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Sample records for understanding ultrasonic separation

  1. Ultrasonic flotational separation of syrup with polyacrylamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng SiXian; Qiu TaiQiu; Xie XiongFei; Hu SongQing

    1998-01-01

    A 60 degrees Bx solution of Australian raw sugar was treated at 80 degrees C with 300 ppm phosphoric acid and neutralized to pH 7 with Ca(OH)2. The resulting syrup (as model cane syrup rather than phosphatated liquor?) was subjected to flotational separation with and without ultrasonic vibration (16.5-33 kHz, 20-300 W) and/or addition of polyacrylamide (PAM; dose not stated)

  2. Study on a particle separator using ultrasonic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Seop; Kwon, Jae Hwa; Seo, Dae Chul; Yun, Dong Jin

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the theory, design and evaluation of a smart device for the enhanced separation of particles mixed in fluid. The smart device takes advantage of the ultrasonic standing wave, which was generated by the operation of a piezoceramic PZT patch installed in the smart device. The details of the device design including the electro-acoustical modelling for separation and PZT transducer are described at the first. Based on this design, the separation device was fabricated and evaluated. In the experiments, an optical camera with a zoom lense was used to monitor the position of interested particles within the separation channel layer in the device. The electric impedance of the PZT patch bonded on the separation device was measured. The device shows a strong levitation and separation force against 50m diameter particles mixed with water at the separation channel in the device. Experimental results also showed that the device can work at both heavy and light sand particles mixed with water due to the generated standing wave field in the separation channel.

  3. Power spectrum analysis of ultrasonic vocalization elicited by maternal separation in rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ise, Satoko; Ohta, Hisashi

    2009-08-04

    The present study investigated how frequency distribution of maternal separation-induced ultrasonic vocalization was altered by environmental stimuli and pharmacological agents. Sprague-Dawley rat pups at 10 days were used to measure numbers and frequencies of the ultrasonic vocalizations under various ambient temperatures and with pharmacological manipulations of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and GABAergic systems. The ultrasonic vocalization consisted of two distinct peaks in the frequency range of 30 kHz to 50 kHz. The area under the curve (AUC) in the high-frequency range and the number of the ultrasonic vocalizations increased when ambient temperature was lowered. Systemic administration of a selective CRF1 receptor antagonist, NBI27914, and a typical anxiolytic, diazepam, decreased the AUC in the high-frequency range and the number of the ultrasonic vocalizations in a dose-dependent manner at an ambient temperature of 24 degrees C. The AUC in the low-frequency range did not change with an alteration in ambient temperature or treatment with NBI27914 and diazepam except a high dose (1 mg/kg) of diazepam. These results demonstrated that emotional levels of isolated pups reflected not only the number but also the frequency distribution of maternal separation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations. High-frequency components, but not low-frequency components, of the ultrasonic vocalization were sensitive to changes in negative affective state of isolated pups.

  4. Numerical modeling, calibration, and validation of an ultrasonic separator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappon, H.J.; Keesman, K.J.

    2013-01-01

    Our overall goal is to apply acoustic separation technology for the recovery of valuable particulate matter from wastewater in industry. Such large-scale separator systems require detailed design and evaluation to optimize the system performance at the earliest stage possible. Numerical models can

  5. The effect of ultrasonic energy on the separation of cytoplasmic RNA fractions

    OpenAIRE

    D. Tyrawska-Spychałowa; Z. Adamczyk; B. Halicz

    2015-01-01

    Plant tissue -4 days old germs of Zea mays and Pisum sativum were subjected to ultrasonic energy using generator with a constant frequency of 800 kHz. RNA was isolated by Mieczyński’s modification of the method described by Georgiev. Preparations of RNA were separated by electrophoresis on the coloured agar-gel. Depending on the degree of ultrasonication changes in three fractions of RNA: A1 - 28 S, A2 - 18 S and A3 - 4 S were observed

  6. The effect of ultrasonic energy on the separation of cytoplasmic RNA fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tyrawska-Spychałowa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant tissue -4 days old germs of Zea mays and Pisum sativum were subjected to ultrasonic energy using generator with a constant frequency of 800 kHz. RNA was isolated by Mieczyński’s modification of the method described by Georgiev. Preparations of RNA were separated by electrophoresis on the coloured agar-gel. Depending on the degree of ultrasonication changes in three fractions of RNA: A1 - 28 S, A2 - 18 S and A3 - 4 S were observed

  7. Efficacy of Ultrasonic Homogenization in the Separation of Benzene-n-Heptane Mixture by Liquid Membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B.S.; Chung, T.S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Sung Kyun Kwan University, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    In the separation of benzene-n-heptane mixture by liquid membrane, the efficacy of ultrasonic homogenization in emulsification was studied with two anionic surfactants. The two anionic surfactants used were triethanolamine lauryl sulfate and sodium polyoxyethylene(2) lauryl ether sulfate. The two anionic surfactants used were triethanolamine lauryl sulfate and sodium polyoxyethylene(2) lauryl ether stifle. The highest value of the separation factor obtained by ultrasonic homogenization was approximately three times as large as that for triethanolamine lauryl sulfate and one and a half times as large as that for sodium polyoxyethylene(2) lauryl sulfate when the mechanical stirring was used on the same operational conditions. The lowest membrane breakup was observed when the highest value of the separation factor was achieved with sodium polyoxyethylene(2) lauryl sulfate. 14 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Intensification of separation of extraction emulsions in systems with tributyl phosphate in ultrasonic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khavskij, N.N.; Kagerman'yan, V.S.; Kanevskij, I.N.; Kim, S.P.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental principles have been studied determining the separation of extraction emulsions appearing in the course of the aqueous and ammonia reextraction of molybdenum from tributylphosphate (TBP) in the ultrasonic field. Piezoelectric radiators with a frequency of 0.8 to 1,0 MHz are used as ultrasonic generators. The organic extract contains 7 g/1 Mo within the hydrosolvate complex. Acceleration of the separation process has been established to take place in the ultrasound region 0.25 to 1.25 W/cm 2 for the aqueous and ammonia systems. The optimal conditions for the separation process exist within 0.5 to 0.65 W/cm 2 , they being 18 minutes for the aqueous and 16 minutes for the ammonia emulsion. It is demonstrated that as a result of the superposition of the ultrasound over the emulsions being formed by TBP with water and ammonia, the separation of the aqueous emulsions increases by a factor of 5 to 6 and of the ammonia emulsions - by a factor of 50 to 80. It is advisable that the ultrasound emulsion treatment for 5 to 10 minutes be coupled with a subsequent settling. As this takes place, the total period of the phase separation will be 18 to 20 minutes. The separation rate increases with temperature. The maximum emulsion separation acceleration is observed within 25 to 30 deg C. The possibility has been revealed to realize the process of the ultrasound intensification of the emulsion separation process by using small-sized extraction equipment

  9. Ultrasonic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, E G

    1962-01-01

    Ultrasonic Physics, Second Edition, provides an introduction to the fundamental principles of ultrasonic physics. The book opens with a discussion of the sources of ultrasound. This is followed by separate chapters on the properties and detection of ultrasonic radiation; measurement of propagation constants, i.e., the velocity and absorption, of ultrasound; ultrasound propagation in gases, liquids, and solids; and ultrasound propagation in aerosols, suspensions, and emulsions. The final chapter covers miscellaneous physical and physico-chemical actions, including dispersion and coagulation of

  10. Mechanism of extraction emulsion separation with tributyl phosphate in ultrasonic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khavskij, N.N.; Kagerman'yan, V.S.; Kanevskij, I.N.; Kim, S.P.; Smirnov, Yu.R.

    1977-01-01

    The main specific features of separating extraction emulsions with the help of ultrasound, accelerating the separation process 5-6 times, have been studied. The emulsions prepared from TBP containing 7 g/m of Mo and 3 g/l of W, water, aqueous solution of sodium oleate, and NH 4 OH have been investigated. The process of emulsion separation can be divided into two stages: a fast stage where coagulation proceeds due to a radiation pressure and orthokinetic collisions, and a slow stage proceeding because of hydrodynamic forces. For qualitative and fast separation of the emulsions it is necessary to apply ultrasound from the beginning of separation when concentration of large particles is noticeable

  11. Understanding nonlinear vibration behaviours in high-power ultrasonic surgical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Andrew; Cardoni, Andrea; Cerisola, Niccolò; Lucas, Margaret

    2015-04-08

    Ultrasonic surgical devices are increasingly used in oral, craniofacial and maxillofacial surgery to cut mineralized tissue, offering the surgeon high accuracy with minimal risk to nerve and vessel tissue. Power ultrasonic devices operate in resonance, requiring their length to be a half-wavelength or multiple-half-wavelength. For bone surgery, devices based on a half-wavelength have seen considerable success, but longer multiple-half-wavelength endoscopic devices have recently been proposed to widen the range of surgeries. To provide context for these developments, some examples of surgical procedures and the associated designs of ultrasonic cutting tips are presented. However, multiple-half-wavelength components, typical of endoscopic devices, have greater potential to exhibit nonlinear dynamic behaviours that have a highly detrimental effect on device performance. Through experimental characterization of the dynamic behaviour of endoscopic devices, it is demonstrated how geometrical features influence nonlinear dynamic responses. Period doubling, a known route to chaotic behaviour, is shown to be significantly influenced by the cutting tip shape, whereas the cutting tip has only a limited effect on Duffing-like responses, particularly the shape of the hysteresis curve, which is important for device stability. These findings underpin design, aiming to pave the way for a new generation of ultrasonic endoscopic surgical devices.

  12. Stigma or Separation? Understanding the Incarceration-Divorce Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoglia, Michael; Remster, Brianna; King, Ryan D.

    2011-01-01

    Prior research suggests a correlation between incarceration and marital dissolution, although questions remain as to why this association exists. Is it the stigma associated with "doing time" that drives couples apart? Or is it simply the duration of physical separation that leads to divorce? This research utilizes data from the National…

  13. Comparison of the time required to create secondary fracture of separated file fragments by using ultrasonic vibration under various canal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terauchi, Yoshitsugu; O'Leary, Le; Yoshioka, Takatomo; Suda, Hideaki

    2013-10-01

    Nickel-titanium files often separate because of mechanical fatigue. The purpose of this study was to determine safe preparation techniques for separated file removal by using ultrasonics. Fifty nickel-titanium file fragments were divided into 5 groups. An ultrasonic tip was activated on a file fragment positioned between dentin blocks simulating several canal conditions: Group 1 consisted of the fragment protruding from a pair of straight dentin blocks. For group 2, the fragment was also positioned between 2 straight dentin blocks except one block was positioned 1 mm more apically than the other block, simulating a troughed area that is often created during file removal attempts. For groups 3-5, the fragment was positioned similarly as group 2 but between blocks with 30°, 45°, and 60° curvatures, respectively. The time it took for secondary fracture to occur was recorded, and the data were statistically analyzed. Fragments with dentin wall supporting on the opposite side of ultrasonic activation site resisted fracture significantly longer than those without it. Fragments in 30° and 45° curved blocks took significantly longer to fracture than the other groups (Fisher protected least significant difference, P ultrasonic tip was applied to the inner curvature of the canal. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. New experimental contributions to understanding the effect of ultrasonic irradiation on tomatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elena, A.

    1974-01-01

    Irradiation of Aurora 100 tomatoes by a hydrodynamic ultrasonic generator with a frequency of 25 kHz per sec intensifies seed germination and the growth of the plants, causing precosity and increasing the output by 15.63 to 37.65%. The most effective radiation time (between 20 and 40 min) intensifies the phenophases. It causes some increase in output and changes in the chemical compositions of the fruits.

  15. Selective breeding for infant rat separation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations: developmental precursors of passive and active coping styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelli, Susan A; Hofer, Myron A

    2007-09-04

    Human depression and anxiety disorders show inherited biases across generations, as do antisocial disorders characterized by aggression. Each condition is preceded in children by behavioral inhibition or aggressive behavior, respectively, and both are characterized by separation anxiety disorders. In affected families, adults and children exhibit different forms of altered autonomic nervous system regulation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in response to stress. Because it is difficult to determine mechanisms accounting for these associations, animal studies are useful for studying the fundamental relationships between biological and behavioral traits. Pharmacologic and behavioral studies suggest that infant rat ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) are a measure of an early anxiety-like state related to separation anxiety. However, it was not known whether or not early ultrasound emissions in infant rats are markers for genetic risk for anxiety states later in life. To address these questions, we selectively bred two lines of rats based on high and low rates of USV to isolation at postnatal (P) 10 days of age. To our knowledge, ours is the only laboratory that has ever selectively bred on the basis of an infantile trait related to anxiety. The High and Low USV lines show two distinct sets of patterns of behavior, physiology and neurochemistry from infancy through adulthood. As adults High line rats demonstrate "anxious"/"depressed" phenotypes in behavior and autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulation to standard laboratory tests. In Lows, on the other hand, behavior and autonomic regulation are consistent with an "aggressive" phenotype. The High and Low USV lines are the first genetic animal models implicating long-term associations of contrasting "coping styles" with early attachment responses. They thus present a potentially powerful model for examining gene-environment interactions in the development of life-long affective regulation.

  16. Time-of-flight dependency on transducer separation distance in a reflective-path guided-wave ultrasonic flow meter at zero flow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aanes, Magne; Kippersund, Remi Andre; Lohne, Kjetil Daae; Frøysa, Kjell-Eivind; Lunde, Per

    2017-08-01

    Transit-time flow meters based on guided ultrasonic wave propagation in the pipe spool have several advantages compared to traditional inline ultrasonic flow metering. The extended interrogation field, obtained by continuous leakage from guided waves traveling in the pipe wall, increases robustness toward entrained particles or gas in the flow. In reflective-path guided-wave ultrasonic flow meters (GW-UFMs), the flow equations are derived from signals propagating solely in the pipe wall and from signals passing twice through the fluid. In addition to the time-of-flight (TOF) through the fluid, the fluid path experiences an additional time delay upon reflection at the opposite pipe wall due to specular and non-specular reflections. The present work investigates the influence of these reflections on the TOF in a reflective-path GW-UFM as a function of transducer separation distance at zero flow conditions. Two models are used to describe the signal propagation through the system: (i) a transient full-wave finite element model, and (ii) a combined plane-wave and ray-tracing model. The study shows that a range-dependent time delay is associated with the reflection of the fluid path, introducing transmitter-receiver distance dependence. Based on these results, the applicability of the flow equations derived using model (ii) is discussed.

  17. Involvement of the strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor in the anxiolytic effects of GlyT1 inhibitors on maternal separation-induced ultrasonic vocalization in rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Hiroko; Furuya, Yoshiaki; Sawada, Kohei; Asada, Takashi

    2015-01-05

    Several studies have shown that glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1) inhibitors have anxiolytic actions. There are two types of glycine receptor: the strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor (GlyA) and the strychnine-insensitive glycine receptor (GlyB); however, which receptor is the main contributor to the anxiolytic actions of GlyT1 inhibitors is yet to be determined. Here, we clarified which glycine receptor is the main contributor to the anxiolytic effects of GlyT1 inhibitors by using maternal separation-induced ultrasonic vocalization (USV) by rat pups as an index of anxiety. We confirmed that administration of the benzodiazepine diazepam or the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitaloplam, which are both clinically proven anxiolytics, or the GlyT1 inhibitor SSR504734 (2-chloro-N-[(S)-phenyl[(2S)-piperidin-2-yl] methyl]-3-trifluoromethyl benzamide), decreases USV in rat pups. In addition, we showed that another GlyT1 inhibitor, ALX5407 ((R)-N-[3-(4'-fluorophenyl)-3(4'-phenylphenoxy)propyl]sarcosine) also decreases USV in rat pups. SSR504734- or ALX5407-induced decreases in USV were dose-dependently reversed by administration of the GlyA antagonist strychnine, whereas the diazepam- or escitalopram-induced decreases in USV were not. Furthermore, GlyT1-induced decreases in USV were not reversed by administration of the GlyB antagonist L-687,414. Together, these results suggest that GlyA activation is the main contributor to the anxiolytic actions of GlyT1 inhibitors and that the anxiolytic actions of diazepam and escitalopram cannot be attributed to GlyA activation. Our findings provide new insights into the importance of the activation of GlyA in the anxiolytic effects of GlyT1 inhibitors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ultrasonic viewing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Juro.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the safety of reactor operation by enabling to detect the states and positions of fuel assemblies over a wide range with a set of ultrasonic viewing device comprising a rotatable ultrasonic transmitter-receiver and a reflector mounted with an adjustable angle. Constitution: A driving portion for a ultrasonic viewing device is provided to a rotary plug closing the opening of a reactor vessel and a guide pipe suspending below the coolant level is provided to the driving portion. An ultrasonic transmitter-receiver is provided at the end of the holder tube in the guide pipe. A reflector is provided at the upper position of the reactor core so as to correspond to the ultrasonic transmitter-receiver. The ultrasonic transmitter-receiver, positioned by the driving portion, performs horizontal movement for scanning the entire surface of the top of the reactor core, as well as vertical movement covering the gap between the upper mechanism on the reactor and the reactor core, whereby the confirmation for the separation of the control rod and the detection for the states of the reactor core can be conducted by the reflection waves from the reflector. (Moriyama, K.)

  19. Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Doug [Baker-Hughes Oilfield Operation Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Leggett, Jim [Baker-Hughes Oilfield Operation Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2013-07-29

    The Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager project has a goal to develop a wireline ultrasonic imager that is capable of operating in temperatures up to 300°C (572°F) and depths up to 10 km (32,808 ft). This will address one of the critical needs in any EGS development of understanding the hydraulic flow paths in the reservoir. The ultrasonic imaging is well known in the oil and gas industry as one of the best methods for fracture evaluation; providing both high resolution and complete azimuthal coverage of the borehole. This enables fracture detection and characterization, both natural and induced, providing information as to their location, dip direction and dip magnitude. All of these factors are critical to fully understand the fracture system to enable the optimization of the thermal drainage through injectors and producers in a geothermal resource.

  20. Ultrasonic mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueneke, B.

    1982-01-01

    608 women are examined by means of ultrasonic mammography during the period of 1 year. 432 patients were examined with the compound method with the U.I. Octoson, a water tank scanner, and 176 patients with the real time method with a directly connected linear-array-scanner. The following results were obtained at the end of the examination period: In the ultrasonic and also in the X-ray mammogram tumour diameters can be determined with an error rate of +- 30%. In the diagnosing of carcinomas, a significant dependence of the exactness on the sice of the tumour is found for the combination of the five methods tested (clinical examination, X-ray mammography, ultrasonic mammography, thermography, cytology). Classifying the individual methods with regard to their exactness, X-ray mammography ranks in front of ultrasonic mammography. Mastopathic changes in the breast can be screened by means of ultrasonic mammography. The structure of the changes can be determined more exactly than with an X-ray picture which is due to the possibility of differentiating solid and cystic structures. In diagnosing fibro-adenomas and establishing diagnoses on young women with dense gland bodies, ultrasonic mammography is superior to radiology both in the ability of screening a finding of a fibro-adenoma (US=88%, X-ray=75%) and in the possibility of classifying it as ''more benign than malignant''. (orig./MG) [de

  1. Understanding the mental health consequences of family separation for refugees: Implications for policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alexander; Hess, Julia Meredith; Bybee, Deborah; Goodkind, Jessica R

    2018-01-01

    Consistent evidence documents the negative impacts of family separation on refugee mental health and concerns for the welfare of distant family members and desire to reunite with family members as priorities for refugees postmigration. Less is known about refugees' emic perspectives on their experiences of family separation. Using mixed methods data from a community-based mental health intervention study, we found that family separation was a major source of distress for refugees and that it was experienced in a range of ways: as fear for family still in harm's way, as a feeling of helplessness, as cultural disruption, as the greatest source of distress since resettlement, and contributing to mixed emotions around resettlement. In addition to these qualitative findings, we used quantitative data to test the relative contribution of family separation to refugees' depression/anxiety symptoms, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and psychological quality of life. Separation from a family member was significantly related to all 3 measures of mental health, and it explained significant additional variance in all 3 measures even after accounting for participants' overall level of trauma exposure. Relative to 26 other types of trauma exposure, family separation was 1 of only 2 traumatic experiences that explained additional variance in all 3 measures of mental health. Given the current global refugee crisis and the need for policies to address this large and growing issue, this research highlights the importance of considering the ways in which family separation impacts refugee mental health and policies and practices that could help ameliorate this ongoing stressor. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Particle separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    Solid particles are separated from a liquid which also contains ferric hydroxide by subjecting the liquid to ultrasonic agitation from a transducer in order to break up the flocs so that they will pass with the liquid through a filter belt. The belt thus retains the solid particles without interference from the flocs. As shown the woven nylon belt collects rare radioactive solid particles from liquid and carries them under sensors. The belt is washed clean, with further ultrasonic agitation in a trough on its return run. (author)

  3. A novel separation/preconcentration technique based on ultrasonic dispersion liquid-liquid microextraction for determination of trace cobalt by flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingci Li

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An improved method for the determination of trace cobalt in water samples has been developed using ultrasonic dispersion liquid-liquid microextraction (US-DLLME prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS analysis. In this method, cobalt was extracted into the fine droplets of carbon tetrachloride after chelate formation with the water soluble ligand, ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC. The fine droplets of carbon tetrachloride were formed and dispersed in the aqueous sample with the help of ultrasonic waves which accelerated the formation of the fine cloudy solution without using disperser solvents. Under optimum conditions, the calibration curve was linear in the range of 2.5-500 μg L-1, with a detection limit of 0.8 μg L-1. The relative standard deviation (RSD for ten replicate measurements of 20 and 500 μg L-1 of cobalt were 3.3 and 2.2%. This proposed method was successfully applied to tap water, river water, and sea water, and accuracy was assessed through the analysis of certified reference water or recovery experiments. Operation simplicity, low cost, high enrichment factor, and low consumption of the extraction solvent are the main advantages of the proposed method.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v26i1.2

  4. Ultrasonic Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Automation Industries Inc. has had more than $2 million in contracts to produce innovative equipment for the Apollo program. When Marshall Space Flight Center sought a fast nondestructive way to inspect butt welds in aluminum alloys for spacecraft, the company developed a reliable ultrasonic device using multiple transducers called "delta manipulators" which detect lack of weld penetration not readily seen in radiograph automation. Industry soon adapted the ultrasonic equipment to a unique rail inspection device that saves countless man hours. Device is contained in self propelled railroad cars produced and operated by the company to check old track welds for deterioration.

  5. Understanding the free energy barrier and multiple timescale dynamics of charge separation in organic photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yaming; Song, Linze; Shi, Qiang

    2018-02-01

    By employing several lattice model systems, we investigate the free energy barrier and real-time dynamics of charge separation in organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. It is found that the combined effects of the external electric field, entropy, and charge delocalization reduce the free energy barrier significantly. The dynamic disorder reduces charge carrier delocalization and results in the increased charge separation barrier, while the effect of static disorder is more complicated. Simulation of the real-time dynamics indicates that the free charge generation process involves multiple time scales, including an ultrafast component within hundreds of femtoseconds, an intermediate component related to the relaxation of the hot charge transfer (CT) state, and a slow component on the time scale of tens of picoseconds from the thermally equilibrated CT state. Effects of hot exciton dissociation as well as its dependence on the energy offset between the Frenkel exciton and the CT state are also analyzed. The current results indicate that only a small energy offset between the band gap and the lowest energy CT state is needed to achieve efficient free charge generation in OPV devices, which agrees with recent experimental findings.

  6. Understanding the free energy barrier and multiple timescale dynamics of charge separation in organic photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yaming; Song, Linze; Shi, Qiang

    2018-02-28

    By employing several lattice model systems, we investigate the free energy barrier and real-time dynamics of charge separation in organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. It is found that the combined effects of the external electric field, entropy, and charge delocalization reduce the free energy barrier significantly. The dynamic disorder reduces charge carrier delocalization and results in the increased charge separation barrier, while the effect of static disorder is more complicated. Simulation of the real-time dynamics indicates that the free charge generation process involves multiple time scales, including an ultrafast component within hundreds of femtoseconds, an intermediate component related to the relaxation of the hot charge transfer (CT) state, and a slow component on the time scale of tens of picoseconds from the thermally equilibrated CT state. Effects of hot exciton dissociation as well as its dependence on the energy offset between the Frenkel exciton and the CT state are also analyzed. The current results indicate that only a small energy offset between the band gap and the lowest energy CT state is needed to achieve efficient free charge generation in OPV devices, which agrees with recent experimental findings.

  7. Wavelet analysis of hemispheroid flow separation toward understanding human vocal fold pathologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesniak, Daniel H.; Carr, Ian A.; Bulusu, Kartik V.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2014-11-01

    Physiological flows observed in human vocal fold pathologies, such as polyps and nodules, can be modeled by flow over a wall-mounted protuberance. The experimental investigation of flow separation over a surface-mounted hemispheroid was performed using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and measurements of surface pressure in a low-speed wind tunnel. This study builds on the hypothesis that the signatures of vortical structures associated with flow separation are imprinted on the surface pressure distributions. Wavelet decomposition methods in one- and two-dimensions were utilized to elucidate the flow behavior. First, a complex Gaussian wavelet was used for the reconstruction of surface pressure time series from static pressure measurements acquired from ports upstream, downstream, and on the surface of the hemispheroid. This was followed by the application of a novel continuous wavelet transform algorithm (PIVlet 1.2) using a 2D-Ricker wavelet for coherent structure detection on instantaneous PIV-data. The goal of this study is to correlate phase shifts in surface pressure with Strouhal numbers associated with the vortex shedding. Ultimately, the wavelet-based analytical framework will be aimed at addressing pulsatile flows. This material is based in part upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Number CBET-1236351, and GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering (COBRE).

  8. From rational numbers to algebra: separable contributions of decimal magnitude and relational understanding of fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWolf, Melissa; Bassok, Miriam; Holyoak, Keith J

    2015-05-01

    To understand the development of mathematical cognition and to improve instructional practices, it is critical to identify early predictors of difficulty in learning complex mathematical topics such as algebra. Recent work has shown that performance with fractions on a number line estimation task predicts algebra performance, whereas performance with whole numbers on similar estimation tasks does not. We sought to distinguish more specific precursors to algebra by measuring multiple aspects of knowledge about rational numbers. Because fractions are the first numbers that are relational expressions to which students are exposed, we investigated how understanding the relational bipartite format (a/b) of fractions might connect to later algebra performance. We presented middle school students with a battery of tests designed to measure relational understanding of fractions, procedural knowledge of fractions, and placement of fractions, decimals, and whole numbers onto number lines as well as algebra performance. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the best predictors of algebra performance were measures of relational fraction knowledge and ability to place decimals (not fractions or whole numbers) onto number lines. These findings suggest that at least two specific components of knowledge about rational numbers--relational understanding (best captured by fractions) and grasp of unidimensional magnitude (best captured by decimals)--can be linked to early success with algebraic expressions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Understanding Nomophobia: Structural Equation Modeling and Semantic Network Analysis of Smartphone Separation Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seunghee; Kim, Ki Joon; Kim, Jang Hyun

    2017-07-01

    This study explicates nomophobia by developing a research model that identifies several determinants of smartphone separation anxiety and by conducting semantic network analyses on smartphone users' verbal descriptions of the meaning of their smartphones. Structural equation modeling of the proposed model indicates that personal memories evoked by smartphones encourage users to extend their identity onto their devices. When users perceive smartphones as their extended selves, they are more likely to get attached to the devices, which, in turn, leads to nomophobia by heightening the phone proximity-seeking tendency. This finding is also supplemented by the results of the semantic network analyses revealing that the words related to memory, self, and proximity-seeking are indeed more frequently used in the high, compared with low, nomophobia group.

  10. Ultrasonic absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    The paper reviews studies of ultrasonic absorption in liquid alkali metals. The experimental methods to measure the absorption coefficients are briefly described. Experimental results reported for the liquid metals: sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium, at medium temperatures, are presented, as well as data for liquid alloys. Absorption losses due to the presence of an external magnetic field, and the effects of viscosity on the absorption in metals, are both discussed. (U.K.)

  11. Ultrasonic Bat Deterrent Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinzie, Kevin; Rominger, Kathryn M.

    2017-12-14

    The project objective was to advance the development and testing of an Near commercial bat-deterrent system with a goal to increase the current GE deterrent system effectiveness to over 50% with broad species applicability. Additionally, the research supported by this program has provided insights into bat behavior and ultrasonic deterrent design that had not previously been explored. Prior research and development had demonstrated the effectiveness of a commercial-grade, air-powered, ultrasonic bat deterrent to be between 30-50% depending upon the species of bat. However, the previous research provided limited insight into the behavioral responses of bats in the presence of ultrasonic deterrent sound fields that could be utilized to improve effectiveness. A unique bat flight room was utilized to observe the behavioral characteristics of bats in the presence of ultrasonic sound fields. Behavioral testing in the bat flight facility demonstrated that ultrasonic sounds similar to those produced by the GE deterrent influenced the activities and behaviors, primarily those associated with foraging, of the species exposed. The study also indicated that continuous and pulsing ultrasonic signals had a similar effect on the bats, and confirmed that as ultrasonic sounds attenuate, their influence on the bats’ activities and behavior decreases. Ground testing at Wolf Ridge Wind, LLC and Shawnee National Forest assessed both continuous and pulsing deterrent signals emitted from the GE deterrent system and further enhanced the behavioral understanding of bats in the presence of the deterrent. With these data and observations, the existing 4-nozzle continuous, or steady, emission ultrasonic system was redesigned to a 6-nozzle system that could emit a pulsing signal covering a larger air space around a turbine. Twelve GE 1.6-100 turbines were outfitted with the deterrent system and a formal three-month field study was performed using daily carcass searches beneath the 12

  12. Ultrasonic Cutting of Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Yvonne; Zahn, Susann; Rohm, Harald

    In the field of food engineering, cutting is usually classified as a mechanical unit operation dealing with size reduction by applying external forces on a bulk product. Ultrasonic cutting is realized by superpositioning the macroscopic feed motion of the cutting device or of the product with a microscopic vibration of the cutting tool. The excited tool interacts with the product and generates a number of effects. Primary energy concentration in the separation zone and the modification of contact friction along the tool flanks arise from the cyclic loading and are responsible for benefits such as reduced cutting force, smooth cut surface, and reduced product deformation. Secondary effects such as absorption and cavitation originate from the propagation of the sound field in the product and are closely related to chemical and physical properties of the material to be cut. This chapter analyzes interactions between food products and ultrasonic cutting tools and relates these interactions with physical and chemical product properties as well as with processing parameters like cutting velocity, ultrasonic amplitude and frequency, and tool design.

  13. Leak detection by ultrasonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, R.V.

    1978-01-01

    The design of a remotely-operated ultrasonic leak detector is described. The detector is basically an ultrasonic microphone with parabolic reflector, amplifier, stepping motors to move the microphone, and a display unit. (E.C.B.)

  14. Ultrasonic Determination Of Recrystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Edward R.

    1988-01-01

    State of recrystallization identified. Measurement of ultrasonic attenuation shows promise as means of detecting recrystallization in metal. Technique applicable to real-time acoustic monitoring of thermomechanical treatments. Starting with work-hardened material, one ultrasonically determines effect of annealing, using correlation between ultrasonic attenuation and temperature.

  15. Ultrasonic testing device having an adjustable water column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Dennis P.; Neidigk, Stephen O.; Rackow, Kirk A.; Duvall, Randy L.

    2015-09-01

    An ultrasonic testing device having a variable fluid column height is disclosed. An operator is able to adjust the fluid column height in real time during an inspection to to produce optimum ultrasonic focus and separate extraneous, unwanted UT signals from those stemming from the area of interest.

  16. Characterization of 2d Lattice Structures Using Laser Ultrasonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samala, Praveen R.; Smith, James A.; Shi, Zhiqiang

    2009-03-01

    As requirements for structural performance increases with time, engineered structures and materials are becoming much more complex. Lattice structural elements are a prime example of high performance structural elements that maintain structural rigidity, resistance to vibration, and functionality while keeping weight down. Unfortunately, the lattice network makes characterizing the structure for material and structural defects very challenging. The focus of this paper is to understand the ultrasonic wave propagation through 2D lattice structures for characterization purposes. Understanding the response of ultrasonic waves to lattice structures will help to optimize the design of ultrasonic/acoustic testing techniques as well as outline the boundaries of applicability for ultrasonic testing.

  17. Coeliac cavity ultrasonic diagnosis apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, O.; Suwaki, T.

    1983-07-05

    A coeliac cavity ultrasonic diagnosis apparatus is disclosed which includes an ultrasonic transducer or scanner portion adapted to be inserted into a coeliac cavity to effect a sector scan of an ultrasonic beam to produce an ultrasonic image of internal tissues and in which the ultrasonic oscillator on the one hand and an ultrasonic reflecting mirror and rotary disc on the other hand are relatively rotated so as to effect the sector scan of the ultrasonic beam and the rotary angle of the rotary disc is detected so as to obtain a deflecting angle of the ultrasonic beam and a display on a cathode ray tube of a precise ultrasonic picture image.

  18. Ultrasonic horn design for ultrasonic machining technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naď M.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Many of industrial applications and production technologies are based on the application of ultrasound. In many cases, the phenomenon of ultrasound is also applied in technological processes of the machining of materials. The main element of equipments that use the effects of ultrasound for machining technology is the ultrasonic horn – so called sonotrode. The performance of ultrasonic equipment, respectively ultrasonic machining technologies depends on properly designed of sonotrode shape. The dynamical properties of different geometrical shapes of ultrasonic horns are presented in this paper. Dependence of fundamental modal properties (natural frequencies, mode shapes of various sonotrode shapes for various geometrical parameters is analyzed. Modal analyses of the models are determined by the numerical simulation using finite element method (FEM design procedures. The mutual comparisons of the comparable parameters of the various sonotrode shapes are presented.

  19. Electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Songling; Li, Weibin; Wang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the fundamental theory of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves, together with its applications. It includes the dispersion characteristics and matching theory of guided waves; the mechanism of production and theoretical model of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves; the effect mechanism between guided waves and defects; the simulation method for the entire process of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave propagation; electromagnetic ultrasonic thickness measurement; pipeline axial guided wave defect detection; and electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave detection of gas pipeline cracks. This theory and findings on applications draw on the author’s intensive research over the past eight years. The book can be used for nondestructive testing technology and as an engineering reference work. The specific implementation of the electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave system presented here will also be of value for other nondestructive test developers.

  20. Characterization methods for ultrasonic test systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busse, L.J.; Becker, F.L.; Bowey, R.E.; Doctor, S.R.; Gribble, R.P.; Posakony, G.J.

    1982-07-01

    Methods for the characterization of ultrasonic transducers (search units) and instruments are presented. The instrument system is considered as three separate components consisting of a transducer, a receiver-display, and a pulser. The operation of each component is assessed independently. The methods presented were chosen because they provide the greatest amount of information about component operation and were not chosen based upon such conditions as cost, ease of operation, field implementation, etc. The results of evaluating a number of commercially available ultrasonic test instruments are presented

  1. Ultrasonic methods in solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Truell, John; Elbaum, Charles

    1969-01-01

    Ultrasonic Methods in Solid State Physics is devoted to studies of energy loss and velocity of ultrasonic waves which have a bearing on present-day problems in solid-state physics. The discussion is particularly concerned with the type of investigation that can be carried out in the megacycle range of frequencies from a few megacycles to kilomegacycles; it deals almost entirely with short-duration pulse methods rather than with standing-wave methods. The book opens with a chapter on a classical treatment of wave propagation in solids. This is followed by separate chapters on methods and techni

  2. Ultrasonic decontamination robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patenaude, R.S.

    1984-01-01

    An ultrasonic decontamination robot removes radioactive contamination from the internal surface of the inlet and outlet headers, divider plate, tube sheet, and lower portions of tubes of a nuclear power plant steam generator. A programmable microprocessor controller guides the movement of a robotic arm mounted in the header manway. An ultrasonic transducer having a solvent delivery subsystem through which ultrasonic action is achieved is moved by the arm over the surfaces. A solvent recovery suction tube is positioned within the header to remove solvent therefrom while avoiding interference with the main robotic arm. The solvent composition, temperature, pressure, viscosity, and purity are controlled to optimize the ultrasonic scrubbing action. The ultrasonic transducer is controlled at a power density, frequency, and on-off mode cycle such as to optimize scrubbing action within the range of transducer-to-surface distance and solvent layer thickness selected for the particular conditions encountered. Both solvent and transducer control actions are optimized by the programmable microprocessor. (author)

  3. Further Investigations on Simultaneous Ultrasonic Coal Flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safak Gokhan Ozkan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the flotation performance of a representative hard coal slime sample (d80 particle size of minus 0.2 mm obtained from the Prosper-Haniel coal preparation plant located in Bottrop, Germany. Flotation was carried out with a newly designed flotation cell refurbished from an old ultrasonic cleaning bath (2.5 L volume equipped with a single frequency (35 kHz and two different power levels (80–160 W and a sub-aeration-type flotation machine operating at a stable impeller speed (1200 rpm and air rate (2.5 L/min. The reagent combination for conventional and simultaneous ultrasonic coal flotation tests was Ekofol-440 at variable dosages (40–300 g/t with controlling water temperature (20–25 °C at natural pH (6.5–7.0. The batch coal flotation results were analyzed by comparing the combustible recovery (% and separation efficiency (% values, taking mass yield and ash concentrations of the froths and tailings into account. It was found that simultaneous ultrasonic coal flotation increased yield and recovery values of the floated products with lower ash values than the conventional flotation despite using similar reagent dosages. Furthermore, particle size distribution of the ultrasonically treated and untreated coals was measured. Finely distributed coal particles seemed to be agglomerated during the ultrasonic treatment, while ash-forming slimes were removed by hydrodynamic cavitation.

  4. Final Technical Report for the Energy Frontier Research Center Understanding Charge Separation and Transfer at Interfaces in Energy Materials (EFRC:CST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanden Bout, David A. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2015-09-14

    Our EFRC was founded with the vision of creating a broadly collaborative and synergistic program that would lead to major breakthroughs in the molecular-level understanding of the critical interfacial charge separation and charge transfer (CST) processes that underpin the function of candidate materials for organic photovoltaic (OPV) and electrical-energy-storage (EES) applications. Research in these energy contexts shares an imposing challenge: How can we understand charge separation and transfer mechanisms in the presence of immense materials complexity that spans multiple length scales? To address this challenge, our 50-member Center undertook a total of 28 coordinated research projects aimed at unraveling the CST mechanisms that occur at interfaces in these nanostructured materials. This rigorous multi-year study of CST interfaces has greatly illuminated our understanding of early-timescale processes (e.g., exciton generation and dissociation dynamics at OPV heterojunctions; control of Li+-ion charging kinetics by surface chemistry) occurring in the immediate vicinity of interfaces. Program outcomes included: training of 72 graduate student and postdoctoral energy researchers at 5 institutions and spanning 7 academic disciplines in science and engineering; publication of 94 peer-reviewed journal articles; and dissemination of research outcomes via 340 conference, poster and other presentations. Major scientific outcomes included: implementation of a hierarchical strategy for understanding the electronic communication mechanisms and ultimate fate of charge carriers in bulk heterojunction OPV materials; systematic investigation of ion-coupled electron transfer processes in model Li-ion battery electrode/electrolyte systems; and the development and implementation of 14 unique technologies and instrumentation capabilities to aid in probing sub-ensemble charge separation and transfer mechanisms.

  5. Ultrasonic drilling apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, E.L.; Lundin, R.L.

    1988-06-20

    Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation. 3 figs.

  6. Ultrasonic colour Doppler imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, David H; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic colour Doppler is an imaging technique that combines anatomical information derived using ultrasonic pulse-echo techniques with velocity information derived using ultrasonic Doppler techniques to generate colour-coded maps of tissue velocity superimposed on grey-scale images of tissue...... anatomy. The most common use of the technique is to image the movement of blood through the heart, arteries and veins, but it may also be used to image the motion of solid tissues such as the heart walls. Colour Doppler imaging is now provided on almost all commercial ultrasound machines, and has been...

  7. Common concepts in separate domains? Family physicians' ways of understanding teaching patients and trainees, a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenfors-Hayes, Terese; Berg, Mattias; Scott, Ian; Bates, Joanna

    2015-06-27

    Medical education is increasingly expanding into new community teaching settings and the need for clinical teachers is rising. Many physicians taking on this new role are already skilled patient educators. The purpose of this research was to explore how family physicians conceptualize teaching patients compared to the teaching of trainees. Our aim was to understand if there is any common ground between these two roles in order to support faculty development based on already existing skills. Semi-structured interviews with twenty-five family physician preceptors were conducted in Vancouver, Canada and thematically analyzed. We identified four key areas of overlap between the two fields (being learner-centered; supporting the acquisition, application and integration of knowledge; role modeling and self-disclosure; and facilitating autonomy) and three areas of divergence (aim of teaching and setting the learning objectives; establishing rapport; and providing feedback). Finding common ground between these two teaching roles would support knowledge translation and inquiry between the domains of teaching patients and trainees. It would furthermore open up new avenues for improving training and practice for clinical teachers by better linking faculty development and continuing medical education (CME).

  8. Ultrasonic grinding method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Shuji.

    1990-01-01

    An ultrasonic generator and a liquid supply nozzle are opposed to an object to be ground and a pump is started in this state to supply an organic solvent. Matters to be decontaminated which adheres to the surface of the object to be ground and are difficult to be removed by a mere mechanical removing method can be eliminated previously by the surface active effect of the organic solvent such as ethanol prior to the oscillation of the ultrasonic generator. Subsequently, when the ultrasonic generator is oscillated, scales in the floated state can be removed simply. Further, since the organic solvent can penetrate to provide the surface active effect even in such a narrow portion that the top end of the ultrasonic generator is difficult to the intruded at the surface of the object to be ground, the decontaminating treatment can be applied also to such a narrow portion. (T.M.)

  9. Application and Research of Ultrasonic Horn in Ultrasonic Ranging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Xiaotao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the problem that echo signal is hard to recognize caused by ultrasonic energy’s overquick dispersion and attenuation, a kind of ultrasonic horn is designed. According to the acoustic theory analysis, the ultrasonic horn can increase its radiation energy by improving impedance matching. The ultrasonic horn can make the directivity of sound source sharper and energy more centralized because of the large outlet. The simulation calculation and experiment results prove the effectiveness of ultrasonic horn to improve the scope of ultrasonic ranging.

  10. Fundamentals of Medical Ultrasonics

    CERN Document Server

    Postema, Michiel

    2011-01-01

    This book sets out the physical and engineering principles of acoustics and ultrasound as used for medical applications. It covers the basics of linear acoustics, wave propagation, non-linear acoustics, acoustic properties of tissue, transducer components, and ultrasonic imaging modes, as well as the most common diagnostic and therapeutic applications. It offers students and professionals in medical physics and engineering a detailed overview of the technical aspects of medical ultrasonic imaging, whilst serving as a reference for clinical and research staff.

  11. Assessing ultrasonic examination results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, V.; Vogt, M.

    1977-01-01

    Amongst nondestructive examination methods, the ultrasonic examination plays an important role. The reason why its scope of application is so wide is because the sound conducting capacity is the only property the material of a test specimen has to have. As the fields are so manifold, only main aspects can be described briefly. The list of references, however, is very extensive and gives plenty of information of all the problems concerning the assessment of ultrasonic examination results. (orig./RW) [de

  12. Investigation on the Ultrasonic Tube Hydroforming in the Bulging Process Using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Zarei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In ultrasonic tube hydroforming, the tube is hydro formed while the ultrasonic vibration is applied to the die. Prior studies provide experimental proof that ultrasonic tube hydroforming reduces corner radius, improves lubrication and uniform thickness. Use of ultrasonic vibration can decrease friction at the tube-die interface. Few attempts have been made to analyze the wire drawing while the ultrasonic vibrations were also applied during the processes. A detailed analysis and understanding of the mechanism of improvement is not possible with conventional experimental observation because the ultrasonic vibration processing phenomenon occurs at high speed. Therefore, we attempt to understand the processing mechanism of ultrasonic tube hydroforming using the finite element method (FEM.ABAQUS was used for the FEM. Forming force and formability in tube hydroforming analyzed. From these studies, we quantitatively clarified the mechanism of improved formability characteristics, such as decreased forming load and increasing bulging diameter.

  13. ULTRASONIC ASSEMBLY [REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PORAV Viorica

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper exposes the possibility of machine producesers to optimize the costs of clothes assembling. Ultrasonic systems being frequently utilized have many advantages on semi products of synthetic textile and technical textile. First of all, sewing – cutting process can be accomplished under high speeds and rate of losses can be minimized. Cutting seal applications are frequently used for underwear and sportswear. Slicing and unit cutting machines, as well as portable sealing machines are available for labeling sector. Products such as bag, pocket and cover can be sewed in a seamless manner for promotion purposes. All objects in terms of accessories are obtained in same standard. Our quilting machines are preferred in worldwide due to its threadless, high quality sealing. An alternative to the classic sewing assembly, with thread and needles is ultrasonic seaming. In ultrasonic welding, there are no connective bolts, nails, soldering materials, or adhesives necessary to bind the materials together. Ultrasonic is defined as acoustic frequencies above the range audible to the human ear. Ultrasonic frequencies are administered to the fabric from the sonotrode of bonding machine. The high frequency and powerful energy produced, when is release in one special environment, the ultrasound heating this environment. The ability to ultrasonic weld textiles and films depend on their thermoplastic contents and the desired end results. The paper defines the weld ability of more common textiles and films. The welding refers to all types of bonding and sealing, as in point bonding of fabric, or continuous sealing of film.

