type; exclusionary evidence of the direct relative type pertaining to the establishing of facts, and evidence dismissals. With regard to the indirect relative type, the paper examines exclusionary evidence concerning the object of evidence. The remainder of the paper focuses on illegally obtained evidence, while outlining the constitutional, statutory, judicature and doctrinaire premises of bearing for such evidence. Subsequently, the question of evidence obtained in violation of the Constitutional guarantee of respect and legal protection of private and family life, dignity, reputation and honour, as well as evidence obtained by breach of the Constitutional guarantee of freedom and secrecy of correspondence and all other forms of communication, and in violation of the right to safety and privacy of personal data, are discussed too. In addition, the paper analyses the institutions of preclusion of evidence and the so called informative evidence. Concluding, the author points to a lacking regulation of inadmissible evidence within the Croatian civil procedure law, underlining the need to determine de lege ferenda legal requirements with a view to operationalizing inadmissible evidence within the Croatian civil procedure law.

  11. Increased expression of electron transport chain genes in uterine leiomyoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncal, Akile; Aydin, Hikmet Hakan; Askar, Niyazi; Ozkaya, Ali Burak; Ergenoglu, Ahmet Mete; Yeniel, Ahmet Ozgur; Akdemir, Ali; Ak, Handan

    2014-01-01

    The etiology and pathophysiology of uterine leiomyomas, benign smooth muscle tumors of the uterus, are not well understood. To evaluate the role of mitochondria in uterine leiomyoma, we compared electron transport gene expressions of uterine leiomyoma tissue with myometrium tissue in six uterine leiomyoma patients by RT-PCR array. Our results showed an average of 1.562 (±0.445) fold increase in nuclear-encoded electron transport genes. These results might suggest an increase in size, number, or activity of mitochondria in uterine leiomyoma that, to our knowledge, has not been previously reported. © 2014 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  12. Gas revenue increasingly significant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megill, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the wellhead prices of natural gas compared to crude oil over the past 70 years. Although natural gas prices have never reached price parity with crude oil, the relative value of a gas BTU has been increasing. It is one of the reasons that the total amount of money coming from natural gas wells is becoming more significant. From 1920 to 1955 the revenue at the wellhead for natural gas was only about 10% of the money received by producers. Most of the money needed for exploration, development, and production came from crude oil. At present, however, over 40% of the money from the upstream portion of the petroleum industry is from natural gas. As a result, in a few short years natural gas may become 50% of the money revenues generated from wellhead production facilities

  13. Increasing adolescents' depth of understanding of cross-curriculum words: an intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Sarah; Clegg, Judy; Lowe, Hilary; Stackhouse, Joy

    2017-09-01

    There is some evidence that vocabulary intervention is effective for children, although further research is needed to confirm the impact of intervention within contexts of social disadvantage. Very little is known about the effectiveness of interventions to increase adolescent knowledge of cross-curriculum words. To evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention programme designed to develop adolescents' knowledge of cross-curriculum words. Participants were 35 adolescents aged between 12 and 14 years who were at risk of educational underachievement with low scores on a range of assessments. Participants received a 10-week intervention programme in small groups, targeting 10 cross-curriculum words (e.g., 'summarize'). This was evaluated using a bespoke outcome measure (the Word Knowledge Profile). The study involved an AABA design, with a repeated baseline, delayed intervention cohort and blind assessment. Intervention included both semantic and phonological information about the target words and involved the adolescents using the words in multiple contexts. Results were promising and participants' knowledge of the targeted words significantly increased following intervention. Progress was demonstrated on the Word Knowledge Profile on the item requiring participants to define the word (for the summer intervention group only). This increase in depth of knowledge was seen on taught words but not on matched non-taught words. Cross-curriculum words are not consistently understood by adolescents at risk of low educational attainment within a low socio-economic context. A 10-week intervention programme resulted in some increases to the depth of knowledge of targeted cross-curriculum words. © 2017 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  14. Scientific progress as increasing verisimilitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niiniluoto, Ilkka

    2014-06-01

    According to the foundationalist picture, shared by many rationalists and positivist empiricists, science makes cognitive progress by accumulating justified truths. Fallibilists, who point out that complete certainty cannot be achieved in empirical science, can still argue that even successions of false theories may progress toward the truth. This proposal was supported by Karl Popper with his notion of truthlikeness or verisimilitude. Popper's own technical definition failed, but the idea that scientific progress means increasing truthlikeness can be expressed by defining degrees of truthlikeness in terms of similarities between states of affairs. This paper defends the verisimilitude approach against Alexander Bird who argues that the "semantic" definition (in terms of truth or truthlikeness alone) is not sufficient to define progress, but the "epistemic" definition referring to justification and knowledge is more adequate. Here Bird ignores the crucial distinction between real progress and estimated progress, explicated by the difference between absolute (and usually unknown) degrees of truthlikeness and their evidence-relative expected values. Further, it is argued that Bird's idea of returning to the cumulative model of growth requires an implausible trick of transforming past false theories into true ones.

  15. Propofol directly increases tau phosphorylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Whittington

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Alzheimer's disease (AD and other tauopathies, the microtubule-associated protein tau can undergo aberrant hyperphosphorylation potentially leading to the development of neurofibrillary pathology. Anesthetics have been previously shown to induce tau hyperphosphorylation through a mechanism involving hypothermia-induced inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A activity. However, the effects of propofol, a common clinically used intravenous anesthetic, on tau phosphorylation under normothermic conditions are unknown. We investigated the effects of a general anesthetic dose of propofol on levels of phosphorylated tau in the mouse hippocampus and cortex under normothermic conditions. Thirty min following the administration of propofol 250 mg/kg i.p., significant increases in tau phosphorylation were observed at the AT8, CP13, and PHF-1 phosphoepitopes in the hippocampus, as well as at AT8, PHF-1, MC6, pS262, and pS422 epitopes in the cortex. However, we did not detect somatodendritic relocalization of tau. In both brain regions, tau hyperphosphorylation persisted at the AT8 epitope 2 h following propofol, although the sedative effects of the drug were no longer evident at this time point. By 6 h following propofol, levels of phosphorylated tau at AT8 returned to control levels. An initial decrease in the activity and expression of PP2A were observed, suggesting that PP2A inhibition is at least partly responsible for the hyperphosphorylation of tau at multiple sites following 30 min of propofol exposure. We also examined tau phosphorylation in SH-SY5Y cells transfected to overexpress human tau. A 1 h exposure to a clinically relevant concentration of propofol in vitro was also associated with tau hyperphosphorylation. These findings suggest that propofol increases tau phosphorylation both in vivo and in vitro under normothermic conditions, and further studies are warranted to determine the impact of this anesthetic on the acceleration of

  16. Evidence-based librarianship: searching for the needed EBL evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldredge, J D

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the challenges of finding evidence needed to implement Evidence-Based Librarianship (EBL). Focusing first on database coverage for three health sciences librarianship journals, the article examines the information contents of different databases. Strategies are needed to search for relevant evidence in the library literature via these databases, and the problems associated with searching the grey literature of librarianship. Database coverage, plausible search strategies, and the grey literature of library science all pose challenges to finding the needed research evidence for practicing EBL. Health sciences librarians need to ensure that systems are designed that can track and provide access to needed research evidence to support Evidence-Based Librarianship (EBL).

