WorldWideScience

Sample records for understanding vocal learning

  1. Readability and Understandability of Online Vocal Cord Paralysis Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Vini; Chandy, Zachariah; Hseih, Amy; Bui, Thanh-Lan; Verma, Sunil P

    2016-03-01

    Patients use several online resources to learn about vocal cord paralysis (VCP). The objective of this study was to assess the readability and understandability of online VCP patient education materials (PEMs), with readability assessments and the Patient Education Materials Evaluation Tool (PEMAT), respectively. The relationship between readability and understandability was then analyzed. Descriptive and correlational design. Online PEMs were identified by performing a Google search with the term "vocal cord paralysis." After scientific webpages, news articles, and information for medical professionals were excluded, 29 articles from the first 50 search results were considered. Readability analysis was performed with 6 formulas. Four individuals with different educational backgrounds conducted understandability analysis with the PEMAT. Fleiss's Kappa interrater reliability analysis determined consistency among raters. Correlation between readability and understandability was determined with Pearson's correlation test. The reading level of the reviewed articles ranged from grades 9 to 17. Understandability ranged from 29% to 82%. Correlation analysis demonstrated a strong negative correlation between materials' readability and understandability (r = -0.462, P Online PEMs pertaining to VCP are written above the recommended reading levels. Overall, materials written at lower grade levels are more understandable. However, articles of identical grade levels had varying levels of understandability. The PEMAT may provide a more critical evaluation of the quality of a PEM when compared with readability formulas. Both readability and understandability should be used to evaluate PEMs. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  2. Primate vocal communication: a useful tool for understanding human speech and language evolution?

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    Fedurek, Pawel; Slocombe, Katie E

    2011-04-01

    Language is a uniquely human trait, and questions of how and why it evolved have been intriguing scientists for years. Nonhuman primates (primates) are our closest living relatives, and their behavior can be used to estimate the capacities of our extinct ancestors. As humans and many primate species rely on vocalizations as their primary mode of communication, the vocal behavior of primates has been an obvious target for studies investigating the evolutionary roots of human speech and language. By studying the similarities and differences between human and primate vocalizations, comparative research has the potential to clarify the evolutionary processes that shaped human speech and language. This review examines some of the seminal and recent studies that contribute to our knowledge regarding the link between primate calls and human language and speech. We focus on three main aspects of primate vocal behavior: functional reference, call combinations, and vocal learning. Studies in these areas indicate that despite important differences, primate vocal communication exhibits some key features characterizing human language. They also indicate, however, that some critical aspects of speech, such as vocal plasticity, are not shared with our primate cousins. We conclude that comparative research on primate vocal behavior is a very promising tool for deepening our understanding of the evolution of human speech and language, but much is still to be done as many aspects of monkey and ape vocalizations remain largely unexplored.

  3. Current Understanding and Future Directions for Vocal Fold Mechanobiology

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    Li, Nicole Y.K.; Heris, Hossein K.; Mongeau, Luc

    2013-01-01

    The vocal folds, which are located in the larynx, are the main organ of voice production for human communication. The vocal folds are under continuous biomechanical stress similar to other mechanically active organs, such as the heart, lungs, tendons and muscles. During speech and singing, the vocal folds oscillate at frequencies ranging from 20 Hz to 3 kHz with amplitudes of a few millimeters. The biomechanical stress associated with accumulated phonation is believed to alter vocal fold cell activity and tissue structure in many ways. Excessive phonatory stress can damage tissue structure and induce a cell-mediated inflammatory response, resulting in a pathological vocal fold lesion. On the other hand, phonatory stress is one major factor in the maturation of the vocal folds into a specialized tri-layer structure. One specific form of vocal fold oscillation, which involves low impact and large amplitude excursion, is prescribed therapeutically for patients with mild vocal fold injuries. Although biomechanical forces affect vocal fold physiology and pathology, there is little understanding of how mechanical forces regulate these processes at the cellular and molecular level. Research into vocal fold mechanobiology has burgeoned over the past several years. Vocal fold bioreactors are being developed in several laboratories to provide a biomimic environment that allows the systematic manipulation of physical and biological factors on the cells of interest in vitro. Computer models have been used to simulate the integrated response of cells and proteins as a function of phonation stress. The purpose of this paper is to review current research on the mechanobiology of the vocal folds as it relates to growth, pathogenesis and treatment as well as to propose specific research directions that will advance our understanding of this subject. PMID:24812638

  4. Vocal learning in the functionally referential food grunts of chimpanzees.

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    Watson, Stuart K; Townsend, Simon W; Schel, Anne M; Wilke, Claudia; Wallace, Emma K; Cheng, Leveda; West, Victoria; Slocombe, Katie E

    2015-02-16

    One standout feature of human language is our ability to reference external objects and events with socially learned symbols, or words. Exploring the phylogenetic origins of this capacity is therefore key to a comprehensive understanding of the evolution of language. While non-human primates can produce vocalizations that refer to external objects in the environment, it is generally accepted that their acoustic structure is fixed and a product of arousal states. Indeed, it has been argued that the apparent lack of flexible control over the structure of referential vocalizations represents a key discontinuity with language. Here, we demonstrate vocal learning in the acoustic structure of referential food grunts in captive chimpanzees. We found that, following the integration of two groups of adult chimpanzees, the acoustic structure of referential food grunts produced for a specific food converged over 3 years. Acoustic convergence arose independently of preference for the food, and social network analyses indicated this only occurred after strong affiliative relationships were established between the original subgroups. We argue that these data represent the first evidence of non-human animals actively modifying and socially learning the structure of a meaningful referential vocalization from conspecifics. Our findings indicate that primate referential call structure is not simply determined by arousal and that the socially learned nature of referential words in humans likely has ancient evolutionary origins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mechanisms underlying the social enhancement of vocal learning in songbirds.

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    Chen, Yining; Matheson, Laura E; Sakata, Jon T

    2016-06-14

    Social processes profoundly influence speech and language acquisition. Despite the importance of social influences, little is known about how social interactions modulate vocal learning. Like humans, songbirds learn their vocalizations during development, and they provide an excellent opportunity to reveal mechanisms of social influences on vocal learning. Using yoked experimental designs, we demonstrate that social interactions with adult tutors for as little as 1 d significantly enhanced vocal learning. Social influences on attention to song seemed central to the social enhancement of learning because socially tutored birds were more attentive to the tutor's songs than passively tutored birds, and because variation in attentiveness and in the social modulation of attention significantly predicted variation in vocal learning. Attention to song was influenced by both the nature and amount of tutor song: Pupils paid more attention to songs that tutors directed at them and to tutors that produced fewer songs. Tutors altered their song structure when directing songs at pupils in a manner that resembled how humans alter their vocalizations when speaking to infants, that was distinct from how tutors changed their songs when singing to females, and that could influence attention and learning. Furthermore, social interactions that rapidly enhanced learning increased the activity of noradrenergic and dopaminergic midbrain neurons. These data highlight striking parallels between humans and songbirds in the social modulation of vocal learning and suggest that social influences on attention and midbrain circuitry could represent shared mechanisms underlying the social modulation of vocal learning.

  6. Learning while Babbling: Prelinguistic Object-Directed Vocalizations Indicate a Readiness to Learn

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    Goldstein, Michael H.; Schwade, Jennifer; Briesch, Jacquelyn; Syal, Supriya

    2010-01-01

    Two studies illustrate the functional significance of a new category of prelinguistic vocalizing--object-directed vocalizations (ODVs)--and show that these sounds are connected to learning about words and objects. Experiment 1 tested 12-month-old infants' perceptual learning of objects that elicited ODVs. Fourteen infants' vocalizations were…

  7. Failure of operant control of vocal learning in budgerigars

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    Yoshimasa Seki

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Budgerigars were trained by operant conditioning to produce contact calls immediately after hearing a stimulus contact call. In Experiments 1 and 2, playback stimuli were chosen from two different contact call classes from the bird’s repertoire. Once this task was learned, the birds were then tested with other probe stimulus calls from its repertoire, which differed from the original calls drawn from the two classes. Birds failed to mimic the probe stimuli but instead produced one of the two call classes as in the training sessions, showing that birds learned that each stimulus call served as a discriminative stimulus but not as a vocal template for imitation. In Experiment 3, birds were then trained with stimulus calls falling along a 24-step acoustic gradient which varied between the two sounds representing the two contact call categories. As before, birds obtained a reward when the bird’s vocalization matched that of the stimulus above a criterion level. Since the first step and the last step in the gradient were the birds’ original contact calls, these two patterns were easily matched. Intermediate contact calls in the gradient were much harder for the birds to match. After extensive training, one bird learned to produce contact calls that had only a modest similarity to the intermediate contact calls along the gradient. In spite of remarkable vocal plasticity under natural conditions, operant conditioning methods with budgerigars, even after extensive training and rigorous control of vocal discriminative stimuli, failed to show vocal learning.

  8. Precise auditory-vocal mirroring in neurons for learned vocal communication.

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    Prather, J F; Peters, S; Nowicki, S; Mooney, R

    2008-01-17

    Brain mechanisms for communication must establish a correspondence between sensory and motor codes used to represent the signal. One idea is that this correspondence is established at the level of single neurons that are active when the individual performs a particular gesture or observes a similar gesture performed by another individual. Although neurons that display a precise auditory-vocal correspondence could facilitate vocal communication, they have yet to be identified. Here we report that a certain class of neurons in the swamp sparrow forebrain displays a precise auditory-vocal correspondence. We show that these neurons respond in a temporally precise fashion to auditory presentation of certain note sequences in this songbird's repertoire and to similar note sequences in other birds' songs. These neurons display nearly identical patterns of activity when the bird sings the same sequence, and disrupting auditory feedback does not alter this singing-related activity, indicating it is motor in nature. Furthermore, these neurons innervate striatal structures important for song learning, raising the possibility that singing-related activity in these cells is compared to auditory feedback to guide vocal learning.

  9. At the interface of the auditory and vocal motor systems: NIf and its role in vocal processing, production and learning.

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    Lewandowski, Brian; Vyssotski, Alexei; Hahnloser, Richard H R; Schmidt, Marc

    2013-06-01

    Communication between auditory and vocal motor nuclei is essential for vocal learning. In songbirds, the nucleus interfacialis of the nidopallium (NIf) is part of a sensorimotor loop, along with auditory nucleus avalanche (Av) and song system nucleus HVC, that links the auditory and song systems. Most of the auditory information comes through this sensorimotor loop, with the projection from NIf to HVC representing the largest single source of auditory information to the song system. In addition to providing the majority of HVC's auditory input, NIf is also the primary driver of spontaneous activity and premotor-like bursting during sleep in HVC. Like HVC and RA, two nuclei critical for song learning and production, NIf exhibits behavioral-state dependent auditory responses and strong motor bursts that precede song output. NIf also exhibits extended periods of fast gamma oscillations following vocal production. Based on the converging evidence from studies of physiology and functional connectivity it would be reasonable to expect NIf to play an important role in the learning, maintenance, and production of song. Surprisingly, however, lesions of NIf in adult zebra finches have no effect on song production or maintenance. Only the plastic song produced by juvenile zebra finches during the sensorimotor phase of song learning is affected by NIf lesions. In this review, we carefully examine what is known about NIf at the anatomical, physiological, and behavioral levels. We reexamine conclusions drawn from previous studies in the light of our current understanding of the song system, and establish what can be said with certainty about NIf's involvement in song learning, maintenance, and production. Finally, we review recent theories of song learning integrating possible roles for NIf within these frameworks and suggest possible parallels between NIf and sensorimotor areas that form part of the neural circuitry for speech processing in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier

  10. Social learning of vocal structure in a nonhuman primate?

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    Lemasson Alban

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-human primate communication is thought to be fundamentally different from human speech, mainly due to vast differences in vocal control. The lack of these abilities in non-human primates is especially striking if compared to some marine mammals and bird species, which has generated somewhat of an evolutionary conundrum. What are the biological roots and underlying evolutionary pressures of the human ability to voluntarily control sound production and learn the vocal utterances of others? One hypothesis is that this capacity has evolved gradually in humans from an ancestral stage that resembled the vocal behavior of modern primates. Support for this has come from studies that have documented limited vocal flexibility and convergence in different primate species, typically in calls used during social interactions. The mechanisms underlying these patterns, however, are currently unknown. Specifically, it has been difficult to rule out explanations based on genetic relatedness, suggesting that such vocal flexibility may not be the result of social learning. Results To address this point, we compared the degree of acoustic similarity of contact calls in free-ranging Campbell's monkeys as a function of their social bonds and genetic relatedness. We calculated three different indices to compare the similarities between the calls' frequency contours, the duration of grooming interactions and the microsatellite-based genetic relatedness between partners. We found a significantly positive relation between bond strength and acoustic similarity that was independent of genetic relatedness. Conclusion Genetic factors determine the general species-specific call repertoire of a primate species, while social factors can influence the fine structure of some the call types. The finding is in line with the more general hypothesis that human speech has evolved gradually from earlier primate-like vocal communication.

  11. A hypothesis on improving foreign accents by optimizing variability in vocal learning brain circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Simmonds, Anna J.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid vocal motor learning is observed when acquiring a language in early childhood, or learning to speak another language later in life. Accurate pronunciation is one of the hardest things for late learners to master and they are almost always left with a non-native accent. Here, I propose a novel hypothesis that this accent could be improved by optimizing variability in vocal learning brain circuits during learning. Much of the neurobiology of human vocal motor learning has been inferred fr...

  12. Understanding Vocalization Might Help to Assess Stressful Conditions in Piglets

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    Diego Pereira Neves

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessing pigs’ welfare is one of the most challenging subjects in intensive pig farming. Animal vocalization analysis is a noninvasive procedure and may be used as a tool for assessing animal welfare status. The objective of this research was to identify stress conditions in piglets reared in farrowing pens through their vocalization. Vocal signals were collected from 40 animals under the following situations: normal (baseline, feeling cold, in pain, and feeling hunger. A unidirectional microphone positioned about 15 cm from the animals’ mouth was used for recording the acoustic signals. The microphone was connected to a digital recorder, where the signals were digitized at the 44,100 Hz frequency. The collected sounds were edited and analyzed. The J48 decision tree algorithm available at the Weka® data mining software was used for stress classification. It was possible to categorize diverse conditions from the piglets’ vocalization during the farrowing phase (pain, cold and hunger, with an accuracy rate of 81.12%. Results indicated that vocalization might be an effective welfare indicator, and it could be applied for assessing distress from pain, cold and hunger in farrowing piglets.

  13. A hypothesis on a role of oxytocin in the social mechanisms of speech and vocal learning.

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    Theofanopoulou, Constantina; Boeckx, Cedric; Jarvis, Erich D

    2017-08-30

    Language acquisition in humans and song learning in songbirds naturally happen as a social learning experience, providing an excellent opportunity to reveal social motivation and reward mechanisms that boost sensorimotor learning. Our knowledge about the molecules and circuits that control these social mechanisms for vocal learning and language is limited. Here we propose a hypothesis of a role for oxytocin (OT) in the social motivation and evolution of vocal learning and language. Building upon existing evidence, we suggest specific neural pathways and mechanisms through which OT might modulate vocal learning circuits in specific developmental stages. © 2017 The Authors.

  14. Vocal Learning in Grey Parrots: A Brief Review of Perception, Production, and Cross-Species Comparisons

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    Pepperberg, Irene M.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter briefly reviews what is known-and what remains to be understood--about Grey parrot vocal learning. I review Greys' physical capacities--issues of auditory perception and production--then discuss how these capacities are used in vocal learning and can be recruited for referential communication with humans. I discuss cross-species…

  15. A hypothesis on improving foreign accents by optimizing variability in vocal learning brain circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Anna J

    2015-01-01

    Rapid vocal motor learning is observed when acquiring a language in early childhood, or learning to speak another language later in life. Accurate pronunciation is one of the hardest things for late learners to master and they are almost always left with a non-native accent. Here, I propose a novel hypothesis that this accent could be improved by optimizing variability in vocal learning brain circuits during learning. Much of the neurobiology of human vocal motor learning has been inferred from studies on songbirds. Jarvis (2004) proposed the hypothesis that as in songbirds there are two pathways in humans: one for learning speech (the striatal vocal learning pathway), and one for production of previously learnt speech (the motor pathway). Learning new motor sequences necessary for accurate non-native pronunciation is challenging and I argue that in late learners of a foreign language the vocal learning pathway becomes inactive prematurely. The motor pathway is engaged once again and learners maintain their original native motor patterns for producing speech, resulting in speaking with a foreign accent. Further, I argue that variability in neural activity within vocal motor circuitry generates vocal variability that supports accurate non-native pronunciation. Recent theoretical and experimental work on motor learning suggests that variability in the motor movement is necessary for the development of expertise. I propose that there is little trial-by-trial variability when using the motor pathway. When using the vocal learning pathway variability gradually increases, reflecting an exploratory phase in which learners try out different ways of pronouncing words, before decreasing and stabilizing once the "best" performance has been identified. The hypothesis proposed here could be tested using behavioral interventions that optimize variability and engage the vocal learning pathway for longer, with the prediction that this would allow learners to develop new motor

  16. FoxP2 isoforms delineate spatiotemporal transcriptional networks for vocal learning in the zebra finch

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    Day, Nancy F; Kimball, Todd Haswell; Aamodt, Caitlin M; Heston, Jonathan B; Hilliard, Austin T; Xiao, Xinshu; White, Stephanie A

    2018-01-01

    Human speech is one of the few examples of vocal learning among mammals yet ~half of avian species exhibit this ability. Its neurogenetic basis is largely unknown beyond a shared requirement for FoxP2 in both humans and zebra finches. We manipulated FoxP2 isoforms in Area X, a song-specific region of the avian striatopallidum analogous to human anterior striatum, during a critical period for song development. We delineate, for the first time, unique contributions of each isoform to vocal learning. Weighted gene coexpression network analysis of RNA-seq data revealed gene modules correlated to singing, learning, or vocal variability. Coexpression related to singing was found in juvenile and adult Area X whereas coexpression correlated to learning was unique to juveniles. The confluence of learning and singing coexpression in juvenile Area X may underscore molecular processes that drive vocal learning in young zebra finches and, by analogy, humans. PMID:29360038

  17. Early life manipulations of vasopressin-family peptides alter vocal learning.

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    Baran, Nicole M; Peck, Samantha C; Kim, Tabitha H; Goldstein, Michael H; Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2017-07-26

    Vocal learning from social partners is crucial for the successful development of communication in a wide range of species. Social interactions organize attention and enhance motivation to learn species-typical behaviour. However, the neurobiological mechanisms connecting social motivation and vocal learning are unknown. Using zebra finches ( Taeniopygia guttata ), a ubiquitous model for vocal learning, we show that manipulations of nonapeptide hormones in the vasopressin family (arginine vasotocin, AVT) early in development can promote or disrupt both song and social motivation. Young male zebra finches, like human infants, are socially gregarious and require interactive feedback from adult tutors to learn mature vocal forms. To investigate the role of social motivational mechanisms in song learning, in two studies, we injected hatchling males with AVT or Manning compound (MC, a nonapeptide receptor antagonist) on days 2-8 post-hatching and recorded song at maturity. In both studies, MC males produced a worse match to tutor song than controls. In study 2, which experimentally controlled for tutor and genetic factors, AVT males also learned song significantly better compared with controls. Furthermore, song similarity correlated with several measures of social motivation throughout development. These findings provide the first evidence that nonapeptides are critical to the development of vocal learning. © 2017 The Author(s).

  18. Specialized motor-driven dusp1 expression in the song systems of multiple lineages of vocal learning birds.

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    Haruhito Horita

    Full Text Available Mechanisms for the evolution of convergent behavioral traits are largely unknown. Vocal learning is one such trait that evolved multiple times and is necessary in humans for the acquisition of spoken language. Among birds, vocal learning is evolved in songbirds, parrots, and hummingbirds. Each time similar forebrain song nuclei specialized for vocal learning and production have evolved. This finding led to the hypothesis that the behavioral and neuroanatomical convergences for vocal learning could be associated with molecular convergence. We previously found that the neural activity-induced gene dual specificity phosphatase 1 (dusp1 was up-regulated in non-vocal circuits, specifically in sensory-input neurons of the thalamus and telencephalon; however, dusp1 was not up-regulated in higher order sensory neurons or motor circuits. Here we show that song motor nuclei are an exception to this pattern. The song nuclei of species from all known vocal learning avian lineages showed motor-driven up-regulation of dusp1 expression induced by singing. There was no detectable motor-driven dusp1 expression throughout the rest of the forebrain after non-vocal motor performance. This pattern contrasts with expression of the commonly studied activity-induced gene egr1, which shows motor-driven expression in song nuclei induced by singing, but also motor-driven expression in adjacent brain regions after non-vocal motor behaviors. In the vocal non-learning avian species, we found no detectable vocalizing-driven dusp1 expression in the forebrain. These findings suggest that independent evolutions of neural systems for vocal learning were accompanied by selection for specialized motor-driven expression of the dusp1 gene in those circuits. This specialized expression of dusp1 could potentially lead to differential regulation of dusp1-modulated molecular cascades in vocal learning circuits.

  19. Vocalic and consonantal processing biases in early word-learning: Cross-language differences?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højen, Anders; Nazzi, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    Previous research showed that French-learning 16- or 20-month-olds could learn pairs of words that differed by a single consonantal but not vocalic feature. Danish has a richer vowel inventory than French, allowing for 31 phonological vowel contrasts, including vowel length and presence/absence o...

  20. Cortical inter-hemispheric circuits for multimodal vocal learning in songbirds.

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    Paterson, Amy K; Bottjer, Sarah W

    2017-10-15

    Vocal learning in songbirds and humans is strongly influenced by social interactions based on sensory inputs from several modalities. Songbird vocal learning is mediated by cortico-basal ganglia circuits that include the SHELL region of lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium (LMAN), but little is known concerning neural pathways that could integrate multimodal sensory information with SHELL circuitry. In addition, cortical pathways that mediate the precise coordination between hemispheres required for song production have been little studied. In order to identify candidate mechanisms for multimodal sensory integration and bilateral coordination for vocal learning in zebra finches, we investigated the anatomical organization of two regions that receive input from SHELL: the dorsal caudolateral nidopallium (dNCL SHELL ) and a region within the ventral arcopallium (Av). Anterograde and retrograde tracing experiments revealed a topographically organized inter-hemispheric circuit: SHELL and dNCL SHELL , as well as adjacent nidopallial areas, send axonal projections to ipsilateral Av; Av in turn projects to contralateral SHELL, dNCL SHELL , and regions of nidopallium adjacent to each. Av on each side also projects directly to contralateral Av. dNCL SHELL and Av each integrate inputs from ipsilateral SHELL with inputs from sensory regions in surrounding nidopallium, suggesting that they function to integrate multimodal sensory information with song-related responses within LMAN-SHELL during vocal learning. Av projections share this integrated information from the ipsilateral hemisphere with contralateral sensory and song-learning regions. Our results suggest that the inter-hemispheric pathway through Av may function to integrate multimodal sensory feedback with vocal-learning circuitry and coordinate bilateral vocal behavior. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Mouse Vocal Communication System: Are Ultrasounds Learned or Innate?

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    Arriaga, Gustavo; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2013-01-01

    Mouse ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are often used as behavioral readouts of internal states, to measure effects of social and pharmacological manipulations, and for behavioral phenotyping of mouse models for neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. However, little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms of rodent USV production.…

  2. Verbal learning in the context of background music: no influence of vocals and instrumentals on verbal learning.

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    Jäncke, Lutz; Brügger, Eliane; Brummer, Moritz; Scherrer, Stephanie; Alahmadi, Nsreen

    2014-03-26

    Whether listening to background music enhances verbal learning performance is still a matter of dispute. In this study we investigated the influence of vocal and instrumental background music on verbal learning. 226 subjects were randomly assigned to one of five groups (one control group and 4 experimental groups). All participants were exposed to a verbal learning task. One group served as control group while the 4 further groups served as experimental groups. The control group learned without background music while the 4 experimental groups were exposed to vocal or instrumental musical pieces during learning with different subjective intensity and valence. Thus, we employed 4 music listening conditions (vocal music with high intensity: VOC_HIGH, vocal music with low intensity: VOC_LOW, instrumental music with high intensity: INST_HIGH, instrumental music with low intensity: INST_LOW) and one control condition (CONT) during which the subjects learned the word lists. Since it turned out that the high and low intensity groups did not differ in terms of the rated intensity during the main experiment these groups were lumped together. Thus, we worked with 3 groups: one control group and two groups, which were exposed to background music (vocal and instrumental) during verbal learning. As dependent variable, the number of learned words was used. Here we measured immediate recall during five learning sessions (recall 1 - recall 5) and delayed recall for 15 minutes (recall 6) and 14 days (recall 7) after the last learning session. Verbal learning improved during the first 5 recall sessions without any strong difference between the control and experimental groups. Also the delayed recalls were similar for the three groups. There was only a trend for attenuated verbal learning for the group passively listened to vocals. This learning attenuation diminished during the following learning sessions. The exposure to vocal or instrumental background music during encoding did not

  3. The Origins of Vocal Learning: New Sounds, New Circuits, New Cells

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    Nottebohm, Fernando; Liu, Wan-Chun

    2010-01-01

    We do not know how vocal learning came to be, but it is such a salient trait in human evolution that many have tried to imagine it. In primates this is difficult because we are the only species known to possess this skill. Songbirds provide a richer and independent set of data. I use comparative data and ask broad questions: How does vocal…

  4. Understanding Learning Cultures

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    Hodkinson, Phil; Biesta, Gert; James, David

    2007-01-01

    This paper sets out an explanation about the nature of learning cultures and how they work. In so doing, it directly addresses some key weaknesses in current situated learning theoretical writing, by working to overcome unhelpful dualisms, such as the individual and the social, and structure and agency. It does this through extensive use of some…

  5. Verbal learning in the context of background music: no influence of vocals and instrumentals on verbal learning.

    OpenAIRE

    Jancke L; Brugger E; Brummer M; Scherrer S; Alahmadi N

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whether listening to background music enhances verbal learning performance is still a matter of dispute. In this study we investigated the influence of vocal and instrumental background music on verbal learning. METHODS: 226 subjects were randomly assigned to one of five groups (one control group and 4 experimental groups). All participants were exposed to a verbal learning task. One group served as control group while the 4 further groups served as experimental groups. The con...

  6. Teachers' Understanding of Learning Goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog Skott, Charlotte; Slot, Marie Falkesgaard; Carlsen, Dorthe

    will be presented. We expect to deepen our understanding of the relations between the various parameters in the teachers' practice in relation to learning goals and goal-oriented teaching. There is conducted research on the effects of goal-oriented teaching on students' learning both internationally...

  7. Learning to breathe and sing: development of respiratory-vocal coordination in young songbirds.

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    Veit, Lena; Aronov, Dmitriy; Fee, Michale S

    2011-10-01

    How do animals with learned vocalizations coordinate vocal production with respiration? Songbirds such as the zebra finch learn their songs, beginning with highly variable babbling vocalizations known as subsong. After several weeks of practice, zebra finches are able to produce a precisely timed pattern of syllables and silences, precisely coordinated with expiratory and inspiratory pulses (Franz M, Goller F. J Neurobiol 51: 129-141, 2002). While respiration in adult song is well described, relatively little is known about respiratory patterns in subsong or about the processes by which respiratory and vocal patterns become coordinated. To address these questions, we recorded thoracic air sac pressure in juvenile zebra finches prior to the appearance of any consistent temporal or acoustic structure in their songs. We found that subsong contains brief inspiratory pulses (50 ms) alternating with longer pulses of sustained expiratory pressure (50-500 ms). In striking contrast to adult song, expiratory pulses often contained multiple (0-8) variably timed syllables separated by expiratory gaps and were only partially vocalized. During development, expiratory pulses became shorter and more stereotyped in duration with shorter and fewer nonvocalized parts. These developmental changes eventually resulted in the production of a single syllable per expiratory pulse and a single inspiratory pulse filling each gap, forming a coordinated sequence similar to that of adult song. To examine the role of forebrain song-control nuclei in the development of respiratory patterns, we performed pressure recordings before and after lesions of nucleus HVC (proper name) and found that this manipulation reverses the developmental trends in measures of the respiratory pattern.

  8. Observational fear learning in degus is correlated with temporal vocalization patterns.

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    Lidhar, Navdeep K; Insel, Nathan; Dong, June Yue; Takehara-Nishiuchi, Kaori

    2017-08-14

    Some animals learn to fear a situation after observing another individual come to harm, and this learning is influenced by the animals' social relationship and history. An important but sometimes overlooked factor in studies of observational fear learning is that social context not only affects observers, but may also influence the behavior and communications expressed by those being observed. Here we sought to investigate whether observational fear learning in the degu (Octodon degus) is affected by social familiarity, and the degree to which vocal expressions of alarm or distress contribute. 'Demonstrator' degus underwent contextual fear conditioning in the presence of a cagemate or stranger observer. Among the 15 male pairs, observers of familiar demonstrators exhibited higher freezing rates than observers of strangers when returned to the conditioning environment one day later. Observer freezing during testing was, however, also related to the proportion of short- versus long- inter-call-intervals (ICIs) in vocalizations recorded during prior conditioning. In a regression model that included both social relationship and ICI patterns, only the latter was significant. Further investigation of vocalizations, including use of a novel, directed k-means clustering approach, suggested that temporal structure rather than tonal variations may have been responsible for communicating danger. These data offer insight into how different expressions of distress or fear may impact an observer, adding to the complexity of social context effects in studies of empathy and social cognition. The experiments also offer new data on degu alarm calls and a potentially novel methodological approach to complex vocalizations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cannabinoid exposure during zebra finch sensorimotor vocal learning persistently alters expression of endocannabinoid signaling elements and acute agonist responsiveness

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    Lichtman Aron H

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously we have found that cannabinoid treatment of zebra finches during sensorimotor stages of vocal development alters song patterns produced in adulthood. Such persistently altered behavior must be attributable to changes in physiological substrates responsible for song. We are currently working to identify the nature of such physiological changes, and to understand how they contribute to altered vocal learning. One possibility is that developmental agonist exposure results in altered expression of elements of endocannabinoid signaling systems. To test this hypothesis we have studied effects of the potent cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55212-2 (WIN on endocannabinoid levels and densities of CB1 immunostaining in zebra finch brain. Results We found that late postnatal WIN treatment caused a long-term global disregulation of both levels of the endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonyl glycerol (2-AG and densities of CB1 immunostaining across brain regions, while repeated cannabinoid treatment in adults produced few long-term changes in the endogenous cannabinoid system. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the zebra finch endocannabinoid system is particularly sensitive to exogenous agonist exposure during the critical period of song learning and provide insight into susceptible brain areas.

  10. Song practice promotes acute vocal variability at a key stage of sensorimotor learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie E Miller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trial by trial variability during motor learning is a feature encoded by the basal ganglia of both humans and songbirds, and is important for reinforcement of optimal motor patterns, including those that produce speech and birdsong. Given the many parallels between these behaviors, songbirds provide a useful model to investigate neural mechanisms underlying vocal learning. In juvenile and adult male zebra finches, endogenous levels of FoxP2, a molecule critical for language, decrease two hours after morning song onset within area X, part of the basal ganglia-forebrain pathway dedicated to song. In juveniles, experimental 'knockdown' of area X FoxP2 results in abnormally variable song in adulthood. These findings motivated our hypothesis that low FoxP2 levels increase vocal variability, enabling vocal motor exploration in normal birds. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: After two hours in either singing or non-singing conditions (previously shown to produce differential area X FoxP2 levels, phonological and sequential features of the subsequent songs were compared across conditions in the same bird. In line with our prediction, analysis of songs sung by 75 day (75d birds revealed that syllable structure was more variable and sequence stereotypy was reduced following two hours of continuous practice compared to these features following two hours of non-singing. Similar trends in song were observed in these birds at 65d, despite higher overall within-condition variability at this age. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Together with previous work, these findings point to the importance of behaviorally-driven acute periods during song learning that allow for both refinement and reinforcement of motor patterns. Future work is aimed at testing the observation that not only does vocal practice influence expression of molecular networks, but that these networks then influence subsequent variability in these skills.

  11. Transfer Effect of Speech-sound Learning on Auditory-motor Processing of Perceived Vocal Pitch Errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaocong; Wong, Francis C K; Jones, Jeffery A; Li, Weifeng; Liu, Peng; Chen, Xi; Liu, Hanjun

    2015-08-17

    Speech perception and production are intimately linked. There is evidence that speech motor learning results in changes to auditory processing of speech. Whether speech motor control benefits from perceptual learning in speech, however, remains unclear. This event-related potential study investigated whether speech-sound learning can modulate the processing of feedback errors during vocal pitch regulation. Mandarin speakers were trained to perceive five Thai lexical tones while learning to associate pictures with spoken words over 5 days. Before and after training, participants produced sustained vowel sounds while they heard their vocal pitch feedback unexpectedly perturbed. As compared to the pre-training session, the magnitude of vocal compensation significantly decreased for the control group, but remained consistent for the trained group at the post-training session. However, the trained group had smaller and faster N1 responses to pitch perturbations and exhibited enhanced P2 responses that correlated significantly with their learning performance. These findings indicate that the cortical processing of vocal pitch regulation can be shaped by learning new speech-sound associations, suggesting that perceptual learning in speech can produce transfer effects to facilitating the neural mechanisms underlying the online monitoring of auditory feedback regarding vocal production.

  12. Learning to understand others' actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, Clare; Heyes, Cecilia; Kilner, James M

    2011-06-23

    Despite nearly two decades of research on mirror neurons, there is still much debate about what they do. The most enduring hypothesis is that they enable 'action understanding'. However, recent critical reviews have failed to find compelling evidence in favour of this view. Instead, these authors argue that mirror neurons are produced by associative learning and therefore that they cannot contribute to action understanding. The present opinion piece suggests that this argument is flawed. We argue that mirror neurons may both develop through associative learning and contribute to inferences about the actions of others.

  13. Distribution of language-related Cntnap2 protein in neural circuits critical for vocal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condro, Michael C; White, Stephanie A

    2014-01-01

    Variants of the contactin associated protein-like 2 (Cntnap2) gene are risk factors for language-related disorders including autism spectrum disorder, specific language impairment, and stuttering. Songbirds are useful models for study of human speech disorders due to their shared capacity for vocal learning, which relies on similar cortico-basal ganglia circuitry and genetic factors. Here we investigate Cntnap2 protein expression in the brain of the zebra finch, a songbird species in which males, but not females, learn their courtship songs. We hypothesize that Cntnap2 has overlapping functions in vocal learning species, and expect to find protein expression in song-related areas of the zebra finch brain. We further expect that the distribution of this membrane-bound protein may not completely mirror its mRNA distribution due to the distinct subcellular localization of the two molecular species. We find that Cntnap2 protein is enriched in several song control regions relative to surrounding tissues, particularly within the adult male, but not female, robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA), a cortical song control region analogous to human layer 5 primary motor cortex. The onset of this sexually dimorphic expression coincides with the onset of sensorimotor learning in developing males. Enrichment in male RA appears due to expression in projection neurons within the nucleus, as well as to additional expression in nerve terminals of cortical projections to RA from the lateral magnocellular nucleus of the nidopallium. Cntnap2 protein expression in zebra finch brain supports the hypothesis that this molecule affects neural connectivity critical for vocal learning across taxonomic classes. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Understanding Business Majors' Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, James; Rochford, Regina A.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, business education programs have experienced a decline in enrollment and an increase in attrition. To understand these issues and recommend solutions, the learning styles of 503 first-year business majors at an urban community college were examined. The results demonstrated that: (a) 94% of the participants were analytic learners; (b)…

  15. Deep learning for visual understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Y.

    2017-01-01

    With the dramatic growth of the image data on the web, there is an increasing demand of the algorithms capable of understanding the visual information automatically. Deep learning, served as one of the most significant breakthroughs, has brought revolutionary success in diverse visual applications,

  16. Hemispheric dominance underlying the neural substrate for learned vocalizations develops with experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirathivat, Napim; Raja, Sahitya C; Gobes, Sharon M H

    2015-06-22

    Many aspects of song learning in songbirds resemble characteristics of speech acquisition in humans. Genetic, anatomical and behavioural parallels have most recently been extended with demonstrated similarities in hemispheric dominance between humans and songbirds: the avian higher order auditory cortex is left-lateralized for processing song memories in juvenile zebra finches that already have formed a memory of their fathers' song, just like Wernicke's area in the left hemisphere of the human brain is dominant for speech perception. However, it is unclear if hemispheric specialization is due to pre-existing functional asymmetry or the result of learning itself. Here we show that in juvenile male and female zebra finches that had never heard an adult song before, neuronal activation after initial exposure to a conspecific song is bilateral. Thus, like in humans, hemispheric dominance develops with vocal proficiency. A left-lateralized functional system that develops through auditory-vocal learning may be an evolutionary adaptation that could increase the efficiency of transferring information within one hemisphere, benefiting the production and perception of learned communication signals.

  17. Understanding Cognitive Language Learning Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Di Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over time, definitions and taxonomies of language learning strategies have been critically examined. This article defines and classifies cognitive language learning strategies on a more grounded basis. Language learning is a macro-process for which the general hypotheses of information processing are valid. Cognitive strategies are represented by the pillars underlying the encoding, storage and retrieval of information. In order to understand the processes taking place on these three dimensions, a functional model was elaborated from multiple theoretical contributions and previous models: the Smart Processing Model. This model operates with linguistic inputs as well as with any other kind of information. It helps to illustrate the stages, relations, modules and processes that occur during the flow of information. This theoretical advance is a core element to classify cognitive strategies. Contributions from cognitive neuroscience have also been considered to establish the proposed classification which consists of five categories. Each of these categories has a different predominant function: classification, preparation, association, elaboration and transfer-practice. This better founded taxonomy opens the doors to potential studies that would allow a better understanding of the interdisciplinary complexity of language learning. Pedagogical and methodological implications are also discussed.

  18. Learning to understand others' actions

    OpenAIRE

    Press, Clare; Heyes, Cecilia; Kilner, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite nearly two decades of research on mirror neurons, there is still much debate about what they do. The most enduring hypothesis is that they enable ‘action understanding’. However, recent critical reviews have failed to find compelling evidence in favour of this view. Instead, these authors argue that mirror neurons are produced by associative learning and therefore that they cannot contribute to action understanding. The present opinion piece suggests that this argument is flawed. We a...

  19. Let the music play! A short-term but no long-term detrimental effect of vocal background music with familiar language lyrics on foreign language vocabulary learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, A.M.B.; Smedinga, H.E.

    2014-01-01

    Participants learned foreign vocabulary by means of the paired-associates learning procedure in three conditions: (a) in silence, (b) with vocal music with lyrics in a familiar language playing in the background, or (c) with vocal music with lyrics in an unfamiliar language playing in the

  20. Learning environment, learning styles and conceptual understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Lourdes M.

    1990-01-01

    In recent years there have been many studies on learners developing conceptions of natural phenomena. However, so far there have been few attempts to investigate how the characteristics of the learners and their environment influence such conceptions. This study began with an attempt to use an instrument developed by McCarthy (1981) to describe learners in Malaysian primary schools. This proved inappropriate as Asian primary classrooms do not provide the same kind of environment as US classrooms. It was decided to develop a learning style checklist to suit the local context and which could be used to describe differences between learners which teachers could appreciate and use. The checklist included four dimensions — perceptual, process, self-confidence and motivation. The validated instrument was used to determine the learning style preferences of primary four pupils in Penang, Malaysia. Later, an analysis was made regarding the influence of learning environment and learning styles on conceptual understanding in the topics of food, respiration and excretion. This study was replicated in the Philippines with the purpose of investigating the relationship between learning styles and achievement in science, where the topics of food, respiration and excretion have been taken up. A number of significant relationships were observed in these two studies.

  1. Convergence of calls as animals form social bonds, active compensation for noisy communication channels, and the evolution of vocal learning in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyack, Peter L

    2008-08-01

    The classic evidence for vocal production learning involves imitation of novel, often anthropogenic sounds. Among mammals, this has been reported for dolphins, elephants, harbor seals, and humans. A broader taxonomic distribution has been reported for vocal convergence, where the acoustic properties of calls from different individuals converge when they are housed together in captivity or form social bonds in the wild. Vocal convergence has been demonstrated for animals as diverse as songbirds, parakeets, hummingbirds, bats, elephants, cetaceans, and primates. For most species, call convergence is thought to reflect a group-distinctive identifier, with shared calls reflecting and strengthening social bonds. A ubiquitous function for vocal production learning that is starting to receive attention involves modifying signals to improve communication in a noisy channel. Pooling data on vocal imitation, vocal convergence, and compensation for noise suggests a wider taxonomic distribution of vocal production learning among mammals than has been generally appreciated. The wide taxonomic distribution of this evidence for vocal production learning suggests that perhaps more of the neural underpinnings for vocal production learning are in place in mammals than is usually recognized. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved

  2. Place preference and vocal learning rely on distinct reinforcers in songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Don; Chen, Ruidong; Goldberg, Jesse H

    2018-04-30

    In reinforcement learning (RL) agents are typically tasked with maximizing a single objective function such as reward. But it remains poorly understood how agents might pursue distinct objectives at once. In machines, multiobjective RL can be achieved by dividing a single agent into multiple sub-agents, each of which is shaped by agent-specific reinforcement, but it remains unknown if animals adopt this strategy. Here we use songbirds to test if navigation and singing, two behaviors with distinct objectives, can be differentially reinforced. We demonstrate that strobe flashes aversively condition place preference but not song syllables. Brief noise bursts aversively condition song syllables but positively reinforce place preference. Thus distinct behavior-generating systems, or agencies, within a single animal can be shaped by correspondingly distinct reinforcement signals. Our findings suggest that spatially segregated vocal circuits can solve a credit assignment problem associated with multiobjective learning.

  3. A sensorimotor area in the songbird brain is required for production of vocalizations in the song learning period of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piristine, Hande C; Choetso, Tenzin; Gobes, Sharon M H

    2016-11-01

    Sensory feedback is essential for acquiring and maintaining complex motor behaviors, including birdsong. In zebra finches, auditory feedback reaches the song control circuits primarily through the nucleus interfacialis nidopalii (Nif), which provides excitatory input to HVC (proper name)-a premotor region essential for the production of learned vocalizations. Despite being one of the major inputs to the song control pathway, the role of Nif in generating vocalizations is not well understood. To address this, we transiently inactivated Nif in late juvenile zebra finches. Upon Nif inactivation (in both hemispheres or on one side only), birds went from singing stereotyped zebra finch song to uttering highly variable and unstructured vocalizations resembling sub-song, an early juvenile song form driven by a basal ganglia circuit. Simultaneously inactivating Nif and LMAN (lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium), the output nucleus of a basal ganglia circuit, inhibited song production altogether. These results suggest that Nif is required for generating the premotor drive for song. Permanent Nif lesions, in contrast, have only transient effects on vocal production, with song recovering within a day. The sensorimotor nucleus Nif thus produces a premotor drive to the motor pathway that is acutely required for generating learned vocalizations, but once permanently removed, the song system can compensate for its absence. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 1213-1225, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Vocal Imitations of Non-Vocal Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houix, Olivier; Voisin, Frédéric; Misdariis, Nicolas; Susini, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Imitative behaviors are widespread in humans, in particular whenever two persons communicate and interact. Several tokens of spoken languages (onomatopoeias, ideophones, and phonesthemes) also display different degrees of iconicity between the sound of a word and what it refers to. Thus, it probably comes at no surprise that human speakers use a lot of imitative vocalizations and gestures when they communicate about sounds, as sounds are notably difficult to describe. What is more surprising is that vocal imitations of non-vocal everyday sounds (e.g. the sound of a car passing by) are in practice very effective: listeners identify sounds better with vocal imitations than with verbal descriptions, despite the fact that vocal imitations are inaccurate reproductions of a sound created by a particular mechanical system (e.g. a car driving by) through a different system (the voice apparatus). The present study investigated the semantic representations evoked by vocal imitations of sounds by experimentally quantifying how well listeners could match sounds to category labels. The experiment used three different types of sounds: recordings of easily identifiable sounds (sounds of human actions and manufactured products), human vocal imitations, and computational “auditory sketches” (created by algorithmic computations). The results show that performance with the best vocal imitations was similar to the best auditory sketches for most categories of sounds, and even to the referent sounds themselves in some cases. More detailed analyses showed that the acoustic distance between a vocal imitation and a referent sound is not sufficient to account for such performance. Analyses suggested that instead of trying to reproduce the referent sound as accurately as vocally possible, vocal imitations focus on a few important features, which depend on each particular sound category. These results offer perspectives for understanding how human listeners store and access long

  5. Understanding Learning Style by Eye Tracking in Slide Video Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jianxia; Nishihara, Akinori

    2012-01-01

    More and more videos are now being used in e-learning context. For improving learning effect, to understand how students view the online video is important. In this research, we investigate how students deploy their attention when they learn through interactive slide video in the aim of better understanding observers' learning style. Felder and…

  6. Understanding the Learning Process in SMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, James; Gannon-Leary, Pat

    2007-01-01

    A major obstacle to the diffusion of management development learning technologies from Higher Education Institutions to Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) is a lack of understanding about how SME learners learn. This article examines the nature of learning in SMEs and considers the incidence of informal support for informal learning.…

  7. Models of vocal learning in the songbird: Historical frameworks and the stabilizing critic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nick, Teresa A

    2015-10-01

    Birdsong is a form of sensorimotor learning that involves a mirror-like system that activates with both song hearing and production. Early models of song learning, based on behavioral measures, identified key features of vocal plasticity, such as the requirements for memorization of a tutor song and auditory feedback during song practice. The concept of a comparator, which compares the memory of the tutor song to auditory feedback, featured prominently. Later models focused on linking anatomically-defined neural modules to behavioral concepts, such as the comparator. Exploiting the anatomical modularity of the songbird brain, localized lesions illuminated mechanisms of the neural song system. More recent models have integrated neuronal mechanisms identified in other systems with observations in songbirds. While these models explain multiple aspects of song learning, they must incorporate computational elements based on unknown biological mechanisms to bridge the motor-to-sensory delay and/or transform motor signals into the sensory domain. Here, I introduce the stabilizing critic hypothesis, which enables sensorimotor learning by (1) placing a purely sensory comparator afferent of the song system and (2) endowing song system disinhibitory interneuron networks with the capacity both to bridge the motor-sensory delay through prolonged bursting and to stabilize song segments selectively based on the comparator signal. These proposed networks stabilize an otherwise variable signal generated by both putative mirror neurons and a cortical-basal ganglia-thalamic loop. This stabilized signal then temporally converges with a matched premotor signal in the efferent song motor cortex, promoting spike-timing-dependent plasticity in the premotor circuitry and behavioral song learning. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Understanding nomadic collaborative learning groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas; Davidsen, Jacob; Hodgson, Vivien

    2018-01-01

    -term collaborations within the frame of Problem and Project Based Learning. By analysing the patterns of nomadic collaborative learning we identify and discuss how the two groups of students incorporate mobile and digital technologies as well as physical and/or non-digital technologies into their group work......The paper builds on the work of Rossitto et al. on collaborative nomadic work to develop three categories of practice of nomadic collaborative learning groups. Our study is based on interviews, workshops and observations of two undergraduate student's group practices engaged in self-organised, long....... Specifically, we identify the following categories of nomadic collaborative learning practices: “orchestration of work phases, spaces and activities,” “the orchestration of multiple technologies” and “orchestration of togetherness.” We found that for both groups of students there was a fluidity, situatedness...

  9. Wavelet analysis of hemispheroid flow separation toward understanding human vocal fold pathologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesniak, Daniel H.; Carr, Ian A.; Bulusu, Kartik V.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2014-11-01

    Physiological flows observed in human vocal fold pathologies, such as polyps and nodules, can be modeled by flow over a wall-mounted protuberance. The experimental investigation of flow separation over a surface-mounted hemispheroid was performed using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and measurements of surface pressure in a low-speed wind tunnel. This study builds on the hypothesis that the signatures of vortical structures associated with flow separation are imprinted on the surface pressure distributions. Wavelet decomposition methods in one- and two-dimensions were utilized to elucidate the flow behavior. First, a complex Gaussian wavelet was used for the reconstruction of surface pressure time series from static pressure measurements acquired from ports upstream, downstream, and on the surface of the hemispheroid. This was followed by the application of a novel continuous wavelet transform algorithm (PIVlet 1.2) using a 2D-Ricker wavelet for coherent structure detection on instantaneous PIV-data. The goal of this study is to correlate phase shifts in surface pressure with Strouhal numbers associated with the vortex shedding. Ultimately, the wavelet-based analytical framework will be aimed at addressing pulsatile flows. This material is based in part upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Number CBET-1236351, and GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering (COBRE).

  10. 气质因素对声乐学习的影响%The Influence of Temperament Factors to Vocal Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐好

    2012-01-01

    本文从心理学的角度出发,主要论述了气质类型因素和声乐演唱者之间的关系,分析出认清每个人不同气质类型对于声乐学习的影响和重要作用,包括气质类型对每个人表演风格特性的影响;如何通过认识自身气质类型来突破自己,提高学习水平等。%Starting from a psychological point of view,discusses the relationship between temperament types of factors and vocal music,to analyze the impact and important role of a clear understanding of each different temperament types of vocal learning,including temperament type for each style of performance characteristicsimpact;how to recognize their own temperament type to break through,and improve the level of learning.

  11. Understanding Nomadic Collaborative Learning Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryberg, Thomas; Davidsen, Jacob; Hodgson, Vivien

    2018-01-01

    The paper builds on the work of Rossitto "et al." on collaborative nomadic work to develop three categories of practice of nomadic collaborative learning groups. Our study is based on interviews, workshops and observations of two undergraduate student's group practices engaged in self-organised, long-term collaborations within the frame…

  12. Let the Music Play!--A Short-Term but No Long-Term Detrimental Effect of Vocal Background Music with Familiar Language Lyrics on Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Annette M. B.; Smedinga, Hilde E.