  14. Rail weld inspection using phased array ultrasonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namboodiri, Girish N.; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Balasubramanian, T.; James, Jerry; Sriharsha

    2013-01-01

    Inspection of rail welds has always been a challenge to the Railways. The conventional ultrasonic methods which are employed now for the detection of defects are not found to be good enough for defects that exist in different parts of the weld. Phased Array Ultrasonics which performs sectorial scanning could be used effectively for detection of defects in rail welds. The analysis of phased array images basically concentrates on defects that are volumetric in rail. The feasibility studies conducted in parts of rail other than welds were promising. Defect indications were seen very much separately from its surroundings. Accurate positioning of the defect is possible. Close lying defects can be seen separately which assures better resolution. Linear normal scans were very much suitable to detect cracks of complex geometries, as it gives a specific indication pattern each time when it is present.

  15. High quantum yield ZnO quantum dots synthesizing via an ultrasonication microreactor method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weimin; Yang, Huafang; Ding, Wenhao; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Le; Wang, Lixi; Yu, Mingxun; Zhang, Qitu

    2016-11-01

    Green emission ZnO quantum dots were synthesized by an ultrasonic microreactor. Ultrasonic radiation brought bubbles through ultrasonic cavitation. These bubbles built microreactor inside the microreactor. The photoluminescence properties of ZnO quantum dots synthesized with different flow rate, ultrasonic power and temperature were discussed. Flow rate, ultrasonic power and temperature would influence the type and quantity of defects in ZnO quantum dots. The sizes of ZnO quantum dots would be controlled by those conditions as well. Flow rate affected the reaction time. With the increasing of flow rate, the sizes of ZnO quantum dots decreased and the quantum yields first increased then decreased. Ultrasonic power changed the ultrasonic cavitation intensity, which affected the reaction energy and the separation of the solution. With the increasing of ultrasonic power, sizes of ZnO quantum dots first decreased then increased, while the quantum yields kept increasing. The effect of ultrasonic temperature on the photoluminescence properties of ZnO quantum dots was influenced by the flow rate. Different flow rate related to opposite changing trend. Moreover, the quantum yields of ZnO QDs synthesized by ultrasonic microreactor could reach 64.7%, which is higher than those synthesized only under ultrasonic radiation or only by microreactor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Ultrasonics in Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, A. D.

    Ultrasonic instruments have been used in dentistry since the 1950's. Initially they were used to cut teeth but very quickly they became established as an ultrasonic scaler which was used to remove deposits from the hard tissues of the tooth. This enabled the soft tissues around the tooth to return to health. The ultrasonic vibrations are generated in a thin metal probe and it is the working tip that is the active component of the instrument. Scanning laser vibrometry has shown that there is much variability in their movement which is related to the shape and cross sectional shape of the probe. The working instrument will also generate cavitation and microstreaming in the associated cooling water. This can be mapped out along the length of the instrument indicating which are the active areas. Ultrasonics has also found use for cleaning often inaccessible or different surfaces including root canal treatment and dental titanium implants. The use of ultrasonics to cut bone during different surgical techniques shows considerable promise. More research is indicated to determine how to maximize the efficiency of such instruments so that they are more clinically effective.

  17. Effect of ultrasonic tip designs on intraradicular post removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anny Carine Barros Aguiar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To evaluate the effect of different ultrasonic tip designs on intraradicular post removal. Materials and Methods The crowns of forty human canine teeth were removed, and after biomechanical preparation and filling, the roots were embedded in acrylic resin blocks. The post spaces were made, and root canal molding was performed with self-cured acrylic resin. After casting (Cu-Al, the posts were cemented with zinc phosphate cement. The specimens were randomly separated into 4 groups (n = 10, as follows: G1 - no ultrasonic vibration (control; G2 - ultrasonic vibration using an elongated cylindrical-shaped and active rounded tip; G3 - ultrasonic vibration with a flattened convex and linear active tip; G4 - ultrasonic vibration with active semicircular tapered tip. Ultrasonic vibration was applied for 15 seconds on each post surface and tensile test was performed in a Universal Testing Machine (Instron 4444 - 1 mm/min. Results G4 presented the highest mean values, however, with no statistically significant difference in comparison to G3 (P > 0.05. G2 presented the lowest mean values with statistically significant difference to G3 and G4 (P < 0.05. Conclusions Ultrasonic vibration with elongated cylindrical-shaped and active rounded tip was most effective in reducing force required for intraradicular post removal.

  18. Ultrasonic dip seal maintenance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poindexter, A.M.; Ricks, H.E.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is a system for removing impurities from the surfaces of liquid dip seals and for wetting the metal surfaces of liquid dip seals in nuclear components. The system comprises an ultrasonic transducer that transmits ultrasonic vibrations along an ultrasonic probe to the metal and liquid surfaces of the dip seal thereby loosening and removing those impurities

  19. Artificial Intelligence Assists Ultrasonic Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Lloyd A.; Willenberg, James D.

    1992-01-01

    Subtle indications of flaws extracted from ultrasonic waveforms. Ultrasonic-inspection system uses artificial intelligence to help in identification of hidden flaws in electron-beam-welded castings. System involves application of flaw-classification logic to analysis of ultrasonic waveforms.

  20. Investigating the Ultrasonic Assistance in the Tube Hydroforming Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Zarei

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of introducing ultrasonic vibrations in the tube hydroforming process is to create more formability by obtaining a lower corner radius, improve thickness distribution of the wall and provide good tribological conditions at the tube and the die interface. Vibrations imposed on the die create alternating gaps which improve the formability in the tube hydroforming process in the presence of ultrasonic vibrations. Therefore, we attempted to understand the processing mechanism of the ultrasonic tube hydroforming in the square die using the finite element method. Abaqus software was used in these simulations and the die was considered as a deformable element.

  1. 3-D finite element simulation for ultrasonic propagation in tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoqing; Witzel, Erich A; Bian, Hongxin; Kang, Shaoying

    2008-07-01

    Ultrasonic testing of the tooth has been suggested as an alternative method of identifying dental pathology. Due to the complex geometry and low transmission efficiency of ultrasonic signals in tooth structures, it is difficult to establish one-to-one correspondence between ultrasonic behaviour and specific tooth pathologies both in vitro and in vivo. In order to facilitate ultrasonic diagnosis in dental applications, finite element modeling (FEM) was used to simulate ultrasonic wave propagation in teeth with several dental conditions. 3-D finite element tooth models were developed. The geometry of the tooth models was defined by 3-D images generated by scanning real tooth samples using an X-ray computerized tomography machine. Poro-elastic material was used to simulate the mechanical behaviour of the dentine. Numerical simulations of ultrasonic wave propagation were performed on the 3-D FEM models altered to mimic various dental conditions. The software ABAQUS was used as the calculator in the simulation. Excellent replication of ultrasonic behaviours by the FEM simulation was demonstrated through comparison of the simulation results with those of the actual ultrasonic testing on tooth specimens. Pathologies, such as caries, were also simulated on the finite element models. The unique influence of each dental condition on the patterns of ultrasonic waves propagating through the tooth (A-scan) was observed. Through FEM simulation, the influence of a particular dental pathology on ultrasonic wave pattern can be studied without the impact of other parameters. This will lead to a better understanding of how ultrasound could be applied to the diagnosis of pathology within teeth.

  2. Ultrasonic Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabors, Sammy

    2015-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Ultrasonic Stir Welding (USW) to join large pieces of very high-strength metals such as titanium and Inconel. USW, a solid-state weld process, improves current thermal stir welding processes by adding high-power ultrasonic (HPU) energy at 20 kHz frequency. The addition of ultrasonic energy significantly reduces axial, frictional, and shear forces; increases travel rates; and reduces wear on the stir rod, which results in extended stir rod life. The USW process decouples the heating, stirring, and forging elements found in the friction stir welding process allowing for independent control of each process element and, ultimately, greater process control and repeatability. Because of the independent control of USW process elements, closed-loop temperature control can be integrated into the system so that a constant weld nugget temperature can be maintained during welding.

  3. Ultrasonic Leak Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Moerk, J. Steven (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A system for detecting ultrasonic vibrations. such as those generated by a small leak in a pressurized container. vessel. pipe. or the like. comprises an ultrasonic transducer assembly and a processing circuit for converting transducer signals into an audio frequency range signal. The audio frequency range signal can be used to drive a pair of headphones worn by an operator. A diode rectifier based mixing circuit provides a simple, inexpensive way to mix the transducer signal with a square wave signal generated by an oscillator, and thereby generate the audio frequency signal. The sensitivity of the system is greatly increased through proper selection and matching of the system components. and the use of noise rejection filters and elements. In addition, a parabolic collecting horn is preferably employed which is mounted on the transducer assembly housing. The collecting horn increases sensitivity of the system by amplifying the received signals. and provides directionality which facilitates easier location of an ultrasonic vibration source.

  4. Ultrasonic/Sonic Jackhammer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Herz, Jack L. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The invention provides a novel jackhammer that utilizes ultrasonic and/or sonic vibrations as source of power. It is easy to operate and does not require extensive training, requiring substantially less physical capabilities from the user and thereby increasing the pool of potential operators. An important safety benefit is that it does not fracture resilient or compliant materials such as cable channels and conduits, tubing, plumbing, cabling and other embedded fixtures that may be encountered along the impact path. While the ultrasonic/sonic jackhammer of the invention is able to cut concrete and asphalt, it generates little back-propagated shocks or vibrations onto the mounting fixture, and can be operated from an automatic platform or robotic system. PNEUMATICS; ULTRASONICS; IMPACTORS; DRILLING; HAMMERS BRITTLE MATERIALS; DRILL BITS; PROTOTYPES; VIBRATION

  5. Ultrasonic colour Doppler imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, David H.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic colour Doppler is an imaging technique that combines anatomical information derived using ultrasonic pulse-echo techniques with velocity information derived using ultrasonic Doppler techniques to generate colour-coded maps of tissue velocity superimposed on grey-scale images of tissue...... anatomy. The most common use of the technique is to image the movement of blood through the heart, arteries and veins, but it may also be used to image the motion of solid tissues such as the heart walls. Colour Doppler imaging is now provided on almost all commercial ultrasound machines, and has been...... vectors. This review briefly introduces the principles behind colour Doppler imaging and describes some clinical applications. It then describes the basic components of conventional colour Doppler systems and the methods used to derive velocity information from the ultrasound signal. Next, a number of new...

  6. Mobile ultrasonic transducer positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Omar Khyam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available For positioning a moving ultrasonic transmitter, most of the existing ultrasonic positioning systems require the use of a bank of correlators to estimate the Doppler shift associated with its movement which require high computational complexity. In this paper, for positioning a moving transmitter, a computationally efficient a Doppler shift estimation and compensation technique is proposed. As the proposed approach has the ability to measure the Doppler shift directly from the received signal, it does not require to use a bank of correlators to estimate the Doppler shift associated with its movement of the transmitter.

  7. Dynamics of ultrasonic additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehr, Adam; Dapino, Marcelo J

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a solid-state technology for joining similar and dissimilar metal foils near room temperature by scrubbing them together with ultrasonic vibrations under pressure. Structural dynamics of the welding assembly and work piece influence how energy is transferred during the process and ultimately, part quality. To understand the effect of structural dynamics during UAM, a linear time-invariant model is proposed to relate the inputs of shear force and electric current to resultant welder velocity and voltage. Measured frequency response and operating performance of the welder under no load is used to identify model parameters. Using this model and in-situ measurements, shear force and welder efficiency are estimated to be near 2000N and 80% when welding Al 6061-H18 weld foil, respectively. Shear force and welder efficiency have never been estimated before in UAM. The influence of processing conditions, i.e., welder amplitude, normal force, and weld speed, on shear force and welder efficiency are investigated. Welder velocity was found to strongly influence the shear force magnitude and efficiency while normal force and weld speed showed little to no influence. The proposed model is used to describe high frequency harmonic content in the velocity response of the welder during welding operations and coupling of the UAM build with the welder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Combination of microwave-assisted extraction and ultrasonic-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for separation and enrichment of pyrethroids residues in Litchi fruit prior to HPLC determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Xie, Xiujuan; Zhang, Yi; Huang, Yuanxiang; Zhou, Shiyu; Zhang, Wei; Lin, Yuyang; Fan, Huajun

    2018-02-01

    A novel method for simultaneous determination of pyrethroids residues in Litchi fruit has been developed by HPLC-UV detection using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) coupled with ultrasonic-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (UADLLME). Extraction conditions of MAE and UADLLME were respectively investigated by single-factor experiments and response surface methodology. Optimized experimental conditions included 310μL of chlorobenzene as extraction solvent, 1.3mL of ethanol as dispersive solvent and 3min of extraction time for UADLLME. In the case of MAE, extraction temperature of 70°C, extraction time of 4min and solvent-to-materials ratio of 40:1 were adopted. Results demonstrated that the proposed method had good performance with linearity of 0.0050-4.98mg/L, recovery of 83.3-91.5%, RSDs below 5.6% and detection limit (LOD) of 1.15-2.46μg/L for six pyrethroids, offering higher extraction efficiency and larger enrichment factor. MAE-UADLLME provided a sensitive and efficient alternative to determination of trace amounts of pesticides residues in food samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ultrasonic investigations in intermetallics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    trasonic velocities and attenuation. Ultrasonic velocities and attenuation are very important physical parameters to characterize the material, which are well related to several physical quantities like thermal conductivity, specific heat, thermal en- ergy density, elastic constants, etc. The elastic constants play primary role for.

  10. Ultrasonic leak detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, R.V.

    1977-01-01

    A scanning ultrasonic microphone was used to detect the presence and locate the sources of hydraulic noises in piping systems in a reactor environment. The intensity changes of the noises correspond to changes of flow conditions within the system caused by throttled valves, flow rate changes, and leaks. (author)

  11. Evaluation of correlation between physical properties and ultrasonic pulse velocity of fired clay samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, İlker; Yayla, Zeliha

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to establish a correlation between physical properties and ultrasonic pulse velocity of clay samples fired at elevated temperatures. Brick-making clay and pottery clay were studied for this purpose. The physical properties of clay samples were assessed after firing pressed clay samples separately at temperatures of 850, 900, 950, 1000, 1050 and 1100 °C. A commercial ultrasonic testing instrument (Proceq Pundit Lab) was used to evaluate the ultrasonic pulse velocity measurements for each fired clay sample as a function of temperature. It was observed that there became a relationship between physical properties and ultrasonic pulse velocities of the samples. The results showed that in consequence of increasing densification of the samples, the differences between the ultrasonic pulse velocities were higher with increasing temperature. These findings may facilitate the use of ultrasonic pulse velocity for the estimation of physical properties of fired clay samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Numerical and experimental investigation of upsetting with ultrasonic vibration of pure copper cone tip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanxiong; Han, Qingyou; Hua, Lin; Xu, Clause

    2013-03-01

    This paper is the first time to create a new model for the cone tip upsetting with the ultrasonic vibration, namely, during the tip upsetting process, the ultrasonic wave transmits in the specimen at the same time. Firstly, the experiments of the tip upsetting with ultrasonic vibration were conducted and the deformed samples were obtained. However, a detailed analysis and understanding of the forming mechanism is not possible on the basis of the conventional experimental observations because the ultrasonic vibration processing phenomenon occurs at high speed. Therefore, the finite element method was applied to understand the processing mechanism. Abaqus/Explicit was used for the finite element analysis in this study. Based on a valid model, the forming process, stress and strain distributions, and effect of the ultrasonic vibration strength on forming process were revealed for the tip upsetting with ultrasonic vibration. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Sparse signal representation and its applications in ultrasonic NDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guang-Ming; Zhang, Cheng-Zhong; Harvey, David M

    2012-03-01

    Many sparse signal representation (SSR) algorithms have been developed in the past decade. The advantages of SSR such as compact representations and super resolution lead to the state of the art performance of SSR for processing ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation (NDE) signals. Choosing a suitable SSR algorithm and designing an appropriate overcomplete dictionary is a key for success. After a brief review of sparse signal representation methods and the design of overcomplete dictionaries, this paper addresses the recent accomplishments of SSR for processing ultrasonic NDE signals. The advantages and limitations of SSR algorithms and various overcomplete dictionaries widely-used in ultrasonic NDE applications are explored in depth. Their performance improvement compared to conventional signal processing methods in many applications such as ultrasonic flaw detection and noise suppression, echo separation and echo estimation, and ultrasonic imaging is investigated. The challenging issues met in practical ultrasonic NDE applications for example the design of a good dictionary are discussed. Representative experimental results are presented for demonstration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Ultrasonic monitoring of Iberian fat crystallization during cold storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corona, E; García-Pérez, J V; Santacatalina, J V; Peña, R; Benedito, J

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of ultrasonic measurements to characterize the crystallization process and to assess the textural changes of Iberian fat and Iberian ham during cold storage. The ultrasonic velocity was measured in two types of Iberian fats (Montanera and Cebo) during cold storage (0, 2, 5, 7 and 10 °C) and in vacuum packaged Iberian ham stored at 6°C for 120 days. The fatty acid profile, thermal behaviour and textural properties of fat were determined. The ultrasonic velocity and textural measurements showed a two step increase during cold storage, which was related with the separate crystallization of two fractions of triglycerides. It was observed that the harder the fat, the higher the ultrasonic velocity. Likewise, Cebo fat resulted harder than Montanera due to a higher content of saturated triglycerides. The ultrasonic velocity in Iberian ham showed an average increase of 55 m/s after 120 days of cold storage due to fat crystallization. Thus, non-destructive ultrasonic technique could be a reliable method to follow the crystallization of fats and to monitor the changes in the textural properties of Iberian ham during cold storage.

  15. Cheese maturity assessment using ultrasonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedito, J; Carcel, J; Clemente, G; Mulet, A

    2000-02-01

    The relationship between Mahon cheese maturity and ultrasonic velocity was examined. Moisture and textural properties were used as maturity indicators. The ultrasonic velocity of the cheese varied between 1630 and 1740 m/s, increasing with the curing time mainly because of loss of water, which also produced an increase of the textural properties. Because of the nature of low-intensity ultrasonics, velocity was better related to those textural parameters that involved small displacements. Ultrasonic velocity decreased with increasing temperature because of the negative temperature coefficient of the ultrasonic velocity of fat and the melting of fat. These results highlight the potential use of ultrasonic velocity measurements to rapidly and nondestructively assess cheese maturity.

  16. Ultrasonic cure monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, B. Boro

    1999-12-01

    Fiber reinforced organic matrix composites applied to large structures require inexpensive cure process control. This paper reports on work to develop simple ultrasonic NDE sensors suitable for manufacturing and in-field use. This sensor is designed around a short wave-guide ultrasonic probe that is embedded in composite for in-situ cure monitoring applications. The sensor measures changes in resin density and sound velocity during cure and can be quantitatively calibrated for determination of the final cure. The cure monitoring is based on acoustic impedance variance across a material interface and can be utilized over the full cure cycle change of the resin in the composite. Significant advantage of this method is the simplicity of the measurement, low cost of the wave-guide probe and the adaptability of the sensor configuration to various composite-processing environments

  17. Ultrasonic calibration assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Ultrasonic transducers for in-service inspection of nuclear reactor vessels have several problems associated with them which this invention seeks to overcome. The first is that of calibration or referencing a zero start point for the vertical axis of transducer movement to locate a weld defect. The second is that of verifying the positioning (vertically or at a predetermined angle). Thirdly there is the problem of ascertaining the speed per unit distance in the operating medium of the transducer beam prior to the actual inspection. The apparatus described is a calibration assembly which includes a fixed, generally spherical body having a surface for reflecting an ultrasonic beam from one of the transducers which can be moved until the reflection from the spherical body is the highest amplitude return signal indicating radial alignment from the body. (U.K.)

  18. Pulsed ultrasonic stir welding system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An ultrasonic stir welding system includes a welding head assembly having a plate and a rod passing through the plate. The rod is rotatable about a longitudinal axis thereof. During a welding operation, ultrasonic pulses are applied to the rod as it rotates about its longitudinal axis. The ultrasonic pulses are applied in such a way that they propagate parallel to the longitudinal axis of the rod.

  19. Review of ultrasonic irrigation in endodontics: increasing action of irrigating solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozo, Sandra; Llena, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Effective irrigant delivery and agitation are prerequisites for successful endodontic treatment. Ultrasonic irrigation can be performed with or without simultaneous ultrasonic instrumentation. Existing literature reveals that ultrasonic irrigation may have a very positive effect on chemical, biological and physical debridement of the root canal system as investigated in many in vitro studies. Objective: The purpose of this review article was to summarize and discuss the available information concerning ultrasonic irrigation in endodontics. Methods: This article presents an overview of ultrasonic irrigation methods and their debridement efficacy. In this paper the relevant literature on passive ultrasonic irrigation is reviewed. Information from original scientific papers or reviews listed in MEDLINE and Cochrane were included in the review. Results: The use of ultrasound in the irrigation procedure results in improved canal cleanliness, better irrigant transfer to the canal system, soft tissue debridement, and removal of smear layer and bacteria. There are many in vitro studies, but there is a need to standardize protocols, and correlate the clinical efficacy of ultrasonic devices with improved treatment outcomes. Understanding the basis of ultrasonic irrigation is fundamental for clinicians and researchers to improve the design and use of ultrasonic irrigation. Key words:Ultrasonic irrigation, ultrasound, smear layer, endodontics. PMID:22143738

  20. Ultrasonic wave propagation in heterogeneous elastic and poroelastic media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jocker, J.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of small- and large-scale heterogeneities on an incident wavefield was investigated in ultrasonic experiments. The field generated by conventional piezoelectric transducers was investigated separately. It was confirmed that the far-field diffraction was correctly predicted by

  1. Ultrasonic Transducers for Fourier Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Describes an experiment that uses the ultrasonic transducer for demonstrating the Fourier components of waveshapes such as the square and triangular waves produced by laboratory function generators. (JRH)

  2. Numerical investigation of coalescing plate system to understand the separation of water and oil in water treatment plant of petroleum industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Yayla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The most widely utilized process of produced water treatment is considered to be use of coalescing or corrugated plate systems in the oil industry because these systems have promising results in the acceleration of the separation process. Even use of corrugated plate systems seem to be effective in separation processes, the geometrical parameters of the plate system could greatly influence the performance of separation process. In this study, a two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model for coalescing plates was developed to investigate Reynolds number and plate hole shape on separation efficiency. Spacing between plates was set to 12 mm while fluid mixture’s Reynolds number varied between 5 and 45 for the computational model. Hole profile and dimensions were determined to be cylindrical, rectangular and ellipse shapes as 10, 15 and 20 mm based on hydraulic diameter definition, respectively. Furthermore, when hole profiles of coalescing plates were chosen to be ellipse and rectangular shapes, separation efficiency nearly stayed constant regardless of hole dimension. The study also reported that change of oil fraction from 5% to 15% caused approximately 30% increase in the separation efficiency. The investigation also revealed Reynolds number of the mixture was inversely proportional to the separation efficiency. It was also found that the highest separation efficiency was obtained for a cylindrical shape with a hole diameter of 15 mm when distance between plates was 12 mm and Reynolds number was 18.

  3. Ultrasonic absortion in fatigued materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, S.; Arnold, W.

    2013-01-01

    Non-destructive detection of fatigue damage, allowing an estimate of the residual life-time of components, could contribute to a safe and reliable operation of components and installations. Ultrasonic absorption, i.e. the internal friction, of a material increases with increasing fatigue or creep damage and there are many theories trying to explain the physics behind this phenomenon. Measurement of ultrasonic absorption directly on components could provide information on the degree of damage. A laser ultrasonic method, using laser-generated pulses and optical detection, was applied to study ultrasonic absorption in fatigue specimens of different metals. A characteristic behavior of the ultrasonic absorption coefficient with increasing levels of fatigue damage was found for the titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V. Another aim of this study was to relate the absorption mechanisms to the behavior of ultrasonic absorption observed in metals with complex microstructure. To achieve this, different ultrasonic absorption mechanisms were analyzed with respect to experimental data. A thermoelastic effect related to the size and elasticity of the microstructure is discussed as the origin of the increased ultrasonic absorption.

  4. Integrated ultrasonic and petrographical characterization of carbonate building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligas, Paola; Fais, Silvana; Cuccuru, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    petrographical and petrophysical study of the investigated stone materials to correlate their petrographical-petrophysical features with the elastic ones. From this integrated study results that the modifications in the elasto-mechanical and petrographical-petrophysical features of the investigated carbonate materials are the main causes which reduce their quality as building materials. The use of the ultrasonic method integrated with information on petrography and petrophysics of the rocks has been successful to assess the rock quality and better understanding their alteration process. Acknowledgments: This work was financially supported by Sardinian Local Administration (RAS - LR 7 August 2007, n.7, Promotion of Scientific Research and Innovation in Sardinia - Italy, Responsible Scientist: S. Fais).

  5. Ultrasonic inspection of austenitic welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baikie, B.L.; Wagg, A.R.; Whittle, M.J.; Yapp, D.

    1976-01-01

    The ultrasonic examination of austenitic stainless steel weld metal has always been regarded as a difficult proposition because of the large and variable ultrasonic attenuations and back scattering obtained from apparently similar weld deposits. The work to be described shows how the existence of a fibre texture within each weld deposit (as a result of epitaxial growth through successive weld beads) produces a systematic variation in the ultrasonic attenuation coefficient and the velocity of sound, depending upon the angle between the ultrasonic beam and the fibre axis. Development work has shown that it is possible to adjust the welding parameters to ensure that the crystallographic texture within each weld is compatible with improved ultrasonic transmission. The application of the results to the inspection of a specific weld in type 316 weld metal is described

  6. Ultrasonic variables affecting inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautzenheiser, C.E.; Whiting, A.R.; McElroy, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    There are many variables which affect the detection of the effects and reproducibility of results when utilizing ultrasonic techniques. The most important variable is the procedure, as this document specifies, to a great extent, the controls that are exercised over the other variables. The most important variable is personnel with regards to training, qualification, integrity, data recording, and data analysis. Although the data is very limited, these data indicate that, if the procedure is carefully controlled, reliability of defect detection and reproducibility of results are both approximately 90 percent for reliability of detection, this applies to relatively small defects as reliability increases substantially as defect size increases above the recording limit. (author)

  7. Wastewater treatment with acoustic separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambayashi, Takuya; Saeki, Tomonori; Buchanan, Ian

    2017-07-01

    Acoustic separation is a filter-free wastewater treatment method based on the forces generated in ultrasonic standing waves. In this report, a batch-system separator based on acoustic separation was demonstrated using a small-scale prototype acoustic separator to remove suspended solids from oil sand process-affected water (OSPW). By applying an acoustic separator to the batch use OSPW treatment, the required settling time, which was the time that the chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreased to the environmental criterion (<200 mg/L), could be shortened from 10 to 1 min. Moreover, for a 10 min settling time, the acoustic separator could reduce the FeCl3 dose as coagulant in OSPW treatment from 500 to 160 mg/L.

  8. Device for automated remote ultrasonic testing of welded joints of circular pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuzo, M.

    1989-01-01

    The device consists of an ultrasonic head consisting of a system of ultrasonic probes mounted on supports on a revolving plate. The frame of the device consists of two faces holding two tubes for guiding the ultrasonic head by means of a guiding screw and a nut. The frame is supported on the controlled surface with magnetic wheels. The frame drive may drive the ultrasonic head in the vertical direction and the whole device in the horizontal direction. The circular movement of the probes is effected separately by a drive on the upper plate. The frame travels along a guide strip on rollers. The device may also be used for ultrasonic testing of cylindrical pressure vessels. (J.B.). 2 figs

  9. Review of ultrasonic irrigation in endodontics: increasing action of irrigating solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozo, Sandra; Llena, Carmen; Forner, Leopoldo

    2012-05-01

    Effective irrigant delivery and agitation are prerequisites for successful endodontic treatment. Ultrasonic irrigation can be performed with or without simultaneous ultrasonic instrumentation. Existing literature reveals that ultrasonic irrigation may have a very positive effect on chemical, biological and physical debridement of the root canal system as investigated in many in vitro studies. The purpose of this review article was to summarize and discuss the available information concerning ultrasonic irrigation in endodontics. This article presents an overview of ultrasonic irrigation methods and their debridement efficacy. In this paper the relevant literature on passive ultrasonic irrigation is reviewed. Information from original scientific papers or reviews listed in MEDLINE and Cochrane were included in the review. The use of ultrasound in the irrigation procedure results in improved canal cleanliness, better irrigant transfer to the canal system, soft tissue debridement, and removal of smear layers and bacteria. There are many in vitro studies, but there is a need to standardize protocols, and correlate the clinical efficacy of ultrasonic devices with improved treatment outcomes. Understanding the basis of ultrasonic irrigation is fundamental for clinicians and researchers to improve the design and use of ultrasonic irrigation.

  10. Improvement of solar ethanol distillation using ultrasonic waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaruwat Jareanjit

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This report presents a study on the use of ultrasonic waves in solar ethanol distillation to investigate the performance of ultrasonic waves at a frequency of 30 kHz and at 100 Watts that were installed in the inlet area of a 10-litre distillation tank. Based on the non-continuous distillation process (batch distillation, the experiment demonstrated that using ultrasonic waves in solar ethanol distillation caused the average concentration of hourly distilled ethanol to be higher than that of a normal system (solar ethanol distillation without ultrasonic wave at the same or higher distillation rate and hourly distillation volume. The ultrasonic wave was able to enhance the separation of ethanol from the solution (water-ethanol mixture through solar distillation. The amount of pure ethanol product from each distilled batch was clearly larger than the amount of product obtained from a normal system when the initial concentration of ethanol was lower than 50%v/v (% by volume, where an average of approximately 40% and 20% are obtained for an initial ethanol concentration of 10%v/v and 30%v/v, respectively. Furthermore, the distillation rate varied based on the solar radiation value.

  11. Frequency-domain synthetic aperture focusing for helical ultrasonic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, H.; Chen, J.; Wu, E.; Yang, K.

    2017-04-01

    The synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) is widely used to provide significant improvement in the lateral resolution of ultrasonic images. Frequency-domain SAFT has shown higher accuracy and greater efficiency than time-domain SAFT. However, frequency-domain SAFT should be helix-based for ultrasonic scanning of cylindrical structures such as pipes and axletrees. In this study, a frequency-domain SAFT is proposed for 3D helical ultrasonic imaging applications. This technique adjusts the phase spectra of the images to complete the synthetic aperture focusing process. The focused image is precise because the proposed algorithm is established on the basis of the wave equation in a helical coordinate system. In addition, the algorithm can efficiently separate out point scatterers and present volume scatterers. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm yields lower side lobes and enhances the angular resolution of the ultrasonic image to approximately 1°- 1.5°, which is much better than the performance of time-domain SAFT. The maximum deviations are only 0.6 mm, 0.5°, and 0.4 mm along the r-axes, θ-axes, and z-axes, respectively, which are appropriate for normal ultrasonic nondestructive testing.

  12. Ultrasonic mitigation investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrand, B.P.; Shepard, C.L.

    1993-04-01

    The suggestion was made that the introduction of ultrasound into Tank 101-SY might serve to release the hydrogen bubbles trapped in the slurry. This would cause a continuous release of bubbles and thereby prevent the turnover phenomenon. Two major considerations were (1) the method for delivering the energy into the slurry and (2) the effective volume of action. In this study, we attached the former by designing and testing a liquid-filled waveguide and radiator, and the latter by making ultrasonic property measurements on synthetic waste. Our conclusion is that ultrasonic mitigation may not be feasible, primarily because of the very high attenuation (1000 to 50000 dB/m) factor to 10 to 30 kHz. Such a high attenuation would restrict the action volume to such a low value as to make the method impractical. Further investigations are recommended to identify the cause of this effect and determine if this same effect will be seen in real 101-SY waste.

  13. Noninvasive ultrasonic probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, S.R.; Galer, D.R.; Leard, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    An ultrasonic probe is described for insonifying the ascending aorta of a supine or reclining human patient from a location within the suprasternal notch of the patient. The probe comprises: a transducer head and an elongated handle; housing propagates ultrasonic energy and for intercept-frequency-shifted, reflected radiant energy; the handle has a proximate portion and a distal portion and a non-circular cross-sectional configuration with at least one longitudinal edge which furnishes a gripping surface; this facilitates tactile positioning of the probe; the transducer head is integral with the handle of the probe at the exposed end of the proximate portion; the transducer head has a generally arcuate cross-sectional configuration and a generally trapezoidal profile; the transducer head is oriented at right angles to the proximate portion of the handle and has an exposed, patient contacting end in which the transducer means are located; this facilitates the orientation of the transducer means housed in the head relative to the ascending aorta of the patient; and the distal end portion of the elongated probe handle is integral with and immovably oriented at a severe angle relative to the proximate end of that handle, and lies in the same plane as the proximate end of the handle; the transducer head of the probe is placed with facility within the suprasternal notch of the patient by an operator positioned behind the head of the patient

  14. Advanced ultrasonic inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghia, S.

    1990-08-01

    Acoustic Emission (AE) continuous monitoring and periodical inspections by advanced ultrasonic have been applied to evaluate defect evolution within a PWR reduced scale (1:5) pressure vessel subjected to cyclic mechanical fatigue test. This experimental activity has been carried out in the frame of the Primary Circuit Component Life Prediction programme. In the time period covered by this report actions were performed as following: (1) Ultrasonic examination by multifrequency acoustic holography to evaluate defect evolution subsequently repair and heat treatment of the R2 vessel carried out in March 1988. For the purpose, measurements were performed both at 0 and 200 bar of internal pressure. As uniformity of the procedures adopted, for calibration and testing, made the results comparable with the previous ones no evidence for significant growing of the examined defects has been found. (2) Acoustic emission monitoring has then been carried out during fatigue test from 416000 to 565000 fatigue cycles. Analysis of a large amount of data has been performed paying particular attention to the distinction between friction phenomena and crack growth in order to obtain a correct diagnosis of flaw evolution. The signal duration distribution and the correlation of AE appearance time versus load cycle phase were considered to characterise stick-slip processes. A general intensification of AE activity has been recorded during this last period of monitoring and previous known AE sources were confirmed together with the appearance of new AE sources some of them correlable with real defects

  15. System for ultrasonic examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, S.A.; Kristensen, W.D.

    1987-01-01

    A computerized system for the recording of flaw images by ultrasonic examination according to the pulse-echo method includes at least one ultrasonic probe which can be moved in steps over the surface of an object along a rectilinear scanning path. Digital signals containing information on the successive positions of the sound beam, on echo amplitudes, and on the lengths of sound paths to reflectors inside the object, are processed and used for the accumulated storage of circular patterns of echo amplitude data in a matrix memory associated with a sectional plane through the object. A video screen terminal controls the system and transforms the accumulated data into displays of sectional flaw images of greatly improved precision and sharpness of definition. A gradual transfer of filtered data from a number of parallel sectional planes to three further matrix memories associated with projection planes at right angles to each other permits presentation in three dimensions of equally improved projection flaw images. (author) 2 figs

  16. Ultrasonic Evaluation of Weld Strength for Aluminum Ultrasonic Spot Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Bita; Hetrick, Elizabeth T.; Mozurkewich, George; Reatherford, Larry V.

    2005-04-01

    The goal of this work is to determine the feasibility of using an ultrasonic, non-destructive technique for post-process evaluation of aluminum ultrasonic spot welds. A focused immersion transducer was utilized to obtain a C-scan of the weld interface, from which a weighted ultrasonic contact area was estimated. Weldments were subsequently tested destructively to determine the weld strength. The square root of the weld contact area displayed a relatively good correlation with weld strength, r2=0.85.

  17. Ultrasonic Transducer Irradiation Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daw, Joshua [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Palmer, Joe [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ramuhalli, Pradeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Keller, Paul [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Montgomery, Robert [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chien, Hual-Te [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kohse, Gordon [MIT (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology), Cambridge, MA (United States); Tittmann, Bernhard [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Reinhardt, Brian [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Rempe, Joy [Rempe and Associates, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Ultrasonic technologies offer the potential for high-accuracy and -resolution in-pile measurement of a range of parameters, including geometry changes, temperature, crack initiation and growth, gas pressure and composition, and microstructural changes. Many Department of Energy-Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) programs are exploring the use of ultrasonic technologies to provide enhanced sensors for in-pile instrumentation during irradiation testing. For example, the ability of small diameter ultrasonic thermometers (UTs) to provide a temperature profile in candidate metallic and oxide fuel would provide much needed data for validating new fuel performance models. Other ongoing efforts include an ultrasonic technique to detect morphology changes (such as crack initiation and growth) and acoustic techniques to evaluate fission gas composition and pressure. These efforts are limited by the lack of identified ultrasonic transducer materials capable of long term performance under irradiation test conditions. For this reason, the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) was awarded an ATR NSUF project to evaluate the performance of promising magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducers in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR) up to a fast fluence of at least 1021 n/cm2. The goal of this research is to characterize and demonstrate magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducer operation during irradiation, enabling the development of novel radiation-tolerant ultrasonic sensors for use in Material Testing Reactors (MTRs). As such, this test is an instrumented lead test and real-time transducer performance data is collected along with temperature and neutron and gamma flux data. The current work bridges the gap between proven out-of-pile ultrasonic techniques and in-pile deployment of ultrasonic sensors by acquiring the data necessary to demonstrate the performance of ultrasonic transducers. To date, one piezoelectric

  18. Irradiation Testing of Ultrasonic Transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daw, J.; Rempe, J.; Palmer, J.; Tittmann, B.; Reinhardt, B.; Kohse, G.; Ramuhalli, P.; Montgomery, R.; Chien, H.T.; Villard, J.F.

    2013-06-01

    Ultrasonic technologies offer the potential for high accuracy and resolution in-pile measurement of numerous parameters, including geometry changes, temperature, crack initiation and growth, gas pressure and composition, and microstructural changes. Many Department of Energy-Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) programs are exploring the use of ultrasonic technologies to provide enhanced sensors for in-pile instrumentation during irradiation testing. For example, the ability of single, small diameter ultrasonic thermometers (UTs) to provide a temperature profile in candidate metallic and oxide fuel would provide much needed data for validating new fuel performance models. Other efforts include an ultrasonic technique to detect morphology changes (such as crack initiation and growth) and acoustic techniques to evaluate fission gas composition and pressure. These efforts are limited by the lack of existing knowledge of ultrasonic transducer material survivability under irradiation conditions. To address this need, the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) was awarded an Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) project to evaluate promising magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducer performance in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR) up to a fast fluence of at least 10 21 n/cm 2 (E> 0.1 MeV). This test will be an instrumented lead test; and real-time transducer performance data will be collected along with temperature and neutron and gamma flux data. By characterizing magnetostrictive and piezoelectric transducer survivability during irradiation, test results will enable the development of novel radiation tolerant ultrasonic sensors for use in Material and Test Reactors (MTRs). The current work bridges the gap between proven out-of-pile ultrasonic techniques and in-pile deployment of ultrasonic sensors by acquiring the data necessary to demonstrate the performance of ultrasonic transducers. (authors)

  19. Development and application of the ultrasonic technologies in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, Nikolay; Krasilnikov, Dmitry; Vasiliev, Albert; Dubinin, Gennady; Yurmanov, Viktor

    2012-09-01

    Efficiency of some traditional chemical technologies in different areas could be significantly increased by adding ultrasonic treatment. For example, ultrasonic treatment was found to improve make-up water systems, decontamination procedures, etc. Improvement of traditional chemical technologies with implementation of ultrasonic treatment has allowed to significantly reducing water waste, including harmful species and radioactive products. The report shows the examples of the recent ultrasonic technology development and application in Russian nuclear engineering. They are as follows: - Preliminary cleaning of surfaces of in-pile parts (e.g. control sensors) prior to their assemblage and welding - Decontamination of grounds and metal surfaces of components with a complex structure -Decrease in sliding friction between fuel rods and grids during VVER reactor fuel assembly manufacturing -Removal of deposits from reactor fuel surfaces in VVER-440s -Increasing the density and strength of pressed sintered items while making fuel pellets and fuel elements, especially mixed-oxide fuel Surface cleanness is very important for the fuel assembly manufacturing, especially prior to welding. An ultrasonic technology for surface cleaning (from graphite and other lubricants, oxides etc.) was developed and implemented. The ultrasonic cleaning is applicable to the parts having both simple shape and different holes. Ultrasonic technology has allowed to improve the surface quality and environmental safety. Ultrasonic treatment appears to be expedient to intensify the chemical decontamination of solid radioactive waste from grounds of different fractions to metallic components. Ultrasonic treatment reduces the decontamination process duration up to 100 times as much. Excellent decontamination factor was received even for the ground fractions below 1 mm. It should be noted that alternative decontamination techniques (e.g. hydraulic separation) are poorly applicable for such ground

  20. Pulsed ultrasonic stir welding method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method of performing ultrasonic stir welding uses a welding head assembly to include a plate and a rod passing through the plate. The rod is rotatable about a longitudinal axis thereof. In the method, the rod is rotated about its longitudinal axis during a welding operation. During the welding operation, a series of on-off ultrasonic pulses are applied to the rod such that they propagate parallel to the rod's longitudinal axis. At least a pulse rate associated with the on-off ultrasonic pulses is controlled.

  1. Fundamentals of ultrasonic phased arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Schmerr, Lester W

    2014-01-01

    This book describes in detail the physical and mathematical foundations of ultrasonic phased array measurements.?The book uses linear systems theory to develop a comprehensive model of the signals and images that can be formed with phased arrays. Engineers working in the field of ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) will find in this approach a wealth of information on how to design, optimize and interpret ultrasonic inspections with phased arrays. The fundamentals and models described in the book will also be of significant interest to other fields, including the medical ultrasound and

  2. Ultrasonic Measurement of Velocity Profile on Bubbly Flow Using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsaroj, W.; Hamdani, A.; Thong-un, N.; Takahashi, H.; Kikura, H.

    2017-10-01

    In two-phase bubbly flow, measurement of liquid and bubble velocity is a necessity to understand fluid characteristic. The conventional ultrasonic velocity profiler (UVP), which has been known as a nonintrusive measurement technique, can measure velocity profile of liquid and bubble simultaneously by applying a separation technique for both phases (liquid and bubble) and transparent test section is unnecessary. The aim of this study was to develop a new technique for separating liquid and bubble velocity data in UVP method to measure liquid and bubble velocity profiles separately. The technique employs only single resonant frequency transducer and a simple UVP system. An extra equipment is not required. Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) based frequency estimator paralleled with other signal processing techniques, which is called as proposed technique, was proposed to measure liquid and bubble velocity separately. The experimental facility of two-phase bubbly flow in the vertical pipe was constructed. Firstly, the Doppler frequency estimation by using the FFT technique was evaluated in single-phase liquid flow. Results showed that FFT technique showed a good agreement with autocorrelation and maximum likelihood estimator. Then, separation of liquid and bubble velocity was demonstrated experimentally in the two-phase bubbly flow. The proposed technique confirmed that liquid and bubble velocity could be measured efficiently.

  3. High resolution ultrasonic densitometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dress, W.B.

    1983-01-01

    The velocity of torsional stress pulses in an ultrasonic waveguide of non-circular cross section is affected by the temperature and density of the surrounding medium. Measurement of the transit times of acoustic echoes from the ends of a sensor section are interpreted as level, density, and temperature of the fluid environment surrounding that section. This paper examines methods of making these measurements to obtain high resolution, temperature-corrected absolute and relative density and level determinations of the fluid. Possible applications include on-line process monitoring, a hand-held density probe for battery charge state indication, and precise inventory control for such diverse fluids as uranium salt solutions in accountability storage and gasoline in service station storage tanks

  4. Ultrasonic imaging in liquid sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubeigt, E. [CEA Cadarache, DEN/DTN/STCP/LIET, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France); Laboratoire de Mecanique et d' Acoustique, CNRS UPR 7051, 13402 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Mensah, S.; Chaix, J.F.; Rakotonarivo, S. [Laboratoire de Mecanique et d' Acoustique, CNRS UPR 7051, 13402 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Gobillot, G. [CEA Cadarache, DEN/DTN/STCP/LIET, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France)

    2015-07-01

    The fourth generation of nuclear reactor can use liquid sodium as the core coolant. When the reactor is operating, sodium temperatures can reach up to 600 deg. C. During maintenance periods, when the reactor is shut down, the coolant temperature is reduced to 200 deg. C. Because molten sodium is optically opaque, ultrasonic imaging techniques are developed for maintenance activities. Under-sodium imaging aims at i) checking the health of immersed structures. It should also allow ii) to assess component degradation or damage as cracks and shape defects as well as iii) the detection of lost objects. The under-sodium imaging system has to sustain high temperature (up to 300 deg. C) and hostility of the sodium environment. Furthermore, specific constraints such as transducers characteristics or the limited sensor mobility in the reactor vessel have to be considered. This work focuses on developing a methodology for detecting damages such as crack defects with ultrasound devices. Surface-breaking cracks or deep cracks are sought in the weld area, as welds are more subject to defects. Traditional methods enabled us to detect emerging cracks of submillimeter size with sodium-compatible high-temperature transducer. The presented approach relies on making use of prior knowledge about the environment through the implementation of differential imaging and time-reversal techniques. Indeed, this approach allows to detect a change by comparison with a reference measurement and by focusing back to any change in the environment. It is a means of analysis and understanding of the physical phenomena making it possible to design more effective inspection strategies. Difference between the measured signals reveals the acoustic field scattered by a perturbation (a crack for instance), which may occur between periodical measurements. The imaging method relies on the adequate combination of two computed ultrasonic fields, one forward and one adjoint. The adjoint field, which carries the

  5. Ultrasonic study of molecular interaction in binary liquid mixtures at ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The variation of these parameters with composition of the mixture helps us in understanding the nature and extent of interaction between unlike molecules in the mixtures. Further, theoretical values of ultrasonic speed were evaluated using theories and empirical relations. The relative merits of these theories and relations ...