  17. Estimates of increased black carbon emissions from electrostatic precipitators during powdered activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, Herek L

    2012-07-03

    The behavior of mercury sorbents within electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) is not well-understood, despite a decade or more of full-scale testing. Recent laboratory results suggest that powdered activated carbon exhibits somewhat different collection behavior than fly ash in an ESP and particulate filters located at the outlet of ESPs have shown evidence of powdered activated carbon penetration during full-scale tests of sorbent injection for mercury emissions control. The present analysis considers a range of assumed differential ESP collection efficiencies for powdered activated carbon as compared to fly ash. Estimated emission rates of submicrometer powdered activated carbon are compared to estimated emission rates of particulate carbon on submicrometer fly ash, each corresponding to its respective collection efficiency. To the extent that any emitted powdered activated carbon exhibits size and optical characteristics similar to black carbon, such emissions could effectively constitute an increase in black carbon emissions from coal-based stationary power generation. The results reveal that even for the low injection rates associated with chemically impregnated carbons, submicrometer particulate carbon emissions can easily double if the submicrometer fraction of the native fly ash has a low carbon content. Increasing sorbent injection rates, larger collection efficiency differentials as compared to fly ash, and decreasing sorbent particle size all lead to increases in the estimated submicrometer particulate carbon emissions.

  18. The Heparanase Inhibitor PG545 Attenuates Colon Cancer Initiation and Growth, Associating with Increased p21 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Singh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Heparanase activity is highly implicated in cellular invasion and tumor metastasis, a consequence of cleavage of heparan sulfate and remodeling of the extracellular matrix underlying epithelial and endothelial cells. Heparanase expression is rare in normal epithelia, but is often induced in tumors, associated with increased tumor metastasis and poor prognosis. In addition, heparanase induction promotes tumor growth, but the molecular mechanism that underlines tumor expansion by heparanase is still incompletely understood. Here, we provide evidence that heparanase down regulates the expression of p21 (WAF1/CIP1, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that attenuates the cell cycle. Notably, a reciprocal effect was noted for PG545, a potent heparanase inhibitor. This compound efficiently reduced cell proliferation, colony formation, and tumor xenograft growth, associating with a marked increase in p21 expression. Utilizing the APC Min+/− mouse model, we show that heparanase expression and activity are increased in small bowel polyps, whereas polyp initiation and growth were significantly inhibited by PG545, again accompanied by a prominent induction of p21 levels. Down-regulation of p21 expression adds a novel feature for the emerging pro-tumorigenic properties of heparanase, while the potent p21 induction and anti-tumor effect of PG545 lends optimism that it would prove an efficacious therapeutic in colon carcinoma patients.

  19. Aluminum-induced dreierketten chain cross-links increase the mechanical properties of nanocrystalline calcium aluminosilicate hydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Guoqing; Myers, Rupert J.; Li, Jiaqi; Maboudian, Roya; Carraro, Carlo; Shapiro, David A.; Monteiro, Paulo J. M.

    2017-03-01

    The incorporation of Al and increased curing temperature promotes the crystallization and cross-linking of calcium (alumino)silicate hydrate (C-(A-)S-H), which is the primary binding phase in most contemporary concrete materials. However, the influence of Al-induced structural changes on the mechanical properties at atomistic scale is not well understood. Herein, synchrotron radiation-based high-pressure X-ray diffraction is used to quantify the influence of dreierketten chain cross-linking on the anisotropic mechanical behavior of C-(A-)S-H. We show that the ab-planar stiffness is independent of dreierketten chain defects, e.g. vacancies in bridging tetrahedra sites and Al for Si substitution. The c-axis of non-cross-linked C-(A-)S-H is more deformable due to the softer interlayer opening but stiffens with decreased spacing and/or increased zeolitic water and Ca2+ of the interlayer. Dreierketten chain cross-links act as ‘columns’ to resist compression, thus increasing the bulk modulus of C-(A-)S-H. We provide the first experimental evidence on the influence of the Al-induced atomistic configurational change on the mechanical properties of C-(A-)S-H. Our work advances the fundamental knowledge of C-(A-)S-H on the lowest level of its hierarchical structure, and thus can impact the way that innovative C-(A-)S-H-based cementitious materials are developed using a ‘bottom-up’ approach.

  20. Evidence that NMDA-dependent limbic neural plasticity in the right hemisphere mediates pharmacological stressor (FG-7142)-induced lasting increases in anxiety-like behavior: study 3--the effects on amygdala efferent physiology of block of NMDA receptors prior to injection of FG-7142 and its relationship to behavioral change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamec, R E

    1998-01-01

    The findings of this study support the hypothesis that N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors mediate the initiation of long-term potentiation (LTP) and behavioral changes induced by the anxiogenic beta-carboline, FG-7142. Unlike previous work, this study examined the effects of FG-7142 on LTP of amygdala efferents in both hemispheres. 7-amino-phosphono-heptanoic acid (AP7), a competitive NMDA receptor blocker, given prior to administration of FG-7142, prevented LTP in amygdala efferent transmission to the medial hypothalamus and periacqueductal gray (PAG). When given FG-7142 alone, cats showed lasting behavioral changes accompanied by LTP in all pathways studied. Duration of LTP, and its relationship to behavioral change, depended on the pathway and the hemisphere of the pathway. Correlation and covariance analyses indicate that LTP in the left amygdalo-ventromedial hypothalamic pathway mediates initiation, but not maintenance, of increased defensiveness. This finding replicates previous work. A new finding is that increased local excitability in the right basal amygdala (reduced threshold for evoked response), and LTP in the right amygdalo-PAG pathway, may be important for maintenance of increases in defensive behavior. Furthermore, the effects of flumazenil, a benzodiazepine receptor antagonist, on behavior and physiology single out the importance of right amygdalo-PAG LTP as a critical mediator of increased defensiveness. Flumazenil reversed the increase in defensiveness produced by FG-7142 in a drug-dependent manner as described in Adamec (1998a). Moreover, flumazenil reversed LTP only in the right amygdalo-PAG pathway. The findings of the present study suggest that response to FG-7142 may be a useful model of the effects of traumatic stressors on limbic system function in anxiety, especially in view of the recent data in humans implicating right hemispheric function in persisting negative affective states.

  1. K0 finding efficiencies in increasing luminosities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassard, J.F.; Margetides S.

    1993-01-01

    In early LHC running it is anticipated that experiments will obtain luminosities of 10 32 cm -2 sec -1 , during which typically only one interaction per event will be obtained. But at higher luminosities, necessary for any Higgs and myriad other searches, experiments will have to deal with up to 50 distinct primary processes. Most will be minimum bias, and easily distinguished in terms of trigger. They can still, of course, confuse analysis of high P T events. When it comes to B events, the confusion even from minimum bias events becomes more acute, since B events are not open-quotes high P T close quotes in this environment. The need for vertex discrimination, particularly in z, is well understood; however, a collateral effect - the increasing difficulty in finding tracks at all - has received little attention. The authors show the distribution of the K 0 in the Pythia process B → J/ψK 0 in the space γ vs. η. Confusion in reconstructing the K 0 is acute for many reasons, not the least of which is the way their pions are boosted forward, and even out of acceptance. Extra luminosity merely increases the problems in finding K 0 's, so it must not be assumed that 10 33 cm -2 sec -1 is ten times better than 10 32 cm -2 sec -1

  2. The way I understood it, it wasn’t meant to be understood – when 6th grade reads Franz Kafka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Martin Blok

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, literacy problematics and different concepts (Cooperative Learning, Learning Styles) have taken up much of the school’s literature teaching. It has pushed discussions of the professional content into the background. This article takes up the content discussion for renewed debate......, but now also with the aim of discussing the literary texts one can present to children in school. The research questions posed are: Which texts can justifiably be presented to children as part of teaching in school? What will happen if 10 to 12-year-old Danish school pupils are presented with classical...... starting point in three concepts rooted in theory, i.e. unpredictability, defamiliarization and entitlement, which are subsequently used to get to grips with the empirical part of the study. The article does not attempt to depict a hard-and-fast picture of all children being equally enthusiastic about...