    2014-01-01

    Participants learned foreign vocabulary by means of the paired-associates learning procedure in three conditions: (a) in silence, (b) with vocal music with lyrics in a familiar language playing in the background, or (c) with vocal music with lyrics in an unfamiliar language playing in the background. The vocabulary to learn varied in concreteness…

  13. Developmental song learning as a model to understand neural mechanisms that limit and promote the ability to learn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Sarah E

    2017-11-20

    Songbirds famously learn their vocalizations. Some species can learn continuously, others seasonally, and still others just once. The zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) learns to sing during a single developmental "Critical Period," a restricted phase during which a specific experience has profound and permanent effects on brain function and behavioral patterns. The zebra finch can therefore provide fundamental insight into features that promote and limit the ability to acquire complex learned behaviors. For example, what properties permit the brain to come "on-line" for learning? How does experience become encoded to prevent future learning? What features define the brain in receptive compared to closed learning states? This piece will focus on epigenomic, genomic, and molecular levels of analysis that operate on the timescales of development and complex behavioral learning. Existing data will be discussed as they relate to Critical Period learning, and strategies for future studies to more directly address these questions will be considered. Birdsong learning is a powerful model for advancing knowledge of the biological intersections of maturation and experience. Lessons from its study not only have implications for understanding developmental song learning, but also broader questions of learning potential and the enduring effects of early life experience on neural systems and behavior. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Understanding Learning Style Variations among Undergraduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jayakumar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in Vellore district of Tamil Nadu state to understand the learning styles of students. The term learning style refers to the way or method or approach by which a student learns. The study explored the possible learning style variations among agricultural, horticultural, engineering and arts & science students and their association with academic achievement. One hundred and twelve students were randomly selected from the four streams and their learning styles were analyzed. In the agricultural and horticultural streams, a majority of the students were auditory learners. They were also found to be predominantly unimodal learners. Overall, it was found that majority of the students were visual learners followed by auditory and kinesthetic style. The highest percentage of kinesthetic learners was found among engineering students. Trimodal learners scored the highest mean percentage of marks. The influence of learning styles on the academic achievements of the students did not show a significant relationship.

  15. Identification of Conceptual Understanding in Biotechnology Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanti, E.; Fitriani, A.; Redjeki, S.; Riandi, R.

    2018-04-01

    Research on the identification of conceptual understanding in the learning of Biotechnology, especially on the concept of Genetic Engineering has been done. The lesson is carried out by means of discussion and presentation mediated-powerpoint media that contains learning materials with relevant images and videos. This research is a qualitative research with one-shot case study or one-group posttest-only design. Analysis of 44 students' answers show that only 22% of students understand the concept, 18% of students lack understanding of concepts, 57% of students have misconceptions, and 3% of students are error. It can be concluded that most students has misconceptions in learning the concept of Genetic Engineering.

  16. Noradrenergic control of gene expression and long-term neuronal adaptation evoked by learned vocalizations in songbirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarciso A F Velho

    Full Text Available Norepinephrine (NE is thought to play important roles in the consolidation and retrieval of long-term memories, but its role in the processing and memorization of complex acoustic signals used for vocal communication has yet to be determined. We have used a combination of gene expression analysis, electrophysiological recordings and pharmacological manipulations in zebra finches to examine the role of noradrenergic transmission in the brain's response to birdsong, a learned vocal behavior that shares important features with human speech. We show that noradrenergic transmission is required for both the expression of activity-dependent genes and the long-term maintenance of stimulus-specific electrophysiological adaptation that are induced in central auditory neurons by stimulation with birdsong. Specifically, we show that the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM, an area directly involved in the auditory processing and memorization of birdsong, receives strong noradrenergic innervation. Song-responsive neurons in this area express α-adrenergic receptors and are in close proximity to noradrenergic terminals. We further show that local α-adrenergic antagonism interferes with song-induced gene expression, without affecting spontaneous or evoked electrophysiological activity, thus dissociating the molecular and electrophysiological responses to song. Moreover, α-adrenergic antagonism disrupts the maintenance but not the acquisition of the adapted physiological state. We suggest that the noradrenergic system regulates long-term changes in song-responsive neurons by modulating the gene expression response that is associated with the electrophysiological activation triggered by song. We also suggest that this mechanism may be an important contributor to long-term auditory memories of learned vocalizations.

  17. Mindfulness for Singers: The Effects of a Targeted Mindfulness Course on Learning Vocal Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowski, Anne-Marie L.; Greasley, Alinka E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the development and implementation of a unique Mindfulness for Singers (MfS) course designed to improve singers' vocal technique. Eight university students completed the intervention. Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) scores showed general improvement across all five facets of mindfulness. Qualitative results showed…

  18. The roles of vocal and visual interactions in social learning zebra finches: A video playback experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillette, Lauren M; Healy, Susan D

    2017-06-01

    The transmission of information from an experienced demonstrator to a naïve observer often depends on characteristics of the demonstrator, such as familiarity, success or dominance status. Whether or not the demonstrator pays attention to and/or interacts with the observer may also affect social information acquisition or use by the observer. Here we used a video-demonstrator paradigm first to test whether video demonstrators have the same effect as using live demonstrators in zebra finches, and second, to test the importance of visual and vocal interactions between the demonstrator and observer on social information use by the observer. We found that female zebra finches copied novel food choices of male demonstrators they saw via live-streaming video while they did not consistently copy from the demonstrators when they were seen in playbacks of the same videos. Although naive observers copied in the absence of vocalizations by the demonstrator, as they copied from playback of videos with the sound off, females did not copy where there was a mis-match between the visual information provided by the video and vocal information from a live male that was out of sight. Taken together these results suggest that video demonstration is a useful methodology for testing social information transfer, at least in a foraging context, but more importantly, that social information use varies according to the vocal interactions, or lack thereof, between the observer and the demonstrator. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Animal Models of Speech and Vocal Communication Deficits Associated With Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopka, Genevieve; Roberts, Todd F

    2016-01-01

    Disruptions in speech, language, and vocal communication are hallmarks of several neuropsychiatric disorders, most notably autism spectrum disorders. Historically, the use of animal models to dissect molecular pathways and connect them to behavioral endophenotypes in cognitive disorders has proven to be an effective approach for developing and testing disease-relevant therapeutics. The unique aspects of human language compared with vocal behaviors in other animals make such an approach potentially more challenging. However, the study of vocal learning in species with analogous brain circuits to humans may provide entry points for understanding this human-specific phenotype and diseases. We review animal models of vocal learning and vocal communication and specifically link phenotypes of psychiatric disorders to relevant model systems. Evolutionary constraints in the organization of neural circuits and synaptic plasticity result in similarities in the brain mechanisms for vocal learning and vocal communication. Comparative approaches and careful consideration of the behavioral limitations among different animal models can provide critical avenues for dissecting the molecular pathways underlying cognitive disorders that disrupt speech, language, and vocal communication. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Effect of Time on Word Learning: An Examination of Decay of the Memory Trace and Vocal Rehearsal in Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Mary; Spaulding, Tammie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of time to response in a fast-mapping word learning task for children with specific language impairment (SLI) and children with typically developing language skills (TD). Manipulating time to response allows us to examine decay of the memory trace, the use of vocal rehearsal, and their…

  1. Vocal Qualities in Music Theater Voice: Perceptions of Expert Pedagogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Tracy; Kenny, Dianna

    2016-01-01

    To gather qualitative descriptions of music theater vocal qualities including belt, legit, and mix from expert pedagogues to better define this voice type. This is a prospective, semistructured interview. Twelve expert teachers from United States, United Kingdom, Asia, and Australia were interviewed by Skype and asked to identify characteristics of music theater vocal qualities including vocal production, physiology, esthetics, pitch range, and pedagogical techniques. Responses were compared with published studies on music theater voice. Belt and legit were generally described as distinct sounds with differing physiological and technical requirements. Teachers were concerned that belt should be taught "safely" to minimize vocal health risks. There was consensus between teachers and published research on the physiology of the glottis and vocal tract; however, teachers were not in agreement about breathing techniques. Neither were teachers in agreement about the meaning of "mix." Most participants described belt as heavily weighted, thick folds, thyroarytenoid-dominant, or chest register; however, there was no consensus on an appropriate term. Belt substyles were named and generally categorized by weightedness or tone color. Descriptions of male belt were less clear than for female belt. This survey provides an overview of expert pedagogical perspectives on the characteristics of belt, legit, and mix qualities in the music theater voice. Although teacher responses are generally in agreement with published research, there are still many controversial issues and gaps in knowledge and understanding of this vocal technique. Breathing techniques, vocal range, mix, male belt, and vocal registers require continuing investigation so that we can learn more about efficient and healthy vocal function in music theater singing. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Understanding the Advising Learning Process Using Learning Taxonomies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehleck, Jeanette K.; Smith, Cathleen L.; Allen, Janine M.

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the learning that transpires in advising, we used Anderson et al.'s (2001) revision of Bloom's (1956) taxonomy and Krathwohl, Bloom, and Masia's (1964) affective taxonomy to analyze eight student-reported advising outcomes from Smith and Allen (2014). Using the cognitive processes and knowledge domains of Anderson et al.'s…

  3. Domestic Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris are Sensitive to the “Human” Qualities of Vocal Commands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Gibson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, domestic dogs have been recognized for their ability to utilize human communicative gestures in choice tasks, as well as communicate with humans through visual and auditory means. A few dogs have even demonstrated the capacity to learn hundreds to thousands of human words and object labels with extensive training. However less is known about dogs‟ understanding or perception of human vocalizations in the absence of explicit training. This study was conducted to determine what aspects of human scolding vocalizations dogs would be most responsive to when presented with a choice to consume or avoid available food items. Variables included the gender, authenticity, word clarity and the human quality of the vocal commands. Our results suggest that dogs are generally cautious about novel sounds produced in the proximity of food. However they are most likely to avoid consumption when hearing a vocalization originally produced by a scolding human, suggesting awareness of vocal qualities common to human speech.

  4. Evidence for vocal learning in juvenile male killer whales, Orcinus orca, from an adventitious cross-socializing experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crance, Jessica L; Bowles, Ann E; Garver, Alan

    2014-04-15

    Killer whales (Orcinus orca) are thought to learn their vocal dialect. Dispersal in the species is rare, but effects of shifts in social association on the dialect can be studied under controlled conditions. Individual call repertoires and social association were measured in three adult female killer whales and three males (two juveniles and an adult) during two periods, 2001-2003 and 2005-2006. Three distinct dialect repertoires were represented among the subjects. An adventitious experiment in social change resulted from the birth of a calf and the transfer of two non-focal subjects in 2004. Across the two periods, 1691 calls were collected, categorized and attributed to individuals. Repertoire overlap for each subject dyad was compared with an index of association. During 2005-2006, the two juvenile males increased association with the unrelated adult male. By the end of the period, both had begun producing novel calls and call features characteristic of his repertoire. However, there was little or no reciprocal change and the adult females did not acquire his calls. Repertoire overlap and association were significantly correlated in the first period. In the second, median association time and repertoire similarity increased, but the relationship was only marginally significant. The results provided evidence that juvenile male killer whales are capable of learning new call types, possibly stimulated by a change in social association. The pattern of learning was consistent with a selective convergence of male repertoires.

  5. Knowledge. Progression and the Understanding of Workplace Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Erik

    2006-01-01

    The book explores new ways of thinking about learning at work, and the understanding of its role and purpose.......The book explores new ways of thinking about learning at work, and the understanding of its role and purpose....

  6. Understanding Interorganizational Learning Based on Social Spaces and Learning Episodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Rebelato Mozzato

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Different organizational settings have been gaining ground in the world economy, resulting in a proliferation of different forms of strategic alliances that translate into a growth in the number of organizations that have started to deal with interorganizational relationships with different actors. These circumstances reinforce Crossan, Lane, White and Djurfeldt (1995 and Crossan, Mauer and White (2011 in exploring what authors refer to as the fourth, interorganizational, level of learning. These authors, amongst others, suggest that the process of interorganizational learning (IOL warrants investigation, as its scope of analysis needs widening and deepening. Therefore, this theoretical essay is an attempt to understand IOL as a dynamic process found in interorganizational cooperative relationships that can take place in different structured and unstructured social spaces and that can generate learning episodes. According to this view, IOL is understood as part of an organizational learning continuum and is analyzed within the framework of practical rationality in an approach that is less cognitive and more social-behavioral.

  7. Common features of neural activity during singing and sleep periods in a basal ganglia nucleus critical for vocal learning in a juvenile songbird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Yanagihara

    Full Text Available Reactivations of waking experiences during sleep have been considered fundamental neural processes for memory consolidation. In songbirds, evidence suggests the importance of sleep-related neuronal activity in song system motor pathway nuclei for both juvenile vocal learning and maintenance of adult song. Like those in singing motor nuclei, neurons in the basal ganglia nucleus Area X, part of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuit essential for vocal plasticity, exhibit singing-related activity. It is unclear, however, whether Area X neurons show any distinctive spiking activity during sleep similar to that during singing. Here we demonstrate that, during sleep, Area X pallidal neurons exhibit phasic spiking activity, which shares some firing properties with activity during singing. Shorter interspike intervals that almost exclusively occurred during singing in awake periods were also observed during sleep. The level of firing variability was consistently higher during singing and sleep than during awake non-singing states. Moreover, deceleration of firing rate, which is considered to be an important firing property for transmitting signals from Area X to the thalamic nucleus DLM, was observed mainly during sleep as well as during singing. These results suggest that songbird basal ganglia circuitry may be involved in the off-line processing potentially critical for vocal learning during sensorimotor learning phase.

  8. Using Data to Understand How to Better Design Adaptive Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Kang, Jina; Zou, Wenting; Lee, Hyeyeon; Pan, Zilong; Corliss, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    There is much enthusiasm in higher education about the benefits of adaptive learning and using big data to investigate learning processes to make data-informed educational decisions. The benefits of adaptive learning to achieve personalized learning are obvious. Yet, there lacks evidence-based research to understand how data such as user behavior…

  9. The double-loop feedback for active learning with understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hans Peter

    2004-01-01

    Learning is an active process, and in engineering education authentic projects is often used to activate the students and promote learning. However, it is not all activity that leads to deep learning; and in a rapid changing society deep understanding is necessary for life-long learning. Empirical...... findings at DTU question the direct link between high activity and a deep approach to learning. Active learning is important to obtain engineering competencies, but active learning requires more than activity. Feedback and reflection is crucial to the learning process, since new knowledge is built...... on the student’s existing understanding. A model for an active learning process with a double-loop feedback is suggested - the first loop gives the student experience through experimentation, the second conceptual understanding through reflection. Students often miss the second loop, so it is important...

  10. Auditory-vocal mirroring in songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Mirror neurons are theorized to serve as a neural substrate for spoken language in humans, but the existence and functions of auditory-vocal mirror neurons in the human brain remain largely matters of speculation. Songbirds resemble humans in their capacity for vocal learning and depend on their learned songs to facilitate courtship and individual recognition. Recent neurophysiological studies have detected putative auditory-vocal mirror neurons in a sensorimotor region of the songbird's brain that plays an important role in expressive and receptive aspects of vocal communication. This review discusses the auditory and motor-related properties of these cells, considers their potential role on song learning and communication in relation to classical studies of birdsong, and points to the circuit and developmental mechanisms that may give rise to auditory-vocal mirroring in the songbird's brain.

  11. Auditory–vocal mirroring in songbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Mirror neurons are theorized to serve as a neural substrate for spoken language in humans, but the existence and functions of auditory–vocal mirror neurons in the human brain remain largely matters of speculation. Songbirds resemble humans in their capacity for vocal learning and depend on their learned songs to facilitate courtship and individual recognition. Recent neurophysiological studies have detected putative auditory–vocal mirror neurons in a sensorimotor region of the songbird's brain that plays an important role in expressive and receptive aspects of vocal communication. This review discusses the auditory and motor-related properties of these cells, considers their potential role on song learning and communication in relation to classical studies of birdsong, and points to the circuit and developmental mechanisms that may give rise to auditory–vocal mirroring in the songbird's brain. PMID:24778375

  12. Vocal Fold Paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here Home » Health Info » Voice, Speech, and Language Vocal Fold Paralysis On this page: What is vocal fold ... Where can I get additional information? What is vocal fold paralysis? Structures involved in speech and voice production ...

  13. Understanding the Problems of Learning Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semilla-Dube, Lilia

    1983-01-01

    A model is being developed to categorize problems in teaching and learning mathematics. Categories include problems due to language difficulties, lack of prerequisite knowledge, and those related to the affective domain. This paper calls on individuals to share teaching and learning episodes; those submitted will then be compiled and categorized.…

  14. Helping Education Students Understand Learning through Designing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronen-Fuhrmann, Tamar; Kali, Yael; Hoadley, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a course in which graduate students in education learn practical and theoretical aspects of educational design by creating technologies for learning. The course was built around three themes: "Analyzing technologies," in which students study state-of- the-art technologies and interview their designers; "design studio," in…

  15. Understanding the learning styles of undergraduate physiotherapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Undergraduate students at universities have different learning styles. To perform optimally, both they and their educators should be made aware of their preferred learning styles and problem-solving abilities. Students have different backgrounds, strengths, weaknesses, interests, ambitions, levels of motivation ...

  16. Designing Professional Learning Communities through Understanding the Beliefs of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Jie; Kang, Rui; Liu, Di

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to initiate the process of building professional development learning communities for pre-service math teachers through revealing those teachers' conceptions/beliefs of students' learning and their own learning in China. It examines Chinese pre-service math teachers' conceptions of student learning and their related…

  17. Hemispheric dominance underlying the neural substrate for learned vocalizations develops with experience

    OpenAIRE

    Chirathivat, Napim; Raja, Sahitya C.; Gobes, Sharon M. H.

    2015-01-01

    Many aspects of song learning in songbirds resemble characteristics of speech acquisition in humans. Genetic, anatomical and behavioural parallels have most recently been extended with demonstrated similarities in hemispheric dominance between humans and songbirds: the avian higher order auditory cortex is left-lateralized for processing song memories in juvenile zebra finches that already have formed a memory of their fathers? song, just like Wernicke?s area in the left hemisphere of the hum...

  18. Understanding Digital Learning and Its Variable Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Means, B.

    2016-12-01

    An increasing proportion of undergraduate courses use an online or blended learning format. This trend signals major changes in the kind of instruction students receive in their STEM courses, yet evidence about the effectiveness of these new approaches is sparse. Existing syntheses and meta-analyses summarize outcomes from experimental or quasi-experimental studies of online and blended courses and document how few studies incorporate proper controls for differences in student characteristics, instructor behaviors, and other course conditions. The evidence that is available suggests that on average blended courses are equal to or better than traditional face-to-face courses and that online courses are equivalent in terms of learning outcomes. But these averages conceal a tremendous underlying variability. Results vary markedly from course to course, even when the same technology is used in both. Some research suggests that online instruction puts lower-achieving students at a disadvantage. It is clear that introducing digital learning per se is no guarantee that student engagement and learning will be enhanced. Getting more consistently positive impacts out of learning technologies is going to require systematic characterization of the features of learning technologies and associated instructional practices as well as attention to context and student characteristics. This presentation will present a framework for characterizing essential features of digital learning resources, implementation practices, and conditions. It will also summarize the research evidence with respect to the learning impacts of specific technology features including spaced practice, immediate feedback, mastery learning based pacing, visualizations and simulations, gaming features, prompts for explanations and reflection, and tools for online collaboration.

  19. Peter Jarvis and the Understanding of Adult Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illeris, Knud

    2017-01-01

    By comparing Peter Jarvis' understanding of learning with two other approaches--which Jarvis himself has referred to as "the most comprehensive": Etienne Wenger's "social theory of learning" and my own psychologically oriented theory of "the three dimensions of learning"--it becomes evident that Jarvis' understanding…

  20. Statistical Learning as a Basis for Social Understanding in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffman, Ted; Taumoepeau, Mele; Perkins, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Many authors have argued that infants understand goals, intentions, and beliefs. We posit that infants' success on such tasks might instead reveal an understanding of behaviour, that infants' proficient statistical learning abilities might enable such insights, and that maternal talk scaffolds children's learning about the social world as well. We…

  1. Understanding of Foreign Language Learning of Generation Y

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozavli, Ebubekir

    2016-01-01

    Different generations are constituted depending on social changes and they are designed sociologically as traditional, baby boomer, X, Y and Z. Many studies have been reported on understanding of foreign language learning generation Y. This study aims to realise the gap in and contribute to the research on language learning understanding of…

  2. The influence of thyroarytenoid and cricothyroid muscle activation on vocal fold stiffness and eigenfrequencies

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Jun; Zhang, Zhaoyan

    2013-01-01

    The influence of the thyroarytenoid (TA) and cricothyroid (CT) muscle activation on vocal fold stiffness and eigenfrequencies was investigated in a muscularly controlled continuum model of the vocal folds. Unlike the general understanding that vocal fold fundamental frequency was determined by vocal fold tension, this study showed that vocal fold eigenfrequencies were primarily determined by vocal fold stiffness. This study further showed that, with reference to the resting state of zero stra...

  3. Children's developing understanding of what and how they learn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, David M; Letourneau, Susan M

    2015-04-01

    What do children know about learning? Children between 4 and 10 years of age were asked what they thought the word learning meant and then engaged in a structured interview about what kinds of things they learned and how they learned those things. Most of the 4- and 5-year-olds' responses to these questions indicated a lack of awareness about the nature of learning or how learning occurs. In contrast, the 8- to 10-year-olds showed a strong understanding of learning as a process and could often generate explicit metacognitive responses indicating that they understood under what circumstances learning would occur. The 6- and 7-year-olds were in a transitional stage between these two levels of understanding. We discuss the implications of this development with children's theory-of-mind development more generally. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Adolescent literacy: learning and understanding content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Susan R

    2012-01-01

    Learning to read--amazing as it is to small children and their parents--is one thing. Reading to learn, explains Susan Goldman of the University of Illinois at Chicago, is quite another. Are today's students able to use reading and writing to acquire knowledge, solve problems, and make decisions in academic, personal, and professional arenas? Do they have the literacy skills necessary to meet the demands of the twenty-first century? To answer these questions, Goldman describes the increasingly complex comprehension, reasoning skills, and knowledge that students need as they progress through school and surveys what researchers and educators know about how to teach those skills. Successfully reading to learn requires the ability to analyze, synthesize, and evaluate information from multiple sources, Goldman writes. Effective readers must be able to apply different knowledge, reading, and reasoning processes to different types of content, from fiction to history and science, to news accounts and user manuals. They must assess sources of information for relevance, reliability, impartiality, and completeness. And they must connect information across multiple sources. In short, successful readers must not only use general reading skills but also pay close attention to discipline-specific processes. Goldman reviews the evidence on three different instructional approaches to reading to learn: general comprehension strategies, classroom discussion, and disciplinary content instruction. She argues that building the literacy skills necessary for U.S. students to read comprehensively and critically and to learn content in a variety of disciplines should be a primary responsibility for all of the nation's teachers. But outside of English, few subject-area teachers are aware of the need to teach subject-area reading comprehension skills, nor have they had opportunities to learn them themselves. Building the capacity of all teachers to meet the literacy needs of today's students

  5. ANALYSIS LEARNING MODEL OF DISCOVERY AND UNDERSTANDING THE CONCEPT PRELIMINARY TO PHYSICS LEARNING OUTCOMES SMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Rosepda Sebayang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims: 1 to determine whether the student learning outcomes using discovery learning is better than conventional learning 2 To determine whether the learning outcomes of students who have a high initial concept understanding better then of low initial concept understanding, and 3 to determine the effect of interaction discovery learning and understanding of the initial concept of the learning outcomes of students. The samples in this study was taken by cluster random sampling two classes where class X PIA 3 as a class experiment with applying discovery learning and class X PIA 2 as a control class by applying conventional learning. The instrument used in this study is a test of learning outcomes in the form of multiple-choice comprehension test initial concept description form. The results of research are: 1 learning outcomes of students who were taught with discovery learning is better than the learning outcomes of students who are taught by conventional learning, 2 student learning outcomes with high initial conceptual understanding better than the learning outcomes of students with low initial conceptual understanding, and 3 there was no interaction between discovery learning and understanding of initial concepts for the student learning outcomes.

  6. Understanding feedback: A learning theory perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thurlings, Marieke; Vermeulen, Marjan; Bastiaens, Theo; Stijnen, Sjef

    2018-01-01

    This article aims to review literature on feedback to teachers. Because research has hardly focused on feedback among teachers, the review’s scope also includes feedback in class- rooms. The review proposes that the effectiveness of feedback and feedback processes depend on the learning theory

  7. Role of implicit learning abilities in metaphor understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouillet, Luc; Stefaniak, Nicolas; Declercq, Christelle; Obert, Alexandre

    2018-05-01

    Although the use of metaphors is a central component of language, the processes that sustain their comprehension have yet to be specified. Work in the fields of both metaphors and implicit learning suggests that implicit learning abilities facilitate the comprehension of metaphors. However, to date, no study has directly explored the relationships between the understanding of metaphors and so-called implicit learning tasks. We used a meaning decision task comparing literal, metaphorical and meaningless expressions to assess metaphor understanding and a probabilistic serial reaction time task for assessing implicit learning. Our results show that implicit learning positively predicts the time gap between responses to literal and metaphorical expressions and negatively predicts the difference between metaphorical and meaningless expressions. Thus, when confronted with novel metaphors, participants with higher implicit learning abilities are better able to identify that the expressions have some meaning. These results are interpreted in the context of metaphor understanding and psycholinguistic theories. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Siblings' Understanding of Learning Disability: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Annette

    2008-01-01

    Background: There is very little research on how and when siblings understand that they have a brother or sister with a learning disability. Research regarding young children's understanding of intelligence, suggests that they may not develop a clear understanding of ability until about 7 years of age. Method: Through interviewing parents and then…

  9. Learning Analytics to Understand Cultural Impacts on Technology Enhanced Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelmeier, Jenna; Tempelaar, Dirk; Rienties, Bart; Nguyen, Quan

    2016-01-01

    In this empirical study, we investigate the role of national cultural dimensions as distal antecedents of the use intensity of e-tutorials, which constitute the digital component within a blended learning course. Profiting from the context of a dispositional learning analytics application, we investigate cognitive processing strategies and…

  10. Oral and vocal fold diadochokinesis in dysphonic women

    OpenAIRE

    Louzada,Talita; Beraldinelle,Roberta; Berretin-Felix,Giédre; Brasolotto,Alcione Ghedini

    2011-01-01

    The evaluation of oral and vocal fold diadochokinesis (DDK) in individuals with voice disorders may contribute to the understanding of factors that affect the balanced vocal production. Scientific studies that make use of this assessment tool support the knowledge advance of this area, reflecting the development of more appropriate therapeutic planning. Objective: To compare the results of oral and vocal fold DDK in dysphonic women and in women without vocal disorders. Material and methods: F...

  11. Understanding the Context of Learning in an Online Social Network for Health Professionals' Informal Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Gray, Kathleen; Verspoor, Karin; Barnett, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Online social networks (OSN) enable health professionals to learn informally, for example by sharing medical knowledge, or discussing practice management challenges and clinical issues. Understanding the learning context in OSN is necessary to get a complete picture of the learning process, in order to better support this type of learning. This study proposes critical contextual factors for understanding the learning context in OSN for health professionals, and demonstrates how these contextual factors can be used to analyse the learning context in a designated online learning environment for health professionals.

  12. Understanding Productive Learning Through the Metaphorical Lens of Patchworking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    , which formed the basis of the author’s PhD thesis (Ryberg, 2007), the concept of understanding learning as a process of patchworking has emerged. The metaphor of patchworking is a perspective that emphasises the constructive, creative and productive aspects of learning. In this chapter the main aspects...

  13. Understanding the Quality of Out-of-Class English Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chun; Zhu, Weimin; Gong, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Out-of-class learning constitutes an important context for human development, and active engagement in out-of-class activities is associated with successful language development. However, not all out-of-class experiences are equally beneficial to learning, and it is of paramount importance to understand what quality out-of-class English language…

  14. Understanding the Implications of Online Learning for Educational Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakia, Marianne; Shear, Linda; Toyama, Yukie; Lasseter, Austin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to support educational administrators and policymakers in becoming informed consumers of information about online learning and its potential impact on educational productivity. The report provides foundational knowledge needed to examine and understand the potential contributions of online learning to educational…

  15. Understanding Game-Based Learning Cultures: Introduction to Special Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engerman, Jason A.; Carr-Chellman, Alison

    2017-01-01

    This special issue expands our understanding of teaching and learning through video game play, with specific attention to culture. The issue gives insight into the ways educators, researchers, and developers should be discussing and designing for impactful learner-centered game-based learning experiences. The issue features forward-thinking…

  16. Learning network theory : its contribution to our understanding of work-based learning projects and learning climate

    OpenAIRE

    Poell, R.F.; Moorsel, M.A.A.H. van

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the relevance of Van der Krogt's learning network theory (1995) for our understanding of the concepts of work-related learning projects and learning climate in organisations. The main assumptions of the learning network theory are presented and transferred to the level of learning groups in organisations. Four theoretical types of learning projects are distinguished. Four different approaches to the learning climate of work groups are compared to the approach offered by t...

  17. The influence of thyroarytenoid and cricothyroid muscle activation on vocal fold stiffness and eigenfrequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jun; Zhang, Zhaoyan

    2013-01-01

    The influence of the thyroarytenoid (TA) and cricothyroid (CT) muscle activation on vocal fold stiffness and eigenfrequencies was investigated in a muscularly controlled continuum model of the vocal folds. Unlike the general understanding that vocal fold fundamental frequency was determined by vocal fold tension, this study showed that vocal fold eigenfrequencies were primarily determined by vocal fold stiffness. This study further showed that, with reference to the resting state of zero strain, vocal fold stiffness in both body and cover layers increased with either vocal fold elongation or shortening. As a result, whether vocal fold eigenfrequencies increased or decreased with CT/TA activation depended on how the CT/TA interaction influenced vocal fold deformation. For conditions of strong CT activation and thus an elongated vocal fold, increasing TA contraction reduced the degree of vocal fold elongation and thus reduced vocal fold eigenfrequencies. For conditions of no CT activation and thus a resting or slightly shortened vocal fold, increasing TA contraction increased the degree of vocal fold shortening and thus increased vocal fold eigenfrequencies. In the transition region of a slightly elongated vocal fold, increasing TA contraction first decreased and then increased vocal fold eigenfrequencies. PMID:23654401

  18. Vocal Interactivity in-and-between Humans, Animals and Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger K Moore

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Almost all animals exploit vocal signals for a range of ecologically-motivated purposes: detecting predators prey and marking territory, expressing emotions, establishing social relations and sharing information. Whether it is a bird raising an alarm, a whale calling to potential partners,a dog responding to human commands, a parent reading a story with a child, or a business-person accessing stock prices using emph{Siri}, vocalisation provides a valuable communication channel through which behaviour may be coordinated and controlled, and information may be distributed and acquired.Indeed, the ubiquity of vocal interaction has led to research across an extremely diverse array of fields, from assessing animal welfare, to understanding the precursors of human language, to developing voice-based human-machine interaction. Opportunities for cross-fertilisation between these fields abound; for example, using artificial cognitive agents to investigate contemporary theories of language grounding, using machine learning to analyse different habitats or adding vocal expressivity to the next generation of language-enabled autonomous social agents. However, much of the research is conducted within well-defined disciplinary boundaries, and many fundamental issues remain. This paper attempts to redress the balance by presenting a comparative review of vocal interaction within-and-between humans, animals and artificial agents (such as robots, and it identifies a rich set of open research questions that may benefit from an inter-disciplinary analysis.

  19. Developing and Understanding Intelligent Contexts for Playing and Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel; Helms, Niels Henrik

    of tangible learning media and develop didactic approaches for teachers in a primary school and furthermore to use the user experiences in a structured process where children participated in the innovation process. This has raised a fundamental question: How should we understand the relationship between....... This paper therefore aims at illustrating how and why the “Octopus” works and functions in a learning community (school) and discus the relations between distinctions, embodiment, intelligent contexts, structure and flow. This paper introduces a new reading of pervasive learning environments as the “Octopus......” through M.M. Bachtins concept of “Chronotopos” or how time and space influence and structure experience and learning.  We have adapted this theory that originally is about literature in order to find new ways of understanding the time and place relation in learning....

  20. Assessing Understanding of the Learning Cycle: The ULC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Edmund A.; Maier, Steven J.; McCann, Florence

    2008-08-01

    An 18-item, multiple choice, 2-tiered instrument designed to measure understanding of the learning cycle (ULC) was developed and field-tested from the learning cycle test (LCT) of Odom and Settlage ( Journal of Science Teacher Education, 7, 123 142, 1996). All question sets of the LCT were modified to some degree and 5 new sets were added, resulting in the ULC. The ULC measures (a) understandings and misunderstandings of the learning cycle, (b) the learning cycle’s association with Piaget’s ( Biology and knowledge theory: An essay on the relations between organic regulations and cognitive processes, 1975) theory of mental functioning, and (c) applications of the learning cycle. The resulting ULC instrument was evaluated for internal consistency with Cronbach’s alpha, yielding a coefficient of .791.

  1. Adults' and Children's Understanding of How Expertise Influences Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danovitch, Judith H; Shenouda, Christine K

    2018-01-01

    Adults and children use information about expertise to infer what a person is likely to know, but it is unclear whether they realize that expertise also has implications for learning. We explore adults' and children's understanding that expertise in a particular category supports learning about a closely related category. In four experiments, 5-year-olds and adults (n = 160) judged which of two people would be better at learning about a new category. When faced with an expert and a nonexpert, adults consistently indicated that expertise supports learning in a closely related category; however, children's judgments were inconsistent and were strongly influenced by the description of the nonexpert. The results suggest that although children understand what it means to be an expert, they may judge an individual's learning capacity based on different considerations than adults.

  2. A machine learning approach to understand business processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maruster, L.

    2003-01-01

    Business processes (industries, administration, hospitals, etc.) become nowadays more and more complex and it is difficult to have a complete understanding of them. The goal of the thesis is to show that machine learning techniques can be used successfully for understanding a process on the basis of

  3. Posing Problems to Understand Children's Learning of Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lu Pien

    2013-01-01

    In this study, ways in which problem posing activities aid our understanding of children's learning of addition of unlike fractions and product of proper fractions was examined. In particular, how a simple problem posing activity helps teachers take a second, deeper look at children's understanding of fraction concepts will be discussed. The…

  4. Learning network theory : its contribution to our understanding of work-based learning projects and learning climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poell, R.F.; Moorsel, M.A.A.H. van

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the relevance of Van der Krogt's learning network theory (1995) for our understanding of the concepts of work-related learning projects and learning climate in organisations. The main assumptions of the learning network theory are presented and transferred to the level of

  5. Understanding and Predicting Student Self-Regulated Learning Strategies in Game-Based Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabourin, Jennifer L.; Shores, Lucy R.; Mott, Bradford W.; Lester, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Self-regulated learning behaviors such as goal setting and monitoring have been found to be crucial to students' success in computer-based learning environments. Consequently, understanding students' self-regulated learning behavior has been the subject of increasing attention. Unfortunately, monitoring these behaviors in real-time has…

  6. E-learning support for student's understanding of electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Michael; Sendrup, Linda; Sparsø, Jens

    2008-01-01

    To enhance active learning and understanding of analogue and digital electronics the use of e-learning techniques will be investigated. In a redesigned course combining introductory analogue and digital electronics, students will be motivated to prepare for lectures and exercises by providing...... access to interactive simulations. Some exercises will furthermore be carried out first as simulations of electrical circuits and then with physical components, i.e. as design-build exercises. A number of didactic problems in learning electricity and electronics are discussed....

  7. Towards Concept Understanding relying on Conceptualisation in Constructivist Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2017-01-01

    and understandings over their mental structures in the framework of constructivism, and I will clarify my logical [and semantic] conceptions of humans’ concept understandings. This research focuses on philosophy of education and on logics of human learning. It connects with the topics ‘Cognition in Education......, through this constructivism to a pedagogical theory of learning. I will mainly focus on conceptual and epistemological analysis of humans’ conceptualisations based on their own mental objects (schemata). Subsequently, I will propose an analytical specification of humans’ conceptualisations...

  8. Rules of song development and their use in vocal interactions by birds with large repertoires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geberzahn, Nicole; Hultsch, Henrike

    2004-06-01

    Songbirds are well known for settling their disputes by vocal signals, and their singing plays a dominant role. Most studies on this issue have concentrated on bird species that develop and use small vocal repertoires. In this article we will go farther and focus on examples of how species with large song repertoires make use of their vocal competence. In particular, we will outline the study of interaction rules which have been elucidated by examining time- and pattern-specific relationships between signals exchanged by territorial neighbors. First we present an inquiry into the rules of song learning and development. In birds with large song repertoires, the ontogeny of such rules proceeds along a number of trajectories which help in understanding the often remarkable accomplishments of adult birds. In both approaches, our model species will be the Common Nightingale Luscinia megarhynchos that has been investigated intensively in the field and in the laboratory.

  9. Mapping IMS Learning Design and Moodle. A first understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgos, Daniel; Tattersall, Colin; Dougiamas, Martin; Vogten, Hubert; Koper, Rob

    2006-01-01

    Please, cite this publication as follows: Burgos, D., Tattersall, C., Dougiamas, M., Vogten, H., & Koper, E. J. R. (2006). Mapping IMS Learning Design and Moodle. A first understanding. Proceedings of Simposo Internacional de Informática Educativa (SIIE06), León, Spain: IEEE Technical Committee on

  10. Understanding and Utilizing the Effectiveness of e‐Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noesgaard, Signe Schack; Ørngreen, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    , the research brings valuable input to the discussion of the validity of self-assessments suggesting that participants are able to report on their own practices provided certain qualitative survey approaches. Understanding the many ways to define effectiveness can help learning and development professionals...

  11. Learning Emotional Understanding and Emotion Regulation through Sibling Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: Young children's relationships with their sisters and brothers offer unique and important opportunities for learning about emotions and developing emotional understanding. Through a critical analysis, this article examines sibling interaction in 3 different but normative contexts (conflict/conflict management, play, and…

  12. Learning and Understanding System Stability Using Illustrative Dynamic Texture Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huaping; Xiao, Wei; Zhao, Hongyan; Sun, Fuchun

    2014-01-01

    System stability is a basic concept in courses on dynamic system analysis and control for undergraduate students with computer science backgrounds. Typically, this was taught using a simple simulation example of an inverted pendulum. Unfortunately, many difficult issues arise in the learning and understanding of the concepts of stability,…

  13. Enhancing Preservice Teachers' Understanding of Students' Misconceptions in Learning Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naah, Basil Mugaga

    2015-01-01

    Preservice teachers enrolled in a modified introductory chemistry course used an instructional rubric to improve and evaluate their understanding of students' misconceptions in learning various chemistry concepts. A sample of 79 preservice teachers first explored the state science standards to identify chemistry misconceptions associated with the…

  14. Creating meaningful learning experiences: Understanding students' perspectives of engineering design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleong, Richard James Chung Mun

    There is a societal need for design education to prepare holistic engineers with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes to innovate and compete globally. Design skills are paramount to the espoused values of higher education, as institutions of higher learning strive to develop in students the cognitive abilities of critical thinking, problem solving, and creativity. To meet these interests from industry and academia, it is important to advance the teaching and learning of engineering design. This research aims to understand how engineering students learn and think about design, as a way for engineering educators to optimize instructional practice and curriculum development. Qualitative research methodology was used to investigate the meaning that engineering students' ascribe to engineering design. The recruitment of participants and corresponding collection of data occurred in two phases using two different data collection techniques. The first phase involved the distribution of a one-time online questionnaire to all first year, third year, and fourth year undergraduate engineering students at three Canadian Universities. After the questionnaire, students were asked if they would be willing to participate in the second phase of data collection consisting of a personal interview. A total of ten students participated in interviews. Qualitative data analysis procedures were conducted on students' responses from the questionnaire and interviews. The data analysis process consisted of two phases: a descriptive phase to code and categorize the data, followed by an interpretative phase to generate further meaning and relationships. The research findings present a conceptual understanding of students' descriptions about engineering design, structured within two educational orientations: a learning studies orientation and a curriculum studies orientation. The learning studies orientation captured three themes of students' understanding of engineering design: awareness

  15. Grounded understanding of abstract concepts: The case of STEM learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Justin C; Kraemer, David J M

    2017-01-01

    Characterizing the neural implementation of abstract conceptual representations has long been a contentious topic in cognitive science. At the heart of the debate is whether the "sensorimotor" machinery of the brain plays a central role in representing concepts, or whether the involvement of these perceptual and motor regions is merely peripheral or epiphenomenal. The domain of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning provides an important proving ground for sensorimotor (or grounded) theories of cognition, as concepts in science and engineering courses are often taught through laboratory-based and other hands-on methodologies. In this review of the literature, we examine evidence suggesting that sensorimotor processes strengthen learning associated with the abstract concepts central to STEM pedagogy. After considering how contemporary theories have defined abstraction in the context of semantic knowledge, we propose our own explanation for how body-centered information, as computed in sensorimotor brain regions and visuomotor association cortex, can form a useful foundation upon which to build an understanding of abstract scientific concepts, such as mechanical force. Drawing from theories in cognitive neuroscience, we then explore models elucidating the neural mechanisms involved in grounding intangible concepts, including Hebbian learning, predictive coding, and neuronal recycling. Empirical data on STEM learning through hands-on instruction are considered in light of these neural models. We conclude the review by proposing three distinct ways in which the field of cognitive neuroscience can contribute to STEM learning by bolstering our understanding of how the brain instantiates abstract concepts in an embodied fashion.

  16. Behavioral Correlates of 50-kHz Ultrasonic Vocalizations in Rats: Progressive Operant Discrimination Learning Reduces Frequency Modulation and Increases Overall Amplitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoko Yuki

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs in rats are thought to contain ecological signals reflecting emotional states. These USVs are centered on 50-kHz, and frequency modulation (FM is hypothesized to indicate positive emotion; however, results from recent studies are inconsistent with this hypothesis. We suspected that such inconsistencies might result from ambiguity in defining frequency modulation, and problems with acoustic analyses and behavioral protocols. We addressed these problems by applying quantitative methods for USV analyses and using a food reward operant paradigm. Our results revealed that frequency modulation varied according to the degree of positive outcomes, but the direction of change was opposite to what had been observed in previous studies. The FM in 50-kHz USVs decreased as animals learned the task and obtained more reinforcement, while USV amplitude increased as learning progressed. To reconcile these results with those from prior studies, we suggest that FM in 50-kHz USVs should be taken as an index of reward prediction errors, and USV amplitude should be considered as an index of positive emotion.

  17. The songbird as a percussionist: syntactic rules for non-vocal sound and song production in Java sparrows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayo Soma

    Full Text Available Music and dance are two remarkable human characteristics that are closely related. Communication through integrated vocal and motional signals is also common in the courtship displays of birds. The contribution of songbird studies to our understanding of vocal learning has already shed some light on the cognitive underpinnings of musical ability. Moreover, recent pioneering research has begun to show how animals can synchronize their behaviors with external stimuli, like metronome beats. However, few studies have applied such perspectives to unraveling how animals can integrate multimodal communicative signals that have natural functions. Additionally, studies have rarely asked how well these behaviors are learned. With this in mind, here we cast a spotlight on an unusual animal behavior: non-vocal sound production associated with singing in the Java sparrow (Lonchura oryzivora, a songbird. We show that male Java sparrows coordinate their bill-click sounds with the syntax of their song-note sequences, similar to percussionists. Analysis showed that they produced clicks frequently toward the beginning of songs and before/after specific song notes. We also show that bill-clicking patterns are similar between social fathers and their sons, suggesting that these behaviors might be learned from models or linked to learning-based vocalizations. Individuals untutored by conspecifics also exhibited stereotypical bill-clicking patterns in relation to song-note sequence, indicating that while the production of bill clicking itself is intrinsic, its syncopation appears to develop with songs. This paints an intriguing picture in which non-vocal sounds are integrated with vocal courtship signals in a songbird, a model that we expect will contribute to the further understanding of multimodal communication.

  18. A Learning-Style Theory for Understanding Autistic Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ning; Lipkin, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding autism's ever-expanding array of behaviors, from sensation to cognition, is a major challenge. We posit that autistic and typically developing brains implement different algorithms that are better suited to learn, represent, and process different tasks; consequently, they develop different interests and behaviors. Computationally, a continuum of algorithms exists, from lookup table (LUT) learning, which aims to store experiences precisely, to interpolation (INT) learning, which focuses on extracting underlying statistical structure (regularities) from experiences. We hypothesize that autistic and typical brains, respectively, are biased toward LUT and INT learning, in low- and high-dimensional feature spaces, possibly because of their narrow and broad tuning functions. The LUT style is good at learning relationships that are local, precise, rigid, and contain little regularity for generalization (e.g., the name–number association in a phonebook). However, it is poor at learning relationships that are context dependent, noisy, flexible, and do contain regularities for generalization (e.g., associations between gaze direction and intention, language and meaning, sensory input and interpretation, motor-control signal and movement, and social situation and proper response). The LUT style poorly compresses information, resulting in inefficiency, sensory overload (overwhelm), restricted interests, and resistance to change. It also leads to poor prediction and anticipation, frequent surprises and over-reaction (hyper-sensitivity), impaired attentional selection and switching, concreteness, strong local focus, weak adaptation, and superior and inferior performances on simple and complex tasks. The spectrum nature of autism can be explained by different degrees of LUT learning among different individuals, and in different systems of the same individual. Our theory suggests that therapy should focus on training autistic LUT algorithm to learn regularities

  19. A learning-style theory for understanding autistic behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning eQian

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding autism’s ever-expanding array of behaviors, from sensation to cognition, is a major challenge. We posit that autistic and typically-developing brains implement different algorithms that are better suited to learn, represent, and process different tasks; consequently, they develop different interests and behaviors. Computationally, a continuum of algorithms exists, from lookup-table (LUT learning, which aims to store experiences precisely, to interpolation (INT learning, which focuses on extracting underlying statistical structure (regularities from experiences. We hypothesize that autistic and typical brains, respectively, are biased toward LUT and INT learning, in low and high dimensional feature spaces, possibly because of their narrow and broad tuning functions. The LUT style is good at learning relationships that are local, precise, rigid, and contain little regularity for generalization (e.g., the name-number association in a phonebook. However, it is poor at learning relationships that are context dependent, noisy, flexible, and do contain regularities for generalization (e.g., associations between gaze direction and intention, language and meaning, sensory input and interpretation, motor-control signal and movement, and social situation and proper response. The LUT style poorly compresses information, resulting in inefficiency, sensory overload (overwhelm, restricted interests, and resistance to change. It also leads to poor prediction and anticipation, frequent surprises and over-reaction (hyper-sensitivity, impaired attentional selection and switching, concreteness, strong local focus, weak adaptation, and superior and inferior performances on simple and complex tasks. The spectrum nature of autism can be explained by different degrees of LUT learning among different individuals, and in different systems of the same individual. Our theory suggests that therapy should focus on training autistic LUT algorithm to learn

  20. Understanding the Learning Style of Pre-School Children Learning the Violin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calissendorff, Maria

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to acquire a deeper understanding of how small children learn an instrument in the presence of their parents. It is qualitative in nature and concerned six pre-school children (five years old) who were learning the violin together and where their parents were present at the lessons. All the children's homes were visited…

  1. Developing and Understanding Intelligent Contexts for Playing and Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel; Helms, Niels Henrik

    2009-01-01

    of tangible learning media and develop didactic approaches for teachers in primary school and furthermore to use the user experiences in a structured process where children participated in the innovation process. This has raised a fundamental question: How should we understand the relationship between......This short paper outlines experiences and reflections on the research and development project “Octopus” in order to describe and illustrate how intelligent context facilitates and embody learning. The framework is a research and development project where we have tried to work with new kinds......, embodiment, intelligent contexts, structure and flow. This paper does this through Bachtins concept of “Chronotopos” or how time and space influence and structure experience and learning....

  2. Coping strategies in teachers with vocal complaint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambon, Fabiana; Moreti, Felipe; Behlau, Mara

    2014-05-01

    To understand the coping strategies used by teachers with vocal complaints, compare the differences between those who seek and those who do not seek voice therapy, and investigate the relationships among coping and voice perceptual analysis, coping and signs and symptoms of voice, and coping and participation restrictions and limitations in vocal activities. Cross-sectional nonrandomized prospective study with control group. Ninety female teachers participated in the study, of similar ages, divided into three groups: group 1 (G1) comprised 30 teachers with vocal complaints who sought voice therapy, group 2 (G2) comprised 30 teachers with vocal complaints who never sought voice therapy, and group 3 (G3) comprised 30 teachers without vocal complaints. The following analysis were conducted: identification and characterization questionnaire, addressing personal and occupational description, recording speech material for voice perceptual analysis, Voice Signs and Symptoms Questionnaire, Voice Activity and Participation Profile (VAPP), and Voice Disability Coping Questionnaire (VDCQ)-Brazilian Version. In relation to the voice perceptual analysis, there was statistically significant difference between the groups with vocal complaint (G1+G2), which had showed voices with mild-to-moderate deviation, and the group without vocal complaint (G1), which showed voices within the normal variability of voice quality (mean for G1 = 49.9, G2 = 43.7, and G3 = 32.3, P Teachers with vocal complaints who looked for voice therapy use more coping strategies. Moreover, they present a tendency to use more problem-focused coping strategies. Voice symptoms prompt the teachers into seeking treatment; however, they are not correlated with the coping itself. In general, the higher the perception of limitation and restriction of participating in vocal activities, the greater the use of coping strategies. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Artificially lengthened and constricted vocal tract in vocal training methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, Irene Velsvik

    2005-01-01

    It is common practice in vocal training to make use of vocal exercise techniques that involve partial occlusion of the vocal tract. Various techniques are used; some of them form an occlusion within the front part of the oral cavity or at the lips. Another vocal exercise technique involves lengthening the vocal tract; for example, the method of phonation into small tubes. This essay presents some studies made on the effects of various vocal training methods that involve an artificially lengthened and constricted vocal tract. The influence of sufficient acoustic impedance on vocal fold vibration and economical voice production is presented.

  4. Improvement of Vocal Pathologies Diagnosis Using High-Speed Videolaryngoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Domingos Hiroshi; Hachiya, Adriana; Dajer, Maria Eugenia; Ishikawa, Camila Cristina; Takahashi, Marystella Tomoe; Montagnoli, Arlindo Neto

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The study of the dynamic properties of vocal fold vibration is important for understanding the vocal production mechanism and the impact of organic and functional changes. The advent of high-speed videolaryngoscopy (HSV) has provided the possibility of seeing the real cycle of vocal fold vibration in detail through high sampling rate of successive frames and adequate spatial resolution. Objective To describe the technique, advantages, and limitations of using HSV and digital videokymography in the diagnosis of vocal pathologies. Methods We used HSV and digital videokymography to evaluate one normophonic individual and four patients with vocal fold pathologies (nodules, unilateral paralysis of the left vocal fold, intracordal cyst, and adductor spasmodic dysphonia). The vocal fold vibration parameters (glottic closure, vibrational symmetry, periodicity, mucosal wave, amplitude, and glottal cycle phases) were assessed. Results Differences in the vocal vibration parameters were observed and correlated with the pathophysiology. Conclusion HSV is the latest diagnostic tool in visual examination of vocal behavior and has considerable potential to refine our knowledge regarding the vocal fold vibration and voice production, as well as regarding the impact of pathologic conditions have on the mechanism of phonation. PMID:25992109

  5. Improvement of Vocal Pathologies Diagnosis Using High-Speed Videolaryngoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuji, Domingos Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The study of the dynamic properties of vocal fold vibration is important for understanding the vocal production mechanism and the impact of organic and functional changes. The advent of high-speed videolaryngoscopy (HSV has provided the possibility of seeing the real cycle of vocal fold vibration in detail through high sampling rate of successive frames and adequate spatial resolution. Objective To describe the technique, advantages, and limitations of using HSV and digital videokymography in the diagnosis of vocal pathologies. Methods We used HSV and digital videokymography to evaluate one normophonic individual and four patients with vocal fold pathologies (nodules, unilateral paralysis of the left vocal fold, intracordal cyst, and adductor spasmodic dysphonia. The vocal fold vibration parameters (glottic closure, vibrational symmetry, periodicity, mucosal wave, amplitude, and glottal cycle phases were assessed. Results Differences in the vocal vibration parameters were observed and correlated with the pathophysiology. Conclusion HSV is the latest diagnostic tool in visual examination of vocal behavior and has considerable potential to refine our knowledge regarding the vocal fold vibration and voice production, as well as regarding the impact of pathologic conditions have on the mechanism of phonation.