  6. Homomorphic processing in ultrasonic NDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagat, P.K.; Shimmin, K.D.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter examines the applicability of a nonlinear processing scheme, homomorphic deconvolution, to the estimation of impulse response in the presence of convolutional noise. This approach is used because the complex cepstra (defined as the inverse Fourier transform of the complex logarithm of a Fourier transformed signal) of ultrasonic pulses and impulse response will occupy disjointed spaces in the cepstral domain due to the band limited nature of the ultrasonic pulses used. Ultrasonic flaw signals were synthesized from a 7.5 MHz ultrasonic pulse (reflected from the front surface of a material sample) convolved with various arbitrary reflector sequences. Homomorphic deconvolution offers substantial advantages over conventional deconvolution procedures for impulse response recovery. The experience with a limited number of laboratory fabricated material samples suggests that the interpretation of the estimated impulse response for noisy signals is greatly facilitated if one uses homomorphion deconvolution in conjuction with another deconvolution methodology which smooths data and suppresses noise at the cost of reduced resolution

  7. Case studies in ultrasonic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, V.; Satheesh, C.; Varde, P.V.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic testing is widely used Non Destructive Testing (NDT) method and forms the essential part of In-service inspection programme of nuclear reactors. Main application of ultrasonic testing is for volumetric scanning of weld joints followed by thickness gauging of pipelines and pressure vessels. Research reactor Dhruva has completed the first In Service Inspection programme in which about 325 weld joints have been volumetrically scanned, in addition to thickness gauging of 300 meters of pipe lines of various sizes and about 24 nos of pressure vessels. Ultrasonic testing is also used for level measurements, distance measurements and cleaning and decontamination of tools. Two case studies are brought out in this paper in which ultrasonic testing is used successfully for identification of butterfly valve opening status and extent of choking in pipe lines in Dhruva reactor systems

  8. Augmented reality application for training in pipe defects ultrasonic investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amza Cătălin Gheorghe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the development process of an Augmented Reality (AR application used for training operators in using ultrasonic equipment for non-destructive testing (NDT of pipework. The application provides workers useful information regarding the process steps, the main components of ultrasonic equipment and the proper modality of placing, aligning and moving it on pipe and weld. Using tablet or mobile phone device, an operator can see on screen written details and images on standardized working method, thus offering assistance during the training process. Allowing 3D augmented visualization of ultrasonic equipment overlaid on the real-world environment consisting in pipes and welds, the AR application makes the NDT process easier to understand and learn, as the initial evaluation results showed.

  9. Ultrasonic sludge pretreatment under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Ngoc Tuan; Julcour-Lebigue, Carine; Delmas, Henri

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this work was to optimize the ultrasound (US) pretreatment of sludge. Three types of sewage sludge were examined: mixed, secondary and secondary after partial methanisation ("digested" sludge). Thereby, several main process parameters were varied separately or simultaneously: stirrer speed, total solid content of sludge (TS), thermal operating conditions (adiabatic vs. isothermal), ultrasonic power input (PUS), specific energy input (ES), and for the first time external pressure. This parametric study was mainly performed for the mixed sludge. Five different TS concentrations of sludge (12-36 g/L) were tested for different values of ES (7000-75,000 kJ/kgTS) and 28 g/L was found as the optimum value according to the solubilized chemical oxygen demand in the liquid phase (SCOD). PUS of 75-150 W was investigated under controlled temperature and the "high power input - short duration" procedure was the most effective at a given ES. The temperature increase in adiabatic US application significantly improved SCOD compared to isothermal conditions. With PUS of 150 W, the effect of external pressure was investigated in the range of 1-16 bar under isothermal and adiabatic conditions for two types of sludge: an optimum pressure of about 2 bar was found regardless of temperature conditions and ES values. Under isothermal conditions, the resulting improvement of sludge disintegration efficacy as compared to atmospheric pressure was by 22-67% and 26-37% for mixed and secondary sludge, respectively. Besides, mean particle diameter (D[4,3]) of the three sludge types decreased respectively from 408, 117, and 110 μm to about 94-97, 37-42, and 36-40 μm regardless of sonication conditions, and the size reduction process was much faster than COD extraction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Multi-energy optimized processing: The use of high intensity ultrasonic and electromagnetic radiation for biofuel production processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropf, Matthew Mason

    This work aimed to improve the understanding of the use of microwaves and ultrasound for chemical processes. Using biodiesel production as the case for study, the non-linear effects of high intensity ultrasonics, electromagnetic loss, and microwave heating were explored. Cavitation and atomization phenomena were used to describe the process of ultrasonic emulsification. The dielectric loss mechanisms pertinent to the biodiesel production materials were described as the connection to between the effects of ultrasonic emulsification and microwave heating. Superheating and anisothermal heating phenomena were identified as the specific advantages afforded by microwave heating. High intensity ultrasonics was found to be capable of creating emulsions of biodiesel reactants with uniform dispersed phase droplets. Through optical microscopy, the ability to control the dispersed phase droplet size by altering the frequency and intensity of ultrasound was confirmed. This ultrasonic technique was investigated by measuring complex permittivity of the emulsions from 500 MHz and 5 GHz. The dielectric loss of emulsions consisting of methanol and soybean oil indicated that ultrasonic treatments could be used to alter the microwave absorption. Microwave heating tests of ultrasonically formed emulsions confirmed the permittivity results practically. The superheated boiling point of methanol and heating rate of methanol was extended to higher temperatures and rates in ultrasonically formed emulsions. Microwave heating of ultrasonically mixed emulsions was shown to result in faster transesterification relations than microwave heating of conventionally mixed emulsions. Finally, utilizing ultrasonics to optimize microwave absorption was shown capable of transesterification without catalyst.

  11. a novel separation/preconcentration technique based on ultrasonic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    including single drop microextraction (SDME) [9], hollow fiber LPME [10], homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction (HLLE) ... A cobalt hollow cathode lamp operating at 240.7 nm was utilized as the .... Most common matrix constituents of real samples such as alkali and alkaline earth elements do not react with APDC because of ...

  12. Ultrasonic perspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaoki, Tetsuo

    1990-01-01

    The present invention concerns a device for detecting an abnormal loading state of fuel assemblies loaded in the vessel of a LMFBR type reactor and it is an object of the invention to exactly judge the presence or absence and the position of obstacles in the upper portion of the reactor core even when reflection waves from a plurality of reflection surfaces contained in the waves received by transducers are overlapped with each other in view of time. That is, there is a signal processing section capable of discriminating reflection waves from individual reflection surfaces and estimating the intensity thereof disposed if reflection waves from a plurality of reflection surfaces are received being superposed to each other due to the horizontal spreading of ultrasonic waves at the reflector attaching position. With such a constitution, it is expected that a sufficient position analyzing performance can be obtained by increasing the reflection surfaces even when the size of the reactor core is enlarged. (I.S.)

  13. Ultrasonic-testing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thome, Paul.

    1973-01-01

    Description is given of a device adapted to the detection, by means of ultrasonic waves, of all the flaws and defects included in workpieces when only one face of the latter is accessible. A beam is directed towards the rear-face of the workpiece (e.g. a plate) on which it is reflected. The image thus reflected is fed into a receiver. The latter is under the control of the displacement of that image; simultaneously a transducer checks the condition of the mirror at the places where the beam is reflected. Whenever a flow or defect comes between, a silent zone is formed. By recording the silent zones with respect to the positions of several emitters, it is possible to locates a flaw and to define the outline thereof. The apparatus comprises several ''emitter-receiver'' groups intersecting over the emitter used in order to check the good conditions of the mirror. The invention can be used for searching and identifying flaws and defects in buildings which have to be of top quality (e.g., cofferdams, nuclear devices, shipbuilding yards, aeronautics) [fr

  14. Ultrasonic measurements and technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Kočiš, Štefan

    1996-01-01

    An impulse for writing this book has originated from the effort to sum­ marize and publicise the acquired results of a research team at the De­ partment of Automation of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and In­ formatics, Slovak Technical University in Bratislava. The research team has been involved for a long time with control problems for machine production mechanisms and, in recent (approximately 15) years, its effort was aimed mostly at the control of electrical servosystems of robots. Within this scope, the members of the authors' staff solved the State Re­ search Task Ultrasonic sensing of the position of a robot hand, which was coordinated by the Institute of Technical Cybernetics of the Slovak Academy of Sciences in Bratislava. The problem was solved in a complex way, i.e. from a conceptual de­ sign of the measurement, through the measurement and evaluation sys­ tem, up to connection to the control system of a robot. Compensation of the atmospheric influence on the precision of measurement,...

  15. Performance of an Ultrasonic Ranging Sensor in Apple Tree Canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escolà, Alexandre; Planas, Santiago; Rosell, Joan Ramon; Pomar, Jesús; Camp, Ferran; Solanelles, Francesc; Gracia, Felip; Llorens, Jordi; Gil, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    Electronic canopy characterization is an important issue in tree crop management. Ultrasonic and optical sensors are the most used for this purpose. The objective of this work was to assess the performance of an ultrasonic sensor under laboratory and field conditions in order to provide reliable estimations of distance measurements to apple tree canopies. To this purpose, a methodology has been designed to analyze sensor performance in relation to foliage ranging and to interferences with adjacent sensors when working simultaneously. Results show that the average error in distance measurement using the ultrasonic sensor in laboratory conditions is ±0.53 cm. However, the increase of variability in field conditions reduces the accuracy of this kind of sensors when estimating distances to canopies. The average error in such situations is ±5.11 cm. When analyzing interferences of adjacent sensors 30 cm apart, the average error is ±17.46 cm. When sensors are separated 60 cm, the average error is ±9.29 cm. The ultrasonic sensor tested has been proven to be suitable to estimate distances to the canopy in field conditions when sensors are 60 cm apart or more and could, therefore, be used in a system to estimate structural canopy parameters in precision horticulture. PMID:22163749

  16. Ultrasonic stir welding process and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An ultrasonic stir welding device provides a method and apparatus for elevating the temperature of a work piece utilizing at least one ultrasonic heater. Instead of relying on a rotating shoulder to provide heat to a workpiece an ultrasonic heater is utilized to provide ultrasonic energy to the workpiece. A rotating pin driven by a motor assembly performs the weld on the workpiece. A handheld version can be constructed as well as a fixedly mounted embodiment.

  17. A robotic scanning system for ultrasonic inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Buda, E.; Moles, M.D.C.; Chan, W.K.

    1984-01-01

    The reliability of flaw detection is a major concern in ultrasonic inspections. A robotic ultrasonic scanning system, which is being developed at Ontario Hydro, Research Division, promises to provide repeatable and accurate ultrasonic scans to allow better mixing and identification of defects than would be possible with manual methods

  18. Ultrasonic techniques for fluids characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Povey, Malcolm J W

    1997-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive and practical guide to the use of ultrasonic techniques for the characterization of fluids. Focusing on ultrasonic velocimetry, the author covers the basic topics and techniques necessaryfor successful ultrasound measurements on emulsions, dispersions, multiphase media, and viscoelastic/viscoplastic materials. Advanced techniques such as scattering, particle sizing, and automation are also presented. As a handbook for industrial and scientific use, Ultrasonic Techniques for Fluids Characterization is an indispensable guide to chemists and chemical engineers using ultrasound for research or process monitoring in the chemical, food processing, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, biotechnology,and fuels industries. Key Features * Appeals to anyone using ultrasound to study fluids * Provides the first detailed description of the ultrasound profiling technique for dispersions * Describes new techniques for measuring phase transitions and nucleation, such as water/ice and oil/fat * Presents the l...

  19. Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Charles F.; Howard, Boyd D.

    1998-01-01

    A flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus, comprising a flexible, hollow shaft that carries a plurality of modules, including at least one rotatable ultrasonic transducer, a motor/gear unit, and a position/signal encoder. The modules are connected by flexible knuckle joints that allow each module of the apparatus to change its relative orientation with respect to a neighboring module, while the shaft protects electrical wiring from kinking or buckling while the apparatus moves around a tight corner. The apparatus is moved through a pipe by any suitable means, including a tether or drawstring attached to the nose or tail, differential hydraulic pressure, or a pipe pig. The rotational speed of the ultrasonic transducer and the forward velocity of the apparatus are coordinated so that the beam sweeps out the entire interior surface of the pipe, enabling the operator to accurately assess the condition of the pipe wall and determine whether or not leak-prone corrosion damage is present.

  20. Numerical calculations of ultrasonic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. A.

    1982-02-01

    A code for calculating ultrasonic fields was developed by revising the thermal hydraulics code STEALTH. This code may be used in a wide variety of situations in which a detailed knowledge of a propagating wave field is required. Among the potential uses are interpretation of pulse echo or pitch catch ultrasonic signals in complicated geometries, ultrasonic transducer modeling and characterization; optimization and evaluation of transducer design; optimization and reliability of inspection procedures; investigation of the response of different types of reflectors; flaw modeling; and general theoretical acoustics. The code is described, and its limitations and potential are discussed. A discussion of the required input and of the general procedures for running the code is presented. Three sample problems illustrate the input and the use of the code.

  1. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravoire, Jean

    1978-11-01

    Separation of isotopes is treated in a general way, with special reference to the production of enriched uranium. Uses of separated isotopes are presented quickly. Then basic definitions and theoretical concepts are explained: isotopic effects, non statistical and statistical processes, reversible and irreversible processes, separation factor, enrichment, cascades, isotopic separative work, thermodynamics. Afterwards the main processes and productions are reviewed. Finally the economical and industrial aspects of uranium enrichment are resumed [fr

  2. Design and development of Pc-based TOFD ultrasonic scanning system for welds inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhairy Sani; Mohamad Pauzi Ismai; Muhammad Faiz Mohd Shukri; Amry Amin Abas

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a portable PC-based ultrasonic scanning system for industrial applications. The system which is called TOFD Ultrasonic Scanning System (TOFUSS) is used to create a gray scale imaging techniques are applied to the RF (AC) signal phase and enables weld integrity to be observed in real time. TOFD consists of a separate ultrasonic transmitter and receiver. The Probes are aimed at the same point in the weld volume. The entire weld is flooded with ultrasound allowing inspection of the weld. With a time of flight path, the ultrasonic velocity and the spatial relationship of the two probes, location and height of the defects can be very accurately calculated. The algorithm and complete system were implemented in a computer software developed using Microsoft Visual BASIC 6.0. (author)

  3. Concurrent ultrasonic weld evaluation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Donald W.; Johnson, John A.; Smartt, Herschel B.

    1987-01-01

    A system for concurrent, non-destructive evaluation of partially completed welds for use in conjunction with an automated welder. The system utilizes real time, automated ultrasonic inspection of a welding operation as the welds are being made by providing a transducer which follows a short distance behind the welding head. Reflected ultrasonic signals are analyzed utilizing computer based digital pattern recognition techniques to discriminate between good and flawed welds on a pass by pass basis. The system also distinguishes between types of weld flaws.

  4. Development of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer for noncontact ultrasonic detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Bok; Ahn, Bong Young; Park, Hae Won; Kim, Young Joo; Lee, Seung Seok [Center for Environment and Safrty Measurement, KRISS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-11-15

    In this study, the capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (cMUT) was developed. Theoretical analysis and finite element analysis of the behavior of membrane (such as resonance frequency, membrane deflection, collapse deflection and collapse voltage) of the cMUT were performed. The design parameters of the cMUT were estimated and are the dimension and thickness of membrane, thickness of sacrificial layer, thickness and size of electrode, size of active element and so on. With the micro-fabrication process, the cMUT was fabricated on the silicon wafer. To measure the membrane displacement of cMUT, the Michelson phase modulation fiber interferometer was constructed. The measured membrane displacement was good agreed with the result of finite element analysis. To estimate the ultrasonic wave generated by the cMUT, the ultrasonic transceiver system was constructed. The developed cMUT shows a good performance and hence will be widely used to the filed of non-contact ultrasonic application.

  5. Development of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer for noncontact ultrasonic detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Bok; Ahn, Bong Young; Park, Hae Won; Kim, Young Joo; Lee, Seung Seok

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (cMUT) was developed. Theoretical analysis and finite element analysis of the behavior of membrane (such as resonance frequency, membrane deflection, collapse deflection and collapse voltage) of the cMUT were performed. The design parameters of the cMUT were estimated and are the dimension and thickness of membrane, thickness of sacrificial layer, thickness and size of electrode, size of active element and so on. With the micro-fabrication process, the cMUT was fabricated on the silicon wafer. To measure the membrane displacement of cMUT, the Michelson phase modulation fiber interferometer was constructed. The measured membrane displacement was good agreed with the result of finite element analysis. To estimate the ultrasonic wave generated by the cMUT, the ultrasonic transceiver system was constructed. The developed cMUT shows a good performance and hence will be widely used to the filed of non-contact ultrasonic application.

  6. Analytical Ultrasonics in Materials Research and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vary, A.

    1986-01-01

    Research results in analytical ultrasonics for characterizing structural materials from metals and ceramics to composites are presented. General topics covered by the conference included: status and advances in analytical ultrasonics for characterizing material microstructures and mechanical properties; status and prospects for ultrasonic measurements of microdamage, degradation, and underlying morphological factors; status and problems in precision measurements of frequency-dependent velocity and attenuation for materials analysis; procedures and requirements for automated, digital signal acquisition, processing, analysis, and interpretation; incentives for analytical ultrasonics in materials research and materials processing, testing, and inspection; and examples of progress in ultrasonics for interrelating microstructure, mechanical properites, and dynamic response.

  7. Investigation of Noise in Electronic Ultrasonic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulius Adomavičius

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Noise models in ultrasonic control system have been investigated. Ultrasonic system channel consist of exciting generator, ultrasonic transducer, amplitude limiter, amplifier, low band filter and A/D converter. The ultrasonic transducers have been described as Von Hippel model, Van Dyke model or improved Van Dyke model. Advantages and disadvantages of these models are discussed in this paper. Noise models of amplitude limiter and linear operational amplifier are presented. The summary results of calculated noise spectral density of ultrasonic system channel have been presented.Article in Lithuanian

  8. Measurement of a 3D Ultrasonic Wavefield Using Pulsed Laser Holographic Microscopy for Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In ultrasonic array imaging, 3D ultrasonic wavefields are normally recorded by an ultrasonic piezo array transducer. Its performance is limited by the configuration and size of the array transducer. In this paper, a method based on digital holographic interferometry is proposed to record the 3D ultrasonic wavefields instead of the array transducer, and the measurement system consisting of a pulsed laser, ultrasonic excitation, and synchronization and control circuit is designed. A consecutive sequence of holograms of ultrasonic wavefields are recorded by the system. The interferograms are calculated from the recorded holograms at different time sequence. The amplitudes and phases of the transient ultrasonic wavefields are recovered from the interferograms by phase unwrapping. The consecutive sequence of transient ultrasonic wavefields are stacked together to generate 3D ultrasonic wavefields. Simulation and experiments are carried out to verify the proposed technique, and preliminary results are presented.

  9. Ultrasonic attenuation in cuprate superconductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ultrasonic attenuation in cuprate superconductors. T GUPTA1,∗ and D M GAITONDE1,2. 1Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Allahabad 211 019, India. 2High Pressure Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India. ∗. Email: gupta@mri.ernet.in. Abstract. We calculate the longitudinal ...

  10. Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, C.F.; Howard, B.D.

    1994-01-01

    Pipe crawlers, pipe inspection {open_quotes}rabbits{close_quotes} and similar vehicles are widely used for inspecting the interior surfaces of piping systems, storage tanks and process vessels for damaged or flawed structural features. This paper describes the design of a flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus.

  11. Atmospheric contamination during ultrasonic scaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, MF; Menso, L; Steinfort, J; van Winkelhoff, AJ; van der Weijden, GA

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the microbial atmospheric contamination during initial periodontal treatment using a piezoelectric ultrasonic scaler in combination with either high-volume evacuation (HVE) or conventional dental suction (CDS). Methods: The study included 17

  12. The Effect of Fabric Position to the Distribution of Acoustic Pressure Field in Ultrasonic Bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürses, B. O.; Özdemir, A. O.; Tonay, Ö.; Şener, M.; Perinçek, S.

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays, the use of ultrasonic energy in textile wet processes at industrial-scale is limited. It is largely due to the lack of understanding about design, operational and performance characteristics of the ultrasonic bath, suitable for textile treatments. In the context of this study, the effect of fabric position, as one of the design parameter, to the distribution of acoustic pressure field in ultrasonic bath was investigated. The ultrasonic bath in the size 20×30 cm2 with one transducer at frequency 40 kHz was used in experiments. The cotton fabric with 1 mm thickness was moved along vertical and horizontal directions of the ultrasonic bath. The acoustic field and cavitation volume density in the bath is analyzed by COMSOL Multiphysic. The cavitation volume density is calculated by comparing the pressure points in the bath with cavitation threshold pressure. Consequently, it was found that the position of the textile material in the ultrasonic bath is one of the most important factors to achieve the uniform and maximum acoustic cavitation field. So, it should be taken into consideration during the design of industrial-scale ultrasonic bath used in textile wet processes.

  13. Review of piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducers and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Joontaek; Lee, Wonjun; Kang, Woojin; Shin, Eunjung; Ryu, Jungho; Choi, Hongsoo

    2017-11-01

    In recent decades, micromachined ultrasonic transducers (MUTs) have been investigated as an alternative to conventional piezocomposite ultrasonic transducers, primarily due to the advantages that microelectromechanical systems provide. Miniaturized ultrasonic systems require ultrasonic transducers integrated with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor circuits. Hence, piezoelectric MUTs (pMUTs) and capacitive MUTs (cMUTs) have been developed as the most favorable solutions. This paper reviews the basic equations to understand the characteristics of thin-film-based piezoelectric devices and presents recent research on pMUTs, including current approaches and limitations. Methods to improve the coupling coefficient of pMUTs are also investigated, such as device structure, materials, and fabrication techniques. The device structure improvements include multielectrode pMUTs, partially clamped boundary conditions, and 3D pMUTs (curved and domed types), where the latter can provide an electromechanical coupling coefficient of up to 45%. The piezoelectric coefficient (e 31) can be increased by controlling the crystal texture (seed layer of γ-Al2O3), using single-crystal (PMN-PT) materials, or control of residual stresses (using SiO2 layer). Arrays of pMUTs can be implemented for various applications including intravascular ultrasound, fingerprint sensors, rangefinders in air, and wireless power supply systems. pMUTs are expected to be an ideal solution for applications such as mobile biometric security (fingerprint sensors) and rangefinders due to their superior power efficiency and compact size.

  14. Review of piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducers and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Joontaek; Lee, Wonjun; Kang, Woojin; Shin, Eunjung; Choi, Hongsoo; Ryu, Jungho

    2017-01-01

    In recent decades, micromachined ultrasonic transducers (MUTs) have been investigated as an alternative to conventional piezocomposite ultrasonic transducers, primarily due to the advantages that microelectromechanical systems provide. Miniaturized ultrasonic systems require ultrasonic transducers integrated with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor circuits. Hence, piezoelectric MUTs (pMUTs) and capacitive MUTs (cMUTs) have been developed as the most favorable solutions. This paper reviews the basic equations to understand the characteristics of thin-film-based piezoelectric devices and presents recent research on pMUTs, including current approaches and limitations. Methods to improve the coupling coefficient of pMUTs are also investigated, such as device structure, materials, and fabrication techniques. The device structure improvements include multielectrode pMUTs, partially clamped boundary conditions, and 3D pMUTs (curved and domed types), where the latter can provide an electromechanical coupling coefficient of up to 45%. The piezoelectric coefficient ( e 31 ) can be increased by controlling the crystal texture (seed layer of γ -Al 2 O 3 ), using single-crystal (PMN-PT) materials, or control of residual stresses (using SiO 2 layer). Arrays of pMUTs can be implemented for various applications including intravascular ultrasound, fingerprint sensors, rangefinders in air, and wireless power supply systems. pMUTs are expected to be an ideal solution for applications such as mobile biometric security (fingerprint sensors) and rangefinders due to their superior power efficiency and compact size. (topical review)

  15. Smart ultrasonic flowmeter used for the operation support of water resource management in the agricultural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmostafa, Ziani; Mustapha, Bennouna; Boissier, Raymond

    2008-10-01

    networks. This new generation of devices is used in agricultural field (irrigation monitoring), based on transit-time principle with single-path or multi-path scheme. Finally, the goals of this work consist in integrating the smart sensor into irrigation systems monitoring in order to evaluate potential advantages and demonstrate their performance, on the other hand, to understand and use ultrasonic approach for determining flow characteristics and improving flow measurements by reducing errors caused by disturbances of the flow profiles.

  16. A separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopyuk, S.G.; Dyachenko, A.Ye.; Mukhametov, M.N.; Prokopov, O.I.

    1982-01-01

    A separator is proposed which contains separating slanted plates and baffle plates installed at a distance to them at an acute angle to them. To increase the effectiveness of separating a gas and liquid stream and the throughput through reducing the secondary carry away of the liquid drops and to reduce the hydraulic resistance, as well, openings are made in the plates. The horizontal projections of each opening from the lower and upper surfaces of the plate do not overlap each other.

  17. Ultrasonic Needles for Bone Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Andrew; Wallace, Robert; Cleary, Rebecca; Li Li; Simpson, Hamish; Lucas, Margaret

    2017-02-01

    Bone biopsy is an invasive clinical procedure, where a bone sample is recovered for analysis during the diagnosis of a medical condition. When the architecture of the bone tissue is required to be preserved, a core-needle biopsy is taken. Although this procedure is performed while the patient is under local anaesthesia, the patient can still experience significant discomfort. Additionally, large haematoma can be induced in the soft tissue surrounding the biopsy site due to the large axial and rotational forces, which are applied through the needle to penetrate bone. It is well documented that power ultrasonic surgical devices offer the advantages of low cutting force, high accuracy, and preservation of soft tissues. This paper reports a study of the design, analysis, and test of two novel power ultrasonic needles for bone biopsy that operate using different configurations to penetrate bone. The first utilizes micrometric vibrations generated at the distil tip of a full-wavelength resonant ultrasonic device, while the second utilizes an ultrasonic-sonic approach, where vibrational energy generated by a resonant ultrasonic horn is transferred to a needle via the chaotic motion of a free-mass. It is shown that the dynamic behavior of the devices identified through experimental techniques closely match the behavior calculated through numerical and finite-element analysis methods, demonstrating that they are effective design tools for these devices. Both devices were able to recover trabecular bone from the metaphysis of an ovine femur, and the biopsy samples were found to be comparable to a sample extracted using a conventional biopsy needle. Furthermore, the resonant needle device was also able to extract a cortical bone sample from the central diaphysis, which is the strongest part of the bone, and the biopsy was found to be superior to the sample recovered by a conventional bone biopsy needle.

  18. Ultrasonic extraction of resins from an historic textile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezić, I; Krstić, D; Bokić, Lj

    2008-01-01

    Ultrasound assisted extraction was applied on the historical textile as the most appropriate sample preparation step for the identification of the resinous binder. Fragile silk banner from the 19th century was analyzed for the presence of different resins. After the ultrasonic extraction with ethyl acetate in the ultrasonic bath, resinous materials and unknown sample from the banner were separated by thin layer chromatography. The multiple developments in benzene-methanol (95:5) system as mobile phase and silica gel layer as stationary phase were applied, and afterwards the video densitometry determination of the components was performed by means of video camera HV-C20. The shellac resin was determined as an important part of the complex binder.

  19. Spatial Confinement of Ultrasonic Force Fields in Microfluidic Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manneberg, O; Hagsäter, Melker; Svennebring, J

    2009-01-01

    of the microfluidic channel. The channel segments are remotely actuated by the use of frequency-specific external transducers with refracting wedges placed on top of the chips. The force field in each channel segment is characterized by the use of micrometer-resolution particle image velocimetry ( micro......-PIV). The confinement of the ultrasonic fields during single-or dual-segment actuation, as well as the cross-talk between two adjacent. fields, is characterized and quantified. Our results show that the field confinement typically scales with the acoustic wavelength, and that the cross-talk is insignificant between...... adjacent. fields. The goal is to define design strategies for implementing several spatially separated ultrasonic manipulation functions in series for use in advanced particle or cell handling and processing applications. One such proof-of-concept application is demonstrated, where. flow...

  20. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eerkens, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    A method of isotope separation is described which involves the use of a laser photon beam to selectively induce energy level transitions of an isotope molecule containing the isotope to be separated. The use of the technique for 235 U enrichment is demonstrated. (UK)

  1. Estimating the Parameters of Deformation Action by Ultrasonic Surface Hardening of Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhimyanov, Kharis M.; Rakhimyanov, Konstantin Kh; Rakhimyanov, Andrey Kh

    2017-10-01

    Developing the effective technologies of detail machining greatly depends on understanding the processes laid down in their basis. The technological methods based on electro-physical processes are considered to be attractive. These are the methods of surface plastic deforming which use the energy of ultrasonic oscillations. The peculiarities of these methods are characterized by high intensity and impulse character of the ultrasonic action. The paper presents the results of mathematical modeling of deformation processes under the impact of the ultrasonic tool on the surface layer of metals and alloys. The theoretical approach to studying the process of ultrasonic deforming allowed us to determine the mode parameters of impact and their quantitative correlations with the main characteristics of the deformation process.

  2. Effect of Solvents on the Ultrasonic Velocity and Acoustic Parameters of Polyvinylidene Fluoride Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Kulkarni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic studies provide a wealth of information in understanding the molecular behavior and intermolecular interaction of polymer solvent mixtures. Attempts were made to measure ultrasonic velocity, density, and viscosity for the mixture of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF in acetone and dimethylformamide (DMF of various stoichiometric ratios at 300 K using crystal controlled ultrasonic interferometer (Mittal make, pyknometer (specific gravity bottle, and Ostwald viscometer, respectively. The acoustic parameters adiabatic compressibility (β, intermolecular free path length (Lf, acoustic impedance (Z, relative association (RA, ultrasonic attenuation (α/f2, and relaxation time (τ have been estimated using experimental data with well-known techniques. The variation of these acoustic parameters is explained in terms of solute-solvent molecular interaction in a polymer solution.

  3. Bruce Thompson: Adventures and advances in ultrasonic backscatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margetan, Frank J.

    2012-05-01

    Over the course of his professional career Dr. R. Bruce Thompson published several hundred articles on non-destructive evaluation, the majority dealing with topics in ultrasonics. One longtime research interest of Dr. Thompson, with applications both to microstructure characterization and defect detection, was backscattered grain noise in metals. Over a 20 year period he led a revolving team of staff members and graduate students investigating various aspects of ultrasonic backscatter. As a member of that team I had the privilege of working along side Dr. Thompson for many years, serving as a sort of Dr. Watson to Bruce's Sherlock Holmes. This article discusses Dr. Thompson's general approaches to modeling backscatter, the research topics he chose to explore to systematically elucidate a better understanding of the phenomena, and the many contributions to the field achieved under his leadership. The backscatter work began in earnest around 1990, motivated by a need to improve inspections of aircraft engine components. At that time Dr. Thompson launched two research efforts. The first led to the heuristic Independent Scatterer Model which could be used to estimate the average grain noise level that would be seen in any given ultrasonic inspection. There the contribution from the microstructure was contained in a measureable parameter known as the Figure-of-Merit or FOM. The second research effort, spearheaded by Dr. Jim Rose, led to a formal relationship between FOM and details of the metal microstructure. The combination of the Independent Scattering Model and Rose's formalism provided a powerful tool for investigating backscatter in metals. In this article model developments are briefly reviewed and several illustrative applications are discussed. These include: the determination of grain size and shape from ultrasonic backscatter; grain noise variability in engine-titanium billets and forgings; and the design of ultrasonic inspection systems to improve defect

  4. An Ultrasonic System for Weed Detection in Cereal Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionisio Andújar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Site-specific weed management requires sensing of the actual weed infestation levels in agricultural fields to adapt the management accordingly. However, sophisticated sensor systems are not yet in wider practical use, since they are not easily available for the farmers and their handling as well as the management practice requires additional efforts. A new sensor-based weed detection method is presented in this paper and its applicability to cereal crops is evaluated. An ultrasonic distance sensor for the determination of plant heights was used for weed detection. It was hypothesised that the weed infested zones have a higher amount of biomass than non-infested areas and that this can be determined by plant height measurements. Ultrasonic distance measurements were taken in a winter wheat field infested by grass weeds and broad-leaved weeds. A total of 80 and 40 circular-shaped samples of different weed densities and compositions were assessed at two different dates. The sensor was pointed directly to the ground for height determination. In the following, weeds were counted and then removed from the sample locations. Grass weeds and broad-leaved weeds were separately removed. Differences between weed infested and weed-free measurements were determined. Dry-matter of weeds and crop was assessed and evaluated together with the sensor measurements. RGB images were taken prior and after weed removal to determine the coverage percentages of weeds and crop per sampling point. Image processing steps included EGI (excess green index computation and thresholding to separate plants and background. The relationship between ultrasonic readings and the corresponding coverage of the crop and weeds were assessed using multiple regression analysis. Results revealed a height difference between infested and non-infested sample locations. Density and biomass of weeds present in the sample influenced the ultrasonic readings. The possibilities of weed group

  5. An ultrasonic system for weed detection in cereal crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andújar, Dionisio; Weis, Martin; Gerhards, Roland

    2012-12-13

    Site-specific weed management requires sensing of the actual weed infestation levels in agricultural fields to adapt the management accordingly. However, sophisticated sensor systems are not yet in wider practical use, since they are not easily available for the farmers and their handling as well as the management practice requires additional efforts. A new sensor-based weed detection method is presented in this paper and its applicability to cereal crops is evaluated. An ultrasonic distance sensor for the determination of plant heights was used for weed detection. It was hypothesised that the weed infested zones have a higher amount of biomass than non-infested areas and that this can be determined by plant height measurements. Ultrasonic distance measurements were taken in a winter wheat field infested by grass weeds and broad-leaved weeds. A total of 80 and 40 circular-shaped samples of different weed densities and compositions were assessed at two different dates. The sensor was pointed directly to the ground for height determination. In the following, weeds were counted and then removed from the sample locations. Grass weeds and broad-leaved weeds were separately removed. Differences between weed infested and weed-free measurements were determined. Dry-matter of weeds and crop was assessed and evaluated together with the sensor measurements. RGB images were taken prior and after weed removal to determine the coverage percentages of weeds and crop per sampling point. Image processing steps included EGI (excess green index) computation and thresholding to separate plants and background. The relationship between ultrasonic readings and the corresponding coverage of the crop and weeds were assessed using multiple regression analysis. Results revealed a height difference between infested and non-infested sample locations. Density and biomass of weeds present in the sample influenced the ultrasonic readings. The possibilities of weed group discrimination were

  6. CENTRIFUGAL SEPARATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarstrom, C.

    1959-03-10

    A centrifugal separator is described for separating gaseous mixtures where the temperature gradients both longitudinally and radially of the centrifuge may be controlled effectively to produce a maximum separation of the process gases flowing through. Tbe invention provides for the balancing of increases and decreases in temperature in various zones of the centrifuge chamber as the result of compression and expansions respectively, of process gases and may be employed effectively both to neutralize harmful temperature gradients and to utilize beneficial temperaturc gradients within the centrifuge.

  7. Effect of Ultrasonic Frequency on Lactic Acid Fermentation Promotion by Ultrasonic Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Tadayuki; Ohdaira, Etsuzo; Masuzawa, Nobuyoshi

    2004-05-01

    The authors have been researching the promotion of lactic acid fermentation by ultrasonic irradiation. In the past research, it was proven that ultrasonic irradiation is effective in the process of fermentation, and the production of yoghurt and kefir was promoted. In this study, the effect of the ultrasonic frequency in this fermentation process was examined. In the frequency range of this study, it was found that the action of fermentation promotion was exponentially proportionate to the irradiated ultrasonic frequency.

  8. Ultrasonic disruption of algae cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, P. M.; Nowotarski, K.; Joyce, E. M.; Mason, T. J.

    2012-05-01

    During last decade there has been increasing interest in the production of sustainable fuels from microalgae (R.H. Wijffels and M.J. Barbosa, 2010; Singh et al 2011; D.H. Lee 2011). The aim of this project was to determine if algal cells can be ultrasonically disrupted to release lipids for biofuel production. Ultrasonic disruption of two unicellular algal species: Dunnaliella salina and Nannochloropsis oculata was investigated using a 20 kHz probe. Haemocytometer, optical density, UV-Vis, fluoro-spectrophotometer and confocal microscopy results demonstrated complete cell destruction of Dunaliella salina within 16 minutes of sonication. Results obtained for Nannochloropsis oculata differed in that ultrasound dispersed clumped cells with little or no cell disruption, as observed by haemocytometer and confocal microscopy analysis. However, UV-Visible and fluoro-spectrophotometer analysis indicated chlorophyll release following sonication, suggesting some cell disruption had occurred.

  9. Discriminating ultrasonic proximity detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annala, W C

    1986-12-04

    This invention uses an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver and a microprocessor to detect the presence of an object. In the reset mode the invention uses a plurality of echoes from each ultrasonic burst to create a reference table of the echo-burst-signature of the empty monitored environment. The invention then processes the reference table so that it only uses the most reliable data. In the detection mode the invention compares the echo-burst-signature of the present environment with the reference table, detecting an object if there is a consistent difference between the echo-burst-signature of the empty monitored environment recorded in the reference table and the echo-burst-signature of the present environment.

  10. Discriminating ultrasonic proximity detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annala, W.C.

    1989-01-24

    This invention uses an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver and a microprocessor to detect the presence of an object. In the reset mode the invention uses a plurality of echoes from each ultrasonic burst to create a reference table of the echo-burst-signature of the empty monitored environment. The invention then processes the reference table so that it only uses the most reliable data. In the detection mode the invention compares the echo-burst-signature of the present environment with the reference table, detecting an object if there is a consistent difference between the echo-burst-signature of the empty monitored environment recorded in the reference table and the echo-burst-signature of the present environment.

  11. Discriminating ultrasonic proximity detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annala, Wayne C. (Durango, CO)

    1989-01-01

    This invention uses an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver and a microprocessor to detect the presence of an object. In the reset mode the invention uses a plurality of echoes from each ultrasonic burst to create a reference table of the echo-burst-signature of the empty monitored environment. The invention then processes the reference table so that it only uses the most reliable data. In the detection mode the invention compares the echo-burst-signature of the present environment with the reference table, detecting an object if there is a consistent difference between the echo-burst-signature of the empty monitored environment recorded in the reference table and the echo-burst-signature of the present environment.

  12. Fundamentals of picosecond laser ultrasonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Osamu; Larciprete, Maria Cristina; Li Voti, Roberto; Wright, Oliver B

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this article is to provide an introduction to picosecond laser ultrasonics, a means by which gigahertz-terahertz ultrasonic waves can be generated and detected by ultrashort light pulses. This method can be used to characterize materials with nanometer spatial resolution. With reference to key experiments, we first review the theoretical background for normal-incidence optical detection of longitudinal acoustic waves in opaque single-layer isotropic thin films. The theory is extended to handle isotropic multilayer samples, and is again compared to experiment. We then review applications to anisotropic samples, including oblique-incidence optical probing, and treat the generation and detection of shear waves. Solids including metals and semiconductors are mainly discussed, although liquids are briefly mentioned. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. High-resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Buckin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy (HR-US is an analytical technique for direct and non-destructive monitoring of molecular and micro-structural transformations in liquids and semi-solid materials. It is based on precision measurements of ultrasonic velocity and attenuation in analysed samples. The application areas of HR-US in research, product development, and quality and process control include analysis of conformational transitions of polymers, ligand binding, molecular self-assembly and aggregation, crystallisation, gelation, characterisation of phase transitions and phase diagrams, and monitoring of chemical and biochemical reactions. The technique does not require optical markers or optical transparency. The HR-US measurements can be performed in small sample volumes (down to droplet size, over broad temperature range, at ambient and elevated pressures, and in various measuring regimes such as automatic temperature ramps, titrations and measurements in flow.

  14. Ultrasonic vibration machining of Inconel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Myung Ho

    2003-01-01

    Recently, the demand for advanced technology of high precision and high efficiency processing of hard materials such as Inconel is increasing with progress of industrial goods. However, the machinability of Inconel is very inferior to the other conventional industrial materials and the machining technology for Inconel involves many problems to be solved in machining accuracy, machining efficiency, etc. Therefore it is needs to establish the machining technology. The purpose of this study is to develop an advanced ultrasonic vibration machining technology for Inconel, using the 60kHz and 75kHz high frequency, amplitude about 8μm and 4μm, respectively. As the result, this new ultrasonic vibration machining is reasonable and suitable for the high efficient, accuracy machining method of Inconel

  15. Ultrasonic guided waves in bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moilanen, Petro

    2008-01-01

    Recent progress in quantitative ultrasound (QUS) has shown increasing interest toward measuring long bones by ultrasonic guided waves. This technology is widely used in the field of nondestructive testing and evaluation of different waveguide structures. Cortical bone provides such an elastic waveguide and its ability to sustain loading and resist fractures is known to be related to its mechanical properties at different length scales. Because guided waves could yield diverse characterizations of the bone's mechanical properties at the macroscopic level, the method of guided waves has a strong potential over the standardized bone densitometry as a tool for bone assessment. Despite this, development of guided wave methods is challenging, e.g., due to interferences and multiparametric inversion problems. This paper discusses the promises and challenges related to bone characterization by ultrasonic guided waves.

  16. Separated Shoulder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ligaments that hold your collarbone (clavicle) to your shoulder blade. In a mild separated shoulder, the ligaments might ... the ligaments that hold your collarbone to your shoulder blade. Risk factors Participating in contact sports, such as ...

  17. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.L.

    1979-01-01

    Isotopic species in an isotopic mixture including a first species having a first isotope and a second species having a second isotope are separated by selectively exciting the first species in preference to the second species and then reacting the selectively excited first species with an additional preselected radiation, an electron or another chemical species so as to form a product having a mass different from the original species and separating the product from the balance of the mixture in a centrifugal separating device such as centrifuge or aerodynamic nozzle. In the centrifuge the isotopic mixture is passed into a rotor where it is irradiated through a window. Heavier and lighter components can be withdrawn. The irradiated mixture experiences a large centrifugal force and is separated in a deflection area into lighter and heavier components. (UK)

  18. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castle, P.M.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to molecular and atomic isotope separation and is particularly applicable to the separation of 235 U from other uranium isotopes including 238 U. In the method described a desired isotope is separated mechanically from an atomic or molecular beam formed from an isotope mixture utilising the isotropic recoil momenta resulting from selective excitation of the desired isotope species by radiation, followed by ionization or dissociation by radiation or electron attachment. By forming a matrix of UF 6 molecules in HBr molecules so as to collapse the V 3 vibrational mode of the UF 6 molecule the 235 UF 6 molecules are selectively excited to promote reduction of UF 6 molecules containing 235 U and facilitate separation. (UK)

  19. Experimental investigation of ultrasonic velocity anisotropy in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/pram/077/02/0345-0355. Keywords. Magnetic fluids; ultrasonic wave; sound velocity; anisotropy. Abstract. Magnetic field-induced dispersion of ultrasonic velocity in a Mn0.7Zn0.3Fe2O4 fluid (applied magnetic field is perpendicular to the ultrasonic propagation vector) is ...

  20. Spartacus, acquisition and processing system for ultrasonic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoist, P.; Pettier, J.L.; Carre, L.

    1991-01-01

    The Ultrasonic Testing Laboratory at the CEA's Saclay Nuclear Research Centre has developed an acquisition and processing system for ultrasonics (SPARTACUS). SPARTACUS replaces conventional threshold systems, and offers many information processing possibilities to help improve ultrasonic inspection. The paper describes the different tools available and a number of applications. This type of system, which be used both in the laboratory and on site, will facilitate flaw characterization and the testing of high structural noise materials

  1. Experimental investigation of ultrasonic velocity anisotropy in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/pram/077/02/0345-0355. Keywords. Magnetic fluids; ultrasonic wave; sound velocity; anisotropy. Abstract. Magnetic field-induced dispersion of ultrasonic velocity in a Mn0.7Zn0.3Fe2O4 fluid (applied magnetic field is perpendicular to the ultrasonic propagation vector) is ...

  2. Proposed new ultrasonic test bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxfield, B.W.

    1978-01-01

    Within the last four or five years, a great deal of progress has been made both here and in a number of other laboratories in developing techniques that will enable considerably more information to be obtained from the ultrasonic examination of an object. Some of these recent developments relate to information contained within the diffracted beam which does not return along the incident path. An ultrasonic examination based upon an evaluation of diffracted energy must use at least two transducers, one for transmission and the other for reception. Current indications are that even more reliable test results will be achieved using a receiving transducer that can scan a significant portion of the diffracted field including that portion which is back-reflected. In general, this scan can be interpreted most accurately if it follows a path related to the surface shape. If more than one region within the object is to be interrogated, then the transmitting transducer must also be scanned, again along a path related to the surface shape. The large quantity of information obtained as the result of such an examination must be subjected to sophisticated computer analysis in order to be displayed in a meaningful and intelligible manner. Although one motivation for building such an instrument is to explore new ultrasonic test procedures that are evolving from current laboratory research, this is neither the sole motivation nor the only use for this instrument. Such a mechanical and electronic device would permit conventional ultrasonic tests to be performed on parts of complex geometry without the expensive and time-consuming special fixturing that is currently required. May possible test geometries could be explored in practice prior to the construction of a specialized test apparatus. Hence, it would be necessary to design much, if any, flexibility into the special test apparatus

  3. Separations chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Results of studies on the photochemistry of aqueous Pu solutions and the stability of iodine in liquid and gaseous CO 2 are reported. Progress is reported in studies on: the preparation of macroporous bodies filled with oxides and sulfides to be used as adsorbents; the beneficiation of photographic wastes; the anion exchange adsorption of transition elements from thiosulfate solutions; advanced filtration applications of energy significance; high-resolution separations; and, the examination of the separation agents, octylphenylphosphoric acid (OPPA) and trihexyl phosphate (THP)

  4. Product separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsh, R.A.; Deurbrouck, A.W.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of a secondary light sensitive photoelectric product separator for use with a primary product separator that concentrates a material so that it is visually distinguishable from adjacent materials. The concentrate separation is accomplished first by feeding the material onto a vibratory inclined surface with a liquid flow, such as a wet concentrating table. Vibrations generally perpendicular to the stream direction of flow cause the concentrate to separate from its mixture according to its color. When the concentrate and its surrounding stream reach the recovery end of the table, a detecting device notes the line of color demarcation and triggers a signal if it differs from a normal condition. If no difference is noted, nothing moves on the second separator. However, if a difference is detected in the constant monitoring of the color line's location, a product splitter and recovery unit normally positioned near the color line at the recovery end, moves to a new position. In this manner the selected separated concentrate is recovered at a maximum rate regardless of variations in the flow stream or other conditions present

  5. Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, C.F.; Howard, B.D.