  3. Increasing paternal responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutright, P

    1985-01-01

    Increasing numbers of fathers of children born out of wedlock are not contributing to these children's economic support. In 1981, a tiny minority (14%) of the 1.7 million never-married mothers living with a child with an absent father had a child-support award, and of these, just 112,000 actually received some payment in 1981. The high rates of noncompliance, and the low level of legal efforts to enforce child support, are the result of attempts to collect payments through inefficient traditional methods, not the inability of fathers to pay, a Wisconsin study has shown. A basic problem with collecting child support under the present system is that it relies on fathers to control their expenditures and voluntarily to send the payment on a weekly, biweekly or monthly basis, year after year. As a Wisconsin study shows, full compliance with court-ordered payments dropped from 38% in the 1st year to below 20% by the 5th year among 163 ex-husbands tracked. A proposal by researchers at the University of Wisconsin's Institute for Research on Poverty calls for an "absent-parent tax." The Wisconsin Plan, as it is known, is simply a withholding tax based on the father's gross income and the number of his absent children. If his income falls below a certain level, payments will stop automatically, but will resume if and when it rises above the cutoff point. The Wisconsin plan removes all judicial discretion and lawyer's skill as factors in child-support awards, thus eliminating erratic awards. It also insures that support payments will be maintained during periods of conflict between the father and mother. However, before the Wisconsin Plan can effectively protect children both out of wedlock, a feature needs to be added that will establish paternity at birth. Imposing a real child-support obligation on fathers of children born outside of marriage will introduce a potentially powerful economic incentive for responsible male reproductive and parental behavior.

  4. Increasing power and taking a lead - What are practitioners really doing? Empirical evidence from European communications managers/Incrementar el poder y asumir el liderazgo - ¿Qué hacen realmente los profesionales? Evidencias empíricas sobre los gestores de comunicación en Europa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángeles Moreno

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the paper and presented research are to monitor trends in communication management and to evaluate specific topics that include decision-making style, leadership style, role enactment and the power of communication departments in Europe. This paper is based on data from the European Communication Monitor (ECM annual research, the most comprehensive analysis of communication management worldwide. The ECM is an annual research project conducted since 2007. The ECM 2011 collected quantitative data through an on-line survey from 2,209 participating professionals from 43 European countries, with representation of every European region. This paper presents original connections about previous theory and offers empirical evidences about vertical and horizontal power of communication departments into organizations. On despite of the limitations of a self-reported survey, these evidences open new directions or research on hierarchical and social dimensions of power. The aim of this paper is to deepen the understanding of the power of communication management in organizations. Concretely, the paper aims to develop knowledge and understanding about horizontal and vertical power and the relationships established between these dimensions of power and strategic roles, decision making and leadership styles that communicators play. The paper presents original ideas by critiquing and re-focussing the literature and theory of power and leadership in organizations. The paper also presents new empirical data to support these arguments. // Las meta de este artículo y de la investigación que en él se presenta es hacer un seguimiento de las tendencias en gestión de comunicación mediante la evaluación de los estilos toma de decisiones, el estilo de liderazgo, los roles representados y el poder de los departamentos de comunicación en Europa. Este artículo se basa en datos del European Communication Monitor (ECM, el análisis más amplio de la gesti

  5. Evidence for homosexuality gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pool, R.

    1993-07-16

    A genetic analysis of 40 pairs of homosexual brothers has uncovered a region on the X chromosome that appears to contain a gene or genes for homosexuality. When analyzing the pedigrees of homosexual males, the researcheres found evidence that the trait has a higher likelihood of being passed through maternal genes. This led them to search the X chromosome for genes predisposing to homosexuality. The researchers examined the X chromosomes of pairs of homosexual brothers for regions of DNA that most or all had in common. Of the 40 sets of brothers, 33 shared a set of five markers in the q28 region of the long arm of the X chromosome. The linkage has a LOD score of 4.0, which translates into a 99.5% certainty that there is a gene or genes in this area that predispose males to homosexuality. The chief researcher warns, however, that this one site cannot explain all instances of homosexuality, since there were some cases where the trait seemed to be passed paternally. And even among those brothers where there was no evidence that the trait was passed paternally, seven sets of brothers did not share the Xq28 markers. It seems likely that homosexuality arises from a variety of causes.

  6. Are increases in cigarette taxation regressive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borren, P; Sutton, M

    1992-12-01

    Using the latest published data from Tobacco Advisory Council surveys, this paper re-evaluates the question of whether or not increases in cigarette taxation are regressive in the United Kingdom. The extended data set shows no evidence of increasing price-elasticity by social class as found in a major previous study. To the contrary, there appears to be no clear pattern in the price responsiveness of smoking behaviour across different social classes. Increases in cigarette taxation, while reducing smoking levels in all groups, fall most heavily on men and women in the lowest social class. Men and women in social class five can expect to pay eight and eleven times more of a tax increase respectively, than their social class one counterparts. Taken as a proportion of relative incomes, the regressive nature of increases in cigarette taxation is even more pronounced.

  7. Wind increases leaf water use efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schymanski, Stanislaus J; Or, Dani

    2016-07-01

    A widespread perception is that, with increasing wind speed, transpiration from plant leaves increases. However, evidence suggests that increasing wind speed enhances carbon dioxide (CO2 ) uptake while reducing transpiration because of more efficient convective cooling (under high solar radiation loads). We provide theoretical and experimental evidence that leaf water use efficiency (WUE, carbon uptake per water transpired) commonly increases with increasing wind speed, thus improving plants' ability to conserve water during photosynthesis. Our leaf-scale analysis suggests that the observed global decrease in near-surface wind speeds could have reduced WUE at a magnitude similar to the increase in WUE attributed to global rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, there is indication that the effect of long-term trends in wind speed on leaf gas exchange may be compensated for by the concurrent reduction in mean leaf sizes. These unintuitive feedbacks between wind, leaf size and water use efficiency call for re-evaluation of the role of wind in plant water relations and potential re-interpretation of temporal and geographic trends in leaf sizes. © 2015 The Authors. Plant, Cell & Environment published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Evidence that NMDA-dependent limbic neural plasticity in the right hemisphere mediates pharmacological stressor (FG-7142)-induced lasting increases in anxiety-like behavior. Study 2--The effects on behavior of block of NMDA receptors prior to injection of FG-7142.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamec, R E

    1998-01-01

    The hypothesis that N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors mediate initiation of lasting behavioral changes induced by the anxiogenic beta-carboline, FG-7142, was supported in this study. Behavioral changes normally induced by FG-7142 were blocked when the competitive NMDA receptor blocker, 7-amino-phosphono-heptanoic acid, was given prior to administration of FG-7142. When cats were subsequently given FG-7142 alone, the drug produced lasting behavioral changes like those reported previously. Flumazenil, a benzodiazepine receptor antagonist, reversed an increase in defensiveness produced by FG-7142 alone, replicating previous findings. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that NMDA-dependent long-term potentiation in limbic pathways subserving defensive response to threat mediates lasting increases in defensiveness produced by FG-7142.