  6. A duetting perspective on avian song learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Cáceres, Karla D; Templeton, Christopher N

    2017-12-25

    Avian song learning has a rich history of study and has become the preeminent system for understanding the ontogeny of vocal communication in animals. Song learning in birds has many parallels with human language learning, ranging from the neural mechanisms involved to the importance of social factors in shaping signal acquisition. While much has been learned about the process of song learning, virtually all of the research done to date has focused on temperate species, where often only one sex (the male) sings. Duetting species, in which both males and females learn to sing and learn to combine their songs into temporally coordinated joint displays, could provide many insights into the processes by which vocal learning takes place. Here we highlight three key features of song learning-neuroendocrine control mechanisms, timing and life history stages of song acquisition, and the role of social factors in song selection and use-that have been elucidated from species where only males sing, and compare these with duetting species. We summarize what is known about song learning in duetting species and then provide several suggestions for fruitful directions for future research. We suggest that focusing research efforts on duetting species could significantly advance our understanding of vocal learning in birds and further cement the importance of avian species as models for understanding human conversations and the processes of vocal learning more broadly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Independent learning modules enhance student performance and understanding of anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrat, Maria A; Dom, Aaron M; Buchanan, James T; Williams, Alison R; Efaw, Morgan L; Richardson, Laura L

    2014-01-01

    Didactic lessons are only one part of the multimodal teaching strategies used in gross anatomy courses today. Increased emphasis is placed on providing more opportunities for students to develop lifelong learning and critical thinking skills during medical training. In a pilot program designed to promote more engaged and independent learning in anatomy, self-study modules were introduced to supplement human gross anatomy instruction at Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine at Marshall University. Modules use three-dimensional constructs to help students understand complex anatomical regions. Resources are self-contained in portable bins and are accessible at any time. Students use modules individually or in groups in a structured self-study format that augments material presented in lecture and laboratory. Pilot outcome data, measured by feedback surveys and examination performance statistics, suggest that the activity may be improving learning in gross anatomy. Positive feedback on both pre- and post-examination surveys showed that students felt the activity helped to increase their understanding of the topic. In concordance with student perception, average examination scores on module-related laboratory and lecture questions were higher in the two years of the pilot program compared with the year before its initiation. Modules can be fabricated on a modest budget using minimal resources, making implementation practical for smaller institutions. Upper level medical students assist in module design and upkeep, enabling continuous opportunities for vertical integration across the curriculum. This resource offers a feasible mechanism for enhancing independent and lifelong learning competencies, which could be a valuable complement to any gross anatomy curriculum. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  8. Reinforcement of Infant Vocalizations through Contingent Vocal Imitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelaez, Martha; Virues-Ortega, Javier; Gewirtz, Jacob L.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal vocal imitation of infant vocalizations is highly prevalent during face-to-face interactions of infants and their caregivers. Although maternal vocal imitation has been associated with later verbal development, its potentially reinforcing effect on infant vocalizations has not been explored experimentally. This study examined the…

  9. Cross-fostering alters advertisement vocalizations of grasshopper mice (Onychomys): Evidence for the developmental stress hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasch, Bret; Abbasi, Mustafa Z; Wilson, Macey; Zhao, Daniel; Searle, Jeremy B; Webster, Michael S; Rice, Aaron N

    2016-04-01

    Nutritional stress can have lasting impacts on the development of traits involved in vocal production. Cross-fostering experiments are often used to examine the propensity for vocal learning in a variety of taxa, but few studies assess the influence of malnourishment that can occur as a byproduct of this technique. In this study, we reciprocally cross-fostered sister taxa of voluble grasshopper mice (genus Onychomys) to explore their propensity for vocal learning. Vocalizations of Onychomys leucogaster did not differ between control and cross-fostered animals, but cross-fostered Onychomys arenicola produced vocalizations that were higher in frequency in a direction away from tutors. These same animals exhibited a transient reduction in body mass early in development, indicative of malnutrition. Our findings simultaneously refute vocal learning and support the developmental stress hypothesis to highlight the importance of early ontogeny on the production of vocalizations later in life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Vocal Modification Abilities and Brain Structures in Parrots – how do they Correlate?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harpøth, Solveig Walløe

    are among the most encephalized birds and posses excellent vocal imitation abilities. This along with their complex fission-­fusion societies and thereby dynamic use of communication make parrots unparalleled as a model system for the neurobiology behind vocal learning. This PhD thesis is based on three...... independent studies where I 1) compare the level of vocal complexity (i.e. modification of the contact call in response to playback stimuli) with the social complexity of four different parrot species, 2) correlate the vocal modification ability of parrots with a brain region involved in vocal learning, i...... and the peach-faced lovebird with a brain nucleus, MO, involved in vocal learning. We show that the species with the highest level of vocal complexity (i.e. the peach-fronted conure) was also the species with the largest volume of MO and the highest number of neurons in MO. The budgerigar had the smallest...

  11. Vocal health fitness to different music styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cláudia Mendes Caminha Muniz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present genres and styles currently running on western music scene, focusing on the practice of singing voice. Methods: An observational and documental study for which were selected sound sources presenting musical genres and styles that are part of the experience of the researchers, which were analyzed considering origins, formative elements and vocal features. Alongside we carried out a review of literature grounded in databases research and free review of websites and classical books of the area. Results: The selected styles (Rock and Roll, Heavy Metal, Trash Metal, Grunge, Gothic Metal, Rap, Funk, Blues, R&B – Rhythm and Blues, Soul, Gospel, MPB, Samba, Forro, Sertanejo, Bossa Nova, Opera and Chamber Music were described, pointing the reasons for the speech therapist to be informed about them and about singing voice aspects. His guidance may minimize possible vocal damage caused by each style, since each of them carries its own patterns to which the interpreter must submit. Conclusions: We conclude that the singer will use a specific vocal pattern that resembles the musical style he intends to sing, regardless of any harm it may or may not cause to vocal health. When choosing a musical style, it is important that the singer has the knowledge and understanding of how the use of his vocal apparatus will cause or not cause injury to his voice. Also be aware that the technique in singing is necessary for vocal longevity.

  12. Learning by doing? Prospective elementary teachers' developing understandings of scientific inquiry and science teaching and learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefner, Leigh Ann; Zembal-Saul, Carla

    This study examined prospective elementary teachers' learning about scientific inquiry in the context of an innovative life science course. Research questions included: (1) What do prospective elementary teachers learn about scientific inquiry within the context of the course? and (2) In what ways do their experiences engaging in science investigations and teaching inquiry-oriented science influence prospective elementary teachers' understanding of science and science learning and teaching? Eleven prospective elementary teachers participated in this qualitative, multi-participant case study. Constant comparative analysis strategies attempted to build abstractions and explanations across participants around the constructs of the study. Findings suggest that engaging in scientific inquiry supported the development more appropriate understandings of science and scientific inquiry, and that prospective teachers became more accepting of approaches to teaching science that encourage children's questions about science phenomena. Implications include careful consideration of learning experiences crafted for prospective elementary teachers to support the development of robust subject matter knowledge.

  13. The Infant Monitor of Vocal Production: Simple Beginnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Robyn Cantle

    2014-01-01

    The Infant Monitor of vocal Production (IMP) was conceived as an educational strategy to help parents understand the nature and pace of their baby's vocal development following neonatal diagnosis and amplification for hearing loss. The potential for other clinical applications emerged with use. The instrument presents as a series of…

  14. Production, Usage, and Comprehension in Animal Vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfarth, Robert M.; Cheney, Dorothy L.

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we place equal emphasis on production, usage, and comprehension because these components of communication may exhibit different developmental trajectories and be affected by different neural mechanisms. In the animal kingdom generally, learned, flexible vocal production is rare, appearing in only a few orders of birds and few…

  15. Supporting inquiry learning by promoting normative understanding of multivariable causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keselman, Alla

    2003-11-01

    Early adolescents may lack the cognitive and metacognitive skills necessary for effective inquiry learning. In particular, they are likely to have a nonnormative mental model of multivariable causality in which effects of individual variables are neither additive nor consistent. Described here is a software-based intervention designed to facilitate students' metalevel and performance-level inquiry skills by enhancing their understanding of multivariable causality. Relative to an exploration-only group, sixth graders who practiced predicting an outcome (earthquake risk) based on multiple factors demonstrated increased attention to evidence, improved metalevel appreciation of effective strategies, and a trend toward consistent use of a controlled comparison strategy. Sixth graders who also received explicit instruction in making predictions based on multiple factors showed additional improvement in their ability to compare multiple instances as a basis for inferences and constructed the most accurate knowledge of the system. Gains were maintained in transfer tasks. The cognitive skills and metalevel understanding examined here are essential to inquiry learning.

  16. Science Learning Cycle Method to Enhance the Conceptual Understanding and the Learning Independence on Physics Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulisworo, Dwi; Sutadi, Novitasari

    2017-01-01

    There have been many studies related to the implementation of cooperative learning. However, there are still many problems in school related to the learning outcomes on science lesson, especially in physics. The aim of this study is to observe the application of science learning cycle (SLC) model on improving scientific literacy for secondary…

  17. Using Learning Analytics to Understand Scientific Modeling in the Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Quigley

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Scientific models represent ideas, processes, and phenomena by describing important components, characteristics, and interactions. Models are constructed across various scientific disciplines, such as the food web in biology, the water cycle in Earth science, or the structure of the solar system in astronomy. Models are central for scientists to understand phenomena, construct explanations, and communicate theories. Constructing and using models to explain scientific phenomena is also an essential practice in contemporary science classrooms. Our research explores new techniques for understanding scientific modeling and engagement with modeling practices. We work with students in secondary biology classrooms as they use a web-based software tool—EcoSurvey—to characterize organisms and their interrelationships found in their local ecosystem. We use learning analytics and machine learning techniques to answer the following questions: (1 How can we automatically measure the extent to which students’ scientific models support complete explanations of phenomena? (2 How does the design of student modeling tools influence the complexity and completeness of students’ models? (3 How do clickstreams reflect and differentiate student engagement with modeling practices? We analyzed EcoSurvey usage data collected from two different deployments with over 1,000 secondary students across a large urban school district. We observe large variations in the completeness and complexity of student models, and large variations in their iterative refinement processes. These differences reveal that certain key model features are highly predictive of other aspects of the model. We also observe large differences in student modeling practices across different classrooms and teachers. We can predict a student’s teacher based on the observed modeling practices with a high degree of accuracy without significant tuning of the predictive model. These results highlight

  18. [Biofeedback in young singer vocal training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciochină, Paula; Ciochină, Al D; Burlui, Ada; Zaharia, D

    2007-01-01

    Biofeedback therapy is a learning process that is based on "operant conditioning" techniques. To estimate the significance of biofeedback to an accurate and faster control of singing voice emission. Significantly, it was discovered that professional singers active in performing of both classical and music theatre repertoire with regard to the visual-kinesthetic effect of melodic contour in musical notation as it affect vocal timbre. The results of the study also indicate that the development of new technology for youth singer vocal training, may be useful to these singers.

  19. Population structure of humpback whales in the western and central South Pacific Ocean as determined by vocal exchange among populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Ellen C; Goldizen, Anne W; Lilley, Matthew S; Rekdahl, Melinda L; Garrigue, Claire; Constantine, Rochelle; Hauser, Nan Daeschler; Poole, M Michael; Robbins, Jooke; Noad, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    For cetaceans, population structure is traditionally determined by molecular genetics or photographically identified individuals. Acoustic data, however, has provided information on movement and population structure with less effort and cost than traditional methods in an array of taxa. Male humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) produce a continually evolving vocal sexual display, or song, that is similar among all males in a population. The rapid cultural transmission (the transfer of information or behavior between conspecifics through social learning) of different versions of this display between distinct but interconnected populations in the western and central South Pacific region presents a unique way to investigate population structure based on the movement dynamics of a song (acoustic) display. Using 11 years of data, we investigated an acoustically based population structure for the region by comparing stereotyped song sequences among populations and years. We used the Levenshtein distance technique to group previously defined populations into (vocally based) clusters based on the overall similarity of their song display in space and time. We identified the following distinct vocal clusters: western cluster, 1 population off eastern Australia; central cluster, populations around New Caledonia, Tonga, and American Samoa; and eastern region, either a single cluster or 2 clusters, one around the Cook Islands and the other off French Polynesia. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that each breeding aggregation represents a distinct population (each occupied a single, terminal node) in a metapopulation, similar to the current understanding of population structure based on genetic and photo-identification studies. However, the central vocal cluster had higher levels of song-sharing among populations than the other clusters, indicating that levels of vocal connectivity varied within the region. Our results demonstrate the utility and value of

  20. Autoshaping Infant Vocalizations

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Alexander McNaughton

    1981-01-01

    A series of five experiments was conducted to determine whether operant or respondent factors controlled the emission of a particular vocalization ( "Q" ) by human infants 16 to 18 months old. Experiment 1 consisted of a pilot investigation of the effects of an autoshaping procedure on three infants' vocal behavior. All three subjects demonstrated increased emission of the target sound during the CR period. Experiments 2 through 4 attempted to replicate the findings of Experiment 1 under cont...

  1. Learning from disasters. Understanding the Cultural and Organisational Precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Professor Richard Taylor, from the University of Bristol, gave a presentation on the causes and potential ways of reducing the risk of Organisational Accidents. The presentation described a research study that was conducted to analyse and identify lessons from 12 major events in the nuclear and other sectors. The study was funded by ONR and BNFL. Although the events occurred in different sectors and circumstances, the analysis identified many common issues. The findings from the analysis were grouped into the following eight themes: leadership issues, operational attitudes and behaviours, business environment, competence, risk assessment and management, oversight and scrutiny, organisational learning and external regulation. Examples of issues identified under each of the themes are provided in Appendix 2. The presentation discussed learning for regulatory bodies from the events studied. This includes the need for regulators to move beyond technical/procedural issues to thinking about leadership commitment, business pressures and the underlying culture of the organisations they regulate. Regulators should take an 'overview' and actively explore organisational causes of problems rather than focusing on the symptoms. The analysis of events also revealed that regulators sometimes picked up emerging issues but did not act. This highlights the importance of good internal communication and discussion of issues within the regulatory body. The findings from the study have been used to develop expectations/objectives for good performance and develop a draft set of questions that regulators could use to assess vulnerability. Further work with industry and regulatory bodies is planned to encourage a better understanding of the organisational issues identified, improve cross industry sector learning, and develop new tools to reduce vulnerability to organisational accidents

  2. Understanding Social Learning Behaviors via a Virtual Field Trip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Bai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a multidisciplinary study investigating how a virtual rather than face-to-face field trip can be conducted in a real-world setting and how students respond to such a social learning opportunity. Our participants followed a story of a stroke patient at her virtual home and in a virtual hospital via a teaching vignette. They were then given a new case and got on a virtual trip via a multiuser virtual environment. They played the roles of patients, relatives, doctors, or nurses, experiencing the emotional, physical, or social impacts those stakeholders may go through. Our study finds the overall participation of the Virtual Group is 50% more than the Text Group. Although the Virtual Group generates much more nodes in total, they focused much less on knowledge sharing and comparing than the Text Group (46 vs. 67, but more on other higher-level aspects of social interactions, such as knowledge discovery (57 vs. 42, co-construction (66 vs. 39, testing and modification (58 vs. 24 and application of newly constructed meaning (60 vs. 16. Analysis of students’ virtual field activities and in-depth discussions of important issues implied are included to help understand social learning behaviors during a virtual field trip. Sustainability of such systems is discussed.

  3. Understanding students' concepts through guided inquiry learning and free modified inquiry on static fluid material

    OpenAIRE

    Sularso Sularso; Widha Sunarno; Sarwanto Sarwanto

    2017-01-01

    This study provides information on understanding students' concepts in guided inquiry learning groups and in free modified inquiry learning groups. Understanding of student concept is reviewed on the concept of static fluid case. The number of samples tested were 67 students. The sample is divided into 2 groups of students: the group is given guided inquiry learning and the group given the modified free inquiry learning. Understanding the concept of students is measured through 23 tests of it...

  4. Impacto vocal de professores Teachers' vocal impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ricarte

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar o impacto vocal nas atividades diárias em professores do ensino médio. Correlacionar os achado da auto-percepção do problema vocal com os aspectos: efeitos no trabalho, na comunicação diária, na comunicação social e na sua emoção. MÉTODOS: a amostra foi constituída por 107 professores, sendo 86 com queixa e 21 sem queixa, selecionados em escolas da rede particular de ensino de Maceió-AL. Cada professor respondeu individualmente o protocolo Perfil Participação em Atividades Vocais na presença da pesquisadora, assinalando suas respostas em uma escala visual que varia de 0 a 10. O protocolo é composto por 28 questões com a presença integrada em cinco aspectos englobados para avaliar a qualidade de vida e o resultado de tratamentos vocais. O protocolo oferece, ainda, dois escores adicionais: pontuação de limitação nas atividades (PLA e de restrição de participação (PRP. RESULTADOS: na comparação dos grupos com e sem queixa vocal foram verificados que todos os resultados foram estatisticamente significantes (pPURPOSE: to analyze the vocal impact in the daily activities on high-school teachers. Correlate the finding of the auto-perception on the vocal problem with the following aspects: effects in the work, daily communication, social communication and, its emotion METHODS: the sample consisted of 107 teachers, 86 with and 21 with no complaint, selected from private teaching schools in Maceió-AL. Each teacher answered individually the Protocol for Voice Activity Participation Profile in the presence of the researcher, noting their responses on a visual scale ranging from 0 to 10. The protocol is composed of 28 questions with the presence integrated in five aspects to evaluate the quality of life and the result of vocal treatments. The protocol offers, still, two additional scores: punctuation of limitation in the activities (PLA and restriction of participation (PRP. RESULTS: comparing the groups with

  5. Transitioning to Blended Learning: Understanding Student and Faculty Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, Nannette P.; Dekhane, Sonal; Smith, Stella

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the conversion of an introductory computing course to the blended learning model at a small, public liberal arts college. Blended learning significantly reduces face-to-face instruction by incorporating rich, online learning experiences. To assess the impact of blended learning on students, survey data was collected at the…

  6. Understanding Aboriginal Learning Ideology through Storywork with Elders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atleo, Marlene R.

    2009-01-01

    Five Nuu-chah-nulth Elders engaged in the examination of a Nuu-chah-nulth story for what they considered learning. A network of eight learning archetypes inhabited the story to demonstrate a range of learning strategies. The Elders identified features central to a cultural learning project, which included prenatal care and grandparent teaching,…

  7. Methodological Reflections: Designing and Understanding Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamalainen, Raija

    2012-01-01

    Learning involves more than just a small group of participants, which makes designing and managing collaborative learning processes in higher education a challenging task. As a result, emerging concerns in current research have pointed increasingly to teacher orchestrated learning processes in naturalistic learning settings. In line with this…

  8. Understanding Fatty Acid Metabolism through an Active Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardilha, M.; Schrader, M.; da Cruz e Silva, O. A. B.; da Cruz e Silva, E. F.

    2010-01-01

    A multi-method active learning approach (MALA) was implemented in the Medical Biochemistry teaching unit of the Biomedical Sciences degree at the University of Aveiro, using problem-based learning as the main learning approach. In this type of learning strategy, students are involved beyond the mere exercise of being taught by listening. Less…

  9. Neural correlates of vocal learning in songbirds and humans: cross-species fMRI studies into individual differences

    OpenAIRE

    Kant, Anne Marie van der

    2015-01-01

    Animal models, songbirds particularly, are increasingly used to study the human capacity for speech and language. In the light of understanding both language evolution and individual language acquisition these models are highly valuable, provided that they are studied within a valid comparative framework. In the past few decades, non-invasive methods such as functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and Near-InfraRed Spectroscopy (NIRS) have become available for human as well as animal bra...

  10. Avian vocal mimicry: a unified conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalziell, Anastasia H; Welbergen, Justin A; Igic, Branislav; Magrath, Robert D

    2015-05-01

    been made in explaining why many birds incorporate heterospecific sounds into their sexual displays, and in determining whether these vocalisations are functionally mimetic or by-products of sexual selection for other traits such as repertoire size. Overall, this discussion reveals a more central role for vocal mimicry in the behavioural ecology of birds than has previously been appreciated. The final part of this review identifies important areas for future research. Detailed empirical data are needed on individual species, including on the structure of mimetic signals, the contexts in which mimicry is produced, how mimicry is acquired, and the ecological relationships between mimic, model and receiver. At present, there is little information and no consensus about the various costs of vocal mimicry for the protagonists in the mimicry complex. The diversity and complexity of vocal mimicry in birds raises important questions for the study of animal communication and challenges our view of the nature of mimicry itself. Therefore, a better understanding of avian vocal mimicry is essential if we are to account fully for the diversity of animal signals. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  11. Audio-vocal interaction in single neurons of the monkey ventrolateral prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, Steffen R; Nieder, Andreas

    2015-05-06

    Complex audio-vocal integration systems depend on a strong interconnection between the auditory and the vocal motor system. To gain cognitive control over audio-vocal interaction during vocal motor control, the PFC needs to be involved. Neurons in the ventrolateral PFC (VLPFC) have been shown to separately encode the sensory perceptions and motor production of vocalizations. It is unknown, however, whether single neurons in the PFC reflect audio-vocal interactions. We therefore recorded single-unit activity in the VLPFC of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) while they produced vocalizations on command or passively listened to monkey calls. We found that 12% of randomly selected neurons in VLPFC modulated their discharge rate in response to acoustic stimulation with species-specific calls. Almost three-fourths of these auditory neurons showed an additional modulation of their discharge rates either before and/or during the monkeys' motor production of vocalization. Based on these audio-vocal interactions, the VLPFC might be well positioned to combine higher order auditory processing with cognitive control of the vocal motor output. Such audio-vocal integration processes in the VLPFC might constitute a precursor for the evolution of complex learned audio-vocal integration systems, ultimately giving rise to human speech. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/357030-11$15.00/0.

  12. Student learning and understanding of sequence stratigraphic principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Juan Sebastian

    Research in geoscience education addressing students' conceptions of geological subjects has concentrated in topics such as geological time, plate tectonics, and problem solving in the field, mostly in K-12 and entry level college scenarios. Science education research addressing learning of sedimentary systems in advance undergraduates is rather limited. Therefore, this dissertation contributed to filling that research gap and explored students' narratives when explaining geological processes associated with the interaction between sediment deposition and sea level fluctuations. The purpose of the present study was to identify the common conceptions and alternative conceptions held by students when learning the basics of the sub discipline known as sequence stratigraphy - which concepts students were familiar and easily identified, and which ones they had more difficulty with. In addition, we mapped the cognitive models that underlie those conceptions by analyzing students' gestures and conceptual metaphors used in their explanations. This research also investigated the interaction between geoscientific visual displays and student gesturing in a specific learning context. In this research, an in-depth assessment of 27 students' ideas of the basic principles of sequence stratigraphy was completed. Participants were enrolled in advanced undergraduate stratigraphy courses at three research-intensive universities in Midwest U.S. Data collection methods included semi-structured interviews, spatial visualization tests, and lab assignments. Results indicated that students poorly integrated temporal and spatial scales in their sequence stratigraphic models, and that many alternative conceptions were more deeply rooted than others, especially those related to eustasy and base level. In order to better understand the depth of these conceptions, we aligned the analysis of gesture with the theory of conceptual metaphor to recognize the use of mental models known as image

  13. Cultural Narratives: Developing a Three-Dimensional Learning Community through Braided Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Marsha L.

    2004-01-01

    Paula Underwood's "Learning Stories" braid together body, mind, and spirit to enable understanding that does not easily unravel. They tell of relationships among individual and community learning that parallel other ancient and contemporary ideas about learning in caring communities. Underwood's tradition considers learning sacred; everyone's…

  14. Vocal copying of individually distinctive signature whistles in bottlenose dolphins

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Stephanie L.; Sayigh, Laela S.; Wells, Randall S.; Fellner, Wendi; Janik, Vincent M.

    2013-01-01

    Vocal learning is relatively common in birds but less so in mammals. Sexual selection and individual or group recognition have been identified as major forces in its evolution. While important in the development of vocal displays, vocal learning also allows signal copying in social interactions. Such copying can function in addressing or labelling selected conspecifics. Most examples of addressing in non-humans come from bird song, where matching occurs in an aggressive context. However, in other animals, addressing with learned signals is very much an affiliative signal. We studied the function of vocal copying in a mammal that shows vocal learning as well as complex cognitive and social behaviour, the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Copying occurred almost exclusively between close associates such as mother–calf pairs and male alliances during separation and was not followed by aggression. All copies were clearly recognizable as such because copiers consistently modified some acoustic parameters of a signal when copying it. We found no evidence for the use of copying in aggression or deception. This use of vocal copying is similar to its use in human language, where the maintenance of social bonds appears to be more important than the immediate defence of resources. PMID:23427174

  15. Birds and babies : a comparison of the early development in vocal learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haar, Sita Minke ter

    2013-01-01

    This thesis provides a comparison of mostly perceptual development during vocal learning in songbirds (zebra finches) and human infants. The aim is to disentangle experience dependent and independent processes during vocal learning. In both human infants and juvenile songbirds, a perceptual

  16. Understanding Collective Learning and Human Agency in Diverse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-05-07

    May 7, 2018 ... knowledge about the type of learning that creates such change, how such learning emerges, or how it ... social inequalities and damaged people–nature relations. The Think ..... interpersonal relationality and more. The Think ...

  17. Visual classification of feral cat Felis silvestris catus vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Jessica L; Olsen, Mariana; Fontaine, Amy; Kloth, Christopher; Kershenbaum, Arik; Waller, Sara

    2017-06-01

    Cat vocal behavior, in particular, the vocal and social behavior of feral cats, is poorly understood, as are the differences between feral and fully domestic cats. The relationship between feral cat social and vocal behavior is important because of the markedly different ecology of feral and domestic cats, and enhanced comprehension of the repertoire and potential information content of feral cat calls can provide both better understanding of the domestication and socialization process, and improved welfare for feral cats undergoing adoption. Previous studies have used conflicting classification schemes for cat vocalizations, often relying on onomatopoeic or popular descriptions of call types (e.g., "miow"). We studied the vocalizations of 13 unaltered domestic cats that complied with our behavioral definition used to distinguish feral cats from domestic. A total of 71 acoustic units were extracted and visually analyzed for the construction of a hierarchical classification of vocal sounds, based on acoustic properties. We identified 3 major categories (tonal, pulse, and broadband) that further breakdown into 8 subcategories, and show a high degree of reliability when sounds are classified blindly by independent observers (Fleiss' Kappa K  = 0.863). Due to the limited behavioral contexts in this study, additional subcategories of cat vocalizations may be identified in the future, but our hierarchical classification system allows for the addition of new categories and new subcategories as they are described. This study shows that cat vocalizations are diverse and complex, and provides an objective and reliable classification system that can be used in future studies.

  18. Understanding and reducing student withdrawal in e-learning

    OpenAIRE

    Marko Radovan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we address the problem of student dropout from e-learning programmes. The proponents of e-learning highlight several advantages of this type of education as compared to the traditional, such as greater openness and diversity of training materials, the ability to adjust the mode and speed of learning, and similar. Despite these advantages, an increasing number of programmes and acceptance of e-learning as a national strategy all around the world, e-learning providers also face th...

  19. Understanding Learning in World Society: Qualitative Reconstructive Research in Global Learning and Learning for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheunpflug, Annette; Krogull, Susanne; Franz, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Global learning aims to change behaviour and attitudes. Changes in these areas are not easy to assess. This article discusses the documentary method, which belongs to the group of qualitative reconstructive research methods. The authors argue that this method allows reflection on collective orientations and tacit knowledge. The different steps of…

  20. Altered ultrasonic vocalization and impaired learning and memory in Angelman syndrome mouse model with a large maternal deletion from Ube3a to Gabrb3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Hui Jiang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Angelman syndrome (AS is a neurobehavioral disorder associated with mental retardation, absence of language development, characteristic electroencephalography (EEG abnormalities and epilepsy, happy disposition, movement or balance disorders, and autistic behaviors. The molecular defects underlying AS are heterogeneous, including large maternal deletions of chromosome 15q11-q13 (70%, paternal uniparental disomy (UPD of chromosome 15 (5%, imprinting mutations (rare, and mutations in the E6-AP ubiquitin ligase gene UBE3A (15%. Although patients with UBE3A mutations have a wide spectrum of neurological phenotypes, their features are usually milder than AS patients with deletions of 15q11-q13. Using a chromosomal engineering strategy, we generated mutant mice with a 1.6-Mb chromosomal deletion from Ube3a to Gabrb3, which inactivated the Ube3a and Gabrb3 genes and deleted the Atp10a gene. Homozygous deletion mutant mice died in the perinatal period due to a cleft palate resulting from the null mutation in Gabrb3 gene. Mice with a maternal deletion (m-/p+ were viable and did not have any obvious developmental defects. Expression analysis of the maternal and paternal deletion mice confirmed that the Ube3a gene is maternally expressed in brain, and showed that the Atp10a and Gabrb3 genes are biallelically expressed in all brain sub-regions studied. Maternal (m-/p+, but not paternal (m+/p-, deletion mice had increased spontaneous seizure activity and abnormal EEG. Extensive behavioral analyses revealed significant impairment in motor function, learning and memory tasks, and anxiety-related measures assayed in the light-dark box in maternal deletion but not paternal deletion mice. Ultrasonic vocalization (USV recording in newborns revealed that maternal deletion pups emitted significantly more USVs than wild-type littermates. The increased USV in maternal deletion mice suggests abnormal signaling behavior between mothers and pups that may reflect abnormal

  1. Understanding and reducing student withdrawal in e-learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Radovan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we address the problem of student dropout from e-learning programmes. The proponents of e-learning highlight several advantages of this type of education as compared to the traditional, such as greater openness and diversity of training materials, the ability to adjust the mode and speed of learning, and similar. Despite these advantages, an increasing number of programmes and acceptance of e-learning as a national strategy all around the world, e-learning providers also face the problem of drop-outs. Research shows that student dropout in educational programmes implemented in the form of e-learning is higher than in traditional programmes. The reasons that affect the dropout rate should be considered when designing and implementing e-learning programmes

  2. ShapeShop: Towards Understanding Deep Learning Representations via Interactive Experimentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohman, Frederick M.; Hodas, Nathan O.; Chau, Duen Horng

    2017-05-30

    Deep learning is the driving force behind many recent technologies; however, deep neural networks are often viewed as “black-boxes” due to their internal complexity that is hard to understand. Little research focuses on helping people explore and understand the relationship between a user’s data and the learned representations in deep learning models. We present our ongoing work, ShapeShop, an interactive system for visualizing and understanding what semantics a neural network model has learned. Built using standard web technologies, ShapeShop allows users to experiment with and compare deep learning models to help explore the robustness of image classifiers.

  3. ShapeShop: Towards Understanding Deep Learning Representations via Interactive Experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohman, Fred; Hodas, Nathan; Chau, Duen Horng

    2017-05-01

    Deep learning is the driving force behind many recent technologies; however, deep neural networks are often viewed as "black-boxes" due to their internal complexity that is hard to understand. Little research focuses on helping people explore and understand the relationship between a user's data and the learned representations in deep learning models. We present our ongoing work, ShapeShop, an interactive system for visualizing and understanding what semantics a neural network model has learned. Built using standard web technologies, ShapeShop allows users to experiment with and compare deep learning models to help explore the robustness of image classifiers.

  4. Acquiring organizational learning norms: a contingency approach for understanding deutero learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, Alphonsus B.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    'The Learning Organization' is a configuration of learning norms (called a learning prototype here), which is seldom related to varying levels of learning needs. This article assumes that organizational environmental complexity and dynamics define four learning needs levels. Consequently, four

  5. Understanding Student Learning in Context: Relationships between University Students' Social Identity, Approaches to Learning, and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliuc, Ana-Maria; Ellis, Robert A.; Goodyear, Peter; Hendres, Daniela Muntele

    2011-01-01

    This research focuses on understanding how socio-psychological dimensions such as student social identity and student perceptions of their learning community affect learning at university. To do this, it integrates ideas from phenomenographic research into student learning with ideas from research on social identity. In two studies (N = 110, and N…

  6. Social Context Predicts Vocalization Use in the Courtship Behaviors of Weddell Seals (Leptonychotes weddellii: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludivine R. Russell

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite previous research, no study has convincingly demonstrated what role if any vocalizations might play in the reproductive behavior of Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii. To better understand that role, we created an artificial territory for an adult, male Weddell seal under the shore-fast ice in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, and recorded its in situ vocalizations and non-vocal behaviors with an underwater video camera and hydrophone while alone, with another male, and with one or more females. Additionally, we simultaneously recorded the vocalizations and non-vocal behaviors from a female interacting with the male. Analysis of 86 hr of video and audio recordings showed: 1 the male vocalized more than the female, 2 the male’s vocal repertoire was larger than the females’ repertoire, 3 vocalizations changed quantitatively and qualitatively with social context, and 4 patterns of vocalizations and non-vocal behaviors were detected with Theme, pattern recognition software from Noldus Information Technology. These results provided strong evidence that vocalizations played an important role during courtship, and together with the significant behavioral sequences, vocal and non-vocal, they provided insight into the function of their vocalizations including chirps, growls, jaw claps, knocks, mews, trills, and trills + knocks.

  7. Understanding the cognitive processes involved in writing to learn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Kathleen M; Umanath, Sharda; Thio, Kara; Reilly, Walter B; McDaniel, Mark A; Marsh, Elizabeth J

    2017-06-01

    Writing is often used as a tool for learning. However, empirical support for the benefits of writing-to-learn is mixed, likely because the literature conflates diverse activities (e.g., summaries, term papers) under the single umbrella of writing-to-learn. Following recent trends in the writing-to-learn literature, the authors focus on the underlying cognitive processes. They draw on the largely independent writing-to-learn and cognitive psychology learning literatures to identify important cognitive processes. The current experiment examines learning from 3 writing tasks (and 1 nonwriting control), with an emphasis on whether or not the tasks engaged retrieval. Tasks that engaged retrieval (essay writing and free recall) led to better final test performance than those that did not (note taking and highlighting). Individual differences in structure building (the ability to construct mental representations of narratives; Gernsbacher, Varner, & Faust, 1990) modified this effect; skilled structure builders benefited more from essay writing and free recall than did less skilled structure builders. Further, more essay-like responses led to better performance, implicating the importance of additional cognitive processes such as reorganization and elaboration. The results highlight how both task instructions and individual differences affect the cognitive processes involved when writing-to-learn, with consequences for the effectiveness of the learning strategy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Vocal Connections: How Voicework in Music Therapy Helped a Young Girl with Severe Learning Disabilities and Autism to Engage in her Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Warnock

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the use of the non-verbal voice in music therapy with children with severe learning disabilities, complex needs and autism. Recent literature on the use of the voice in music therapy is summarised and links are made between the aims of music therapy and those of special educational establishments. Theories regarding the voice and the self, and the important connection between body awareness and emotion as precursors to learning are referred to, particularly in relation to learning disability. Through a case study, I demonstrate how a young girl used voicework to build connections with herself and the music therapist, whereby consequently she became more motivated to interact with her surroundings. I argue hence that the use of the non-verbal voice in music therapy, through its intrinsic connection to identity and internal emotional states can contribute significantly towards the healthy developments necessary for a person to be able to learn. Therefore, by increasing our knowledge about the actual process of learning, and the significance of our work within that process, we can move towards demonstrating clearer outcomes of music therapy in the educational context and have a stronger ‘voice’ within the multi-disciplinary teams that serve this population.

  9. Vocal fold ion transport and mucin expression following acrolein exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levendoski, Elizabeth Erickson; Sivasankar, M Preeti

    2014-05-01

    The vocal fold epithelium is exposed to inhaled particulates including pollutants during breathing in everyday environments. Yet, our understanding of the effects of pollutants on vocal fold epithelial function is extremely limited. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the pollutant acrolein on two vocal fold epithelial mechanisms: ion transport and mucin (MUC) synthesis. These mechanisms were chosen as each plays a critical role in vocal defense and in maintaining surface hydration which is necessary for optimal voice production. Healthy, native porcine vocal folds (N = 85) were excised and exposed to an acrolein or sham challenge. A 60-min acrolein, but not sham challenge significantly reduced ion transport and inhibited cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent, increases in ion transport. Decreases in ion transport were associated with reduced sodium absorption. Within the same timeline, no significant acrolein-induced changes in MUC gene or protein expression were observed. These results improve our understanding of the effects of acrolein on key vocal fold epithelial functions and inform the development of future investigations that seek to elucidate the impact of a wide range of pollutant exposures on vocal fold health.

  10. Vocal fold contact patterns based on normal modes of vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Simeon L; Titze, Ingo R

    2018-05-17

    The fluid-structure interaction and energy transfer from respiratory airflow to self-sustained vocal fold oscillation continues to be a topic of interest in vocal fold research. Vocal fold vibration is driven by pressures on the vocal fold surface, which are determined by the shape of the glottis and the contact between vocal folds. Characterization of three-dimensional glottal shapes and contact patterns can lead to increased understanding of normal and abnormal physiology of the voice, as well as to development of improved vocal fold models, but a large inventory of shapes has not been directly studied previously. This study aimed to take an initial step toward characterizing vocal fold contact patterns systematically. Vocal fold motion and contact was modeled based on normal mode vibration, as it has been shown that vocal fold vibration can be almost entirely described by only the few lowest order vibrational modes. Symmetric and asymmetric combinations of the four lowest normal modes of vibration were superimposed on left and right vocal fold medial surfaces, for each of three prephonatory glottal configurations, according to a surface wave approach. Contact patterns were generated from the interaction of modal shapes at 16 normalized phases during the vibratory cycle. Eight major contact patterns were identified and characterized by the shape of the flow channel, with the following descriptors assigned: convergent, divergent, convergent-divergent, uniform, split, merged, island, and multichannel. Each of the contact patterns and its variation are described, and future work and applications are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Constructionist Gaming: Understanding the Benefits of Making Games for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafai, Yasmin B.; Burke, Quinn

    2015-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in examining the educational potential of playing video games. One crucial element, however, has traditionally been left out of these discussions--namely, children's learning through making their own games. In this article, we review and synthesize 55 studies from the last decade on making games and learning.…

  12. Understanding How to Build Long-Lived Learning Collaborators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-16

    language. We also made progress on using qualitative representations for strategic thinking , where continuous processes and causal knowledge about...discrimination in learning, and dynamic encoding strategies to improve visual encoding for learning via analogical generalization. We showed that spatial concepts...a 20,000 sketch corpus to examine the tradeoffs involved in visual representation and analogical generalization. 15. SUBJECT TERMS

  13. Understanding teachers’ professional learning goals from their current professional concerns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louws, Monika L.; Meirink, Jacobiene A.; van Veen, Klaas; van Driel, Jan H.

    In the day-to-day workplace teachers direct their own learning, but little is known about what drives their decisions about what they would like to learn. These decisions are assumed to be influenced by teachers’ current professional concerns. Also, teachers in different professional life phases

  14. Vocal Fold Collision Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granados, Alba; Brunskog, Jonas; Misztal, M. K.

    2015-01-01

    When vocal folds vibrate at normal speaking frequencies, collisions occurs. The numerics and formulations behind a position-based continuum model of contact is an active field of research in the contact mechanics community. In this paper, a frictionless three-dimensional finite element model...

  15. Vocal Cord Paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Viral infections. Some viral infections, such as Lyme disease, Epstein-Barr and herpes, can cause inflammation and damage directly to the nerves in the larynx. Neurological conditions. If you have certain ... disease, you may experience vocal cord paralysis. Risk factors ...

  16. Nonlinear dynamic mechanism of vocal tremor from voice analysis and model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Jack J.

    2008-09-01

    Nonlinear dynamic analysis and model simulations are used to study the nonlinear dynamic characteristics of vocal folds with vocal tremor, which can typically be characterized by low-frequency modulation and aperiodicity. Tremor voices from patients with disorders such as paresis, Parkinson's disease, hyperfunction, and adductor spasmodic dysphonia show low-dimensional characteristics, differing from random noise. Correlation dimension analysis statistically distinguishes tremor voices from normal voices. Furthermore, a nonlinear tremor model is proposed to study the vibrations of the vocal folds with vocal tremor. Fractal dimensions and positive Lyapunov exponents demonstrate the evidence of chaos in the tremor model, where amplitude and frequency play important roles in governing vocal fold dynamics. Nonlinear dynamic voice analysis and vocal fold modeling may provide a useful set of tools for understanding the dynamic mechanism of vocal tremor in patients with laryngeal diseases.

  17. Understanding the Dynamics of Learning across social worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengiste, Shegaw Anagaw; Aanestad, Margunn

    2013-01-01

    participation, politics and learning in IS implementation and use. We consider learning to be an integral part of the social practice, and it occurs mainly through encounters and negotiations between actors from different social worlds who might have competing interests and values. The paper also analysed how......This paper adopts a novel learning perspective on information systems development. Building on the works of Anselm Strauss we conceptualize development processes as “negotiated orders” where members from different “social worlds” encounter and negotiate differences and tensions. We argue...

  18. Languages in a global world learning for better cultural understanding

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, Jessica; Hinton, Christina

    2012-01-01

    The rise of globalisation makes language competencies more valuable, both at individual and societal levels. This book examines the links between globalisation and the way we teach and learn languages. It begins by asking why some individuals are more successful than others at learning non-native languages, and why some education systems, or countries, are more successful than others at teaching languages. The book comprises chapters by different authors on the subject of language learning. There are chapters on the role of motivation; the way that languages, cultures and identities are interc

  19. Students' Understanding of Genetics Concepts: The Effect of Reasoning Ability and Learning Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliç, Didem; Saglam, Necdet

    2014-01-01

    Students tend to learn genetics by rote and may not realise the interrelationships in daily life. Because reasoning abilities are necessary to construct relationships between concepts and rote learning impedes the students' sound understanding, it was predicted that having high level of formal reasoning and adopting meaningful learning orientation…

  20. Learning Outcomes of 'Understanding Research' as understood by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simon Bhekumuzi

    vision) for using Turnitin as a deterrent, in order to help learners to learn in the process. .... such as the American Psychological Association. (APA) ..... from other people. ..... and enduring concerns (2nd ed). ... Generations: The history of.

  1. Understanding Collective Learning and Human Agency in Diverse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-05-07

    May 7, 2018 ... new social systems that are more sustainable and socially just. ... collection to these international deliberations about the role of education in enabling ... learning can foster and contribute to the development of change agents ...

  2. Educating patients: understanding barriers, learning styles, and teaching techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beagley, Linda

    2011-10-01

    Health care delivery and education has become a challenge for providers. Nurses and other professionals are challenged daily to assure that the patient has the necessary information to make informed decisions. Patients and their families are given a multitude of information about their health and commonly must make important decisions from these facts. Obstacles that prevent easy delivery of health care information include literacy, culture, language, and physiological barriers. It is up to the nurse to assess and evaluate the patient's learning needs and readiness to learn because everyone learns differently. This article will examine how each of these barriers impact care delivery along with teaching and learning strategies will be examined. Copyright © 2011 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sparse Machine Learning Methods for Understanding Large Text Corpora

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sparse machine learning has recently emerged as powerful tool to obtain models of high-dimensional data with high degree of interpretability, at low computational...

  4. Theory of Mind and Children's Understanding of Teaching and Learning during Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenlin

    2015-01-01

    How children understand the concepts of teaching and learning is inherently underpinned by their mental state understanding and critical to the successful transition to formal schooling. Knowledge is a private representational mental state; learning is a knowledge change process that can be either intentional or not; and teaching is an intentional…

  5. Constructionist Gaming: Understanding the Benefits of Making Games for Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Kafai, Yasmin B.; Burke, Quinn

    2016-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in examining the educational potential of playing video games. One crucial element, however, has traditionally been left out of these discussions?namely, children's learning through making their own games. In this article, we review and synthesize 55 studies from the last decade on making games and learning. We found that the majority of studies focused on teaching coding and academic content through game making, and that few studies explicitly examined th...

  6. Understanding learning within a commercial video game: A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Fowler, Allan

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in the debate on the value and relevance using video games for learning. Some of the interest stems from frustration with current educational methods. However, some of this interest also stems from the observations of large numbers of children that play video games. This paper finds that children can learn basic construction skills from playing a video game called World of Goo. The study also employed novel eye-tracking technology to measure endogenous ey...

  7. The Vocal Tract Organ: A New Musical Instrument Using 3-D Printed Vocal Tracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David M

    2017-10-27

    The advent and now increasingly widespread availability of 3-D printers is transforming our understanding of the natural world by enabling observations to be made in a tangible manner. This paper describes the use of 3-D printed models of the vocal tract for different vowels that are used to create an acoustic output when stimulated with an appropriate sound source in a new musical instrument: the Vocal Tract Organ. The shape of each printed vocal tract is recovered from magnetic resonance imaging. It sits atop a loudspeaker to which is provided an acoustic L-F model larynx input signal that is controlled by the notes played on a musical instrument digital interface device such as a keyboard. The larynx input is subject to vibrato with extent and frequency adjustable as desired within the ranges usually found for human singing. Polyphonic inputs for choral singing textures can be applied via a single loudspeaker and vocal tract, invoking the approximation of linearity in the voice production system, thereby making multiple vowel stops a possibility while keeping the complexity of the instrument in reasonable check. The Vocal Tract Organ offers a much more human and natural sounding result than the traditional Vox Humana stops found in larger pipe organs, offering the possibility of enhancing pipe organs of the future as well as becoming the basis for a "multi-vowel" chamber organ in its own right. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Does using active learning in thermodynamics lectures improve students’ conceptual understanding and learning experiences?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiou, H; Sharma, M D

    2015-01-01

    Encouraging ‘active learning’ in the large lecture theatre emerges as a credible recommendation for improving university courses, with reports often showing significant improvements in learning outcomes. However, the recommendations are based predominantly on studies undertaken in mechanics. We set out to examine those claims in the thermodynamics module of a large first year physics course with an established technique, called interactive lecture demonstrations (ILDs). The study took place at The University of Sydney, where four parallel streams of the thermodynamics module were divided into two streams that experienced the ILDs and two streams that did not. The programme was first implemented in 2011 to gain experience and refine logistical matters and repeated in 2012 with approximately 500 students. A validated survey, the thermal concepts survey, was used as pre-test and post-test to measure learning gains while surveys and interviews provided insights into what the ‘active learning’ meant from student experiences. We analysed lecture recordings to capture the time devoted to different activities in a lecture, including interactivity. The learning gains were in the ‘high gain’ range for the ILD streams and ‘medium gain’ for the other streams. The analysis of the lecture recordings showed that the ILD streams devoted significantly more time to interactivity while surveys and interviews showed that students in the ILD streams were thinking in deep ways. Our study shows that ILDs can make a difference in students’ conceptual understanding as well as their experiences, demonstrating the potential value-add that can be provided by investing in active learning to enhance lectures. (paper)

  9. The Neural Basis of Vocal Pitch Imitation in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyk, Michel; Pfordresher, Peter Q; Liotti, Mario; Brown, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Vocal imitation is a phenotype that is unique to humans among all primate species, and so an understanding of its neural basis is critical in explaining the emergence of both speech and song in human evolution. Two principal neural models of vocal imitation have emerged from a consideration of nonhuman animals. One hypothesis suggests that putative mirror neurons in the inferior frontal gyrus pars opercularis of Broca's area may be important for imitation. An alternative hypothesis derived from the study of songbirds suggests that the corticostriate motor pathway performs sensorimotor processes that are specific to vocal imitation. Using fMRI with a sparse event-related sampling design, we investigated the neural basis of vocal imitation in humans by comparing imitative vocal production of pitch sequences with both nonimitative vocal production and pitch discrimination. The strongest difference between these tasks was found in the putamen bilaterally, providing a striking parallel to the role of the analogous region in songbirds. Other areas preferentially activated during imitation included the orofacial motor cortex, Rolandic operculum, and SMA, which together outline the corticostriate motor loop. No differences were seen in the inferior frontal gyrus. The corticostriate system thus appears to be the central pathway for vocal imitation in humans, as predicted from an analogy with songbirds.

  10. Using Learning Analytics to Understand the Design of an Intelligent Language Tutor – Chatbot Lucy

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Fei Wang; Stephen Petrina

    2013-01-01

    the goal of this article is to explore how learning analytics can be used to predict and advise the design of an intelligent language tutor, chatbot Lucy. With its focus on using student-produced data to understand the design of Lucy to assist English language learning, this research can be a valuable component for language-learning designers to improve second language acquisition. In this article, we present students’ learning journey and data trails, the chatting log architecture and result...

  11. Understanding the relationship between student attitudes and student learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Michael J.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Frey, Regina F.; Hynes, K. Mairin; Repice, Michelle; Zhao, Jiuqing; Trousil, Rebecca

    2018-02-01

    Student attitudes, defined as the extent to which one holds expertlike beliefs about and approaches to physics, are a major research topic in physics education research. An implicit but rarely tested assumption underlying much of this research is that student attitudes play a significant part in student learning and performance. The current study directly tested this attitude-learning link by measuring the association between incoming attitudes (Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey) and student learning during the semester after statistically controlling for the effects of prior knowledge [early-semester Force Concept Inventory (FCI) or Brief Electricity and Magnetism Assessment (BEMA)]. This study spanned four different courses and included two complementary measures of student knowledge: late-semester concept inventory scores (FCI or BEMA) and exam averages. In three of the four courses, after controlling for prior knowledge, attitudes significantly predicted both late-semester concept inventory scores and exam averages, but in all cases these attitudes explained only a small amount of variance in concept-inventory and exam scores. Results indicate that after accounting for students' incoming knowledge, attitudes may uniquely but modestly relate to how much students learn and how well they perform in the course.

  12. Towards understanding and managing the learning process in mail sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, M; Karltun, A

    2012-01-01

    This paper was based on case study research at the Swedish Mail Service Division and it addresses learning time to sort mail at new districts and means to support the learning process on an individual as well as organizational level. The study population consisted of 46 postmen and one team leader in the Swedish Mail Service Division. Data were collected through measurements of time for mail sorting, interviews and a focus group. The study showed that learning to sort mail was a much more complex process and took more time than expected by management. Means to support the learning process included clarification of the relationship between sorting and the topology of the district, a good work environment, increased support from colleagues and management, and a thorough introduction for new postmen. The identified means to support the learning process require an integration of human, technological and organizational aspects. The study further showed that increased operations flexibility cannot be reinforced without a systems perspective and thorough knowledge about real work activities and that ergonomists can aid businesses to acquire this knowledge.