    1998-06-23

    A flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus, comprises a flexible, hollow shaft that carries a plurality of modules, including at least one rotatable ultrasonic transducer, a motor/gear unit, and a position/signal encoder. The modules are connected by flexible knuckle joints that allow each module of the apparatus to change its relative orientation with respect to a neighboring module, while the shaft protects electrical wiring from kinking or buckling while the apparatus moves around a tight corner. The apparatus is moved through a pipe by any suitable means, including a tether or drawstring attached to the nose or tail, differential hydraulic pressure, or a pipe pig. The rotational speed of the ultrasonic transducer and the forward velocity of the apparatus are coordinated so that the beam sweeps out the entire interior surface of the pipe, enabling the operator to accurately assess the condition of the pipe wall and determine whether or not leak-prone corrosion damage is present. 7 figs.

  6. Automated ultrasonic inspection using PULSDAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naybour, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    PULSDAT (Portable Ultrasonic Data Acquisition Tool) is a system for recording the data from single probe automated ultrasonic inspections. It is one of a range of instruments and software developed by Nuclear Electric to carry out a wide variety of high quality ultrasonic inspections. These vary from simple semi-automated inspections through to multi-probe, highly automated ones. PULSDAT runs under the control of MIPS software, and collects data which is compatible with the GUIDE data display system. PULSDAT is therefore fully compatible with Nuclear Electric's multi-probe inspection systems and utilises all the reliability and quality assurance of the software. It is a rugged, portable system that can be used in areas of difficult access. The paper discusses the benefits of automated inspection and gives an outline of the main features of PULSDAT. Since April 1990 PULSDAT has been used in several applications within Nuclear Electric and this paper presents two examples: the first is a ferritic set-through nozzle and the second is an austenitic fillet weld. (Author)

  7. Nonlinear Ultrasonic Measurements in Nuclear Reactor Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Brian T.

    Several Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) programs, such as the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD), Advanced Reactor Concepts (ARC), Light Water Reactor Sustainability, and Next Generation Nuclear Power Plants (NGNP), are investigating new fuels, materials, and inspection paradigms for advanced and existing reactors. A key objective of such programs is to understand the performance of these fuels and materials during irradiation. In DOE-NE's FCRD program, ultrasonic based technology was identified as a key approach that should be pursued to obtain the high-fidelity, high-accuracy data required to characterize the behavior and performance of new candidate fuels and structural materials during irradiation testing. The radiation, high temperatures, and pressure can limit the available tools and characterization methods. In this thesis, two ultrasonic characterization techniques will be explored. The first, finite amplitude wave propagation has been demonstrated to be sensitive to microstructural material property changes. It is a strong candidate to determine fuel evolution; however, it has not been demonstrated for in-situ reactor applications. In this thesis, finite amplitude wave propagation will be used to measure the microstructural evolution in Al-6061. This is the first demonstration of finite amplitude wave propagation at temperatures in excess of 200 °C and during an irradiation test. Second, a method based on contact nonlinear acoustic theory will be developed to identify compressed cracks. Compressed cracks are typically transparent to ultrasonic wave propagation; however, by measuring harmonic content developed during finite amplitude wave propagation, it is shown that even compressed cracks can be characterized. Lastly, piezoelectric transducers capable of making these measurements are developed. Specifically, three piezoelectric sensors (Bismuth Titanate, Aluminum Nitride, and Zinc Oxide) are tested in the Massachusetts

  8. A Data-Driven Correction of Ultrasonic Source and Receiver Spectral Amplitude Variations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volker, A.W.F.; Capel, P. van; Vossen, R. van

    2012-01-01

    The application of phase arrays is growing for NDT applications. State of the art ultrasonic arrays consist of many small piezo-electric elements that can be excited separately to synthesize a desired wave front. This may vary from simple plane waves to complex-shaped focusing wave fields. An

  9. Arrival-Time Detection and Ultrasonic Flow-Meter Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willatzen, Morten; Soendergaard, Peter; Latino, Carl; Voss, Frands; Andersen, Niels Lervad; Brokate, Martin; Bounaim, Aicha

    2006-01-01

    The Danfoss problem on ultrasonic flow measurement has been separated into three parts each handled by a subgroup of the authors listed above. The first subgroup deals with a presentation of modelling equations describing the physics of ultrasonic flow meters employing reciprocal ultrasonic transducer systems. The mathematical model presented allows the electrical output signal to be determined corresponding to any time-dependent electrical input signal. The transducers modelled consist of a piezoceramic material layer and a passive acoustic matching layer. The second subgroup analyzes the possibility of coding the input signal so as to simplify arrival-time detection by re.nding the coded input sequence in the received signal. The narrow-band nature of the transducers makes this problem non-trivial but suggestions for improvement are proposed. The analysis given is based on traditional autoand cross-correlation techniques. The third subgroup attempts to improve existing correlation methods in determining arrival-time detection of signals. A mathematical formulation of the problem is given and the application to a set of real signals provided by Danfoss A/S is performed with good results

  10. Enhancing Biodiesel from Kemiri Sunan Oil Manufacturing using Ultrasonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriyadi, Slamet; Purwanto; Anggoro, Didi Dwi; Hermawan

    2018-02-01

    Kemiri Sunan (Reutalis trisperma (Blanco) Airy Shaw) is a potential plant to be developed as biodiesel feedstock. The advantage of Kemiri Sunan seeds when compared to other biodiesel raw materials is their high oil content. This plant is also very good for land conservation. Due the increasingly demand for biodiesel, research and new methods to increase its biodiesel production continue to be undertaken. The weakness of conventional biodiesel manufacturing process is in the mixing process in which mechanical stirring and heating in the trans-esterification process require more energy and a longer time. A higher and stronger mixing process is required to increase the contact area between the two phases of the mixed substance to produce the emulsion. Ultrasonic is a tool that can be useful for a liquid mixing process that tends to be separated. Ultrasonic waves can cause mixing intensity at the micro level and increase mass transfer, so the reaction can be performed at a much faster rate. This study is to figure out the effect of ultrasonic irradiation on the transesterification process of biodiesel from Kemiri Sunan Oil.

  11. Design of ultrasonic probe and evaluation of ultrasonic waves on E.coli in Sour Cherry Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Hosseinzadeh Samani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The common method used for juice pasteurization is the thermal method since thermal methods contribute highly to inactivating microbes. However, applying high temperatures would lead to inefficient effects on nutrition and food value. Such effects may include vitamin loss, nutritional flavor loss, non-enzyme browning, and protein reshaping (Kuldiloke, 2002. In order to decrease the adverse effects of the thermal pasteurization method, other methods capable of inactivation of microorganisms can be applied. In doing so, non-thermal methods including pasteurization using high hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP, electrical fields, and ultrasound waves are of interest (Chen and Tseng, 1996. The reason for diminishing microbial count in the presence of ultrasonic waves could be due to the burst of very tiny bubbles developed by ultrasounds which expand quickly and burst in a short time. Due to this burst, special temperature and pressure conditions are developed which could initiate or intensify several physical and/or chemical reactions. The aim of this study is to evaluate the non-thermal ultrasonic method and its effective factors on the E.coli bacteria of sour cherry. Materials and methods: In order to supply uniform ultrasonic waves, a 1000 W electric generator (Model MPI, Switzerland working at 20±1 kHz frequency was used. The aim of this study is to evaluate the non-thermal ultrasonic method and its effective factors on the E.coli bacteria of sour cherry. For this purpose, a certain amount of sour cherry fruit was purchased from local markets. First, the fruits were washed, cleaned and cored. The prepared fruits were then dewatered using an electric juicer. In order to separate pulp suspensions and tissue components, the extracted juice was poured into a centrifuge with the speed of 6000 rpm for 20 min. For complete separation of the remaining suspended particles, the transparent portion of the extract was passed through a

  12. Ultrasonic defect characterization using parametric-manifold mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velichko, A.; Bai, L.; Drinkwater, B. W.

    2017-06-01

    The aim of ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation includes the detection and characterization of defects, and an understanding of the nature of defects is essential for the assessment of structural integrity in safety critical systems. In general, the defect characterization challenge involves an estimation of defect parameters from measured data. In this paper, we explore the extent to which defects can be characterized by their ultrasonic scattering behaviour. Given a number of ultrasonic measurements, we show that characterization information can be extracted by projecting the measurement onto a parametric manifold in principal component space. We show that this manifold represents the entirety of the characterization information available from far-field harmonic ultrasound. We seek to understand the nature of this information and hence provide definitive statements on the defect characterization performance that is, in principle, extractable from typical measurement scenarios. In experiments, the characterization problem of surface-breaking cracks and the more general problem of elliptical voids are studied, and a good agreement is achieved between the actual parameter values and the characterization results. The nature of the parametric manifold enables us to explain and quantify why some defects are relatively easy to characterize, whereas others are inherently challenging.

  13. Resonance ultrasonic actuation and local structural rejuvenation in metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D. P.; Yang, Y.; Niu, X. R.; Lu, J.; Yang, G. N.; Wang, W. H.; Liu, C. T.

    2017-06-01

    Using the method of contact resonance ultrasonic actuation (CRUA), we observed evidence of local structural rejuvenation at the surface of metallic glasses (MGs), arising from the increase of the vibration amplitude of the atoms after the resonance actuation. By adjusting the CRUA parameters, the size, pattern, and extent of the rejuvenated zones could be tailored. Nanoindentation tests revealed suppressed nucleation of shear bands after CRUA, originating from the homogenization of the local structure induced by the ultrasonic vibration. Compared with the structural homogenization from annealing, this method will not sacrifice the concentration of the free volume for the local structural constraint. These results are useful to understand the evolution of the microstructure and local structural rejuvenation of MGs, as well as the design of MGs with improved plasticity from the nanoscale to the microscale.

  14. A feasiblity study of an ultrasonic test phantom arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Philip

    This thesis is a feasibility study for the creation of a test phantom that replicates the physiological features, from an acoustic and mechanical standpoint, of that of a human arm. Physiological feature set includes; Heart, Arteries, Veins, Bone, Muscle, Fat, Skin, and Dermotographic Features (finger prints). Mechanical Aspects include, vascular compression and distention, elasticity of tissue layers, mechanics of human heart. The end goal of which to have a working understanding of each component in order to create a controllable, real time, physiologically accurate, test phantom for a wide range of ultrasonic based applications. These applications can range from devices like wearable technologies to medical training, to biometric "Liveness" detection methods. The proposed phantom would allow for a number of natural bodily functions to be measured including but not limited to vascular mapping, blood pressure, heart rate, subdermal imaging, and general ultrasonic imaging.

  15. Application of Ultrasonic Techniques for Brain Injury Diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasili, P.M.; Mobley, J.; Norton, S.J.; Vo-Dinh, T.

    1999-01-01

    In this work, we evaluate methods for detecting brain injury using ultrasound. We have used simulations of ultrasonic fields in the head to model the phase distortion of the skull. In addition we present experimental data from the crania of large animals. The experimental data help us understand and evaluate the performance of different transducers in acquiring the backscatter data from the brain through the skull. Both the simulations and acquired data illustrate the superiority of lower-frequency (<= 1 MHz) ultrasonic fields for transcranial acquisition of signals from inside the brain. Additionally, the experimental work shows that the higher-frequency (5 MHz) ultrasound can also be useful in acquiring clean nearfield data to help detect the position of the inner boundary of the skull

  16. Separable algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, Timothy J

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the theory of separable algebras over commutative rings. After a thorough introduction to the general theory, the fundamental roles played by separable algebras are explored. For example, Azumaya algebras, the henselization of local rings, and Galois theory are rigorously introduced and treated. Interwoven throughout these applications is the important notion of étale algebras. Essential connections are drawn between the theory of separable algebras and Morita theory, the theory of faithfully flat descent, cohomology, derivations, differentials, reflexive lattices, maximal orders, and class groups. The text is accessible to graduate students who have finished a first course in algebra, and it includes necessary foundational material, useful exercises, and many nontrivial examples.

  17. Broken instrument retrieval with indirect ultrasonics in a primary molar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pk, Musale; Sc, Kataria; As, Soni

    2016-02-01

    The separation of a file during pulpectomy is a rare incident in primary teeth due to inherently wider and relatively straighter root canals. A broken instrument hinders the clinician from optimal preparation and obturation of the root canal system invariably leading to failure, although in such teeth, an extraction followed by suitable space maintenance is considered as the treatment of choice. This case report demonstrates successful nonsurgical retrieval of a separated H file fragment in 84. A 7-year-old girl was referred to the Department of Paedodontics and Preventive Dentistry for endodontic management of a primary tooth 84 with a dento-alveolar abscess. Her medical history was noncontributory. After diagnosing a broken H file in the mesio-lingual canal, the tooth was endodontically treated in two appointments. At the first session, a broken file was successfully retrieved after using low intensity ultrasonic vibrations through a DG 16 endodontic explorer viewed under an operating microscope. After abscess resolution, Vitapex root canal obturation with a preformed metal crown cementation was completed at a second session. The patient was recalled at 3, 6, 12 and 15 month interval and reported to be clinically asymptomatic and radiographically with complete furcal healing. Integration of microscopes and ultrasonics in paediatric dental practice has made it possible to save such teeth with a successful outcome. Favourable location of the separated file, relatively straighter root canal system and patient cooperation resulted in successful nonsurgical management in this case.

  18. Synthesis of Ca-doped spinel by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Camargo, M.T.T.; Jacques, Q.; Caliman, L.B.; Miagava, J.; Hotza, D.; Castro, R.H.R.; Gouvêa, D.

    2016-01-01

    MgAl2O4 is a stable catalyst support with potential for replacing gamma-alumina in several applications. However, synthesis of magnesium spinel requires elevated temperatures to avoid phase separation (in MgO and Al2O3) at low temperatures, leading to coarsening and reduction of active surface area. In this work, nano CaO-doped and undoped magnesium aluminate were successfully prepared by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis (USP), using a simple adapted experimental set-up operating at 1100 °C. During...

  19. Relationship between ultrasonic properties and structural changes in the mesophyll during leaf dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Alvarez-Arenas, Tomás Gómez; Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Fernández, Victoria; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2011-06-01

    The broad-band ultrasonic spectroscopy technique allows the determination of changes in the relative water content (RWC) of leaves with contrasting structural features. Specifically, the standardized frequency associated with the maximum transmittance (f/f(o)) is strongly related to the RWC. This relationship is characterized by the existence of two phases separated by an inflexion point (associated with the turgor loss point). To obtain a better understanding of the strong relationship found between RWC and f/f(o), this work has studied the structural changes experienced by Quercus muehlenbergii leaves during dehydration in terms of ultrasounds measurements, cell wall elasticity, leaf thickness, leaf density, and leaf structure. The results suggest that the decrease found in f/f(o) before the turgor loss point can be attributed to the occurrence of changes in the estimation of the macroscopic effective elastic constant of the leaf (c(33)), mainly associated with changes in the bulk modulus of elasticity of the cell wall (ε). These changes are overriding or compensating for the thickness decreases recorded during this phase. On the other hand, the high degree of cell shrinkage and stretching found in the mesophyll cells during the second phase seem to explain the changes in the acoustic properties of the leaf beyond the turgor loss point. The formation of large intercellular spaces, which increased the irregularity in the acoustic pathway, may explain the increase of the attenuation coefficient of ultrasounds once the turgor loss point threshold is exceeded. The direct measurement of c(33) from ultrasonic measurements would allow a better knowledge of the overall biomechanical properties of the leaf further than those derived from the P-V analysis.

  20. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, R.J.; Morrey, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for separating gas molecules containing one isotope of an element from gas molecules containing other isotopes of the same element in which all of the molecules of the gas are at the same electronic state in their ground state. Gas molecules in a gas stream containing one of the isotopes are selectively excited to a different electronic state while leaving the other gas molecules in their original ground state. Gas molecules containing one of the isotopes are then deflected from the other gas molecules in the stream and thus physically separated

  1. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.

    1981-01-01

    Method and apparatus for separating isotopes in an isotopic mixture of atoms or molecules by increasing the mass differential among isotopic species. The mixture containing a particular isotope is selectively irradiated so as to selectively excite the isotope. This preferentially excited species is then reacted rapidly with an additional preselected radiation, an electron or another chemical species so as to form a product containing the specific isotope, but having a mass different than the original species initially containing the particular isotope. The product and the remaining balance of the mixture is then caused to flow through a device which separates the product from the mixture based upon the increased mass differential

  2. Potency of high-intensity ultrasonic treatment for grain refinement of magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.; Qian Ma; Davis, B.; Wilks, T.; StJohn, D.H.

    2008-01-01

    High-intensity ultrasonic treatment (UT) for grain refinement of magnesium alloys has been investigated using a novel theoretical approach in order to better understand its grain-refining potential and the mechanism of nucleation. The process demonstrated significantly superior grain-refining potency to carbon inoculation for Al-containing magnesium alloys but inferior potency to zirconium for Al-free alloys. Details revealed by applying the theoretical approach to ultrasonic grain refinement provide new clues to understanding the mechanism of grain nucleation by UT

  3. Backward ray tracing for ultrasonic imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeuwer, R.

    1990-01-01

    Focused ultrasonic beams frequently pass one or more media interfaces, strongly affecting the ultrasonic beamshape and focusing. A computer program, based on backward ray tracing was developed to compute the shape of a corrected focusing mirror. This shape is verified with another program; then the

  4. Ultrasonic Abrasive Removal Of EDM Recast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Johnny L.; Jacobson, Marlowe S.

    1990-01-01

    Ultrasonic abrasive process removes layer of recast material generated during electrical-discharge machining (EDM) of damper pocket on turbine blade. Form-fitted tool vibrated ultrasonically in damper pocket from which material removed. Vibrations activate abrasive in pocket. Amount of material removed controlled precisely.

  5. Scanner for ultrasonic scanning of surfaces.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, A.J.; Van Hoorn, W.A.

    1991-01-01

    Abstract of EP 0453014 (A1) Scanner for scanning surfaces with ultrasonic signals, in particular surfaces of parts of the body, provided with a scanner head (5) for the transmission of ultrasonic signals and the reception of the echoes hereof. The time passed between the emission of the signal and

  6. Beat-Frequency/Microsphere Medical Ultrasonic Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, William T.; Cantrell, John H.; Pretlow, Robert A., III

    1995-01-01

    Medical ultrasonic imaging system designed to provide quantitative data on various flows of blood in chambers, blood vessels, muscles, and tissues of heart. Sensitive enough to yield readings on flows of blood in heart even when microspheres used as ultrasonic contrast agents injected far from heart and diluted by circulation of blood elsewhere in body.

  7. Ultrasonic inspection of nodular cast iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hersh, S.; Zhang, Yingda

    1990-01-01

    On the basis of experimental results collected from several nodular cast iron (NCI) specimens, Amdata, Inc., has developed a tentative procedure for performing ultrasonic testing (UT) preservice inspection of NCI casks and qualifying personnel and equipment. The authors anticipate that this procedure will be a component in a comprehensive program to certify that casks are free from critical flaws prior to their introduction into service, with testing being performed on a production line basis by UT inspection personnel. The tentative procedure was applied to inspection of NCI block SGR-483-001 manufactured by Siempelkamp Giesserei GmbH and Co. of West Germany. This block is 59 by 39.5 by 13.8 inches and weighs 5.2 tons. Several indications were detected with the I/98, in accordance with the tentative procedure, and they were analyzed using two-dimensional synthetic aperture technique (Line-SAFT). When compared with conventional sizing methods that may confound the effects of beam spread with flaw size, Line-SAFT significantly improved sizing accuracy. SAFT is an electronic simulation of a lens and has the property of reducing the effect of beam spread on the resultant indication sizes. Although a higher-precision 3-D SAFT option was also available, it would necessitate data transfer to a separate VAX computer and lengthy calculations. As an alternative, Line-SAFT, a faster but less precise 2-D simplification, was implemented on the I/98 data acquisition system

  8. Calculations for Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers implies a solution of a boundary value problem, for a boay which consists of different materials, including a piezoelectric part. The problem is dynamic at frequencies, where a typical wavelength is somewhat less than the size of the body. Radiation...... and in particular the finite element method are considered. The finite element method is utilized for analysis of axisymmetric transducers. An explicit, fully piezoelectric, triangular ring element, with linear variations in displacememnt and electric potential is given. The influence of a fluid half-space is also...

  9. Ultrasonic waves in classical gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magner, A. G.; Gorenstein, M. I.; Grygoriev, U. V.

    2017-12-01

    The velocity and absorption coefficient for the plane sound waves in a classical gas are obtained by solving the Boltzmann kinetic equation, which describes the reaction of the single-particle distribution function to a periodic external field. Within the linear response theory, the nonperturbative dispersion equation valid for all sound frequencies is derived and solved numerically. The results are in agreement with the approximate analytical solutions found for both the frequent- and rare-collision regimes. These results are also in qualitative agreement with the experimental data for ultrasonic waves in dilute gases.

  10. Studies on the Influence of Various factors in Ultrasonic Flaw Detection in Ferrite Steel Butt Weld Joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baby, Sony; Balasubramanian, T.; Pardikar, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    Parametric studies have been conducted into the variability of the factors affecting the ultrasonic testing applied to weldments. The influence of ultrasonic equipment, transducer parameters, test technique, job parameters, defect type and characteristics on reliability far defect detection and sizing was investigated by experimentation. The investigation was able to build up substantial bank of information on the reliability of manual ultrasonic method for testing weldments. The major findings of the study separate into two parts, one dealing with correlation between ultrasonic techniques, equipment and defect parameters and inspection performance effectiveness and other with human factors. Defect detection abilities are dependent on the training, experience and proficiency of the UT operators, the equipment used, the effectiveness of procedures and techniques

  11. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, G.H.; Bett, R.; Cuninghame, J.G.; Sims, H.

    1982-01-01

    In the separation of short-lived isotopes for medical usage, a solution containing sup(195m)Hg is contacted with vicinal dithiol cellulose which adsorbs and retains the sup(195m)Hg. sup(195m)Au is eluted from the vicinal dithiol cellulose by using a suitable elutant. The sup(195m)Au arises from the radioactive decay of the sup(195m)Hg. The preferred elutant is a solution containing CN - ion. (author)

  12. Gas separating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, Arye Z.

    1990-12-25

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing.

  13. Longitudinal ultrasonic vibration assisted guillotining of stacked paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deibel, Karl-Robert; Kaiser, Fabian; Zimmermann, Remo; Meier, Linus; Bolt, Peter; Wegener, Konrad

    2014-08-01

    Ultrasonic vibration assisted cutting is a complex process with high dynamics. The interaction between cutting tool and workpiece is of key interest to understand the entire process. Experimental investigations are limited by the dynamics of the measurement system, and thus appropriately modeling of the ultrasonic vibration assisted cutting process is essential. In this investigation, a dynamic model regarding the ultrasonic vibration assisted guillotining of stacked paper sheets is developed. A Kelvin-Voigt material model, representing the individual sheets, is chosen, with its stiffness and damping parameters being empirically determined. A novel measurement strategy for studying the contact time and interaction between cutting tool and workpiece is introduced. It allows the verification of the highly dynamic behavior of the developed model. With the dynamic model, the experimentally observed cutting forces can be calculated. It is found that the dynamic forces cause a quicker failure of the material, which leads to a lower compression of the stack prior to reaching the critical cutting force. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Ultrasonic relaxations in borate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Angelo, G.; Tripodo, G.; Carini, G.; Cosio, E.; Bartolotta, A.; Di Marco, G.

    2004-01-01

    The attenuation and velocity of ultrasonic waves of frequencies in the range from 10 to 70 MHz have been measured in M 2 O-B 2 O 3 borate glasses (M: Li or Ag) as a function of temperature between 15 and 350 K. The velocity of sound waves decreases with increasing temperature in all the glasses, the decrease as the temperature is increased is larger in glasses containing silver than in those with lithium. A broad relaxation peak characterises the attenuation behaviour of the lithium and silver borate glasses at temperatures below 100 K and is paralleled by a corresponding dispersive behaviour of the sound velocity. Above 100 K, the ultrasonic velocity shows a nearly linear behaviour regulated by the vibrational anharmonicity, which decreases with increasing content of modifier oxide and is smaller in lithium than in silver borates. These results suggest that the relaxation of structural defects and the anharmonicity of borate glasses are strongly affected by two parameters: the number of bridging bonds per network forming ion and the polarising power of network modifier ions which occupy sites in the existing interstices

  15. Calculations for piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, H.

    1986-05-01

    Analysis of piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers implies a solution of a boundary value problem, for a body which consists of different materials, including a piezoelectric part. The problem is dynamic at frequencies, where a typical wavelength is somewhat less than the size of the body. Radiation losses as well as internal losses may be important. Due to the complexity of the problem, a closed form solution is the exception rather than the rule. For this reason, it is necessary to use approximate methods for the analysis. Equivalent circuits, the Rayleigh-Ritz method, Mindlin plate theory and in particular the finite element method are considered. The finite element method is utilized for analysis of axisymmetric transducers. An explicit, fully piezoelectric, triangular ring element, with linear variations in displacement and electric potential is given. The influence of a fluid half-space is also given, in the form of a complex stiffness matrix. A special stacking procedure, for analysis of the backing has been developed. This procedure gives a saving, which is similar to that of the fast fourier transform algorithm, and is also wellsuited for analysis of finite and infinite waveguides. Results obtained by the finite element method are shown and compared with measurements and exact solutions. Good agreement is obtained. It is concluded that the finite element method can be a valueable tool in analysis and design of ultrasonic transducers. (author)

  16. Ultrasonic Characterization of Aerospace Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckey, Cara; Johnston, Patrick; Haldren, Harold; Perey, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Composite materials have seen an increased use in aerospace in recent years and it is expected that this trend will continue due to the benefits of reduced weight, increased strength, and other factors. Ongoing work at NASA involves the investigation of the large-scale use of composites for spacecraft structures (SLS components, Orion Composite Crew Module, etc). NASA is also involved in work to enable the use of composites in advanced aircraft structures through the Advanced Composites Project (ACP). In both areas (space and aeronautics) there is a need for new nondestructive evaluation and materials characterization techniques that are appropriate for characterizing composite materials. This paper will present an overview of NASA's needs for characterizing aerospace composites, including a description of planned and ongoing work under ACP for the detection of composite defects such as fiber waviness, reduced bond strength, delamination damage, and microcracking. The research approaches include investigation of angle array, guided wave, and phase sensitive ultrasonic methods. The use of ultrasonic simulation tools for optimizing and developing methods will also be discussed.

  17. Ultrasonic-based membrane aided sample preparation of urine proteomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, Jemmyson Romário; Santos, Hugo M; López-Fernández, H; Lodeiro, Carlos; Arruda, Marco Aurélio Zezzi; Capelo, J L

    2018-02-01

    A new ultrafast ultrasonic-based method for shotgun proteomics as well as label-free protein quantification in urine samples is developed. The method first separates the urine proteins using nitrocellulose-based membranes and then proteins are in-membrane digested using trypsin. The enzymatic digestion process is accelerated from overnight to four minutes using a sonoreactor ultrasonic device. Overall, the sample treatment pipeline comprising protein separation, digestion and identification is done in just 3h. The process is assessed using urine of healthy volunteers. The method shows that male can be differentiated from female using the protein content of urine in a fast, easy and straightforward way. 232 and 226 proteins are identified in urine of male and female, respectively. From this, 162 are common to both genders, whilst 70 are unique to male and 64 to female. From the 162 common proteins, 13 are present at levels statistically different (p minimalism concept as outlined by Halls, as each stage of this analysis is evaluated to minimize the time, cost, sample requirement, reagent consumption, energy requirements and production of waste products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ultrasonic splitting of oil-in-water emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Jens; König, Ralf; Benes, Ewald

    1999-01-01

    Standing resonant ultrasonic wave fields can be utilized for liquid–liquid separation of the dispersed particles and the fluid caused by the acoustic radiation pressure and the induced particle agglomeration or coagulation/coalescence process. For the splitting of oil-in-water emulsions, the avai......Standing resonant ultrasonic wave fields can be utilized for liquid–liquid separation of the dispersed particles and the fluid caused by the acoustic radiation pressure and the induced particle agglomeration or coagulation/coalescence process. For the splitting of oil-in-water emulsions......, the available piezoelectric composite transducer technology was improved and a dedicated resonator with crossed plane wave sonication geometry has been developed. The resonator chamber is entirely made of aluminium or tempax glass and the PZT piezoceramic transducer delivers an acoustic energy flow density...... of up to 24 W/cm2 into the sonication volume. The chosen resonance frequency is kept stable by automatic frequency control utilizing the maximum true power criterion. Physically and chemically well-defined low and high density pure laboratory and also industrially used cooling-lubricating oil...

  19. Ultrasonic compaction of granular geological materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Andrew; Sikaneta, Sakalima; Harkness, Patrick; Lucas, Margaret

    2017-04-01

    It has been shown that the compaction of granular materials for applications such as pharmaceutical tableting and plastic moulding can be enhanced by ultrasonic vibration of the compaction die. Ultrasonic vibrations can reduce the compaction pressure and increase particle fusion, leading to higher strength products. In this paper, the potential benefits of ultrasonics in the compaction of geological granular materials in downhole applications are explored, to gain insight into the effects of ultrasonic vibrations on compaction of different materials commonly encountered in sub-sea drilling. Ultrasonic vibrations are applied, using a resonant 20kHz compactor, to the compaction of loose sand and drill waste cuttings derived from oolitic limestone, clean quartz sandstone, and slate-phyllite. For each material, a higher strain for a given compaction pressure was achieved, with higher sample density compared to that in the case of an absence of ultrasonics. The relationships between the operational parameters of ultrasonic vibration amplitude and true strain rate are explored and shown to be dependent on the physical characteristics of the compacting materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosevear, A.; Sims, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    sup(195m)Au for medical usage is separated from sup(195m)Hg in a solution containing ions of sup(195m)Hg by contacting the solution with an adsorbing agent to adsorb 195 Hgsup(H) thereon, followed by selective elution of sup(195m)Au generated by radioactive decay of the sup(195m)Hg. The adsorbing agent comprises a composite material in the form of an inert porous inorganic substrate (e.g. Kieselguhr),the pores of which are occupied by a hydrogel of a polysaccharide (e.g. agarose) carrying terminal thiol groups for binding Hgsup(H) ions. (author)

  1. Gas separating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, A.

    1988-03-29

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

  2. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, J.H.; Marks, T.J.

    1981-01-01

    A process for separating uranium isotopes is described which includes: preparing a volatile compound U-T, in which U is a mixture of uranium isotopes and T is a chemical moiety containing at least one organic or deuterated borohydride group, and which exhibits for at least one isotopic species thereof a fundamental, overtone or combination vibrational absorption excitation energy level at a frequency between 900 and 1100 cm -1 ; and irradiating the compound in the vapour phase with energy emitted by a radiation source at a frequency between 900 and 1100 cm -1 (e.g. a CO 2 laser). (author)

  3. Testresults KROHNE 8-inch ultrasonic flowmeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boer, A.H.; Volmer, W.

    1997-07-01

    A new development in the field of ultrasonic liquid flowmeasurements has been achieved with the multichannel liquid ultrasonic flowmeter; the first for use in maintenance-free custody transfer applications. Although ultrasonic flowmeters are used for applications in the oil industry for many years, this new development will have a big impact on custody transfer flow measurement. Not only because of the compactness, but also because of the low investment and operating cost of this flowmeter. This paper describes the system and the method of operation as well as practical experiences and achieved test results of this flowmeter. (author)

  4. Fundamentals and applications of ultrasonic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Cheeke, J David N

    2002-01-01

    Ultrasonics. A subject with applications across all the basic sciences, engineering, medicine, and oceanography, yet even the broader topic of acoustics is now rarely offered at undergraduate levels. Ultrasonics is addressed primarily at the doctoral level, and texts appropriate for beginning graduate students or newcomers to the field are virtually nonexistent.Fundamentals and Applications of Ultrasonic Waves fills that void. Designed specifically for senior undergraduates, beginning graduate students, and those just entering the field, it begins with the fundamentals, but goes well beyond th

  5. Ultrasonic characterization of vegetable oil product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidek Hj Abd Aziz; Chow Sai Pew; Abdul Halim Shaari; Nor Azizah Shaari

    1992-01-01

    The ultrasonic wave velocity and attenuation of a number vegetable oil products were measured using an ultrasonic pulse echo overlap technique from room temperature up to 90 0 C. Among the liquid samples studied were refined bleach deodorized (RED) palm oil, palm olein, coconut oil, corn oil and soya bean oil. The velocity of sound in vegetable oil products varies from about 1200 to 200 ms-1 and decrease linearly as the temperature increases. The ultrasonic properties of the oil are much dependent on their viscosity, density, relaxation effect and vibrational anharmonicity

  6. Ultrasonic measurement of milk coagulation time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakkali, F.; Moudden, A.; Faiz, B.; Amghar, A.; Maze, G.; Montero de Espinosa, F.; Akhnak, M.

    2001-12-01

    Using a pulse reflection technique an ultrasonic system has been developed to monitor in situ the coagulation process of rennetted milk. The velocity and attenuation of ultrasonic waves through coagulating milk were continuously monitored. The observed changes in ultrasonic velocity during coagulation were used to predict the coagulation time. The coagulation time is indicative of the transition from the enzymatic phase to the physicochemical phase. The determination of coagulation time has a decisive role in determining the qualities of the end product in cheesemaking.

  7. On-line ultrasonic gas entrainment monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, C.K.; Pedersen, H.N.

    1978-01-01

    Apparatus employing ultrasonic energy for detecting and measuring the quantity of gas bubbles present in liquids being transported through pipes is described. An ultrasonic transducer is positioned along the longitudinal axis of a fluid duct, oriented to transmit acoustic energy radially of the duct around the circumference of the enclosure walls. The back-reflected energy is received centrally of the duct and interpreted as a measure of gas entrainment. One embodiment employs a conical reflector to direct the transmitted acoustic energy radially of the duct and redirect the reflected energy back to the transducer for reception. A modified embodiment employs a cylindrical ultrasonic transducer for this purpose

  8. A mechanistic ultrasonic vibration amplitude model during rotary ultrasonic machining of CFRP composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Fuda; Wang, Hui; Cong, Weilong; Fernando, P K S C

    2017-04-01

    Rotary ultrasonic machining (RUM) has been investigated in machining of brittle, ductile, as well as composite materials. Ultrasonic vibration amplitude, as one of the most important input variables, affects almost all the output variables in RUM. Numerous investigations on measuring ultrasonic vibration amplitude without RUM machining have been reported. In recent years, ultrasonic vibration amplitude measurement with RUM of ductile materials has been investigated. It is found that the ultrasonic vibration amplitude with RUM was different from that without RUM under the same input variables. RUM is primarily used in machining of brittle materials through brittle fracture removal. With this reason, the method for measuring ultrasonic vibration amplitude in RUM of ductile materials is not feasible for measuring that in RUM of brittle materials. However, there are no reported methods for measuring ultrasonic vibration amplitude in RUM of brittle materials. In this study, ultrasonic vibration amplitude in RUM of brittle materials is investigated by establishing a mechanistic amplitude model through cutting force. Pilot experiments are conducted to validate the calculation model. The results show that there are no significant differences between amplitude values calculated by model and those obtained from experimental investigations. The model can provide a relationship between ultrasonic vibration amplitude and input variables, which is a foundation for building models to predict other output variables in RUM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Real time monitoring of accelerated chemical reactions by ultrasonication-assisted spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Hsuan; Lo, Ta-Ju; Kuo, Fang-Yin; Chen, Yu-Chie

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasonication has been used to accelerate chemical reactions. It would be ideal if ultrasonication-assisted chemical reactions could be monitored by suitable detection tools such as mass spectrometry in real time. It would be helpful to clarify reaction intermediates/products and to have a better understanding of reaction mechanism. In this work, we developed a system for ultrasonication-assisted spray ionization mass spectrometry (UASI-MS) with an ~1.7 MHz ultrasonic transducer to monitor chemical reactions in real time. We demonstrated that simply depositing a sample solution on the MHz-based ultrasonic transducer, which was placed in front of the orifice of a mass spectrometer, the analyte signals can be readily detected by the mass spectrometer. Singly and multiply charged ions from small and large molecules, respectively, can be observed in the UASI mass spectra. Furthermore, the ultrasonic transducer used in the UASI setup accelerates the chemical reactions while being monitored via UASI-MS. The feasibility of using this approach for real-time acceleration/monitoring of chemical reactions was demonstrated. The reactions of Girard T reagent and hydroxylamine with steroids were used as the model reactions. Upon the deposition of reactant solutions on the ultrasonic transducer, the intermediate/product ions are readily generated and instantaneously monitored using MS within 1 s. Additionally, we also showed the possibility of using this reactive UASI-MS approach to assist the confirmation of trace steroids from complex urine samples by monitoring the generation of the product ions. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bett, R.; Sims, H.E.; Cuninghame, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    sup(195m)Au is separated from sup(195m)Hg in a solution containing ions of sup(195m)Hg, wherein sup(195m)Au is generated by radioactive decay of the sup(195m)Hg, by contacting the solution with an adsorbing agent to adsorb the sup(195m)Hg as Hg ++ ions followed by elution of sup(195m)Au arising from said radioactive decay. The adsorbing agent is 3-thio-2-hydroxypropyl-ether-Sepharose (R.T.M.); sup(195m)Au may be prepared in this way in a medical isotope generator and is suitable for use in gamma-scan studies of heart action. (author)

  11. Power Harvesting Capabilities of SHM Ultrasonic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Delebarre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to show that classical Structural Health Monitoring ultrasonic sensors may provide some power harvesting capabilities from a wide variety of vibration sources. In other words, the authors developed an integrated piezoelectric energy harvesting sensor capable of operating a dual mode, that is, carrying out vibration power harvesting and Structural Health Monitoring. First, vibrations signals of an A380 aircraft recorded during different phases of flight are presented to show the need of a wideband piezoelectric energy harvester. Then, the voltage response of a piezoelectric power harvester bonded onto an aluminium cantilever plate and excited by an electromechanical shaker is measured. A finite element model of the energy harvester system is also presented. This model provides the voltage response of the harvester due to a mechanical excitation of the host structure and allows a better understanding of the energy harvesting process. In many cases, a good agreement with the experimental results is obtained. A power measurement also showed the ability of piezoelectric SHM sensors to harvest power over an extended frequency range present in spectra collected in aircrafts. This result could lead to numerous applications even though this kind of power harvester sensor has been initially designed to operate onboard aircrafts.

  12. Ultrasonic thermometry using pulse techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnworth, L. C.; Carnevale, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Ultrasonic pulse techniques have been developed which, when applied to inert gases, provide temperature measurements up to 8000 K. The response time can be less than 1 msec. This is a significant feature in studying shock-heated or combusting gases. Using a momentary contact coupling technique, temperature has been measured inside steel from 300 to 1500 K. Thin-wire sensors have been used above 2000 K in nuclear and industrial applications where conditions preclude the use of thermocouples, resistance devices, or optical pyrometers. At 2500 K, temperature sensitivity of 0.1% is obtained in Re wire sensors 5 cm long by timing five round trips with an electronic instrument that resolves the time interval between selected echoes to 0.1 microsec. Sensors have been operated at rotational speeds over 2000 rpm and in noisy environments. Temperature profiling of up to ten regions using only a single guided path or beam has also been accomplished.

  13. Mice produce ultrasonic vocalizations by intra-laryngeal planar impinging jets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahrt, Elena; Agarwal, Anurag; Perkel, David

    2016-01-01

    Rodent ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are a vital tool for linking gene mutations to behavior in mouse models of communication disorders, such as autism [1]. However, we currently lack an understanding of how physiological and physical mechanisms combine to generate acoustic features of the voca...

  14. Ultrasonic Histotripsy for Tissue Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahk, K J; Saffari, N; Dhar, D K; Malago, M

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocyte transplantation has been considered and investigated as a promising and alternative method to liver transplantation for treating liver-based metabolic disorder in newborns over the past two decades. Although some clinical trials have been conducted and shown clinical benefits and outcomes, it is difficult to deliver and achieve a desired level of integration and transplantation of hepatocytes in the liver parenchyma. To overcome this problem, this work introduces an alternative method to a portal-infused-hepatocyte cell transplantation. To improve the level of engraftment of transplantable hepatocytes, these are injected directly into cavities generated by ultrasonic histotripsy. Histotripsy is an extracorporeal noninvasive technique which has been recently developed using high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for inducing tissue fractionation with no coagulative necrosis. The exact mechanisms for the tissue fractionation are not well understood yet; but the possible mechanisms are thought to be a combination of nonlinear wave propagation effect, explosive bubble growth and ultrasonic atomization. The main objectives of this work are to demonstrate the feasibility of this new cell therapy and evaluate and distinguish between the different types of cavitation activity for either a thermally or a mechanically induced lesion. In the present work, numerical studies on the bubble dynamics (the Gilmore-Akulichev bubble model coupled with the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov equation) and both ex- and in vivo liver experiments are conducted with histological analysis (haematoxylin and eosin stain). The numerical and the experimental results suggest that (a) the acoustic emissions emitted during the thermal ablation and the histotripsy exposure can be distinguished both numerically and experimentally and (b) the proposed cell therapy may potentially form an effective and safe clinical treatment for replacing and correcting disordered hepatocytes, although the

  15. Ultrasonic Histotripsy for Tissue Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahk, K. J.; Dhar, D. K.; Malago, M.; Saffari, N.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocyte transplantation has been considered and investigated as a promising and alternative method to liver transplantation for treating liver-based metabolic disorder in newborns over the past two decades. Although some clinical trials have been conducted and shown clinical benefits and outcomes, it is difficult to deliver and achieve a desired level of integration and transplantation of hepatocytes in the liver parenchyma. To overcome this problem, this work introduces an alternative method to a portal-infused-hepatocyte cell transplantation. To improve the level of engraftment of transplantable hepatocytes, these are injected directly into cavities generated by ultrasonic histotripsy. Histotripsy is an extracorporeal noninvasive technique which has been recently developed using high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for inducing tissue fractionation with no coagulative necrosis. The exact mechanisms for the tissue fractionation are not well understood yet; but the possible mechanisms are thought to be a combination of nonlinear wave propagation effect, explosive bubble growth and ultrasonic atomization. The main objectives of this work are to demonstrate the feasibility of this new cell therapy and evaluate and distinguish between the different types of cavitation activity for either a thermally or a mechanically induced lesion. In the present work, numerical studies on the bubble dynamics (the Gilmore-Akulichev bubble model coupled with the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov equation) and both ex- and in vivo liver experiments are conducted with histological analysis (haematoxylin and eosin stain). The numerical and the experimental results suggest that (a) the acoustic emissions emitted during the thermal ablation and the histotripsy exposure can be distinguished both numerically and experimentally and (b) the proposed cell therapy may potentially form an effective and safe clinical treatment for replacing and correcting disordered hepatocytes, although the

  16. Ultrasonic attenuation in glassy crystalline cyclohexanol

    OpenAIRE

    Saint Paul , M.; Nava , R.

    1983-01-01

    Ultrasonic attenuation measurements at 100 MHz on the orientationally disordered crystalline phase of cyclohexanol are reported. The results provide additional evidence that the freezing process of the orientational disorder of the molecules in the crystal lattice is a relaxational phenomenon.

  17. Ultrasonically-assisted Thermal Stir Welding System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A welding head assembly has a work piece disposed between its containment plates' opposing surfaces with the work piece being maintained in a plastic state thereof at least in a vicinity of the welding head assembly's stir rod as the rod is rotated about its longitudinal axis. The welding head assembly and the work piece experience relative movement there between in a direction perpendicular to the rod's longitudinal axis as the work piece is subjected to a compressive force applied by the containment plates. A first source coupled to the first containment plate applies a first ultrasonic wave thereto such that the first ultrasonic wave propagates parallel to the direction of relative movement. A second source coupled to the second containment plate applies a second ultrasonic wave thereto such that the second ultrasonic wave propagates parallel to the direction of relative movement.propagates parallel to the direction of relative movement.

  18. Rail inspection using noncontact laser ultrasonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Nak Hyeon; Sohn, Hoon; Han, Soon Woo

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a noncontact laser ultrasonic system is proposed for rail defect detection. An Nd Yag pulse laser is used for generation of ultrasonic waves, and the corresponding ultrasonic responses are measured by a laser Doppler vibrometer. For the detection of rail surface damages, the shape of the excitation laser beam is transformed into a line. On the other hand, a point source laser beam is used for the inspection of defects inside a rail head. Then, the interactions of propagating ultrasonic waves with defects are examined using actual rail specimens. Amplitude attenuation was mainly observed for a surface crack, and reflections were most noticeable from an internal damage. Finally, opportunities and challenges associated with real time rail inspection from a high speed train are discussed

  19. Ultrasonic testing of materials at level 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    Ultrasonic inspection is a nondestructive method in which high frequency sound waves are introduced into the material being inspected. Ultrasonic testing has a superior penetrating power to radiography and can detect flaws deep in the test specimen (say up to about 6 to 7 meters of steel). It is quite sensitive to small flaws and allows the precise determination of the location and size of the flaws. Basic ultrasonic test methods such as the through transmission method and the resonance method, sensors and testing techniques are described. Pulse echo type flaw detectors and their applications for inspection of welds are surveyed. Ultrasonic standards, calibration of the equipment and evaluation methods are presented. Examples of practical applications in welding, casting and forging processes are given. Figs and tabs

  20. Ultrasonic Morphological Analyzers for Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lizzi, Frederic

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this research is to improve ultrasonic classification of breast lesions and guide decisions regarding biopsy requirements, especially for small lesions and those in young, dense breasts...