  9. Increasing Incidence of Infants with Low Birth Weight in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M. Mazharul

    2015-01-01

    This review article provides an overview of the levels, trends and some possible explanations for the increasing rate of low birth weight (LBW) infants in Oman. LBW data from national health surveys in Oman, and published reports from Oman’s Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization were collected and assessed between January and August 2014. Oman’s LBW rate has been increasing since the 1980s. It was approximately 4% in 1980 and had nearly doubled (8.1%) by 2000. Since then, it has shown a slow but steady rise, reaching 10% in recent times. High rates of consanguinity, premature births, number of increased pregnancies at an older maternal age and changing lifestyles are some important factors related to the increasing rate of LBW in Oman. The underlying causes of this increase need to be understood and addressed in obstetric policies and practices in order to reduce the rate of LBW in Oman. PMID:26052449

  10. Increasing Incidence of Infants with Low Birth Weight in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mazharul Islam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This review article provides an overview of the levels, trends and some possible explanations for the increasing rate of low birth weight (LBW infants in Oman. LBW data from national health surveys in Oman, and published reports from Oman’s Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization were collected and assessed between January and August 2014. Oman’s LBW rate has been increasing since the 1980s. It was approximately 4% in 1980 and had nearly doubled (8.1% by 2000. Since then, it has shown a slow but steady rise, reaching 10% in recent times. High rates of consanguinity, premature births, number of increased pregnancies at an older maternal age and changing lifestyles are some important factors related to the increasing rate of LBW in Oman. The underlying causes of this increase need to be understood and addressed in obstetric policies and practices in order to reduce the rate of LBW in Oman.

  11. Getting to Scale: Evidence, Professionalism, and Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence-based reform, in which proven programs are scaled up to reach many students, is playing an increasing role in American education. This article summarizes articles in this issue to explain how Reading Recovery has managed to sustain itself and go to scale over more than 30 years. It argues that Reading Recovery has succeeded due to a focus…

  12. Justifying Physical Education Based on Neuroscience Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Kris

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that exercise improves cognitive function and psychological traits that influence behavior (e.g., mood, level of motivation). The evidence in the literature also shows that physical education may enhance learning or that academic performance is at least maintained despite a reduction in classroom time in order to increase time…

  13. A systematic analysis of misleading evidence in unsafe rulings in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Nadine M; Morgan, Ruth M; Lagnado, David A

    2018-03-01

    Evidence has the potential to be misleading if its value when expressing beliefs in hypotheses is not fully understood or presented. Although the knowledge base to understand uncertainties is growing, a challenge remains to prioritise research and to continuously assess the magnitude and consequences of misleading evidence in criminal cases. This study used a systematic content analysis to identify misleading evidence, drawing information from case transcripts of rulings argued unsafe by the Court of Appeal of England and Wales. In the 7-year study period, 218 applications were successful on appeal, containing 235 cases of misleading evidence. The majority (76%) of successful appeals were based upon the same materials available in the original trial, rather than the presentation of new relevant information. Witness (39%), forensic (32%), and character evidence (19%) were the most commonly observed evidence types, with the validity of witnesses (26%), probative value of forensic evidence (12%), and relevance of character evidence (10%) being the most prevalent combinations of identified issues. Additionally, the majority (66%) of misleading evidence types relate to their interpretation at activity level. The findings suggest that many of these misleading aspects could have been prevented by providing more transparency in the relationship between evidence and hypotheses. Generally, the results contribute to gaining a more complete picture of the role of misleading evidence in the criminal justice system. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Increased Incidence of Critical Illness in Psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrie, Ruth Ann; Bernstein, Charles N; Peschken, Christine A; Hitchon, Carol A; Chen, Hui; Garland, Allan

    Psoriasis is associated with an increased risk of comorbid disease. Despite the recognition of increased morbidity in psoriasis, the effects on health care utilisation remain incompletely understood. Little is known about the risk of intensive care unit (ICU) admission in persons with psoriasis. To compare the incidence of ICU admission and post-ICU mortality rates in a psoriasis population compared with a matched population without psoriasis. Using population-based administrative data from Manitoba, Canada, we identified 40 930 prevalent cases of psoriasis and an age-, sex-, and geographically matched cohort from the general population (n = 150 210). We compared the incidence of ICU admission between populations using incidence rates and Cox regression models adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, and comorbidity and compared mortality after ICU admission. Among incident psoriasis cases (n = 30 150), the cumulative 10-year incidence of ICU admission was 5.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.3%-5.8%), 21% higher than in the matched cohort (incidence rate ratio, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.15-1.27). In the prevalent psoriasis cohort, crude mortality in the ICU was 11.5% (95% CI, 9.9%-13.0%), 32% higher than observed in the matched population admitted to the ICU (8.7%; 95% CI, 8.3%-9.1%). Mortality rates after ICU admission remained elevated at all time points in the psoriasis cohort compared with the matched cohort. Psoriasis is associated with an increased risk for ICU admission and with an increased risk of mortality post-ICU admission.

  15. Aspirin increases mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uppala, Radha; Dudiak, Brianne; Beck, Megan E.; Bharathi, Sivakama S.; Zhang, Yuxun; Stolz, Donna B.; Goetzman, Eric S.

    2017-01-01

    The metabolic effects of salicylates are poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of aspirin on fatty acid oxidation. Aspirin increased mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation, but inhibited peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, in two different cell lines. Aspirin increased mitochondrial protein acetylation and was found to be a stronger acetylating agent in vitro than acetyl-CoA. However, aspirin-induced acetylation did not alter the activity of fatty acid oxidation proteins, and knocking out the mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 did not affect the induction of long-chain fatty acid oxidation by aspirin. Aspirin did not change oxidation of medium-chain fatty acids, which can freely traverse the mitochondrial membrane. Together, these data indicate that aspirin does not directly alter mitochondrial matrix fatty acid oxidation enzymes, but most likely exerts its effects at the level of long-chain fatty acid transport into mitochondria. The drive on mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation may be a compensatory response to altered mitochondrial morphology and inhibited electron transport chain function, both of which were observed after 24 h incubation of cells with aspirin. These studies provide insight into the pathophysiology of Reye Syndrome, which is known to be triggered by aspirin ingestion in patients with fatty acid oxidation disorders. - Highlights: • Aspirin increases mitochondrial—but inhibits peroxisomal—fatty acid oxidation. • Aspirin acetylates mitochondrial proteins including fatty acid oxidation enzymes. • SIRT3 does not influence the effect of aspirin on fatty acid oxidation. • Increased fatty acid oxidation is likely due to altered mitochondrial morphology and respiration.