  13. Learning Local Components to Understand Large Bayesian Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yifeng; Xiang, Yanping; Cordero, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    (domain experts) to extract accurate information from a large Bayesian network due to dimensional difficulty. We define a formulation of local components and propose a clustering algorithm to learn such local components given complete data. The algorithm groups together most inter-relevant attributes......Bayesian networks are known for providing an intuitive and compact representation of probabilistic information and allowing the creation of models over a large and complex domain. Bayesian learning and reasoning are nontrivial for a large Bayesian network. In parallel, it is a tough job for users...... in a domain. We evaluate its performance on three benchmark Bayesian networks and provide results in support. We further show that the learned components may represent local knowledge more precisely in comparison to the full Bayesian networks when working with a small amount of data....

  14. Some secret language: how toddlers learn to understand movies

    OpenAIRE

    Bazalgette, Cary

    2018-01-01

    The starting-point of this thesis is the hypothesis that, from at least 22 months old, children who watch movies (i.e. any moving-image media) may be learning how to make sense of them. Rather than looking for evidence of precursors to further learning (such as language, literacy or technological skills) or for the risks or benefits that movie-watching may entail, the thesis argues that viewing behaviour provides enough evidence about the practices and processes through which children of this...

  15. Enhancing intercultural understanding using e-learning strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intercultural understanding is a prerequisite for peaceful local and global citizenship, especially in South African society where prejudice and negative stereotypes were previously the order of the day because of official separatism. It is therefore crucial to teach intercultural understanding in South Africa. I report with ...

  16. Understanding Digital Learning from the Perspective of Systems Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Ayse

    2009-01-01

    The System Dynamics approach can be seen as a new way of understanding dynamical phenonema (natural, physical, biological, etc.) that occur in our daily lives taking into consideration not only single pairs of cause-effect variables, but the functioning of the system as a whole. This approach also provides the students with a new understanding in…

  17. Working across Disciplines to Understand Playful Learning in Educational Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Aalsvoort, Geerdina; Broadhead, Pat

    2016-01-01

    Educators stress the importance of play for children's cognitive, social, physical, and emotional development. In order to effectively advocate for the inclusion of play in education settings, it is important to fully understand it. Two researchers, one from England and one from the Netherlands, sought common ground for understanding what children…

  18. Understanding Students' Use and Value of Technology for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, Karley; Bennett, Sue; Lockyer, Lori

    2014-01-01

    Despite significant research in the field of educational technology, there is still much we do not fully understand about students' experiences with technology. This article proposes that research in the field of educational technology would benefit from a sociological framing that pays attention to the understandings and lives of learners. Within…

  19. Understanding the Relationship between Student Attitudes and Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Michael J.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Frey, Regina F.; Hynes, K. Mairin; Repice, Michelle; Zhao, Jiuqing; Trousil, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    Student attitudes, defined as the extent to which one holds expertlike beliefs about and approaches to physics, are a major research topic in physics education research. An implicit but rarely tested assumption underlying much of this research is that student attitudes play a significant part in student learning and performance. The current study…

  20. Assessing Reflection: Understanding Skill Development through Reflective Learning Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathro, Virginia; O'Kane, Paula; Gilbertson, Deb

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to suggest ways in which business educators can interact successfully with reflective learning journals (RLJs). Specifically, the research was interested in how students used RLJs and how educators assessed these RLJs. Design/methodology/approach: In total, 31 RLJs, submitted as part of an international…

  1. Understanding Collective Learning and Human Agency in Diverse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-05-07

    May 7, 2018 ... made between students' lives, their African identities and local natural places. Introduction to the Think Piece Collection: 'Collective Learning and Change ... is increasingly recognised in the social-ecological and global change sciences. For example, ..... processes that allow for the change agent to act.

  2. Understanding the Roles of Families in Virtual Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie-Rubin, Rachel; Smith, Sean J.

    2014-01-01

    Families choose to enroll their children in fully online schools for many reasons. Online schools offer the possibility of flexible schedules and the potential to learn at a pace and in a manner that is not available to students in their brick-and-mortar schools (Cavanaugh & Clark, 2007). Because online education can allow for individualized…

  3. Understanding Procrastination from a Self-Regulated Learning Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Christopher A.

    2003-01-01

    Reports on two studies examining procrastination and its relation to several key components of self-regulated learning using self-report surveys. Results indicate that procrastination was related to college students' self-efficacy and work-avoidant goal orientation and, to a lesser extent, their use of metacognitive strategies. (Contains 54…

  4. Understanding the Science-Learning Environment: A Genetically Sensitive Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Claire M. A.; Davis, Oliver S. P.; Hanscombe, Ken B.; Kovas, Yulia; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that environmental influences on school science performance increase in importance from primary to secondary school. Here we assess for the first time the relationship between the science-learning environment and science performance using a genetically sensitive approach to investigate the aetiology of this link. 3000…

  5. Drawing out Understanding: Arts-Based Learning and Gifted Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiserman, Jennifer; Lai, Heather; Rushton, Chelsea

    2017-01-01

    Dabrowski recognized that the creative process is important in the personality development of the gifted and talented. Given the intrinsically creative nature of learning in an arts-infused context, we hypothesize that interdisciplinary approaches to curriculum address the unique needs of the gifted. First, we will summarize Dabrowski's theory of…

  6. Understanding Sample Surveys: Selective Learning about Social Science Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currin-Percival, Mary; Johnson, Martin

    2010-01-01

    We investigate differences in what students learn about survey methodology in a class on public opinion presented in two critically different ways: with the inclusion or exclusion of an original research project using a random-digit-dial telephone survey. Using a quasi-experimental design and data obtained from pretests and posttests in two public…

  7. Understanding How the Brain Learns Should Inform Our Teaching Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alix Darden

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Comparative review of: The Brain-Targeted Teaching Model for 21st-Century Schools; Mariale Hardiman; (2012. Corwin, Thousand Oaks, CA. 223 pages; and How the Brain Learns, 4th ed.; David A. Sousa; (2011. Corwin, Thousand Oaks, CA. 321 pages.

  8. Young Children's Understandings of Length Measurement: Evaluating a Learning Trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, Janka; Clements, Douglas H.; Sarama, Julie

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the development of length measurement ideas in students from prekindergarten through 2nd grade. The main purpose was to evaluate and elaborate the developmental progression, or levels of thinking, of a hypothesized learning trajectory for length measurement to ensure that the sequence of levels of thinking is consistent…

  9. Understanding Student Learning: The Need for Education Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaven, Chip

    2015-01-01

    Schools have long collected information about students, from basic emergency contact details to daily attendance statistics. But only recently have schools used education technology to collect solid, reliable information (or data) about how students learn--as well as details about their strengths, challenges, and individual traits that impact…

  10. Adapted to roar: functional morphology of tiger and lion vocal folds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Klemuk

    Full Text Available Vocal production requires active control of the respiratory system, larynx and vocal tract. Vocal sounds in mammals are produced by flow-induced vocal fold oscillation, which requires vocal fold tissue that can sustain the mechanical stress during phonation. Our understanding of the relationship between morphology and vocal function of vocal folds is very limited. Here we tested the hypothesis that vocal fold morphology and viscoelastic properties allow a prediction of fundamental frequency range of sounds that can be produced, and minimal lung pressure necessary to initiate phonation. We tested the hypothesis in lions and tigers who are well-known for producing low frequency and very loud roaring sounds that expose vocal folds to large stresses. In histological sections, we found that the Panthera vocal fold lamina propria consists of a lateral region with adipocytes embedded in a network of collagen and elastin fibers and hyaluronan. There is also a medial region that contains only fibrous proteins and hyaluronan but no fat cells. Young's moduli range between 10 and 2000 kPa for strains up to 60%. Shear moduli ranged between 0.1 and 2 kPa and differed between layers. Biomechanical and morphological data were used to make predictions of fundamental frequency and subglottal pressure ranges. Such predictions agreed well with measurements from natural phonation and phonation of excised larynges, respectively. We assume that fat shapes Panthera vocal folds into an advantageous geometry for phonation and it protects vocal folds. Its primary function is probably not to increase vocal fold mass as suggested previously. The large square-shaped Panthera vocal fold eases phonation onset and thereby extends the dynamic range of the voice.

  11. Vocal therapy of hyperkinetic dysphonia

    OpenAIRE

    Mumović Gordana; Veselinović Mila; Arbutina Tanja; Škrbić Renata

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Hyperkinetic (hyperfunctional) dysphonia is a common pathology. The disorder is often found in vocal professionals faced with high vocal requirements. Objective. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vocal therapy on voice condition characterized by hyperkinetic dysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. Methods. The study included 100 adult patients and 27 children aged 4-16 years with prenodular lesions and soft...

  12. Vocal fold injection medialization laryngoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Vikash K

    2012-01-01

    Unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) can cause glottic insufficiency that can result in hoarseness, chronic cough, dysphagia, and/or aspiration. In rare circumstances, UVFP can cause airway obstruction necessitating a tracheostomy. The treatment options for UVFP include observation, speech therapy, vocal fold injection medialization laryngoplasty, thyroplasty, and laryngeal reinnervation. In this chapter, the author will discuss the technique of vocal fold injection for medialization of a UVFP. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Evaluating the effects of a new qualitative simulation software (DynaLearn) on learning behavior, factual and causal understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zitek, A.; Poppe, M.; Stelzhammer, M.; Muhar, S.; Bredeweg, B.; Biswas, G.; Bull, S.; Kay, J.; Mitrovic, A.

    2011-01-01

    The DynaLearn software, a new intelligent learning environment aimed at supporting a better conceptual and causal understanding of environmental sciences was evaluated. The main goals of these pilot evaluations were to provide information on (1) usability of the software and problems learners

  14. Convergent differential regulation of parvalbumin in the brains of vocal learners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erina Hara

    Full Text Available Spoken language and learned song are complex communication behaviors found in only a few species, including humans and three groups of distantly related birds--songbirds, parrots, and hummingbirds. Despite their large phylogenetic distances, these vocal learners show convergent behaviors and associated brain pathways for vocal communication. However, it is not clear whether this behavioral and anatomical convergence is associated with molecular convergence. Here we used oligo microarrays to screen for genes differentially regulated in brain nuclei necessary for producing learned vocalizations relative to adjacent brain areas that control other behaviors in avian vocal learners versus vocal non-learners. A top candidate gene in our screen was a calcium-binding protein, parvalbumin (PV. In situ hybridization verification revealed that PV was expressed significantly higher throughout the song motor pathway, including brainstem vocal motor neurons relative to the surrounding brain regions of all distantly related avian vocal learners. This differential expression was specific to PV and vocal learners, as it was not found in avian vocal non-learners nor for control genes in learners and non-learners. Similar to the vocal learning birds, higher PV up-regulation was found in the brainstem tongue motor neurons used for speech production in humans relative to a non-human primate, macaques. These results suggest repeated convergent evolution of differential PV up-regulation in the brains of vocal learners separated by more than 65-300 million years from a common ancestor and that the specialized behaviors of learned song and speech may require extra calcium buffering and signaling.

  15. Constructionist Gaming: Understanding the Benefits of Making Games for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafai, Yasmin B.; Burke, Quinn

    2015-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in examining the educational potential of playing video games. One crucial element, however, has traditionally been left out of these discussions—namely, children's learning through making their own games. In this article, we review and synthesize 55 studies from the last decade on making games and learning. We found that the majority of studies focused on teaching coding and academic content through game making, and that few studies explicitly examined the roles of collaboration and identity in the game making process. We argue that future discussions of serious gaming ought to be more inclusive of constructionist approaches to realize the full potential of serious gaming. Making games, we contend, not only more genuinely introduces children to a range of technical skills but also better connects them to each other, addressing the persistent issues of access and diversity present in traditional digital gaming cultures. PMID:27019536

  16. Learning to Understand Natural Language with Less Human Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Supervision Distant supervision is a recent trend in information extraction. Distantly-supervised extractors are trained using a corpus of unlabeled text...consists of fill-in-the-blank natural language questions such as “Incan emperor ” or “Cunningham directed Auchtre’s second music video .” These questions...with an 132 unknown knowledge base, simultaneously learning how to semantically parse language and pop - ulate the knowledge base. The weakly

  17. Understanding the Role of Achievements in Game-Based Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Blair

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the current research was to examine whether one potentially effective gaming strategy—achievements—has a positive impact on learning in a game-based environment. An achievement in a video game is a reward or recognition earned by players for an in-game accomplishment. This paper describes a series of studies to evaluate the effects of achievement types on learning in a game designed to teach about health resources. The Game “Phone Dash” was used as the testbed for the following studies. The following questionnaires were utilized in this study: Video Game Self-Efficacy Scale (VGSES questionnaire, Relevance and Usefulness questionnaire, Game Engagement Questionnaire (GEQ, and the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI. Four studies were conducted. Results indicated that while in unison, the achievements were not as potent in motivating performance, certainly when combined they produced measurable changes in behavior. The four studies described in this paper provide important information regarding the optimal design of achievements in game-based health education. Developers of future game-based learning can use this information to enhance the potential effectiveness of their products. 

  18. A Morphological Analyzer for Vocalized or Not Vocalized Arabic Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Amine Abderrahim, Med; Breksi Reguig, Fethi

    This research has been to show the realization of a morphological analyzer of the Arabic language (vocalized or not vocalized). This analyzer is based upon our object model for the Arabic Natural Language Processing (NLP) and can be exploited by NLP applications such as translation machine, orthographical correction and the search for information.

  19. Understanding, Evaluating, and Supporting Self-Regulated Learning Using Learning Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll, Ido; Winne, Philip H.

    2015-01-01

    Self-regulated learning is an ongoing process rather than a single snapshot in time. Naturally, the field of learning analytics, focusing on interactions and learning trajectories, offers exciting opportunities for analyzing and supporting self-regulated learning. This special section highlights the current state of research at the intersection of…

  20. Design e-learning with flipped learning model to improve layout understanding the concepts basic of the loop control structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, D. P.; Sutarno, H.; Wihardi, Y.

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed in design and build e-learning with classroom flipped model to improve the concept of understanding of SMK students on the basic programming subject. Research and development obtained research data from survey questionnaire given to students of SMK class X RPL in SMK Negeri 2 Bandung and interviews to RPL productive teacher. Data also obtained from questionnaire of expert validation and students' assessment from e-learning with flipped classroom models. Data also obtained from multiple-choice test to measure improvements in conceptual understanding. The results of this research are: 1) Developed e- learning with flipped classroom model considered good and worthy of use by the average value of the percentage of 86,3% by media experts, and 85,5% by subjects matter experts, then students gave judgment is very good on e-learning either flipped classroom model with a percentage of 79,15% votes. 2) e-learning with classroom flipped models show an increase in the average value of pre-test before using e-learning 26.67 compared to the average value post-test after using e- learning at 63.37 and strengthened by the calculation of the index gains seen Increased understanding of students 'concepts by 50% with moderate criteria indicating that students' understanding is improving.

  1. Social ultrasonic vocalization in awake head-restrained mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Weiner

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous animal species emit vocalizations in response to various social stimuli. The neural basis of vocal communication has been investigated in monkeys, songbirds, rats, bats and invertebrates resulting in deep insights into motor control, neural coding and learning. Mice, which recently became very popular as a model system for mammalian neuroscience, also utilize ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs during mating behavior. However, our knowledge is lacking of both the behavior and its underlying neural mechanism. We developed a novel method for head-restrained male mice (HRMM to interact with non-restrained female mice (NRFM and show that mice can emit USVs in this context. We first recorded USVs in free arena with non-restrained male mice (NRMM and NRFM. Of the NRMM, which vocalized in the free arena, the majority could be habituated to also vocalize while head-restrained but only when a female mouse was present in proximity. The USVs emitted by HRMM are similar to the USVs of NRMM in the presence of a female mouse in their spectral structure, inter syllable interval distribution and USV sequence length, and therefore are interpreted as social USVs. By analyzing vocalizations of NRMM, we established criteria to predict which individuals are likely to vocalize while head fixed based on the USV rate and average syllable duration. To characterize the USVs emitted by HRMM, we analyzed the syllable composition of HRMM and NRMM and found that USVs emitted by HRMM have higher proportions of USVs with complex spectral representation, supporting previous studies showing that mice social USVs are context dependent. Our results suggest a way to study the neural mechanisms of production and control of social vocalization in mice using advanced methods requiring head fixation.

  2. Social Ultrasonic Vocalization in Awake Head-Restrained Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Benjamin; Hertz, Stav; Perets, Nisim; London, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Numerous animal species emit vocalizations in response to various social stimuli. The neural basis of vocal communication has been investigated in monkeys, songbirds, rats, bats, and invertebrates resulting in deep insights into motor control, neural coding, and learning. Mice, which recently became very popular as a model system for mammalian neuroscience, also utilize ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) during mating behavior. However, our knowledge is lacking of both the behavior and its underlying neural mechanism. We developed a novel method for head-restrained male mice (HRMM) to interact with non-restrained female mice (NRFM) and show that mice can emit USVs in this context. We first recorded USVs in a free arena with non-restrained male mice (NRMM) and NRFM. Of the NRMM, which vocalized in the free arena, the majority could be habituated to also vocalize while head-restrained but only when a female mouse was present in proximity. The USVs emitted by HRMM are similar to the USVs of NRMM in the presence of a female mouse in their spectral structure, inter-syllable interval distribution, and USV sequence length, and therefore are interpreted as social USVs. By analyzing the vocalizations of NRMM, we established criteria to predict which individuals are likely to vocalize while head fixed based on the USV rate and average syllable duration. To characterize the USVs emitted by HRMM, we analyzed the syllable composition of HRMM and NRMM and found that USVs emitted by HRMM have a higher proportion of USVs with complex spectral representation, supporting previous studies showing that mice social USVs are context dependent. Our results suggest a way to study the neural mechanisms of production and control of social vocalization in mice using advanced methods requiring head fixation.

  3. The effect of vocal tract impedance on the vocal folds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn T.; Selamtzis, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    frontend is used to measure the electroglottograph signal which reflects the opening and closing pattern of the vocal folds. The measurements were carried out for all four modes (Neutral, Curbing, Overdrive and Edge) for the vowel [a] in three different pitches: C3(131 Hz), G3 (196 Hz) and C4 (262Hz......The importance of the interaction between the acoustic impedance of the vocal tract with the flow across the vocal cords is well established. In this paper we are investigating the changes in vocal tract impedance when using the different modes of phonation according to Sadolin [1], going from...... the soft levels of the Neutral mode to the high levels of the fully ‘metallic’ Edge mode. The acoustic impedance of vocal tract as seen from the mouth opening is measured via a microphone placed close to the mouth when exciting the system with a volume velocity source [2]. At the same time a Laryngograph...

  4. Learning History in Early Childhood: Teaching Methods and Children's Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjaeveland, Yngve

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the teaching of history in early childhood education and care centres and children's understanding of history. Based on interviews with eight Norwegian early childhood education and care teachers and on interpretative phenomenological analysis, the article shows how the early childhood education and care centres teach…

  5. How Contextualized Learning Settings Enhance Meaningful Nature of Science Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilican, K.; Cakiroglu, J.; Oztekin, C.

    2015-01-01

    Exploring different contexts to facilitate in-depth nature of science (NOS) views were seen as critical for better professional development of pre-service science teachers, which ultimately would assure better students' NOS understanding and achieve an ultimate goal of current science education reforms. This study aimed to reduce the lack of…

  6. Teaching Care Ethics: Conceptual Understandings and Stories for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Colette; Smith, Grinell

    2013-01-01

    An ethic of care acknowledges the centrality of the role of caring relationships in moral education. Care ethics requires a conception of "care" that differs from the quotidian use of the word. In order to teach care ethics more effectively, this article discusses four interrelated ways that teachers' understandings of care differ…

  7. Understanding Neurophobia: Reasons behind Impaired Understanding and Learning of Neuroanatomy in Cross-Disciplinary Healthcare Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Muhammad Asim; Chakraborty, Shelly; Cryan, John F.; Schellekens, Harriët; Toulouse, André

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted a fear or difficulty with the study and understanding of neuroanatomy among medical and healthcare students. This has been linked with a diminished confidence of clinical practitioners and students to manage patients with neurological conditions. The underlying reasons for this difficulty have been queried among a…

  8. Adult Learners Understanding in Learning Islam Using the Andragogy Approach in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Mohd Amin Bin

    2016-01-01

    This study describes adult learners understanding in learning Islam using the andragogy approach in Singapore comprising multicultural and multi-religious society. Singapore is a secular state where freedom of religion is encrypted in the constitution and Malay/Muslim comprises 13.3% of the population. Adults learn Islam to deepen their…

  9. Towards a Culturally Sensitive and Deeper Understanding of "Rote Learning" and Memorisation of Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Po-Li

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to provide evidence that "rote learning" or "memorisation" is a complex construct and is deeply embedded in the East Asian culture. An in-depth understanding of this learning approach is increasingly crucial considering the complex demography of contemporary higher education nowadays. Not only is there a rise…

  10. Exploring a Pluralist Understanding of Learning for Sustainability and Its Implications for Outdoor Education Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Susanne C.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores a pluralist understanding of learning for sustainability in educational theory and relates it to outdoor education practice. In brief, this kind of learning can be described as a deep engagement with an individual's multiple identities and the personal location in diverse geo-physical and socio-cultural surroundings. I…

  11. Understanding Personal Learning Environment Perspectives of Thai International Tourism and Hospitality Higher Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanyong, Siriwan; Sharafuddin, Mohamed Ali

    2016-01-01

    This paper is part of a periodic research conducted in developing a personal learning environment for Thailand's higher education students with English as medium of instruction. The objective of the first phase in this research was to understand the personal learning environment perspectives of Thai International tourism and hospitality higher…

  12. Integrating Model-Based Learning and Animations for Enhancing Students' Understanding of Proteins Structure and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Miri; Hussein-Farraj, Rania

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a study conducted in the context of chemistry education reforms in Israel. The study examined a new biochemistry learning unit that was developed to promote in-depth understanding of 3D structures and functions of proteins and nucleic acids. Our goal was to examine whether, and to what extent teaching and learning via…

  13. Understanding Informal Learning in Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Shinhee; McLean, Gary N.; Park, Soyoun

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore informal learning experiences among employees working in South Korean small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) with fewer than 100 employees. This study specifically seeks to understand the characteristics of informal learning in Korean SMEs and culturally sensitive contextual factors that shape informal…

  14. Developing an Understanding of Higher Education Science and Engineering Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Richard K.; Eames, Chris

    2008-01-01

    This article sets the scene for this special issue of "Research in Science & Technological Education", dedicated to understanding higher education science and engineering learning communities. We examine what the literature has to say about the nature of, and factors influencing, higher education learning communities. A discussion of…

  15. An Exponential Growth Learning Trajectory: Students' Emerging Understanding of Exponential Growth through Covariation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Amy B.; Ozgur, Zekiye; Kulow, Torrey; Dogan, Muhammed F.; Amidon, Joel

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an Exponential Growth Learning Trajectory (EGLT), a trajectory identifying and characterizing middle grade students' initial and developing understanding of exponential growth as a result of an instructional emphasis on covariation. The EGLT explicates students' thinking and learning over time in relation to a set of tasks…

  16. Analogy-Integrated e-Learning Module: Facilitating Students' Conceptual Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The study deals with the development of an analogy-integrated e-learning module on Cellular Respiration, which is intended to facilitate conceptual understanding of students with different brain hemisphere dominance and learning styles. The module includes eight analogies originally conceptualized following the specific steps used to prepare…

  17. Conceptual Understanding of Acids and Bases Concepts and Motivation to Learn Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin-Dindar, Ayla; Geban, Omer

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 5E learning cycle model oriented instruction (LCMI) on 11th-grade students' conceptual understanding of acids and bases concepts and student motivation to learn chemistry. The study, which lasted for 7 weeks, involved two groups: An experimental group (LCMI) and a control group (the…

  18. Environmental Identity: A New Approach to Understanding Students' Participation in Environmental Learning Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaksha, Amanda P.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study is to develop an understanding of how participants express their environmental identities during an environmental learning program. Past research on the outcomes of environmental learning programs has focused primarily on changes in knowledge and attitudes. However, even if knowledge or attitudes can be accurately measured,…

  19. Recognition, Expression, and Understanding Facial Expressions of Emotion in Adolescents with Nonverbal and General Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Elana; Heath, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NVLD) have been found to be worse at recognizing facial expressions than children with verbal learning disabilities (LD) and without LD. However, little research has been done with adolescents. In addition, expressing and understanding facial expressions is yet to be studied among adolescents with LD…

  20. Improving the Understanding of Research Methodology and Self-Regulated Learning Through Blog Project

    OpenAIRE

    Retnawati, Heri

    2017-01-01

    : This classroom action research seeks to improve self-regulated learning (SRL) and understanding of research methodology at the graduate school. Nineteen graduate school students were involved. Using project-based learning (PjBL), students were assigned to create online blogs as the main project. The blog was intended for representing their understanding of research methodology by writing review of research articles and submitting a research proposal. The classroom action research was based ...

  1. Understanding the variable effect of instructional innovations on student learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Heidi L.

    2012-02-01

    As a result of dissatisfaction with the traditional lecture-based model of education a large number of reform-oriented instructional innovations have been developed, enacted, and studied in undergraduate physics courses. While previous work has shown that the impact of instructional innovations on student learning has been overwhelmingly positive, it has also been highly variable. The purpose of this analysis is to investigate this variability. For this analysis, 79 published studies on undergraduate physics instructional innovations were analyzed with respect to the types of innovations used and the methodological characteristics of the studies themselves. The findings of this analysis have indicated that nearly half of the variability in effect size can be accounted for by study design characteristics rather than by the characteristics of the innovations used. However, a subsequent analysis illustrated that one specific innovation, Workshop/Studio Physics, appears to be particularly effective within the observed sample of studies.

  2. Vocal cord dysfunction in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Blakeslee E; Kemp, James S

    2007-06-01

    Vocal cord dysfunction is characterised by paradoxical vocal cord adduction that occurs during inspiration, resulting in symptoms of dyspnoea, wheeze, chest or throat tightness and cough. Although the condition is well described in children and adults, confusion with asthma often triggers the use of an aggressive treatment regimen directed against asthma. The laryngoscopic demonstration of vocal cord adduction during inspiration has been considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of vocal cord dysfunction, but historical factors and pulmonary function findings may provide adequate clues to the correct diagnosis. Speech therapy, and in some cases psychological counselling, is often beneficial in this disorder. The natural course and prognosis of vocal cord dysfunction are still not well described in adults or children.

  3. Conceptual Change in Understanding the Nature of Science Learning: An Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBenedetto, Christina M.

    This study is the first of its kind to explore the thoughts, beliefs, attitudes and values of secondary educators as they experience conceptual change in their understanding of the nature of science learning vis a vis the Framework for K-12 Science Education published by the National Research Council. The study takes aim at the existing gap between the vision for science learning as an active process of inquiry and current pedagogical practices in K-12 science classrooms. For students to understand and explain everyday science ideas and succeed in science studies and careers, the means by which they learn science must change. Focusing on this change, the study explores the significance of educator attitudes, beliefs and values to science learning through interpretive phenomenological analysis around the central question, "In what ways do educators understand and articulate attitudes and beliefs toward the nature of science learning?" The study further explores the questions, "How do educators experience changes in their understanding of the nature of science learning?" and "How do educators believe these changes influence their pedagogical practice?" Study findings converge on four conceptions that science learning: is the action of inquiry; is a visible process initiated by both teacher and learner; values student voice and changing conceptions is science learning. These findings have implications for the primacy of educator beliefs, attitudes and values in reform efforts, science teacher leadership and the explicit instruction of both Nature of Science and conceptual change in educator preparation programs. This study supports the understanding that the nature of science learning is cognitive and affective conceptual change. Keywords: conceptual change, educator attitudes and beliefs, framework for K-12 science education, interpretive phenomenological analysis, nature of science learning, next generation science standards, science professional development

  4. MOTIVATIONAL AND ADAPTATIVE ASPECT OF PROSPECTIVE MUSIC TEACHERS’ VOCAL TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Ye

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with motivational and adaptive direction of vocal training of the Art Faculty students of the Pedagogical University. Motivational and adaptive phase consisted in identifying the real state of prospective music teachers’ readiness to work with educational vocal choirs. The criterion of formation of motivational and adaptive component is defined as personal motivation in acquiring high-quality vocal and choral training. The author developed an experimental technique that involves a number of empirical research methods: special and long-term monitoring of the content and progress of the educational process; analysis, control and objectivity of teaching methods; testing; perform creative tasks; test activities; conversations and interviews that were conducted among students, faculty and trainers professional disciplines teaching practice.The mentioned criterion implies that Chinese students have sustained professional focus on improving their own vocal and choral training, awareness of the importance and prospects of this profession in their practical activities in educational conditions in China. Motivation in learning vocal and choral activities, Chinese students made the so-called "immunity" to the difficulties related with the new learning environment in universities Ukraine increases the desire to intensify and optimize the process of conducting and choral training, there is awareness of the need for new development knowledge, skills, new experience and carry it into practice national music and teacher education.

  5. Using computer-assisted learning to engage diverse learning styles in understanding business management principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Mary E; Derby, Dustin C; Haan, Andrea G

    2013-01-01

    Objective : Changes in small business and insurance present challenges for newly graduated chiropractors. Technology that reaches identified, diverse learning styles may assist the chiropractic student in business classes to meet course outcomes better. Thus, the purpose of our study is to determine if the use of technology-based instructional aids enhance students' mastery of course learning outcomes. Methods : Using convenience sampling, 86 students completed a survey assessing course learning outcomes, learning style, and the helpfulness of lecture and computer-assisted learning related to content mastery. Quantitative analyses occurred. Results : Although respondents reported not finding the computer-assisted learning as helpful as the lecture, significant relationships were found between pre- and post-assisted learning measures of the learning outcomes 1 and 2 for the visual and kinesthetic groups. Surprisingly, however, all learning style groups exhibited significant pre- and post-assisted learning appraisal relationships with learning outcomes 3 and 4. Conclusion : While evidence exists within the current study of a relationship between students' learning of the course content corollary to the use of technologic instructional aids, the exact nature of the relationship remains unclear.

  6. Impact of Learning Model Based on Cognitive Conflict toward Student’s Conceptual Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufit, F.; Festiyed, F.; Fauzan, A.; Lufri, L.

    2018-04-01

    The problems that often occur in the learning of physics is a matter of misconception and low understanding of the concept. Misconceptions do not only happen to students, but also happen to college students and teachers. The existing learning model has not had much impact on improving conceptual understanding and remedial efforts of student misconception. This study aims to see the impact of cognitive-based learning model in improving conceptual understanding and remediating student misconceptions. The research method used is Design / Develop Research. The product developed is a cognitive conflict-based learning model along with its components. This article reports on product design results, validity tests, and practicality test. The study resulted in the design of cognitive conflict-based learning model with 4 learning syntaxes, namely (1) preconception activation, (2) presentation of cognitive conflict, (3) discovery of concepts & equations, (4) Reflection. The results of validity tests by some experts on aspects of content, didactic, appearance or language, indicate very valid criteria. Product trial results also show a very practical product to use. Based on pretest and posttest results, cognitive conflict-based learning models have a good impact on improving conceptual understanding and remediating misconceptions, especially in high-ability students.

  7. Cooperative learning model with high order thinking skills questions: an understanding on geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, P. P.; Budiyono; Slamet, I.

    2018-05-01

    Geometry, a branch of mathematics, has an important role in mathematics learning. This research aims to find out the effect of learning model, emotional intelligence, and the interaction between learning model and emotional intelligence toward students’ mathematics achievement. This research is quasi-experimental research with 2 × 3 factorial design. The sample in this research included 179 Senior High School students on 11th grade in Sukoharjo Regency, Central Java, Indonesia in academic year of 2016/2017. The sample was taken by using stratified cluster random sampling. The results showed that: the student are taught by Thinking Aloud Pairs Problem-Solving using HOTs questions provides better mathematics learning achievement than Make A Match using HOTs questions. High emotional intelligence students have better mathematics learning achievement than moderate and low emotional intelligence students, and moderate emotional intelligence students have better mathematics learning achievement than low emotional intelligence students. There is an interaction between learning model and emotional intelligence, and these affect mathematics learning achievement. We conclude that appropriate learning model can support learning activities become more meaningful and facilitate students to understand material. For further research, we suggest to explore the contribution of other aspects in cooperative learning modification to mathematics achievement.

  8. Designing learning apparatus to promote twelfth grade students’ understanding of digital technology concept: A preliminary studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlius; Kaniawati, I.; Feranie, S.

    2018-05-01

    A preliminary learning design using relay to promote twelfth grade student’s understanding of logic gates concept is implemented to see how well it’s to adopted by six high school students, three male students and three female students of twelfth grade. This learning design is considered for next learning of digital technology concept i.e. data digital transmition and analog. This work is a preliminary study to design the learning for large class. So far just a few researches designing learning design related to digital technology with relay. It may due to this concept inserted in Indonesian twelfth grade curriculum recently. This analysis is focus on student difficulties trough video analysis to learn the concept. Based on our analysis, the recommended thing for redesigning learning is: students understand first about symbols and electrical circuits; the Student Worksheet is made in more detail on the assembly steps to the project board; mark with symbols at points in certain places in the circuit for easy assembly; assembly using relays by students is enough until is the NOT’s logic gates and the others that have been assembled so that effective time. The design of learning using relays can make the relay a liaison between the abstract on the digital with the real thing of it, especially in the circuit of symbols and real circuits. Besides it is expected to also enrich the ability of teachers in classroom learning about digital technology.

  9. Emotional labour: learning from the past, understanding the present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Chris

    2017-10-26

    The number of nurses considering leaving the profession has continued to rise, and in many areas there is a nursing shortfall. For many of those leaving the profession, the decision results from workplace stress. This article examines the concept of emotional labour, which has been linked to compassion fatigue and subsequent burnout. Emotional labour is the term used to describe the process of displaying outward emotion that may not match our internal emotion; this dissonance can lead to highly stressful situations. The concept is explored from a genealogical perspective, specifically focusing on how gender, socio-political and health cultures have influenced the evolution of the discourse that defines how emotional labour is perceived, understood and valued. This article will identify what has shaped the discourse and how the historical influences have influenced perceptions. The article identifies that emotional labour has traditionally been viewed as women's work and has been undervalued. The influence of male nurses and the gradual decline of heavy industry has served to improve the understanding and value of the concept. Lessons from the past can inform the management of the stresses of emotional labour. Emotional labour is a recognised component of workplace stress and this article makes a number of recommendations for further research or management strategies, which may assist in the recognition and management of the stresses nurses face when delivering emotionally demanding care.

  10. Vocal therapy of hyperkinetic dysphonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumović Gordana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hyperkinetic (hyperfunctional dysphonia is a common pathology. The disorder is often found in vocal professionals faced with high vocal requirements. Objective. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vocal therapy on voice condition characterized by hyperkinetic dysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. Methods. The study included 100 adult patients and 27 children aged 4-16 years with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. A subjective acoustic analysis using the GIRBAS scale was performed prior to and after vocal therapy. Twenty adult patients and 10 children underwent objective acoustic analysis including several acoustic parameters. Pathological vocal qualities (hoarse, harsh and breathy voice were also obtained by computer analysis. Results. The subjective acoustic analysis revealed a significant (p<0.01 reduction in all dysphonia parameters after vocal treatment in adults and children. After treatment, all levels of dysphonia were lowered in 85% (85/100 of adult patients and 29% (29/100 had a normal voice. Before vocal therapy 9 children had severe, 13 had moderate and 8 slight dysphonia. After vocal therapy only 1 child had severe dysphonia, 7 had moderate, 10 had slight levels of dysphonia and 9 were without voice disorder. The objective acoustic analysis in adults revealed a significant improvement (p≤0.025 in all dysphonia parameters except SD F0 and jitter %. In children, the acoustic parameters SD F0, jitter % and NNE (normal noise energy were significantly improved (p=0.003-0.03. Pathological voice qualities were also improved in adults and children (p<0.05. Conclusion. Vocal therapy effectively improves the voice in hyperkinetic dysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules in both adults and children, affecting diverse acoustic parameters.

  11. Endogenous Learning and Consensual Understanding in Multilateral Negotiations: Arguing and Bargaining in the WTO

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfe, Robert

    2010-01-01

    People at home and trade negotiators in Geneva cannot bargain what they do not understand, and what they bargain must be based on consensual understanding among the relevant actors, whether or not they agree on what to do about it. Consensual understanding is endogenous, arising in an argumentative process of learning structured by constitutive principles of a regime. In a departure from both rationalist and constructivist approaches to negotiation analysis in political science, my goal in th...

  12. How online learning modules can improve the representational fluency and conceptual understanding of university physics students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M.; Sharma, M. D.; Johnston, H.

    2015-07-01

    The use of online learning resources as core components of university science courses is increasing. Learning resources range from summaries, videos, and simulations, to question banks. Our study set out to develop, implement, and evaluate research-based online learning resources in the form of pre-lecture online learning modules (OLMs). The aim of this paper is to share our experiences with those using, or considering implementing, online learning resources. Our first task was to identify student learning issues in physics to base the learning resources on. One issue with substantial research is conceptual understanding, the other with comparatively less research is scientific representations (graphs, words, equations, and diagrams). We developed learning resources on both these issues and measured their impact. We created weekly OLMs which were delivered to first year physics students at The University of Sydney prior to their first lecture of the week. Students were randomly allocated to either a concepts stream or a representations stream of online modules. The programme was first implemented in 2013 to trial module content, gain experience and process logistical matters and repeated in 2014 with approximately 400 students. Two validated surveys, the Force and Motion Concept Evaluation (FMCE) and the Representational Fluency Survey (RFS) were used as pre-tests and post-tests to measure learning gains while surveys and interviews provided further insights. While both streams of OLMs produced similar positive learning gains on the FMCE, the representations-focussed OLMs produced higher gains on the RFS. Conclusions were triangulated with student responses which indicated that they have recognized the benefit of the OLMs for their learning of physics. Our study shows that carefully designed online resources used as pre-instruction can make a difference in students’ conceptual understanding and representational fluency in physics, as well as make them more aware

  13. Perceptual fluency and judgments of vocal aesthetics and stereotypicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babel, Molly; McGuire, Grant

    2015-05-01

    Research has shown that processing dynamics on the perceiver's end determine aesthetic pleasure. Specifically, typical objects, which are processed more fluently, are perceived as more attractive. We extend this notion of perceptual fluency to judgments of vocal aesthetics. Vocal attractiveness has traditionally been examined with respect to sexual dimorphism and the apparent size of a talker, as reconstructed from the acoustic signal, despite evidence that gender-specific speech patterns are learned social behaviors. In this study, we report on a series of three experiments using 60 voices (30 females) to compare the relationship between judgments of vocal attractiveness, stereotypicality, and gender categorization fluency. Our results indicate that attractiveness and stereotypicality are highly correlated for female and male voices. Stereotypicality and categorization fluency were also correlated for male voices, but not female voices. Crucially, stereotypicality and categorization fluency interacted to predict attractiveness, suggesting the role of perceptual fluency is present, but nuanced, in judgments of human voices. © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  14. Auditory responses in the amygdala to social vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadziola, Marie A.

    The underlying goal of this dissertation is to understand how the amygdala, a brain region involved in establishing the emotional significance of sensory input, contributes to the processing of complex sounds. The general hypothesis is that communication calls of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) transmit relevant information about social context that is reflected in the activity of amygdalar neurons. The first specific aim analyzed social vocalizations emitted under a variety of behavioral contexts, and related vocalizations to an objective measure of internal physiological state by monitoring the heart rate of vocalizing bats. These experiments revealed a complex acoustic communication system among big brown bats in which acoustic cues and call structure signal the emotional state of a sender. The second specific aim characterized the responsiveness of single neurons in the basolateral amygdala to a range of social syllables. Neurons typically respond to the majority of tested syllables, but effectively discriminate among vocalizations by varying the response duration. This novel coding strategy underscores the importance of persistent firing in the general functioning of the amygdala. The third specific aim examined the influence of acoustic context by characterizing both the behavioral and neurophysiological responses to natural vocal sequences. Vocal sequences differentially modify the internal affective state of a listening bat, with lower aggression vocalizations evoking the greatest change in heart rate. Amygdalar neurons employ two different coding strategies: low background neurons respond selectively to very few stimuli, whereas high background neurons respond broadly to stimuli but demonstrate variation in response magnitude and timing. Neurons appear to discriminate the valence of stimuli, with aggression sequences evoking robust population-level responses across all sound levels. Further, vocal sequences show improved discrimination among stimuli

  15. Vocal therapy of hyperkinetic dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumović, Gordana; Veselinović, Mila; Arbutina, Tanja; Škrbić, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Hyperkinetic (hyperfunctional) dysphonia is a common pathology. The disorder is often found in vocal professionals faced with high vocal requirements. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vocal therapy on voice condition characterized by hyperkinetic dysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. The study included 100 adult patients and 27 children aged 4-16 years with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. A subjective acoustic analysis using the GIRBAS scale was performed prior to and after vocal therapy. Twenty adult patients and 10 children underwent objective acoustic analysis including several acoustic parameters. Pathological vocal qualities (hoarse, harsh and breathy voice) were also obtained by computer analysis. The subjective acoustic analysis revealed a significant (pvocal treatment in adults and children. After treatment, all levels of dysphonia were lowered in 85% (85/100) of adult patients and 29% (29/100) had a normal voice. Before vocal therapy 9 children had severe, 13 had moderate and 8 slight dysphonia. After vocal therapy only 1 child had severe dysphonia, 7 had moderate, 10 had slight levels of dysphonia and 9 were without voice disorder. The objective acoustic analysis in adults revealed a significant improvement (p≤0.025) in all dysphonia parameters except SD FO and jitter %. In children, the acoustic parameters SD FO, jitter % and NNE (normal noise energy) were significantly improved (p=0.003-0.03). Pathological voice qualities were also improved in adults and children (pVocal therapy effectively improves the voice in hyperkinetic dysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules in both adults and children, affectinq diverse acoustic parameters.

  16. The songbird syrinx morphome: a three-dimensional, high-resolution, interactive morphological map of the zebra finch vocal organ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Düring Daniel N

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Like human infants, songbirds learn their species-specific vocalizations through imitation learning. The birdsong system has emerged as a widely used experimental animal model for understanding the underlying neural mechanisms responsible for vocal production learning. However, how neural impulses are translated into the precise motor behavior of the complex vocal organ (syrinx to create song is poorly understood. First and foremost, we lack a detailed understanding of syringeal morphology. Results To fill this gap we combined non-invasive (high-field magnetic resonance imaging and micro-computed tomography and invasive techniques (histology and micro-dissection to construct the annotated high-resolution three-dimensional dataset, or morphome, of the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata syrinx. We identified and annotated syringeal cartilage, bone and musculature in situ in unprecedented detail. We provide interactive three-dimensional models that greatly improve the communication of complex morphological data and our understanding of syringeal function in general. Conclusions Our results show that the syringeal skeleton is optimized for low weight driven by physiological constraints on song production. The present refinement of muscle organization and identity elucidates how apposed muscles actuate different syringeal elements. Our dataset allows for more precise predictions about muscle co-activation and synergies and has important implications for muscle activity and stimulation experiments. We also demonstrate how the syrinx can be stabilized during song to reduce mechanical noise and, as such, enhance repetitive execution of stereotypic motor patterns. In addition, we identify a cartilaginous structure suited to play a crucial role in the uncoupling of sound frequency and amplitude control, which permits a novel explanation of the evolutionary success of songbirds.

  17. Learning difficulties of senior high school students based on probability understanding levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggara, B.; Priatna, N.; Juandi, D.

    2018-05-01

    Identifying students' difficulties in learning concept of probability is important for teachers to prepare the appropriate learning processes and can overcome obstacles that may arise in the next learning processes. This study revealed the level of students' understanding of the concept of probability and identified their difficulties as a part of the epistemological obstacles identification of the concept of probability. This study employed a qualitative approach that tends to be the character of descriptive research involving 55 students of class XII. In this case, the writer used the diagnostic test of probability concept learning difficulty, observation, and interview as the techniques to collect the data needed. The data was used to determine levels of understanding and the learning difficulties experienced by the students. From the result of students' test result and learning observation, it was found that the mean cognitive level was at level 2. The findings indicated that students had appropriate quantitative information of probability concept but it might be incomplete or incorrectly used. The difficulties found are the ones in arranging sample space, events, and mathematical models related to probability problems. Besides, students had difficulties in understanding the principles of events and prerequisite concept.

  18. Development of the living thing transportation systems worksheet on learning cycle model to increase student understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawati, E.; Nurohman, S.; Widowati, A.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to know: 1) the feasibility LKPD review of aspects of the didactic requirements, construction requirements, technical requirements and compliance with the Learning Cycle. 2) Increase understanding of learners with Learning Model Learning Cycle in SMP N 1 Wates in the form LKPD. 3) The response of learners and educators SMP N 1 Wates to quality LKPD Transportation Systems Beings. This study is an R & D with the 4D model (Define, Design, Develop and Disseminate). Data were analyzed using qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis. Qualitative analysis in the form of advice description and assessment scores from all validates that was converted to a scale of 4. While the analysis of quantitative data by calculating the percentage of materializing learning and achievement using the standard gain an increased understanding and calculation of the KKM completeness evaluation value as an indicator of the achievement of students understanding. the results of this study yield LKPD IPA model learning Cycle theme Transportation Systems Beings obtain 108.5 total scores of a maximum score of 128 including the excellent category (A). LKPD IPA developed able to demonstrate an improved understanding of learners and the response of learners was very good to this quality LKPD IPA.

  19. Influence of the temperature on materials electric behaviour: Understanding and students’ learning difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio García Carmona

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we defend that in the teaching/learning of the electricity, its contents must be associa ted with contents concerning the structure and behaviour of the matter. Thus, it is possible to understand some electricity topics as the influence of the temperature on electric behaviour of materials. In this sense, we propose a conceptual framework for its teaching, coherent with the Spanish Physics and Chemistry curriculum of Secondary Education. Likewise, we show the results of a research carried out with 60 pupils (age 14-15, about theirs understanding levels and theirs learning difficulties regarding considered topic.

  20. Vocal handicap index in popular and erudite professional singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiola-Barreiro, Camila Miranda; Silva, Marta Assumpção de Andrada E

    To compare the voice handicap index of popular and erudite professional singers according to gender, age, professional experience time, and presence or absence of self-reported vocal complaints. One hundred thirty-two professional singers, 74 popular and 58 erudite, who responded to a questionnaire with regards to identification, age, gender, professional experience time in singing, musical genres (for popular singers), vocal classification (for erudite singers), presence of self-reported vocal complaints, and the specific protocols for popular (Modern Singing Handicap Index - MSHI) and erudite (Classical Singing Handicap Index - CSHI) singing. Higher proportion of women and higher incidence of vocal complaints were observed in the popular singers compared with the erudite singers. Most of the popular singers belonged to the genre of Brazilian Popular Music. Regarding the classification of erudite singers, there was greater participation of sopranos and tenors. No statistical differences were observed with respect to age and professional experience time between the groups. Comparison of the MSHI and CSHI scores showed no statistically significant difference between these scores and genre or age in both groups of singers. Professional experience time was related to the total score and the subscales disability and impairment in the MSHI, only for popular singers with vocal complaints. There was no correlation between these variables and the CSHI for erudite singers. The impact of vocal difficulty/problem interferes differently in these two musical genres when related to vocal complaint and professional experience time. The MSHI and CSHI protocols proved to be important tools not only for the identification of problems, but also for the understanding of how these individuals relate their voices with this occupational activity.

  1. Understanding the Need of Mobile ICT Learning as an Elderly Learning Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanches Lam

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available With a rapid deployment of mobile devices, mobile learning gives rise to new possibilities for extending learning opportunities. Nevertheless, current research on mobile learning has mostly been aimed at enhancing learning of school or college students. In this light, the paper seeks to throw light on the potential of mobile learning for elderly. We describe in this paper a research study for examining needs that determine the adoption and usage of mobile devices by elderly population. The elderly are an often neglected group in product development and marketing, but they are the only growing age group in most developed societies. By using semi-structured interviews with a number of different stakeholders interested in elderly people, we identify a set of issues that need to be taken into account when designing strategy for the elderly learners. The results of our study indicate that elderly people are interested in using mobile devices and services, but these services need to deliver real value for them.

  2. Exploring Multi-Modal and Structured Representation Learning for Visual Image and Video Understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Dan

    2018-01-01

    As the explosive growth of the visual data, it is particularly important to develop intelligent visual understanding techniques for dealing with a large amount of data. Many efforts have been made in recent years to build highly effective and large-scale visual processing algorithms and systems. One of the core aspects in the research line is how to learn robust representations to better describe the data. In this thesis we study the problem of visual image and video understanding and specifi...

  3. An analysis for understanding the process of textual deconstruction as a motivator for learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Delia Barrera Jiménez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to analyze the potential of the process of textual understanding and construction, for the development of motivation towards learning in teacher trainees for Preuniversities. In this direction it advocates in the first place, to understand the dynamic relationship established between the process of textual attribution and production and the motivational one, which provides the indispensable condition for promoting the work with the text from all the subjects in the curriculum.

  4. Repairing the vibratory vocal fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jennifer L

    2018-01-01

    A vibratory vocal fold replacement would introduce a new treatment paradigm for structural vocal fold diseases such as scarring and lamina propria loss. This work implants a tissue-engineered replacement for vocal fold lamina propria and epithelium in rabbits and compares histology and function to injured controls and orthotopic transplants. Hypotheses were that the cell-based implant would engraft and control the wound response, reducing fibrosis and restoring vibration. Translational research. Rabbit adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASC) were embedded within a three-dimensional fibrin gel, forming the cell-based outer vocal fold replacement (COVR). Sixteen rabbits underwent unilateral resection of vocal fold epithelium and lamina propria, as well as reconstruction with one of three treatments: fibrin glue alone with healing by secondary intention, replantation of autologous resected vocal fold cover, or COVR implantation. After 4 weeks, larynges were examined histologically and with phonation. Fifteen rabbits survived. All tissues incorporated well after implantation. After 1 month, both graft types improved histology and vibration relative to injured controls. Extracellular matrix (ECM) of the replanted mucosa was disrupted, and ECM of the COVR implants remained immature. Immune reaction was evident when male cells were implanted into female rabbits. Best histologic and short-term vibratory outcomes were achieved with COVR implants containing male cells implanted into male rabbits. Vocal fold cover replacement with a stem cell-based tissue-engineered construct is feasible and beneficial in acute rabbit implantation. Wound-modifying behavior of the COVR implant is judged to be an important factor in preventing fibrosis. NA. Laryngoscope, 128:153-159, 2018. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. Understanding Self-Controlled Motor Learning Protocols through the Self-Determination Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanli, Elizabeth A; Patterson, Jae T; Bray, Steven R; Lee, Timothy D

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present review was to provide a theoretical understanding of the learning advantages underlying a self-controlled practice context through the tenets of the self-determination theory (SDT). Three micro-theories within the macro-theory of SDT (Basic psychological needs theory, Cognitive Evaluation Theory, and Organismic Integration Theory) are used as a framework for examining the current self-controlled motor learning literature. A review of 26 peer-reviewed, empirical studies from the motor learning and medical training literature revealed an important limitation of the self-controlled research in motor learning: that the effects of motivation have been assumed rather than quantified. The SDT offers a basis from which to include measurements of motivation into explanations of changes in behavior. This review suggests that a self-controlled practice context can facilitate such factors as feelings of autonomy and competence of the learner, thereby supporting the psychological needs of the learner, leading to long term changes to behavior. Possible tools for the measurement of motivation and regulation in future studies are discussed. The SDT not only allows for a theoretical reinterpretation of the extant motor learning research supporting self-control as a learning variable, but also can help to better understand and measure the changes occurring between the practice environment and the observed behavioral outcomes.