  1. Experimental development of an ultrasonic linear motor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    M'Boungui, G

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available and first trials of the structure characterization are presented. 2 Motor design and working principle Traditionally, ultrasonic motors (USM) exploit the propagation of a travelling wave in a resonator (stator) and the friction intermittently created...

  2. Improvement of Ultrasonic Distance Measuring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly introduces a kind of ultrasonic distance measuring system with AT89C51 single chip as the core component. The paper expounds the principle of ultrasonic sensor and ultrasonic ranging, hardware circuit and software program, and the results of experiment and analysis.The hardware circuit based on SCM, the software design adopts the advanced microcontroller programming language.The amplitude of the received signal and the time of ultrasonic propagation are regulated by closed loop control. [1,2]The double closed loop control technology for amplitude and time improves the measuring accuracy of the instrument. The experimental results show that greatly improves the measurement accuracy of the system.

  3. Ultrasonic vibration for structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Y.; Yan, F.; Borigo, C.; Rose, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    Guided waves and vibration analysis are two useful techniques in Nondestructive Evaluation and Structural Health Monitoring. Bridging the gap between guided waves and vibration, a novel testing method ultrasonic vibration is demonstrated here. Ultrasonic vibration is capable to achieve defect detection sensitivity as ultrasonic guided waves, while maintaining the efficiency of traditional vibration in the way of adopting several sensors to cover the whole structure. In this new method, continuous guided wave energy will impinge into the structure to make the structure vibrate steadily. The steady state vibration is achieved after multiple boundary reflections of the continuous guided wave. In ultrasonic vibration experiments, annual array transducer is used as the actuator. The loading functions are tuned by the frequencies and phase delays among each transducer element. Experiments demonstrate good defect detection ability of by optimally selecting guided wave loadings.

  4. Ultrasonic ranking of toughness of tungsten carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vary, A.; Hull, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of using ultrasonic attenuation measurements to rank tungsten carbide alloys according to their fracture toughness was demonstrated. Six samples of cobalt-cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) were examined. These varied in cobalt content from approximately 2 to 16 weight percent. The toughness generally increased with increasing cobalt content. Toughness was first determined by the Palmqvist and short rod fracture toughness tests. Subsequently, ultrasonic attenuation measurements were correlated with both these mechanical test methods. It is shown that there is a strong increase in ultrasonic attenuation corresponding to increased toughness of the WC-Co alloys. A correlation between attenuation and toughness exists for a wide range of ultrasonic frequencies. However, the best correlation for the WC-Co alloys occurs when the attenuation coefficient measured in the vicinity of 100 megahertz is compared with toughness as determined by the Palmqvist technique.

  5. An ultrasonic study of oxygen related structural changes in melt-textured Nd123 between 80 K to 400 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.R.; Russell, G.J.; Murakami, M.; Chikumoto, N.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: This paper reports on an ultrasonic study for the 130 kHz region in melt-textured Nd123 such as NdBa2Cu3O7-d with different oxygen levels ie d = 0, 0.2, 0.4 0.6, 1. The research used a double composite resonant bar technique where a 20 mm sample of Nd123 was attached to a piezoelectric quartz driver bar. The bar formed part of a regenerative oscillator which allowed drive, feedback and frequency to be monitored. Experiments were conducted in helium gas at 1 atmosphere with the temperature being varied at 1 K/minute. Three separate ultrasonic attenuation peaks were found which were related to oxygen levels in the material. All ultrasonic attenuation peaks showed the characteristics of structural changes. This proposal was supported by ultrasonic velocity (modulus) measurements which displayed discontinuities at the various temperatures. An ultrasonic attenuation peak in the 350 K region, which was found at higher oxygen levels ie d = 0.2, 0.4, appears to be a characteristic of the orthorhombic phase of the material. An ultrasonic attenuation peak in the 170 K region occurred at lower oxygen levels ie d 0.4, 0.6, while a peak close to 230 K was found in deoxygenated Nd123. The results can be explained in terms of a three region, three stage structural change model

  6. Necessary Conditions for Nonlinear Ultrasonic Modulation Generation Given a Localized Fatigue Crack in a Plate-Like Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Jin Lim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that nonlinear ultrasonics can be more sensitive to local incipient defects, such as a fatigue crack, than conventional linear ultrasonics. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in utilizing nonlinear ultrasonics for structural health monitoring and nondestructive testing applications. While the conditions, which are the necessary conditions that should be satisfied for the generation of nonlinear harmonic components, are extensively studied for distributed material nonlinearity, little work has been done to understand the necessary conditions at the presence of a localized nonlinear source such as a fatigue crack. In this paper, the necessary conditions of nonlinear ultrasonic modulation generation in a plate-like structure are formulated specifically for a localized nonlinear source. Then, the correctness of the formulated necessary conditions is experimentally verified using ultrasounds obtained from aluminum plates.

  7. Ultrasonic fluid densitometer for process control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Margaret S.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses at least one pair of transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within a material wedge. A temperature sensor is provided to monitor the temperature of the wedge material. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface and comparing a transducer voltage and wedge material temperature to a tabulation as a function of density.

  8. Ultrasonic Generation and Optimization for EMAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian, X.; Dixon, Steve; Edwards, Rachel S.

    2005-01-01

    A model for transient ultrasonic wave generation by EMATs in non-magnetic metals is presented. It combines analytical solutions currently available and FEM to calculate ultrasonic bulk and Rayleigh waves generated by the EMAT. Analytical solutions are used as they can be calculated quickly on a standard mathematical computer package. Calculations agree well with the experimental measurement. The model can be used to optimize EMAT design, and has explained some of the results from our previous published measurements

  9. Fundamentals and Applications of Ultrasonic Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Cheeke, J David N

    2012-01-01

    Designed specifically for newcomers to the field, this fully updated second edition begins with fundamentals and quickly advances beyond general wave concepts into an in-depth treatment of ultrasonic waves in isotropic media. Focusing on the physics of acoustic waves, their propagation, technology, and applications, this accessible overview of ultrasonics includes accounts of viscoelasticity and multiple scattering. It examines new technologies, including atomic force acoustic microscopy, lasers, micro-acoustics, and nanotechnology. In addition, it highlights both direct and indirect applicati

  10. Laboratory Assessment of Commercially Available Ultrasonic Rangefinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    and an Arduino Mega 2560* board to interface with MATLAB*. These sensors were chosen as a representative sample of ultrasonic rangefinders with...different beam characteristics that could affect measurements. The Arduino board and ultrasonic rangefinder were connected to the computer via...Manufacturer’s list. Arduino LLC https://www.arduino.cc/ The MathWorks®, Inc. 3 Apple Hill Drive Natick, MA 01760-2098 http://www.mathworks.com

  11. Method and device for ultrasonic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staff, B.W.

    1979-01-01

    Ultrasonic inspection of the rotor of a gas turbine engine is carried out through a borehole inspection opening, the rotor remaining mounted is the engine. Then the rotor is not accessible for a direct ultrasonic oscillation signal. Therefore a reference signal as well as a reflected signal are picked up by the rotor and compared with one another. The reflected signal is represented visually. (RW) 891 RW/RW 892 GR [de

  12. Longitudinal ultrasonic waves dispersion in bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Antola, R.

    2001-01-01

    The exhibition intends to review some aspects of the propagation of the longitudinal ultrasonic pulses shortly in bars of traverse section uniform.Aspects they are part of the denominated geometric dispersion of the pulses.This phenomenon It can present like an additional complication in the ultrasonic essay of low frequency of thin pieces in structures and machines but takes place former ex professed in some applications of the wave guides been accustomed to in the prosecution of signs

  13. Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    "Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding" is a 19-minute award-winning short-film about teaching at university and higher-level educational institutions. It is based on the "Constructive Alignment" theory developed by Prof. John Biggs. The film delivers a foundation for understanding what...

  14. Finite element simulation of ultrasonic wave propagation in a dental implant for biomechanical stability assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayron, Romain; Nguyen, Vu-Hieu; Bosc, Romain; Naili, Salah; Haïat, Guillaume

    2015-10-01

    Dental implant stability, which is an important parameter for the surgical outcome, can now be assessed using quantitative ultrasound. However, the acoustical propagation in dental implants remains poorly understood. The objective of this numerical study was to understand the propagation phenomena of ultrasonic waves in cylindrically shaped prototype dental implants and to investigate the sensitivity of the ultrasonic response to the surrounding bone quantity and quality. The 10-MHz ultrasonic response of the implant was calculated using an axisymetric 3D finite element model, which was validated by comparison with results obtained experimentally and using a 2D finite difference numerical model. The results show that the implant ultrasonic response changes significantly when a liquid layer is located at the implant interface compared to the case of an interface fully bounded with bone tissue. A dedicated model based on experimental measurements was developed in order to account for the evolution of the bone biomechanical properties at the implant interface. The effect of a gradient of material properties on the implant ultrasonic response is determined. Based on the reproducibility of the measurement, the results indicate that the device should be sensitive to the effects of a healing duration of less than one week. In all cases, the amplitude of the implant response is shown to decrease when the dental implant primary and secondary stability increase, which is consistent with the experimental results. This study paves the way for the development of a quantitative ultrasound method to evaluate dental implant stability.

  15. NEET In-Pile Ultrasonic Sensor Enablement-FY 2012 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JE Daw; JL Rempe; BR Tittmann; B Reinhardt; P Ramuhalli; R Montgomery; HT Chien

    2012-09-01

    Several Department Of Energy-Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) programs, such as the Fuel Cycle Research and Development, Advanced Reactor Concepts, Light Water Reactor Sustainability, and Next Generation Nuclear Plant programs, are investigating new fuels and materials for advanced and existing reactors. A key objective of such programs is to understand the performance of these fuels and materials when irradiated. The Nuclear Energy Enabling Technology (NEET) Advanced Sensors and Instrumentation (ASI) in-pile instrumentation development activities are focused upon addressing cross-cutting needs for DOE-NE irradiation testing by providing higher fidelity, real-time data, with increased accuracy and resolution from smaller, compact sensors that are less intrusive. Ultrasonic technologies offer the potential to measure a range of parameters, including geometry changes, temperature, crack initiation and growth, gas pressure and composition, and microstructural changes, under harsh irradiation test conditions. There are two primary issues associated with in-pile deployment of ultrasonic sensors. The first is transducer survivability. The ability of ultrasonic transducer materials to maintain their useful properties during an irradiation must be demonstrated. The second issue is signal processing. Ultrasonic testing is typically performed in a lab or field environment, where the sensor and sample are accessible. Due to the harsh nature of in-pile testing, and the range of measurements that are desired, an enhanced signal processing capability is needed to make in-pile ultrasonic sensors viable. This project addresses these technology deployment issues.

  16. End-of-cure sensing using ultrasonics for autoclave fabrication of composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, Paul J.; Cranmer, Joan H.; Nove, Carol A.; Brown, Lawrence M.

    1996-11-01

    The objective of this work was to demonstrate the use of ultrasonics to determine the end-of-curve for autoclave cured, graphite/epoxy composite laminates. The fundamental benefit of this work will be understanding when to complete the temperature hold and cool down the autoclave and, therefore, consistently produce composite laminates with the desired material properties. An additional benefit is the ability to follow the changing viscosity of the resin during the initial part of the cure. The general approach to this program involved using pulse-echo ultrasonics to measure the transit time for longitudinal ultrasonic waves to pass through a graphite/epoxy composite laminate during cure. Sixteen, 32 and 64 ply (0/90)s graphite/Fiberite 934 epoxy panels were fabricated and cured to various end-of-cure conditions. Additionally, panels with various starting conditions were run. Sound speed was calculated using the panel thickness divided by the measured transit time.

  17. An ultrasonic tool for examining the excavation damaged zone around radioactive waste repositories - The OMNIBUS project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettitt, W.S. [Applied Seismology Consultants LTD, 10 Belmont, Shropshire, UK-S41 ITE Shrewsbury (United Kingdom); Collins, D.S.; Hildyard, M.W.; Young, R.P. [Department of Earth Sciences, Liverpool University, 4 Brownlow street, UK-0 L69 3GP Liverpool (United Kingdom); Balland, C.; Bigarre, P. [Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des risques, INERIS, Parc Technologique ALATA, BP 2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France)

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes current results from the OMNIBUS project, a study funded by the EC as part of the fifth framework EURATOM programme. The objective of the project is to develop ultrasonic monitoring tools and associated technologies for investigating the rock barrier in both potential and operational underground nuclear waste repositories. A complete data acquisition tool has been developed and has been successfully tested during an in situ experiment aimed at studying an argillaceous rock layer. The tool includes an integrated hardware and software package specifically designed for monitoring an argillaceous rock mass. Numerical models are being used to provide a sensitivity analysis of ultrasonic wave propagation to variations in stress, crack population and fluid content. Through this approach we aim to improve our understanding of how ultrasonic data can be interpreted in terms of useful engineering rock-mass properties. Data from laboratory and in situ experiments will be used to develop and test the strategy. (authors)

  18. Remediation of Diesel Fuel Contaminated Sandy Soil using Ultrasonic Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulandari P.S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic cleaning has been used in industry for some time, but the application of ultrasonic cleaning in contaminated soil is just recently received considerable attention, it is a very new technique, especially in Indonesia. An ultrasonic cleaner works mostly by energy released from the collapse of millions of microscopic cavitations near the dirty surface. This paper investigates the use of ultrasonic wave to enhance remediation of diesel fuel contaminated sandy soil considering the ultrasonic power, soil particle size, soil density, water flow rate, and duration of ultrasonic waves application.

  19. Quantitative evaluation of ultrasonic C-scan image in acoustically homogeneous and layered anisotropic materials using three dimensional ray tracing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolkoori, Sanjeevareddy; Hoehne, Christian; Prager, Jens; Rethmeier, Michael; Kreutzbruck, Marc

    2014-02-01

    Quantitative evaluation of ultrasonic C-scan images in homogeneous and layered anisotropic austenitic materials is of general importance for understanding the influence of anisotropy on wave fields during ultrasonic non-destructive testing and evaluation of these materials. In this contribution, a three dimensional ray tracing method is presented for evaluating ultrasonic C-scan images quantitatively in general homogeneous and layered anisotropic austenitic materials. The directivity of the ultrasonic ray source in general homogeneous columnar grained anisotropic austenitic steel material (including layback orientation) is obtained in three dimensions based on Lamb's reciprocity theorem. As a prerequisite for ray tracing model, the problem of ultrasonic ray energy reflection and transmission coefficients at an interface between (a) isotropic base material and anisotropic austenitic weld material (including layback orientation), (b) two adjacent anisotropic weld metals and (c) anisotropic weld metal and isotropic base material is solved in three dimensions. The influence of columnar grain orientation and layback orientation on ultrasonic C-scan image is quantitatively analyzed in the context of ultrasonic testing of homogeneous and layered austenitic steel materials. The presented quantitative results provide valuable information during ultrasonic characterization of homogeneous and layered anisotropic austenitic steel materials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Mechanical spectroscopy, internal friction and ultrasonic attenuation: Collection of works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalas, L.B.

    2009-01-01

    An extensive collection of recommended books and proceedings from numerous conferences on internal friction, mechanical spectroscopy, and ultrasonic attenuation is provided. Reflecting the complicated history of the 20th century, books published in English and in Russian are presented in two separate sections. International and national conferences organized in various countries are listed. Supplementary lists referring to conferences held in the People's Republic of China, Poland, Russia, the Soviet Union, and Ukraine are also provided. The interesting evolution of mechanical spectroscopy from internal friction and ultrasonic attenuation in solids is clearly demonstrated, and a choice list of retrospective papers illustrates the evolution of the field. A brief review of mechanical spectroscopy, therefore, is included. Numerous research areas investigated by internal friction and mechanical spectroscopy are addressed, including point defect relaxations, electronic and phonon relaxations, dislocation relaxations, grain boundary relaxations, domain induced relaxations (magnetic, ferroelectric), magnetomechanical relaxations, phase transformations, glass transitions, interface effects as well as a wide array of applications specific to physics and materials science. For many years now, there has been a definite need to provide a thorough list of references that might cover major national conferences and books published in English and other languages. This work strives to achieve this goal.

  1. Data collection instrumentation for ultrasonic imaging under sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKnight, J.A.; Parker, J.A.

    1981-05-01

    A team at the Risley Nuclear Power Development Establishment has been developing apparatus for the production of ultrasonic images under opaque liquids. The technique is intended for examining objects under liquid sodium at 300 0 C, and the range of possible methods is restricted as a consequence. The method chosen uses pulse-echo ultrasonics combined with mechanical scanning to assemble the final image. The data is collected using a CAMAC system under the control of an Intel 8080 microprocessor. The data is analysed separately and presented on a colour display using a DEC LSl 11 microprocessor controlled system. To achieve the required performance a number of special electronic assemblies were made. A single image requires 2.5 M byte of data. The cost of using the apparatus on a Fast Reactor is such that it is prudent to provide back-up data collection through a data link, and to maximise the data collection rate. This causes problems with the interrupt cycle time of the CAMAC controller, which can be resolved using synchronous programs specifically tailored to each application. (author)

  2. Ultrasonic data compression via parameter estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Guilherme; Saniie, Jafar

    2005-02-01

    Ultrasonic imaging in medical and industrial applications often requires a large amount of data collection. Consequently, it is desirable to use data compression techniques to reduce data and to facilitate the analysis and remote access of ultrasonic information. The precise data representation is paramount to the accurate analysis of the shape, size, and orientation of ultrasonic reflectors, as well as to the determination of the properties of the propagation path. In this study, a successive parameter estimation algorithm based on a modified version of the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) to compress and denoise ultrasonic signals is presented. It has been shown analytically that the CWT (i.e., time x frequency representation) yields an exact solution for the time-of-arrival and a biased solution for the center frequency. Consequently, a modified CWT (MCWT) based on the Gabor-Helstrom transform is introduced as a means to exactly estimate both time-of-arrival and center frequency of ultrasonic echoes. Furthermore, the MCWT also has been used to generate a phase x bandwidth representation of the ultrasonic echo. This representation allows the exact estimation of the phase and the bandwidth. The performance of this algorithm for data compression and signal analysis is studied using simulated and experimental ultrasonic signals. The successive parameter estimation algorithm achieves a data compression ratio of (1-5N/J), where J is the number of samples and N is the number of echoes in the signal. For a signal with 10 echoes and 2048 samples, a compression ratio of 96% is achieved with a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) improvement above 20 dB. Furthermore, this algorithm performs robustly, yields accurate echo estimation, and results in SNR enhancements ranging from 10 to 60 dB for composite signals having SNR as low as -10 dB.

  3. Hand Gesture Recognition Using Ultrasonic Waves

    KAUST Repository

    AlSharif, Mohammed Hussain

    2016-04-01

    Gesturing is a natural way of communication between people and is used in our everyday conversations. Hand gesture recognition systems are used in many applications in a wide variety of fields, such as mobile phone applications, smart TVs, video gaming, etc. With the advances in human-computer interaction technology, gesture recognition is becoming an active research area. There are two types of devices to detect gestures; contact based devices and contactless devices. Using ultrasonic waves for determining gestures is one of the ways that is employed in contactless devices. Hand gesture recognition utilizing ultrasonic waves will be the focus of this thesis work. This thesis presents a new method for detecting and classifying a predefined set of hand gestures using a single ultrasonic transmitter and a single ultrasonic receiver. This method uses a linear frequency modulated ultrasonic signal. The ultrasonic signal is designed to meet the project requirements such as the update rate, the range of detection, etc. Also, it needs to overcome hardware limitations such as the limited output power, transmitter, and receiver bandwidth, etc. The method can be adapted to other hardware setups. Gestures are identified based on two main features; range estimation of the moving hand and received signal strength (RSS). These two factors are estimated using two simple methods; channel impulse response (CIR) and cross correlation (CC) of the reflected ultrasonic signal from the gesturing hand. A customized simple hardware setup was used to classify a set of hand gestures with high accuracy. The detection and classification were done using methods of low computational cost. This makes the proposed method to have a great potential for the implementation in many devices including laptops and mobile phones. The predefined set of gestures can be used for many control applications.

  4. Optimization of Ultrasonic Fabric Cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hand, T.E.

    1998-05-13

    The fundamental purpose of this project was to research and develop a process that would reduce the cost and improve the environmental efficiency of the present dry-cleaning industry. This second phase of research (see report KCP-94-1006 for information gathered during the first phase) was intended to allow the optimal integration of all factors of ultrasonic fabric cleaning. For this phase, Garment Care performed an extensive literature search and gathered data from other researchers worldwide. The Garment Care-AlliedSignal team developed the requirements for a prototype cleaning tank for studies and acquired that tank and the additional equipment required to use it properly. Garment Care and AlliedSignal acquired the transducers and generators from Surftran Martin-Walter in Sterling Heights, Michigan. Amway's Kelly Haley developed the test protocol, supplied hundreds of test swatches, gathered the data on the swatches before and after the tests, assisted with the cleaning tests, and prepared the final analysis of the results. AlliedSignal personnel, in conjunction with Amway and Garment Care staff, performed all the tests. Additional planning is under way for future testing by outside research facilities. The final results indicated repeatable performance and good results for single layered fabric swatches. Swatches that were cleaned as a ''sandwich,'' that is, three or more layers.

  5. Development and Application of an Ultrasonic Gas Flowmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Won Ho; Jeong, Hee Don; Park, Sang Gug; Jhang, Kyung Young

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the development and the field application of the ultrasonic gas flowmeter for accurate measurement of the volumetric flow rate of gases in a harsh environmental conditions in iron and steel making company. This ultrasonic flowmeter is especially suited for measuring LDG, COG, BFG gases produced in iron and steel making process. This is a transit time type ultrasonic flowmeter. We have developed the transmitting and receiving algorithm of ultrasonic wave and the ultrasonic signal processing algorithm to develope a transit time type ultrasonic flowmeter. We have evaluated the performance of ultrasonic flowmeter by the calibration system with Venturi type standard flowmeter. We has confirmed its reliability by extensive field tests for a year in POSCO, iron and steel making company. Now we have developed the commercial model of ultrasonic flowmeter and applied to the POSCO gas line

  6. Studies on Section XI ultrasonic repeatability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamison, T.D.; McDearman, W.R.

    1981-05-01

    A block representative of a nuclear component has been welded containing intentional defects. Acoustic emission data taken during the welding correlate well with ultrasonic data. Repetitive ultrasonic examinations have been performed by skilled operators using a procedure based on that desribed in ASME Section XI. These examinations were performed by different examination teams using different ultrasonic equipment in such a manner that the effects on the repeatability of the ultrasonic test method caused by the operator and by the use of different equipment could be estimated. It was tentatively concluded that when considering a large number of inspections: (1) there is no significant difference in indication sizing between operators, and (2) there is a significant difference in amplitude and defect sizing when instruments having different, Code acceptable operating characteristics are used. It was determined that the Section XI sizing parameters follow a bivariate normal distribution. Data derived from ultrasonically and physically sizing indications in nuclear components during farication show that the Section XI technique tends to overestimate the size of the reflectors

  7. Uncertainty estimation of ultrasonic thickness measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yassir Yassen, Abdul Razak Daud; Mohammad Pauzi Ismail; Abdul Aziz Jemain

    2009-01-01

    The most important factor that should be taken into consideration when selecting ultrasonic thickness measurement technique is its reliability. Only when the uncertainty of a measurement results is known, it may be judged if the result is adequate for intended purpose. The objective of this study is to model the ultrasonic thickness measurement function, to identify the most contributing input uncertainty components, and to estimate the uncertainty of the ultrasonic thickness measurement results. We assumed that there are five error sources significantly contribute to the final error, these sources are calibration velocity, transit time, zero offset, measurement repeatability and resolution, by applying the propagation of uncertainty law to the model function, a combined uncertainty of the ultrasonic thickness measurement was obtained. In this study the modeling function of ultrasonic thickness measurement was derived. By using this model the estimation of the uncertainty of the final output result was found to be reliable. It was also found that the most contributing input uncertainty components are calibration velocity, transit time linearity and zero offset. (author)

  8. Development of an ultrasonic void fraction profiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murai, Yuichi; Ohta, Shoko; Shigetomi, Akinari; Tasaka, Yuji; Takeda, Yasushi

    2009-01-01

    A method for measuring the spatial distribution of the void fraction in bubbly two-phase flow is presented. The method is referred to as ultrasonic void fraction profiling since it is based on the signal processing of an ultrasonic pulse scattering on a bubble interface. The method is established using two processes for the ultrasonic sensing of bubbles. One approach is to detect the bubble interface along a measurement line, i.e. the path of the ultrasonic pulse in the liquid. The interface is captured using two types of signal-processing schemes: the echo intensity method and the Doppler method. The other approach is to reconstruct the void fraction profile from the number of bubble interfaces. A theoretical formula for the estimation is proposed by considering ultrasonic reflection in a suspension of bubbles. The validity of the formula is examined with theoretical and numerical bases. Finally, the method developed here is applied to four flow configurations for the demonstration, in which the void fraction profile governs the modulation of liquid flow field

  9. Standard practice for leaks using ultrasonics

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 Practice A, Pressurization—This practice covers procedures for calibration of ultrasonic instruments, location, and estimated measurements of gas leakage to atmosphere by the airborne ultrasonic technique. 1.2 In general practice this should be limited to leaks detected by two classifications of instruments, Class I and Class II. Class I instruments should have a minimum detectable leak rate of 6.7 × 10−7 mol/s (1.5 × 10−2 std. cm3/s at 0°C) or more for the pressure method of gas leakage to atmosphere. Class II instruments should have a minimal detectable leak rate of 6.7 × 10−6 mol/s (1.5 × 10−1 std. cm3/s at 0°C) or more for the pressure method of gas leakage to atmosphere. Refer to Guide E432 for additional information. 1.3 Practice B, Ultrasonic Transmitter—For object under test not capable of being pressurized but capable of having ultrasonic tone placed/injected into the test area to act as an ultrasonic leak trace source. 1.3.1 This practice is limited to leaks producing leakage o...

  10. Ultrasonic imaging in LMFBRs using digital techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fothergill, J.R.; McKnight, J.A.; Barrett, L.M.

    Ultrasonic technology for providing images of components immersed in the opaque sodium of LMFBRs is being developed at RNL. For many years the application has been restricted by the unavailability of convenient ultrasonic sources and receivers capable of withstanding the reactor environment. Until recently, for example, important ultrasonic instrument design, such as for future sweep arms, had to be based on waveguided ultrasonics. RNL have developed an economic immersible transducer that can be deployed during reactor shut-down, when many demands for ultrasonic imaging are made. The transducer design is not suited at present to the sophisticated techniques of phased arrays; consequently image formation must depend on the physical scanning of a target using one or more transducers in pulse-echo mode. The difficulties of access into a fast reactor impose further restrictions. Some applications may involve easy scanning sequences, thus the sweep arm requires only a rotation to provide a map of the reactor core area. For a more detailed examination of the same area, however, special engineering solutions are needed to provide a more satisfactory scanning sequence. A compromise solution involving the rotating shield movement is being used for a PFR experiment to examine a limited area of the core. (author)

  11. Parallelization of ultrasonic field simulations for non destructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, Jason

    2015-01-01

    The Non Destructive Testing field increasingly uses simulation. It is used at every step of the whole control process of an industrial part, from speeding up control development to helping experts understand results. During this thesis, a fast ultrasonic field simulation tool dedicated to the computation of an ultrasonic field radiated by a phase array probe in an isotropic specimen has been developed. During this thesis, a simulation tool dedicated to the fast computation of an ultrasonic field radiated by a phased array probe in an isotropic specimen has been developed. Its performance enables an interactive usage. To benefit from the commonly available parallel architectures, a regular model (aimed at removing divergent branching) derived from the generic CIVA model has been developed. First, a reference implementation was developed to validate this model against CIVA results, and to analyze its performance behaviour before optimization. The resulting code has been optimized for three kinds of parallel architectures commonly available in workstations: general purpose processors (GPP), many-core co-processors (Intel MIC) and graphics processing units (nVidia GPU). On the GPP and the MIC, the algorithm was reorganized and implemented to benefit from both parallelism levels, multithreading and vector instructions. On the GPU, the multiple steps of field computing have been divided in multiple successive CUDA kernels. Moreover, libraries dedicated to each architecture were used to speedup Fast Fourier Transforms, Intel MKL on GPP and MIC and nVidia cuFFT on GPU. Performance and hardware adequation of the produced codes were thoroughly studied for each architecture. On multiple realistic control configurations, interactive performance was reached. Perspectives to address more complex configurations were drawn. Finally, the integration and the industrialization of this code in the commercial NDT platform CIVA is discussed. (author) [fr

  12. Research on a Composite Power-Superimposed Ultrasonic Vibrator for Wire Drawing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration power and amplitude are essential factors in ultrasonic drawing processes, especially for difficult-to-draw materials like titanium and its alloys. This paper presents a new composite power-superimposed ultrasonic vibrator for wire drawing which was driven by three separate ultrasonic transducers. The transducers were uniformly distributed around the circular cross section of the vibrator, with their axes along the radial direction and pointing to the center. The vibrator can concentrate the vibrational energy of multiple transducers and transform the radial vibration into a longitudinal vibrator because of the Poisson effect and therefore output larger vibration power and amplitude. In the paper, the four-terminal network method was used to establish the vibration equations of the vibrator. The FE model was established in ANSYS to investigate its characteristics under various excitation conditions. A prototype was manufactured and measurements were performed to verify the validation of FEA results. The results matched well with the theoretical results. It was found that the composite vibrator achieved an amplitude of about 40 μm when driven by square wave signals with 120° in phase difference, which implies a potential way of applying ultrasonic vibration to the processing of difficult-to-draw materials.

  13. Vapor-liquid equilibrium of ethanol/ethyl acetate mixture in ultrasonic intensified environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdi, Taha; Ahmad, Arshad; Ripin, Adnan Nasef; Mohamed, Mahmoud [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru (Malaysia)

    2014-05-15

    A vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) study was conducted on ethanol/ethylacetate mixture as a preliminary step towards developing an ultrasonic-assisted distillation process for separating azeotropic mixtures. The influence of ultrasonic intensity and frequency on the vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) of the mixture was examined using a combination of four ultrasonic intensities in range of 100-400W/cm{sup 2} and three frequencies ranging from 25-68 kHz. The sonication was found to have significant impacts on the VLE of the system as it alters both the relative volatility and azeotrope point, with preference to lower frequency operation. A maximum relative volatility of 2.32 was obtained at an intensity of 300 W/cm{sup 2} and a frequency of 25 kHz coupled with complete elimination of ethanol-ethyl acetate azeotrope. Results from this work were also congruent with some experimental and theoretical works presented in the literature. These findings set a good beginning towards the development of an ultrasonic assisted distillation that is currently in progress.

  14. Image processing applied to automatic detection of defects during ultrasonic examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moysan, J.

    1992-10-01

    This work is a study about image processing applied to ultrasonic BSCAN images which are obtained in the field of non destructive testing of weld. The goal is to define what image processing techniques can bring to ameliorate the exploitation of the data collected and, more precisely, what image processing can do to extract the meaningful echoes which enable to characterize and to size the defects. The report presents non destructive testing by ultrasounds in the nuclear field and it indicates specificities of the propagation of ultrasonic waves in austenitic weld. It gives a state of the art of the data processing applied to ultrasonic images in nondestructive evaluation. A new image analysis is then developed. It is based on a powerful tool, the co-occurrence matrix. This matrix enables to represent, in a whole representation, relations between amplitudes of couples of pixels. From the matrix analysis, a new complete and automatic method has been set down in order to define a threshold which separates echoes from noise. An automatic interpretation of the ultrasonic echoes is then possible. Complete validation has been done with standard pieces

  15. Reconstruction of dental ultrasonic scaler 3D vibration patterns from phase-related data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, S C; Landini, G

    2010-07-01

    Ultrasonic scalers are used in dentistry for removing mineralised plaque, known as calculus, from tooth surfaces. Though there is much information relating to the longitudinal vibrations of scaler probes, corresponding lateral data is limited. Understanding the lateral motion of ultrasonic probes is essential as, when used correctly, this motion will contribute to the cleaning process as well as to any damage caused to tooth surfaces. In this work we demonstrate the use of a single-axis scanning laser vibrometer, in conjunction with a mirror, to evaluate simultaneously the longitudinal and lateral motion of dental scaler probes oscillating at ultrasonic frequencies (approximately 30 kHz). Node/antinode patterns along the probe length were observed, as was an elliptical motion along the length of the probe. Application of a load to the tip of the instrument modified the vibration pattern of the whole probe. This technique seems an important step towards better characterisation of the three-dimensional movement of oscillating ultrasonic scaler probes, particularly when probes are contacted against teeth. Understanding the three-dimensional probe motion and how this is affected by contact with tooth surfaces may lead to future instrument designs with improved cleaning efficiency whilst minimising potential tooth damage. Copyright 2010 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Examination of Sandwich Materials Using Air-Coupled Ultrasonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borum, K.K.; Berggreen, Carl Christian

    2004-01-01

    The air-coupled ultrasonic techniques have been improved drastically in recent years. Better equipment has made this technique much more useful. This paper focuses on the examination of sandwich materials used in naval ships. It is more convenient to be able to make the measurements directly...... in atmospheric air instead of using immersion technique. The air-coupled techniques have been used in through-transmission mode using separate sender and receiver transducer. The frequency was either 50 kHz or 120 kHz. Laboratory tests on glass fibre/PVC foam core sandwich panels showed that debonds between core...... and skin laminate could be found by the air-coupled technique. It was therefore decided to use this technique in-situ during mechanical testing of sandwich panels. These tests were done in order to verify a developed FEM code using interfacial fracture mechanics and illustrated on a superstructure...

  17. Influence of ultrasonic stimulation on the germination of barley seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the influence of ultrasonic stimulation was investigated on the germination of barley and alpha-amylase activity grains in the dry state before steeping. All experiments have been performed using an ultrasonic horn operating at a fixed frequency of 20 KHz in 3 different ultrasonic power (20, 60 and 100% setting ...

  18. Contact-free ultrasonic testing: applications to metrology and NDT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Brun, A.

    1988-01-01

    In some cases classical ultrasonic testing is impossible because of adverse environment (high temperature, ionizing radiations, etc). Ultrasonic waves are created by laser impact and detected by electromagneto-acoustic transducers or laser interferometry. Association of ultrasonics generation by photoacoustic effect and reception by heterodyne interferometer is promising for the future [fr

  19. Experiences in using ultrasonic holography with numerical and optical reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, V.; Wosnitza, M.

    1978-01-01

    At present, ultrasonic holography can resolve and image faults of 1 mm and more and with distances of one ultrasonic wavelength. The main field of application is for thick-walled structural components. Depending on the expected orientation, test probe arrangements as in standard ultrasonic testing are chosen. (orig./RW) [de

  20. Folded Resonant Horns for Power Ultrasonic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Askins, Stephen; Gradziel, Michael; Bao, Xiaoqi; Chang, Zensheu; Dolgin, Benjamin; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Peterson, Tom

    2003-01-01

    Folded horns have been conceived as alternatives to straight horns used as resonators and strain amplifiers in power ultrasonic systems. Such systems are used for cleaning, welding, soldering, cutting, and drilling in a variety of industries. In addition, several previous NASA Tech Briefs articles have described instrumented drilling, coring, and burrowing machines that utilize combinations of sonic and ultrasonic vibrational actuation. The main advantage of a folded horn, relative to a straight horn of the same resonance frequency, is that the folded horn can be made shorter (that is, its greatest linear dimension measured from the outside can be made smaller). Alternatively, for a given length, the resonance frequency can be reduced. Hence, the folded-horn concept affords an additional degree of design freedom for reducing the length of an ultrasonic power system that includes a horn.

  1. Ultrasonic fatigue of a high strength steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, M.; Wagner, G.; Eifler, D.

    2010-07-01

    At the Institute of Materials Science and Engineering at the University of Kaiserslautern an ultrasonic testing system for the fatigue assessment of metallic materials in the very high cycle fatigue (VHCF) regime was developed. The ultrasonic testing system allows to control the test and to measure detailed fatigue data. The achieved results can be used to describe the cyclic deformation behaviour of wheel steels at ultrasonic frequencies. In load increase tests (LIT), the critical stress amplitude can be determined, which leads to a defined change of process parameters like generator power, dissipated energy and specimen temperature. With SEM investigations it was proved that the change of the process parameters correlates with irreversible changes in the microstructure. It can be shown that the stress amplitude, leading to first irreversible changes in the microstructure, strongly depends on the depth position within the original wheel rim. New and basic results on the fatigue mechanisms of high strength steels in the VHCF-regime can be achieved.

  2. Ultrasonic unit for line-by-line ultrasonic scanning of bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soldner, R.

    1978-01-01

    The ultrasonic unit for medical diagnostics operates by the sectorial scanning principle, which avoids direct coupling of the transducer head to the surface of the body. For this purpose, several transmitter/receiver units (approx. 100) are arranged on a partial ring of a circular arc and the ultrasonic beams, which can be triggered sequentially in time, are directed at a common intersection behind the ultrasonic window of the unit, i.e., outside the unit. A mechanical system is employed to set and adjust the partial ring carrying the transmitter/receiver units. (DG) [de

  3. Development of coaxial ultrasonic probe for fatty liver diagnostic system using ultrasonic velocity change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Makoto; Yokota, Daiki; Aotani, Yuhei; Kumagai, Yuta; Wada, Kenji; Matsunaka, Toshiyuki; Morikawa, Hiroyasu; Horinaka, Hiromichi

    2017-07-01

    A diagnostic system for fatty liver at an early stage is needed because fatty liver is linked to metabolic syndrome. We have already proposed a fatty liver diagnosis method based on the temperature coefficient of ultrasonic velocity. In this study, we fabricated a coaxial ultrasonic probe by integrating two kinds of transducers for warming and signal detection. The diagnosis system equipped with the coaxial probe was applied to tissue-mimicking phantoms including the fat area. The fat content rates corresponding to the set rates of the phantoms were estimated by the ultrasonic velocity-change method.

  4. Advances in ultrasonic fuel cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blok, J.; Frattini, P.; Moser, T.

    2002-01-01

    The economics of electric generation is requiring PWR plant operators to consider higher fuel duty and longer cycles. As a result, sub-cooled nucleate boiling is now an accepted occurrence in the upper spans of aggressively driven PWR cores. Thermodynamic and hydraulic factors determine that the boiling surfaces of the fuel favor deposition of corrosion products. Thus, the deposits on high-duty fuel tend to be axially distributed in an inhomogeneous manner. Axial offset anomaly (AOA) is the result of axially non-homogeneous distribution of boron compounds in these axially variable fuel deposits. Besides their axial asymmetry, fuel deposits in boiling cores tend to be qualitatively different from deposits on non-boiling fuel. Thus, deposits on moderate-duty PWR fuel are generally iron rich, predominating in nickel ferrites. Deposits on cores with high boiling duty, on the other hand, tend to be rich in nickel, with sizeable fractions of NiO or elemental nickel. Other unexpected compounds such as m-ZrO 2 and Ni-Fe oxy-borates have been found in significant quantity in deposits on boiling cores. This paper describes the ultrasonic fuel cleaning technology developed by EPRI. Data will be presented to confirm that the method is effective for removing fuel deposits from both high-duty and normal-duty fuel. The report will describe full-core fuel cleaning using the EPRI technology for Callaway Cycle 12 reload fuel. The favorable impact of fuel cleaning on Cycle 12 AOA performance will also be presented. (authors)

  5. Ultrasonic precision optical grinding technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Michael J.; Bechtold, Michael J.; Fess, Edward; Wolfs, Frank L.; Bechtold, Rob

    2015-10-01

    As optical geometries become more precise and complex and a wider range of materials are used, the processes used for manufacturing become more critical. As the preparatory stage for polishing, this is especially true for grinding. Slow processing speeds, accelerated tool wear, and poor surface quality are often detriments in manufacturing glass and hard ceramics. The quality of the ground surface greatly influences the polishing process and the resulting finished product. Through extensive research and development, OptiPro Systems has introduced an ultrasonic assisted grinding technology, OptiSonic, which has numerous advantages over traditional grinding processes. OptiSonic utilizes a custom tool holder designed to produce oscillations in line with the rotating spindle. A newly developed software package called IntelliSonic is integral to this platform. IntelliSonic automatically characterizes the tool and continuously optimizes the output frequency for optimal cutting while in contact with the part. This helps maintain a highly consistent process under changing load conditions for a more accurate surface. Utilizing a wide variety of instruments, test have proven to show a reduction in tool wear and increase in surface quality while allowing processing speeds to be increased. OptiSonic has proven to be an enabling technology to overcome the difficulties seen in grinding of glass and hard optical ceramics. OptiSonic has demonstrated numerous advantages over the standard CNC grinding process. Advantages are evident in reduced tool wear, better surface quality, and reduced cycle times due to increased feed rates. These benefits can be seen over numerous applications within the precision optics industry.

  6. Ultrasonic Device Would Open Pipe Bombs

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Raheb, Michael S.; Adams, Marc A.; Zwissler, James G.

    1991-01-01

    Piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer, energized by frequency generator and power supply, vibrates shell of pipe bomb while hardly disturbing explosive inner material. Frequency-control circuitry senses resonance in shell and holds generator at that frequency to induce fatigue cracking in threads of end cap. In addition to disarming bombs, ultrasonically induced fatigue may have other applications. In manufacturing, replaces some machining and cutting operations. In repair of equipment, cleanly and quickly disassembles corroded parts. In demolition of buildings used to dismember steel framework safely and controllably.

  7. Absorption and dispersion of ultrasonic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Herzfeld, Karl F; Massey, H S W; Brueckner, Keith A

    1959-01-01

    Absorption and Dispersion of Ultrasonic Waves focuses on the influence of ultrasonics on molecular processes in liquids and gases, including hydrodynamics, energy exchange, and chemical reactions. The book first offers information on the Stokes-Navier equations of hydrodynamics, as well as equations of motion, viscosity, formal introduction of volume viscosity, and linearized wave equation for a nonviscous fluid. The manuscript then ponders on energy exchange between internal and external degrees of freedom as relaxation phenomenon; effect of slow energy exchange on sound propagation; differe

  8. Ultrasonic inspection of fake gold jewelry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauzi Ismail, Mohamad; Sani, Suhairy; Shofri, Faris Syazwan bin Mohd; Harun, Mohd.; Omar, Norlaili Binti

    2018-01-01

    Hollow jewelry made from combination of gold and other material was found in the market. At the outside it is made of gold and the inside layer is made of other material. X-ray fluorescent method cannot detect the inside material that was covered by gold. This paper explained the experimental result of ultrasonic inspection of fake gold used for jewelry. The ultrasonic pulse echo contact method was used to measure longitudinal wave velocity in the gold jewelry. The results of measurements are explained and discussed.

  9. Ultrasonic technique for characterizing skin burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goans, Ronald E.; Cantrell, Jr., John H.; Meyers, F. Bradford; Stambaugh, Harry D.

    1978-01-01

    This invention, a method for ultrasonically determining the depth of a skin burn, is based on the finding that the acoustical impedance of burned tissue differs sufficiently from that of live tissue to permit ultrasonic detection of the interface between the burn and the underlying unburned tissue. The method is simple, rapid, and accurate. As compared with conventional practice, it provides the important advantage of permitting much earlier determination of whether a burn is of the first, second, or third degree. In the case of severe burns, the usual two - to three-week delay before surgery may be reduced to about 3 days or less.

  10. Studies on Laser Generated Ultrasonic Waves in Inconel Super Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pramila, T.; Shukla, Anita; Raghuram, V.

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the generation, characterization and analysis of ultrasonic waves generated in a thick stepped sample of inconel super alloy using Laser Based Ultrasonic Technique. Nd-YAG pulsed laser is used for ultrasonic generation while He-Ne laser is used for heterodyne detection. Ultrasonic signals are analyzed using Fourier and wavelet transforms. Here the identification and estimation of velocity of pressure waves is presented. The mechanism of pressure wave generation is discussed in brief. Laser ultrasonics studies of inconel are being reported for the first time.

  11. Vibration characteristics of ultrasonic complex vibration for hole machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asami, Takuya; Miura, Hikaru

    2012-05-01

    Complex vibration sources that use diagonal slits as a longitudinal-torsional vibration converter have been applied to ultrasonic motors, ultrasonic rock drilling, and ultrasonic welding. However, there are few examples of the application of these sources to ultrasonic machining in combination with an abrasive. Accordingly, a new method has been developed for machining of holes in brittle materials by using the ultrasonic longitudinal and torsional vibration of a hollow-type stepped horn with a diagonal slit vibration converter. In this paper, we compared vibration of a uniform rod and a hollow-type stepped horn, both with diagonal slits, when the conditions of the diagonal slits are constant.