  16. Abortion and mental health: Evaluating the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Brenda; Appelbaum, Mark; Beckman, Linda; Dutton, Mary Ann; Russo, Nancy Felipe; West, Carolyn

    2009-12-01

    The authors evaluated empirical research addressing the relationship between induced abortion and women's mental health. Two issues were addressed: (a) the relative risks associated with abortion compared with the risks associated with its alternatives and (b) sources of variability in women's responses following abortion. This article reflects and updates the report of the American Psychological Association Task Force on Mental Health and Abortion (2008). Major methodological problems pervaded most of the research reviewed. The most rigorous studies indicated that within the United States, the relative risk of mental health problems among adult women who have a single, legal, first-trimester abortion of an unwanted pregnancy is no greater than the risk among women who deliver an unwanted pregnancy. Evidence did not support the claim that observed associations between abortion and mental health problems are caused by abortion per se as opposed to other preexisting and co-occurring risk factors. Most adult women who terminate a pregnancy do not experience mental health problems. Some women do, however. It is important that women's varied experiences of abortion be recognized, validated, and understood. 2009 APA.

  17. Evidence-based surgery: knowledge, attitudes, and perceived barriers among surgical trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Rohin; Perakath, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the knowledge and attitude of surgical trainees toward evidence-based medicine (EBM) and their perceived barriers to its practice. The McColl questionnaire and the BARRIERS scale were modified and incorporated into a single questionnaire, which was administered to all surgical trainees attending a Continuing Surgical Education meeting. Department of Surgery, Christian Medical College, Vellore, India. One hundred ten surgical trainees from 22 medical colleges. In all, 84.5% (93/110) trainees returned the questionnaire. The attitudes toward EBM were welcoming, although individual participants reported they welcomed EBM more than their colleagues did. Participants agreed that EBM was useful in everyday practice and that it improved patient care. About 50% of actual practice was considered evidence based. In all, 12.6% (10/89) of participants had received formal training in EBM, and 64.3% (54/84) of participants were aware of the Cochrane database of systemic reviews, but only 35.7% (30/84) read it regularly. Also, 67.8% (61/90) of respondents used protocols and guidelines developed by colleagues. However, 61.5% (56/91) of participants were interested in learning the skills of EBM. The terms absolute risk, relative risk, and clinical effectiveness were understood by >80% of respondents, whereas publication bias, confidence interval, and heterogeneity were poorly understood. The major barriers to practice of EBM were the inability to understand statistical analysis, inadequate facilities for implementation, lack of a single compiled source of literature, relevant literature not being readily available, and insufficient time on the job. Surgical trainees have a positive attitude towards EBM and have some familiarity with the common terms used in EBM. There is a need to increase awareness of, and provide access to, available sources of medical literature. Formal training in EBM, as well as basic statistical analysis, should form a part

  18. Evidence based communication for health promotion: Indian lessons of last decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, K

    2011-01-01

    Good health promotion programs which help achieve public health goals are derived from using a mix of epidemiological and social and behavioral science research information. Social data informed by behavioral theories provides a lens of understanding how recommended behaviors are adopted by different individuals within the population over a period of time. In addition to social and epidemiological data, evidence based and scientifically planned and monitored strategic communication interventions have to be linked to available service components of the program. Communication is increasingly understood as an enabler of individual and social level change to achieve established developmental goals including health. Democratization movements and the advent of the internet have changed the environment around any program communication from top-down, expert-to-consumer (vertical) communication towards non-hierarchical, dialogue-based (horizontal) communication, through which the public increasingly questions recommendations of experts and public institutions on the basis of their own, often web based, research. The amount of information available has increased greatly, including scientifically valid data and evidence-based recommendations alongside poor quality data, personal opinions, and misinformation. Evidence-based approaches include engagement with and listening to stakeholders, and being transparent about decision making, and honest and open about uncertainty and risks. Decision and policy makers cannot assume what the public wants without undertaking social science and decision science research. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative and Integrated Disease Surveillance Projects (IDSP) in India haves shown that monitoring of public concerns needs to be continuous and responsive, and hand in hand with the monitoring of technical strategies and appropriate Information Technology support for, not only data transmission but also for videoconferencing and community

  19. Evidence on Inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyssegaard, Camilla Brørup; Larsen, Michael Søgaard

    The purpose of this publication is to examine existing research on inclusion to identify strategies of inclusion that have generated positive effects. To do so it is necessary to understand the effect of the applied strategies. One approach, which is being discussed, is to use evidence to determine...... which methods have proven more effective than others. The desire to gain insight into research on inclusion forms the basis of the current systematic review. The task was to determine which strategies primary research has found to be most effective for inclusion purposes. We have solved this task...... by addressing the existing research with the following question: What is the effect of including children with special needs in mainstream teaching in basic school, and which of the applied educational methods have proved to have a positive effect?...

  20. Evidence for robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Ravikiran; Nathwani, Dinesh

    2017-01-01

    Robots have been successfully used in commercial industry and have enabled humans to perform tasks which are repetitive, dangerous and requiring extreme force. Their role has evolved and now includes many aspects of surgery to improve safety and precision. Orthopaedic surgery is largely performed on bones which are rigid immobile structures which can easily be performed by robots with great precision. Robots have been designed for use in orthopaedic surgery including joint arthroplasty and spine surgery. Experimental studies have been published evaluating the role of robots in arthroscopy and trauma surgery. In this article, we will review the incorporation of robots in orthopaedic surgery looking into the evidence in their use. © The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  1. Promoting evidence-based practice in pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toklu, Hale Zerrin

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine aims to optimize decision-making by using evidence from well-designed and conducted research. The concept of reliable evidence is essential, since the number of electronic information resources is increasing in parallel to the increasing number and type of drugs on the market. The decision-making process is a complex and requires an extensive evaluation as well as the interpretation of the data obtained. Different sources provide different levels of evidence for decision-making. Not all the data have the same value as the evidence. Rational use of medicine requires that the patients receive "medicines appropriate to their clinical needs, in doses that meet their own individual requirements, for an adequate period of time, and at the lowest cost to them and their community." Pharmacists have a crucial role in the health system to maintain the rational use of medicine and provide pharmaceutical care to patients, because they are the drug experts who are academically trained for this purpose. The rational use of the pharmacist's workforce will improve the outcome of pharmacotherapy as well as decreasing the global health costs.

  2. Promoting evidence-based practice in pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toklu HZ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hale Zerrin Toklu Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA Abstract: Evidence-based medicine aims to optimize decision-making by using evidence from well-designed and conducted research. The concept of reliable evidence is essential, since the number of electronic information resources is increasing in parallel to the increasing number and type of drugs on the market. The decision-making process is a complex and requires an extensive evaluation as well as the interpretation of the data obtained. Different sources provide different levels of evidence for decision-making. Not all the data have the same value as the evidence. Rational use of medicine requires that the patients receive “medicines appropriate to their clinical needs, in doses that meet their own individual requirements, for an adequate period of time, and at the lowest cost to them and their community.” Pharmacists have a crucial role in the health system to maintain the rational use of medicine and provide pharmaceutical care to patients, because they are the drug experts who are academically trained for this purpose. The rational use of the pharmacist's workforce will improve the outcome of pharmacotherapy as well as decreasing the global health costs. Keywords: pharmacist, rational use of medicine, pharmacotherapy, pharmaceutical, outcome

  3. Expert opinion vs. empirical evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Herman, Rod A; Raybould, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Expert opinion is often sought by government regulatory agencies when there is insufficient empirical evidence to judge the safety implications of a course of action. However, it can be reckless to continue following expert opinion when a preponderance of evidence is amassed that conflicts with this opinion. Factual evidence should always trump opinion in prioritizing the information that is used to guide regulatory policy. Evidence-based medicine has seen a dramatic upturn in recent years sp...