  6. Understanding self-controlled motor learning protocols through the self determination theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ann Sanli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present review was to provide a theoretical understanding of the learning advantages underlying a self-controlled practice context through the tenets of the self-determination theory (SDT. Three micro theories within the macro theory of SDT (Basic psychological needs theory, Cognitive Evaluation Theory & Organismic Integration Theory are used as a framework for examining the current self-controlled motor learning literature. A review of 26 peer-reviewed, empirical studies from the motor learning and medical training literature revealed an important limitation of the self-controlled research in motor learning: that the effects of motivation have been assumed rather than quantified. The SDT offers a basis from which to include measurements of motivation into explanations of changes in behavior. This review suggests that a self-controlled practice context can facilitate such factors as feelings of autonomy and competence of the learner, thereby supporting the psychological needs of the learner, leading to long term changes to behavior. Possible tools for the measurement of motivation and regulation in future studies are discussed. The SDT not only allows for a theoretical reinterpretation of the extant motor learning research supporting self-control as a learning variable, but also can help to better understand and measure the changes occurring between the practice environment and the observed behavioral outcomes.

  7. Workshop on Friction: Understanding and Addressing Students' Difficulties in Learning Science through a Hermeneutical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Sangwoo; Lee, Gyoungho; Kalman, Calvin S.

    2013-01-01

    Hermeneutics is useful in science and science education by emphasizing the process of understanding. The purpose of this study was to construct a workshop based upon hermeneutical principles and to interpret students' learning in the workshop through a hermeneutical perspective. When considering the history of Newtonian mechanics, it could be…

  8. The Inquiry, Communication, Construction and Expression (ICCE) Framework for Understanding Learning Experiences in Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mamta; Foster, Aroutis

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of research frameworks that focus on aiding game selection and use, analyzing the game as a holistic system, and studying learner experiences in games. There is a need for frameworks that provide a lens for understanding learning experiences afforded in digital games and facilitating knowledge construction and motivation to…

  9. Conceptions of Memorizing and Understanding in Learning, and Self-Efficacy Held by University Biology Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Chiang; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore Taiwanese university students' conceptions of learning biology as memorizing or as understanding, and their self-efficacy. To this end, two questionnaires were utilized to survey 293 Taiwanese university students with biology-related majors. A questionnaire for measuring students' conceptions of memorizing and…

  10. Effects of a Co-operative Learning Strategy on Ninth-Graders' Understanding of Human Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyibo, Kola; Evans, Hermel G.

    2002-01-01

    Looks at the effect of teaching strategies on a group's attitude toward biology and understanding human nutrition. Used an experimental group that participated in co-operative learning and a control group taught using the lecture method. Involves ninth graders (n=156) from two high schools in Jamaica. (Author/YDS)

  11. A Study to Understand the Role of Visual Arts in the Teaching and Learning of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapal, Saroja; Kanapathy, Ravi; Mastan, Jamilah

    2014-01-01

    This research was carried out to understand the role of visual arts in the teaching and learning of science among Grade 3 teachers and students. A mixture of qualitative and quantitative research design was used to discover the different perceptions of both teachers and students on the role of visual arts in science. The data for the research was…

  12. A framework for understanding outcomes of mutual learning situations in IT projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Magnus Rotvit Perlt

    2012-01-01

    How do we analyse and understand design decisions derived from mutual learning (ML) situations and how may practitioners take advantage of these in IT projects? In the following we present a framework of design decisions inferred from ML situations that occurred between end-users and stakeholders...

  13. Tell us our story : Understanding 'religion and violence' in multiple contexts of learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Liere, Lucien

    2014-01-01

    This article raises the question about how definitions of religion and violence can be understood as links to the context in which they are formulated. The focus is on the context of academic learning. Understanding a definition as a micro-narrative that reflects the cultural 'archive', the author

  14. Enhancing Laos Students' Understanding of Nature of Science in Physics Learning about Atom for Peace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengdala, Phoxay; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2014-01-01

    This paper aimed to study of Grade 12 students' understanding of nature of science in learning about atom for peace through science technology and society (STS) approach. Participants were 51 Grade 12 who study in Thongphong high school Vientiane Capital City Lao PDR, 1st semester of 2012 academic year. This research regarded interpretive…

  15. Prospective Elementary Teachers' Understanding of the Nature of Science and Perceptions of the Classroom Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Dunlop, Catherine S.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated prospective elementary teachers' understandings of the nature of science and explored associations with their guided-inquiry science learning environment. Over 500 female students completed the Nature of Scientific Knowledge Survey (NSKS), although only four scales were analyzed-Creative, Testable, Amoral, and Unified. The…

  16. Reflective Learning and Prospective Teachers' Conceptual Understanding, Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Mathematical Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junsay, Merle L.

    2016-01-01

    This is a quasi-experimental study that explored the effects of reflective learning on prospective teachers' conceptual understanding, critical thinking, problem solving, and mathematical communication skills and the relationship of these variables. It involved 60 prospective teachers from two basic mathematics classes of an institution of higher…

  17. The Collaboration of Cooperative Learning and Conceptual Change: Enhancing the Students' Understanding of Chemical Bonding Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eymur, Gülüzar; Geban, Ömer

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cooperative learning based on conceptual change approach instruction on ninth-grade students' understanding in chemical bonding concepts compared to traditional instruction. Seventy-two ninth-grade students from two intact chemistry classes taught by the same teacher in a public high…

  18. Modelling and Simulating Electronics Knowledge: Conceptual Understanding and Learning through Active Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twissell, Adrian

    2018-01-01

    Abstract electronics concepts are difficult to develop because the phenomena of interest cannot be readily observed. Visualisation skills support learning about electronics and can be applied at different levels of representation and understanding (observable, symbolic and abstract). Providing learners with opportunities to make transitions…

  19. Keeping conceptual boundaries distinct between decision making and learning is necessary to understand social influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Mens, Gaël

    2014-02-01

    Bentley et al. make the deliberate choice to blur the distinction between learning and decision making. This obscures the social influence mechanisms that operate in the various empirical settings that their map aims to categorize. Useful policy prescriptions, however, require an accurate understanding of the social influence mechanisms that underlie the dynamics of popularity.

  20. Improving Marking Reliability of Scientific Writing with the Developing Understanding of Assessment for Learning Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Fiona L.; Yucel, Robyn

    2013-01-01

    The Developing Understanding of Assessment for Learning (DUAL) programme was developed with the dual aims of improving both the quality and consistency of feedback students receive and the students' ability to use that feedback to improve. DUAL comprises a range of processes (including marking rubrics, sample reports, moderation discussions and…

  1. Effect of Writing-to-Learn Strategy on Undergraduates' Conceptual Understanding of Electrostatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasoy, Sengül

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of Writing-to-Learn (WTL) strategy on undergraduates' conceptual understanding of electrostatics. The sample of the study was 54 university students registered at elementary school mathematics education department. While the experimental group was asked to conduct WTL activities like explanatory…

  2. Understanding and Influencing Teaching and Learning Cultures at University: A Network Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxa, Torgny; Martensson, Katarina; Alveteg, Mattias

    2011-01-01

    Academic cultures might be perceived as conservative, at least in terms of development of teaching and learning. Through a lens of network theory this conceptual article analyses the pattern of pathways in which culture is constructed through negotiation of meaning. The perspective contributes to an understanding of culture construction and…

  3. Understanding the impact of eating disorders: using the reflecting team as a learning strategy for students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringfellow, Alicia; Evans, Nicola; Evans, Anne-Marie

    2018-02-08

    This article outlines how the application of a reflecting team from systemic family therapy practice was used as a learning strategy for a postgraduate programme for healthcare students. The programme was designed to increase the students' skills, knowledge and awareness of the needs of people with eating disorders, and their families. There were some benefits to this learning strategy. Students reported that the use of a reflecting team enabled them to gain a deep understanding of the emotional impact of eating disorders on individuals and their carers. However, as this method of learning was new to the students, they needed some initial instruction on the approach. During the programme of study, it became evident that the health professionals were deeply affected by the experiences of people with eating disorders. This would suggest that possibly it was the presence of the sufferers themselves as part of the reflecting team that provided the pivotal learning opportunity, rather than the reflecting team per se.

  4. Vocal Fold Vibration Following Surgical Intervention in Three Vocal Pathologies: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenli; Woo, Peak; Murry, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    High-speed videoendoscopy captures the cycle-to-cycle vibratory motion of each individual vocal fold in normal and severely disordered phonation. Therefore, it provides a direct method to examine the specific vibratory changes following vocal fold surgery. The purpose of this study was to examine the vocal fold vibratory pattern changes in the surgically treated pathologic vocal fold and the contralateral vocal fold in three vocal pathologies: vocal polyp (n = 3), paresis or paralysis (n = 3), and scar (n = 3). Digital kymography was used to extract high-speed kymographic vocal fold images at the mid-membranous region of the vocal fold. Spectral analysis was subsequently applied to the digital kymography to quantify the cycle-to-cycle movements of each vocal fold, expressed as a spectrum. Surgical modification resulted in significantly improved spectral power of the treated pathologic vocal fold. Furthermore, the contralateral vocal fold also presented with improved spectral power irrespective of vocal pathology. In comparison with normal vocal fold spectrum, postsurgical vocal fold vibrations continued to demonstrate decreased vibratory amplitude in both vocal folds. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. University Vocal Training and Vocal Health of Music Educators and Music Therapists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Vicki D.; Cohen, Nicki

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the university vocal training and vocal health of music educators and music therapists. The participants (N = 426), music educators (n = 351) and music therapists (n = 75), completed a survey addressing demographics, vocal training, voice usage, and vocal health. Both groups reported singing at least 50%…

  6. Mathematical Understanding and Proving Abilities: Experiment With Undergraduate Student By Using Modified Moore Learning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rippi Maya

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports findings of  a  post test experimental control group design conducted to investigate the role of modified Moore learning approach  on improving students’ mathematical understanding and proving abilities. Subject of study were 56 undergradute students of one state university in Bandung, who took advanced abstract algebra course. Instrument of study were a set test of mathematical understanding ability, a set test of mathematical proving ability, and a set of students’ opinion scale on modified Moore learning approach. Data were analyzed by using two path ANOVA. The study found that proof construction process was more difficult than mathematical understanding  task  for all students, and students still posed some difficulties on constructing mathematical proof task.  The study also found there were not differences  between students’  abilities on mathematical understanding and on proving abilities of  the both classes, and both abilities were classified as mediocre. However, in modified Moore learning approach class there were more students who got above average grades on mathematical understanding than those of conventional class. Moreover, students performed positive  opinion toward  modified Moore learning approach. They  were  active in questioning and solving problems, and in explaining their works in front of class as well, while students of conventional teaching prefered to listen to lecturer’s explanation. The study also found that there was no interaction between learning approach and students’ prior mathematics ability on mathematical understanding and proving abilities,  but  there were  quite strong  association between students’ mathematical understanding and proving abilities.Keywords:  modified Moore learning approach, mathematical understanding ability, mathematical proving ability. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.2.2.751.231-250

  7. Innovative learning model for improving students’ argumentation skill and concept understanding on science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafsiati Astuti, Rini

    2018-04-01

    Argumentation skill is the ability to compose and maintain arguments consisting of claims, supports for evidence, and strengthened-reasons. Argumentation is an important skill student needs to face the challenges of globalization in the 21st century. It is not an ability that can be developed by itself along with the physical development of human, but it must be developed under nerve like process, giving stimulus so as to require a person to be able to argue. Therefore, teachers should develop students’ skill of arguing in science learning in the classroom. The purpose of this study is to obtain an innovative learning model that are valid in terms of content and construct in improving the skills of argumentation and concept understanding of junior high school students. The assessment of content validity and construct validity was done through Focus Group Discussion (FGD), using the content and construct validation sheet, book model, learning video, and a set of learning aids for one meeting. Assessment results from 3 (three) experts showed that the learning model developed in the category was valid. The validity itself shows that the developed learning model has met the content requirement, the student needs, state of the art, strong theoretical and empirical foundation and construct validity, which has a connection of syntax stages and components of learning model so that it can be applied in the classroom activities

  8. The vocal monotony of monogamy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jeanette

    2003-04-01

    There are four phocids in waters around Antarctica: Weddell, leopard, crabeater, and Ross seals. These four species provide a unique opportunity to examine underwater vocal behavior in species sharing the same ecosystem. Some species live in pack ice, others in factice, but all are restricted to the Antarctic or sub-Antarctic islands. All breed and produce vocalizations under water. Social systems range from polygyny in large breeding colonies, to serial monogamy, to solitary species. The type of mating system influences the number of underwater vocalizations in the repertoire, with monogamous seals producing only a single call, polygynous species producing up to 35 calls, and solitary species an intermediate number of about 10 calls. Breeding occurs during the austral spring and each species carves-out an acoustic niche for communicating, with species using different frequency ranges, temporal patterns, and amplitude changes to convey their species-specific calls and presumably reduce acoustic competition. Some species exhibit geographic variations in their vocalizations around the continent, which may reflect discrete breeding populations. Some seals become silent during a vulnerable time of predation by killer whales, perhaps to avoid detection. Overall, vocalizations of these seals exhibit adaptive characteristics that reflect the co-evolution among species in the same ecosystem.

  9. Temporal Resolution and Active Auditory Discrimination Skill in Vocal Musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar, Prawin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Enhanced auditory perception in musicians is likely to result from auditory perceptual learning during several years of training and practice. Many studies have focused on biological processing of auditory stimuli among musicians. However, there is a lack of literature on temporal resolution and active auditory discrimination skills in vocal musicians. Objective The aim of the present study is to assess temporal resolution and active auditory discrimination skill in vocal musicians. Method The study participants included 15 vocal musicians with a minimum professional experience of 5 years of music exposure, within the age range of 20 to 30 years old, as the experimental group, while 15 age-matched non-musicians served as the control group. We used duration discrimination using pure-tones, pulse-train duration discrimination, and gap detection threshold tasks to assess temporal processing skills in both groups. Similarly, we assessed active auditory discrimination skill in both groups using Differential Limen of Frequency (DLF. All tasks were done using MATLab software installed in a personal computer at 40dBSL with maximum likelihood procedure. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS (version 17.0. Result Descriptive statistics showed better threshold for vocal musicians compared with non-musicians for all tasks. Further, independent t-test showed that vocal musicians performed significantly better compared with non-musicians on duration discrimination using pure tone, pulse train duration discrimination, gap detection threshold, and differential limen of frequency. Conclusion The present study showed enhanced temporal resolution ability and better (lower active discrimination threshold in vocal musicians in comparison to non-musicians.

  10. Nocturnal Vocal Activity in Captive Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus: Could Dolphins have Presleep Choruses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothee Kremers

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nocturnal vocal activity in dolphins is often thought to be associated with feeding activity. However, when no food resources are available dolphins spend their time for the most part resting/sleeping. While unihemispherically sleeping, dolphins mostly swim slowly and synchronously in close proximity with one or more other individuals. Although vocal activity is lower during resting/sleeping, dolphins are not entirely silent the entire night. However, nothing is known about the temporal patterning of vocal activity at night and its potential relation with activity in dolphins. Here we recorded the vocal activity of a group of five captive bottlenose dolphins at night while having no feeding opportunity, examined whether there was any temporal pattern and/or a relation with breathing activity, used here as an index of overall activity. The temporal pattern revealed two peaks of intense whistle activity (8 p.m. and midnight, which were followed by a strong decrease of whistle rate and a slight decrease of respiration rate. We suggest that the high vocal activity at the peak periods might indicate socializing periods and that dolphins, like many other species, show periods of increased social and vocal interactions (chorusing? before starting to rest/sleep, maybe to ensure the synchrony of slow swimming observed in this species. These findings contribute to a better understanding of nocturnal vocal activity in cetaceans and suggest new lines of research on vocal/social activity of dolphins in relation to presleep and resting behavior.

  11. Tissue Engineering-based Therapeutic Strategies for Vocal Fold Repair and Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linqing; Stiadle, Jeanna M.; Lau, Hang K.; Zerdoum, Aidan B.; Jia, Xinqiao; L.Thibeault, Susan; Kiick, Kristi L.

    2016-01-01

    Vocal folds are soft laryngeal connective tissues with distinct layered structures and complex multicomponent matrix compositions that endow phonatory and respiratory functions. This delicate tissue is easily damaged by various environmental factors and pathological conditions, altering vocal biomechanics and causing debilitating vocal disorders that detrimentally affect the daily lives of suffering individuals. Modern techniques and advanced knowledge of regenerative medicine have led to a deeper understanding of the microstructure, microphysiology, and micropathophysiology of vocal fold tissues. State-of-the-art materials ranging from extracecullar-matrix (ECM)-derived biomaterials to synthetic polymer scaffolds have been proposed for the prevention and treatment of voice disorders including vocal fold scarring and fibrosis. This review intends to provide a thorough overview of current achievements in the field of vocal fold tissue engineering, including the fabrication of injectable biomaterials to mimic in vitro cell microenvironments, novel designs of bioreactors that capture in vivo tissue biomechanics, and establishment of various animal models to characterize the in vivo biocompatibility of these materials. The combination of polymeric scaffolds, cell transplantation, biomechanical stimulation, and delivery of antifibrotic growth factors will lead to successful restoration of functional vocal folds and improved vocal recovery in animal models, facilitating the application of these materials and related methodologies in clinical practice. PMID:27619243

  12. Vocal fold paralysis secondary to phonotrauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Travis A L; Gaziano, Joy E; Ridley, Marion B

    2014-01-01

    A unique case of acute onset vocal fold paralysis secondary to phonotrauma is presented. The cause was forceful vocalization by a drill instructor on a firearm range. Imaging studies revealed extensive intralaryngeal and retropharyngeal hemorrhage. Laryngoscopy showed a complete left vocal fold paralysis. Relative voice rest was recommended, and the patient regained normal vocal fold mobility and function after approximately 12 weeks. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. All rights reserved.

  13. An Investigation of Extinction-Induced Vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Amber L.; Shillingsburg, M. Alice; Call, Nathan A.; Burton, Britney; Bowen, Crystal N.

    2011-01-01

    Children with autism have significant communication delays. Although some children develop vocalizations through shaping and differential reinforcement, others rarely exhibit vocalizations, and alternative methods are targeted in intervention. However, vocal language often remains a goal for caregivers and clinicians. Thus, strategies to increase…

  14. Assessing Understanding of Sampling Distributions and Differences in Learning amongst Different Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman, Jennifer Leigh Sloan

    2013-01-01

    Research has found that students successfully complete an introductory course in statistics without fully comprehending the underlying theory or being able to exhibit statistical reasoning. This is particularly true for the understanding about the sampling distribution of the mean, a crucial concept for statistical inference. This study…

  15. Understanding What It Means for Older Students to Learn Basic Musical Skills on a Keyboard Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Angela; Hallam, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Although many adults take up or return to instrumental and vocal tuition every year, we know very little about how they experience it. As part of ongoing case study research, eight older learners with modest keyboard skills explored what their musical skills meant to them during conversation-based repertory grid interviews. The data were…

  16. Gender Differences in the Recognition of Vocal Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lausen, Adi; Schacht, Annekathrin

    2018-01-01

    The conflicting findings from the few studies conducted with regard to gender differences in the recognition of vocal expressions of emotion have left the exact nature of these differences unclear. Several investigators have argued that a comprehensive understanding of gender differences in vocal emotion recognition can only be achieved by replicating these studies while accounting for influential factors such as stimulus type, gender-balanced samples, number of encoders, decoders, and emotional categories. This study aimed to account for these factors by investigating whether emotion recognition from vocal expressions differs as a function of both listeners' and speakers' gender. A total of N = 290 participants were randomly and equally allocated to two groups. One group listened to words and pseudo-words, while the other group listened to sentences and affect bursts. Participants were asked to categorize the stimuli with respect to the expressed emotions in a fixed-choice response format. Overall, females were more accurate than males when decoding vocal emotions, however, when testing for specific emotions these differences were small in magnitude. Speakers' gender had a significant impact on how listeners' judged emotions from the voice. The group listening to words and pseudo-words had higher identification rates for emotions spoken by male than by female actors, whereas in the group listening to sentences and affect bursts the identification rates were higher when emotions were uttered by female than male actors. The mixed pattern for emotion-specific effects, however, indicates that, in the vocal channel, the reliability of emotion judgments is not systematically influenced by speakers' gender and the related stereotypes of emotional expressivity. Together, these results extend previous findings by showing effects of listeners' and speakers' gender on the recognition of vocal emotions. They stress the importance of distinguishing these factors to explain

  17. Gender Differences in the Recognition of Vocal Emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Lausen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The conflicting findings from the few studies conducted with regard to gender differences in the recognition of vocal expressions of emotion have left the exact nature of these differences unclear. Several investigators have argued that a comprehensive understanding of gender differences in vocal emotion recognition can only be achieved by replicating these studies while accounting for influential factors such as stimulus type, gender-balanced samples, number of encoders, decoders, and emotional categories. This study aimed to account for these factors by investigating whether emotion recognition from vocal expressions differs as a function of both listeners' and speakers' gender. A total of N = 290 participants were randomly and equally allocated to two groups. One group listened to words and pseudo-words, while the other group listened to sentences and affect bursts. Participants were asked to categorize the stimuli with respect to the expressed emotions in a fixed-choice response format. Overall, females were more accurate than males when decoding vocal emotions, however, when testing for specific emotions these differences were small in magnitude. Speakers' gender had a significant impact on how listeners' judged emotions from the voice. The group listening to words and pseudo-words had higher identification rates for emotions spoken by male than by female actors, whereas in the group listening to sentences and affect bursts the identification rates were higher when emotions were uttered by female than male actors. The mixed pattern for emotion-specific effects, however, indicates that, in the vocal channel, the reliability of emotion judgments is not systematically influenced by speakers' gender and the related stereotypes of emotional expressivity. Together, these results extend previous findings by showing effects of listeners' and speakers' gender on the recognition of vocal emotions. They stress the importance of distinguishing these

  18. Oral and vocal fold diadochokinesis in dysphonic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louzada, Talita; Beraldinelle, Roberta; Berretin-Felix, Giédre; Brasolotto, Alcione Ghedini

    2011-01-01

    The evaluation of oral and vocal fold diadochokinesis (DDK) in individuals with voice disorders may contribute to the understanding of factors that affect the balanced vocal production. Scientific studies that make use of this assessment tool support the knowledge advance of this area, reflecting the development of more appropriate therapeutic planning. To compare the results of oral and vocal fold DDK in dysphonic women and in women without vocal disorders. For this study, 28 voice recordings of women from 19 to 54 years old, diagnosed with dysphonia and submitted to a voice assessment from speech pathologist and otorhinolaryngologist, were used. The control group included 30 nondysphonic women evaluated in prior research from normal adults. The analysis parameters like number and duration of emissions, as well as the regularity of the repetition of syllables "pa", "ta", "ka" and the vowels "a" and "i," were provided by the Advanced Motor Speech Profile program (MSP) Model-5141, version-2.5.2 (KayPentax). The DDK sequence "pataka" was analyzed quantitatively through the Sound Forge 7.0 program, as well as manually with the audio-visual help of sound waves. Average values of oral and vocal fold DDK dysphonic and nondysphonic women were compared using the "t Student" test and were considered significant when pwomen (CvP=10.42%, 12.79%, 12.05%; JittP=2.05%, 6.05%, 3.63%) compared to the control group (CvP=8.86%; 10.95%, 11.20%; JittP=1.82%, 2.98%, 3.15%). Although the results do not indicate any difficulties in oral and laryngeal motor control in the dysphonic group, the largest instability in vocal fold DDK in the experimental group should be considered, and studies of this ability in individuals with communication disorders must be intensified.

  19. The Impact of Problem-Based Learning on Engineering Students' Beliefs about Physics and Conceptual Understanding of Energy and Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Mehmet

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of problem-based learning (PBL) on freshmen engineering students' beliefs about physics and physics learning (referred to as epistemological beliefs) and conceptual understanding of physics. The multiple-choice test of energy and momentum concepts and the Colorado learning attitudes about…

  20. Towards a Theoretical Framework for Understanding PGCE Student Teacher Learning in the Wild Coast Rural Schools' Partnership Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennefather, Jane

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on a theoretical model that I am developing in order to understand student teacher learning in a rural context and the enabling conditions that can support this learning. The question of whether a supervised teaching practice in a rural context can contribute to the development of student teacher professional learning and…

  1. Can a model of study activity increase didactic dialogue and students' understanding of learning in IPE?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bodil Winther; Hatt, Camusa

    at Metropolitan University College. Since 2013 all UCS have worked with a nationally decided study activity model. The model outlines four different types of learning activities. Students are introduced to courses via the model to heighten their understanding of course design and the expectations...... combining quantitative surveys, interviews, observation and focus groups. Comparisonldiscussion: The presentation will discuss the ambition to optimize dialogue about learning between lecturers and students by using a model of study activity. Results related to the value and potential of the model as seen...... by both lecturers and students will be presented. Findings/results/outcomes/effects: Students point out that the model can be a useful tool to gain an overview of learning activities and the amount of time they are expected to spend in courses. When lecturers introduce courses via the model it deepens...

  2. Learning-Related Changes in Adolescents' Neural Networks during Hypothesis-Generating and Hypothesis-Understanding Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Ki; Kwon, Yongju

    2012-01-01

    Fourteen science high school students participated in this study, which investigated neural-network plasticity associated with hypothesis-generating and hypothesis-understanding in learning. The students were divided into two groups and participated in either hypothesis-generating or hypothesis-understanding type learning programs, which were…

  3. Understanding the Influence of Learners' Forethought on Their Use of Science Study Strategies in Postsecondary Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Karee E.; Lo, Wen-Juo

    2015-01-01

    Understanding self-regulation in science learning is important for theorists and practitioners alike. However, very little has been done to explore and understand students' self-regulatory processes in postsecondary science courses. In this study, the influence of science efficacy, learning value, and goal orientation on the perceived use of…

  4. The influence of teachers' conceptions on their students' learning: children's understanding of sheet music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Íñiguez, Guadalupe; Pozo, Juan Ignacio

    2014-06-01

    Despite increasing interest in teachers' and students' conceptions of learning and teaching, and how they influence their practice, there are few studies testing the influence of teachers' conceptions on their students' learning. This study tests how teaching conception (TC; with a distinction between direct and constructive) influences students' representations regarding sheet music. Sixty students (8-12 years old) from music conservatories: 30 of them took lessons with teachers with a constructive TC and another 30 with teachers shown to have a direct TC. Children were given a musical comprehension task in which they were asked to select and rank the contents they needed to learn. These contents had different levels of processing and complexity: symbolic, analytical, and referential. Three factorial ANOVAs, two-one-way ANOVAs, and four 2 × 3 repeated-measures ANOVAs were used to analyse the effects of and the interaction between the independent variables TC and class, both for/on total cards selected, their ranking, and each sub-category (the three processing levels). ANOVAs on the selection and ranking of these contents showed that teachers' conceptions seem to mediate significantly in the way the students understand the music. Students from constructive teachers have more complex and deep understanding of music. They select more elements for learning scores than those from traditional teachers. Teaching conception also influences the way in which children rank those elements. No difference exists between the way 8- and 12-year-olds learn scores. Children's understanding of the scores is more complex than assumed in other studies. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  5. The effect of technology-enabled active learning on undergraduate students understanding of electromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dori, Y.J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text:The Technology-Enabled Active Learning Project at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) involves media-rich software for simulation and visualization in freshman physics carried out in a specially redesigned classroom to facilitate group interaction. These technology-based learning materials are especially useful in electromagnetism to help students conceptualize phenomena and processes. This study analyzes the effects of the unique learning environment of the Technology-Enabled Active Learning Project project on students cognitive and affective outcomes. The assessment of the project included examining students conceptual understanding before and after studying electromagnetism in a media-rich environment. We also investigated the effect of this environment on students preferences regarding the various teaching methods. As part of the project, we developed pre- and post-tests consisting of conceptual questions from standardized tests, as well as questions designed to assess the effect of visualizations and experiments. The research population consisted of 811 undergraduate students. It consisted of a small- and a large-scale experimental groups and a control group. Technology-Enabled Active Learning Project students improved their conceptual understanding concepts of the subject matter to a significantly higher extent than their control group peers. A majority of the students in the small-scale experiment noted that they would recommend the Technology-Enabled Active Learning Project course to fellow students, indicating the benefits of inter activity, visualization, and hands-on experiments, which the technology helped enable. In the large-scale implementation students expressed both positive and negative attitudes in the course survey

  6. Through the eyes of professional developers: Understanding the design of learning experiences for science teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Tara Eileen

    Professional development is important for improving teacher practice and student learning, particularly in inquiry-oriented and technology-enhanced science instruction. This study examines professional developers' practices and their impact on teachers' classroom instruction and student achievement. It analyzes professional developers designing and implementing a five-year professional development program designed to support middle school science teachers. The professional developers are four university-based researchers who worked with sixteen science teachers over three years, setting program goals, facilitating workshops, providing in-classroom support for teachers, and continually refining the program. The analysis is guided by the knowledge integration perspective, a sociocognitive framework for understanding how teachers and professional developers integrate their ideas about teaching and learning. The study investigates the professional developers' goals and teachers' interpretations of those goals. It documents how professional developers plan teacher learning experiences and explores the connection between professional development activities and teachers' classroom practice. Results are based on two rounds of interviews with professional developers, audio recordings of professional developers' planning meetings and videotaped professional development activities. Data include classroom observations, teacher interviews, teacher reflections during professional development activities, and results from student assessments. The study shows the benefit of a professional development approach that relies on an integrated cycle of setting goals, understanding teachers' interpretations, and refining implementation. The professional developers based their design on making inquiry and technology accessible, situating professional development in teachers' work, supporting collaboration, and sustaining learning. The findings reflect alignment of the design goals with the

  7. Campbell's monkeys concatenate vocalizations into context-specific call sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouattara, Karim; Lemasson, Alban; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Primate vocal behavior is often considered irrelevant in modeling human language evolution, mainly because of the caller's limited vocal control and apparent lack of intentional signaling. Here, we present the results of a long-term study on Campbell's monkeys, which has revealed an unrivaled degree of vocal complexity. Adult males produced six different loud call types, which they combined into various sequences in highly context-specific ways. We found stereotyped sequences that were strongly associated with cohesion and travel, falling trees, neighboring groups, nonpredatory animals, unspecific predatory threat, and specific predator classes. Within the responses to predators, we found that crowned eagles triggered four and leopards three different sequences, depending on how the caller learned about their presence. Callers followed a number of principles when concatenating sequences, such as nonrandom transition probabilities of call types, addition of specific calls into an existing sequence to form a different one, or recombination of two sequences to form a third one. We conclude that these primates have overcome some of the constraints of limited vocal control by combinatorial organization. As the different sequences were so tightly linked to specific external events, the Campbell's monkey call system may be the most complex example of ‘proto-syntax’ in animal communication known to date. PMID:20007377

  8. Innovation Learning: Audio Visual and Outdoor Study to Enhance Student's Understanding of Disaster

    OpenAIRE

    Furqan, M. Hafizul; Maryani, Enok; Ruhimat, Mamat

    2017-01-01

    Education is functioned to prepare human to compete in overcoming various challenges. One of challenge faced by Indonesian nation is natural disaster. The effective method to reduce the risk of natural disaster (disaster mitigation) is by enhancing understanding of disaster in each individual. Aceh Tsunami Museum (ATM) is one of important site which is build to remember the big disaster event which happened in 2004 in Aceh and as disaster learning source. This study is aimed to find out the...

  9. Vocal fold scars : current concepts and future directions. Consensus report of the phonosurgery committee of the European laryngological society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friedrich, G.; Dikkers, F. G.; Arens, C.; Remacle, M.; Hess, M.; Giovanni, A.; Duflo, S.; Hantzakos, A.; Bachy, V.; Gugatschka, M.

    Scarring of the vocal folds leads to a deterioration of the highly complex micro-structure with consecutively impaired vibratory pattern and glottic insufficiency. The resulting dysphonia is predominantly characterized by a reduced vocal capacity. Despite the considerable progress in understanding

  10. Vocal Fry Use in Adult Female Speakers Exposed to Two Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Todd A; Summers, Connie; Walls, Sydney

    2017-07-01

    Several studies have identified the widespread use of vocal fry among American women. Popular explanations for this phenomenon appeal to sociolinguistic purposes that likely take significant time for second language users to learn. The objective of this study was to determine if mere exposure to this vocal register, as opposed to nuanced sociolinguistic motivations, might explain its widespread use. This study used multigroup within- and between-subjects design. Fifty-eight women from one of three language background groups (functionally monolingual in English, functionally monolingual in Spanish, and Spanish-English bilinguals) living in El Paso, Texas, repeated a list of nonwords conforming to the sound rules of English and another list of nonwords conforming to the sound rules of Spanish. Perceptual analysis identified each episode of vocal fry. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in their frequency of vocal fry use despite large differences in their amount of English-language exposure. All groups produced more vocal fry when repeating English than when repeating Spanish nonwords. Because the human perceptual system encodes for vocal qualities even after minimal language experience, the widespread use of vocal fry among female residents in the United States likely is owing to mere exposure to English rather than nuanced sociolinguistic motivations. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Measuring striving for understanding and learning value of geometry: a validity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubuz, Behiye; Aydınyer, Yurdagül

    2017-11-01

    The current study aimed to construct a questionnaire that measures students' personality traits related to striving for understanding and learning value of geometry and then examine its psychometric properties. Through the use of multiple methods on two independent samples of 402 and 521 middle school students, two studies were performed to address this issue to provide support for its validity. In Study 1, exploratory factor analysis indicated the two-factor model. In Study 2, confirmatory factor analysis indicated the better fit of two-factor model compared to one or three-factor model. Convergent and discriminant validity evidence provided insight into the distinctiveness of the two factors. Subgroup validity evidence revealed gender differences for striving for understanding geometry trait favouring girls and grade level differences for learning value of geometry trait favouring the sixth- and seventh-grade students. Predictive validity evidence demonstrated that the striving for understanding geometry trait but not learning value of geometry trait was significantly correlated with prior mathematics achievement. In both studies, each factor and the entire questionnaire showed satisfactory reliability. In conclusion, the questionnaire was psychometrically sound.

  12. Vocal plasticity in a reptile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumm, Henrik; Zollinger, Sue Anne

    2017-05-31

    Sophisticated vocal communication systems of birds and mammals, including human speech, are characterized by a high degree of plasticity in which signals are individually adjusted in response to changes in the environment. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the first evidence for vocal plasticity in a reptile. Like birds and mammals, tokay geckos ( Gekko gecko ) increased the duration of brief call notes in the presence of broadcast noise compared to quiet conditions, a behaviour that facilitates signal detection by receivers. By contrast, they did not adjust the amplitudes of their call syllables in noise (the Lombard effect), which is in line with the hypothesis that the Lombard effect has evolved independently in birds and mammals. However, the geckos used a different strategy to increase signal-to-noise ratios: instead of increasing the amplitude of a given call type when exposed to noise, the subjects produced more high-amplitude syllable types from their repertoire. Our findings demonstrate that reptile vocalizations are much more flexible than previously thought, including elaborate vocal plasticity that is also important for the complex signalling systems of birds and mammals. We suggest that signal detection constraints are one of the major forces driving the evolution of animal communication systems across different taxa. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. Memory for vocal tempo and pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltz, Marilyn G

    2017-11-01

    Two experiments examined the ability to remember the vocal tempo and pitch of different individuals, and the way this information is encoded into the cognitive system. In both studies, participants engaged in an initial familiarisation phase while attending was systematically directed towards different aspects of speakers' voices. Afterwards, they received a tempo or pitch recognition task. Experiment 1 showed that tempo and pitch are both incidentally encoded into memory at levels comparable to intentional learning, and no performance deficit occurs with divided attending. Experiment 2 examined the ability to recognise pitch or tempo when the two dimensions co-varied and found that the presence of one influenced the other: performance was best when both dimensions were positively correlated with one another. As a set, these findings indicate that pitch and tempo are automatically processed in a holistic, integral fashion [Garner, W. R. (1974). The processing of information and structure. Potomac, MD: Erlbaum.] which has a number of cognitive implications.

  14. Understanding the Role of Negative Emotions in Adult Learning and Achievement: A Social Functional Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Anna D; Fitness, Julie

    2018-02-20

    The role of emotions in adult learning and achievement has received increasing attention in recent years. However, much of the emphasis has been on test anxiety, rather than the wider spectrum of negative emotions such as sadness, grief, boredom and anger. This paper reports findings of a qualitative study exploring the experience and functionality of negative emotions at university. Thirty-six academic staff and students from an Australian university were interviewed about emotional responses to a range of learning events. Data analysis was informed by a prototype approach to emotion research. Four categories of discrete negative emotions (anger, sadness, fear, boredom) were considered by teachers and students to be especially salient in learning, with self-conscious emotions (guilt, embarrassment, shame) mentioned by more students than staff. While negative emotions were frequently viewed as detrimental to motivation, performance and learning, they were also construed under some circumstances as beneficial. The findings are discussed in relation to the value of social functional approaches for a better understanding of the diverse roles of negative emotions in learning and achievement.

  15. Understanding the Role of Negative Emotions in Adult Learning and Achievement: A Social Functional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna D. Rowe

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of emotions in adult learning and achievement has received increasing attention in recent years. However, much of the emphasis has been on test anxiety, rather than the wider spectrum of negative emotions such as sadness, grief, boredom and anger. This paper reports findings of a qualitative study exploring the experience and functionality of negative emotions at university. Thirty-six academic staff and students from an Australian university were interviewed about emotional responses to a range of learning events. Data analysis was informed by a prototype approach to emotion research. Four categories of discrete negative emotions (anger, sadness, fear, boredom were considered by teachers and students to be especially salient in learning, with self-conscious emotions (guilt, embarrassment, shame mentioned by more students than staff. While negative emotions were frequently viewed as detrimental to motivation, performance and learning, they were also construed under some circumstances as beneficial. The findings are discussed in relation to the value of social functional approaches for a better understanding of the diverse roles of negative emotions in learning and achievement.

  16. Understanding the Role of Negative Emotions in Adult Learning and Achievement: A Social Functional Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitness, Julie

    2018-01-01

    The role of emotions in adult learning and achievement has received increasing attention in recent years. However, much of the emphasis has been on test anxiety, rather than the wider spectrum of negative emotions such as sadness, grief, boredom and anger. This paper reports findings of a qualitative study exploring the experience and functionality of negative emotions at university. Thirty-six academic staff and students from an Australian university were interviewed about emotional responses to a range of learning events. Data analysis was informed by a prototype approach to emotion research. Four categories of discrete negative emotions (anger, sadness, fear, boredom) were considered by teachers and students to be especially salient in learning, with self-conscious emotions (guilt, embarrassment, shame) mentioned by more students than staff. While negative emotions were frequently viewed as detrimental to motivation, performance and learning, they were also construed under some circumstances as beneficial. The findings are discussed in relation to the value of social functional approaches for a better understanding of the diverse roles of negative emotions in learning and achievement. PMID:29461487

  17. The Errors of Our Ways: Understanding Error Representations in Cerebellar-Dependent Motor Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Laurentiu S; Streng, Martha L; Hewitt, Angela L; Ebner, Timothy J

    2016-04-01

    The cerebellum is essential for error-driven motor learning and is strongly implicated in detecting and correcting for motor errors. Therefore, elucidating how motor errors are represented in the cerebellum is essential in understanding cerebellar function, in general, and its role in motor learning, in particular. This review examines how motor errors are encoded in the cerebellar cortex in the context of a forward internal model that generates predictions about the upcoming movement and drives learning and adaptation. In this framework, sensory prediction errors, defined as the discrepancy between the predicted consequences of motor commands and the sensory feedback, are crucial for both on-line movement control and motor learning. While many studies support the dominant view that motor errors are encoded in the complex spike discharge of Purkinje cells, others have failed to relate complex spike activity with errors. Given these limitations, we review recent findings in the monkey showing that complex spike modulation is not necessarily required for motor learning or for simple spike adaptation. Also, new results demonstrate that the simple spike discharge provides continuous error signals that both lead and lag the actual movements in time, suggesting errors are encoded as both an internal prediction of motor commands and the actual sensory feedback. These dual error representations have opposing effects on simple spike discharge, consistent with the signals needed to generate sensory prediction errors used to update a forward internal model.

  18. Machine Learning for Big Data: A Study to Understand Limits at Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukumar, Sreenivas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Del-Castillo-Negrete, Carlos Emilio [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-21

    This report aims to empirically understand the limits of machine learning when applied to Big Data. We observe that recent innovations in being able to collect, access, organize, integrate, and query massive amounts of data from a wide variety of data sources have brought statistical data mining and machine learning under more scrutiny, evaluation and application for gleaning insights from the data than ever before. Much is expected from algorithms without understanding their limitations at scale while dealing with massive datasets. In that context, we pose and address the following questions How does a machine learning algorithm perform on measures such as accuracy and execution time with increasing sample size and feature dimensionality? Does training with more samples guarantee better accuracy? How many features to compute for a given problem? Do more features guarantee better accuracy? Do efforts to derive and calculate more features and train on larger samples worth the effort? As problems become more complex and traditional binary classification algorithms are replaced with multi-task, multi-class categorization algorithms do parallel learners perform better? What happens to the accuracy of the learning algorithm when trained to categorize multiple classes within the same feature space? Towards finding answers to these questions, we describe the design of an empirical study and present the results. We conclude with the following observations (i) accuracy of the learning algorithm increases with increasing sample size but saturates at a point, beyond which more samples do not contribute to better accuracy/learning, (ii) the richness of the feature space dictates performance - both accuracy and training time, (iii) increased dimensionality often reflected in better performance (higher accuracy in spite of longer training times) but the improvements are not commensurate the efforts for feature computation and training and (iv) accuracy of the learning algorithms

  19. A model for understanding and learning of the game process of computer games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel; Majgaard, Gunver

    This abstract focuses on the computer game design process in the education of engineers at the university level. We present a model for understanding the different layers in the game design process, and an articulation of their intricate interconnectedness. Our motivation is propelled by our daily...... teaching practice of game design. We have observed a need for a design model that quickly can create an easily understandable overview over something as complex as the design processes of computer games. This posed a problem: how do we present a broad overview of the game design process and at the same...... time make sure that the students learn to act and reflect like game designers? We fell our game design model managed to just that end. Our model entails a guideline for the computer game design process in its entirety, and at same time distributes clear and easy understandable insight to a particular...

  20. The use of multi representative learning materials: definitive, macroscopic, microscopic, symbolic, and practice in analyzing students’ concept understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilaningsih, E.; Wulandari, C.; Supartono; Kasmui; Alighiri, D.

    2018-03-01

    This research aims to compose learning material which contains definitive macroscopic, microscopic and symbolic to analyze students’ conceptual understanding in acid-base learning materials. This research was conducted in eleven grade, natural science class, senior high school 1 (SMAN 1) Karangtengah, Demak province, Indonesia as the low level of students’ conceptual understanding and the high level of students’ misconception. The data collecting technique is by test to assess the cognitive aspect, questionnaire to assess students’ responses to multi representative learning materials (definitive, macroscopic, microscopic, symbolic), and observation to assess students’ macroscopic aspects. Three validators validate the multi-representative learning materials (definitive, macroscopic, microscopic, symbolic). The results of the research show that the multi-representative learning materials (definitive, macroscopic, microscopes, symbolic) being used is valid in the average score 62 of 75. The data is analyzed using the descriptive qualitative method. The results of the research show that 72.934 % students understand, 7.977 % less understand, 8.831 % do not understand, and 10.256 % misconception. In comparison, the second experiment class shows 54.970 % students understand, 5.263% less understand, 11.988 % do not understand, 27.777 % misconception. In conclusion, the application of multi representative learning materials (definitive, macroscopic, microscopic, symbolic) can be used to analyze the students’ understanding of acid-base materials.

  1. Tools for Science Inquiry Learning: Tool Affordances, Experimentation Strategies, and Conceptual Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumbacher, Engin; Salehi, Shima; Wieman, Carl; Blikstein, Paulo

    2017-12-01

    Manipulative environments play a fundamental role in inquiry-based science learning, yet how they impact learning is not fully understood. In a series of two studies, we develop the argument that manipulative environments (MEs) influence the kind of inquiry behaviors students engage in, and that this influence realizes through the affordances of MEs, independent of whether they are physical or virtual. In particular, we examine how MEs shape college students' experimentation strategies and conceptual understanding. In study 1, students engaged in two consecutive inquiry tasks, first on mass and spring systems and then on electric circuits. They either used virtual or physical MEs. We found that the use of experimentation strategies was strongly related to conceptual understanding across tasks, but that students engaged differently in those strategies depending on what ME they used. More students engaged in productive strategies using the virtual ME for electric circuits, and vice versa using the physical ME for mass and spring systems. In study 2, we isolated the affordance of measurement uncertainty by comparing two versions of the same virtual ME for electric circuits—one with and one without noise—and found that the conditions differed in terms of productive experimentation strategies. These findings indicate that measures of inquiry processes may resolve apparent ambiguities and inconsistencies between studies on MEs that are based on learning outcomes alone.

  2. Glottal aerodynamics in compliant, life-sized vocal fold models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhail, Michael; Dowell, Grant; Krane, Michael

    2013-11-01

    This talk presents high-speed PIV measurements in compliant, life-sized models of the vocal folds. A clearer understanding of the fluid-structure interaction of voiced speech, how it produces sound, and how it varies with pathology is required to improve clinical diagnosis and treatment of vocal disorders. Physical models of the vocal folds can answer questions regarding the fundamental physics of speech, as well as the ability of clinical measures to detect the presence and extent of disorder. Flow fields were recorded in the supraglottal region of the models to estimate terms in the equations of fluid motion, and their relative importance. Experiments were conducted over a range of driving pressures with flow rates, given by a ball flowmeter, and subglottal pressures, given by a micro-manometer, reported for each case. Imaging of vocal fold motion, vector fields showing glottal jet behavior, and terms estimated by control volume analysis will be presented. The use of these results for a comparison with clinical measures, and for the estimation of aeroacoustic source strengths will be discussed. Acknowledge support from NIH R01 DC005642.

  3. Biosimulation of inflammation and healing in surgically injured vocal folds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nicole Y K; Vodovotz, Yoram; Hebda, Patricia A; Abbott, Katherine Verdolini

    2010-06-01

    The pathogenesis of vocal fold scarring is complex and remains to be deciphered. The current study is part of research endeavors aimed at applying systems biology approaches to address the complex biological processes involved in the pathogenesis of vocal fold scarring and other lesions affecting the larynx. We developed a computational agent-based model (ABM) to quantitatively characterize multiple cellular and molecular interactions involved in inflammation and healing in vocal fold mucosa after surgical trauma. The ABM was calibrated with empirical data on inflammatory mediators (eg, tumor necrosis factor) and extracellular matrix components (eg, hyaluronan) from published studies on surgical vocal fold injury in the rat population. The simulation results reproduced and predicted trajectories seen in the empirical data from the animals. Moreover, the ABM studies suggested that hyaluronan fragments might be the clinical surrogate of tissue damage, a key variable that in these simulations both is enhanced by and further induces inflammation. A relatively simple ABM such as the one reported in this study can provide new understanding of laryngeal wound healing and generate working hypotheses for further wet-lab studies.

  4. Mapping the Evolution of eLearning from 1977–2005 to Inform Understandings of eLearning Historical Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Chen Sun

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available While there have been very limited studies of the educational computing literature to analyze the research trends since the early emergence of educational computing technologies, the authors argue that it is important for both researchers and educators to understand the major, historical educational computing trends in order to inform understandings of current and future eLearning trends. This study provides the findings of an analysis of 2,694 journal articles published between 1977 and 2005 in four major, international educational computing journals. It provides the platform for a subsequent analysis for the period 2006–2014 and beyond, as future educational computing research is published. The journal articles analyzed were categorized according to their research themes. Subsequently, clustering analysis, multi-dimension scale analysis, and research diversity analysis were performed on the categorized results to explore the research trends. The research literature analysis confirmed that there were identifiable evolutionary trends dating from 1977, and, importantly, the analysis highlighted that each key breakthrough in technology was accompanied by increased educational research about those technologies to inform educational practices. Importantly, two major driving forces of the historical trends identified were technologies and pedagogical approaches. The paper concludes with explanations of how these trends from 1977–2005 have shaped the current focus on Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK needed for effective current and future eLearning.