  12. Analysis of Ultrasonic Transmitted Signal for Apple using Wavelet Transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Bok; Lee, Sang Dae; Choi, Man Yong; Kim, Man Soo

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyze the ultrasonic transmitted signal for apple using wavelet transform. Fruit consists of nonlinear visco-elastic properties such as flesh, an ovary and rind and lienee most ultrasonic wave is attenuated and its frequency is shifted during passing the fruit. Thus it is not easy to evaluate the internal quality of the fruit using typical ultrasonic parameters such as wave velocity, attenuation, and frequency spectrum. The discrete wavelet transform was applied to the ultrasonic transmitted signal for apple. The magnitude of the first peak frequency of the wavelet basis from the ultrasonic transmitted signal showed a close correlation to the storage time of apple

  13. Preliminary study of ultrasonic tomography on Aqualaria sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Noorul Ikhsan Ahmad; Nor Hafzan Sarah Almuin; Fakhurazi Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Methods based on propagation of stress wave's phenomena indicate particular usefulness in diagnosis of non-metallic materials. The aim of this research is perform a feasibility study of Ultrasonic measurement in producing a tomography image on Aquilaria sample. Experiment has been conducted in laboratory on an Aquilaria trunk using ultrasonic equipment namely TICO. The apparatus equipped with exponential horn 54 kHz normal probe. A through transmission method of longitudinal ultrasonic wave has been used throughout this experiment to measure velocity of ultrasonic signal through the trunk of standing tree. The result showed that ultrasonic technique can be used to produce a tomography image of Aquilaria sample. (author)

  14. Thumb-size ultrasonic-assisted spectroscopic imager for in-situ glucose monitoring as optional sensor of conventional dialyzers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogo, Kosuke; Mori, Keita; Qi, Wei; Hosono, Satsuki; Kawashima, Natsumi; Nishiyama, Akira; Wada, Kenji; Ishimaru, Ichiro

    2016-03-01

    We proposed the ultrasonic-assisted spectroscopic imaging for the realization of blood-glucose-level monitoring during dialytic therapy. Optical scattering and absorption caused by blood cells deteriorate the detection accuracy of glucose dissolved in plasma. Ultrasonic standing waves can agglomerate blood cells at nodes. In contrast, around anti-node regions, the amount of transmitted light increases because relatively clear plasma appears due to decline the number of blood cells. Proposed method can disperse the transmitted light of plasma without time-consuming pretreatment such as centrifugation. To realize the thumb-size glucose sensor which can be easily attached to dialysis tubes, an ultrasonic standing wave generator and a spectroscopic imager are required to be small. Ultrasonic oscillators are ∅30[mm]. A drive circuit of oscillators, which now size is 41×55×45[mm], is expected to become small. The trial apparatus of proposed one-shot Fourier spectroscopic imager, whose size is 30×30×48[mm], also can be little-finger size in principal. In the experiment, we separated the suspension mixed water and micro spheres (Θ10[mm) into particles and liquid regions with the ultrasonic standing wave (frequency: 2[MHz]). Furthermore, the spectrum of transmitted light through the suspension could be obtained in visible light regions with a white LED.

  15. Grain size evaluation of metallic specimens using laser-ultrasonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Chung Soo; Park, Hyung Kook; Jeon, Hyung Ha; Kim, Dal Woo; Oh, Ki Jang; Hong, Soon Taek

    2002-01-01

    The laser-ultrasonics inspection techniques for the measurement of grain size have been developed in this study. The ultrasonics are generated by pulsed Nd:YAG laser and the pulse energy is 300 mJ and wavelength is 1064 nm. Since the frequency bandwidth of laser-ultrasonics generated by pulsed laser is extremely broad, this laser-ultrasonics are suitable for analysis of frequency dependence of ultrasonic attenuation. The attenuation coefficients (α) in thick steel plates are measured by using laser-ultrasonics of 15 MHz and 30 MHz, which is probed by confocal Fabry-Perot interferometer. The results show that the attenuation coefficients are closely related with grain size and high frequency ultrasonics are more effective to measure the fine pain size. According to the experimental results of this study, we can conclude that laser-ultrasonics inspection is effective method for grain size measurement. The confocal Fabry-Perot interferometer has been developed for non-contact measurement of laser-ultrasonics. The transmittance characteristic of interferometer has been studied experimentally with CW single-mode laser system. The results show that the Fabry-Perot interferometer is a very effective tool for the measurement of ultrasonics. Using the developed Fabry-Perot interferometer, we have measured ultrasonic signals of high temperature specimen up to 1200 degrees C.

  16. Air-coupled ultrasonic applications of ferroelectrets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bovtun, Viktor; Döring, J.; Wegener, M.; Bartusch, J.; Beck, U.; Erhard, A.; Borisov, V.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 370, č. 1 (2008), s. 11-17 ISSN 0015-0193 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/06/0403 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : air-coupled ultrasonics * non-contact transducers * ferroelectrets * electromechanical properties Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.562, year: 2008

  17. Ultrasonic scanning for pallet part grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed F. Kabir; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Mark E. Schafer; Philip A. Araman

    2000-01-01

    Sorting and grading of wooden pallet parts are key factors for pallet manufacturing quality and pallet durability. The feasibility of ultrasonic scanning for defect detection in pallet manufacturing is examined in this report. Scanning was conducted by two pressure-contact rolling transducers in a pitch-catch arrangement. Pallet part deckboards were fed through the...

  18. Potential Benefits of Ultrasonically Assisted Fusion Welding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many of the processes in which ultrasonic oscillations have been beneficial are similar to fusion welding process where the quality of welds depends on porosity, crystallisation rate, inclusions, inter-metallic compounds, depth of penetration, heat affected zone, etc. Some preliminary tests were performed to assess the effects ...

  19. Ferroelectret non-contact ultrasonic transducers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bovtun, Viktor; Döring, J.; Bartusch, J.; Beck, U.; Erhard, A.; Yakymenko, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 4 (2007), s. 737-743 ISSN 0947-8396 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/06/0403 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : ferroelectrets * polymers * ultrasonic transducers Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.857, year: 2007

  20. Noncontact Ultrasonic Vibration Of Weld Puddles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed ultrasonic stimulator vibrates weld puddle without making contact. Vibration breaks up large grain clumps in solidifying puddle, creating more uniform, fine-grain microstructure. Resulting weld joint less susceptible to hot cracking and other stress-related forms of degradation.

  1. Composite materials inspection. [ultrasonic vibration holographic NDT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erf, R. K.

    1974-01-01

    Investigation of the application requirements, advantages, and limitations of nondestructive testing by a technique of ultrasonic-vibration holographic-interferometry readout used in a production control facility for the inspection of a single product such as composite compressor blades. It is shown that, for the detection and characterization of disbonds in composite material structures, this technique may represent the most inclusive test method.

  2. Advanced ultrasonic field system: a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikesell, C.R.; Beller, L.S.

    1984-02-01

    An advanced ultrasonic system was developed to obtain highly reproducible inspection data and to overcome certain limitations encountered with the manual scanning method. Experience from field operations from 1976 through 1980 is discussed. The scope includes a description of the computer controlled system, personnel training, inservice inspections, data analysis, and current upgrading of the system

  3. Development of ultrasonic instrument 'UT1000 Series'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Yukio; Ikeda, Toshimichi

    1984-01-01

    The ultrasonic flaw detectors with 'A-scope indication' have been frequently used as the means for confirming the soundness of structures and equipments, but there are problems in their operational, quantifying and recording capabilities. Recently, the digital ultrasonic measuring instrument of touch panel type ''UT 1000 Series'' has been developed, which resolves these problems by a single effort. This measuring instrument is that of portable type, which gives the digital output of measured results in real time only by lightly touching the peak point of an echo on the Brown tube. This instrument contains the rich software for measurement, and can measure the positions and dimensions of defects and the pressure on contact surfaces with high accuracy. 'A-scope indication' is the indication with an oscilloscope taking the intensity of echo and the propagation time of ultrasonic waves on the ordinate and abscissa, respectively. There are three types of the instrument, that is, for detecting defects, for measuring contact surface pressure and for both purposes. The size of the instrument is 240 mm width, 350 mm length and 175 mm height, and the weight is 8.5 kgf. The specification, function and features of the ultrasonic flaw detector, touch panel, gain setter, key board, microcomputer and others are reported. (Kako, I.)

  4. Repartition of ultrasonic energies at the interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deleuze, M.; Bourdarios, M.; Lepoutre, M.

    1983-06-01

    Energy repartition of ultrasonic waves at the interfaces is studied as a function of incidence angle of the acoustic beam in immersion testing. For each interface type mathematical relations give the ratio of incident energy and energy of the wave reemitted by the interface. As an example curves for the interfaces water-uranium are given [fr

  5. Ultrasonic Diagnosis of Fetal Ascites and Toxoplasmosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaakær, Jan

    1986-01-01

    The ultrasonic diagnosis of fetal ascites caused by Toxoplasma Gondii is presented. When a diagnosis of fetal ascites without obvious etiological malformation is established, toxoplasmosis should be suspected. A serological test should be performed, in view of the possibility of antenatal treatment...

  6. Optimization of ultrasonic extraction of mycelial polysaccharides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-28

    Nov 28, 2011 ... 1Anhui Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Control, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei, Anhui, 230036, China. 2Anhui University of Science and ... There existed good agreement between experimental and predicted values. Key words: Ultrasonic .... Culture of mycelial powder. The mycelial powder was ...

  7. Reduction of aerosols produced by ultrasonic scalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrel, S K; Barnes, J B; Rivera-Hidalgo, F

    1996-01-01

    There is concern with decreased air quality and potential aerosol contamination in the dental operatory. This problem has been addressed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which recommends that all sources of blood-contaminated splatter and aerosols be minimized. One of the major sources of potential aerosol contamination in the dental setting is the ultrasonic scaler. This study looks at the use of a high volume evacuator attachment for the ultrasonic scaler handpiece. Artificial teeth were mock-scaled for 1 minute with and without the evacuator attachment. The mock scaling was performed within a plastic enclosure that had a 1 cm grid laid out on 4 sides. Scaling was performed 10 times each by 2 operators. An erythrosin solution was used for the ultrasonic scaler coolant with a coolant volume of 17.5 ml/min. The number of squares containing a red erythrosin spot were counted and considered to represent aerosol contamination. The high volume evacuator attachment produced a 93% reduction in the number of contaminated squares (chi squared significant at P < 0.05). There was no increase in heat transfer to a tooth analogue when the high volume evacuator attachment was used with the ultrasonic scaler as compared to the scaler without the evacuator attachment. It is felt that the high volume evacuator attachment is capable of significantly reducing the amount of aerosol contamination produced within the test system without increased heat transfer to the tooth.

  8. Ultrasonic Imaging Techniques for Breast Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulding, N. R.; Marquez, J. D.; Prewett, E. M.; Claytor, T. N.; Nadler, B. R.

    2008-02-01

    Improving the resolution and specificity of current ultrasonic imaging technology is needed to enhance its relevance to breast cancer detection. A novel ultrasonic imaging reconstruction method is described that exploits classical straight-ray migration. This novel method improves signal processing for better image resolution and uses novel staging hardware options using a pulse-echo approach. A breast phantom with various inclusions is imaged using the classical migration method and is compared to standard computed tomography (CT) scans. These innovative ultrasonic methods incorporate ultrasound data acquisition, beam profile characterization, and image reconstruction. For an ultrasonic frequency of 2.25 MHz, imaged inclusions of approximately 1 cm are resolved and identified. Better resolution is expected with minor modifications. Improved image quality and resolution enables earlier detection and more accurate diagnoses of tumors thus reducing the number of biopsies performed, increasing treatment options, and lowering remission percentages. Using these new techniques the inclusions in the phantom are resolved and compared to the results of standard methods. Refinement of this application using other imaging techniques such as time-reversal mirrors (TRM), synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT), decomposition of the time reversal operator (DORT), and factorization methods is also discussed.

  9. Auto-positioning ultrasonic transducer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Randy K. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An ultrasonic transducer apparatus and process for determining the optimal transducer position for flow measurement along a conduit outer surface. The apparatus includes a transmitting transducer for transmitting an ultrasonic signal, said transducer affixed to a conduit outer surface; a guide rail attached to a receiving transducer for guiding movement of a receiving transducer along the conduit outer surface, wherein the receiving transducer receives an ultrasonic signal from the transmitting transducer and sends a signal to a data acquisition system; and a motor for moving the receiving transducer along the guide rail, wherein the motor is controlled by a controller. The method includes affixing a transmitting transducer to an outer surface of a conduit; moving a receiving transducer on the conduit outer surface, wherein the receiving transducer is moved along a guide rail by a motor; transmitting an ultrasonic signal from the transmitting transducer that is received by the receiving transducer; communicating the signal received by the receiving transducer to a data acquisition and control system; and repeating the moving, transmitting, and communicating along a length of the conduit.

  10. Ultrasonic Communication Project, Phase 1, FY1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, H.D.; Akerman, M.A.; Baylor, V.M.

    2000-06-01

    This Phase 1 project has been successful in identifying, exploring, and demonstrating methods for ultrasonic-based communication with an emphasis on the application of digital signal processing techniques. During the project, at the direction of the agency project monitor, particular attention was directed at sending and receiving ultrasonic data through air and through pipes that would be commonly found in buildings. Efforts were also focused on development of a method for transmitting computer files ultrasonically. New methods were identified and evaluated for ultrasonic communication. These methods are based on a technique called DFS. With DFS, individual alphanumeric characters are broken down into a sequence of bits, and each bit is used to generate a discrete ultrasonic frequency. Characters are then transmitted one-bit-at-a-time, and reconstructed by the receiver. This technique was put into practice through the development of LabVIEW{trademark}VIs. These VIs were integrated with specially developed electronic circuits to provide a system for demonstrating the transmission and reception/reconstruction of typed messages and computer files. Tests were performed to determine the envelope for ultrasound transmission through pipes (with and without water) versus through air. The practical aspects of connections, efficient electronics, impedance matching, and the effect of damping mechanisms were all investigated. These tests resulted in a considerable number of reference charts that illustrate the absorption of ultrasound through different pipe materials, both with and without water, as a function of distance. Ultrasound was found to be least attenuated by copper pipe and most attenuated by PVC pipe. Water in the pipe provides additional damping and attenuation of ultrasonic signals. Dramatic improvements are observed, however, in ultrasound signal strength if the transducers are directly coupled to the water, rather than simply attaching them to the outside of

  11. Performances estimation of a rotary traveling wave ultrasonic motor based on two-dimension analytical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Y; Peiwen, Q

    2001-03-01

    The understanding of ultrasonic motor performances as a function of input parameters, such as the voltage amplitude, driving frequency, the preload on the rotor, is a key to many applications and control of ultrasonic motor. This paper presents performances estimation of the piezoelectric rotary traveling wave ultrasonic motor as a function of input voltage amplitude and driving frequency and preload. The Love equation is used to derive the traveling wave amplitude on the stator surface. With the contact model of the distributed spring-rigid body between the stator and rotor, a two-dimension analytical model of the rotary traveling wave ultrasonic motor is constructed. Then the performances of stead rotation speed and stall torque are deduced. With MATLAB computational language and iteration algorithm, we estimate the performances of rotation speed and stall torque versus input parameters respectively. The same experiments are completed with the optoelectronic tachometer and stand weight. Both estimation and experiment results reveal the pattern of performance variation as a function of its input parameters.

  12. Ultrasonic Spot and Torsion Welding of Aluminum to Titanium Alloys: Process, Properties and Interfacial Microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balle, Frank; Magin, Jens

    Hybrid lightweight structures shape the development of future vehicles in traffic engineering and the aerospace industry. For multi-material concepts made out of aluminum and titanium alloys, the ultrasonic welding technique is an alternative effective joining technology. The overlapped structures can be welded in the solid state, even without gas shielding. In this paper the conventional ultrasonic spot welding with longitudinal oscillation mode is compared to the recent ultrasonic torsion welding with a torsional mode at 20 kHz working frequency. For each technique the process parameters welding force, welding energy and oscillation amplitude were optimized for the hybrid joints using design of experiments. Relationships between the process parameters, mechanical properties and related welding zone should be understood. Central aspects of the research project are microscopic studies of the joining zone in cross section and extensive fracture surface analysis. Detailed electron microscopy and spectroscopy of the hybrid interface help to understand the interfacial formation during ultrasonic welding as well as to transfer the gained knowledge for further multi-metal joints.

  13. The Study of Ultrasonic Degradation of Superabsorbent Hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajabali Ebrahimi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Viscometry is a valid and practical approach for monitoring the degradation of polymers in solution. In this work, at constant power and pulse, the effects of different operating parameters such as time of irradiation, temperature, solution concentration, volume, solvent, and immersion depth of horn on the rate of degradation have been investigated in aqueous solution using laboratory scale operation. A method of viscometry was used to study the degradation behavior of aqueous dispersions of microgels. The experimental results show that the viscosity of polymer solution decreased with an increase in the ultrasonic irradiation time and approached a limiting value. The present work has enabled us to understand the role of the different operating parameters in deciding the extent of viscosity reduction in aqueous dispersions of microgels and also the controlling effects of them.

  14. [Effects of ultrasonic pretreatment on drying characteristics of sewage sludge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Run-Dong; Yang, Yu-Ting; Li, Yan-Long; Niu, Hui-Chang; Wei, Li-Hong; Sun, Yang; Ke, Xin

    2009-11-01

    The high water content of sewage sludge has engendered many inconveniences to its treatment and disposal. While ultrasonic takes on unique advantages on the sludge drying because of its high ultrasonic power, mighty penetrating capability and the ability of causing cavitations. Thus this research studies the characteristics influences of ultrasonic bring to the sludge drying and effects of the exposure time, ultrasonic generator power, temperatures of ultrasonic and drying temperature on the drying characteristics of dewatered sludge. Results indicate that ultrasonic pretreatment could speed up evaporation of the free water in sludge surface and help to end the drying stage with constant speed. In addition, ultrasonic treatment can effectively improve the sludge drying efficiency which could be more evident with the rise of the ultrasonic power (100-250 W), ultrasonic temperature and drying temperature. If dried under low temperature such as 105 degrees C, sludge will have premium drying characteristics when radiated under ultrasound for a shorter time such as 3 min. In the end, the ultrasonic treatment is expected to be an effective way to the low-cost sludge drying and also be an important reference to the optimization of the sludge drying process because of its effects on the increase of sludge drying efficiency.

  15. Effect of Ultrasonication on Physical Properties of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Parashos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the effect on physical properties of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA of using direct hand compaction during placement and when using hand compaction with indirect ultrasonic activation with different application times. Methods. One hundred acrylic canals were obturated in 3 increments with MTA in sample sizes of 10. One group was obturated by hand with an endodontic plugger and the remainder obturated with indirect ultrasonic application, with times ranging from 2 seconds to 18 seconds per increment. Microhardness values, dye penetration depths, and radiographs of the samples were evaluated. Results. As ultrasonic application time per increment increased, microhardness values fell significantly (P<0.001 while dye penetration values increased (P<0.001. Microhardness of MTA ultrasonicated for 2 seconds was significantly higher than hand compaction (P=0.03. Most radiographic voids were visible in the hand-compacted group (P<0.001, which also had higher dye penetration depths than the 2-second ultrasonicated samples. Ultrasonication of MTA for 10–18 seconds resulted in significantly more voids than 2–8 seconds of ultrasonication (P=0.02. Conclusion. The use of ultrasonics with MTA improved the compaction and flow of MTA, but excessive ultrasonication adversely affected MTA properties. A time of 2 seconds of ultrasonication per increment presented the best compromise between microhardness values, dye penetration depths, and lack of radiographic voids.

  16. An Analysis of Peak Wind Speed Data from Collocated Mechanical and Ultrasonic Anemometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, David A.; Wells, Leonard; Merceret, Francis J.; Roeder, William P.

    2007-01-01

    This study compared peak wind speeds reported by mechanical and ultrasonic anemometers at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center (CCAFS/KSC) on the east central coast of Florida and Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) on the central coast of California. Launch Weather Officers, forecasters, and Range Safety analysts need to understand the performance of wind sensors at CCAFS/KSC and VAFB for weather warnings, watches, advisories, special ground processing operations, launch pad exposure forecasts, user Launch Commit Criteria (LCC) forecasts and evaluations, and toxic dispersion support. The legacy CCAFS/KSC and VAFB weather tower wind instruments are being changed from propeller-and-vane (CCAFS/KSC) and cup-and-vane (VAFB) sensors to ultrasonic sensors under the Range Standardization and Automation (RSA) program. Mechanical and ultrasonic wind measuring techniques are known to cause differences in the statistics of peak wind speed as shown in previous studies. The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) and the 30th Weather Squadron (30 WS) requested the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to compare data between the RSA ultrasonic and legacy mechanical sensors to determine if there are significant differences. Note that the instruments were sited outdoors under naturally varying conditions and that this comparison was not designed to verify either technology. Approximately 3 weeks of mechanical and ultrasonic wind data from each range from May and June 2005 were used in this study. The CCAFS/KSC data spanned the full diurnal cycle, while the VAFB data were confined to 1000-1600 local time. The sample of 1-minute data from numerous levels on five different towers on each range totaled more than 500,000 minutes of data (482,979 minutes of data after quality control). The ten towers were instrumented at several levels, ranging from 12 ft to 492 ft above ground level. The ultrasonic sensors were collocated at the same vertical levels as the mechanical sensors and

  17. Anisotropy of the Elastic Properties of Normal and Pathological Myocardium: Angular Dependence of Ultrasonic Backscatter, Attenuation, and Velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk, Edward Dennis

    The focus of this thesis is the measurement of anisotropies in the ultrasonic parameters of soft tissues. The goal is to contribute to a better understanding of the physics which underlies the interaction of ultrasonic waves with inhomogeneous and anisotropic media. Broadband measurements using a piezoelectric transducer are reported for investigations of excised specimens of human and canine myocardial tissue. Emphasis is placed on identifying the effect that the muscle fiber orientation, relative to the direction of insonification, has on the propagation and scattering properties of ultrasonic waves. Results of the anisotropy of backscatter, the anisotropy of attenuation, and the anisotropy of quasilongitudinal velocity are presented for data obtained in 2^ circ increments through the full 360 ^circ relative to the myofibers. Measured velocities are used in conjunction with measured specimen densities to determine the elastic stiffness constants c_{11} and c_ {33} and to estimate specific mechanical moduli for thin layers of myocardium.

  18. Influence of the Spatial Dimensions of Ultrasonic Transducers on the Frequency Spectrum of Guided Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaitis, Vykintas; Mažeika, Liudas

    2017-08-08

    Ultrasonic guided wave (UGW)-based condition monitoring has shown great promise in detecting, localizing, and characterizing damage in complex systems. However, the application of guided waves for damage detection is challenging due to the existence of multiple modes and dispersion. This results in distorted wave packets with limited resolution and the interference of multiple reflected modes. To develop reliable inspection systems, either the transducers have to be optimized to generate a desired single mode of guided waves with known dispersive properties, or the frequency responses of all modes present in the structure must be known to predict wave interaction. Currently, there is a lack of methods to predict the response spectrum of guided wave modes, especially in cases when multiple modes are being excited simultaneously. Such methods are of vital importance for further understanding wave propagation within the structures as well as wave-damage interaction. In this study, a novel method to predict the response spectrum of guided wave modes was proposed based on Fourier analysis of the particle velocity distribution on the excitation area. The method proposed in this study estimates an excitability function based on the spatial dimensions of the transducer, type of vibration, and dispersive properties of the medium. As a result, the response amplitude as a function of frequency for each guided wave mode present in the structure can be separately obtained. The method was validated with numerical simulations on the aluminum and glass fiber composite samples. The key findings showed that it can be applied to estimate the response spectrum of a guided wave mode on any type of material (either isotropic structures, or multi layered anisotropic composites) and under any type of excitation if the phase velocity dispersion curve and the particle velocity distribution of the wave source was known initially. Thus, the proposed method may be a beneficial tool to explain

  19. Separation Anxiety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Separation Anxiety KidsHealth / For Parents / Separation Anxiety What's in this ... both of you get through it. About Separation Anxiety Babies adapt pretty well to other caregivers. Parents ...

  20. Development of computer based ultrasonic flaw detector for nondestructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Weon Heum; Kim, Jin Koo; Kim, Yang Rae; Choi, Kwan Sun; Kim, Sun Hyung; Lee, Sun Heum

    1996-01-01

    Ultrasonic Testing is one of the most widely used method of Nondestructive testing for Pre-Service Inspection(PSI) and In-Service Inspection(ISI) in the structure of Bridges, Power plants, chemical plants and heavy industrial fields. It is very important target to estimate safety, remain life, Quality Control of the Structure. Also, a lot of research for quantities evaluation and analysis inspection data is proceeding. But traditional portable ultrasonic flaw detector had been following disadvantages. 1) Analog ultrasonic flaw detector decreased credibility of ultrasonic test, because it is impossible for saying data and digital signal processing. 2) Stand-alone digital ultrasonic flaw detector cannot effectively evaluate received signals because of lack of its storage memory. To overcome this shortcoming, we develop the computer based ultrasonic flaw detector for nondestructive testing. It can store the received signal and effectively evaluate the signal, and then enhance the reliability of the testing results.

  1. Development of an intelligent ultrasonic welding defect classification software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Sung Jin; Kim, Hak Joon; Jeong, Hee Don

    1997-01-01

    Ultrasonic pattern recognition is the most effective approach to the problem of discriminating types of flaws in weldments based on ultrasonic flaw signals. In spite of significant progress in the research on this methodology, it has not been widely used in many practical ultrasonic inspections of weldments in industry. Hence, for the convenient application of this approach in many practical situations, we develop an intelligent ultrasonic signature classification software which can discriminate types of flaws in weldments based on their ultrasonic signals using various tools in artificial intelligence such as neural networks. This software shows the excellent performance in an experimental problem where flaws in weldments are classified into two categories of cracks and non-cracks. This performance demonstrates the high possibility of this software as a practical tool for ultrasonic flaw classification in weldments.

  2. Ultrasonic assessment of tension shear strength in resistance spot welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghanizadeh, Abbas

    2015-05-01

    Resistance spot welding is extensively used to join sheet steel in the automotive industry. Ultrasonic non-destructive techniques for evaluation of the mechanical properties of resistance spot welding are presented. The aim of this study is to develop the capability of the ultrasonic techniques as an efficient tool in the assessment of the welding characterization. Previous researches have indicated that the measurements of ultrasonic attenuation are sensitive to grain- size variations in an extensive range of metallic alloys. Other researchers have frequently described grain sizes which are able to have significant effects on the physical characteristics of the material. This research provides a novel method to estimate the tension-shear strengths of the resistance spot welding directly from the ultrasonic attenuation measurements. The effects of spot welding parameters on the ultrasonic waves are further investigated. The results confirm that it is possible to determine the spot welding parameters for individual quality by using ultrasonic test.

  3. Application of low intensity ultrasonics to cheese manufacturing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedito, J; Carcel, J A; Gonzalez, R; Mulet, A

    2002-05-01

    Ultrasound has been used to non-destructively assess the quality of many foods such as meat, fish, vegetables and dairy products. This paper addresses the applications of low intensity ultrasonics in the cheese manufacturing processes and highlights the areas where ultrasonics could be successfully implemented in the future. The decrease of ultrasonic attenuation during the renneting process can be used to determine the optimum cut time for cheese making. The ultrasonic velocity increases during maturation for those types of cheese that become harder during this manufacturing stage, thus being an indicator of the maturity degree. Moreover, ultrasonic measurements could be linked to sensory parameters. From the ultrasonic velocity measurements at two different temperatures, it is possible to assess cheese composition, thus allowing an improvement in the quality and uniformity of cheese commercialization. In addition, in pulse-echo mode it is possible to detect cracked pieces due to abnormal fermentations and also to assess the distance of the crack from the surface.

  4. Microcomputer-controlled ultrasonic data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, W.A. Jr.

    1978-11-01

    The large volume of ultrasonic data generated by computer-aided test procedures has necessitated the development of a mobile, high-speed data acquisition and storage system. This approach offers the decided advantage of on-site data collection and remote data processing. It also utilizes standard, commercially available ultrasonic instrumentation. This system is controlled by an Intel 8080A microprocessor. The MCS80-SDK microcomputer board was chosen, and magnetic tape is used as the storage medium. A detailed description is provided of both the hardware and software developed to interface the magnetic tape storage subsystem to Biomation 8100 and Biomation 805 waveform recorders. A boxcar integrator acquisition system is also described for use when signal averaging becomes necessary. Both assembly language and machine language listings are provided for the software

  5. Ultrasonic unipolar pulse/echo instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, M.J.; Hsu, D.K.; Thompson, D.O.; Wormley, S.J.

    1993-04-06

    An ultrasonic unipolar pulse/echo instrument uses active switches and a timing and drive circuitry to control electrical energy to a transducer, the discharging of the transducer, and the opening of an electrical pathway to the receiving circuitry for the returning echoes. The active switches utilize MOSFET devices along with decoupling circuitry to insure the preservation of the unipolar nature of the pulses, insure fast transition times, and maintain broad band width and time resolution. A housing contains the various circuitry and switches and allows connection to a power supply and a movable ultrasonic transducer. The circuitry maintains low impedance input to the transducer during transmitting cycles, and high impedance between the transducer and the receiving circuit during receive cycles to maintain the unipolar pulse shape. A unipolar pulse is valuable for nondestructive evaluation, a prime use for the present instrument.

  6. Automatic feed system for ultrasonic machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, Noel C.

    1994-01-01

    Method and apparatus for ultrasonic machining in which feeding of a tool assembly holding a machining tool toward a workpiece is accomplished automatically. In ultrasonic machining, a tool located just above a workpiece and vibrating in a vertical direction imparts vertical movement to particles of abrasive material which then remove material from the workpiece. The tool does not contact the workpiece. Apparatus for moving the tool assembly vertically is provided such that it operates with a relatively small amount of friction. Adjustable counterbalance means is provided which allows the tool to be immobilized in its vertical travel. A downward force, termed overbalance force, is applied to the tool assembly. The overbalance force causes the tool to move toward the workpiece as material is removed from the workpiece.

  7. Profiling a reactor component using ultrasonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pathak, L.; Seshadri, V.R.; Kumaravadivelu, C.; Sreenivasan, G.; Raghunathan, V.S. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    1995-04-01

    Nuclear reactors have many components within the reactor vessel. During the life of a reactor it is possible for these components to be displaced or deformed because of the thermal cycles to which they are subject. Also, these components in situ therefore becomes important for the upkeep of the reactor. However, high radiation levels make it difficult to monitor using optical methods. This paper describes an ultrasonic method which was successfully employed in profiling a deformed guide tube of a reactor. The method uses the well-known ultrasonic ranging technique. However, the specialty of the method is the use of air transducers at 40 kHz to overcome the inherent divergence problems and the difficulties associated with high temperatures inherent in a sodium cooled reactor.

  8. Ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation systems industrial application issues

    CERN Document Server

    Callegari, Sergio; Montisci, Augusto; Ricci, Marco; Versaci, Mario

    2015-01-01

    This book covers the practical implementation of ultrasonic NDT techniques in an industrial environment, discussing several issues that may emerge and proposing strategies for addressing them successfully.  It aims to bridge advanced academic research results and their application to industrial procedures. The topics covered in the text range from the basic operation of an ultrasonic NDT system to the simulation of the measurement operations; from the choice and generation of the signals energizing the system to the different ways of exploiting the probes and their output signals; and from quality assessment evaluation to the use of soft computing techniques for classification. Throughout the text, an effort is made to embrace a system view where the physical and technological aspects of sensing are addressed together with higher abstraction levels, such as signal and information processing. Consequently, the book aims at guiding the reader through the various tasks requested for developing a complete ultras...

  9. Industrial Applications of High Power Ultrasonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patist, Alex; Bates, Darren

    Since the change of the millennium, high-power ultrasound has become an alternative food processing technology applicable to large-scale commercial applications such as emulsification, homogenization, extraction, crystallization, dewatering, low-temperature pasteurization, degassing, defoaming, activation and inactivation of enzymes, particle size reduction, extrusion, and viscosity alteration. This new focus can be attributed to significant improvements in equipment design and efficiency during the late 1990 s. Like most innovative food processing technologies, high-power ultrasonics is not an off-the-shelf technology, and thus requires careful development and scale-up for each and every application. The objective of this chapter is to present examples of ultrasonic applications that have been successful at the commercialization stage, advantages, and limitations, as well as key learnings from scaling up an innovative food technology in general.

  10. Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01

    Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids. The present invention includes the use of two closely spaced transducers, or one transducer and a closely spaced reflector plate, to form an interferometer suitable for ultrasonic characterization of droplet-size and smaller samples without the need for a container. The droplet is held between the interferometer elements, whose distance apart may be adjusted, by surface tension. The surfaces of the interferometer elements may be readily cleansed by a stream of solvent followed by purified air when it is desired to change samples. A single drop of liquid is sufficient for high-quality measurement. Examples of samples which may be investigated using the apparatus and method of the present invention include biological specimens (tear drops; blood and other body fluid samples; samples from tumors, tissues, and organs; secretions from tissues and organs; snake and bee venom, etc.) for diagnostic evaluation, samples in forensic investigations, and detection of drugs in small quantities.

  11. Reconstruction from gamma radiography and ultrasonic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, S.; Lavayssiere, B.; Idier, J.; Mohammad-Djafari, A.

    1998-02-01

    This work deals with the three-dimensional reconstruction from gamma radiographic and ultrasonic images. Such an issue belongs to the field of data fusion since the data provide complementary information. The two sets of data are independently related to two sets of parameters: gamma ray attenuation and ultrasonic reflectivity. The fusion problem is addressed in a Bayesian framework; the kingpin of the task is then to define a joint a priori model for both attenuation and reflectivity. Thus, the developing of this model and the entailed joint estimation constitute the principal contribution of this work. The results of real data treatments demonstrate the validity of this method as compared to a sequential approach of the two sets of data

  12. Ultrasonic examination of JBK-75 strip material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, K.V.; Cunningham, R.A. Jr.; Lewis, J.C.; McClung, R.W.

    1982-12-01

    An ultrasonic inspection system was assembled to inspect the JBK-75 stainless steel sheath material (for the Large Coil Project) for the Westinghouse-Airco superconducting magnet program. The mechanical system provided for handling the 180-kg (400-lb) coils of strip material [1.6 mm thick by 78 mm wide by 90 to 120 m long (0.064 by 3.07 in. by 300 to 400 ft)], feeding the strip through the ultrasonic inspection and cleaning stations, and respooling the coils. We inspected 54 coils of strip for both longitudinal and laminar flaws. Simulated flaws were used to calibrate both inspections. Saw-cut notches [0.28 mm deep (0.011 in., about 17% of the strip thickness)] were used to calibrate the longitudinal flaw inspections; 1.59-mm-diam (0.063-in.) flat-bottom holes drilled halfway through a calibration strip were used to calibrate the laminar flaw tests

  13. Ultrasonic testing of austenitic stainless steel welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, Shunichi; Hida, Yoshio; Yamamoto, Michio; Ando, Tomozumi; Shirai, Tasuku.

    1982-05-01

    Ultrasonic testing of austenitic stainless steel welds has been considered difficult because of the high noise level and remarkable attenuation of ultrasonic waves. To improve flaw detectability in this kind of steel, various inspection techniques have been studied. A series of tests indicated: (1) The longitudinal angle beam transducers newly developed during this study can detect 4.8 mm dia. side drilled holes in dissimilar metal welds (refraction angle: 55 0 from SUS side, 45 0 from CS side) and in cast stainless steel welds (refraction angle: 45 0 , inspection frequency: 1 MHz). (2) Cracks more than 5% t in depth in the heat affected zones of fine-grain stainless steel pipe welds can be detected by the 45 0 shear wave angle beam method (inspection frequency: 2 MHz). (3) The pattern recognition method using frequency analysis technology was presumed useful for discriminating crack signals from spurious echoes. (author)

  14. Torsional ultrasonic wave based level measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, David E [Oak Ridge, TN; Kisner, Roger A [Knoxville, TN

    2012-07-10

    A level measurement system suitable for use in a high temperature and pressure environment to measure the level of coolant fluid within the environment, the system including a volume of coolant fluid located in a coolant region of the high temperature and pressure environment and having a level therein; an ultrasonic waveguide blade that is positioned within the desired coolant region of the high temperature and pressure environment; a magnetostrictive electrical assembly located within the high temperature and pressure environment and configured to operate in the environment and cooperate with the waveguide blade to launch and receive ultrasonic waves; and an external signal processing system located outside of the high temperature and pressure environment and configured for communicating with the electrical assembly located within the high temperature and pressure environment.

  15. Fictional Separation Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Buhrkal; Birkedal, Lars

    2012-01-01

    , separation means physical separation. In this paper, we introduce \\emph{fictional separation logic}, which includes more general forms of fictional separating conjunctions P * Q, where "*" does not require physical separation, but may also be used in situations where the memory resources described by P and Q...... overlap. We demonstrate, via a range of examples, how fictional separation logic can be used to reason locally and modularly about mutable abstract data types, possibly implemented using sophisticated sharing. Fictional separation logic is defined on top of standard separation logic, and both the meta...

  16. Bulk viscosity and ultrasonic attenuation in liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awasthi, O.N.; Murthy, B.V.S.

    1984-11-01

    Ultrasonic attenuation in simple liquid metals has been investigated using the thermodynamic theory of relaxation processes incorporating the concept of a two state model for the liquid near the melting point. Agreement of the results with the experimental values of the ultrasonic attenuation and bulk viscosity indicates that this might be an appropriate approach to explain the excess attenuation of ultrasonic waves in liquid metals. (author)

  17. Ultrasonic guided wave for monitoring corrosion of steel bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xi; Qin, Lei; Huang, Bosheng

    2018-01-01

    Steel corrosion of reinforced concrete structures has become a serious problem all over the word. In this paper, the work aims at monitoring steel corrosion using ultrasonic guided wave (UGW). Ultrasonic guided wave monitoring is a dynamic and non-destructive testing technology. The advantages of ultrasonic guided wave monitoring for reinforcement corrosion are real-time, online and continuous. In addition, it can judge the different stages of steel bar corrosion, which achieved non-destructive detection.

  18. Quality assurance of brazed copper plates through advanced ultrasonic NDE

    OpenAIRE

    Segreto, T.; Caggiano, A.; Teti, R.

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonic non-destructive methods have demonstrated great potential for the detection of flaws in a material under examination. In particular, discontinuities produced by welding, brazing, and soldering are regularly inspected through ultrasonic techniques. In this paper, an advanced ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation technique is applied for the quality control of brazed copper cells in order to realize an accelerometer prototype for cancer proton therapy. The cells are composed of two h...

  19. Designing an Ultrasonic Modem for Robotic Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    the originator. Army Research Laboratory Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5066 ARL-TR-4754 March 2009 Designing an Ultrasonic Modem...1L162618AH80 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Army Research Laboratory ATTN...1) Acoustics in water, known as hydroacoustics , is a more desirable communications medium than in air. For these reasons, acoustic modems

  20. Ultrasonic diagnosis of strangulated Richter's hernia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aakhus, S.; Roeysland, P.; Husby, O.S.

    1990-01-01

    Ultrasonography may show early pathological changes in an obstructed intestine and also identify abnormal structures in the abdominal wall and inguinal region. A patient with intestinal obstruction due to a femoral hernia of Richter's type, is described. The hernia was well shown by ultrasonography. Ultrasonic examination of the abdomen, including the inguinal regions, may facilitate earlier diagnosis in patients with acute abdominal disease. 9 refs., 2 figs

  1. Ultrasonic characterization of pork meat salting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Pérez, J V; De Prados, M; Pérez-Muelas, N; Cárcel, J A; Benedito, J

    2012-01-01

    Salting process plays a key role in the preservation and quality of dry-cured meat products. Therefore, an adequate monitoring of salt content during salting is necessary to reach high quality products. Thus, the main objective of this work was to test the ability of low intensity ultrasound to monitor the salting process of pork meat. Cylindrical samples (diameter 36 mm, height 60±10 mm) of Biceps femoris were salted (brine 20% NaCl, w/w) at 2 °C for 1, 2, 4 and 7 days. During salting and at each experimental time, three cylinders were taken in order to measure the ultrasonic velocity at 2 °C. Afterwards, the cylinders were split in three sections (height 20 mm), measuring again the ultrasonic velocity and determining the salt and the moisture content by AOAC standards. In the whole cylinders, moisture content was reduced from 763 (g/kg sample) in fresh samples to 723 (g/kg sample) in samples salted for 7 days, while the maximum salt gain was 37.3 (g/kg sample). Although, moisture and salt contents up to 673 and 118 (g/kg sample) were reached in the sections of meat cylinders, respectively. During salting, the ultrasonic velocity increased due to salt gain and water loss. Thus, significant (p 2 = 0.975) and moisture (R 2 = 0.863) contents. In addition, the change of the ultrasonic velocity with the increase of the salt content showed a good agreement with the Kinsler equation. Therefore, low intensity ultrasound emerges as a potential technique to monitor, in a non destructive way, the meat salting processes carried out in the food industry.

  2. EWE: A computer model for ultrasonic inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, S. R.; Chaplin, K. R.

    1991-11-01

    The computer program EWE simulates the propagation of elastic waves in solids and liquids. It was applied to ultrasonic testing to study the echoes generated by cracks and other types of defects. A discussion of the elastic wave equations is given, including the first-order formulation, shear and compression waves, surface waves and boundaries, numerical method of solution, models for cracks and slot defects, input wave generation, returning echo construction, and general computer issues.

  3. Ultrasonic evaluation of local human skin anisotropy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tokar, Daniel; Převorovský, Zdeněk; Hradilová, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 12 (2014) ISSN 1435-4934. [European Conference on Non-Destructive Testing (ECNDT 2014) /11./. Praha, 06.10.2014-10.10.2014] Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : anisotropy * ultrasonic testing * human skin in-vivo * fabric-fiber composite * signal processing Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics http://www.ndt.net/events/ECNDT2014/app/content/Paper/324_Tokar.pdf

  4. Ultrasonic transducer for extreme temperature environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Glenn M.; Cervantes, Richard A.; Alcazar, David G.

    1993-03-23

    An ultrasonic piezoelectric transducer that is operable in very high and very low temperatures. The transducer has a dual housing structure that isolates the expansion and contraction of the piezoelectric element from the expansion and contraction of the housing. Also, the internal components are made from materials having similar coefficients of expansion so that they do not interfere with the motion of the piezoelectric element.

  5. Ewe: a computer model for ultrasonic inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, S.R.; Chaplin, K.R.

    1991-11-01

    The computer program EWE simulates the propagation of elastic waves in solids and liquids. It has been applied to ultrasonic testing to study the echoes generated by cracks and other types of defects. A discussion of the elastic wave equations is given, including the first-order formulation, shear and compression waves, surface waves and boundaries, numerical method of solution, models for cracks and slot defects, input wave generation, returning echo construction, and general computer issues

  6. Ultrasonic methods for locating hold-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, D.N.; Olinger, C.T.

    1995-01-01

    Hold-up remains one of the major contributing factors to unaccounted for materials and can be a costly problem in decontamination and decommissioning activities. Ultrasonic techniques are being developed to noninvasively monitor hold-up in process equipment where the inner surface of such equipment may be in contact with the hold-up material. These techniques may be useful in improving hold-up measurements as well as optimizing decontamination techniques

  7. Correlation of ultrasonic and nuclear medicine techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winston, M.A.; Pritchard, J.H.; Blahd, W.H.

    1974-01-01

    The rapid strides made during the past few years in ultrasonic instrumentation and technique have resulted in an extremely useful new diagnostic tool for neoplasms localization. Like radioisotope nuclear scanning, ultrasonography is well adapted to the study of solid organs. The nuclear medicine physician, therefore, should be aware of the many areas in which the two techniques are complementary, as well as those in which the newer modality seems likely to replace the older one. 59 references

  8. Capacitor discharges, magnetohydrodynamics, X-rays, ultrasonics

    CERN Document Server

    Früngel, Frank B A

    1965-01-01

    High Speed Pulse Technology, Volume 1: Capacitor Discharges - Magnetohydrodynamics - X-Rays - Ultrasonics deals with the theoretical and engineering problems that arise in the capacitor discharge technique.This book discusses the characteristics of dielectric material, symmetrical switch tubes with mercury filling, and compensation conductor forms. The transformed discharge for highest current peaks, ignition transformer for internal combustion engines, and X-ray irradiation of subjects in mechanical motion are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the transformed capacitor discharge in w

  9. Underwater detection by using ultrasonic sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, S. A. A.; Ong, N. R.; Aziz, M. H. A.; Alcain, J. B.; Haimi, W. M. W. N.; Sauli, Z.

    2017-09-01

    This paper described the low cost implementation of hardware and software in developing the system of ultrasonic which can visualize the feedback of sound in the form of measured distance through mobile phone and monitoring the frequency of detection by using real time graph of Java application. A single waterproof transducer of JSN-SR04T had been used to determine the distance of an object based on operation of the classic pulse echo detection method underwater. In this experiment, the system was tested by placing the housing which consisted of Arduino UNO, Bluetooth module of HC-06, ultrasonic sensor and LEDs at the top of the box and the transducer was immersed in the water. The system which had been tested for detection in vertical form was found to be capable of reporting through the use of colored LEDs as indicator to the relative proximity of object distance underwater form the sensor. As a conclusion, the system can detect the presence of an object underwater within the range of ultrasonic sensor and display the measured distance onto the mobile phone and the real time graph had been successfully generated.

  10. Radiation damage of polymers in ultrasonic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anbalagan, Poornnima

    2008-01-01

    Radiation damage has always been a topic of great interest in various fields of sciences. In this work, an attempt is made to probe into the effect of subthreshold ultrasonic waves on the radiation damage created by irradiation of deuterons in polymer samples wherein the polymer samples act as model systems. Two equal volumes of radiation damage were produced in a single polymer sample wherein a standing wave of ultrasound was introduced into one. Three polymers namely, Polycarbonate, Polymethylmethacrylate and Polyvinyl chloride were used in this work. Four independent techniques were used to analyze the irradiated samples and visualize the radiation damage. Interferometric measurements give a measure of the refractive index modulation in the irradiated sample. Polymers, being transparent, do not absorb in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy shows absorption peaks in the visible region in irradiated polymer samples. Ion irradiation causes coloration of polymers. The light microscope is used to measure the absorption of white light by the irradiated polymers. Positron annihilation spectroscopy is used to obtain a measure of the open volume created by irradiation in polymers. A comparison between the irradiated region and the region exposed to ultrasonic waves simultaneously with irradiation in a polymer sample shows the polymer specific influence of the ultrasonic standing wave. (orig.)