  4. Impact of Tobacco Tax Increases in Latin America | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Although most evidence on the impact of such taxes is being generated in other regions, several studies in ... an overview that will quantify all the expected effects of cigarette price increases in Latin America. ... Agent(e) responsable du CRDI.

  5. Age-dependent increase in green autofluorescence of blood ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    Protective enzymes against oxidative ... School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067, India ... provide evidence for an age dependent increase in the GAF of blood erythrocytes that is accentuated by depletion of.

  6. Increased Sorting and Wage Inequality in the Czech Republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Pytlikova, Mariola; Warzynski, Frederic

    and find evidence of slightly increasing returns to human capital and diminishing gender inequality. We then document sharp increases in both within-firm and between-firm inequality. We investigate various hypotheses to explain these patterns: increased domestic and international competition...... changes in wage inequality....

  7. Further evidence for jet structure in large transverse momentum reactions from rapidity correlations and associated multiplicities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranft, J.; Ranft, G.

    1976-10-01

    Using the hard collision model and a simple parametrisation for jet fragmentation expressions for same side and opposite side two-particle correlations and multiplicities associated with large transverse momentum trigger particles are derived. Recent data on rapidity correlations and associated multiplicities can be well understood in such a model. This result is interpreted as further evidence for the presence of jets in large transverse momentum reactions. (author)

  8. Doses per vaccine vial container: An understated and underestimated driver of performance that needs more evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Alexis; Krudwig, Kirstin; Lorenson, Tina; Burgess, Craig; Cunningham, Andrew; Steinglass, Robert

    2017-04-19

    The widespread use of multidose vaccine containers in low and middle income countries' immunization programs is assumed to have multiple benefits and efficiencies for health systems, yet the broader impacts on immunization coverage, costs, and safety are not well understood. To document what is known on this topic, how it has been studied, and confirm the gaps in evidence that allow us to assess the complex system interactions, the authors undertook a review of published literature that explored the relationship between doses per container and immunization systems. The relationships examined in this study are organized within a systems framework consisting of operational costs, timely coverage, safety, product costs/wastage, and policy/correct use, with the idea that a change in dose per container affects all of them, and the optimal solution will depend on what is prioritized and used to measure performance. Studies on this topic are limited and largely rely on modeling to assess the relationship between doses per container and other aspects of immunization systems. Very few studies attempt to look at how a change in doses per container affects vaccination coverage rates and other systems components simultaneously. This article summarizes the published knowledge on this topic to date and suggests areas of current and future research to ultimately improve decision making around vaccine doses per container and increase understanding of how this decision relates to other program goals. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Stock Returns and Risk: Evidence from Quantile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C. Chiang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper employs weighted least squares to examine the risk-return relation by applying high-frequency data from four major stock indexes in the US market and finds some evidence in favor of a positive relation between the mean of the excess returns and expected risk. However, by using quantile regressions, we find that the risk-return relation moves from negative to positive as the returns’ quantile increases. A positive risk-return relation is valid only in the upper quantiles. The evidence also suggests that intraday skewness plays a dominant role in explaining the variations of excess returns.

  10. Isolated hyperglycaemia does not increase VLDL-triacylglycerol secretion in type 1 diabetic men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Rakel Fuglsang; Søndergaard, Esben; Sørensen, Lars Peter

    2015-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: In type 1 diabetes, abnormalities of both glucose and lipoprotein metabolism are seen. The relationship between these factors is not understood, but studies indicate that hyperglycaemia may increase hepatic VLDL-triacylglycerol (VLDL-TG) secretion and reduce VLDL-TG fatty acid...

  11. Serotonin Transporter Deficiency Increases Abdominal Fat in Female, but Not Male Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homberg, J.R.; la Fleur, S.E.; Cuppen, E.

    2010-01-01

    Depression and abdominal obesity often co-occur, predominantly in women, and are associated with an increased risk for the development of glucose intolerance and subsequently type 2 diabetes. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We found that female, but not male, depression-prone

  12. Serotonin transporter deficiency increases abdominal fat in female, but not male rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homberg, Judith R.; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Cuppen, Edwin

    2010-01-01

    Depression and abdominal obesity often co-occur, predominantly in women, and are associated with an increased risk for the development of glucose intolerance and subsequently type 2 diabetes. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We found that female, but not male, depression-prone

  13. Mechanisms of increased lifespan in hypoxia in the alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic variation accounts for a small amount of variation in lifespan, while environmental stressors are strong predictors. Hypoxia is an environmental stress that increases longevity in some contexts, but the mechanisms remain poorly understood. In the bee Megachile rotundata, lifespan doubles upo...

  14. Voluntary self-touch increases body ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki eHara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Experimental manipulations of body ownership have indicated that multisensory integration is central to forming bodily self-representation. Voluntary self-touch is a unique multisensory situation involving corresponding motor, tactile and proprioceptive signals. Yet, even though self-touch is frequent in everyday life, its contribution to the formation of body ownership is not well understood. Here we investigated the role of voluntary self-touch in body ownership using a novel adaptation of the rubber hand illusion (RHI, in which a robotic system and virtual reality allowed participants self-touch of real and virtual hands. In the first experiment, active and passive self-touch were applied in the absence of visual feedback. In the second experiment, we tested the role of visual feedback in this bodily illusion. Finally, in the third experiment, we compared active and passive self-touch to the classical RHI in which the touch is administered by the experimenter. We hypothesized that active self-touch would increase ownership over the virtual hand through the addition of motor signals strengthening the bodily illusion. The results indicated that active self-touch elicited stronger illusory ownership compared to passive self-touch and sensory only stimulation, and indicate an important role of active self-touch in the formation of bodily self.

  15. The mitochondrial uniporter controls fight or flight heart rate increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuejin; Rasmussen, Tyler P; Koval, Olha M; Joiner, Mei-Ling A; Hall, Duane D; Chen, Biyi; Luczak, Elizabeth D; Wang, Qiongling; Rokita, Adam G; Wehrens, Xander H T; Song, Long-Sheng; Anderson, Mark E

    2015-01-20

    Heart rate increases are a fundamental adaptation to physiological stress, while inappropriate heart rate increases are resistant to current therapies. However, the metabolic mechanisms driving heart rate acceleration in cardiac pacemaker cells remain incompletely understood. The mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) facilitates calcium entry into the mitochondrial matrix to stimulate metabolism. We developed mice with myocardial MCU inhibition by transgenic expression of a dominant-negative (DN) MCU. Here, we show that DN-MCU mice had normal resting heart rates but were incapable of physiological fight or flight heart rate acceleration. We found that MCU function was essential for rapidly increasing mitochondrial calcium in pacemaker cells and that MCU-enhanced oxidative phoshorylation was required to accelerate reloading of an intracellular calcium compartment before each heartbeat. Our findings show that MCU is necessary for complete physiological heart rate acceleration and suggest that MCU inhibition could reduce inappropriate heart rate increases without affecting resting heart rate.