  5. Development and validation of a method for measuring depth of understanding in constructivist learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Lucia Falsetti

    A method for measuring depth of understanding of students in the middle-level science classroom was developed and validated. A common theme in the literature on constructivism in science education is that constructivist pedagogy, as opposed to objectivist pedagogy, results in a greater depth of understanding. Since few instruments measuring this construct exist at the present time, the development of such a tool to measure this construct was a significant contribution to the current body of assessment technologies in science education. The author's Depth of Understanding Assessment (DUA) evolved from a writing measure originally designed as a history assessment. The study involved 230 eighth grade science students studying a chemical change unit. The main research questions were: (1) What is the relationship between the DUA and each of the following independent variables: recall, application, and questioning modalities as measured by the Cognitive Preference Test; deep, surface, achieving, and deep-achieving approaches as measured by the Learning Process Questionnaire; achievement as measured by the Chemical Change Quiz, and teacher perception of student ability to conceptualize science content? (2) Is there a difference in depth of understanding, as measured by the DUA, between students who are taught by objectivist pedagogy and students who are taught by constructivist pedagogy favoring the constructivist group? (3) Is there a gender difference in depth of understanding as measured by the DUA? (4) Do students who are taught by constructivist pedagogy perceive their learning environment as more constructivist than students who are taught by objectivist pedagogy? Six out of nine hypothesis tests supported the validity of the DUA. The results of the qualitative component of this study which consisted of student interviews substantiated the quantitative results by providing additional information and insights. There was a significant difference in depth of

  6. Learning science in small groups: The relationship of conversation to conceptual understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, James Tarleton

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between conversation and conceptual understanding of erosion. The objective of this study was to investigate how fifth grade students' conceptions of erosion changed while they used stream tables and worked in groups of four within an inquiry-based curriculum. This study used symbolic interactionism and sociocognitive frameworks to interpret science learning in the elementary classroom. The research focused on the conceptual understanding of the focal group students, their use of classroom discourse to talk about their understandings of erosion, and the expertise that emerged while using stream tables. This study took place over a one-semester long study on erosion. Key informants were eight fifth graders. The data sources consisted of children's journals; transcripts of audiotaped interviews with the key informants before, during, and after the erosion unit; transcripts of videotapes of the students using the stream tables; and field notes recording children's discourse and activity. Individual and group cases were constructed during the study. The knowledge of the eight focal group children was placed on a hierarchy of conceptual understanding that contained 8 components of the erosion process. All four of the students whose ideas were examined in depth gained in their conceptual understanding of erosion. Students' individual expertise enhanced their own conceptual understanding. The contribution of classroom discourse and expertise to conceptual understanding differed between the two focal groups. Group 1 used essential expertise to sustain generative conversations, maximizing their learning opportunities. Students in Group 1 got along with one another, rotated assigned roles and jobs, and were able to start their own generative conversations. Members of Group 1 asked generative questions, connected stream table events to real life situations, and involved everyone in the group. Group 2 engaged in a

  7. High-precision spatial localization of mouse vocalizations during social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, Jesse J; Proville, Rémi; Heckman, Gert J; Azarfar, Alireza; Celikel, Tansu; Englitz, Bernhard

    2017-06-07

    Mice display a wide repertoire of vocalizations that varies with age, sex, and context. Especially during courtship, mice emit ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) of high complexity, whose detailed structure is poorly understood. As animals of both sexes vocalize, the study of social vocalizations requires attributing single USVs to individuals. The state-of-the-art in sound localization for USVs allows spatial localization at centimeter resolution, however, animals interact at closer ranges, involving tactile, snout-snout exploration. Hence, improved algorithms are required to reliably assign USVs. We develop multiple solutions to USV localization, and derive an analytical solution for arbitrary vertical microphone positions. The algorithms are compared on wideband acoustic noise and single mouse vocalizations, and applied to social interactions with optically tracked mouse positions. A novel, (frequency) envelope weighted generalised cross-correlation outperforms classical cross-correlation techniques. It achieves a median error of ~1.4 mm for noise and ~4-8.5 mm for vocalizations. Using this algorithms in combination with a level criterion, we can improve the assignment for interacting mice. We report significant differences in mean USV properties between CBA mice of different sexes during social interaction. Hence, the improved USV attribution to individuals lays the basis for a deeper understanding of social vocalizations, in particular sequences of USVs.

  8. A numerical strategy for finite element modeling of frictionless asymmetric vocal fold collision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados, Alba; Misztal, Marek Krzysztof; Brunskog, Jonas; Visseq, Vincent; Erleben, Kenny

    2017-02-01

    Analysis of voice pathologies may require vocal fold models that include relevant features such as vocal fold asymmetric collision. The present study numerically addresses the problem of frictionless asymmetric collision in a self-sustained three-dimensional continuum model of the vocal folds. Theoretical background and numerical analysis of the finite-element position-based contact model are presented, along with validation. A novel contact detection mechanism capable to detect collision in asymmetric oscillations is developed. The effect of inexact contact constraint enforcement on vocal fold dynamics is examined by different variational methods for inequality constrained minimization problems, namely, the Lagrange multiplier method and the penalty method. In contrast to the penalty solution, which is related to classical spring-like contact forces, numerical examples show that the parameter-independent Lagrange multiplier solution is more robust and accurate in the estimation of dynamical and mechanical features at vocal fold contact. Furthermore, special attention is paid to the temporal integration schemes in relation to the contact problem, the results suggesting an advantage of highly diffusive schemes. Finally, vocal fold contact enforcement is shown to affect asymmetric oscillations. The present model may be adapted to existing vocal fold models, which may contribute to a better understanding of the effect of the nonlinear contact phenomenon on phonation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Understanding students' and clinicians' experiences of informal interprofessional workplace learning: an Australian qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Charlotte E; Crampton, Paul; Kent, Fiona; Brown, Ted; Hood, Kerry; Leech, Michelle; Newton, Jennifer; Storr, Michael; Williams, Brett

    2018-04-17

    While postgraduate studies have begun to shed light on informal interprofessional workplace learning, studies with preregistration learners have typically focused on formal and structured work-based learning. The current study investigated preregistration students' informal interprofessional workplace learning by exploring students' and clinicians' experiences of interprofessional student-clinician (IPSC) interactions. A qualitative interview study using narrative techniques was conducted. Student placements across multiple clinical sites in Victoria, Australia. Through maximum variation sampling, 61 participants (38 students and 23 clinicians) were recruited from six professions (medicine, midwifery, nursing, occupational therapy, paramedicine and physiotherapy). We conducted 12 group and 10 individual semistructured interviews. Themes were identified through framework analysis, and the similarities and differences in subthemes by participant group were interrogated. Six themes relating to four research questions were identified: (1) conceptualisations of IPSC interactions; (2) context for interaction experiences; (3) the nature of interaction experiences; (4) factors contributing to positive or negative interactions; (5) positive or negative consequences of interactions and (6) suggested improvements for IPSC interactions. Seven noteworthy differences in subthemes between students and clinicians and across the professions were identified. Despite the results largely supporting previous postgraduate research, the findings illustrate greater breadth and depth of understandings, experiences and suggestions for preregistration education. Educators and students are encouraged to seek opportunities for informal interprofessional learning afforded by the workplace. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Understanding students’ and clinicians’ experiences of informal interprofessional workplace learning: an Australian qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Charlotte E; Kent, Fiona; Brown, Ted; Hood, Kerry; Leech, Michelle; Newton, Jennifer; Storr, Michael; Williams, Brett

    2018-01-01

    Objectives While postgraduate studies have begun to shed light on informal interprofessional workplace learning, studies with preregistration learners have typically focused on formal and structured work-based learning. The current study investigated preregistration students’ informal interprofessional workplace learning by exploring students’ and clinicians’ experiences of interprofessional student-clinician (IPSC) interactions. Design A qualitative interview study using narrative techniques was conducted. Setting Student placements across multiple clinical sites in Victoria, Australia. Participants Through maximum variation sampling, 61 participants (38 students and 23 clinicians) were recruited from six professions (medicine, midwifery, nursing, occupational therapy, paramedicine and physiotherapy). Methods We conducted 12 group and 10 individual semistructured interviews. Themes were identified through framework analysis, and the similarities and differences in subthemes by participant group were interrogated. Results Six themes relating to four research questions were identified: (1) conceptualisations of IPSC interactions; (2) context for interaction experiences; (3) the nature of interaction experiences; (4) factors contributing to positive or negative interactions; (5) positive or negative consequences of interactions and (6) suggested improvements for IPSC interactions. Seven noteworthy differences in subthemes between students and clinicians and across the professions were identified. Conclusions Despite the results largely supporting previous postgraduate research, the findings illustrate greater breadth and depth of understandings, experiences and suggestions for preregistration education. Educators and students are encouraged to seek opportunities for informal interprofessional learning afforded by the workplace. PMID:29666140

  11. Improvements in Students' Understanding from Increased Implementation of Active Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes-Gehrke, Melissa N.; Prather, E. E.; Rudolph, A. L.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS

    2011-01-01

    Many instructors are hesitant to implement active learning strategies in their introductory astronomy classrooms because they are not sure which techniques they should use, how to implement those techniques, and question whether the investment in changing their course will really bring the advertised learning gains. We present an example illustrating how thoughtful and systematic implementation of active learning strategies into a traditionally taught Astro 101 class can translate into significant increases in students' understanding. We detail the journey of one instructor, over several years, as she changes the instruction and design of her course from one that focuses almost exclusively on lecture to a course that provides an integrated use of several active learning techniques such as Lecture-Tutorials and Think-Pair-Share questions. The students in the initial lecture-only course achieved a low normalized gain score of only 0.2 on the Light and Spectroscopy Concept Inventory (LSCI), while the students in the re-designed learner-centered course achieved a significantly better normalized gain of 0.43. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS), and Grant No. 0847170, a PAARE Grant for the Calfornia-Arizona Minority Partnership for Astronomy Research and Education (CAMPARE). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

  12. Comportamento vocal de cantores populares Vocal behavior of popular singers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valquíria Zimmer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: investigar aspectos do histórico, hábitos e comportamentos vocais de cantores populares, conforme o sexo e as categorias profissional e amador. MÉTODO: entrevista com 47 cantores, 25 homens e 22 mulheres. RESULTADOS: significância estatística nos seguintes achados: MASCULINO - microfone nos ensaios, ausência de problemas vocais diagnosticados, ausência de orientações sobre higiene vocal, dor ou desconforto após cantar, ausência de alergias e problemas respiratórios; FEMININO - aulas de canto e conhecimento sobre postura; AMADOR - não cantar dançando, não imitar vozes, ausência de avaliação otorrinolaringológica, ausência de problemas vocais diagnosticados, ausência de terapia fonoaudiológica, ausência de orientações de anatomofisiologia vocal e não utilização de álcool nos ensaios; PROFISSIONAL - rouquidão, conhecimento sobre articulação, álcool durante os shows, "garganta suja" ou pigarro, dor após cantar. CONCLUSÕES: a comparação entre os sexos evidenciou que os homens utilizavam microfone no ensaio, não apresentavam problemas alérgicos ou respiratórios, nem problemas vocais diagnosticados, mas apresentavam sensação de dor ou desconforto após o canto e não possuíam noções sobre higiene vocal; e que as mulheres realizavam aulas de canto e possuíam orientações de postura. A comparação entre amadores e profissionais mostrou que os amadores não cantavam dançando, não imitavam vozes, não utilizavam álcool nos ensaios, e não apresentavam problemas vocais diagnosticados, mas não possuíam avaliação otorrinolaringológica, não realizavam terapia fonoaudiológica, e não possuíam conhecimento sobre anatomofisiologia vocal; e os profissionais apresentavam queixa de rouquidão, de "garganta suja" ou pigarro e de dor após cantar, e usavam álcool durante os shows, apesar de possuir conhecimento sobre articulação.PURPOSE: to investigate aspects of vocal history, vocal habits and

  13. Rules of song development and their use in vocal interactions by birds with large repertoires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Geberzahn

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Songbirds are well known for settling their disputes by vocal signals, and their singing plays a dominant role. Most studies on this issue have concentrated on bird species that develop and use small vocal repertoires. In this article we will go farther and focus on examples of how species with large song repertoires make use of their vocal competence. In particular, we will outline the study of interaction rules which have been elucidated by examining time- and pattern-specific relationships between signals exchanged by territorial neighbors. First we present an inquiry into the rules of song learning and development. In birds with large song repertoires, the ontogeny of such rules proceeds along a number of trajectories which help in understanding the often remarkable accomplishments of adult birds. In both approaches, our model species will be the Common Nightingale Luscinia megarhynchos that has been investigated intensively in the field and in the laboratory.Pássaros canoros são bem conhecidos por resolver suas brigas através de sinais vocais e seu canto tem um papel dominante. A maioria dos estudos sobre este assunto focalizou espécies de aves que desenvolvem e usam repertórios vocais pequenos. Neste artigo iremos mais longe, examinando como espécies com grandes repertórios fazem uso de suas capacidades. Descreveremos particularmente o estudo das regras de interação que foram desvendadas pelo exame das relações temporais e estruturais entre os sinais trocados por vizinhos. Inicialmente, investigamos as regras de aprendizagem e desenvolvimento do canto. Nas aves com grande repertório vocal, a ontogênese dessas regras segue certas trajetórias que ajudam a entender o desempenho dos adultos, geralmente notável. Em ambas abordagens, nossa espécie-modelo será o Rouxinol-comum Luscinia megarhynchos, que foi pesquisado intensamente no campo e no laboratório.

  14. Cognitive neuroepigenetics: the next evolution in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying learning and memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Paul; Bredy, Timothy W.

    2016-07-01

    A complete understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of learning and memory continues to elude neuroscientists. Although many important discoveries have been made, the question of how memories are encoded and maintained at the molecular level remains. So far, this issue has been framed within the context of one of the most dominant concepts in molecular biology, the central dogma, and the result has been a protein-centric view of memory. Here, we discuss the evidence supporting a role for neuroepigenetic mechanisms, which constitute dynamic and reversible, state-dependent modifications at all levels of control over cellular function, and their role in learning and memory. This neuroepigenetic view suggests that DNA, RNA and protein each influence one another to produce a holistic cellular state that contributes to the formation and maintenance of memory, and predicts a parallel and distributed system for the consolidation, storage and retrieval of the engram.

  15. Effect of Collaborative Learning in Interactive Lecture Demonstrations (ILD on Student Conceptual Understanding of Motion Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erees Queen B. Macabebe

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To assess effectively the influence of peer discussion in understandingconcepts, and to evaluate if the conceptual understanding through Interactive Lecture Demonstrations (ILD and collaborative learning can be translated to actual situations, ten (10 questions on human and carts in motion were presented to 151 university students comprising mostly of science majors but of different year levels. Individual and group predictions were conducted to assess the students’ pre-conceptual understanding of motion graphs. During the ILD, real-time motion graphs were obtained and analysed after each demonstration and an assessment that integrates the ten situations into two scenarios was given to evaluate the conceptual understanding of the students. Collaborative learning produced a positive effect on the prediction scores of the students and the ILD with real-time measurement allowed the students to validate their prediction. However, when the given situations were incorporated to create a scenario, it posted a challenge to the students. The results of this activity identified the area where additional instruction and emphasis is necessary.

  16. The Effect of Brain Based Learning on Second Grade Junior Students’ Mathematics Conceptual Understanding on Polyhedron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Suarsana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the effect of Brain Based Learning on second grade junior high school students’ conceptual understanding on polyhedron. This study was conducted by using post-test only control group quasi-experimental design. The subjects of this study were 148 students that divided into three classes. Two classes were taken as sample by using cluster random sampling technique. One of the classes was randomly selected as an experimental group and the other as control group. There were 48 students in experimental group and 51 students in control group. The data were collected with post-test which contained mathematical conceptual understanding on fractions. The post-test consisted of 8 essay question types.  The normality and variance homogeny test result showed that the scores are normally distributed and have no difference in variance. The data were analyzed by using one tailed t-test with significance level of 5%. The result of data analysis revealed that the value of t-test = 6,7096 greater than t-table = 1,987, therefore; the null hypothesis is rejected. There is positive effect of of Brain Based Learning on second grade junior students’ conceptual understanding in polyhedron.

  17. The disposition to understand for oneself at university: integrating learning processes with motivation and metacognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entwistle, Noel; McCune, Velda

    2013-06-01

    A re-analysis of several university-level interview studies has suggested that some students show evidence of a deep and stable approach to learning, along with other characteristics that support the approach. This combination, it was argued, could be seen to indicate a disposition to understand for oneself. To identify a group of students who showed high and consistent scores on deep approach, combined with equivalently high scores on effort and monitoring studying, and to explore these students' experiences of the teaching-learning environments they had experienced. Re-analysis of data from 1,896 students from 25 undergraduate courses taking four contrasting subject areas in eleven British universities. Inventories measuring approaches to studying were given at the beginning and the end of a semester, with the second inventory also exploring students' experiences of teaching. K-means cluster analysis was used to identify groups of students with differing patterns of response on the inventory scales, with a particular focus on students showing high, stable scores. One cluster clearly showed the characteristics expected of the disposition to understand and was also fairly stable over time. Other clusters also had deep approaches, but also showed either surface elements or lower scores on organized effort or monitoring their studying. Combining these findings with interview studies previously reported reinforces the idea of there being a disposition to understand for oneself that could be identified from an inventory scale or through further interviews. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Modeling vocalization with ECoG cortical activity recorded during vocal production in the macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Makoto; Saunders, Richard C; Fujii, Naotaka; Averbeck, Bruno B; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2014-01-01

    Vocal production is an example of controlled motor behavior with high temporal precision. Previous studies have decoded auditory evoked cortical activity while monkeys listened to vocalization sounds. On the other hand, there have been few attempts at decoding motor cortical activity during vocal production. Here we recorded cortical activity during vocal production in the macaque with a chronically implanted electrocorticographic (ECoG) electrode array. The array detected robust activity in motor cortex during vocal production. We used a nonlinear dynamical model of the vocal organ to reduce the dimensionality of `Coo' calls produced by the monkey. We then used linear regression to evaluate the information in motor cortical activity for this reduced representation of calls. This simple linear model accounted for circa 65% of the variance in the reduced sound representations, supporting the feasibility of using the dynamical model of the vocal organ for decoding motor cortical activity during vocal production.

  19. Toward a Neurobiological Basis for Understanding Learning in University Modeling Instruction Physics Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Brewe

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Modeling Instruction (MI for University Physics is a curricular and pedagogical approach to active learning in introductory physics. A basic tenet of science is that it is a model-driven endeavor that involves building models, then validating, deploying, and ultimately revising them in an iterative fashion. MI was developed to provide students a facsimile in the university classroom of this foundational scientific practice. As a curriculum, MI employs conceptual scientific models as the basis for the course content, and thus learning in a MI classroom involves students appropriating scientific models for their own use. Over the last 10 years, substantial evidence has accumulated supporting MI's efficacy, including gains in conceptual understanding, odds of success, attitudes toward learning, self-efficacy, and social networks centered around physics learning. However, we still do not fully understand the mechanisms of how students learn physics and develop mental models of physical phenomena. Herein, we explore the hypothesis that the MI curriculum and pedagogy promotes student engagement via conceptual model building. This emphasis on conceptual model building, in turn, leads to improved knowledge organization and problem solving abilities that manifest as quantifiable functional brain changes that can be assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. We conducted a neuroeducation study wherein students completed a physics reasoning task while undergoing fMRI scanning before (pre and after (post completing a MI introductory physics course. Preliminary results indicated that performance of the physics reasoning task was linked with increased brain activity notably in lateral prefrontal and parietal cortices that previously have been associated with attention, working memory, and problem solving, and are collectively referred to as the central executive network. Critically, assessment of changes in brain activity during the physics

  20. Integrative relational machine-learning for understanding drug side-effect profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresso, Emmanuel; Grisoni, Renaud; Marchetti, Gino; Karaboga, Arnaud Sinan; Souchet, Michel; Devignes, Marie-Dominique; Smaïl-Tabbone, Malika

    2013-06-26

    Drug side effects represent a common reason for stopping drug development during clinical trials. Improving our ability to understand drug side effects is necessary to reduce attrition rates during drug development as well as the risk of discovering novel side effects in available drugs. Today, most investigations deal with isolated side effects and overlook possible redundancy and their frequent co-occurrence. In this work, drug annotations are collected from SIDER and DrugBank databases. Terms describing individual side effects reported in SIDER are clustered with a semantic similarity measure into term clusters (TCs). Maximal frequent itemsets are extracted from the resulting drug x TC binary table, leading to the identification of what we call side-effect profiles (SEPs). A SEP is defined as the longest combination of TCs which are shared by a significant number of drugs. Frequent SEPs are explored on the basis of integrated drug and target descriptors using two machine learning methods: decision-trees and inductive-logic programming. Although both methods yield explicit models, inductive-logic programming method performs relational learning and is able to exploit not only drug properties but also background knowledge. Learning efficiency is evaluated by cross-validation and direct testing with new molecules. Comparison of the two machine-learning methods shows that the inductive-logic-programming method displays a greater sensitivity than decision trees and successfully exploit background knowledge such as functional annotations and pathways of drug targets, thereby producing rich and expressive rules. All models and theories are available on a dedicated web site. Side effect profiles covering significant number of drugs have been extracted from a drug ×side-effect association table. Integration of background knowledge concerning both chemical and biological spaces has been combined with a relational learning method for discovering rules which explicitly

  1. Vocal cysts: clinical, endoscopic, and surgical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Regina Helena Garcia; Santana, Marcela Ferreira; Tavares, Elaine Lara Mendes

    2011-01-01

    Vocal cysts are benign laryngeal lesions, which affect children and adults. They can be classified as epidermic or mucous-retention cyst. The objective was to study the clinical, endoscopic, and surgical aspects of vocal cysts. We reviewed the medical charts of 72 patients with vocal cysts, considering age, gender, occupation, time of vocal symptoms, nasosinusal and gastroesophageal symptoms, vocal abuse, tabagism, alcoholism, associated lesions, treatment, and histological details. Of the 72 cases, 46 were adults (36 females and 10 male) and 26 were children (eight girls and 18 boys). As far as occupation is concerned, there was a higher incidence of students and teachers. All the patients had symptoms of chronic hoarseness. Nasosinusal (27.77%) and gastroesophageal (32%) symptoms were not relevant. Vocal abuse was reported by 45.83%, smoking by 18%, and alcoholism by 8.4% of the patients. Unilateral cysts were seen in 93% of the cases, 22 patients had associated lesions, such as bridge, sulcus vocalis, and microweb. Surgical treatment was performed in 46 cases. Histological analysis of the epidermic cysts revealed a cavity with caseous content, covered by stratified squamous epithelium, often keratinized. Mucous cysts presented mucous content, and the walls were coated by a cylindrical ciliated epithelium. Vocal cysts are benign vocal fold lesions that affect children and adults, being often associated with vocal overuse, which frequently affects people who use their voices professionally. Vocal symptoms are chronic in course, often times since childhood, and the treatment of choice is surgical removal. A careful examination of the vocal folds is necessary during surgery, because other laryngeal lesions may be associated with vocal cysts. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Vocal competition in male Xenopus laevis frogs

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias, Martha L.; Corke, Anna; Korsh, Jeremy; Yin, David; Kelley, Darcy B.

    2010-01-01

    Male Xenopus laevis frogs produce underwater advertisement calls that attract gravid females and suppress calling by male competitors. Here we explore whether groups of males establish vocal ranks and whether auditory cues alone suffice for vocal suppression. Tests of male–male pairs within assigned groups reveal linear vocal dominance relations, in which each male has a defined rank. Both the duration over which males interact, as well as the number of competitive opportunities, affect linea...

  3. Understanding dopamine and reinforcement learning: the dopamine reward prediction error hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glimcher, Paul W

    2011-09-13

    A number of recent advances have been achieved in the study of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Understanding these advances and how they relate to one another requires a deep understanding of the computational models that serve as an explanatory framework and guide ongoing experimental inquiry. This intertwining of theory and experiment now suggests very clearly that the phasic activity of the midbrain dopamine neurons provides a global mechanism for synaptic modification. These synaptic modifications, in turn, provide the mechanistic underpinning for a specific class of reinforcement learning mechanisms that now seem to underlie much of human and animal behavior. This review describes both the critical empirical findings that are at the root of this conclusion and the fantastic theoretical advances from which this conclusion is drawn.

  4. Vocalization Subsystem Responses to a Temporarily Induced Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croake, Daniel J.; Andreatta, Richard D.; Stemple, Joseph C.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to quantify the interactions of the 3 vocalization subsystems of respiration, phonation, and resonance before, during, and after a perturbation to the larynx (temporarily induced unilateral vocal fold paralysis) in 10 vocally healthy participants. Using dynamic systems theory as a guide, we hypothesized that…

  5. Vocal Bursts Communicate Discrete Emotions: Evidence for New Displays

    OpenAIRE

    Emiliana Simon-Thomas; Disa Sauter; Lara Sinicropi-Yao; Anna Abramson; Dacher Keltner

    2007-01-01

    Studies of emotion signaling have proven critical to scientific advances in understanding emotion, informing claims about the evolutionary origins of different emotions1, the central and peripheral nervous system correlates of emotion 2 3 and even which states warrant consideration in emotion taxonomies 4. An initial wave of empirical studies of emotion-related facial expression5 and vocalization 6 7 has concentrated almost exclusively on a limited set of emotions - anger, disgust, fear, sadn...

  6. Vocal Noise Cancellation From Respiratory Sounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moussavi, Zahra

    2001-01-01

    Although background noise cancellation for speech or electrocardiographic recording is well established, however when the background noise contains vocal noises and the main signal is a breath sound...

  7. Quantification of Porcine Vocal Fold Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Kimberly A; Thomson, Scott L; Jetté, Marie E; Thibeault, Susan L

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify porcine vocal fold medial surface geometry and three-dimensional geometric distortion induced by freezing the larynx, especially in the region of the vocal folds. The medial surface geometries of five excised porcine larynges were quantified and reported. Five porcine larynges were imaged in a micro-CT scanner, frozen, and rescanned. Segmentations and three-dimensional reconstructions were used to quantify and characterize geometric features. Comparisons were made with geometry data previously obtained using canine and human vocal folds as well as geometries of selected synthetic vocal fold models. Freezing induced an overall expansion of approximately 5% in the transverse plane and comparable levels of nonuniform distortion in sagittal and coronal planes. The medial surface of the porcine vocal folds was found to compare reasonably well with other geometries, although the compared geometries exhibited a notable discrepancy with one set of published human female vocal fold geometry. Porcine vocal folds are qualitatively geometrically similar to data available for canine and human vocal folds, as well as commonly used models. Freezing of tissue in the larynx causes distortion of around 5%. The data can provide direction in estimating uncertainty due to bulk distortion of tissue caused by freezing, as well as quantitative geometric data that can be directly used in developing vocal fold models. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Vocal Fold Vibratory Changes Following Surgical Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenli; Woo, Peak; Murry, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    High-speed videoendoscopy (HSV) captures direct cycle-to-cycle visualization of vocal fold movement in real time. This ultrafast recording rate is capable of visualizing the vibratory motion of the vocal folds in severely disordered phonation and provides a direct method for examining vibratory changes after vocal fold surgery. The purpose of this study was to examine the vibratory motion before and after surgical intervention. HSV was captured from two subjects with identifiable midvocal fold benign lesions and six subjects with highly aperiodic vocal fold vibration before and after phonosurgery. Digital kymography (DKG) was used to extract high-speed kymographic vocal fold images sampled at the midmembranous, anterior 1/3, and posterior 1/3 region. Spectral analysis was subsequently applied to the DKG to quantify the cycle-to-cycle movements of the left and the right vocal fold, expressed as a spectrum. Before intervention, the vibratory spectrum consisted of decreased and flat-like spectral peaks with robust power asymmetry. After intervention, increases in spectral power and decreases in power symmetry were noted. Spectral power increases were most remarkable in the midmembranous region of the vocal fold. Surgical modification resulted in improved lateral excursion of the vocal folds, vibratory function, and perceptual measures of Voice Handicap Index-10. These changes in vibratory behavior trended toward normal vocal fold vibration. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Adult Learners' Understanding in Learning Islam Using Andragogy Approach: A Study in Kampung Siglap Mosque and Al-Zuhri Higher Learning Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Kadir, Mohd Amin; Arifin, Syamsul; Latipun; Fuad, Ahmad Nur

    2016-01-01

    This study describes adult learners' understanding in learning Islam using andragogy approach in which the study was conducted in Kampung Siglap Mosque and Al-Zuhri Higher Learning Institute. Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) educate his companions of who are adults from the shackles of "jahiliyyah," spiritual and intellectual…

  10. A Pilot Study: Facilitating Cross-Cultural Understanding with Project-Based Collaborative Learning in an Online Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadiev, Rustam; Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Huang, Yueh-Min

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated three aspects: how project-based collaborative learning facilitates cross-cultural understanding; how students perceive project-based collaborative learning implementation in a collaborative cyber community (3C) online environment; and what types of communication among students are used. A qualitative case study approach…

  11. Structuring Assignments to Improve Understanding and Presentation Skills: Experiential Learning in the Capstone Strategic Management Team Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Marilyn M.; Whitesell, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    In the strategic management course, students select, analyze, and present viable future alternatives based on information provided in cases or computer simulations. Rather than understanding the entire process, the student's focus is on the final presentation. Chickering's (1977) research on active learning suggests students learn more effectively…

  12. A Process-Philosophical Understanding of Organizational Learning as "Wayfinding": Process, Practices and Sensitivity to Environmental Affordances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to articulate a practice-based, non-cognitivist approach to organizational learning. Design/methodology/approach: This paper explores the potential contribution of a process-based "practice turn" in social theory for understanding organizational learning. Findings: In complex, turbulent environments, robust…

  13. Understanding infants' and children's social learning about foods: previous research and new prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D; DeJesus, Jasmine M

    2013-03-01

    Developmental psychologists have devoted significant attention to investigating how children learn from others' actions, emotions, and testimony. Yet most of this research has examined children's socially guided learning about artifacts. The present article focuses on a domain that has received limited attention from those interested in the development of social cognition: food. We begin by reviewing the available literature on infants' and children's development in the food domain and identify situations in which children evidence both successes and failures in their interactions with foods. We focus specifically on the role that other people play in guiding what children eat and argue that understanding patterns of successes and failures in the food domain requires an appreciation of eating as a social phenomenon. We next propose a series of questions for future research and suggest that examining food selection as a social phenomenon can shed light on mechanisms underlying children's learning from others and provide ideas for promoting healthy social relationships and eating behaviors early in development.

  14. Case based learning: a method for better understanding of biochemistry in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Sandhya Pillai; Shah, Trushna; Seth, Shruti; Pandit, Niraj; Shah, G V

    2013-08-01

    Health professionals need to develop analytic and diagnostic thinking skills and not just a mere accumulation of large amount of facts. Hence, Case Based Learning (CBL) has been used in the medical curriculum for this reason, so that the students are exposed to the real medical problems, which helps them in develop analysing abilities. This also helps them in interpreting and solving the problems and in the course of doing this, they develop interest. In addition to didactic lectures, CBL was used as a learning method. This study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry, S.B.K.S.M.I and R.C, Sumandeep Vidyapeeth ,Piparia, Gujarat, India. A group of 100 students were selected and they were divided into two groups as the control group and the study group. A total of 50 students were introduced to case based learning, which formed the study group and 50 students who attended didactic lectures formed the control group. A very significant improvement (pmedical curriculum for a better understanding of Biochemistry among the medical students.

  15. Understanding E-Learning Adoption in Brazil: Major Determinants and Gender Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shintaro Okazaki

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to examine factors influencing e-learning adoption and the moderating role of gender. This study extends the technology acceptance model (TAM by adding attitude and social interaction. The new construct of social interaction is applied to the South American context. Gender effects on e-learning adoption from educators’ perspectives have seldom been explored. The data collection takes place in three major Brazilian universities. In total, 446 faculty members responded to the questionnaire. Our structural equation modeling reveals that ease of use and perceived usefulness are significant antecedents of attitude, which in turn affects intention. However, unlike the original TAM, perceived usefulness is not a direct driver of intention. In terms of moderation, gender affects three relationships: (1 ease of use –› perceived usefulness; (2 perceived usefulness –› attitude, and (3 intention –› actual behavior. The analysis is carried out in a single country; thus, caution should be taken in generalization of the results. The findings will help academics, educators, and policy makers to better understand the mechanism of e-learning adoption in Brazil.

  16. Nuclear Security Summit and Workshop 2015: Preventing, Understanding and Recovering from Nuclear Accidents lessons learned from Chernobyl and Fukushima

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Workshop 2015 "Preventing, Understanding and Recovering from Nuclear Accidents"--lessons learned from Chernobyl and Fukushima Distribution Statement...by the factor to get the U.S. customary unit. “Preventing, Understanding and Recovering from Nuclear Accidents” – lessons learned from Chernobyl ...and Fukushima NUCLEAR SECURITY SUMMIT & WORKSHOP 2015 2 Background The 1986 Chernobyl and the 2011 Fukushima accidents provoked world-wide concern

  17. Understanding the long-term influence of EIA on organisational learning and transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Megan, E-mail: 31836179@student.murdoch.edu.au [Environmental and Conservation Sciences, Murdoch University (Australia); Morrison-Saunders, Angus, E-mail: a.morrison-saunders@murdoch.edu.au [Environmental and Conservation Sciences, Murdoch University, Australia, Research Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University (South Africa)

    2017-05-15

    This research is an attempt to verify the notion postulated by Robert Bartlett and Lynton Caldwell that the full benefits of environmental impact assessment (EIA) would take decades to be realized. While EIA is intended to directly influence decision-making regarding new development proposals, the process is also expected to lead to organisational learning and transformation over time. Our aim was to examine the influence of EIA on a single Western Australian proponent with sustained experience in the process to understand how EIA is used within the organisation and to seek evidence of transformation of the organisation's purpose and mission. The research reviewed literature in order to identify key influences of EIA on organisations, along with semi-structured staff interviews and document analysis for the case study organisation. Ascertaining causality that involvement in EIA processes influences or effects organisational learning and transformation is a challenge in the face of other societal events. Document analysis and interviewee data indicates that the action-forcing nature of EIA did influence proponent behavior through the creation of internal processes seeking to ensure robust design of new projects that would satisfy environmental protection expectations, without the need to trigger formal EIA. Evidence of EIA values and thinking were apparent within internal documentation, including the evolving mission statement. Our research indicates that participation in the EIA process can positively influence organisational learning and transformation by guiding internal change for decision-making. - Highlights: • The long-term influence of EIA on a proponent organisation is investigated. • EIA promotes internal organisational learning and transformation. • Analysis of mission statements can indicate the influence of EIA on organisations. • Organisations aligned with EIA values can reduce the need to engage in formal EIA.

  18. Understanding the long-term influence of EIA on organisational learning and transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Megan; Morrison-Saunders, Angus

    2017-01-01

    This research is an attempt to verify the notion postulated by Robert Bartlett and Lynton Caldwell that the full benefits of environmental impact assessment (EIA) would take decades to be realized. While EIA is intended to directly influence decision-making regarding new development proposals, the process is also expected to lead to organisational learning and transformation over time. Our aim was to examine the influence of EIA on a single Western Australian proponent with sustained experience in the process to understand how EIA is used within the organisation and to seek evidence of transformation of the organisation's purpose and mission. The research reviewed literature in order to identify key influences of EIA on organisations, along with semi-structured staff interviews and document analysis for the case study organisation. Ascertaining causality that involvement in EIA processes influences or effects organisational learning and transformation is a challenge in the face of other societal events. Document analysis and interviewee data indicates that the action-forcing nature of EIA did influence proponent behavior through the creation of internal processes seeking to ensure robust design of new projects that would satisfy environmental protection expectations, without the need to trigger formal EIA. Evidence of EIA values and thinking were apparent within internal documentation, including the evolving mission statement. Our research indicates that participation in the EIA process can positively influence organisational learning and transformation by guiding internal change for decision-making. - Highlights: • The long-term influence of EIA on a proponent organisation is investigated. • EIA promotes internal organisational learning and transformation. • Analysis of mission statements can indicate the influence of EIA on organisations. • Organisations aligned with EIA values can reduce the need to engage in formal EIA.

  19. I Listen and I Believe, I See and I Understand: A Collective Reflection Approach to Understanding Children's Learning Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    The project on which this report is based set out to establish how exploring children's musicality might encourage adults to consider their engagement with the musical play and learning of children under the age of five. Through reflection and evaluation the participants became aware that they were challenging their own teaching style in response…

  20. Understanding the Behavioral Intention to Play Austronesian Learning Games: From the Perspectives of Learning Outcome, Service Quality, and Hedonic Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Kuo-Lun; Huang, Tien-Chi; Chen, Mu-Yen; Chiang, Nien-Ting

    2018-01-01

    Although ubiquitous learning is a novel and creative teaching approach, two key issues inhibit its success overall: a lack of appropriate learning strategies regarding learning objectives, and ineffective learning tools for receiving knowledge regarding the chosen subjects. To address these issues, we develops and designs a game-based educational…

  1. Self-Regulated Learning in the Museum: Understanding the Relationship of Visitor's Goals, Learning Strategies, and Appraisals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ji; Urhahne, Detlef

    2017-01-01

    Self-regulated learning (SRL) in the museum was explored by 2 investigations. The first one investigated 233 visitors on their goals and intended learning strategies by questionnaire before they visited the science museum. Results indicated visitors' learning goals can predict their intended deep-learning strategy. Moreover, visitors can be…

  2. Understanding adult neurogenesis beyond its role in learning and memory formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ab Latif Wani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available There has been a shift in the understanding of brain, neurons, and their functional role over the last two decades. Earlier it was believed that the brain was a static organ and was not subject to any change throughout life. An understanding was developed later that brain reorganizes its structure by a specific property called neuroplasticity. Recent research shows that the brain generates new neurons even in the adult stage, and this process is called adult neurogenesis. Although researchers still not have all the answers about the newborn neurons, and why and how they are generated, and what is their role, some have highlighted the importance of these in learning and memory formation, and even in memories of fear and spatial navigation. A wide range of environmental experience influences the generation of newborn neurons and their functional variability. There are questions about how different environmental experiences cause the differences in the generation of new neurons. Recently the field of optogenetics attempted to answer the questions on adult neurogenesis. However there are still questions about adult neurogenesis which needs a more naturalistic approach, for their better understanding.

  3. Fostering Cross-Cultural Understanding Through E-Learning: Russian-American Forum Case-Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina V. Talalakina

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract— The importance of cross-cultural understanding is accelerated nowadays by globalization and joint efforts of different countries in the face of global challenges. Countries’ educational systems display attempts to incorporate cross-cultural studies in their curricula across all stages of formal learning. Many higher education institutions offer special courses aimed at promoting cross-cultural studies. One of the tools used to facilitate the process is e-learning. The present article examines the case study of an internet-based collaboration between two higher education institutions – State University Higher School of Economics in Russia and Champlain College in the USA – in fostering cross-cultural understanding. The project is based on the study of individualistic and collectivistic values within the framework of two corresponding courses studied at both institutions. The topicality of the study is determined by the growing importance of the cooperation of two countries on the international affairs arena, on the one hand, and the fundamental differences of the countries’ underlying value system, on the other. In particular, a post-soviet Russia is generally viewed as a developing democracy representing the collectivistic end of the value spectrum, whereas the USA is considered as an extreme case of individualistic value system. The comparison and contrast of the two systems conducted simultaneously by the representatives of both cultures (students of the two universities within a specifically built internet forum comprises the base of the project. The case study covers the project’s objectives, its background, the rationale behind its content choice, the design of the e-learning tool, the profile of the participants of the project, its implementation stages and its outcome. The major findings of the case study deal with the process of building cross-cultural awareness, reinforcing students’ analytical skills and

  4. VOCAL SEGMENT CLASSIFICATION IN POPULAR MUSIC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ling; Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the vocal and non-vocal music classification problem within popular songs. A newly built labeled database covering 147 popular songs is announced. It is designed for classifying signals from 1sec time windows. Features are selected for this particular task, in order to capture...

  5. Final Syllable Lengthening (FSL) in Infant Vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathani, Suneeti; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Cobo-Lewis, Alan B.

    2003-01-01

    Sought to verify research findings that suggest there may be a U-shaped developmental trajectory for final syllable lengthening (FSL). Attempted to determine whether vocal maturity and deafness influence FSL . Eight normally hearing infants and eight deaf infants were examined at three levels of prelinguistic vocal development. (Author/VWL)

  6. Vocal communication in an avian hybrid zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, Paula Maria den

    2008-01-01

    Avian vocalizations function in mate attraction and territorial defence. Vocalizations can act as behavioural barriers and play an important role in speciation processes. Hybrid zones illustrate behavioural barriers are not always impermeable and provide a natural laboratory to examine the role of

  7. "Bigger Number Means You Plus!"--Teachers Learning to Use Clinical Interviews to Understand Students' Mathematical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Mary Anne; Sudarshan, Akhila

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the perceptions and understandings of ten grades 1 and 2 Singapore mathematics teachers as they learned to use clinical interviews (Ginsburg, "Human Development" 52:109-128, 2009) to understand students' mathematical thinking. This study challenged teachers' pedagogical assumptions about what it means to teach for…

  8. Collaborative Learning in Two Vocal Conservatoire Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumiantsev, Tamara W.; Maas, Annemarie; Admiraal, Wilfried

    2017-01-01

    The apprenticeship tradition in conservatoire education assumes that teachers' expertise is the main source for the development of future music professionals. However, the professional practice of vocalists is nearly completely based on collaboration, such as with other vocalists, instrumentalists, accompanists, orchestras, conductors, or stage…

  9. Reinke Edema: Watch For Vocal Fold Cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüzüner, Arzu; Demirci, Sule; Yavanoglu, Ahmet; Kurkcuoglu, Melih; Arslan, Necmi

    2015-06-01

    Reinke edema is one of the common cause of dysphonia middle-aged population, and severe thickening of vocal folds require surgical treatment. Smoking plays a major role on etiology. Vocal fold cysts are also benign lesions and vocal trauma blamed for acquired cysts. We would like to present 3 cases with vocal fold cyst related with Reinke edema. First case had a subepidermal epidermoid cyst with Reinke edema, which could be easily observed before surgery during laryngostroboscopy. Second case had a mucous retention cyst into the edematous Reinke tissue, which was detected during surgical intervention, and third case had a epidermoid cyst that occurred 2 months after before microlaryngeal operation regarding Reinke edema reduction. These 3 cases revealed that surgical management of Reinke edema needs a careful dissection and close follow-up after surgery for presence of vocal fold cysts.

  10. [Clinical analysis of vocal fold firbrous mass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Sun, Jing Wu; Wan, Guang Lun; Hu, Yan Ming

    2018-03-01

    To explore the character of laryngoscopy finding, voice, and therapy of vocal fold fibrous mass. Clinical data, morphology, voice character, surgery and pathology of 15 cases with vocal fold fibrous mass were analyzed. The morbidity of vocal fold fibrous mass might be related to overuse of voice and laryngopharyngeal reflex. Laryngoscopy revealed shuttle line appearance, smoothness and decreased mucosal wave of vocal fold. These patients were invalid for voice training and might be improved by surgery, but recovery is slow. The morbidity of vocal fold fibrous mass might be related to overuse of voice and laryngopharyngeal reflex. Conservative treatment is ineffective for this disease, and surgery might improve. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery.

  11. Sarcoidosis Presenting as Bilateral Vocal Fold Immobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Justin M; Gnagi, Sharon H; Lott, David G

    2018-05-01

    Bilateral true vocal fold paralysis is rarely attributable to inflammatory diseases. Sarcoidosis is a rare but important etiology of bilateral true vocal fold paralysis by compressive lymphadenopathy, granulomatous infiltration, and neural involvement. We describe the first reported case of sarcoidosis presenting as bilateral vocal fold immobility caused by direct fixation by granulomatous infiltration severe enough to necessitate tracheostomy insertion. In addition, we discuss the presentation, the pathophysiology, and the treatment of this disease with a review of the literature of previously reported cases of sarcoidosis-related vocal fold immobility. Sarcoidosis should therefore be an important consideration for the otolaryngologist's differential diagnosis of true vocal fold immobility. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Microvascular lesions of the true vocal fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, G N; Courey, M S; Ossoff, R H

    1998-06-01

    Microvascular lesions, also called varices or capillary ectasias, in contrast to vocal fold polyps with telangiectatic vessels, are relatively small lesions arising from the microcirculation of the vocal fold. Varices are most commonly seen in female professional vocalists and may be secondary to repetitive trauma, hormonal variations, or repeated inflammation. Microvascular lesions may either be asymptomatic or cause frank dysphonia by interrupting the normal vibratory pattern, mass, or closure of the vocal folds. They may also lead to vocal fold hemorrhage, scarring, or polyp formation. Laryngovideostroboscopy is the key in determining the functional significance of vocal fold varices. Management of patients with a varix includes medical therapy, speech therapy, and occasionally surgical vaporization. Indications for surgery are recurrent hemorrhage, enlargement of the varix, development of a mass in conjunction with the varix or hemorrhage, and unacceptable dysphonia after maximal medical and speech therapy due to a functionally significant varix.

  13. Child vocalization composition as discriminant information for automatic autism detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dongxin; Gilkerson, Jill; Richards, Jeffrey; Yapanel, Umit; Gray, Sharmi

    2009-01-01

    Early identification is crucial for young children with autism to access early intervention. The existing screens require either a parent-report questionnaire and/or direct observation by a trained practitioner. Although an automatic tool would benefit parents, clinicians and children, there is no automatic screening tool in clinical use. This study reports a fully automatic mechanism for autism detection/screening for young children. This is a direct extension of the LENA (Language ENvironment Analysis) system, which utilizes speech signal processing technology to analyze and monitor a child's natural language environment and the vocalizations/speech of the child. It is discovered that child vocalization composition contains rich discriminant information for autism detection. By applying pattern recognition and machine learning approaches to child vocalization composition data, accuracy rates of 85% to 90% in cross-validation tests for autism detection have been achieved at the equal-error-rate (EER) point on a data set with 34 children with autism, 30 language delayed children and 76 typically developing children. Due to its easy and automatic procedure, it is believed that this new tool can serve a significant role in childhood autism screening, especially in regards to population-based or universal screening.

  14. Can achievement emotions be used to better understand motivation, learning, and performance in medical education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artino, Anthony R; Holmboe, Eric S; Durning, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we consider an emergent theory of human emotion. The overarching purpose of the article is to introduce medical education researchers to the notion of achievement emotions and provide a brief overview of how this work can inform the theory, research, and practice of medical education. First, we define achievement emotions and describe one of the leading contemporary theories of achievement emotions, control-value theory (Pekrun R. 2006. The control-value theory of achievement emotions: Assumptions, corollaries, and implications for educational research and practice. Educ Psychol Rev 18:315-341.). Next, we distinguish between different types of achievement emotions, their proximal causes, and their consequences for motivation, learning, and performance, and we discuss several implications for educational practice. Finally, we end with a call for more research on achievement emotions in medical education to facilitate our understanding of emotions and their impact on important educational outcomes.

  15. Understanding Organizational Learning via Knowledge Management in Government-Link Companies in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmi, Asleena; Ahmad, Zainal Ariffin; Hung, Daisy Kee Mui

    The knowledge management or KM discipline conjures a host of understanding and impact upon the global business community albeit commercially or socially. Regardless of the different approach to KM, it has inarguably brought about changes in viewing the knowledge capabilities and capacities of organizations. Peter Drucker (1998) argued that knowledge has become the key economic resource and the only source of competitive advantage. Hence organizational learning is an integral part of KM initiatives and has been widely practiced in many large organizations and across nations such as Europe, North America and Asia Pacific. Thus, this paper explores the KM initiatives of government link companies (GLCs) in Malaysia via synergizing knowledge strategy and capabilities in order to achieve competitive advantage.

  16. Clinical practice guidelines as learned treatises: understanding their use as evidence in the courtroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recupero, Patricia R

    2008-01-01

    It is important for forensic experts to understand how clinical practice guidelines may enter the courtroom, what role they may play in a trial, and how they relate to expert testimony. Guidelines enter the record in several different ways and in several types of cases, typically with the assistance of an expert witness. A common vehicle for their introduction is the learned-treatise exception to the hearsay rule. Case law before and after Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc. helps to elucidate the scrutiny that courts may direct toward medical texts proffered as evidence. This article discusses the implications of different rules and relevant case law for the forensic psychiatrist. The discussion notes important considerations for the expert witness, such as how guidelines may affect the expert's role, concerns about the reliability and relevance of scientific evidence, and questions about whether guidelines will be used for inculpatory or exculpatory purposes in medical malpractice trials.

  17. Understanding psychiatric disorder by capturing ecologically relevant features of learning and decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Jacqueline; Klein-Flügge, Miriam

    2017-09-28

    Recent research in cognitive neuroscience has begun to uncover the processes underlying increasingly complex voluntary behaviours, including learning and decision-making. Partly this success has been possible by progressing from simple experimental tasks to paradigms that incorporate more ecological features. More specifically, the premise is that to understand cognitions and brain functions relevant for real life, we need to introduce some of the ecological challenges that we have evolved to solve. This often entails an increase in task complexity, which can be managed by using computational models to help parse complex behaviours into specific component mechanisms. Here we propose that using computational models with tasks that capture ecologically relevant learning and decision-making processes may provide a critical advantage for capturing the mechanisms underlying symptoms of disorders in psychiatry. As a result, it may help develop mechanistic approaches towards diagnosis and treatment. We begin this review by mapping out the basic concepts and models of learning and decision-making. We then move on to consider specific challenges that emerge in realistic environments and describe how they can be captured by tasks. These include changes of context, uncertainty, reflexive/emotional biases, cost-benefit decision-making, and balancing exploration and exploitation. Where appropriate we highlight future or current links to psychiatry. We particularly draw examples from research on clinical depression, a disorder that greatly compromises motivated behaviours in real-life, but where simpler paradigms have yielded mixed results. Finally, we highlight several paradigms that could be used to help provide new insights into the mechanisms of psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Competences and learning outcomes: a panacea for understanding the (new role of Higher Education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Wagenaar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The competence and learning outcomes approach, which intends to improve effective performance of academic staff and students, is becoming dominant in today’s higher education. This was quite different 15 years ago. This contribution aims to offer insight in the reforms initiated and implemented, by posing and answering the questions why the time was appropriate — by identifying and analysing the underlying conditions — and in what way the change was shaped — by focusing on terminology required and approaches developed. Central here is the role the Tuning project — launched in 2000-2001 — played in this respect. The contribution starts with contextualising the situation in the 1990s: the recession and growing unemployment in many European countries on the one hand and the development of a global society and the challenges the higher educational sector faced at the other. It offers the background for initiating the Tuning project, and the discourse on which its approach is based. In particular, attention is given to choosing the concept of competences, distinguishing subject specific and general/generic ones, as an integrating approach of knowledge, understanding, skills, abilities and attitudes. The approach should serve as a means of integrating a number of main goals as part of the learning and teaching process: strengthening employability and preparing for citizenship besides personal development of the student as a basis for the required educational reform. Tuning’s unique contribution is the alignment of this concept to learning outcomes statements as indicators of competence development and achievement and by relating both concepts to profiling of educational programmes.

  19. Understanding ill-structured engineering ethics problems through a collaborative learning and argument visualization approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Michael; Borenstein, Jason

    2014-03-01

    As a committee of the National Academy of Engineering recognized, ethics education should foster the ability of students to analyze complex decision situations and ill-structured problems. Building on the NAE's insights, we report about an innovative teaching approach that has two main features: first, it places the emphasis on deliberation and on self-directed, problem-based learning in small groups of students; and second, it focuses on understanding ill-structured problems. The first innovation is motivated by an abundance of scholarly research that supports the value of deliberative learning practices. The second results from a critique of the traditional case-study approach in engineering ethics. A key problem with standard cases is that they are usually described in such a fashion that renders the ethical problem as being too obvious and simplistic. The practitioner, by contrast, may face problems that are ill-structured. In the collaborative learning environment described here, groups of students use interactive and web-based argument visualization software called "AGORA-net: Participate - Deliberate!". The function of the software is to structure communication and problem solving in small groups. Students are confronted with the task of identifying possible stakeholder positions and reconstructing their legitimacy by constructing justifications for these positions in the form of graphically represented argument maps. The argument maps are then presented in class so that these stakeholder positions and their respective justifications become visible and can be brought into a reasoned dialogue. Argument mapping provides an opportunity for students to collaborate in teams and to develop critical thinking and argumentation skills.