  11. A Device for Human Ultrasonic Echolocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohl-Dickstein, Jascha; Teng, Santani; Gaub, Benjamin M; Rodgers, Chris C; Li, Crystal; DeWeese, Michael R; Harper, Nicol S

    2015-06-01

    We present a device that combines principles of ultrasonic echolocation and spatial hearing to provide human users with environmental cues that are 1) not otherwise available to the human auditory system, and 2) richer in object and spatial information than the more heavily processed sonar cues of other assistive devices. The device consists of a wearable headset with an ultrasonic emitter and stereo microphones with affixed artificial pinnae. The goal of this study is to describe the device and evaluate the utility of the echoic information it provides. The echoes of ultrasonic pulses were recorded and time stretched to lower their frequencies into the human auditory range, then played back to the user. We tested performance among naive and experienced sighted volunteers using a set of localization experiments, in which the locations of echo-reflective surfaces were judged using these time-stretched echoes. Naive subjects were able to make laterality and distance judgments, suggesting that the echoes provide innately useful information without prior training. Naive subjects were generally unable to make elevation judgments from recorded echoes. However, trained subjects demonstrated an ability to judge elevation as well. This suggests that the device can be used effectively to examine the environment and that the human auditory system can rapidly adapt to these artificial echolocation cues. Interpreting and interacting with the external world constitutes a major challenge for persons who are blind or visually impaired. This device has the potential to aid blind people in interacting with their environment.

  12. Ultrasonic Flaw Imaging via Multipath Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimin D. Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider ultrasonic imaging for the visualization of flaws in a material. Ultrasonic imaging is a powerful nondestructive testing (NDT tool which assesses material conditions via the detection, localization, and classification of flaws inside a structure. We utilize reflections of ultrasonic signals which occur when encountering different media and interior boundaries. These reflections can be cast as direct paths to the target corresponding to the virtual sensors appearing on the top and bottom side of the target. Some of these virtual sensors constitute a virtual aperture, whereas in others, the aperture changes with the transmitter position. Exploitations of multipath extended virtual array apertures provide enhanced imaging capability beyond the limitation of traditional multisensor approaches. The waveforms observed at the physical as well as the virtual sensors yield additional measurements corresponding to different aspect angles, thus allowing proper multiview imaging of flaws. We derive the wideband point spread functions for dominant multipaths and show that fusion of physical and virtual sensor data improves the flaw perimeter detection and localization performance. The effectiveness of the proposed multipath exploitation approach is demonstrated using real data.

  13. Radiation damage of polymers in ultrasonic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anbalagan, Poornnima

    2008-07-01

    Radiation damage has always been a topic of great interest in various fields of sciences. In this work, an attempt is made to probe into the effect of subthreshold ultrasonic waves on the radiation damage created by irradiation of deuterons in polymer samples wherein the polymer samples act as model systems. Two equal volumes of radiation damage were produced in a single polymer sample wherein a standing wave of ultrasound was introduced into one. Three polymers namely, Polycarbonate, Polymethylmethacrylate and Polyvinyl chloride were used in this work. Four independent techniques were used to analyze the irradiated samples and visualize the radiation damage. Interferometric measurements give a measure of the refractive index modulation in the irradiated sample. Polymers, being transparent, do not absorb in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy shows absorption peaks in the visible region in irradiated polymer samples. Ion irradiation causes coloration of polymers. The light microscope is used to measure the absorption of white light by the irradiated polymers. Positron annihilation spectroscopy is used to obtain a measure of the open volume created by irradiation in polymers. A comparison between the irradiated region and the region exposed to ultrasonic waves simultaneously with irradiation in a polymer sample shows the polymer specific influence of the ultrasonic standing wave. (orig.)

  14. Ultrasonic NDE Simulation for Composite Manufacturing Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckey, Cara A. C.; Juarez, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    The increased use of composites in aerospace components is expected to continue into the future. The large scale use of composites in aerospace necessitates the development of composite-appropriate nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods to quantitatively characterize defects in as-manufactured parts and damage incurred during or post manufacturing. Ultrasonic techniques are one of the most common approaches for defect/damage detection in composite materials. One key technical challenge area included in NASA's Advanced Composite's Project is to develop optimized rapid inspection methods for composite materials. Common manufacturing defects in carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites include fiber waviness (in-plane and out-of-plane), porosity, and disbonds; among others. This paper is an overview of ongoing work to develop ultrasonic wavefield based methods for characterizing manufacturing waviness defects. The paper describes the development and implementation of a custom ultrasound simulation tool that is used to model ultrasonic wave interaction with in-plane fiber waviness (also known as marcelling). Wavefield data processing methods are applied to the simulation data to explore possible routes for quantitative defect characterization.

  15. Ultrasonic Study of Dislocation Dynamics in Lithium -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Myeong-Deok

    1987-09-01

    Experimental studies of dislocation dynamics in LiF single crystals, using ultrasonic techniques combined with dynamic loading, were performed to investigate the time evolution of the plastic deformation process under a short stress pulse at room temperature, and the temperature dependence of the dislocation damping mechanism in the temperature range 25 - 300(DEGREES)K. From the former, the time dependence of the ultrasonic attenuation was understood as resulting from dislocation multiplication followed by the evolution of mobile dislocations to immobile ones under large stress. From the latter, the temperature dependence of the ultrasonic attenuation was interpreted as due to the motion of the dislocation loops overcoming the periodic Peierls potential barrier in a manner analogous to the motion of a thermalized sine-Gordon chain under a small stress. The Peierls stress obtained from the experimental results by application of Seeger's relaxation model with exponential dislocation length distribution was 4.26MPa, which is consistent with the lowest stress for the linear relation between the dislocation velocity and stress observed by Flinn and Tinder.

  16. Evaluation of ultrasonic attenuation and estimation of ultrasonic grain noise in copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepinski, T.; Wu, P.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a method for evaluating ultrasonic attenuation and estimating ultrasonic grain noise in solids. The method is aimed at evaluation of various grades of copper used during manufacturing canisters for spent nuclear fuel. The spectral shift method has been employed for the evaluation of attenuation, and the independent scattering model (ISM), proposed by Margetan et al. (1) , has been used for the estimation of ultrasonic backscattering in immersion test. The attenuation coefficients evaluated for a number of copper specimens covering a certain range of grain sizes and having large attenuation have shown a clear correlation between the grain size in specimens and the attenuation. The comparison of the root-mean-square (RMS) of grain noise signals from the specimens determined from the measurements with those predicted by the ISM has shown that the ISM is a good estimator of the grain noise signals, especially in the shallow regions of the specimens

  17. Process and device for the ultrasonic testing of slotted screws screwed into a head of a nuclear reactor fuel element for cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharpenberg, R.

    1986-01-01

    To achieve correct echo signals, a test head is set separately on each area limited by a slot of the top of the slotted screw and the screw head is ultrasonically sounded in the direction of the suspected cracks. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Characterization of nuclear graphite elastic properties using laser ultrasonic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fan W.; Han, Karen; Olasov, Lauren R.; Gallego, Nidia C.; Contescu, Cristian I.; Spicer, James B.

    2015-05-01

    Laser ultrasonic methods have been used to characterize the elastic behaviors of commercially-available and legacy nuclear graphites. Since ultrasonic techniques are sensitive to various aspects of graphite microstructure including preferred grain orientation, microcrack orientation and porosity, laser ultrasonics is a candidate technique for monitoring graphite degradation and structural integrity in environments expected in high-temperature, gas-cooled nuclear reactors. Aspects of materials texture can be assessed by studying ultrasonic wavespeeds as a function of propagation direction and polarization. Shear wave birefringence measurements, in particular, can be used to evaluate elastic anisotropy. In this work, laser ultrasonic measurements of graphite moduli have been made to provide insight into the relationship between the microstructures and the macroscopic stiffnesses of these materials. In particular, laser ultrasonic measurements have been made using laser line sources to produce shear waves with specific polarizations. By varying the line orientation relative to the sample, shear wave birefringence measurements have been recorded. Results from shear wave birefringence measurements show that an isostatically molded graphite, such as PCIB, behaves isotropically, while an extruded graphite, such as H-451, displays significant ultrasonic texture. Graphites have complicated microstructures that depend on the manufacturing processes used, and ultrasonic texture in these materials could originate from grain orientation and preferred microcrack alignment. Effects on material isotropy due to service related microstructural changes are possible and the ultimate aim of this work is to determine the degree to which these changes can be assessed nondestructively using laser ultrasonics measurements.

  19. Development of capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducer (III) - Performance Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Bok; Ahn, Bong Young; Park, Hae Won; Kim, Young Joo; Lee, Seung Seok [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-15

    In this study, the capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer(cMUT) was developed based on the previous research results. The cross sectional image of the developed cMUT was characterized. To measure the membrane displacement of the cMUT, the Michelson phase modulation fiber interferometer was constructed. The measured membrane displacement was in good agreement with the result of the finite element analysis. To estimate the ultrasonic wave generated by the cMUT, an ultrasonic system including a pulser, receiver and charge amplifier was used. The cMUT developed in this study shows a good performance and hence will be widely used in the non-contact ultrasonic applications

  20. Ultrasonic-assisted manufacturing processes: Variational model and numerical simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiq, Amir

    2012-04-01

    We present a computational study of ultrasonic assisted manufacturing processes including sheet metal forming, upsetting, and wire drawing. A fully variational porous plasticity model is modified to include ultrasonic softening effects and then utilized to account for instantaneous softening when ultrasonic energy is applied during deformation. Material model parameters are identified via inverse modeling, i.e. by using experimental data. The versatility and predictive ability of the model are demonstrated and the effect of ultrasonic intensity on the manufacturing process at hand is investigated and compared qualitatively with experimental results reported in the literature. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Air-Coupled Ultrasonic Tomographic Imaging for Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, K. S.; Popovics, J. S.

    2009-03-01

    Ultrasonic tomography is a powerful tool for identifying defects within an object or structure. Ultrasonic tomography is limited by time consuming transducer coupling. Air-coupled UPV may eliminate this problem and allow for more rapid data collection. This research aims to integrate recent developments in air-coupled ultrasonic measurements with the current tomography technology to image inclusions within solids. Air-coupled ultrasonic signals are collected though large PVC samples. Volumetric and planar inclusions within the samples are identified in the constructed velocity tomographs.

  2. Development of capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducer (III) - Performance Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Bok; Ahn, Bong Young; Park, Hae Won; Kim, Young Joo; Lee, Seung Seok

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer(cMUT) was developed based on the previous research results. The cross sectional image of the developed cMUT was characterized. To measure the membrane displacement of the cMUT, the Michelson phase modulation fiber interferometer was constructed. The measured membrane displacement was in good agreement with the result of the finite element analysis. To estimate the ultrasonic wave generated by the cMUT, an ultrasonic system including a pulser, receiver and charge amplifier was used. The cMUT developed in this study shows a good performance and hence will be widely used in the non-contact ultrasonic applications

  3. Simple quantification of ultrasonic intensity using aqueous solution of phenolphthalein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, L; Kojima, Y; Koda, S; Nomura, H

    2001-01-01

    Aqueous phenolphthalein solution under sonication was investigated for use as a chemical dosimeter. The fading time of aqueous phenolphthalein solution under sonication depended on the concentration of phenolphthalein and the pH values of solutions. The fading time was correlated to the ultrasonic intensity in a reaction vessel that is estimated on the basis of decomposition of porphyrin. The relation between the fading time and the ultrasonic intensity for different frequencies is expressed by a single curve. From these results, it is indicated that aqueous solutions of phenolphthalein is useful for simple quantification of ultrasonic intensity for practical use, and one can regard it as one of the ultrasonic intensity indicators.

  4. Influence of Ultrasonic Irrigation and Chloroform on Cleanliness of Dentinal Tubules During Endodontic Retreatment-An Invitro SEM Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Mahak; Singhal, Anurag; Gurtu, Anuraag; Vinayak, Vineet

    2015-05-01

    Ultrasonic irrigation has been proved for its remarkable cleaning efficiency in the field of endodontics. But its role in endodontic re-treatment has been understated. There is not much data available to understand the effect of ultrasonic irrigation for the evaluation of cleanliness of dentinal tubules when it is used with or without chloroform, a gutta percha solvent during endodontic retreatment. To compare the influence of ultrasonic irrigation with syringe irrigation on cleanliness of dentinal tubules after gutta perch removal for endodontic retreatment with or without the use of chloroform a gutta percha solvent using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Freshly extracted 45 human mandibular premolar teeth for periodontal and orthodontic reasons were taken and were occlusally adjusted to a working length of 19 mm. The root canals of all teeth were prepared chemo mechanically to a master apical file size 40 and were divided in various groups. In Group 1 (n = 5; control group), the canals remained unfilled. In Groups 2 and 3 (n = 20 each), the canals were filled using lateral compaction with gutta-percha and AH plus sealer, removal of root fillings was undertaken after 2 weeks using Gates Glidden drills and H files without chloroform in Group 2 and with chloroform in group 3. The specimen of Group 2 and 3 were further divided into two subgroups I and II (n=10). In subgroup I, irrigation was done using side vented needles and sodium hypochlorite. In subgroup II irrigation was done using passive ultrasonic irrigation with sodium hypochlorite. Thereafter, the roots were split and the sections were observed under SEM. The number of occluded dentinal tubules /total number of dentinal tubules were calculated for the coronal, middle and apical third of each root half. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test using standardized technique. Results indicated that the cleanest dentinal tubules were found in the control group (Group 1

  5. Rats synchronize locomotion with ultrasonic vocalizations at the subsecond time scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Andrés Laplagne

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic signals have the potential for transmitting information fast across distances. Rats emit ultrasonic vocalizations of two distinct classes: ‘22-kHz’ or ‘alarm’ calls and ‘50-kHz’ calls. The latter comprises brief sounds in the 30–80 kHz range, whose ethological role is not fully understood. We recorded ultrasonic vocalizations from pairs of rats freely behaving in neighboring but separated arenas. 50-kHz vocalizations in this condition were tightly linked to the locomotion of the emitter at the subsecond time scale, their rate sharply increasing and decreasing prior to the onset and offset of movement respectively. This locomotion-linked vocalization behavior showed a clear ‘audience effect’, as rats recorded alone displayed lower vocal production than rats in social settings for equivalent speeds of locomotion. Furthermore, calls from different categories across the 50-kHz and 22-kHz families displayed markedly different correlations with locomotor activity. Our results show that rat vocalizations in the high ultrasonic range are social signals carrying spatial information about the emitter and highlight the possibility that they may play a role in the social coordination of spatial behaviors.

  6. Quantitative Ultrasonic Imaging for Materials Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoup, Thomas Arnold

    This thesis addresses the physical basis of the propagation and detection of ultrasound for quantitative imaging. The expanding use of ultrasonic evaluations has focused attention on techniques used in making quantitative measurements. Experimental methods for imaging in inhomogeneous material are presented which address the problems of the frequency dependent ultrasonic beamwidth and of characterizing the field at an aperture. Improvements gained with these methods are demonstrated by a study of fatigue and impact damage in composites using quantitative images. Images which show the altered ultrasonic properties as a result of fatigue or impact or both are presented. Broadband measurements have been shown previously to yield accurate estimates of the ultransonic properties of materials. Such measurements introduce distortion in images as a result of the finite, frequency dependent beamwidth. We examine three digital filters for deconvolving the effects of the finite beamwidth and demonstrate improvements obtained with the Wiener filter. Characterizing the field at an aperture is considered for both phase sensitive and phase insensitive detection methods. For measurements in which waves with distorted phasefronts are to be received, phase insensitive techniques have been shown to be advantageous. We present the response characteristics of a phase insensitive hybrid acoustoelectric receiver which exhibits increased sensitivity over that obtained with single crystal CdS-based devices. As an alternate method of characterizing the ultrasonic field we examine the applicability of sampling an aperture with an array transducer and calculating the spatial moments of the ultrasonic intensity distribution over the aperture. The spatial moments provide information concerning average properties of the field, such as intensity or beamwidth. Simulations are carried out to calculate the pressure for several geometries of interest, and spatial moments of these fields are

  7. In vitro assessment of ultrasonic lithotriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ramsay L; Paterson, Ryan F; Siqueira, Tibério M; Evan, Andrew P; McAteer, James A; Williams, James C; Lingeman, James E

    2003-10-01

    Ultrasonic lithotriptors are commonly used to fragment and remove stones during percutaneous nephrolithotomy. To date a comparative assessment of current units has not been accomplished without potential operator bias. An objective testing environment is required for optimal appraisal of the efficiency of ultrasonic lithotriptors. An in vitro test system was devised to evaluate the ability of ultrasonic lithotriptors to core through artificial stones. The system consisted of an irrigation sheath (Cook Urological, Spencer, Indiana) through which ultrasonic probes were placed. Ultrasonic hand pieces and probes were secured in an upright position. An Ultracal-30 (U.S. Gypsum, Chicago, Illinois) stone cylinder (mean length 12.8 +/- 0.6 mm, mean diameter 7.6 +/- 0.07 mm) was centered on the probe tip. A weight (62.7 gm) was placed atop the stone to provide a constant force. We evaluated the Olympus LUS-1 and LUS-2 (Olympus, Melville, New York), Circon-ACMI USL-2000 (Circon-ACMI, Southborough, Massachusetts), Karl Storz Calcuson (Karl Storz, Culver City, California) and Richard Wolf model 2271.004 (Richard Wolf, Vernon Hills, Illinois). All probes had outer diameters of 3.4 mm except for the Circon-ACMI unit (3.8 mm). Using 100% power settings times for complete stone penetration were assessed for all units. Differences in mean stone penetration times were compared using ANOVA. The Olympus LUS-2 had the fastest mean stone penetration time (28.8 +/- 2.7 seconds). This value was used to normalize the data into efficiency ratios, where other unit times were expressed as multiples of the LUS-2 time: Olympus LUS-2 (1.0 +/- 0.1) equals Circon-ACMI USL-2000 (1.1 +/- 0.3) greater than Karl Storz Calcuson (1.4 +/- 0.3) greater than Olympus LUS-1 (2.1 +/- 0.5) greater than Richard Wolf (3.6 +/- 0.8). Efficiencies of the LUS-2 and USL-2000 units were essentially equivalent, with all others significantly less efficient (p Circon-ACMI USL-2000 were the most efficient.

  8. Measurement of bubbly flows in vertical channels using ultrasonic velocity profile monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aritomi, Masanori; Zhou Shirong; Takeda, Yasushi; Nakamura, Hideo; Kukita, Yutaka

    1998-01-01

    The authors have been developing measurement technique, using the Ultrasonic Doppler effect and applicable for a bubbly flow in vertical channels in order to understand their multi-dimensional flow characteristics and to offer a data base to validate numerical codes for multi-dimensional two-phase flow. Our developed measurement system is composed of an ultrasonic velocity profile monitor with a video data processing unit, which can measure simultaneously velocity profiles in both gas and liquid phases, a void fraction profile for bubbly flow in a channel, and an average bubble diameter and void fraction. In this paper, our proposed measurement system was applied to bubbly countercurrent flows in a vertical rectangular channel the followings are discussed: (1) the measurement principle, (2) the data processing process, (3) measurement accuracy and (4) further problems. (author)

  9. Characterization of the acoustic field generated by a horn shaped ultrasonic transducer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, B.; Lerch, J. E.; Chavan, A. H.; Weber, J. K. R.; Tamalonis, A.; Suthar, K. J.; DiChiara, A. D.

    2017-09-04

    A horn shaped Langevin ultrasonic transducer used in a single axis levitator was characterized to better understand the role of the acoustic profile in establishing stable traps. The method of characterization included acoustic beam profiling performed by raster scanning an ultrasonic microphone as well as finite element analysis of the horn and its interface with the surrounding air volume. The results of the model are in good agreement with measurements and demonstrate the validity of the approach for both near and far field analyses. Our results show that this style of transducer produces a strong acoustic beam with a total divergence angle of 10 degree, a near-field point close to the transducer surface and a virtual sound source. These are desirable characteristics for a sound source used for acoustic trapping experiments

  10. Ultrasonic/Sonic Rotary-Hammer Drills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Kassab, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasonic/sonic rotary-hammer drill (USRoHD) is a recent addition to the collection of apparatuses based on ultrasonic/sonic drill corer (USDC). As described below, the USRoHD has several features, not present in a basic USDC, that increase efficiency and provide some redundancy against partial failure. USDCs and related apparatuses were conceived for boring into, and/or acquiring samples of, rock or other hard, brittle materials of geological interest. They have been described in numerous previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. To recapitulate: A USDC can be characterized as a lightweight, lowpower, piezoelectrically driven jackhammer in which ultrasonic and sonic vibrations are generated and coupled to a tool bit. A basic USDC includes a piezoelectric stack, an ultrasonic transducer horn connected to the stack, a free mass ( free in the sense that it can bounce axially a short distance between hard stops on the horn and the bit), and a tool bit. The piezoelectric stack creates ultrasonic vibrations that are mechanically amplified by the horn. The bouncing of the free mass between the hard stops generates the sonic vibrations. The combination of ultrasonic and sonic vibrations gives rise to a hammering action (and a resulting chiseling action at the tip of the tool bit) that is more effective for drilling than is the microhammering action of ultrasonic vibrations alone. The hammering and chiseling actions are so effective that unlike in conventional twist drilling, little applied axial force is needed to make the apparatus advance into the material of interest. There are numerous potential applications for USDCs and related apparatuses in geological exploration on Earth and on remote planets. In early USDC experiments, it was observed that accumulation of cuttings in a drilled hole causes the rate of penetration of the USDC to decrease steeply with depth, and that the rate of penetration can be increased by removing the cuttings. The USRoHD concept provides for

  11. Overview of the ultrasonic instrumentation research in the MYRRHA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierckx, M.; Leysen, W.; Van Dyck, D. [Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK.CEN (Belgium)

    2015-07-01

    The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK.CEN is in the process of developing MYRRHA, a new generation IV fast flux research reactor to replace the aging BR2. MYRRHA is conceptualized as an accelerator driven system cooled with lead bismuth eutectic mixture (LBE). As LBE is opaque to visual light, ultrasonic measurement techniques are employed as the main technology to provide feedback where needed. This paper we will give an overview of the R and D at SCK.CEN with respect to ultrasonic instrumentation in heavy liquid metals. High temperature ultrasonic transducers are deployed into the reactor to generate and receive the required ultrasonic signals. The ultrasonic waves are generated and sensed by means of a piezo-electric disc at the heart of the transducer. The acoustic properties of commonly used piezo-electric materials match rather well with the acoustic properties of heavy liquid metals, simplifying the design and construction of high bandwidth ultrasonic transducers for use in heavy liquid metals. The ultrasonic transducers will operate in a liquid metal environment, where radiation and high temperature limit the choice of materials for construction. Moreover, the high surface tension of the liquid metal hinders proper wetting of the transducer, required for optimal transmission and reception of the ultrasonic waves. In a first part of the paper, we will discuss the effect of these parameters on the performance of the overall ultrasonic system. In the second part of the paper, past, present and future ultrasonic experiments in LBE will be reviewed. We will show the results of an experiment where a transducer is scanned near the free surface of an LBE pool to render ultrasonic images of objects submerged in the heavy liquid metal. Additionally, the preliminary results of an ongoing experiment that measures the evolution of LBE wetting on different types of metals and various surface conditions will be reported. The evolution of wetting is an important

  12. Combination of Ultrasonic Vibration and Cryogenic Cooling for Cutting Performance Improvement of Inconel 718 Turning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, S. Y.; Chung, C. T.; Cheng, Y. Y.

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to develop a thermo-elastic-plastic coupling model, based on a combination skill of ultrasonically assisted cutting and cryogenic cooling, under large deformation for Inconel 718 alloy machining process. The improvement extent on cutting performance and tool life promotion may be examined from this investigation. The critical value of the strain energy density of the workpiece will be utilized as the chip separation and the discontinuous chip segmentation criteria. The forced convection cooling and a hydrodynamic lubrication model will be considered and formulated in the model. Finite element method will be applied to create a complete numerical solution for this ultrasonic vibration cutting model. During the analysis, the cutting tool is incrementally advanced forward with superimposed ultrasonic vibration in a back and forth step-by-step manner, from an incipient stage of tool-workpiece engagement to a steady state of chip formation, a whole simulation of orthogonal cutting process under plane strain deformation is thus undertaken. High shear strength induces a fluctuation phenomenon of shear angle, high shear strain rate, variation of chip types and chip morphology, tool-chip contact length variation, the temperature distributions within the workpiece, chip and tool, periodic fluctuation in cutting forces can be determined from the developed model. A complete comparison of machining characteristics between some different combinations of ultrasonically assisted cutting and cryogenic cooling with conventional cutting operation can be acquired. Finally, the high-speed turning experiment for Inconel 718 alloy will be taken in the laboratory to validate the accuracy of the model, and the progressive flank wear, crater wear, notching and chipping of the tool edge can also be measured in the experiments.

  13. Characterizing the Use of Ultrasonic Energy in Promoting Uniform Microstructural Dispersions in Immiscible Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, R. N.; Fedoseyev, A. I.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Gravity driven separation and preferential wetting precludes uniform microstructural distributions during solidification processing of immiscible, liquid-liquid mixtures. Historically, it is, however, established that liquid/liquid suspensions can be established and maintained by utilizing ultrasound. Following a brief introduction the results of experiments on immiscible mixtures subjected to ultrasonic energy during solidification processing will be compared and evaluated in view of a recently developed mathematical model. The presentation continues by discussion of scaling the model to commercial viability and concludes with the implications of such processing in a microgravity environment.

  14. Numerical Simulation of Nonlinear Ultrasonic Waves Due to Bi-material Interface Contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, S; Saitoh, T

    2014-01-01

    Boundary integral equations are formulated to investigate nonlinear waves generated by a debonding interface of bi-material subjected to an incident plane wave. For the numerical simulation, the IRK (Implicit Runge-Kutta method) based CQ-BEM (Convolution Quadrature-Boundary Element Method) is developed. The interface conditions for a debonding area, consisting of three phases of separation, stick, and slip, are developed for the simulation of nonlinear ultrasonic waves. Numerical results are obtained and discussed for normal incidence of a plane longitudinal wave onto the nonlinear interface with a static compressive stress

  15. In-depth understanding of core-shell nanoarchitecture evolution of g-C3N4@C, N co-doped anatase/rutile: Efficient charge separation and enhanced visible-light photocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mohamad Azuwa; Jaafar, Juhana; M. Zain, M. F.; Minggu, Lorna Jeffery; Kassim, Mohammad B.; Rosmi, Mohamad Saufi; Alias, Nur Hashimah; Mohamad Nor, Nor Azureen; W. Salleh, W. N.; Othman, Mohd Hafiz Dzarfan

    2018-04-01

    Herein, we demonstrated the simultaneous formation of multi-component heterojunction consisting graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) and C, N co-doped anatase/rutile mixed phase by using facile sol-gel assisted heat treatment. The evolution of core-shell nanostructures heterojunction formation was elucidated by varying the temperature of heat treatment from 300 °C to 600 °C. Homogeneous heterojunction formation between g-C3N4 and anatase/rutile mixed phase was observed in gT400 with C and N doping into TiO2 lattice by O substitution. The core-shell nanoarchitectures between g-C3N4 as shell, and anatase/rutile mixed phase as core with C and N atoms are doped at the interstitial positions of TiO2 lattice was observed in gT500. The result indicated that core-shell nanoarchitectures photocatalyst (gT500) prepared at 500 ◦C exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity in the degradation of methyl orange under visible light irradiation. Meanwhile, the possible mechanisms of charge generation, migration, action species and reaction that probably occur at the gT500 sample were also proposed. The photodegradation results of gT500 correlated completely with the results of the PEC and photoluminescence analysis, which directly evidenced improved charge separation and migration as the crucial parameters governing photocatalysis. It is worthy to note that, the simultaneous formation of multicomponent heterojunction with core-shell structure provided an enormous impact in designing highly active photocatalyst with superior interfacial charge transfer.

  16. Predictive equations for compressive strength of concrete based on Schmidt hammer rebound and ultrasonic pulse velocity data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arum, C; Omoare, A.

    2013-01-01

    The compressive strength of concrete is assessed to ensure uniformity of the placed concretc and adequacy of thc strcngth. Non-destructive test (NDT) techniques of ultrasonic pulse velocity and Schmidt rebound hammer tests are commonly used to estimate concrete strength, but the applicability is dependent on correlation of the data with the compressive strength of concrete, the equipment calibration and interpretation of the data. Twenty four standard concrcte cubes were cast respectively from 3 concrete mixes, and tested after 28 days of curing by ultrasonic velocity, rebound hammer and crushing tests. The data were analysed by regression methods to obtain equations for predicting the compression strength of concrete based on the ultrasonic pulse velocity and rebound number. Accurate prediction of the strength of concrete was made when the ultrasonic pulse velocity and the rebound hammer data were combined than when used separately, as the standard error was least. Comparison on the calibration curves of the prediction equations with published plots showed very good agreement. (au)

  17. Basic consideration on identification of objects using chirped ultrasonic wave; Chirp choonpa wo mochiita keijo hanbetsu no kisoteki kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jitsumori, A. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan)] Ando, S. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan)

    1998-11-30

    Regarding identification of geometrical features of objects using echoes of ultrasonic pulses, there are generally two ways. One is the way that a beam of ultrasonic waves having sharp directivity scan on a object, and the other is the way that ultrasonic waves, irradiating a object so as to cover the whole of it, capture the features of all the object at a time. In this paper, the theoretical basis about the latter were investigated. A mathematical model with which lumpiness of a object can be dealed as the sum of echoes from relatively small number of certain particular points (stationary points) was derived. The stationary points meaning local maximal points, saddle points, etc., it was investigated what is the optimum waveform that can separate and identify echoes from other portions. It being difficult to supply high energy in short time, if temporal width of a pulse is made larger, resolution of echoes come to fall. As a measure for solution, contraction of pulse width was attempted using chirped ultrasonic wave (modulated carrier frequency). The pulse of AM (amplitude modification) or LFM (linear frequency modulation) being selected, experimental results agreed fairly well the simulations. 10 refs., 13 figs.

  18. The isotopic contamination in electromagnetic isotope separators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassignol, Ch.

    1959-01-01

    In the early years of isotope separation, and in particular electromagnetic isotope separation, needs for rapid results have conducted to empiric research. This paper describes fundamental research on the electromagnetic isotope separation to a better understanding of isotope separators as well as improving the performances. Focus has been made on the study of the principle of isotope contamination and the remedial action on the separator to improve the isotope separation ratio. In a first part, the author come back to the functioning of an electromagnetic separator and generalities on isotope contamination. Secondly, it describes the two stages separation method with two dispersive apparatus, an electromagnetic separation stage followed by an electrostatic separation stage, both separated by a diaphragm. The specifications of the electrostatic stage are given and its different settings and their consequences on isotope separation are investigated. In a third part, mechanisms and contamination factors in the isotope separation are discussed: natural isotope contamination, contamination by rebounding on the collector, contamination because of a low resolution, contamination by chromatism and diffusion effect, breakdown of condenser voltage. Analysis of experimental results shows the diffusion as the most important contamination factor in electromagnetic isotope separation. As contamination factors are dependent on geometric parameters, sector angle, radius of curvature in the magnetic field and clearance height are discussed in a fourth part. The better understanding of the mechanism of the different contamination factors and the study of influential parameters as pressure and geometric parameters lead to define a global scheme of isotope contamination and determinate optima separator design and experimental parameters. Finally, the global scheme of isotope contamination and hypothesis on optima specifications and experimental parameters has been checked during a

  19. System of acquisition and analysis of ultrasonic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaubert, Y.; Birac, A.M.; Saglio, R.

    1982-08-01

    An original system of acquisition and analysis of ultrasonic data collected during examinations named STADUS-PRODUS has been developed by C.E.A. in Saclay. First developed for the needs of in-service inspection of PWR vessels, it is now used for the different automatic ultrasonic controls with various tools

  20. The ultrasonic effect on the mechanism of cholesterol oxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of ultrasonic radiation on cholesterol oxidase production by Brevibacterium sp. are studied in this paper. An ultrasonic wave with low intensity at 20 kHz, 200 W/ cm2 was employed to study the effects of irradiation at different lengths of time on the growth of Brevibacterium sp. cells. The result showed that the ...

  1. Ultrasonic two-dimensional imaging of the heart with multiscan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roelandt, J.R.T.C.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of the author was to present the implementation into cardiology of the ultrasonic linear array scanner. The first clinical results, the progress in examination technique and potential applications are described. One method which complements the ultrasonic imaging capabilities is the use of the echo contrast. (Auth.)

  2. Times required for cavity preparation using ultrasonic tips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özcan, Mutlu; Nergiz, Ibrahim; Pfeiffer, Peter; Tütüncü, Rengin

    1999-01-01

    Poster for: Date/Event/Venue: 10.03.99-13.03.99 77th General Session & Exhibition of the IADR Vancouver The purpose of this study was to evaluate the required time for opening the proximal cavities using three ultrasonic tips of different sizes and fine diamond inlay bur followed by ultrasonic tip.

  3. Effect of ultrasonic specific energy on waste activated sludge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of ultrasonic specific energy on waste activated sludge (WAS) solubilization and enzyme activity was investigated in this study. Experimental results showed that the increase of ultrasonic specific energy in the range of 0 - 90000 kJ/kg dried sludge (DS) benefited WAS particle size reduction and the solubilization ...

  4. short communication densities and ultrasonic speed of 2-hydroxy-5

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    mass transfer, heat transfer and fluid flow [5]. Ultrasonic waves have acquired the status of an important probe for the study of structure and properties of matter [6]. Ultrasonic speed measurements have widely used to study pure [7], binary [8] as well as ternary [9] liquid mixtures and solute of salts in binary solvent systems.

  5. Prediction of Self-Compacting Concrete homogeneity by ultrasonic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Benaicha

    2015-12-01

    Comparison between ultrasonic velocity and empirical tests such as sieve stability test, slump flow test, air content, and compressive strength, at 1 day, shows that the ultrasonic velocity can also be very useful to evaluate homogeneity and quality of fresh concrete.

  6. A Comparative Analysis of the Rebound Hammer and Ultrasonic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work presents a study on the comparison between some non-destructive testing tech-niques (Rebound Hammer and Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity). Tests were performed to com-pare the accuracy between the rebound hammer and the ultrasonic pulse velocity methodin estimating the strength of concrete. Eighty samples ...

  7. [The use of ultrasonic files in canal preparation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calas, P; Terrie, B

    1990-01-01

    The continuous high volume of irrigating solution delivered by the ultrasonic system facilitates the root canal debridement. An excellent cleaning of dentin wall is obtained even on surfaces unreached by the mechanical instrumentation. In order to obtain an efficacious preparation, the use of ultrasonic files were combined with instrumentation. This new technique is described in this article.

  8. Ultrasonic Characterization of Tissues via Backscatter Frequency Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stetson, Paul F.; Sommer, F.G.

    1997-01-01

    Phantom and patient studies were performed to assess the potential of backscatter frequency dependence as a useful parameter for tissue characterization. A commercial phased-array ultrasonic scanner was adapted to allow digitization of the intermediate-frequency ultrasonic data, Studies of agar p...

  9. The ultrasonic effect on the mechanism of cholesterol oxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-04-26

    Apr 26, 2010 ... An ultrasonic wave with low intensity at 20 kHz, 200 W/ cm2 was employed to study the effects of irradiation ... ultrasonic on cell membrane and to facilitate enzyme excretion, transmission electron microscopy. (TEM) was ..... from Bre_idbacterium sp., PhD Dissertation, Wuxi Univeristy of Light. Industry, Wuxi ...

  10. Ultrasonic imaging of metastatic carcinoma in thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Ling; Yang Tao; Tang Ying; Mao Jingning; Chen Wei; Wang Wei

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the ultrasonic findings of metastatic thyroid carcinoma and to evaluate the diagnostic value of the ultrasonic imaging for patients with metastatic thyroid neoplasm. Methods: The ultrasonic imaging characteristics of ten patients who were diagnosed with metastatic thyroid carcinoma were retrospectively analyzed. In all the cases, fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the thyroid was performed during the clinical diagnosis. Results: The ultrasonic images of the ten patients fell into four types: multiple nodules in the thyroid, single nodule in the thyroid, diffuse calcification and heterogeneous echo. Seven cases showed speckled calcific foci. Abnormal blood flow signal was found in 9 cases. Conclusion: The ultrasonic findings of metastatic carcinoma in the thyroid gland are various and non-specific. Color Doppler ultrasound may provide ample evidence. The diagnosis depends on FNAC. (authors)

  11. Signal analysis approach to ultrasonic evaluation of diffusion bond quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Graham; Chinn, Diane

    1999-01-01

    Solid state bonds like the diffusion bond are attractive techniques for joining dissimilar materials since they are not prone to the defects that occur with fusion welding. Ultrasonic methods can detect the presence of totally unbonded regions but have difficulty sensing poor bonded areas where the substrates are in intimate contact. Standard ultrasonic imaging is based on amplitude changes in the signal reflected from the bond interface. Unfortunately, amplitude alone is not sensitive to bond quality. We demonstrated that there is additional information in the ultrasonic signal that correlates with bond quality. In our approach, we interrogated a set of dissimilar diffusion bonded samples with broad band ultrasonic signals. The signals were digitally processed and the characteristics of the signals that corresponded to bond quality were determined. These characteristics or features were processed with pattern recognition algorithms to produce predictions of bond quality. The predicted bond quality was then compared with the destructive measurement to assess the classification capability of the ultrasonic technique

  12. Effect of decision making on ultrasonic examination performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.H.

    1992-05-01

    A decision aid was developed to overcome examiner limitations in information processing and decision making during ultrasonic examinations. The aid provided a means of noting signal characteristics as they were observed during the examination, and of presenting them simultaneously for decision making. The aid also served as a way of providing detailed feedback on examination performance during training. The aid was incorporated into worksheets used for the conduct of practice examinations during ultrasonic examination training. To support the introduction and use of the decision aid, one hour of supplementary training was inserted in an existing 64-hour training course on ultrasonic detection of defects. This study represented a modest step in improving the performance of ultrasonic examinations in nuclear power plants. Findings indicated that aided decision making supported by limited training can significantly improve ultrasonic detection performance

  13. Small scale imaging using ultrasonic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaria, Z.; Abdul Rahim, R.; Megat Ali, M.S.A.; Baharuddin, M.Y.; Jahidin, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasound technology progressed through the 1960 from simple A-mode and B-mode scans to today M-mode and Doppler two dimensional (2-D) and even three dimensional (3-D) systems. Modern ultrasound imaging has its roots in sonar technology after it was first described by Lord John Rayleigh over 100 years ago on the interaction of acoustic waves with media. Tomography technique was developed as a diagnostic tool in the medical area since the early of 1970s. This research initially focused on how to retrieve a cross sectional images from living and non-living things. After a decade, the application of tomography systems span into the industrial area. However, the long exposure time of medical radiation-based method cannot tolerate the dynamic changes in industrial process two phase liquid/ gas flow system. An alternative system such as a process tomography systems, can give information on the nature of the flow regime characteristic. The overall aim of this paper is to investigate the use of a small scale ultrasonic tomography method based on ultrasonic transmission mode tomography for online monitoring of liquid/ gas flow in pipe/ vessel system through ultrasonic transceivers application. This non-invasive technique applied sixteen transceivers as the sensing elements to cover the pipe/ vessel cross section. The paper also details the transceivers selection criteria, hardware setup, the electronic measurement circuit and also the image reconstruction algorithm applied. The system was found capable of visualizing the internal characteristics and provides the concentration profile for the corresponding liquid and gas phases. (author)

  14. Corrosion of Ultrasonic spot Welded Joints of Magnesium to Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tsung-Yu; Santella, Michael L.

    Mixed-metal joining, especially between magnesium and steel, is one of the critical technologies in achieving light-weighting vehicle body construction. However, galvanic corrosion between mixed metal joints is inevitable but not well quantified. In this study, 1.6 mm thick Mg AZ31B-H24 was joined to 0.8 mm thick hot-dipped galvanized (HDG) mild steel by ultrasonic spot welding in lap-shear configuration. No specific corrosion protection was applied in order to study worst-case conditions for corrosion behavior. The approach used an automotive cyclic corrosion test — Ford Arizona Proving Ground Equivalent Corrosion Cycle (APGE), which includes cycles of dipping in a salt bath, air drying, then holding in constant humidity environment. Lap-shear strength of the joints decreased linearly with the exposure cycles. All the joints were either taken out of test cycle for mechanical test or they separated within the humidity chamber before 25th cycle. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of Mg(OH)2 deposit in the crevice between the AZ31 and steel sheets and on the surface of the AZ31. The deposit grew thicker with cycles with exerting enough force to deform the AZ31 and HDG steel and causing a gradual opening of joints. The corrosion of the AZ31 was localized and nonuniform. The most severe corrosion occurred not at the intersection of AZ31 and the steel but rather 15-20 mm away from the spot welds.

  15. Volumetric Security Alarm Based on a Spherical Ultrasonic Transducer Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayin, Umut; Scaini, Davide; Arteaga, Daniel

    Most of the existent alarm systems depend on physical or visual contact. The detection area is often limited depending on the type of the transducer, creating blind spots. Our proposition is a truly volumetric alarm system that can detect any movement in the intrusion area, based on monitoring the change over time of the impulse response of the room, which acts as an acoustic footprint. The device depends on an omnidirectional ultrasonic transducer array emitting sweep signals to calculate the impulse response in short intervals. Any change in the room conditions is monitored through a correlation function. The sensitivity of the alarm to different objects and different environments depends on the sweep duration, sweep bandwidth, and sweep interval. Successful detection of intrusions also depends on the size of the monitoring area and requires an adjustment of emitted ultrasound power. Strong air flow affects the performance of the alarm. A method for separating moving objects from strong air flow is devised using an adaptive thresholding on the correlation function involving a series of impulse response measurements. The alarm system can be also used for fire detection since air flow sourced from heating objects differ from random nature of the present air flow. Several measurements are made to test the integrity of the alarm in rooms sizing from 834-2080m3 with irregular geometries and various objects. The proposed system can efficiently detect intrusion whilst adequate emitting power is provided.

  16. Longitudinal wave ultrasonic inspection of austenitic weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, B.S.; Hudgell, R.J.; Seed, H.

    1980-01-01

    Successful volumetric inspection of LMFBR primary circuits, and also much of the secondary circuit, is dependent on the availability of satisfactory examination procedures for austenitic welds. Application of conventional ultrasonic techniques is hampered by the anisotropic, textured structure of the weld metal and this paper describes development work on the use of longitudinal wave techniques. In addition to confirming the dominant effects of the weld structure on ultrasound propagation some results are given of studies utilising deliberately induced defects in Manual Metal Arc Welds in 50 mm plate together with preliminary work on the inspection of narrow austenitic welds fabricated by automatic processes. (author)

  17. Ultrasonic scanner for radial and flat panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, R. L.; Hill, E. K. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An ultrasonic scanning mechanism is described that scans panels of honeycomb construction or with welded seams. It incorporates a device which by simple adjustment is adapted to scan either a flat panel or a radial panel. The supporting structure takes the form of a pair of spaced rails. An immersion tank is positioned between the rails and below their level. A work holder is mounted in the tank and is adapted to hold the flat or radial panel. A traveling bridge is movable along the rails and a carriage is mounted on the bridge.

  18. High-intensity, focused ultrasonic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Leif Bjørnø

    1988-01-01

    machines marketed by companies in Germany and France, in particular. Two main types of ESWL systems are prevailing, the spark gap-based and the piezoelectric disk-based systems. This paper is introduced by a brief reconsideration of the features of pressure waves in water produced by an electrical...... distribution, etc. involving nonlinearity, diffraction, and absorption in the high-intensity focused ultrasonic fields produced by an ellipsoid as well as a spherical cap focusing geometry. Data from the development of an ESWL of the piezoelectric disk type are reported including demands to transducers...

  19. Nonlinear Time Reversal Ultrasonic Pseudo-Tomography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Převorovský, Zdeněk; Krofta, Josef; Převorovský, David

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2008), s. 1-13 ISSN 1435-4934. [NDT in Progress. Praha, 05.11.2007-07.11.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/07/1393; GA MPO FT-TA/026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : defect detection * nonlinear ultrasonic spectroscopy * time reversal mirror Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics http://www.ndt.net/search/docs.php3?showForm=off&edit=1&MainSource=53&AuthorID=2812

  20. Ultrasonic Behaviour of Cholesteric Liquid Crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kor, S.K.; Srivastava, A.K.; Khare, R.P.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental study of ultrasonic absorption and velocity has been made in the cholesteric liquid crystals, viz. cholesteryl stearate, cholesteryl laurate and cholesteryl propionate, as a function of temperature, especially near the transition temperature. The absorption has been measured by using the pulse technique and the velocity with the help of an acoustic interferometer both at the single frequency of 2 MHz. The temperature has been controlled to within +- 0.2 deg C with the help of an ultrathermostat. Abrupt increase in absorption and decrease in velocity have been observed beyond the isotropic-cholesteric transition temperature and the results are discussed qualitatively

  1. Separation anxiety in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001542.htm Separation anxiety in children To use the sharing features on this page, ... to test their independence. To get over separation anxiety, children need to: Feel safe in their home. Trust ...

  2. Magnetic separation of algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Pulak; Twary, Scott N.

    2016-04-26

    Described herein are methods and systems for harvesting, collecting, separating and/or dewatering algae using iron based salts combined with a magnetic field gradient to separate algae from an aqueous solution.

  3. Separators for electrochemical cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Steven Allen; Anakor, Ifenna Kingsley; Farrell, Greg Robert

    2018-01-16

    Provided are separators for use in an electrochemical cell comprising (a) an inorganic oxide and (b) an organic polymer, wherein the inorganic oxide comprises organic substituents. Also provided are electrochemical cells comprising such separators.

  4. Chromatographic separations of stereoisomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souter, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    This text covers both diastereomers and enantiomers; describes techniques for GC, HPLC, and other chromatographic methods; and tabulates results of various applications by both techniques and compound class. It provides current knowledge about separation mechanisms and interactions of asymmetric molecules, as well as experimental and commercial materials such as columns, instruments, and derivatization reagents. The contents also include stereoisomer separations by gas chromatography. Stereoisomer separations by high-performance liquid chromatography. Stereoisomer separations by other chromatographic techniques.

  5. Meniscus Membranes For Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Robert C.; Jorgensen, Betty; Pesiri, David R.