  16. Melatonin reduces lead levels in blood, brain and bone and increases lead excretion in rats subjected to subacute lead treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Plata, Everardo; Quiroz-Compeán, Fátima; Ramírez-Garcia, Gonzalo; Barrientos, Eunice Yáñez; Rodríguez-Morales, Nadia M; Flores, Alberto; Wrobel, Katarzina; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Méndez, Isabel; Díaz-Muñoz, Mauricio; Robles, Juvencio; Martínez-Alfaro, Minerva

    2015-03-04

    Melatonin, a hormone known for its effects on free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity, can reduce lead toxicity in vivo and in vitro.We examined the effects of melatonin on lead bio-distribution. Rats were intraperitoneally injected with lead acetate (10, 15 or 20mg/kg/day) with or without melatonin (10mg/kg/day) daily for 10 days. In rats intoxicated with the highest lead doses, those treated with melatonin had lower lead levels in blood and higher levels in urine and feces than those treated with lead alone, suggesting that melatonin increases lead excretion. To explore the mechanism underlying this effect, we first assessed whether lead/melatonin complexes were formed directly. Electronic density functional (DFT) calculations showed that a lead/melatonin complex is energetically feasible; however, UV spectroscopy and NMR analysis showed no evidence of such complexes. Next, we examined the liver mRNA levels of metallothioneins (MT) 1 and 2. Melatonin cotreatment increased the MT2 mRNA expression in the liver of rats that received the highest doses of lead. The potential effects of MTs on the tissue distribution and excretion of lead are not well understood. This is the first report to suggest that melatonin directly affects lead levels in organisms exposed to subacute lead intoxication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. High-anxious individuals show increased chronic stress burden, decreased protective immunity, and increased cancer progression in a mouse model of squamous cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firdaus S Dhabhar

    Full Text Available In spite of widespread anecdotal and scientific evidence much remains to be understood about the long-suspected connection between psychological factors and susceptibility to cancer. The skin is the most common site of cancer, accounting for nearly half of all cancers in the US, with approximately 2-3 million cases of non-melanoma cancers occurring each year worldwide. We hypothesized that a high-anxious, stress-prone behavioral phenotype would result in a higher chronic stress burden, lower protective-immunity, and increased progression of the immuno-responsive skin cancer, squamous cell carcinoma. SKH1 mice were phenotyped as high- or low-anxious at baseline, and subsequently exposed to ultraviolet-B light (1 minimal erythemal dose (MED, 3 times/week, 10-weeks. The significant strengths of this cancer model are that it uses a normal, immunocompetent, outbred strain, without surgery/injection of exogenous tumor cells/cell lines, and produces lesions that resemble human tumors. Tumors were counted weekly (primary outcome, and tissues collected during early and late phases of tumor development. Chemokine/cytokine gene-expression was quantified by PCR, tumor-infiltrating helper (Th, cytolytic (CTL, and regulatory (Treg T cells by immunohistochemistry, lymph node T and B cells by flow cytometry, adrenal and plasma corticosterone and tissue vascular-endothelial-growth-factor (VEGF by ELISA. High-anxious mice showed a higher tumor burden during all phases of tumor development. They also showed: higher corticosterone levels (indicating greater chronic stress burden, increased CCL22 expression and Treg infiltration (increased tumor-recruited immuno-suppression, lower CTACK/CCL27, IL-12, and IFN-γ gene-expression and lower numbers of tumor infiltrating Th and CTLs (suppressed protective immunity, and higher VEGF concentrations (increased tumor angiogenesis/invasion/metastasis. These results suggest that the deleterious effects of high trait anxiety

  18. Child abduction murder: the impact of forensic evidence on solvability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Katherine M; Keppel, Robert D

    2012-03-01

    This study examined 733 child abduction murders (CAMs) occurring from 1968 to 2002 to explore the influence of forensic evidence on case solvability in CAM investigations. It was hypothesized that the presence of forensic evidence connecting the offender to the crime would enhance case solvability in murder investigations of abducted children. This study examined the impact of CAM of different types of forensic evidence and the impact of the summed total of forensic evidence items on case solvability by controlling for victim age, victim race, victim gender, and victim-offender relationship. Time and distance theoretical predictors were also included. Binomial logistic regression models were used to determine whether forensic evidence was a critical solvability factor in murder investigations of abducted children. This research indicated that, while forensic evidence increased case solvability, the impact of forensic evidence on solvability was not as important as other solvability factors examined. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. A pragmatic evidence-based clinical management algorithm for burning mouth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yohanan; Yoo, Timothy; Han, Peter; Liu, Yuan; Inman, Jared C

    2018-04-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is a poorly understood disease process with no current standard of treatment. The goal of this article is to provide an evidence-based, practical, clinical algorithm as a guideline for the treatment of burning mouth syndrome. Using available evidence and clinical experience, a multi-step management algorithm was developed. A retrospective cohort study was then performed, following STROBE statement guidelines, comparing outcomes of patients who were managed using the algorithm and those who were managed without. Forty-seven patients were included in the study, with 21 (45%) managed using the algorithm and 26 (55%) managed without. The mean age overall was 60.4 ±16.5 years, and most patients (39, 83%) were female. Cohorts showed no statistical difference in age, sex, overall follow-up time, dysgeusia, geographic tongue, or psychiatric disorder; xerostomia, however, was significantly different, skewed toward the algorithm group. Significantly more non-algorithm patients did not continue care (69% vs. 29%, p =0.001). The odds ratio of not continuing care for the non-algorithm group compared to the algorithm group was 5.6 [1.6, 19.8]. Improvement in pain was significantly more likely in the algorithm group ( p =0.001), with an odds ratio of 27.5 [3.1, 242.0]. We present a basic clinical management algorithm for burning mouth syndrome which may increase the likelihood of pain improvement and patient follow-up. Key words: Burning mouth syndrome, burning tongue, glossodynia, oral pain, oral burning, therapy, treatment.

  20. Adverse effects of increasing drought on air quality via natural processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuxuan; Xie, Yuanyu; Dong, Wenhao; Ming, Yi; Wang, Jun; Shen, Lu

    2017-10-01

    Drought is a recurring extreme of the climate system with well-documented impacts on agriculture and water resources. The strong perturbation of drought to the land biosphere and atmospheric water cycle will affect atmospheric composition, the nature and extent of which are not well understood. Here we present observational evidence that US air quality is significantly correlated with drought severity. Severe droughts during the period of 1990-2014 were found associated with growth-season (March-October) mean enhancements in surface ozone and PM2.5 of 3.5 ppbv (8 %) and 1.6 µg m-3 (17 %), respectively. The pollutant enhancements associated with droughts do not appear to be affected by the decreasing trend of US anthropogenic emissions, indicating natural processes as the primary cause. Elevated ozone and PM2.5 are attributed to the combined effects of drought on deposition, natural emissions (wildfires, biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), and dust), and chemistry. Most climate-chemistry models are not able to reproduce the observed correlations of ozone and PM2.5 to drought severity. The model deficiencies are partly attributed to the lack of drought-induced changes in land-atmosphere exchanges of reactive gases and particles and misrepresentation of cloud changes under drought conditions. By applying the observed relationships between drought and air pollutants to climate model projected drought occurrences, we estimate an increase of 1-6 % for ground-level O3 and 1-16 % for PM2.5 in the US by 2100 compared to the 2000s due to increasing drought alone. Drought thus poses an important aspect of climate change penalty on air quality, and a better prediction of such effects would require improvements in model processes.