  20. Vocal acoustic analysis as a biometric indicator of information processing: implications for neurological and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alex S; Dinzeo, Thomas J; Donovan, Neila J; Brown, Caitlin E; Morrison, Sean C

    2015-03-30

    Vocal expression reflects an integral component of communication that varies considerably within individuals across contexts and is disrupted in a range of neurological and psychiatric disorders. There is reason to suspect that variability in vocal expression reflects, in part, the availability of "on-line" resources (e.g., working memory, attention). Thus, understanding vocal expression is a potentially important biometric index of information processing, not only across but within individuals over time. A first step in this line of research involves establishing a link between vocal expression and information processing systems in healthy adults. The present study employed a dual attention experimental task where participants provided natural speech while simultaneously engaged in a baseline, medium or high nonverbal processing-load task. Objective, automated, and computerized analysis was employed to measure vocal expression in 226 adults. Increased processing load resulted in longer pauses, fewer utterances, greater silence overall and less variability in frequency and intensity levels. These results provide compelling evidence of a link between information processing resources and vocal expression, and provide important information for the development of an automated, inexpensive and uninvasive biometric measure of information processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Three-Dimensional Flow Separation Induced by a Model Vocal Fold Polyp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Kelley C.; Erath, Byron D.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2012-11-01

    The fluid-structure energy exchange process for normal speech has been studied extensively, but it is not well understood for pathological conditions. Polyps and nodules, which are geometric abnormalities that form on the medial surface of the vocal folds, can disrupt vocal fold dynamics and thus can have devastating consequences on a patient's ability to communicate. A recent in-vitro investigation of a model polyp in a driven vocal fold apparatus demonstrated that such a geometric abnormality considerably disrupts the glottal jet behavior and that this flow field adjustment was a likely reason for the severe degradation of the vocal quality in patients. Understanding of the formation and propagation of vortical structures from a geometric protuberance, and their subsequent impact on the aerodynamic loadings that drive vocal fold dynamic, is a critical component in advancing the treatment of this pathological condition. The present investigation concerns the three-dimensional flow separation induced by a wall-mounted prolate hemispheroid with a 2:1 aspect ratio in cross flow, i.e. a model vocal fold polyp. Unsteady three-dimensional flow separation and its impact of the wall pressure loading are examined using skin friction line visualization and wall pressure measurements. Supported by the National Science Foundation, Grant No. CBET-1236351 and GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering (COBRE).

  2. Vocal health fitness to different music styles - doi:10.5020/18061230.2010.p278

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Claudia Mendes Caminha Muniz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present genres and styles currently running on western music scene, focusing on the practice of singing voice. Methods: An observational and documental study for which were selected sound sources presenting musical genres and styles that are part of the experience of the researchers, which were analyzed considering origins, formative elements and vocal features. Alongside we carried out a review of literature grounded in databases research and free review of websites and classical books of the area. Results: The selected styles (Rock and Roll, Heavy Metal, Trash Metal, Grunge, Gothic Metal, Rap, Funk, Blues, R&B – Rhythm and Blues, Soul, Gospel, MPB, Samba, Forro, Sertanejo, Bossa Nova, Opera and Chamber Music were described, pointing the reasons for the speech therapist to be informed about them and about singing voice aspects. His guidance may minimize possible vocal damage caused by each style, since each of them carries its own patterns to which the interpreter must submit. Conclusions: We conclude that the singer will use a specific vocal pattern that resembles the musical style he intends to sing, regardless of any harm it may or may not cause to vocal health. When choosing a musical style, it is important that the singer has the knowledge and understanding of how the use of his vocal apparatus will cause or not cause injury to his voice. Also be aware that the technique in singing is necessary for vocal longevity.

  3. Vocal Fold Immobility due to Birth Trauma: A Systematic Review and Pooled Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, Jad; North, Lauren M; Bougie, David; Robey, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    Objectives To describe the present understanding of birth trauma-related vocal fold immobility and quantitatively compare it with idiopathic congenital vocal fold immobility to explore whether it is a discrete entity. Data Sources PubMed, Ovid, and Cochrane databases. Review Methods English-language, observational, or experimental studies involving infants with idiopathic congenital or birth trauma-related vocal fold immobility were included. Data from these studies were pooled with our institution's vocal fold immobility database, with the resultant idiopathic congenital and birth trauma cohorts compared regarding patterns and outcomes of immobility. Results The search returned 288 articles, with 24 meeting inclusion criteria. Of studies reviewing all-cause immobility, 8 of 9 (88.9%) identified birth trauma as an etiology, although birth trauma definitions and proposed mechanisms of immobility varied. The study subjects, combined with our institution's database, yielded 188 idiopathic congenital and 113 birth trauma cases. Compared with idiopathic congenital cases, birth trauma cases had a higher proportion of unilateral immobility (72 of 113 [63.7%] vs 52 of 188 [27.7%], P vocal fold immobility warrant further investigation, these findings suggest that it is distinct from idiopathic congenital vocal fold immobility, with a unique presentation and potentially more favorable outcomes. This can inform counseling and management for infants with otherwise unexplained immobility but known birth trauma.

  4. Can vocal conditioning trigger a semiotic ratchet in marmosets?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjalmar Kosmos Turesson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of human communication has often been taken as evidence that our language reflects a true evolutionary leap, bearing little resemblance to any other animal communication system. The putative uniqueness of the human language poses serious evolutionary and ethological challenges to a rational explanation of human communication. Here we review ethological, anatomical, molecular and computational results across several species to set boundaries for these challenges. Results from animal behavior, cognitive psychology, neurobiology, and semiotics indicate that human language shares multiple features with other primate communication systems, such as specialized brain circuits for sensorimotor processing, the capability for indexical (pointing and symbolic (referential signaling, the importance of shared intentionality for associative learning, affective conditioning and parental scaffolding of vocal production. The most substantial differences lie in the higher human capacity for symbolic compositionality, fast vertical transmission of new symbols across generations, and irreversible accumulation of novel adaptive behaviors (cultural ratchet. We hypothesize that increasingly-complex vocal conditioning of an appropriate animal model may be sufficient to trigger a semiotic ratchet, evidenced by progressive sign complexification, as spontaneous contact calls become indexes, then symbols and finally arguments (strings of symbols. To test this hypothesis, we outline a series of conditioning experiments in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus. The experiments are designed to probe the limits of vocal communication in a prosocial, highly vocal primate 35 million years far from the human lineage, so as to shed light on the mechanisms of semiotic complexification and cultural transmission, and serve as a naturalistic behavioral setting for the investigation of language disorders.

  5. Can vocal conditioning trigger a semiotic ratchet in marmosets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turesson, Hjalmar K; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2015-01-01

    The complexity of human communication has often been taken as evidence that our language reflects a true evolutionary leap, bearing little resemblance to any other animal communication system. The putative uniqueness of the human language poses serious evolutionary and ethological challenges to a rational explanation of human communication. Here we review ethological, anatomical, molecular, and computational results across several species to set boundaries for these challenges. Results from animal behavior, cognitive psychology, neurobiology, and semiotics indicate that human language shares multiple features with other primate communication systems, such as specialized brain circuits for sensorimotor processing, the capability for indexical (pointing) and symbolic (referential) signaling, the importance of shared intentionality for associative learning, affective conditioning and parental scaffolding of vocal production. The most substantial differences lie in the higher human capacity for symbolic compositionality, fast vertical transmission of new symbols across generations, and irreversible accumulation of novel adaptive behaviors (cultural ratchet). We hypothesize that increasingly-complex vocal conditioning of an appropriate animal model may be sufficient to trigger a semiotic ratchet, evidenced by progressive sign complexification, as spontaneous contact calls become indexes, then symbols and finally arguments (strings of symbols). To test this hypothesis, we outline a series of conditioning experiments in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). The experiments are designed to probe the limits of vocal communication in a prosocial, highly vocal primate 35 million years far from the human lineage, so as to shed light on the mechanisms of semiotic complexification and cultural transmission, and serve as a naturalistic behavioral setting for the investigation of language disorders.

  6. Multidimensional effects of voice therapy in patients affected by unilateral vocal fold paralysis due to cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Camila Barbosa; Silveira, Paula Angélica Lorenzon; Guedes, Renata Lígia Vieira; Gonçalves, Aline Nogueira; Slobodticov, Luciana Dall'Agnol Siqueira; Angelis, Elisabete Carrara-de

    2017-08-24

    Patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis may demonstrate different degrees of voice perturbation depending on the position of the paralyzed vocal fold. Understanding the effectiveness of voice therapy in this population may be an important coefficient to define the therapeutic approach. To evaluate the voice therapy effectiveness in the short, medium and long-term in patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis and determine the risk factors for voice rehabilitation failure. Prospective study with 61 patients affected by unilateral vocal fold paralysis enrolled. Each subject had voice therapy with an experienced speech pathologist twice a week. A multidimensional assessment protocol was used pre-treatment and in three different times after voice treatment initiation: short-term (1-3 months), medium-term (4-6 months) and long-term (12 months); it included videoendoscopy, maximum phonation time, GRBASI scale, acoustic voice analysis and the portuguese version of the voice handicap index. Multiple comparisons for GRBASI scale and VHI revealed statistically significant differences, except between medium and long term (pvocal improvement over time with stabilization results after 6 months (medium term). From the 28 patients with permanent unilateral vocal fold paralysis, 18 (69.2%) reached complete glottal closure following vocal therapy (p=0.001). The logistic regression method indicated that the Jitter entered the final model as a risk factor for partial improvement. For every unit of increased jitter, there was an increase of 0.1% (1.001) of the chance for partial improvement, which means an increase on no full improvement chance during rehabilitation. Vocal rehabilitation improves perceptual and acoustic voice parameters and voice handicap index, besides favor glottal closure in patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis. The results were also permanent during the period of 1 year. The Jitter value, when elevated, is a risk factor for the voice therapy

  7. STUDENT-CENTERED LEARNING AND CROSS CULTURAL UNDERSTANDING IN LEARNING INTODUCTION TO LITERATURE TO IMPROVE THE STUDENTS MORALITY AND MULTICULTURAL VALUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siminto Siminto

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Previously the paradigm change was done from the teacher centered to the student centered in teaching learning process. It was expected to be able to encourage the students to be involved in building their knowledge, attitude, and character. Besides that, English learners did not understand about the native culture and morality values to the language that they are learning. Cross cultural understanding knowledge is very useful to improve the students‘ ability in recognizing the dissimilarity culture and live together in the middle of the dissimilarity culture. This research was based on the qualitative research principle. The research type used was qualitative study by using action research design. Subject of this research was the fourth semester students who have programmed Introduction to Literature in English Study Program at Palangkaraya State Islamic Institute in academic year 2014/2015, consisted of two learning group. Based on the research findings, by implementing of student-centered learning and cross cultural understanding, it showed that they can increase: (1 the students‘ readiness, being active, seriousness in analyzing English literature text; (2 the students‘ performance in doing of tasks given to each students to be able to share their understanding about English literature text to the other students; (3 the students‘ learning quality, academic achievement, interest, response in learning of Introduction to Literature related to literature text analysis concept mastering; (4 the students‘ morality and multicultural values. It could be seen from the students‘ study result, literature text analysis result, and the students‘ character.

  8. The Effect of Constructivist Learning Using Scientific Approach on Mathematical Power and Conceptual Understanding of Students Grade IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusmaryono, Imam; Suyitno, Hardi

    2016-02-01

    This study used a model of Concurrent Embedded with the aim of: (1) determine the difference between the conceptual understanding and mathematical power of students grade fourth who take the constructivist learning using scientific approach and direct learning, (2) determine the interaction between learning approaches and initial competence on the mathematical power and conceptual of understanding, and (3) describe the mathematical power of students grade fourth. This research was conducted in the fourth grade elementary school early 2015. Data initial competence and mathematical power obtained through tests, and analyzed using statistical tests multivariate and univariate. Statistical analysis of the results showed that: (1) There are differences in the concept of understanding and mathematical power among the students who follow the scientifically-based constructivist learning than students who take the Direct Learning in terms of students initial competency (F = 5.550; p = 0.007 problem solving and contributes tremendous increase students' math skills. Researcher suggested that the learning of mathematics in schools using scientifically- based constructivist approach to improve the mathematical power of students and conceptual understanding.

  9. Understanding digital natives' learning experiences Conhecendo as experiências de aprendizagem de nativos digitais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio de Paiva Franco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide a better understanding of digital natives' perspectives on English learning. The present case study analyzes data from a group of Brazilian learners of English who study at a federal, public high school in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data collection includes: (a a questionnaire to examine the profile of the participants and (b learner narratives. This study privileges an interpretive approach based on Complexity Theory in an attempt to understand participants' learning experiences from a more holistic, whole-systems approach. Results indicate that the complex adaptive learning system of digital natives is self-organizing and chaotic. Moreover, the final remarks stress a pressing concern regarding English teaching in Brazil and suggest that the current pedagogical practices no longer serve the needs of the digital generation.Este trabalho tem por objetivo fornecer uma melhor compreensão das perspectivas de nativos digitais sobre a aprendizagem de inglês. O presente estudo de caso analisa dados de um grupo de aprendizes brasileiros de inglês que estudam em uma escola federal de Ensino Médio, localizada no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. A coleta de dados é feita por meio de (a um questionário para traçar o perfil dos participantes, e (b as narrativas dos alunos. Este estudo privilegia uma abordagem interpretativa com base na teoria da complexidade, de modo a tentar entender as experiências de aprendizagem dos participantes a partir de uma forma mais holística, de sistemas. Os resultados indicam que o sistema adaptativo complexo de aprendizagem de nativos digitais é auto-organizante e caótico. Além disso, as considerações finais destacam uma preocupação séria com o ensino de inglês no Brasil e sugerem que as atuais práticas pedagógicas já não atendem às necessidades da geração digital.

  10. Oral and vocal fold diadochokinesis in dysphonic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Louzada

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of oral and vocal fold diadochokinesis (DDK in individuals with voice disorders may contribute to the understanding of factors that affect the balanced vocal production. Scientific studies that make use of this assessment tool support the knowledge advance of this area, reflecting the development of more appropriate therapeutic planning. Objective: To compare the results of oral and vocal fold DDK in dysphonic women and in women without vocal disorders. Material and methods: For this study, 28 voice recordings of women from 19 to 54 years old, diagnosed with dysphonia and submitted to a voice assessment from speech pathologist and otorhinolaryngologist, were used. The control group included 30 nondysphonic women evaluated in prior research from normal adults. The analysis parameters like number and duration of emissions, as well as the regularity of the repetition of syllables "pa", "ta", "ka" and the vowels "a" and "i," were provided by the Advanced Motor Speech Profile program (MSP Model-5141, version-2.5.2 (KayPentax. The DDK sequence "pataka" was analyzed quantitatively through the Sound Forge 7.0 program, as well as manually with the audio-visual help of sound waves. Average values of oral and vocal fold DDK dysphonic and nondysphonic women were compared using the "t Student" test and were considered significant when p<0.05. Results: The findings showed no significant differences between populations; however, the coefficient of variation of period (CvP and jitter of period (JittP average of the "ka," "a" and "i" emissions, respectively, were higher in dysphonic women (CvP=10.42%, 12.79%, 12.05%; JittP=2.05%, 6.05%, 3.63% compared to the control group (CvP=8.86%; 10.95%, 11.20%; JittP=1.82%, 2.98%, 3.15%. Conclusion: Although the results do not indicate any difficulties in oral and laryngeal motor control in the dysphonic group, the largest instability in vocal fold DDK in the experimental group should be considered, and

  11. The Risk of Vocal Fold Atrophy after Serial Corticosteroid Injections of the Vocal Fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lucy L; Giraldez-Rodriguez, Laureano A; Johns, Michael M

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to illustrate the risk of vocal fold atrophy in patients who receive serial subepithelial steroid injections for vocal fold scar. This study is a retrospective case report of two patients who underwent a series of weekly subepithelial infusions of 10 mg/mL dexamethasone for benign vocal fold lesion. Shortly after the procedures, both patients developed a weak and breathy voice. The first patient was a 53-year-old man with radiation-induced vocal fold stiffness. Six injections were performed unilaterally, and 1 week later, he developed unilateral vocal fold atrophy with new glottal insufficiency. The second patient was a 67-year-old woman with severe vocal fold inflammation related to laryngitis and calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophagean dysmotility, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia (CREST) syndrome. Five injections were performed bilaterally, and 1 week later, she developed bilateral vocal fold atrophy with a large midline glottal gap during phonation. In both cases, the steroid-induced vocal atrophy resolved spontaneously after 4 months. Serial subepithelial steroid infusions of the vocal folds, although safe in the majority of patients, carry the risk of causing temporary vocal fold atrophy when given at short intervals. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 对格里埃尔《声乐协奏曲》的两种演唱诠释---吴碧霞与德赛演唱的《声乐协奏曲》之比较%Interpretation of Two Types of Singing Performance of Gliere's"Vocal Concerto":A Comparison of"Vocal Con-certo"Sung by Wu Bixia and Natalie Dessay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳

    2015-01-01

    吴碧霞被誉为“中西合璧”的夜莺,无论在美声唱法还是民族唱法领域都有一定的造诣,演唱的歌曲都有丰富的表现力与感染力。纳塔利·德赛同样也被誉为20世纪末的“声音奇迹”,两个来自不同国度的歌唱家在演绎这首《声乐协奏曲》时,也有着不同的演唱风格与音响效果。通过对吴碧霞与德赛演唱的这首《声乐协奏曲》的比较分析,让我们更加清楚地认识到我国声乐发展的前景,并对两种风格的演唱进行文化的理解与思考。%Wu Bixia is hailed as a "nightingale" integrating the East and the West, as she has certain attainments in both bel canto and nazionale cantanti, and the songs sung by her are all highly expressive and attractive. Natalie Dessay is honored as a"vocal marvel" at the end of the 20th century. The two singers from two different countries have different singing styles and vo-cal effects when they sing"Vocal Concerto". Through a compara-tive analysis on"Vocal Concerto"sung by Wu Bixia and Natalie Dessay, we can more clearly learn about the prospect of the de-velopment of vocal music in China, thus understanding and re-flecting more about the cultures of the two styles.

  13. Chemistry teachers’ understanding of science process skills in relation of science process skills assessment in chemistry learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikmah, N.; Yamtinah, S.; Ashadi; Indriyanti, N. Y.

    2018-05-01

    A Science process skill (SPS) is a fundamental scientific method to achieve good knowledge. SPS can be categorized into two levels: basic and integrated. Learning SPS helps children to grow as individuals who can access knowledge and know how to acquire it. The primary outcomes of the scientific process in learning are the application of scientific processes, scientific reasoning, accurate knowledge, problem-solving, and understanding of the relationship between science, technology, society, and everyday life’s events. Teachers’ understanding of SPS is central to the application of SPS in a learning process. Following this point, this study aims to investigate the high school chemistry teachers’ understanding of SPS pertains to their assessment of SPS in chemistry learning. The understanding of SPS is measured from the conceptual and operational aspects of SPS. This research uses qualitative analysis method, and the sample consists of eight chemistry teachers selected by random sampling. A semi-structured interview procedure is used to collect the data. The result of the analysis shows that teachers’ conceptual and operational understanding of SPS is weak. It affects the accuracy and appropriateness of the teacher’s selection of SPS assessment in chemistry learning.

  14. Understanding the Causal Path between Action, Learning, and Solutions: Maximizing the Power of Action Learning to Achieve Great Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, H. Skipton

    2015-01-01

    Clients and practitioners alike are often confused about the ultimate purpose of action learning (AL). Because of the title of the method, many believe the primary goal of AL is to generate learning. This article clarifies the relationship between action, learning, and solutions. It also provides historical evidence to support the conclusion that…

  15. Understanding the Construction of Personal Learning Networks to Support Non-Formal Workplace Learning of Training Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Christin

    2013-01-01

    Workers in the 21st century workplace are faced with rapid and constant developments that place a heavy demand on them to continually learn beyond what the Human Resources and Training groups can meet. As a consequence, professionals must rely on non-formal learning approaches through the development of a personal learning network to keep…

  16. The Model of Strategic e-Learning: Understanding and Evaluating Student e-Learning from Metacognitive Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Meng-Jung

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the Model of Strategic e-Learning to explain and evaluate student e-learning from metacognitive perspectives. An in-depth interview, pilot study and main study are employed to construct the model and develop an instrument--the Online Learning Strategies Scale (OLSS). The model framework is constructed and illustrated by four…

  17. A Rat Excised Larynx Model of Vocal Fold Scar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welham, Nathan V.; Montequin, Douglas W.; Tateya, Ichiro; Tateya, Tomoko; Choi, Seong Hee; Bless, Diane M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a rat excised larynx model for the measurement of acoustic, aerodynamic, and vocal fold vibratory changes resulting from vocal fold scar. Method: Twenty-four 4-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups: chronic vocal fold scar, chronic vocal fold scar treated with 100-ng basic…

  18. ACTIVE LEARNING STRATEGIES IN TEACHING CROSS CULTURAL UNDERSTANDING FOR ENGLISH EDUCATION STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikke Dewi Pratama

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cross Cultural Understanding (CCU is one of required courses in English Language Teaching which aims at connecting language and culture so that language learners can use foreign language appropriately, i.e. appropriate forms of language for appropriate context of situation. However, some obstacles usually occur during the course, for examples: students’ lack of understanding that lead to opinions stating that this is a boring and useless course, and large number of students within a class where lecturer must teach more than 40 students in one class. Considering the importance of CCU course as well as the needs to overcome the problems during this course, this paper proposes some particular teaching strategies to help students in apprehending CCU materials through students’ active participations. Active learning strategies are preferred by means of raising students’ participation and critical thinking so that the class would run more effectively. Other consideration in composing the strategies is to prepare English Education students to be future English language teachers by training their ability in teaching performance as well as connecting language and culture in English Language Teaching (ELT.   Keywords: language, culture, strategies, media, ELT

  19. Understanding Insurance. A Guide for Industrial Cooperative Training Programs. Learning Activity Package No. 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duenk, Lester G.; Tuel, Charles

    This learning activity package (LAP) on the insurance industry and the methods used to give protection to the insured is designed for student self-study. Following a list of learning objectives, the LAP contains a pretest (answer key provided at the back). Six learning activities follow. The learning activities cover the following material: terms…

  20. Improving Student Understanding of Lipids Concepts in a Biochemistry Course Using Test-Enhanced Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Savannah; Hernick, Marcy

    2015-01-01

    Test-enhanced learning has successfully been used as a means to enhance learning and promote knowledge retention in students. We have examined whether this approach could be used in a biochemistry course to enhance student learning about lipids-related concepts. Students were provided access to two optional learning modules with questions related…

  1. Can Executive Functions Help to Understand Children with Mathematical Learning Disorders and to Improve Instruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoete, Annemie; De Weerdt, Frauke

    2013-01-01

    Working memory, inhibition and naming speed was assessed in 22 children with mathematical learning disorders (MD), 17 children with a reading learning disorder (RD), and 45 children without any learning problems between 8 and 12 years old. All subjects with learning disorders performed poorly on working memory tasks, providing evidence that they…

  2. The role of motivation and cultural dialects in the in-group advantage for emotional vocalizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauter, D.A.

    2013-01-01

    It is well-established that non-verbal emotional communication via both facial and vocal information is more accurate when expresser and perceiver are from the same cultural group. Two accounts have been put forward to explain this finding: According to the dialect theory, culture-specific learning

  3. The Effect of Vocalic vs. Consonantal Phonetic Structure on Language Segmentability: the Case of Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trecca, Fabio; Bleses, Dorthe; Christiansen, Morten Hyllekvist

    Danish-learning children are slower in the acquisition of receptive vocabulary than children in a range of other language groups. We have hypothesized that the phonetic structure of Danish, rich in vocoids and long vocalic stretches, might reduce the segmentability of the language and impede...

  4. A Comparison of Written, Vocal, and Video Feedback When Training Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Kally M.; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Wu, Wai-Ling; Dupuis, Danielle L.; Hussein, Louisa A.

    2018-01-01

    We compared the effectiveness of and preference for different feedback strategies when training six special education teachers during a 5-day summer training program. In Experiment 1, teachers received written or vocal feedback while learning to implement two different types of preference assessments. In Experiment 2, we compared either written or…

  5. Discussion: Changes in Vocal Production and Auditory Perception after Hair Cell Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryals, Brenda M.; Dooling, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    A bird study found that with sufficient time and training after hair cell and hearing loss and hair cell regeneration, the mature avian auditory system can accommodate input from a newly regenerated periphery sufficiently to allow for recognition of previously familiar vocalizations and the learning of new complex acoustic classifications.…

  6. Gestures, vocalizations, and memory in language origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboitiz, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    THIS ARTICLE DISCUSSES THE POSSIBLE HOMOLOGIES BETWEEN THE HUMAN LANGUAGE NETWORKS AND COMPARABLE AUDITORY PROJECTION SYSTEMS IN THE MACAQUE BRAIN, IN AN ATTEMPT TO RECONCILE TWO EXISTING VIEWS ON LANGUAGE EVOLUTION: one that emphasizes hand control and gestures, and the other that emphasizes auditory-vocal mechanisms. The capacity for language is based on relatively well defined neural substrates whose rudiments have been traced in the non-human primate brain. At its core, this circuit constitutes an auditory-vocal sensorimotor circuit with two main components, a "ventral pathway" connecting anterior auditory regions with anterior ventrolateral prefrontal areas, and a "dorsal pathway" connecting auditory areas with parietal areas and with posterior ventrolateral prefrontal areas via the arcuate fasciculus and the superior longitudinal fasciculus. In humans, the dorsal circuit is especially important for phonological processing and phonological working memory, capacities that are critical for language acquisition and for complex syntax processing. In the macaque, the homolog of the dorsal circuit overlaps with an inferior parietal-premotor network for hand and gesture selection that is under voluntary control, while vocalizations are largely fixed and involuntary. The recruitment of the dorsal component for vocalization behavior in the human lineage, together with a direct cortical control of the subcortical vocalizing system, are proposed to represent a fundamental innovation in human evolution, generating an inflection point that permitted the explosion of vocal language and human communication. In this context, vocal communication and gesturing have a common history in primate communication.

  7. Vocal ontogeny in neotropical singing mice (Scotinomys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polly Campbell

    Full Text Available Isolation calls produced by dependent young are a fundamental form of communication. For species in which vocal signals remain important to adult communication, the function and social context of vocal behavior changes dramatically with the onset of sexual maturity. The ontogenetic relationship between these distinct forms of acoustic communication is surprisingly under-studied. We conducted a detailed analysis of vocal development in sister species of Neotropical singing mice, Scotinomys teguina and S. xerampelinus. Adult singing mice are remarkable for their advertisement songs, rapidly articulated trills used in long-distance communication; the vocal behavior of pups was previously undescribed. We recorded 30 S. teguina and 15 S. xerampelinus pups daily, from birth to weaning; 23 S. teguina and 11 S. xerampelinus were recorded until sexual maturity. Like other rodent species with poikilothermic young, singing mice were highly vocal during the first weeks of life and stopped vocalizing before weaning. Production of first advertisement songs coincided with the onset of sexual maturity after a silent period of ≧2 weeks. Species differences in vocal behavior emerged early in ontogeny and notes that comprise adult song were produced from birth. However, the organization and relative abundance of distinct note types was very different between pups and adults. Notably, the structure, note repetition rate, and intra-individual repeatability of pup vocalizations did not become more adult-like with age; the highly stereotyped structure of adult song appeared de novo in the first songs of young adults. We conclude that, while the basic elements of adult song are available from birth, distinct selection pressures during maternal dependency, dispersal, and territorial establishment favor major shifts in the structure and prevalence of acoustic signals. This study provides insight into how an evolutionarily conserved form of acoustic signaling provides

  8. Understanding the essential elements of work-based learning and its relevance to everyday clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Caroline

    2010-09-01

    To critically review the work-based learning literature and explore the implications of the findings for the development of work-based learning programmes. With NHS budgets under increasing pressure, and challenges to the impact of classroom-based learning on patient outcomes, work-based learning is likely to come under increased scrutiny as a potential solution. Evidence from higher education institutions suggests that work-based learning can improve practice, but in many cases it is perceived as little more than on-the-job training to perform tasks. The CINAHL database was searched using the keywords work-based learning, work-place learning and practice-based learning. Those articles that had a focus on post-registration nursing were selected and critically reviewed. Using the review of the literature, three key issues were explored. Work-based learning has the potential to change practice. Learning how to learn and critical reflection are key features. For effective work-based learning nurses need to take control of their own learning, receive support to critically reflect on their practice and be empowered to make changes to that practice. A critical review of the literature has identified essential considerations for the implementation of work-based learning. A change in culture from classroom to work-based learning requires careful planning and consideration of learning cultures. To enable effective work-based learning, nurse managers need to develop a learning culture in their workplace. They should ensure that skilled facilitation is provided to support staff with critical reflection and effecting changes in practice. CONTRIBUTION TO NEW KNOWLEDGE: This paper has identified three key issues that need to be considered in the development of work-based learning programmes. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. MoREK: The learning media to improve students understanding about electrical circuit in informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrianto; Nur Indah Susanti, Meilia; Arianto, Rakhmat

    2018-03-01

    The needs for labor in the world is already increasing especially in Indonesia. According to the World Bank, Indonesia is a country that ranks 9th in the world’s largest economic growth. To meet that needs, Indonesia needs 55 million workers who are experts in the field of electricity. Therefore, it takes a lot of human resources and has been equipped with knowledge and expertise in the field of electricity. To be able to meet these needs, it takes a better method of learning to increase knowledge and expertise in the field of electricity since college, especially in the field of informatics. Prototype of Electrical Module (The MoREK) requires a Prototype method for the Practicum Module to be created as desired. This method is often used in the real world or it could be said Prototype method is part of the product that expresses the logic and physical external interface that is displayed. For data retrieval is used Pre-experimental method where students will be given pre-test and post-test. The Design of Electrical Module has a purpose to improve the students understanding of Electric Circuit Engineering Courses with the creation of The MoREK so that students are more competent to the course and can meet the needs of manpower or Human Resources (SDM) in the field of electricity. By using The Morek, the score of student learning outcomes increased by 7.8% and informatics students who conduct research in the field of electricity increased to 21%.

  10. Individual classroom experiences: a sociocultural comparison for understanding efl classroom language learning Individual classroom experiences: a sociocultural comparison for understanding efl classroom language learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Miccoli

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho compara as experiências de sala de aula (ESA de duas universitárias na aprendizagem de língua inglesa. As ESA emergiram de entrevistas individuais, onde vídeos das aulas promoveram a reflexão. A análise revelou que experiências de natureza cognitiva, social ou afetiva influem diretamente no processo de aprendizagem e as que se referem ao contexto, à história, crenças e metas dos alunos influem indiretamente no mesmo. A singularidade de algumas experiências levou à sua categorização como ESA individuais (ESAI. Ao comparar as ESAI de duas informantes, a importância da análise sociocultural do processo de aprendizagem de sala de aula fica evidente. Concluiremos com uma defesa do valor da teoria sociocultural no estudo da aprendizagem de língua estrangeira em sala de aula e com a apresentação das implicações deste estudo para pesquisadores e professores. This paper compares the classroom experiences (CEs of two university students in their process of learning English as a foreign language (EFL. The CEs emerged from individual interviews, where classroom videos promoted reflection. The analysis revealed that cognitive, social and affective experiences directly influence the learning process and that those which refer to setting, learner’s personal background, beliefs and goal influence the learning process indirectly. The analysis also revealed the singularity of some of these CEs that led to their categorization as individual CEs (ICEs. When comparing the ICEs of the two participants, the importance of a sociocultural analysis of the classroom learning process becomes evident. We conclude with an analysis of the value of sociocultural theory in the study of classroom EFL learning and with the implications of this study for teachers and researchers.

  11. Understanding the Influence of Learners' Forethought on Their Use of Science Study Strategies in Postsecondary Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Karee E.; Lo, Wen-Juo

    2015-11-01

    Understanding self-regulation in science learning is important for theorists and practitioners alike. However, very little has been done to explore and understand students' self-regulatory processes in postsecondary science courses. In this study, the influence of science efficacy, learning value, and goal orientation on the perceived use of science study strategies was explored using structural equation modeling. In addition, the study served to validate the first two stages of Zimmerman's cyclical model of self-regulation and to address the common methodological weakness in self-regulation research in which data are all collected at one point after the learning cycle is complete. Thus, data were collected across the learning cycle rather than asking students to reflect upon each construct after the learning cycle was complete. The findings supported the hypothesized model in which it was predicted that self-efficacy would significantly and positively influence students' perceived science strategy use, and the influence of students' valuation of science learning on science study strategies would be mediated by their learning goal orientation. The findings of the study are discussed and implications for undergraduate science instructors are proposed.

  12. Food Sauces to Understand Volcanoes: a Learning Sequence in Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieraccioni, Fabio; Bonaccorsi, Elena; Gioncada, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Some volcanic processes occur at pressures and temperatures very different from daily experience. Such extreme conditions, unreproducible in the classroom, can lead children to build concepts about volcanic phenomena very different from the reality (Greca & Moreira, 2000; Dove, 1998). The didactic goals of this learning sequence concern the relationships between the viscosity of magmas and types of erupted materials and their consequences on volcano shapes, to favour pupils' comprehension of what a volcano is. Viscosity and its temperature dependence can be easily experimented in class with analogue materials at room temperature (Baker et al., 2004). Our research aims are to observe the development of the thought of pupils of middle schools on volcanic phenomena; this allowed to put in evidence the benefits of this approach and to give suggestions to avoid possible critical points. We have experimented a hands-on learning sequence about volcanoes in four third classes of Tuscan middle schools, for an amount of 95 pupils, 48 females and 47 males. Sharing the principles of constructivism, we think useful that pupils start from their own direct experience for understanding natural phenomena not directly observable. Therefore, we start from the experiences and knowledge of children to build a inquiry-based itinerary (Minner et al., 2010; Pieraccioni et al., 2016). The learning sequence begins with a practical activity in which we employ common and well-known materials to introduce the concept of viscosity in order to relate various kinds of magma to the shape of volcanoes. One of the benefits of this approach is to overcome the problems of introducing complex concepts such as acidity of magmas or silica content, far from the pupils' experience and knowledge. These concepts are often used in Italian middle school textbooks to describe and classify volcanoes. The result is a list of names to learn by heart. On the contrary, by using oil, ketchup, peanut butter or honey

  13. Drinking songs: alcohol effects on learned song of zebra finches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R Olson

    Full Text Available Speech impairment is one of the most intriguing and least understood effects of alcohol on cognitive function, largely due to the lack of data on alcohol effects on vocalizations in the context of an appropriate experimental model organism. Zebra finches, a representative songbird and a premier model for understanding the neurobiology of vocal production and learning, learn song in a manner analogous to how humans learn speech. Here we show that when allowed access, finches readily drink alcohol, increase their blood ethanol concentrations (BEC significantly, and sing a song with altered acoustic structure. The most pronounced effects were decreased amplitude and increased entropy, the latter likely reflecting a disruption in the birds' ability to maintain the spectral structure of song under alcohol. Furthermore, specific syllables, which have distinct acoustic structures, were differentially influenced by alcohol, likely reflecting a diversity in the neural mechanisms required for their production. Remarkably, these effects on vocalizations occurred without overt effects on general behavioral measures, and importantly, they occurred within a range of BEC that can be considered risky for humans. Our results suggest that the variable effects of alcohol on finch song reflect differential alcohol sensitivity of the brain circuitry elements that control different aspects of song production. They also point to finches as an informative model for understanding how alcohol affects the neuronal circuits that control the production of learned motor behaviors.

  14. Common Vocal Effects and Partial Glottal Vibration in Professional Nonclassical Singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffier, Philipp P; Ibrahim Nasr, Ahmed; Ropero Rendon, Maria Del Mar; Wienhausen, Sascha; Forbes, Eleanor; Seidner, Wolfram; Nawka, Tadeus

    2018-05-01

    To multidimensionally investigate common vocal effects in experienced professional nonclassical singers, to examine their mechanism of production and reproducibility, to demonstrate the existence of partial glottal vibration, and to assess the potential of damage to the voice from nonclassical singing. Individual cohort study. Ten male singers aged between 25 and 46 years (34 ± 7 years [mean ± SD]) with different stylistic backgrounds were recruited (five pop/rock/metal, five musical theater). Participants repeatedly presented the usual nonclassical vocal effects and techniques in their repertoire. All performances were documented and analyzed using established instruments (eg, auditory-perceptual assessment, videolaryngostroboscopy, electroglottography, voice function diagnostics). The vocal apparatus of all singers was healthy and capable of high performance. Typical nonclassical vocal effects were breathy voice, creaky voice, vocal fry, grunting, distortion, rattle, belt, and twang. All effects could be easily differentiated from each other. They were intraindividually consistently repeatable and also interindividually produced in a similar manner. A special feature in one singer was the first evidence of partial glottal vibration when belting in the high register. The unintended transition to this reduced voice quality was accompanied by physical fatigue and inflexible respiratory support. The long-lasting use of the investigated nonclassical vocal effects had no negative impact on trained singers. The possibility of long-term damage depends on the individual constitution, specific use, duration, and extent of the hyperfunction. The incidence of partial glottal vibration and its consequences require continuing research to learn more about efficient and healthy vocal function in nonclassical singing. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Understanding Mathematic Concept in Relation and Function Method through Active Learning Type Group to Group Distributed LKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudri, F.; Rahmi, R.; Haryono, Y.

    2018-04-01

    This research is motivated by the lack of understanding of mathematical concepts students and teachers have not familiarize students discussed in groups. This researchaims to determine whether an understanding of mathematical concepts junior class VIII SMPN 2 in Ranah Batahan Kabupaten Pasaman Barat by applying active learning strategy group to group types with LKS better than conventional learning. The type of research is experimental the design of randomized trials on the subject. The population in the study were all students VIII SMPN 2 Ranah Batahan Kabupaten Pasaman Barat in year 2012/2013 which consists of our class room experiment to determine the grade and control class with do nerandomly, so that classes VIII1 elected as a experiment class and class VIII4 as a control class. The instruments used in the test empirically understanding mathematical concepts are shaped by the essay with rt=0,82 greater than rt=0,468 means reliable tests used. The data analysis technique used is the test with the help of MINITAB. Based on the results of the data analisis known that both of the sample are normal and homogenity in real rate α = 0,05, so the hypothesis of this research is received. So, it can be concluded students’ understanding mathematical concept applied the active Group to Group learning strategy with LKS is better than the students’ understanding mathematical concept with Conventional Learning.

  16. Differences in number and distribution of striatal calbindin medium spiny neurons between a vocal-learner (Melopsittacus undulatus and a non-vocal learner bird (Colinus virginianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena eGarcia-Calero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Striatal projecting neurons, known as medium spiny neurons (MSNs, segregate into two compartments called matrix and striosome in the mammalian striatum. The matrix domain is characterized by the presence of calbindin immunopositive (CB+ MSNs, not observed in the striosome subdivision. The existence of a similar CB+ MSN population has recently been described in two striatal structures in male zebra finch (a vocal learner bird: the striatal capsule and the Area X, a nucleus implicated in song learning. Female zebra finches show a similar pattern of CB+ MSNs than males in the developing striatum but loose these cells in juveniles and adult stages. In the present work we analyzed the existence and allocation of CB+MSNs in the striatal domain of the vocal learner bird budgerigar (representative of psittaciformes order and the non-vocal learner bird quail (representative of galliformes order. We studied the co-localization of CB protein with FoxP1, a transcription factor expressed in vertebrate striatal MSNs. We observed CB+ MSNs in the medial striatal domain of adult male and female budgerigars, although this cell type was missing in the potentially homologous nucleus for Area X in budgerigar. In quail, we observed CB+ cells in the striatal domain at developmental and adult stages but they did not co-localize with the MSN marker FoxP1. We also described the existence of the CB+ striatal capsule in budgerigar and quail and compared these results with the CB+ striatal capsule observed in juvenile zebra finches. Together, these results point out important differences in CB+MSN distribution between two representative species of vocal learner and non-vocal learner avian orders (respectively the budgerigar and the quail, but also between close vocal learner bird families.

  17. Life Experience of Patients With Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, David O; Sherman, Ariel E; Hovis, Kristen L; Bonnet, Kemberlee; Schlundt, David; Garrett, C Gaelyn; Davies, Louise

    2018-05-01

    Clinicians and patients benefit when they have a clear understanding of how medical conditions influence patients' life experiences. Patients' perspectives on life with unilateral vocal fold paralysis have not been well described. To promote patient-centered care by characterizing the patient experiences of living with unilateral vocal fold paralysis. This study used mixed methods: surveys using the voice and dysphagia handicap indexes (VHI and DHI) and semistructured interviews with adults with unilateral vocal cord paralysis recruited from a tertiary voice center. Recorded interviews were transcribed, coded using a hierarchical coding system, and analyzed using an iterative inductive-deductive approach. Symptom domains of the patient experience. In 36 patients (26 [72%] were female, and the median age and interquartile range [IQR] were 63 years [48-68 years]; median interview duration, 42 minutes), median VHI and DHI scores were 96 (IQR, 77-108) and 55.5 (IQR, 35-89) at the time of interviews, respectively. Frustration, isolation, fear, and altered self-identity were primary themes permeating patients' experiences. Frustrations related to limitations in communication, employment, and the medical system. Sources of fear included a loss of control, fear of further dysfunction or permanent disability, concern for health consequences (eg, aspiration pneumonia), and/or an inability to call for help in emergency situations. These experiences were modified by the following factors: resilience, self-efficacy, perceived sense of control, and social support systems. Effects of unilateral vocal fold paralysis extend beyond impaired voice and other somatic symptoms. Awareness of the extent to which these patients experience frustration, isolation, fear, and altered self-identity is important. A patient-centered approach to optimizing unilateral vocal fold paralysis treatment is enhanced by an understanding of both the physical dimension of this condition and how patients

  18. Understanding valve program complexity in a refurbishment environment - learning from the past

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    The complexity of Valve Program development, planning, execution and management in a refurbishment environment is an enormous undertaking requiring the proper coordination and integration of many moving parts. As such, lack of attention and understanding of this complexity has led to significant cost and schedule overruns in past refurbishment projects in the province. OPEX indicates the challenges in completing valve scope during refurbishments are related but not limited to; lack of detailed condition assessments, improper scope development, insignificant strategic approach to work task planning, scheduling and procurement, absence of contingency planning for common ‘as found’ conditions during execution, lack of proper training requirements, etc. In addition, past contracting strategies to employ numerous companies in collaboration to complete such a complex and specialized program, has resulted in further complications surrounding the management and integration of multiple quality programs and internal company processes. Finally, the aftermath of such fragmented projects results in an absolute closeout nightmare, often times taking years to locate, sift through and re-integrate pertinent information back into customer systems. Valve Program complexity cannot be understood by just anyone, only those that have lived through a refurbishment project and experienced the challenges mentioned above have the knowledge, skill, and ability to appreciate how to tactically apply past learning to realize future improvements. Furthermore, effective contractor-customer collaboration is crucial; true and in-depth knowledge and understanding of the customer quality programs, engineering and work management processes, configuration management requirements, and most importantly the imperative significance of nuclear safety, are all essential components to ensure overall alignment and program success. (author)

  19. Understanding valve program complexity in a refurbishment environment - learning from the past

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, H.E. [Babcock & Wilcox Canada Ltd., Cambridge, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    The complexity of Valve Program development, planning, execution and management in a refurbishment environment is an enormous undertaking requiring the proper coordination and integration of many moving parts. As such, lack of attention and understanding of this complexity has led to significant cost and schedule overruns in past refurbishment projects in the province. OPEX indicates the challenges in completing valve scope during refurbishments are related but not limited to; lack of detailed condition assessments, improper scope development, insignificant strategic approach to work task planning, scheduling and procurement, absence of contingency planning for common ‘as found’ conditions during execution, lack of proper training requirements, etc. In addition, past contracting strategies to employ numerous companies in collaboration to complete such a complex and specialized program, has resulted in further complications surrounding the management and integration of multiple quality programs and internal company processes. Finally, the aftermath of such fragmented projects results in an absolute closeout nightmare, often times taking years to locate, sift through and re-integrate pertinent information back into customer systems. Valve Program complexity cannot be understood by just anyone, only those that have lived through a refurbishment project and experienced the challenges mentioned above have the knowledge, skill, and ability to appreciate how to tactically apply past learning to realize future improvements. Furthermore, effective contractor-customer collaboration is crucial; true and in-depth knowledge and understanding of the customer quality programs, engineering and work management processes, configuration management requirements, and most importantly the imperative significance of nuclear safety, are all essential components to ensure overall alignment and program success. (author)

  20. A Neural Code That Is Isometric to Vocal Output and Correlates with Its Sensory Consequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei L Vyssotski

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available What cortical inputs are provided to motor control areas while they drive complex learned behaviors? We study this question in the nucleus interface of the nidopallium (NIf, which is required for normal birdsong production and provides the main source of auditory input to HVC, the driver of adult song. In juvenile and adult zebra finches, we find that spikes in NIf projection neurons precede vocalizations by several tens of milliseconds and are insensitive to distortions of auditory feedback. We identify a local isometry between NIf output and vocalizations: quasi-identical notes produced in different syllables are preceded by highly similar NIf spike patterns. NIf multiunit firing during song precedes responses in auditory cortical neurons by about 50 ms, revealing delayed congruence between NIf spiking and a neural representation of auditory feedback. Our findings suggest that NIf codes for imminent acoustic events within vocal performance.

  1. Using iterative learning to improve understanding during the informed consent process in a South African psychiatric genomics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Megan M; Susser, Ezra; Mall, Sumaya; Mqulwana, Sibonile G; Mndini, Michael M; Ntola, Odwa A; Nagdee, Mohamed; Zingela, Zukiswa; Van Wyk, Stephanus; Stein, Dan J

    2017-01-01

    Obtaining informed consent is a great challenge in global health research. There is a need for tools that can screen for and improve potential research participants' understanding of the research study at the time of recruitment. Limited empirical research has been conducted in low and middle income countries, evaluating informed consent processes in genomics research. We sought to investigate the quality of informed consent obtained in a South African psychiatric genomics study. A Xhosa language version of the University of California, San Diego Brief Assessment of Capacity to Consent Questionnaire (UBACC) was used to screen for capacity to consent and improve understanding through iterative learning in a sample of 528 Xhosa people with schizophrenia and 528 controls. We address two questions: firstly, whether research participants' understanding of the research study improved through iterative learning; and secondly, what were predictors for better understanding of the research study at the initial screening? During screening 290 (55%) cases and 172 (33%) controls scored below the 14.5 cut-off for acceptable understanding of the research study elements, however after iterative learning only 38 (7%) cases and 13 (2.5%) controls continued to score below this cut-off. Significant variables associated with increased understanding of the consent included the psychiatric nurse recruiter conducting the consent screening, higher participant level of education, and being a control. The UBACC proved an effective tool to improve understanding of research study elements during consent, for both cases and controls. The tool holds utility for complex studies such as those involving genomics, where iterative learning can be used to make significant improvements in understanding of research study elements. The UBACC may be particularly important in groups with severe mental illness and lower education levels. Study recruiters play a significant role in managing the quality of

  2. Using iterative learning to improve understanding during the informed consent process in a South African psychiatric genomics study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan M Campbell

    Full Text Available Obtaining informed consent is a great challenge in global health research. There is a need for tools that can screen for and improve potential research participants' understanding of the research study at the time of recruitment. Limited empirical research has been conducted in low and middle income countries, evaluating informed consent processes in genomics research. We sought to investigate the quality of informed consent obtained in a South African psychiatric genomics study. A Xhosa language version of the University of California, San Diego Brief Assessment of Capacity to Consent Questionnaire (UBACC was used to screen for capacity to consent and improve understanding through iterative learning in a sample of 528 Xhosa people with schizophrenia and 528 controls. We address two questions: firstly, whether research participants' understanding of the research study improved through iterative learning; and secondly, what were predictors for better understanding of the research study at the initial screening? During screening 290 (55% cases and 172 (33% controls scored below the 14.5 cut-off for acceptable understanding of the research study elements, however after iterative learning only 38 (7% cases and 13 (2.5% controls continued to score below this cut-off. Significant variables associated with increased understanding of the consent included the psychiatric nurse recruiter conducting the consent screening, higher participant level of education, and being a control. The UBACC proved an effective tool to improve understanding of research study elements during consent, for both cases and controls. The tool holds utility for complex studies such as those involving genomics, where iterative learning can be used to make significant improvements in understanding of research study elements. The UBACC may be particularly important in groups with severe mental illness and lower education levels. Study recruiters play a significant role in managing

  3. Understanding How Young Children Learn: Bringing the Science of Child Development to the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroff, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Because little kids can't tell you how their minds work and what makes them learn, you need this book about new scientific discoveries that explain how young children learn and what teachers can do to use those findings to enhance classroom teaching. Discover where the desire to learn comes from and what occurs during children's development to…

  4. "Peeling an onion": Layering as a methodology to understand learning as an embodied assemblage of practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Liv Kondrup

    2017-01-01

    This paper considers science learning as an embodied assemblages of practices and seeks to propose a methodology to systematically analyze the multiple layers that shape how students’ do and learn science. Science learning as an embodied assemblage of practices sensitizes us towards the dimension...

  5. Examining and Understanding Transformative Learning to Foster Technology Professional Development in Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    drs Maurice Schols

    2012-01-01

    Educators are increasingly encouraged to practice life-long learning. Learning to cope with emerging technologies for educational purposes is, for most educators, a complex process. Consequently, educators engage in critical reflective processes, and consider new views as they learn new knowledge

  6. Understanding and Preventing Learned Helplessness in Children Who Are Congenitally Deaf-Blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, S. B.

    1998-01-01

    Links the literature on learned helplessness with best practices in teaching children who are deaf-blind. Defines "learned helplessness" and "mastery motivation;" considers identification of learned helplessness; and offers suggestions such as rewarding independent rather than dependent behaviors and integrating orientation, mobility, and…

  7. Leveraging Faculty Reflective Practice to Understand Active Learning Spaces: Flashbacks and Re-Captures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Crystal M.; Guo, Xiuyan; Pursel, Barton K.

    2017-01-01

    Although learning spaces research is not new, research approaches that target the specific teaching and learning experiences of faculty and students who occupy active learning classrooms (ALCs) is nascent. We report on two novels data collection approaches: Flashbacks and Re-Captures. Both leverage faculty reflective practice and provide windows…

  8. Reciprocal Exchange: Understanding the Community Partner Perspective in Higher Education Service-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Alexis Nicolle

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates service-learning from the community partners' perspective, especially in terms of reciprocity. As a central construct in the theory of service-learning, reciprocity for community partners is virtually unknown. Little scholarship exists that explains or explores the benefits and opportunity costs of service-learning. One…

  9. Conceptual Understanding and Representation Quality through Multi-representation Learning on Newton Law Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suci Furwati

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Students who have good conceptual acquisition will be able to represent the concept by using multi representation. This study aims to determine the improvement of students' understanding of the concept of Newton's Law material, and the quality of representation used in solving problems on Newton's Law material. The results showed that the concept acquisition of students increased from the average of 35.32 to 78.97 with an effect size of 2.66 (strong and N-gain of 0.68 (medium. The quality of each type of student representation also increased from level 1 and level 2 up to level 3. Key Words: concept aquisition, represetation quality, multi representation learning, Newton’s Law Abstrak: Siswa yang memiliki penguasaan konsep yang baik akan mampu merepresentasikan konsep dengan menggunakan multi representasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui peningkatan pemahaman konsep siswa SMP pada materi Hukum Newton, dan kualitas representasi yang digunakan dalam menyelesaikan masalah pada materi Hukum Newton. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penguasaan konsep siswa meningkat dari rata-rata 35,32 menjadi 78,97 dengan effect size sebesar 2,66 (kuat dan N-gain sebesar 0,68 (sedang. Kualitas tiap jenis representasi siswa juga mengalami peningkatan dari level 1 dan level 2 naik menjadi level 3. Kata kunci: hukum Newton, kualitas representasi, pemahaman konsep, pembelajaran multi representasi

  10. Understanding the Effects of Time on Collaborative Learning Processes in Problem Based Learning: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommes, J.; Van den Bossche, P.; de Grave, W.; Bos, G.; Schuwirth, L.; Scherpbier, A.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known how time influences collaborative learning groups in medical education. Therefore a thorough exploration of the development of learning processes over time was undertaken in an undergraduate PBL curriculum over 18 months. A mixed-methods triangulation design was used. First, the quantitative study measured how various learning…

  11. Learning and Cognition: The Interplay between The Subject and The Group Understanding The Processes of Problem-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Kim Malmbak Meltofte; Fast, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the relationship between learning, epistemology, and intersubjectivity in the context of problem-based learning and project-oriented work at a university level. It aims to show how the collaboration of students in a group over a long period of time can put emphasis on the knowledge-practice discussion, and…

  12. Improvement of a Vocal Fold Imaging System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauter, K. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Medical professionals can better serve their patients through continual update of their imaging tools. A wide range of pathologies and disease may afflict human vocal cords or, as they’re also known, vocal folds. These diseases can affect human speech hampering the ability of the patient to communicate. Vocal folds must be opened for breathing and the closed to produce speech. Currently methodologies to image markers of potential pathologies are difficult to use and often fail to detect early signs of disease. These current methodologies rely on a strobe light and slower frame rate camera in an attempt to obtain images as the vocal folds travel over the full extent of their motion.

  13. Real-Time Vocal Tract Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Benkrid

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available To date, most speech synthesis techniques have relied upon the representation of the vocal tract by some form of filter, a typical example being linear predictive coding (LPC. This paper describes the development of a physiologically realistic model of the vocal tract using the well-established technique of transmission line modelling (TLM. This technique is based on the principle of wave scattering at transmission line segment boundaries and may be used in one, two, or three dimensions. This work uses this technique to model the vocal tract using a one-dimensional transmission line. A six-port scattering node is applied in the region separating the pharyngeal, oral, and the nasal parts of the vocal tract.

  14. Vascular lesions of the vocal fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökcan, Kürşat Mustafa; Dursun, Gürsel

    2009-04-01

    The aim of the study was to present symptoms, laryngological findings, clinical course, management modalities, and consequences of vascular lesions of vocal fold. This study examined 162 patients, the majority professional voice users, with vascular lesions regarding their presenting symptoms, laryngological findings, clinical courses and treatment results. The most common complaint was sudden hoarseness with hemorrhagic polyp. Microlaryngoscopic surgery was performed in 108 cases and the main indication of surgery was the presence of vocal fold mass or development of vocal polyp during clinical course. Cold microsurgery was utilized for removal of vocal fold masses and feeding vessels cauterized using low power, pulsed CO(2) laser. Acoustic analysis of patients revealed a significant improvement of jitter, shimmer and harmonics/noise ratio values after treatment. Depending on our clinical findings, we propose treatment algorithm where voice rest and behavioral therapy is the integral part and indications of surgery are individualized for each patient.

  15. Benign Lesions of The Vocal Fold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Surmelioglu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Benign lesions of vocal folds are common disorders. Fifty percent of patients who have sound complaints are found to have these lesions after endoscopic and stroboscopic examinations. Benign vocal fold diseases are primarily caused by vibratory trauma. However they may also occur as a result of viral infections and congenital causes. These lesions are often presented with the complaints of dysphonia. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(1.000: 86-95

  16. Vocal fold hemorrhage: factors predicting recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Christen J; Murry, Thomas; Sulica, Lucian

    2014-01-01

    Vocal fold hemorrhage is an acute phonotraumatic injury treated with voice rest; recurrence is a generally accepted indication for surgical intervention. This study aims to identify factors predictive of recurrence based on outcomes of a large clinical series. Retrospective cohort. Retrospective review of cases of vocal fold hemorrhage presenting to a university laryngology service. Demographic information was compiled. Videostroboscopic exams were evaluated for hemorrhage extent, presence of varix, mucosal lesion, and/or vocal fold paresis. Vocal fold hemorrhage recurrence was the main outcome measure. Follow-up telephone survey was used to complement clinical data. Forty-seven instances of vocal fold hemorrhage were evaluated (25M:22F; 32 professional voice users). Twelve of the 47 (26%) patients experienced recurrence. Only the presence of varix demonstrated significant association with recurrence (P = 0.0089) on multivariate logistic regression. Vocal fold hemorrhage recurred in approximately 26% of patients. Varix was a predictor of recurrence, with 48% of those with varix experiencing recurrence. Monitoring, behavioral management and/or surgical intervention may be indicated to treat patients with such characteristics. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  17. Drama-Based Science Teaching and Its Effect on Students' Understanding of Scientific Concepts and Their Attitudes towards Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abed, Osama H.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of drama-based science teaching on students' understanding of scientific concepts and their attitudes towards science learning. The study also aimed to examine if there is an interaction between students' achievement level in science and drama-based instruction. The sample consisted of (87) of 7th grade students…

  18. Facilitating Conceptual Change in Understanding State of Matter and Solubility Concepts by Using 5E Learning Cycle Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Eren; Geban, Omer

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to compare the effectiveness of 5E learning cycle model based instruction and traditionally designed chemistry instruction on 10th grade students' understanding of state of matter and solubility concepts. In this study, 119 tenth grade students from chemistry courses instructed by same teacher from an Anatolian…

  19. Three-dimensional printing model improves morphological understanding in acetabular fracture learning: A multicenter, randomized, controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenfei Huang

    Full Text Available Conventional education results in unsatisfactory morphological understanding of acetabular fractures due to lack of three-dimensional (3D details and tactile feedback of real fractures. Virtual reality (VR and 3D printing (3DP techniques are widely applied in teaching. The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of physical model (PM, VR and 3DP models in education of morphological understanding of acetabular fractures. 141 students were invited to participate in this study. Participants were equally and randomly assigned to the PM, VR and 3DP learning groups. Three-level objective tests were conducted to evaluate learning, including identifying anatomical landmarks, describing fracture lines, identifying classification, and inferring fracture mechanism. Four subjective questions were asked to evaluate the usability and value of instructional materials. Generally, the 3DP group showed a clear advantage over the PM and VR groups in objective tests, while there was no significant difference between the PM and VR groups. 3DP was considered to be the most valuable learning tool for understanding acetabular fractures. The findings demonstrate that 3DP modelling of real fractures is an effective learning instrument that can be used to understand the morphology of acetabular fractures and promote subjective interest.

  20. Long will they live, work and learn : A scheme for understanding and influencing employability during the life span

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, Aukje; de Lange, Annet H.; Gortz, Saskia

    2010-01-01

    Long will they live, work and learn. A scheme for understanding and influencing employability during the life span A. Nauta, A. H. de Lange en S. Gortz, Gedrag & Organisatie, volume 23, June 2010, nr. 2, pp. 136-157 To stimulate employees' employability until high age, knowledge is needed about what

  1. Comparison of Two Different Techniques of Cooperative Learning Approach: Undergraduates' Conceptual Understanding in the Context of Hormone Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Ayfer

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to compare the effects of two different techniques of the cooperative learning approach, namely Team-Game Tournament and Jigsaw, on undergraduates' conceptual understanding in a Hormone Biochemistry course. Undergraduates were randomly assigned to Group 1 (N = 23) and Group 2 (N = 29). Instructions were accomplished…

  2. The Effect of Brain Based Learning on Second Grade Junior Students' Mathematics Conceptual Understanding on Polyhedron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarsana, I. Made; Widiasih, Ni Putu Santhi; Suparta, I. Nengah

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effect of Brain Based Learning on second grade junior high school students? conceptual understanding on polyhedron. This study was conducted by using post-test only control group quasi-experimental design. The subjects of this study were 148 students that divided into three classes. Two classes were taken as…

  3. Towards a Cross-Cultural Understanding of Ageing and Learning by Senior Adults in Hong Kong and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Maureen

    2017-01-01

    Ageing and learning are value-laden concepts that are culturally relevant. Culture plays an important role in influencing what people think, resulting in different views and understandings by people from diverse cultural backgrounds. In the literature, there have been research and discussions relating culture with ageing and culture with learning…

  4. Understanding the Primary School Students' Van Hiele Levels of Geometry Thinking in Learning Shapes and Spaces: A Q-Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Tan Tong; Tarmizi, Rohani Ahmad; Yunus, Aida Suraya Md.; Ayub, Ahmad Fauzi

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted using a new hybrid method of research which combined qualitative and quantitative designs to investigate the viewpoints of primary school students' conceptual understanding in learning geometry from the aspect of shapes and spaces according to van Hiele theory. Q-methodology is used in this research to find out what…

  5. The Impact of Project-Based Learning on Fourth-Grade Students' Understanding in Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Dana L.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative, non-experimental, descriptive study was to determine if participation in project-based learning developed the understanding students need to transfer their knowledge and skills to achieve higher composite and reading scores, as well as demonstrate the ability to read increasingly complex texts on the ACT Aspire as…

  6. The Effect of Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) on 11th Graders' Conceptual Understanding of Electrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Senol; Yilmaz, Ayhan; Geban, Ömer

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) method compared to traditional teaching method on 11th grade students' conceptual understanding of electrochemistry concepts. Participants were 115 students from a public school in Turkey. Nonequivalent control group design was used. Two…

  7. Understanding Problem-Solving Errors by Students with Learning Disabilities in Standards-Based and Traditional Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouck, Emily C.; Bouck, Mary K.; Joshi, Gauri S.; Johnson, Linley

    2016-01-01

    Students with learning disabilities struggle with word problems in mathematics classes. Understanding the type of errors students make when working through such mathematical problems can further describe student performance and highlight student difficulties. Through the use of error codes, researchers analyzed the type of errors made by 14 sixth…

  8. The Effect of Cooperative Learning Approach Based on Conceptual Change Condition on Students' Understanding of Chemical Equilibrium Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Ibrahim; Geban, Omer

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the cooperative learning approach based on conceptual change conditions over traditional instruction on 10th grade students' conceptual understanding and achievement of computational problems related to chemical equilibrium concepts. The subjects of this study consisted of 87 tenth grade…

  9. Impact of Interactive Multimedia Module with Pedagogical Agents on Students' Understanding and Motivation in the Learning of Electrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Kamisah; Lee, Tien Tien

    2014-01-01

    The Electrochemistry topic is found to be difficult to learn due to its abstract concepts involving macroscopic, microscopic, and symbolic representation levels. Studies have shown that animation and simulation using information and communication technology (ICT) can help students to visualize and hence enhance their understanding in learning…

  10. Secondary Science Teachers Making Sense of Model-Based Classroom Instruction: Understanding the Learning and Learning Pathways Teachers Describe as Supporting Changes in Teaching Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvidsten, Connie J.

    Connie J. Hvidsten September 2016 Education Secondary Science Teachers Making Sense of Model-Based Classroom Instruction: Understanding the Learning and Learning Pathways Teachers Describe as Supporting Changes in Teaching Practice This dissertation consists of three papers analyzing writings and interviews of experienced secondary science teachers during and after a two-year professional development (PD) program focused on model-based reasoning (MBR). MBR is an approach to science instruction that provides opportunities for students to use conceptual models to make sense of natural phenomena in ways that are similar to the use of models within the scientific community. The aim of this research is to better understand the learning and learning pathways teachers identified as valuable in supporting changes in their teaching practice. To accomplish this aim, the papers analyze the ways teachers 1) ascribe their learning to various aspects of the program, 2) describe what they learned, and 3) reflect on the impact the PD had on their teaching practice. Twenty-one secondary science teachers completed the Innovations in Science Instruction through Modeling (ISIM) program from 2007 through 2009. Commonalities in the written reflections and interview responses led to a set of generalizable findings related to the impacts and outcomes of the PD. The first of the three papers describes elements of the ISIM program that teachers associated with their own learning. One of the most frequently mentioned PD feature was being in the position of an adult learner. Embedding learning in instructional practice by collaboratively developing and revising lessons, and observing the lessons in one-another's classrooms provided a sense of professional community, accountability, and support teachers reported were necessary to overcome the challenges of implementing new pedagogical practices. Additionally, teachers described that opportunities to reflect on their learning and connect their

  11. Vocal communication in a complex multi-level society: constrained acoustic structure and flexible call usage in Guinea baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciej, Peter; Ndao, Ibrahima; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Fischer, Julia

    2013-09-23

    To understand the evolution of acoustic communication in animals, it is important to distinguish between the structure and the usage of vocal signals, since both aspects are subject to different constraints. In terrestrial mammals, the structure of calls is largely innate, while individuals have a greater ability to actively initiate or withhold calls. In closely related taxa, one would therefore predict a higher flexibility in call usage compared to call structure. In the present study, we investigated the vocal repertoire of free living Guinea baboons (Papio papio) and examined the structure and usage of the animals' vocal signals. Guinea baboons live in a complex multi-level social organization and exhibit a largely tolerant and affiliative social style, contrary to most other baboon taxa. To classify the vocal repertoire of male and female Guinea baboons, cluster analyses were used and focal observations were conducted to assess the usage of vocal signals in the particular contexts. In general, the vocal repertoire of Guinea baboons largely corresponded to the vocal repertoire other baboon taxa. The usage of calls, however, differed considerably from other baboon taxa and corresponded with the specific characteristics of the Guinea baboons' social behaviour. While Guinea baboons showed a diminished usage of contest and display vocalizations (a common pattern observed in chacma baboons), they frequently used vocal signals during affiliative and greeting interactions. Our study shows that the call structure of primates is largely unaffected by the species' social system (including grouping patterns and social interactions), while the usage of calls can be more flexibly adjusted, reflecting the quality of social interactions of the individuals. Our results support the view that the primary function of social signals is to regulate social interactions, and therefore the degree of competition and cooperation may be more important to explain variation in call usage

  12. Using Targeted Active-Learning Exercises and Diagnostic Question Clusters to Improve Students' Understanding of Carbon Cycling in Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskiewicz, April Cordero; Griscom, Heather Peckham; Welch, Nicole Turrill

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we used targeted active-learning activities to help students improve their ways of reasoning about carbon flow in ecosystems. The results of a validated ecology conceptual inventory (diagnostic question clusters [DQCs]) provided us with information about students' understanding of and reasoning about transformation of inorganic and organic carbon-containing compounds in biological systems. These results helped us identify specific active-learning exercises that would be responsive to students' existing knowledge. The effects of the active-learning interventions were then examined through analysis of students' pre- and postinstruction responses on the DQCs. The biology and non–biology majors participating in this study attended a range of institutions and the instructors varied in their use of active learning; one lecture-only comparison class was included. Changes in pre- to postinstruction scores on the DQCs showed that an instructor's teaching method had a highly significant effect on student reasoning following course instruction, especially for questions pertaining to cellular-level, carbon-transforming processes. We conclude that using targeted in-class activities had a beneficial effect on student learning regardless of major or class size, and argue that using diagnostic questions to identify effective learning activities is a valuable strategy for promoting learning, as gains from lecture-only classes were minimal. PMID:22383618

  13. Using targeted active-learning exercises and diagnostic question clusters to improve students' understanding of carbon cycling in ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskiewicz, April Cordero; Griscom, Heather Peckham; Welch, Nicole Turrill

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we used targeted active-learning activities to help students improve their ways of reasoning about carbon flow in ecosystems. The results of a validated ecology conceptual inventory (diagnostic question clusters [DQCs]) provided us with information about students' understanding of and reasoning about transformation of inorganic and organic carbon-containing compounds in biological systems. These results helped us identify specific active-learning exercises that would be responsive to students' existing knowledge. The effects of the active-learning interventions were then examined through analysis of students' pre- and postinstruction responses on the DQCs. The biology and non-biology majors participating in this study attended a range of institutions and the instructors varied in their use of active learning; one lecture-only comparison class was included. Changes in pre- to postinstruction scores on the DQCs showed that an instructor's teaching method had a highly significant effect on student reasoning following course instruction, especially for questions pertaining to cellular-level, carbon-transforming processes. We conclude that using targeted in-class activities had a beneficial effect on student learning regardless of major or class size, and argue that using diagnostic questions to identify effective learning activities is a valuable strategy for promoting learning, as gains from lecture-only classes were minimal.

  14. The Siren song of vocal fundamental frequency for romantic relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah eWeusthoff

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A multitude of factors contribute to why and how romantic relationships are formed as well as whether they ultimately succeed or fail. Drawing on evolutionary models of attraction and speech production as well as integrative models of relationship functioning, this review argues that paralinguistic cues (more specifically the fundamental frequency of the voice that are initially a strong source of attraction also increase couples’ risk for relationship failure. Conceptual similarities and differences between the multiple operationalizations and interpretations of vocal fundamental frequency are discussed and guidelines are presented for understanding both convergent and non-convergent findings. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed.

  15. The siren song of vocal fundamental frequency for romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weusthoff, Sarah; Baucom, Brian R; Hahlweg, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    A multitude of factors contribute to why and how romantic relationships are formed as well as whether they ultimately succeed or fail. Drawing on evolutionary models of attraction and speech production as well as integrative models of relationship functioning, this review argues that paralinguistic cues (more specifically the fundamental frequency of the voice) that are initially a strong source of attraction also increase couples' risk for relationship failure. Conceptual similarities and differences between the multiple operationalizations and interpretations of vocal fundamental frequency are discussed and guidelines are presented for understanding both convergent and non-convergent findings. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed.

  16. The Effect of Conceptual Change Model in the Senior High School Students’ Understanding and Character in Learning Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santyasa I Wayan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Learning physics for senior high school (SMA students is often coloured by misconceptions that hinder students in achieving deep understanding. So a relevant learning model is needed. This study aims to examine the effect of conceptual change model (CCM compared with direct instruction model (DIM on the students’ conceptual understanding and character in the subject area of motion and force. This quasi-experimental research using a non-equivalence pre-test post-test control groups design. The population is 20 classes (738 students of grade X consisted of 8 classes (272 students of SMA 1 Amlapura, 8 classes (256 students of SMA 2 Amlapura, and 6 classes (210 students of SMA 1 Manggis in Karangasem regency in Bali. The random assignment technique is used to assign 6 classes (202 students, or 26.5% of the population. In each school there are set 2 classes each as a CCM group and DIM groups. The data of students’ conceptual understanding is collected by tests, while the characters by questionnaires. To analyse the data a one way MANCOVA statistics was used. The result of the analysis showed that there was a significant difference of effect between CCM group and DIM group on the students’ conceptual understanding and character. The effect of the CCM group is higher than the DIM group on the students’ conceptual understanding and character in learning subject area of motion and force.

  17. Understanding the effects of time on collaborative learning processes in problem based learning: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommes, J; Van den Bossche, P; de Grave, W; Bos, G; Schuwirth, L; Scherpbier, A

    2014-10-01

    Little is known how time influences collaborative learning groups in medical education. Therefore a thorough exploration of the development of learning processes over time was undertaken in an undergraduate PBL curriculum over 18 months. A mixed-methods triangulation design was used. First, the quantitative study measured how various learning processes developed within and over three periods in the first 1,5 study years of an undergraduate curriculum. Next, a qualitative study using semi-structured individual interviews focused on detailed development of group processes driving collaborative learning during one period in seven tutorial groups. The hierarchic multilevel analyses of the quantitative data showed that a varying combination of group processes developed within and over the three observed periods. The qualitative study illustrated development in psychological safety, interdependence, potency, group learning behaviour, social and task cohesion. Two new processes emerged: 'transactive memory' and 'convergence in mental models'. The results indicate that groups are dynamic social systems with numerous contextual influences. Future research should thus include time as an important influence on collaborative learning. Practical implications are discussed.

  18. Dysphonia and vocal fold telangiectasia in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Joseph; Yung, Katherine C

    2014-11-01

    This case report is the first documentation of dysphonia and vocal fold telangiectasia as a complication of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Case report of a 40-year-old man with HHT presenting with 2 years of worsening hoarseness. Hoarseness corresponded with a period of anticoagulation. Endoscopy revealed vocal fold scarring, vocal fold telangiectasias, and plica ventricular is suggestive of previous submucosal vocal fold hemorrhage and subsequent counterproductive compensation with ventricular phonation. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia may present as dysphonia with vocal fold telangiectasias and place patients at risk of vocal fold hemorrhage. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. The teacher's understanding of learned helplessness in children with special needs in primary school

    OpenAIRE

    Tement, Katja

    2012-01-01

    Learned helplessness is very common among students with special needs or students who are less successful in school. Constantly experiencing failure convinces them that they cannot have any influence on being successful with their own activity, and they stop trying. Learned helplessness affects motivation, cognition and child’s emotions. A child, who has developed learned helplessness, cannot overcome it by himself or herself. He or she needs help from an adult. In the research I have focu...

  20. Understanding the soil underfoot: building a national postgraduate soils cohort through participative learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinton, John; Haygarth, Phil; Black, Helaina; Allton, Kathryn

    2015-04-01

    Many of the PhD students starting Soil Science PhDs have only a limited understanding of the wider importance of soils, the state -of-art in other sub disciplines, and have often never seen a soil profile in the field. As the number of students nationally in the UK is also small compared to some other disciplines there is also a need to build a cohort of early career researchers. To address these issues, Lancaster University and the James Hutton Institute together with support from the British Society of Soil Science and the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), ran a 5 day residential foundation soil science 'Summer School' in March 2015. The training school was an intense programme for ambitious and energetic post-graduate students. The course was specifically designed for students who were keen to develop skills in the development of inter-disciplinary research ideas and proposals. Specifically the course addressed: • the different functions in land uses and across landscapes • novel approaches for investigating how soils function • the basics of making a soil description and soil sampling in the field; • the current key challenges in soil science research • the requirements of, and approaches to, soil science research that requires multi-disciplinary and interdisciplinary approaches • the essentials of developing and planning a research project Our approach was to provide a space for the students to both learn from, but also work with some of the leading UK Soil Science experts. We used workshop style lectures, including some delivered via the internet, combined with student research teams working alongside research mentors to produce research proposals to be 'pitched' to a panel at the end of the course. These proposals formed the focus for engagement with the 'experts' making the time the students spent with them concentrated and productive. Feedback from the students was excellent and a variant of the course will be repeated by Cranfield

  1. Understanding Human Hand Gestures for Learning Robot Pick-and-Place Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-I Lin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Programming robots by human demonstration is an intuitive approach, especially by gestures. Because robot pick-and-place tasks are widely used in industrial factories, this paper proposes a framework to learn robot pick-and-place tasks by understanding human hand gestures. The proposed framework is composed of the module of gesture recognition and the module of robot behaviour control. For the module of gesture recognition, transport empty (TE, transport loaded (TL, grasp (G, and release (RL from Gilbreth's therbligs are the hand gestures to be recognized. A convolution neural network (CNN is adopted to recognize these gestures from a camera image. To achieve the robust performance, the skin model by a Gaussian mixture model (GMM is used to filter out non-skin colours of an image, and the calibration of position and orientation is applied to obtain the neutral hand pose before the training and testing of the CNN. For the module of robot behaviour control, the corresponding robot motion primitives to TE, TL, G, and RL, respectively, are implemented in the robot. To manage the primitives in the robot system, a behaviour-based programming platform based on the Extensible Agent Behavior Specification Language (XABSL is adopted. Because the XABSL provides the flexibility and re-usability of the robot primitives, the hand motion sequence from the module of gesture recognition can be easily used in the XABSL programming platform to implement the robot pick-and-place tasks. The experimental evaluation of seven subjects performing seven hand gestures showed that the average recognition rate was 95.96%. Moreover, by the XABSL programming platform, the experiment showed the cube-stacking task was easily programmed by human demonstration.

  2. Singing and Vocal Instruction in Primary Schools: An Analysis from Six Case Studies in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrado, Albina; Rusinek, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    This is an analysis of how specialist music teachers sing and teach how to sing, based on data collected from six case studies carried out in Spanish primary schools. The study aimed at understanding classroom singing practices, and in particular the provision or absence of vocal instruction in relation with teachers' singing models. The findings…

  3. Factors Associated with Problematic Vocalizations in Nursing Home Residents with Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Cornelia; Richards, Kathy; Lambert, Corinne; Doan, Rebecca; Landes, Reid D.; Whall, Ann; Algase, Donna; Kolanowski, Ann; Feldman, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Problematic vocalizations (PVs) are the most frequent and persistent disruptive behaviors exhibited by nursing home residents with dementia. Understanding factors associated with these behaviors are important to prevent or reduce them. We used the Need-Driven Dementia-Compromised Behavior model to identify the characteristics…

  4. From Leisure to Work: Amateur Musicians Taking up Instrumental or Vocal Teaching as a Second Career

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Angela; Hallam, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to increase our understanding of how amateur musicians become teachers as a change of career, how they use their musical and life skills in their teaching, and how their teaching impacts on their musical identity. The questionnaire responses of 67 career-change instrumental and vocal teachers showed evidence of their strong…

  5. Vocal fold elasticity of the Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) – producing high fundamental frequency vocalization with a very long vocal fold

    OpenAIRE

    Riede, Tobias; Titze, Ingo R.

    2008-01-01

    The vocal folds of male Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) are about 3 cm long. If fundamental frequency were to be predicted by a simple vibrating string formula, as is often done for the human larynx, such long vocal folds would bear enormous stress to produce the species-specific mating call with an average fundamental frequency of 1 kHz. Predictions would be closer to 50 Hz. Vocal fold histology revealed the presence of a large vocal ligament between the vocal fold epithelium and...

  6. Understanding Angle and Angle Measure: A Design-Based Research Study Using Context Aware Ubiquitous Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Mobile technologies are quickly becoming tools found in the educational environment. The researchers in this study use a form of mobile learning to support students in learning about angle concepts. Design-based research is used in this study to develop an empirically-substantiated local instruction theory about students' develop of angle and…

  7. Learning English in the Shadows: Understanding Chinese Learners' Experiences of Private Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Kevin Wai-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Given that private tutoring has received increasing attention in research as a global educational phenomenon with significant implications for educational practices, it has become necessary for TESOL researchers and practitioners to become aware of its impact on language learning and pedagogy. This study investigated the learning experience and…

  8. Understanding the Knowledge and Use of Experiential Learning within Pennsylvania 4-H Clubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtel, Robyn; Ewing, John C.; Threeton, Mark; Mincemoyer, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Experiential learning is incorporated into the National 4-H curriculum. However, the state 4-H staff in Pennsylvania is unsure of the current knowledge and use of experiential learning within the local 4-H clubs. An online survey was distributed to Extension educators and volunteer leaders within Pennsylvania to assess the current knowledge and…

  9. Towards a Personality Understanding of Information Technology Students and Their IT Learning in UAE University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qirim, Nabeel; Rouibah, Kamel; Tarhini, Ali; Serhani, Mohamed Adel; Yammahi, Aishah Rashid; Yammahi, Maraim Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    This research investigates the personality characteristics of Information Technology students (CIT) in UAE University (UAEU) and how such features impact their IT learning. To achieve this objective, this research attempts to explain the impact of the Big-5 factors on learning using survey research. Results from 179 respondents suggested that…

  10. Understanding E-Learning Adoption in Brazil: Major Determinants and Gender Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Shintaro; dos Santos, Luiz Miguel Renda

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine factors influencing e-learning adoption and the moderating role of gender. This study extends the technology acceptance model (TAM) by adding attitude and social interaction. The new construct of social interaction is applied to the South American context. Gender effects on e-learning adoption from…

  11. Understanding Impulsivity among Children with Specific Learning Disabilities in Inclusion Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dababneh, Kholoud Adeeb; Al-Zboon, Eman K.

    2018-01-01

    Impulsive behavior is a characteristic of children with specific learning disabilities (SLD), and is related to learning ability. The present study aims to identify impulsivity behavior in children with SLD who attend inclusion schools, from their resource room teachers' perspectives. A 31-item questionnaire that addressed four subscales was…

  12. How Dispositional Learning Analytics helps understanding the worked-example principle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tempelaar, Dirk; Sampson, Demetrios G.; Spector, J. Michael; Ifenthaler, Dirk; Isaías, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    This empirical study aims to demonstrate how Dispositional Learning Analytics can contribute in the investigation of the effectiveness of didactical scenarios in authentic settings, where previous research has mostly been laboratory based. Using a showcase based on learning processes of 1080

  13. Detecting and Understanding the Impact of Cognitive and Interpersonal Conflict in Computer Supported Collaborative Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, David Nadler; Baker, Ryan S. J. d.; Costa, Evandro d. B.; Rose, Carolyn P.; Cui, Yue; de Carvalho, Adriana M. J. B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a model which can automatically detect a variety of student speech acts as students collaborate within a computer supported collaborative learning environment. In addition, an analysis is presented which gives substantial insight as to how students' learning is associated with students' speech acts, knowledge that will…

  14. Listening to Our Students: Understanding How They Learn Research Methods in Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kevin; Fontaine, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    How undergraduate students learn research methods in geography has been understudied. Existing work has focused on course description from the instructor's perspective. This study, however, uses a grounded theory approach to allow students' voices to shape a new theory of how they themselves say that they learn research methods. Data from two…

  15. Design-Based Learning for Biology: Genetic Engineering Experience Improves Understanding of Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellefson, Michelle R.; Brinker, Rebecca A.; Vernacchio, Vincent J.; Schunn, Christian D.

    2008-01-01

    Gene expression is a difficult topic for students to learn and comprehend, at least partially because it involves various biochemical structures and processes occurring at the microscopic level. Designer Bacteria, a design-based learning (DBL) unit for high-school students, applies principles of DBL to the teaching of gene expression. Throughout…

  16. Understanding Teachers' Professional Learning Goals from Their Current Professional Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louws, Monika L.; Meirink, Jacobiene A.; van Veen, Klaas; van Driel, Jan H.

    2018-01-01

    In the day-to-day workplace teachers direct their own learning, but little is known about what drives their decisions about what they would like to learn. These decisions are assumed to be influenced by teachers' current professional concerns. Also, teachers in different professional life phases have different reasons for engaging in professional…

  17. Intergenerational Learning at a Nature Center: Families Using Prior Experiences and Participation Frameworks to Understand Raptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Heather Toomey; McClain, Lucy Richardson

    2014-01-01

    Using a sociocultural framework to approach intergenerational learning, this inquiry examines learning processes used by families during visits to one nature center. Data were collected from videotaped observations of families participating in an environmental education program and a follow-up task to draw the habitat of raptors. Based on a…

  18. Alienation and Engagement: Development of an Alternative Theoretical Framework for Understanding Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Jennifer M.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper it is suggested that the themes of alienation and engagement offer a productive alternative perspective for characterising the student experience of learning in higher education, compared to current dominant perspectives such as that offered by approaches to learning and related concepts. A conceptual and historical background of the…

  19. Understanding the Influence of Organizational Culture and Group Dynamics on Organizational Change and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Colleen; Kline, Theresa

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between organizational culture, group dynamics, and organizational learning in the context of organizational change. Design/methodology/approach: A case study was used to examine cultural and group level factors that potentially influence groups' learning in the context of…

  20. Designing Applications for Physics Learning: Facilitating High School Students' Conceptual Understanding by Using Tablet PCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, June-Yi; Wu, Hsin-Kai; Chien, Sung-Pei; Hwang, Fu-Kwun; Hsu, Ying-Shao

    2015-01-01

    So far relatively little research in education has explored the pedagogical and learning potentials of applications (Apps) on tablet PCs (TPCs). Drawing upon research on learning technologies and taking an embodied perspective, this study first identified educational functionalities of TPCs and generated guidelines to design educational Apps for…

  1. Healthcare for Men and Women with Learning Disabilities: Understanding Inequalities in Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redley, Marcus; Banks, Carys; Foody, Karen; Holland, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Healthcare for men and women with learning disabilities (known internationally as intellectual disabilities) has risen up the political agenda in the United Kingdom, propelled by a report from the charity Mencap. This report has resulted in renewed efforts, set out in "Valuing People Now", to ensure that people with learning disabilities…

  2. Understanding Infants' and Children's Social Learning about Foods: Previous Research and New Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D.; DeJesus, Jasmine M.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental psychologists have devoted significant attention to investigating how children learn from others' actions, emotions, and testimony. Yet most of this research has examined children's socially guided learning about artifacts. The present article focuses on a domain that has received limited attention from those interested in the…

  3. Elaborate Mimetic Vocal Displays by Female Superb Lyrebirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia H Dalziell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Some of the most striking vocalizations in birds are made by males that incorporate vocal mimicry in their sexual displays. Mimetic vocalization in females is largely undescribed, but it is unclear whether this is because of a lack of selection for vocal mimicry in females, or whether the phenomenon has simply been overlooked. These issues are thrown into sharp relief in the superb lyrebird, Menura novaehollandiae, a basal oscine passerine with a lek-like mating system and female uniparental care. The spectacular mimetic song display produced by courting male lyrebirds is a textbook example of a sexually selected trait, but the vocalizations of female lyrebirds are largely unknown. Here, we provide the first analysis of the structure and context of the vocalizations of female lyrebirds. Female lyrebirds were completely silent during courtship; however, females regularly produced sophisticated vocal displays incorporating both lyrebird-specific vocalizations and imitations of sounds within their environment. The structure of female vocalizations varied significantly with context. While foraging, females mostly produced a complex lyrebird-specific song, whereas they gave lyrebird-specific alarm calls most often during nest defense. Within their vocal displays females also included a variety of mimetic vocalizations, including imitations of the calls of dangerous predators, and of alarm calls and song of harmless heterospecifics. Females gave more mimetic vocalizations during nest defense than while foraging, and the types of sounds they imitated varied between these contexts, suggesting that mimetic vocalizations have more than one function. These results are inconsistent with previous portrayals of vocalizations by female lyrebirds as rare, functionless by-products of sexual selection on males. Instead, our results support the hypotheses that complex female vocalizations play a role in nest defense and mediate female-female competition for

  4. Stuttering: A novel bullfrog vocalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Andrea; Suggs, Dianne

    2004-05-01

    The advertisement call of male bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) consists of a series of individual croaks, each of which contains multiple harmonics with a missing or attenuated fundamental frequency of approximately 100 Hz. The envelope of individual croaks has typically been represented in the literature as smooth and unmodulated. From an analysis of 5251 advertisement calls from 17 different choruses over two mating seasons, we show that males add an extra modulation (around 4 Hz) to the envelope of individual croaks, following specific rules. We term these extra modulations stutters. Neither single croak calls nor the first croak in multiple croak calls contains stutters. When stuttering begins, it does so with a croak containing a single stutter, and the number of stutters increases linearly (plus or minus 1 stutter, up to 4 stutters) with the number of croaks. This pattern is stable across individual males (N=10). Playback experiments reveal that vocal responses to stuttered and nonstuttered calls vary with proximity to the stimulus. Close males respond with nonstuttered calls, while far males respond with stuttered calls. The data suggest that nonstuttered calls are used for aggressive or territorial purposes, while stuttered calls are used to attract females.

  5. Vocal cord paralysis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ericka F; Blumin, Joel H

    2009-12-01

    Vocal fold paralysis (VFP) is an increasingly commonly identified problem in the pediatric patient. Diagnostic and management techniques honed in adult laryngologic practice have been successfully applied to children. Iatrogenic causes, including cardiothoracic procedures, remain a common cause of unilateral VFP. Neurologic disorders predominate in the cause of bilateral VFP. Diagnosis with electromyography is currently being evaluated in children. Treatment of VFP is centered around symptomology, which is commonly divided between voice and airway concerns. Speech therapy shows promise in older children. Surgical management for unilateral VFP with injection laryngoplasty is commonly performed and well tolerated. Laryngeal reinnervation is currently being applied to the pediatric population as a permanent treatment and offers several advantages over laryngeal framework procedures. For bilateral VFP, tracheotomy is still commonly performed. Glottic dilation procedures are performed both openly and endoscopically with a high degree of success. VFP is a well recognized problem in pediatric patients with disordered voice and breathing. Some patients will spontaneously recover their laryngeal function. For those who do not, a variety of reliable techniques are available for rehabilitative treatment.

  6. Learning without experience: Understanding the strategic implications of deregulation and competition in the electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomi, A. [School of Economics, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Larsen, E.R. [Dept. of Managements Systems and Information, City University Business School, London (United Kingdom)

    1998-11-01

    As deregulation of the electricity industry continues to gain momentum around the world, electricity companies face unprecedented challenges. Competitive complexity and intensity will increase substantially as deregulated companies find themselves competing in new industries, with new rules, against unfamiliar competitors - and without any history to learn from. We describe the different kinds of strategic issues that newly deregulated utility companies are facing, and the risks that strategic issues implicate. We identify a number of problems induced by experiential learning under conditions of competence-destroying change, and we illustrate ways in which companies can activate history-independent learning processes. We suggest that Micro worlds - a new generation of computer-based learning environments made possible by conceptual and technological progress in the fields of system dynamics and systems thinking - are particularly appropriate tools to accelerate and enhance organizational and managerial learning under conditions of increased competitive complexity. (au)

  7. All for one and one for all: understanding health professionals' experience in individual versus collaborative online learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeill, Heather; Telner, Deanna; Sparaggis-Agaliotis, Alexandra; Hanna, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) may facilitate continuing interprofessional education while overcoming barriers of time and place for busy health care professionals. The purpose of this study was to understand the experiences, advantages, and challenges of group versus individual online learning. Fifteen multidisciplinary health professionals participated in a 12-week online course on either diabetes or traumatic brain injury. This consisted of background e-modules and a longitudinal build-a-case exercise, done either individually or as a group. Focus group sessions exploring participants' experiences after course completion and at 4 months were conducted, transcribed, and analyzed for recurring themes. Participant reflection homework and video-recorded group sessions were used for triangulation of results. Individual learners appreciated the flexibility and control, but experienced decreased motivation. Group learners appreciated the immediate feedback from their co-learners and felt social pressure to come to the weekly sessions prepared but expressed challenges in determining group goal-setting for the session. Both groups felt they learned about interprofessional roles; however, group learners described a richer learning experience and understanding of interprofessional roles through the online collaboration exercise. The intense resources necessary for interprofessional CSCL, including time, faculty development, and technological issues, are described. CSCL is a valuable educational strategy in online learning. While individual online learning may be better suited for short and simple educational interventions such as knowledge acquisition, CSCL seems to allow for richer and deeper learning in complex and interprofessional educational experiences. However, strategies, resources, and faculty development required to enhance CSCL need to be addressed carefully. © 2014 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society

  8. New Educational Environments Aimed at Developing Intercultural Understanding While Reinforcing the Use of English in Experience-Based Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard R. Bruguier

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available New learning environments with communication and information tools are increasingly accessible with technology playing a crucial role in expanding and reconceptualizing student learning experiences. This paper reviews the outcome of an innovative course offered by four universities in three countries: Canada, the United States, and Mexico. Course objectives focused on broadening the understanding of indigenous and non-indigenous peoples primarily in relation to identity as it encouraged students to reflect on their own identity while improving their English skills in an interactive and experiential manner and thus enhancing their intercultural competence.

  9. The effect of learning multimedia on students’ understanding of macroscopic, sub-microscopic, and symbolic levels in electrolyte and nonelectrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliyawati; Rohman, I.; Kadarohman, A.

    2018-05-01

    This research aims to investigate the effect of learning multimedia on students’ understanding of macroscopic, sub-microscopic, and symbolic levels in electrolyte and nonelectrolyte topic. The quasi-experimental with one group pre-test post-test design was used. Thirty-five students were experimental class and another thirty-five were control class. The instrument was used is three representation levels. The t-test was performed on average level of 95% to identify the significant difference between experimental class and control class. The results show that the normalized gain average of experimental class is 0.75 (high) and the normalized gain average of control class is 0.45 (moderate). There is significant difference in students’ understanding in sub-microscopic and symbolic levels and there is not significant difference of students’ understanding in macroscopic level between experimental class and control class. The normalized gain of students’ understanding of macroscopic, sub-microscopic and symbolic in experimental class are 0.6 (moderate), 0.75 (high), and 0.64 (moderate), while the normalized gain of students’ understanding of macroscopic, sub-microscopic and symbolic in control class are 0.49 (moderate), 0.39 (high), and 0.3 (moderate). Therefore, it can be concluded that learning multimedia can help in improving students’ understanding especially in sub-microscopic and symbolic levels.

  10. The Effect of 7E Learning Model on Conceptual Understandings of Prospective Science Teachers on 'de Broglie Matter Waves' Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryem Gorecek Baybars

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study is to determine the conceptual understanding that prospective Science teachers have relating "de Broglie: Matter waves" and to investigate the effect of the instruction performed, on the conceptual understanding. This study was performed at a state university located in the western part of Turkey, with the Faculty of Education-Science Teaching students (2nd year / 48 individual in the academic year of 2010-2011. The study was planned as a single group pretest-posttest design. A two-step question was used in the study, prior to and after the instruction. Lessons were conducted using the 7E learning model in the instruction process. When all these results are evaluated, it can be said that the conceptual understanding of the prospective teachers regarding "de Broglie; matter waves" has been taken place. In general, when all the sections are examined, it has been observed that the prospective teachers have more alternative concepts prior to the instruction and more scientific concepts after the instruction. In this process, besides instruction, the prospective teachers have not taken any place in a different application regarding the basic concepts of quantum physics. Therefore, it has been determined that the 7E learning model used in the research and the activities included in the 7E learning model are effective in conceptual understanding.

  11. Prosthetic avian vocal organ controlled by a freely behaving bird based on a low dimensional model of the biomechanical periphery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel M Arneodo

    Full Text Available Because of the parallels found with human language production and acquisition, birdsong is an ideal animal model to study general mechanisms underlying complex, learned motor behavior. The rich and diverse vocalizations of songbirds emerge as a result of the interaction between a pattern generator in the brain and a highly nontrivial nonlinear periphery. Much of the complexity of this vocal behavior has been understood by studying the physics of the avian vocal organ, particularly the syrinx. A mathematical model describing the complex periphery as a nonlinear dynamical system leads to the conclusion that nontrivial behavior emerges even when the organ is commanded by simple motor instructions: smooth paths in a low dimensional parameter space. An analysis of the model provides insight into which parameters are responsible for generating a rich variety of diverse vocalizations, and what the physiological meaning of these parameters is. By recording the physiological motor instructions elicited by a spontaneously singing muted bird and computing the model on a Digital Signal Processor in real-time, we produce realistic synthetic vocalizations that replace the bird's own auditory feedback. In this way, we build a bio-prosthetic avian vocal organ driven by a freely behaving bird via its physiologically coded motor commands. Since it is based on a low-dimensional nonlinear mathematical model of the peripheral effector, the emulation of the motor behavior requires light computation, in such a way that our bio-prosthetic device can be implemented on a portable platform.

  12. Improving Students' Conceptual Understanding of the Greenhouse Effect Using Theory-Based Learning Materials that Promote Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinfried, Sibylle; Aeschbacher, Urs; Rottermann, Benno

    2012-01-01

    Students' everyday ideas of the greenhouse effect are difficult to change. Environmental education faces the challenge of developing instructional settings that foster students' conceptual understanding concept of the greenhouse effect in order to understand global warming. To facilitate students' conceptual development with regard to the…

  13. Analytics in Online and Offline Language Learning Environments: The Role of Learning Design to Understand Student Online Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienties, Bart; Lewis, Tim; McFarlane, Ruth; Nguyen, Quan; Toetenel, Lisette

    2018-01-01

    Language education has a rich history of research and scholarship focusing on the effectiveness of learning activities and the impact these have on student behaviour and outcomes. One of the basic assumptions in foreign language pedagogy and CALL in particular is that learners want to be able to communicate effectively with native speakers of…

  14. Vocal fold submucosal infusion technique in phonomicrosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, E S; Hillman, R E; Zeitels, S M

    1996-05-01

    Phonomicrosurgery is optimized by maximally preserving the vocal fold's layered microstructure (laminae propriae). The technique of submucosal infusion of saline and epinephrine into the superficial lamina propria (SLP) was examined to delineate how, when, and why it was helpful toward this surgical goal. A retrospective review revealed that the submucosal infusion technique was used to enhance the surgery in 75 of 152 vocal fold procedures that were performed over the last 2 years. The vocal fold epithelium was noted to be adherent to the vocal ligament in 29 of the 75 cases: 19 from previous surgical scarring, 4 from cancer, 3 from sulcus vocalis, 2 from chronic hemorrhage, and 1 from radiotherapy. The submucosal infusion technique was most helpful when the vocal fold epithelium required resection and/or when extensive dissection in the SLP was necessary. The infusion enhanced the surgery by vasoconstriction of the microvasculature in the SLP, which improved visualization during cold-instrument tangential dissection. Improved visualization facilitated maximal preservation of the SLP, which is necessary for optimal pliability of the overlying epithelium. The infusion also improved the placement of incisions at the perimeter of benign, premalignant, and malignant lesions, and thereby helped preserve epithelium uninvolved by the disorder.

  15. Phonosurgery of vocal fold polyps, cysts and nodules is beneficial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jane Bjerg; Rasmussen, Niels

    2013-01-01

    This study reports our experience with microscopic phonosurgery (PS) of benign lesions of the vocal folds.......This study reports our experience with microscopic phonosurgery (PS) of benign lesions of the vocal folds....

  16. Understanding pharmacokinetics: are YouTube videos a useful learning resource?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azer, S A

    2014-07-01

    To investigate whether YouTube videos on pharmacokinetics can be a useful learning resource for medical students. YouTube was searched from 01 November to 15 November 2013 for search terms "Pharmacokinetics", "Drug absorption", "Drug distribution", Drug metabolism", "Drug elimination", "Biliary excretion of drugs", and "Renal excretion of drugs".  Only videos in the English and those matching the inclusion criteria were included. For each video, the following characteristic data were collected: title, URL, duration, number of viewers, date uploaded, and viewership per day, like, dislike, number of comments, number of video sharing, and the uploader /creator. Using standardized criteria comprising technical, content, authority and pedagogy parameters, three evaluators independently assessed the videos for educational usefulness. Data were analyzed using SPSS software and the agreement between the evaluators was calculated using Cohen's kappa analysis. The search identified 1460 videos. Of these, only 48 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Only 30 were classified as educationally useful videos (62.5%) scoring 13.83±0.45 (mean±SD) while the remaining 18 videos were not educationally useful (37.5%) scoring 6.48±1.64 (mean±SD), p = 0.000. The educationally useful videos were created by pharmacologists/educators 83.3% (25/30), professors from two universities 13.3% (04/30) and private tutoring body 3.3% (01/30). The useful videos were viewed by 12096 (65.4%) and had a total of 433332 days on YouTube, while the non-educationally useful videos were viewed by 6378 (34.6%) viewers and had 20684 days on YouTube. No correlation was found between video total score and number of like (R2 0.258), dislike (R2 0.103), viewers (R2 0.186), viewership/day (R2 0.256), comments (R2 0.250), or share (R2 0.174). The agreement between the three evaluators had an overall Cohen's kappa score in the range of 0.582-0.949. YouTube videos on pharmacokinetics and drug elimination showed a

  17. Implementation of 5E Inquiry Incorporated with Analogy Learning Approach to Enhance Conceptual Understanding of Chemical Reaction Rate for Grade 11 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supasorn, Saksri; Promarak, Vinich

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to enhance student understanding of the scientific concepts of chemical reaction rate. Forty-four grade 11 students were the target group. The treatment tools were seven learning plans of 5E inquiry incorporated with an analogy learning approach during 15 hours of class time. In each learning plan, the students…

  18. A Trip Through the Virtual Ocean: Understanding Basic Oceanic Process Using Real Data and Collaborative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, D. W.

    2012-12-01

    How can we effectively teach undergraduates the fundamentals of physical, chemical and biological processes in the ocean? Understanding physical circulation and biogeochemical processes is essential, yet it can be difficult for an undergraduate to easily grasp important concepts such as using temperature and salinity as conservative tracers, nutrient distribution, ageing of water masses, and thermocline variability. Like many other topics, it is best learned not in a lecture setting, but working with real data: plotting values, making predictions, and making mistakes. Part I: Using temperature and salinity values from any location in the world ocean (World Ocean Atlas), combined with an excellent user interface (http://ferret.pmel.noaa.gov), students are asked to answer a series of specific questions related to ocean circulation. Using established temperature and salinity values to characterize different water masses, students are able to identify various water masses and gain insight to physical circulation processes. Questions related to ocean circulation include: How far south and at what depth does NADW extend into the S. Atlantic? Is deep water formed in the North Pacific? How and why does the depth of the thermocline vary with latitude in the Atlantic Ocean? How deep does the Mediterranean Water descend as it leaves the Straits of Gibraltar? How far into the Atlantic can you see the influence of the Amazon River? Is there any Antarctic Bottom Water in the North Pacific? Collaborating with another student typically leads to increased engagement. Especially in large lecture settings, where one teacher is not able to address student questions or concerns, working in pairs or in groups of three is best. Part II: Using the same web-based viewer and data set students are subsequently assigned one oceanic property (phosphate, nitrate, silicate, O2, or AOU) and asked to construct three different plots: 1) vertical depth profile at one location; 2) latitude vs. depth

  19. Learned Helplessness: A Model to Understand and Overcome a Child's Extreme Reaction to Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balk, David

    1983-01-01

    The author reviews literature on childrens' reactions to perceived failure and offers "learned helplessness" as a model to explain why a child who makes a mistake gives up. Suggestions for preventing these reactions are given. (Author/JMK)

  20. Understanding `green chemistry' and `sustainability': an example of problem-based learning (PBL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günter, Tuğçe; Akkuzu, Nalan; Alpat, Şenol

    2017-10-01

    Background: This study uses problem-based learning (PBL) to ensure that students comprehend the significance of green chemistry better by experiencing the stages of identifying the problem, developing hypotheses, and providing solutions within the problem-solving process.