  1. Dim light at night disrupts molecular circadian rhythms and increases body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonken, Laura K; Aubrecht, Taryn G; Meléndez-Fernández, O Hecmarie; Weil, Zachary M; Nelson, Randy J

    2013-08-01

    With the exception of high latitudes, life has evolved under bright days and dark nights. Most organisms have developed endogenously driven circadian rhythms that are synchronized to this daily light/dark cycle. In recent years, humans have shifted away from the naturally occurring solar light cycle in favor of artificial and sometimes irregular light schedules produced by electric lighting. Exposure to unnatural light cycles is increasingly associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome; however, the means by which environmental lighting alters metabolism are poorly understood. Thus, we exposed mice to dim light at night and investigated changes in the circadian system and metabolism. Here we report that exposure to ecologically relevant levels of dim (5 lux) light at night altered core circadian clock rhythms in the hypothalamus at both the gene and protein level. Circadian rhythms in clock expression persisted during light at night; however, the amplitude of Per1 and Per2 rhythms was attenuated in the hypothalamus. Circadian oscillations were also altered in peripheral tissues critical for metabolic regulation. Exposure to dimly illuminated, as compared to dark, nights decreased the rhythmic expression in all but one of the core circadian clock genes assessed in the liver. Additionally, mice exposed to dim light at night attenuated Rev-Erb expression in the liver and adipose tissue. Changes in the circadian clock were associated with temporal alterations in feeding behavior and increased weight gain. These results are significant because they provide evidence that mild changes in environmental lighting can alter circadian and metabolic function. Detailed analysis of temporal changes induced by nighttime light exposure may provide insight into the onset and progression of obesity and metabolic syndrome, as well as other disorders involving sleep and circadian rhythm disruption.

  2. Protection against UVA-induced photooxidative damage in mammalian cell lines expressing increased levels of metallothionein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudek, E.J.; Roth, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    Metallothionein (MT) is an endogenous low molecular weight protein that is inducible in a variety of eukaryotic cells and has the ability to selectivity bind heavy metal ions such as zinc and the cadmium. Although the exact physiological role of MT is still not understood, there is strong evidence that MT is involved in providing cellular resistance against the damaging effects of heavy metals and in the regulation of intracellular zinc and copper. Recently, it has been demonstrated that MT can scavenge radiation-induced reactive oxygen intermediates in vitro, specifically hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, and because of these observations it has been suggested that MT may provide protection against radiation-induced oxidative stress in vivo. Cell lines expressing increased levels of MT have demonstrated resistance to ionizing radiation, to ultraviolet radiation, and also to various DNA damaging agents including melphalan and cis-diaminedichloroplatinum. It is therefore important to gain some insight into the relationship between cellular MT content and cellular resistance to radiation and other DNA damaging agents. In this study we investigated the role of MT in providing protection against monochromatic 365-nm UVA radiation, which is known to generate intracellular reactive oxygen species that are involved in both DNA damage and cell killing. For this purpose, we used zinc acetate, a potent inducer of MT, to elevate MT levels in V79 Chinese hamster fibroblasts prior to UVA exposure and determined cell survival for uninduced and induced cultures. In order to eliminate any zinc effects other than MT induction, we also isolated and characterized cadmium chloride-resistant clones of V79 cells that have increased steady-state levels of both MT mRNA and protein, and we examined their survival characteristics against 365-nm radiation in the absence of zinc acetate. 14 refs., 3 figs

  3. On evidence and evidence-based medicine: lessons from the philosophy of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Maya J

    2006-06-01

    The evidence-based medicine (EBM) movement is touted as a new paradigm in medical education and practice, a description that carries with it an enthusiasm for science that has not been seen since logical positivism flourished (circa 1920-1950). At the same time, the term "evidence-based medicine" has a ring of obviousness to it, as few physicians, one suspects, would claim that they do not attempt to base their clinical decision-making on available evidence. However, the apparent obviousness of EBM can and should be challenged on the grounds of how 'evidence' has been problematised in the philosophy of science. EBM enthusiasm, it follows, ought to be tempered. The post-positivist, feminist, and phenomenological philosophies of science that are examined in this paper contest the seemingly unproblematic nature of evidence that underlies EBM by emphasizing different features of the social nature of science. The appeal to the authority of evidence that characterizes evidence-based practices does not increase objectivity but rather obscures the subjective elements that inescapably enter all forms of human inquiry. The seeming common sense of EBM only occurs because of its assumed removal from the social context of medical practice. In the current age where the institutional power of medicine is suspect, a model that represents biomedicine as politically disinterested or merely scientific should give pause.

  4. Evidence based medical imaging (EBMI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Tony

    2008-01-01

    Background: The evidence based paradigm was first described about a decade ago. Previous authors have described a framework for the application of evidence based medicine which can be readily adapted to medical imaging practice. Purpose: This paper promotes the application of the evidence based framework in both the justification of the choice of examination type and the optimisation of the imaging technique used. Methods: The framework includes five integrated steps: framing a concise clinical question; searching for evidence to answer that question; critically appraising the evidence; applying the evidence in clinical practice; and, evaluating the use of revised practices. Results: This paper illustrates the use of the evidence based framework in medical imaging (that is, evidence based medical imaging) using the examples of two clinically relevant case studies. In doing so, a range of information technology and other resources available to medical imaging practitioners are identified with the intention of encouraging the application of the evidence based paradigm in radiography and radiology. Conclusion: There is a perceived need for radiographers and radiologists to make greater use of valid research evidence from the literature to inform their clinical practice and thus provide better quality services

  5. Evidence-based radiology: why and how?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardanelli, Francesco; Di Leo, Giovanni; Hunink, Myriam G.; Gilbert, Fiona J.; Krestin, Gabriel P.

    2010-01-01

    To provide an overview of evidence-based medicine (EBM) in relation to radiology and to define a policy for adoption of this principle in the European radiological community. Starting from Sackett's definition of EBM we illustrate the top-down and bottom-up approaches to EBM as well as EBM's limitations. Delayed diffusion and peculiar features of evidence-based radiology (EBR) are defined with emphasis on the need to shift from the demonstration of the increasing ability to see more and better, to the demonstration of a significant change in treatment planning or, at best, of a significant gain in patient outcome. The ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) principle is thought as a dimension of EBR while EBR is proposed as part of the core curriculum of radiology residency. Moreover, we describe the process of health technology assessment in radiology with reference to the six-level scale of hierarchy of studies on diagnostic tests, the main sources of bias in studies on diagnostic performance, and levels of evidence and degrees of recommendations according to the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (Oxford, UK) as well as the approach proposed by the GRADE working group. Problems and opportunities offered by evidence-based guidelines in radiology are considered. Finally, we suggest nine points to be actioned by the ESR in order to promote EBR. Radiology will benefit greatly from the improvement in practice that will result from adopting this more rigorous approach to all aspects of our work. (orig.)

  6. Is Eurasian October snow cover extent increasing?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R D; Derksen, C

    2013-01-01

    A number of recent studies present evidence of an increasing trend in Eurasian snow cover extent (SCE) in the October snow onset period based on analysis of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) historical satellite record. These increases are inconsistent with fall season surface temperature warming trends across the region. Using four independent snow cover data sources (surface observations, two reanalyses, satellite passive microwave retrievals) we show that the increasing SCE is attributable to an internal trend in the NOAA CDR dataset to chart relatively more October snow cover extent over the dataset overlap period (1982–2005). Adjusting the series for this shift results in closer agreement with other independent datasets, stronger correlation with continentally-averaged air temperature anomalies, and a decrease in SCE over 1982–2011 consistent with surface air temperature warming trends over the same period. (letter)