    2005-09-20

    Gas separation membranes, especially meniscus-shaped membranes for gas separations are disclosed together with the use of such meniscus-shaped membranes for applications such as thermal gas valves, pre-concentration of a gas stream, and selective pre-screening of a gas stream. In addition, a rapid screening system for simultaneously screening polymer materials for effectiveness in gas separation is provided.

  6. Meniscus membranes for separations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Robert C [Irvine, CA; Jorgensen, Betty [Jemez Springs, NM; Pesiri, David R [Aliso Viejo, CA

    2004-01-27

    Gas separation membranes, especially meniscus-shaped membranes for gas separations are disclosed together with the use of such meniscus-shaped membranes for applications such as thermal gas valves, pre-concentration of a gas stream, and selective pre-screening of a gas stream. In addition, a rapid screening system for simultaneously screening polymer materials for effectiveness in gas separation is provided.

  7. Development of gap measurement technique in-vessel corium retention using ultrasonic pulse echo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Kil Mo; Kim, Jong Hwan; Kang, Kyung Ho; Kim, Sang Baik; Sim, Cheul Muu

    1999-03-01

    A gap between a molten material and a lower vessel is formed in the LAVA experiment, a phase 1 study of Sonata-IV program. In this technical report, quantitative results of the gap measurement using an off-line ultrasonic pulse echo method are presented. This report aims at development of an appropriate ultrasonics test method, by analyzing the problems from the external environmental reason and the internal characteristic reason. The signal analyzing methods to improve the S/N ratio in these problems are divided into the time variant synthesized signal analyzing method and the time invariant synthesized signal analyzing method. In this report, the possibility of the application of these two methods to the gap signal and the noise is considered. In this test, the signal of the propagational direction and reflectional direction through solid-liquid-solid specimen was analyzed to understand the behavior of the reflectional signal in a multi-layered structure by filling the gap with water between the melt and the lower head vessel. The quantitative gap measurement using the off-line ultrasonic pulse echo method was available for a little of the scanned region. But furtherly using DSP technique and imaging technique, the better results will be obtained. Some of the measured signals are presented as 2-dimensional spherical mapping method using distance and amplitude. Other signals difficult in quantitative measurement are saved for a new signal processing method. (author). 11 refs., 4 tabs., 54 figs

  8. A fractional Fourier transform analysis of the scattering of ultrasonic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tant, Katherine M.M.; Mulholland, Anthony J.; Langer, Matthias; Gachagan, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Many safety critical structures, such as those found in nuclear plants, oil pipelines and in the aerospace industry, rely on key components that are constructed from heterogeneous materials. Ultrasonic non-destructive testing (NDT) uses high-frequency mechanical waves to inspect these parts, ensuring they operate reliably without compromising their integrity. It is possible to employ mathematical models to develop a deeper understanding of the acquired ultrasonic data and enhance defect imaging algorithms. In this paper, a model for the scattering of ultrasonic waves by a crack is derived in the time–frequency domain. The fractional Fourier transform (FrFT) is applied to an inhomogeneous wave equation where the forcing function is prescribed as a linear chirp, modulated by a Gaussian envelope. The homogeneous solution is found via the Born approximation which encapsulates information regarding the flaw geometry. The inhomogeneous solution is obtained via the inverse Fourier transform of a Gaussian-windowed linear chirp excitation. It is observed that, although the scattering profile of the flaw does not change, it is amplified. Thus, the theory demonstrates the enhanced signal-to-noise ratio permitted by the use of coded excitation, as well as establishing a time–frequency domain framework to assist in flaw identification and classification. PMID:25792967

  9. New developments in ultrasonic imaging of the chest and other body organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, G.W.; Anderson, A.L.

    1978-01-01

    The ultrasonic imaging system described herein was developed to measure chest-wall thickness and the percentage of fat in the chest and around other body organs. The system uses pulse-echo techniques to transmit and detect sound waves reflected from the interfaces of body organs and adjacent tissue. A computer draws these interfaces on color scans, and a code is used to exponentially average data from several points on each scan to find the average thicknesses of the chest wall and fat layers. These average thicknesses are then used to adjust x-ray calibration factors for plutonium lung counters. The correction factor for three subjects measured for fat content ranging from 12.6 to 22.2% was 18 to 41%. The ultrasonic system also defines the shape and position of the kidneys and liver so we are able to more accurately place detectors on the body during in-vivo radiation measurements. We have also developed a technique for displaying the interfaces from a series of ultrasonic chest scans to produce a topographical map that enables us to better understand the shape and contour of the lung and chest-wall interface

  10. Modeling and experimental validation of a linear ultrasonic motor considering rough surface contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Qibao; Yao, Zhiyuan; Li, Xiang

    2017-04-01

    Linear ultrasonic motor is driven by the interface friction between the stator and the slider. The performance of the motor is significantly affected by the contact state between the stator and slider which depends considerably on the morphology of the contact interface. A novel fiction model is developed to evaluate the output characteristics of a linear ultrasonic motor. The proposed model, where the roughness and plastic deformation of contact surfaces are considered, differs from the previous spring model. Based on the developed model, the effects of surface roughness parameters on motor performance are investigated. The behavior of the force transmission between the stator and the slider is studied to understand the driving mechanism. Furthermore, a comparison between the proposed model and the spring model is made. An experiment is designed to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of this proposed model by comparing the simulation results with the measured one. The results show that the proposed model is more accurate than the spring model. These discussions will be very useful for the improvement of control and the optimal design of linear ultrasonic motor.

  11. Kalman filter-based tracking of moving objects using linear ultrasonic sensor array for road vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengbo Eben; Li, Guofa; Yu, Jiaying; Liu, Chang; Cheng, Bo; Wang, Jianqiang; Li, Keqiang

    2018-01-01

    Detection and tracking of objects in the side-near-field has attracted much attention for the development of advanced driver assistance systems. This paper presents a cost-effective approach to track moving objects around vehicles using linearly arrayed ultrasonic sensors. To understand the detection characteristics of a single sensor, an empirical detection model was developed considering the shapes and surface materials of various detected objects. Eight sensors were arrayed linearly to expand the detection range for further application in traffic environment recognition. Two types of tracking algorithms, including an Extended Kalman filter (EKF) and an Unscented Kalman filter (UKF), for the sensor array were designed for dynamic object tracking. The ultrasonic sensor array was designed to have two types of fire sequences: mutual firing or serial firing. The effectiveness of the designed algorithms were verified in two typical driving scenarios: passing intersections with traffic sign poles or street lights, and overtaking another vehicle. Experimental results showed that both EKF and UKF had more precise tracking position and smaller RMSE (root mean square error) than a traditional triangular positioning method. The effectiveness also encourages the application of cost-effective ultrasonic sensors in the near-field environment perception in autonomous driving systems.

  12. Experimental Development and Demonstration of Ultrasonic Measurement Diagnostics for Sodium Fast Reactor Thermal-hydraulics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokuhiro, Akira; Jones, Byron

    2013-09-13

    This research project will address some of the principal technology issues related to sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR), primarily the development and demonstration of ultrasonic measurement diagnostics linked to effective thermal convective sensing under normatl and off-normal conditions. Sodium is well-suited as a heat transfer medium for the SFR. However, because it is chemically reactive and optically opaque, it presents engineering accessibility constraints relative to operations and maintenance (O&M) and in-service inspection (ISI) technologies that are currently used for light water reactors. Thus, there are limited sensing options for conducting thermohydraulic measurements under normal conditions and off-normal events (maintenance, unanticipated events). Acoustic methods, primarily ultrasonics, are a key measurement technology with applications in non-destructive testing, component imaging, thermometry, and velocimetry. THis project would have yielded a better quantitative and qualitative understanding of the thermohydraulic condition of solium under varied flow conditions. THe scope of work will evaluate and demonstrate ultrasonic technologies and define instrumentation options for the SFR.

  13. Method of case hardening depth testing by using multifunctional ultrasonic testing instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salchak, Y A; Sednev, D A; Ardashkin, I B; Kroening, M

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes usability of ultrasonic case hardening depth control applying standard instrument of ultrasonic inspections. The ultrasonic method of measuring the depth of the hardened layer is proposed. Experimental series within the specified and multifunctional ultrasonic equipment are performed. The obtained results are compared with the results of a referent method of analysis. (paper)

  14. A study of the effectiveness and energy efficiency of ultrasonic emulsification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wu; Leong, Thomas S H; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian; Martin, Gregory J O

    2017-12-20

    Three essential experimental parameters in the ultrasonic emulsification process, namely sonication time, acoustic amplitude and processing volume, were individually investigated, theoretically and experimentally, and correlated to the emulsion droplet sizes produced. The results showed that with a decrease in droplet size, two kinetic regions can be separately correlated prior to reaching a steady state droplet size: a fast size reduction region and a steady state transition region. In the fast size reduction region, the power input and sonication time could be correlated to the volume-mean diameter by a power-law relationship, with separate power-law indices of -1.4 and -1.1, respectively. A proportional relationship was found between droplet size and processing volume. The effectiveness and energy efficiency of droplet size reduction was compared between ultrasound and high-pressure homogenisation (HPH) based on both the effective power delivered to the emulsion and the total electric power consumed. Sonication could produce emulsions across a broad range of sizes, while high-pressure homogenisation was able to produce emulsions at the smaller end of the range. For ultrasonication, the energy efficiency was higher at increased power inputs due to more effective droplet breakage at high ultrasound intensities. For HPH the consumed energy efficiency was improved by operating at higher pressures for fewer passes. At the laboratory scale, the ultrasound system required less electrical power than HPH to produce an emulsion of comparable droplet size. The energy efficiency of HPH is greatly improved at large scale, which may also be true for larger scale ultrasonic reactors.

  15. Safety shutdown separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Steven Allen; Anakor, Ifenna Kingsley; Farrell, Greg Robert

    2015-06-30

    The present invention pertains to electrochemical cells which comprise (a) an anode; (b) a cathode; (c) a solid porous separator, such as a polyolefin, xerogel, or inorganic oxide separator; and (d) a nonaqueous electrolyte, wherein the separator comprises a porous membrane having a microporous coating comprising polymer particles which have not coalesced to form a continuous film. This microporous coating on the separator acts as a safety shutdown layer that rapidly increases the internal resistivity and shuts the cell down upon heating to an elevated temperature, such as 110.degree. C. Also provided are methods for increasing the safety of an electrochemical cell by utilizing such separators with a safety shutdown layer.

  16. Influence of material structure on air-borne ultrasonic application in drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozuna, César; Gómez Álvarez-Arenas, Tomás; Riera, Enrique; Cárcel, Juan A; Garcia-Perez, Jose V

    2014-05-01

    This work aims to contribute to the understanding of how the properties of the material being dried affect air-borne ultrasonic application. To this end, the experimental drying kinetics (40°C and 1m/s) of cassava (Manihot esculenta) and apple (Malus domestica var. Granny Smith) were carried out applying different ultrasonic powers (0, 6, 12, 19, 25 and 31 kW/m(3)). Furthermore, the power ultrasound-assisted drying kinetics of different fruits and vegetables (potato, eggplant, carrot, orange and lemon peel) already reported in previous studies were also analyzed. The structural, textural and acoustic properties of all these products were assessed, and the drying kinetics modeled by means of the diffusion theory. A significant linear correlation (r>0.95) was established between the identified effective diffusivity (DW) and the applied ultrasonic power for the different products. The slope of this relationship (SDUP) was used as an index of the effectiveness of the ultrasonic application; thus the higher the SDUP, the more effective the ultrasound application. SDUP was well correlated (r ⩾ 0.95) with the porosity and hardness. In addition, SDUP was largely affected by the acoustic impedance of the material being dried, showing a similar pattern with the impedance than the transmission coefficient of the acoustic energy on the interface. Thus, soft and open-porous product structures exhibited a better transmission of acoustic energy and were more prone to the mechanical effects of ultrasound. However, materials with a hard and closed-compact structure were less affected by acoustic energy due to the fact that the significant impedance differences between the product and the air cause high energy losses on the interface. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Acoustic leak detection and ultrasonic crack detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupperman, D.S.; Claytor, T.N.; Groenwald, R.

    1983-10-01

    A program is under way to assess the effectiveness of current and proposed techniques for acoustic leak detection (ALD) in reactor coolant systems. An ALD facility has been constructed and tests have begun on five laboratory-grown cracks (three fatigue and two thermal-fatigue and two field-induced IGSCC specimens. After ultrasonic testing revealed cracks in the Georgia Power Co. HATCH-1 BWR recirculation header, the utility installed an ALD system. Data from HATCH-1 have given an indication of the background noise level at a BWR recirculation header sweepolet weld. The HATCH leak detection system was tested to determine the sensitivity and dynamic range. Other background data have been acquired at the Watts Bar Nuclear Reactor in Tennessee. An ANL waveguide system, including transducer and electronics, was installed and tested on an accumulator safety injection pipe. The possibility of using ultrasonic wave scattering patterns to discriminate between IGSCCs and geometric reflectors has been explored. Thirteen reflectors (field IGSCCs, graphite wool IGSCCs, weld roots, and slits) were examined. Work with cast stainless steel (SS) included sound velocity and attenuation in isotropic and anisotropic cast SS. Reducing anisotropy does not help reduce attenuation in large-grained material. Large artificial flaws (e.g., a 1-cm-deep notch with a 4-cm path) could not be detected in isotropic centrifugally cast SS (1 to 2-mm grains) by longitudinal or shear waves at frequencies of 1 MHz or greater, but could be detected with 0.5-MHz shear waves. 13 figures

  18. Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, D.N.

    1998-04-14

    Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids is disclosed. The present invention includes the use of two closely spaced transducers, or one transducer and a closely spaced reflector plate, to form an interferometer suitable for ultrasonic characterization of droplet-size and smaller samples without the need for a container. The droplet is held between the interferometer elements, whose distance apart may be adjusted, by surface tension. The surfaces of the interferometer elements may be readily cleansed by a stream of solvent followed by purified air when it is desired to change samples. A single drop of liquid is sufficient for high-quality measurement. Examples of samples which may be investigated using the apparatus and method of the present invention include biological specimens (tear drops; blood and other body fluid samples; samples from tumors, tissues, and organs; secretions from tissues and organs; snake and bee venom, etc.) for diagnostic evaluation, samples in forensic investigations, and detection of drugs in small quantities. 5 figs.

  19. Ultrasonic imaging of sheet metal forming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitmann-Curdes, Oliver; Hansen, Christian; Knoll, Patrick; Meier, Horst; Ermert, Helmut

    2004-04-01

    With sheet metal hydroforming, a sheet metal is formed by a liquid medium under high pressure (up to 1000 bar) and a cavity contour (die). As the exact state of forming is of interest, an ultrasonic imaging system is under development. The task is to determine the geometry of a sheet metal contour with respect to the original (before forming) and the final (die) state of the sheet metal. For this purpose, two different contour reconstruction algorithms were designed, tested and compared. With the reconstruction results it will be possible to determine the optimal distribution of transmitters and receivers in the ultrasonic transducer matrix. Experiments were conducted with one pair of transducers (unfocussed, center frequency 2 MHz) and a three axis stepper motor set-up. For each experimental set of data, the contour was reconstructed with both SAFT reconstruction algorithms. Both algorithms incorporate a priori information such as original and final contour and maximal axial dislocation of the sheet metal. The results for both algorithms are compared and the relative mean error in axial direction is 0.30% and 0.48%.

  20. STUDY ON ULTRASONIC DEGREASING OF SHEEPSKIN WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BĂLĂU MÎNDRU Tudorel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Leather industry is a relatively large source of waste from raw material, so skin waste recovery is a goal of clean technologies. Capitalization of skin waste aims to obtain: chemical auxiliaries, technical articles, hydrolyzed protein, artificial leather, composite building materials, heat sources and collagen biomaterials with applications in medicine, cosmetics, etc. A first step in the recovery of skin waste is the degreasing operation. Ultrasound is an effective tool to improve the efficiency of the conventional degreasing affecting the chemical substances as well as the treated skin. In addition, the processing time is reduced. Ultrasound is known to enhance the emulsification and dispersion of oils/fat. The usual degreasing methods requires more emulsifier/solvent ratio and process time for emulsification and additional solvent for washing out the emulsified fat. This paper investigates the possibility of recovery through ecological processes of leather waste from finishing operations for further capitalization. The present study aims emulsification and subsequent removal of the fat present in the chamois powder waste from polishing operation with the aid of ultrasound by an aqueous ecofriendly method. The study also took into account the ultrasonic treatment of the leather waste using trichlorethylene as a medium of propagation-degreasing, and realized a comparative analysis of efficiency of fat extraction by Soxhlet method and via ultrasonication. IR-ATR and optical microscopy highlight both morphological and chemical-structural changes of treated materials by different degreasing methods

  1. Understanding Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Understanding Carbohydrates How much and what type of carbohydrate foods ... glucose levels in your target range. Explore: Understanding Carbohydrates Glycemic Index and Diabetes Learn about the glycemic ...

  2. Acoustofluidic bacteria separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Sixing; Huang, Tony Jun; Ma, Fen; Zeng, Xiangqun; Bachman, Hunter; Cameron, Craig E

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial separation from human blood samples can help with the identification of pathogenic bacteria for sepsis diagnosis. In this work, we report an acoustofluidic device for label-free bacterial separation from human blood samples. In particular, we exploit the acoustic radiation force generated from a tilted-angle standing surface acoustic wave (taSSAW) field to separate Escherichia coli from human blood cells based on their size difference. Flow cytometry analysis of the E. coli separated from red blood cells shows a purity of more than 96%. Moreover, the label-free electrochemical detection of the separated E. coli displays reduced non-specific signals due to the removal of blood cells. Our acoustofluidic bacterial separation platform has advantages such as label-free separation, high biocompatibility, flexibility, low cost, miniaturization, automation, and ease of in-line integration. The platform can be incorporated with an on-chip sensor to realize a point-of-care sepsis diagnostic device. (paper)

  3. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  4. Acoustofluidic bacteria separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sixing; Ma, Fen; Bachman, Hunter; Cameron, Craig E.; Zeng, Xiangqun; Huang, Tony Jun

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial separation from human blood samples can help with the identification of pathogenic bacteria for sepsis diagnosis. In this work, we report an acoustofluidic device for label-free bacterial separation from human blood samples. In particular, we exploit the acoustic radiation force generated from a tilted-angle standing surface acoustic wave (taSSAW) field to separate Escherichia coli from human blood cells based on their size difference. Flow cytometry analysis of the E. coli separated from red blood cells shows a purity of more than 96%. Moreover, the label-free electrochemical detection of the separated E. coli displays reduced non-specific signals due to the removal of blood cells. Our acoustofluidic bacterial separation platform has advantages such as label-free separation, high biocompatibility, flexibility, low cost, miniaturization, automation, and ease of in-line integration. The platform can be incorporated with an on-chip sensor to realize a point-of-care sepsis diagnostic device.

  5. Ultrasonic characterization of defective porcelain tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren, E.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is the optimization of ultrasonic methods in the non-destructive testing of sintered porcelain tiles containing defects. For this reason, a silicon nitride ball, carbon black and PMMA (Polymethylmethacrylate were imbedded in porcelain tile granules before pressing to make special defects in tiles. After sintering at 1220ºC, the time of flight of the ultrasonic waves and ultrasonic signal amplitudes through the sintered porcelain tiles were measured by a contact ultrasonic transducer operating on pulse-echo mode. This method can allow for defect detection using the A-scan. The results of the test showed that the amplitude of the received peak for a defective part is smaller than for a part which has no defects. Depending on the size, shape and position of the defect, its peak can be detected. Additionally, an immersion pulse-echo C-scan method was also used to differentiate between defects in porcelain tiles. By using this technique, it is possible to determine the place and shape of defects. To support the results of the ultrasonic investigation, a SEM characterization was also made.

    El fin principal de este trabajo es la optimización de métodos ultrasónicos en la prueba no destructiva de azulejos sinterizados de porcelana que contienen defectos. Por lo tanto, bolas del nitruro de silicio, negros de carbón y PMMA (polimetilmetacrilato fueron encajados en gránulos del azulejo de porcelana antes de presionar para hacer defectos especiales en azulejos. Después de sinterizado en 1220ºC, el tiempo de vuelo de las ondas ultrasónicas fue medido a través del azulejo sinterizado de la porcelana. El tiempo del vuelo de ondas ultrasónicas fue medido por un transductor de contacto ultrasónico operando en modo eco-pulso. Este método puede permitir la detección de defectos usando escaneo-A. Los resultados de la prueba demostraron que la amplitud del pico recibido por partes defectuosas es más pequeño que la parte

  6. Measurement of void swelling in thick non-uniformly irradiated 304 stainless steel blocks using nondestructive ultrasonic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, F.A.; Okita, T.; Isobe, Y.; Etoh, J.; Sagisaka, M.; Matsunaga, T.; Freyer, P.D.; Huang, Y.; Wiezorek, J.M.K.; Porter, D.L.

    2015-01-01

    Void swelling is of potential importance in PWR austenitic internals, especially in components that will see higher doses during plant lives beyond 40 years. Proactive surveillance of void swelling is required to identify its emergence before swelling reaches levels that cause high levels of embrittlement and distortion. Non-destructive measurements of ultrasonic velocity can measure swelling at fractions of a percent. To demonstrate the feasibility of this technique for PWR application we have investigated five blocks of 304 stainless steel that were irradiated in the EBR-II fast reactor. These blocks were of hexagonal cross-section, with thickness of about 50 mm and lengths of about 218-245 mm. They were subjected to significant axial and radial gradients in gamma heating, temperature and dpa rate, producing complex internal distributions of swelling, reaching about 3.5% maximum at an off-center mid-core position. Swelling decreases both the density and the elastic moduli, thereby impacting the ultrasonic velocity. Concurrently, carbide precipitates form, producing increases in density and decreases in elastic moduli. Using blocks from both low and high dpa levels it was possible to separate the ultrasonic contributions of voids and carbides. Time-of-flight ultrasonic measurements were used to non-destructively measure the internal distribution of void swelling. These distributions were confirmed using non-destructive profilometry followed by destructive cutting to provide density change and electron microscopy data. It was demonstrated that the four measurement types produce remarkably consistent results. Therefore ultrasonic measurements offer great promise for in-situ surveillance of voids in PWR core internals. (authors)

  7. Oil–water two-phase flow measurement with combined ultrasonic transducer and electrical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Chao; Yuan, Ye; Dong, Xiaoxiao; Dong, Feng

    2016-01-01

    A combination of ultrasonic transducers operated in continuous mode and a conductance/capacitance sensor (UTCC) is proposed to estimate the individual flow velocities in oil–water two-phase flows. Based on the Doppler effect, the transducers measure the flow velocity and the conductance/capacitance sensor estimates the phase fraction. A set of theoretical correlations based on the boundary layer models of the oil–water two-phase flow was proposed to describe the velocity profile. The models were separately established for the dispersion flow and the separate flow. The superficial flow velocity of each phase is calculated with the velocity measured in the sampling volume of the ultrasonic transducer with the phase fraction through the velocity profile models. The measuring system of the UTCC was designed and experimentally verified on a multiphase flow loop. The results indicate that the proposed system and correlations estimate the overall flow velocity at an uncertainty of U J   =  0.038 m s −1 , and the water superficial velocity at U Jw   =  0.026 m s −1 , and oil superficial velocity at U Jo   =  0.034 m s −1 . The influencing factors of uncertainty were analyzed. (paper)

  8. Feasibility of Ultrasonic Inspection for Nuclear Grade Graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Seok; Lee, Jong Po; Yoon, Byung Sik; Jang, Chang Heui

    2008-01-01

    Graphite material has been recognized as a very competitive candidate for reflector, moderator, and structural material for very high temperature reactor (VHTR). Since VHTR is operated up to 900-950 .deg. C , small amount of impurity may accelerate the oxidation and degradation of carbon graphite, which results in increased porosity and lowered fracture toughness. In this study, ultrasonic wave propagation properties were investigated for both as-received and degradated material, and the feasibility of ultrasonic testing (UT) was estimated based on the result of ultrasonic property measurements. The ultrasonic properties of carbon graphite were half, more than 5 times, and 1/3 for velocity, attenuation, and signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio respectively. Degradation reduces the ultrasonic velocity slightly by 100 m/s, however the attenuation is about 2 times of as-receive state. The results of probability of detection (POD) estimation based on S/N ratio for side-drilled-hole (SDHs) of which depths were less than 100 mm were merely affected by oxidation and degradation. This result suggests that UT would be reliable method for nondestructive testing of carbon graphite material of which thickness is not over 100 mm. In accordance with the result produced by commercial automated ultrasonic testing (AUT) system, human error of ultrasonic testing is barely expected for the material of which thickness is not over 80 mm

  9. Electrochemical mechanism of tin membrane electrodeposition under ultrasonic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Tianxiang; Yang, Jianguang; Chen, Bing

    2018-04-01

    Tin was electrodeposited from chloride solutions using a membrane cell under ultrasonic waves. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), chronoamperometry (CHR), and chronopotentiometry were applied to investigate the electrochemical mechanism of tin electrodeposition under ultrasonic field. Chronoamperometry curves showed that the initial process of tin electrodeposition followed the diffusion controlled three-dimensional nucleation and grain growth mechanism. The analysis of the cyclic voltammetry and linear sweep voltammetry diagrams showed that the application of ultrasound can change the tin membrane electro-deposition reaction from diffusion to electrochemical control, and the optimum parameters for tin electrodeposition were H + concentration 3.5 mol·L -1 , temperature 35 °C and ultrasonic power 100 W. The coupling ultrasonic field played a role in refining the grain in this process. The growth of tin crystals showed no orientation preferential, and the tin deposition showed a tendency to form a regular network structure after ultrasonic coupling. While in the absence of ultrasonic coupling, the growth of tin crystals has a high preferential orientation, and the tin deposition showed a tendency to form tin whiskers. Ultrasonic coupling was more favorable for obtaining a more compact and smoother cathode tin layer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Ultrasonic radiation to enable improvement of direct methanol fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chaoqun; Wu, Jiang; Luo, Hao; Wang, Sanwu; Chen, Tao

    2016-03-01

    To improve DMFC (direct methanol fuel cell) performance, a new method using ultrasonic radiation is proposed and a novel DMFC structure is designed and fabricated in the present paper. Three ultrasonic transducers (piezoelectric transducer, PZT) are integrated in the flow field plate to form the ultrasonic field in the liquid fuel. Ultrasonic frequency, acoustic power, and methanol concentration have been considered as variables in the experiments. With the help of ultrasonic radiation, the maximum output power and limiting current of cell can be independently increased by 30.73% and 40.54%, respectively. The best performance of DMFC is obtained at the condition of ultrasonic radiation (30 kHz and 4 W) fed with 2M methanol solution, because both its limiting current and output power reach their maximum value simultaneously (222 mA and 33.6 mW, respectively) under this condition. These results conclude that ultrasonic can be an alternative choice for improving the cell performance, and can facilitate a guideline for the optimization of DMFC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of an ultrasonic process for soil remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, J.M.; Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

    1995-01-01

    An ultrasonic process for the detoxification of carbon tetrachloride- (CCl 4 - ) contaminated soil was investigated in the laboratory by using a batch irradiation reactor equipped with a 600-W ultrasonic power supply operated at a frequency of 20 kHz. Key parameters studied included soil characteristics, irradiation time, CCl 4 concentration, steady-state operating temperature, applied ultrasonic-wave energy, and the ratio of soil to water in the system. The results of the experiments showed that (1) residual CCl 4 concentrations could be decreased with longer irradiation periods and (2) detoxification efficiency was proportional to steady-state operating temperature and applied ultrasonic-wave energy. The characteristics of the contaminated soil were found to be an important factor in the design of an ultrasonic detoxification system. A soil-phase CCl 4 concentration below 1 ppm (initial concentration of 56 ppm) was achieved through this process, indicating that the application of ultrasonic irradiation is feasible and effective in the detoxification of soil contaminated by organic compounds. On the basis of the experimental results, a schematic of a full-scale ultrasonic soil-detoxification system was developed. Improvements to this novel process are discussed

  12. Generation of microbubbles from hollow cylindrical ultrasonic horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makuta, Toshinori; Suzuki, Ryodai; Nakao, Takaaki

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we found that microbubbles with diameters of less than 100μm can be easily generated by using a hollow cylindrical ultrasonic horn. Consecutive images of bubbles obtained by using high-speed and high-resolution cameras reveal that a capillary wave is formed on the gas-liquid interface under weak ultrasonic irradiation and that the wave head is detached in the form of bubbles by the fragmentation of the interface as the power of ultrasonic irradiation increases. Moreover, consecutive images of the bubble interface obtained by an ultra-high-speed camera indicate that the breakup of bubbles oscillating harmonically with the ultrasonic irradiation generates many microbubbles that are less than 100μm in diameter. With regard to the orifice diameter of the horn end, we found that its optimum value varies with the ultrasonic power input. When the orifice diameter is small, the capillary wave generated from the horn end easily propagates all over the gas-liquid interface, thereby starting the generation of microbubbles at a lower ultrasonic power input. When the orifice diameter is large, the capillary wave is attenuated because of viscosity and surface tension. Hence, in this case, microbubble generation from the horn requires a higher ultrasonic power input. Furthermore, the maximum yield of microbubbles via primary and secondary bubble generation can be increased by increasing the gas flow rate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Experimental study on viscosity reduction for residual oil by ultrasonic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xintong; Zhou, Cuihong; Suo, Quanyu; Zhang, Lanting; Wang, Shihan

    2018-03-01

    Because of characteristics of large density, high viscosity and poor mobility, the processing and transportation of residual oil are difficult and challenging, viscosity reduction of residual oil is of great significance. In this paper, the effects of different placement forms of ultrasonic transducers on the sound pressure distribution of ultrasonic inside a cubic container have been simulated, the characteristics of oil bath heating and ultrasonic viscosity reduction were compared, viscosity reduction rule of residual oil was experimentally analyzed by utilizing Response Surface Method under conditions of changing ultrasonic exposure time, power and action mode, the mechanism of viscosity reduction was studied by applying Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, the viscosity retentivity experiment was carried out at last. Experiments were conducted using two kinds of residual oil, and results show that ultrasonic effect on the viscosity reduction of residual oil is significant, the higher viscosity of residual oil, the better effect of ultrasonic, ultrasonic power and exposure time are the significant factors affecting the viscosity reduction rate of residual oil. The maximum viscosity reduction rate is obtained under condition of ultrasonic power is 900W, exposure time is 14min and action mode of exposure time is 2s and interrupting time is 2s, viscosity reduction rate reaching up to 63.95%. The infrared spectroscopy results show that light component in residual oil increased. The viscosity retentivity experiment results show that the viscosity reduction effect remains very well. This paper can provide data reference for the application of ultrasonic in the field of viscosity reduction for residual oil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Modelling the attenuation in the ATHENA finite elements code for the ultrasonic testing of austenitic stainless steel welds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassignole, B; Duwig, V; Ploix, M-A; Guy, P; El Guerjouma, R

    2009-12-01

    Multipass welds made in austenitic stainless steel, in the primary circuit of nuclear power plants with pressurized water reactors, are characterized by an anisotropic and heterogeneous structure that disturbs the ultrasonic propagation and makes ultrasonic non-destructive testing difficult. The ATHENA 2D finite element simulation code was developed to help understand the various physical phenomena at play. In this paper, we shall describe the attenuation model implemented in this code to give an account of wave scattering phenomenon through polycrystalline materials. This model is in particular based on the optimization of two tensors that characterize this material on the basis of experimental values of ultrasonic velocities attenuation coefficients. Three experimental configurations, two of which are representative of the industrial welds assessment case, are studied in view of validating the model through comparison with the simulation results. We shall thus provide a quantitative proof that taking into account the attenuation in the ATHENA code dramatically improves the results in terms of the amplitude of the echoes. The association of the code and detailed characterization of a weld's structure constitutes a remarkable breakthrough in the interpretation of the ultrasonic testing on this type of component.

  15. Experimental assessment of the influence of welding process parameters on Lamb wave transmission across ultrasonically welded thermoplastic composite joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochôa, Pedro; Fernandez Villegas, Irene; Groves, Roger M.; Benedictus, Rinze

    2018-01-01

    One of the advantages of thermoplastic composites relative to their thermoset counterparts is the possibility of assembling components through welding. Ultrasonic welding in particular is very promising for industrialization. However, uncertainty in the fatigue and fracture behaviour of composites is still an obstacle to the full utilisation of these materials. Health monitoring is then of vital importance, and Lamb wave techniques have been widely recognised as some of the most promising approaches for that end. This paper presents the first experimental study about the influence of welding travel on the transmission of Lamb waves across ultrasonically welded thermoplastic composite joints in single-lap configuration. The main aim of this research is to start to understand how guided waves interact with the internal structure of ultrasonic welds, so that benign, manufacturing-related structural features can be distinguished from damaging ones in signal interpretation. The power transmission coefficient and the correlation coefficient proved to be suitable for analysing the wave propagation phenomena, allowing quantitative identification of small variations of weld-line thickness and intermolecular diffusion at the weld interface. The conclusions are used to develop a tentative damage detection criterion which can later on assist the design of a Lamb wave based structural health monitoring system for thermoplastic composite structures. The Lamb wave test results are backed up by phased-array inspections, which also provide some extra insight on the internal structure of ultrasonic welds.

  16. Catalase-positive microbial detection by using different ultrasonic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, S K; Durán, C; Elvira, L

    2012-01-01

    A method for rapid detection of catalase enzyme activity using ultrasonic parameters is presented in this work. It is based on the detection of the hydrolysis of hydrogen peroxide molecule into water and oxygen induced by the enzyme catalase. A special medium was made to amplify changes produced by catalase enzyme during the hydrolysis process. Enzymatic process can be monitored by means of ultrasonic parameters such as wave amplitude, time of flight (TOF), and backscattering measurements which are sensitive to oxygen bubble production. It is shown that catalase activity of the order of 10 −3 unit/ml can be detected using different ultrasonic parameters. The sensitivity provided by them is discussed.

  17. Ultrasonic inspection of partially completed welds using pattern recognition techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, N.M.; Johnson, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The authors investigate the feasibility of using automated ultrasonic examination with computer-based pattern-recognition techniques to inspect partially completed welds on a pass-by-pass basis. In these tests welds are inspected as they are being made, by an automated ultrasonic search unit attached to the weld head. Flaws are intentionally made in the weld. An analysis of the ultrasonic data collected during this process shows that the flaws can be reliably distinguished from good weld and, further, that two different types of flaws can be differentiated from each other. From this analysis a practical concurrent inspection system is shown to be feasible

  18. Quality Evaluation By Acousto-Ultrasonic Testing Of Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vary, Alex

    1989-01-01

    Promising nondestructive-testing method based on ultrasonic simulation of stress waves. Report reviews acousto-ultrasonic technology for nondestructive testing. Discusses principles, suggests advanced signal-analysis schemes for development, and presents potential applications. Acousto-ultrasonics applied principally to assess defects in laminated and filament-wound fiber-reinforced composite materials. Technique used to determine variations in such properties as tensile, shear, and flexural strengths and reductions in strength and toughness caused by defects. Also used to evaluate states of cure, porosities, orientation of fibers, volume fractions of fibers, bonding between fibers and matrices, and qualities of interlaminar bonds.

  19. Interactive signal analysis and ultrasonic data collection system user's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G. R.

    1978-01-01

    The interactive signal analysis and ultrasonic data collection system (ECHO1) is a real time data acquisition and display system. ECHO1 executed on a PDP-11/45 computer under the RT11 real time operating system. Extensive operator interaction provided the requisite parameters to the data collection, calculation, and data modules. Data were acquired in real time from a pulse echo ultrasonic system using a Biomation Model 8100 transient recorder. The data consisted of 2084 intensity values representing the amplitude of pulses transmitted and received by the ultrasonic unit.

  20. Ultrasonic attenuation measurements determine onset, degree, and completion of recrystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, E. R.

    1988-01-01

    Ultrasonic attenuation was measured for cold worked Nickel 200 samples annealed at increasing temperatures. Localized dislocation density variations, crystalline order and volume percent of recrystallized phase were determined over the anneal temperature range using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and metallurgy. The exponent of the frequency dependence of the attenuation was found to be a key variable relating ultrasonic attenuation to the thermal kinetics of the recrystallization process. Identification of this key variable allows for the ultrasonic determination of onset, degree, and completion of recrystallization.

  1. Ultrasonic and radiographic evaluation of advanced aerospace materials: Ceramic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Edward R.

    1990-01-01

    Two conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques were used to evaluate advanced ceramic composite materials. It was shown that neither ultrasonic C-scan nor radiographic imaging can individually provide sufficient data for an accurate nondestructive evaluation. Both ultrasonic C-scan and conventional radiographic imaging are required for preliminary evaluation of these complex systems. The material variations that were identified by these two techniques are porosity, delaminations, bond quality between laminae, fiber alignment, fiber registration, fiber parallelism, and processing density flaws. The degree of bonding between fiber and matrix cannot be determined by either of these methods. An alternative ultrasonic technique, angular power spectrum scanning (APSS) is recommended for quantification of this interfacial bond.

  2. Ultrasonic Transducer Peak-to-Peak Optical Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Skarvada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Possible optical setups for measurement of the peak-to-peak value of an ultrasonic transducer are described in this work. The Michelson interferometer with the calibrated nanopositioner in reference path and laser Doppler vibrometer were used for the basic measurement of vibration displacement. Langevin type of ultrasonic transducer is used for the purposes of Electro-Ultrasonic Nonlinear Spectroscopy (EUNS. Parameters of produced mechanical vibration have to been well known for EUNS. Moreover, a monitoring of mechanical vibration frequency shift with a mass load and sample-transducer coupling is important for EUNS measurement.

  3. Computerized ultrasonic test inspection enhancement system for aircraft components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, R. G.

    Attention is given to the computerized ultrasonic test inspection enhancement (CUTIE) system which was designed to meet the following program goals: (1) automation of the inspection technique and evaluation of the discontinuities for aircraft components while maintaining reasonable implementation costs and reducing the overall inspection costs; and (2) design of a system which would allow for easy modification so that new concepts could be implemented. The system's ultrasonic test bridge, C-scan recorder, computer control, and ultrasonic flaw detector are described. Consideration is also given to the concurrent development of an eight element array transducer (for increasing the inspection rate) and a high-speed data acquisition system (for signature analysis).

  4. Model of reliability assessment in ultrasonic nondestructive inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ik Keun; Park, Un Su; Kim, Hyun Mook; Park, Yoon Won; Kang, Suk Chull; Choi, Young Hwan; Lee, Jin Ho

    2001-01-01

    Ultrasonic inspection system is consisted of the operator, equipment and procedure. The reliability of results in ultrasonic inspection is affected by its ability. Furthermore, the reliability of nondestructive testing is influenced by the inspection environment, other materials and types of defect. Therefore, it is very difficult to estimate the reliability of NDT due to various factors. In this study, the probability of detection, used logistic probability model and Monte Carlo simulation, estimated the reliability of ultrasonic inspection. The utility of the NDT reliability assessment is verified by the analysis of the data from round robin test applied these models

  5. Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Raspberry Seed Oil and Evaluation of Its Physicochemical Properties, Fatty Acid Compositions and Antioxidant Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Hui; Chen, Lei; Huang, Qun; Wang, Jinli; Lin, Qiyang; Liu, Mingxin; Lee, Won Young; Song, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonic-assisted extraction was employed for highly efficient separation of aroma oil from raspberry seeds. A central composite design with two variables and five levels was employed and effects of process variables of sonication time and extraction temperature on oil recovery and quality were investigated. Optimal conditions predicted by response surface methodology were sonication time of 37 min and extraction temperature of 54°C. Specifically, ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) was able to provide a higher content of beneficial unsaturated fatty acids, whereas conventional Soxhlet extraction (SE) resulted in a higher amount of saturated fatty acids. Moreover, raspberry seed oil contained abundant amounts of edible linoleic acid and linolenic acid, which suggest raspberry seeds could be valuable edible sources of natural γ-linolenic acid products. In comparison with SE, UAE exerted higher free radical scavenging capacities. In addition, UAE significantly blocked H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation.

  6. Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Raspberry Seed Oil and Evaluation of Its Physicochemical Properties, Fatty Acid Compositions and Antioxidant Activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Teng

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic-assisted extraction was employed for highly efficient separation of aroma oil from raspberry seeds. A central composite design with two variables and five levels was employed and effects of process variables of sonication time and extraction temperature on oil recovery and quality were investigated. Optimal conditions predicted by response surface methodology were sonication time of 37 min and extraction temperature of 54°C. Specifically, ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE was able to provide a higher content of beneficial unsaturated fatty acids, whereas conventional Soxhlet extraction (SE resulted in a higher amount of saturated fatty acids. Moreover, raspberry seed oil contained abundant amounts of edible linoleic acid and linolenic acid, which suggest raspberry seeds could be valuable edible sources of natural γ-linolenic acid products. In comparison with SE, UAE exerted higher free radical scavenging capacities. In addition, UAE significantly blocked H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS generation.

  7. Ultrasonic imaging of materials under unconventional circumstances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Declercq, Nico Felicien, E-mail: declercqdepatin@gatech.edu; McKeon, Peter, E-mail: declercqdepatin@gatech.edu; Liu, Jingfei; Shaw, Anurupa [Georgia Institute of Technology, UMI Georgia Tech - CNRS 2958, George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Tech Lorraine, Laboratory for Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation, 2 rue Marconi, 5070 Met-technopole (France); Slah, Yaacoubi [Institut de Soudure, 4 Bvd Henri Becquerel, Espace Cormontaigne, 57937 Yutz (France)

    2015-03-31

    This paper reflects the contents of the plenary talk given by Nico Felicien Declercq. “Ultrasonic Imaging of materials” covers a wide technological area with main purpose to look at and to peek inside materials. In an ideal world one would manage to examine materials like a clairvoyant. Fortunately this is impossible hence nature has offered sufficient challenges to mankind to provoke curiosity and to develop science and technology. Here we focus on the appearance of certain undesired physical effects that prohibit direct imaging of materials in ultrasonic C-scans. Furthermore we try to make use of these effects to obtain indirect images of materials and therefore make a virtue of necessity. First we return to one of the oldest quests in the progress of mankind: how thick is ice? Our ancestors must have faced this question early on during migration to Northern Europe and to the America’s and Asia. If a physicist or engineer is not provided with helpful tools such as a drill or a device based on ultrasound, it is difficult to determine the ice thickness. Guided waves, similar to those used for nondestructive testing of thin plates in structural health monitoring can be used in combination with the human ear to determine the thickness of ice. To continue with plates, if an image of its interior is desired high frequency ultrasonic pulses can be applied. It is known by the physicist that the resolution depends on the wavelength and that high frequencies usually result in undesirably high damping effects inhibiting deep penetration into the material. To the more practical oriented engineer it is known that it is advantageous to polish surfaces before examination because scattering and diffraction of sound lowers the image resolution. Random scatterers cause some blurriness but cooperating scatters, causing coherent diffraction effects similar to the effects that cause DVD’s to show rainbow patterns under sunlight, can cause spooky images and erroneous

  8. Ultrasonic imaging of materials under unconventional circumstances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Declercq, Nico Felicien; McKeon, Peter; Liu, Jingfei; Shaw, Anurupa; Slah, Yaacoubi

    2015-01-01

    This paper reflects the contents of the plenary talk given by Nico Felicien Declercq. “Ultrasonic Imaging of materials” covers a wide technological area with main purpose to look at and to peek inside materials. In an ideal world one would manage to examine materials like a clairvoyant. Fortunately this is impossible hence nature has offered sufficient challenges to mankind to provoke curiosity and to develop science and technology. Here we focus on the appearance of certain undesired physical effects that prohibit direct imaging of materials in ultrasonic C-scans. Furthermore we try to make use of these effects to obtain indirect images of materials and therefore make a virtue of necessity. First we return to one of the oldest quests in the progress of mankind: how thick is ice? Our ancestors must have faced this question early on during migration to Northern Europe and to the America’s and Asia. If a physicist or engineer is not provided with helpful tools such as a drill or a device based on ultrasound, it is difficult to determine the ice thickness. Guided waves, similar to those used for nondestructive testing of thin plates in structural health monitoring can be used in combination with the human ear to determine the thickness of ice. To continue with plates, if an image of its interior is desired high frequency ultrasonic pulses can be applied. It is known by the physicist that the resolution depends on the wavelength and that high frequencies usually result in undesirably high damping effects inhibiting deep penetration into the material. To the more practical oriented engineer it is known that it is advantageous to polish surfaces before examination because scattering and diffraction of sound lowers the image resolution. Random scatterers cause some blurriness but cooperating scatters, causing coherent diffraction effects similar to the effects that cause DVD’s to show rainbow patterns under sunlight, can cause spooky images and erroneous

  9. Inhibition of the ultrasonic microjet-pits on the carbon steel in the particles-water mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayun Yan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the incubation period of ultrasonic cavitation, due to the impact of microjets on the material surface, the needle-like microjet-pits are formed. Because the formation of microjet-pits relates with the evolution of cavitation erosion on engineering materials, corresponding study will promote the understanding on the mechanism of cavitation erosion. However, little study on the microjet-pits has been carried out, especially in the particles-water mixture. In this study, we firstly demonstrated the microjet-pits on the carbon steel would be significantly inhibited by Al particles in water. Such inhibition effect indicated that particular particles might not only provide growth sites for cavitation bubbles but also affect the collapse of cavitation bubbles near a solid surface. Our study deepened the understanding on the ultrasonic cavitation erosion in the particles-water mixture.

  10. Separation of flow

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Paul K

    2014-01-01

    Interdisciplinary and Advanced Topics in Science and Engineering, Volume 3: Separation of Flow presents the problem of the separation of fluid flow. This book provides information covering the fields of basic physical processes, analyses, and experiments concerning flow separation.Organized into 12 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the flow separation on the body surface as discusses in various classical examples. This text then examines the analytical and experimental results of the laminar boundary layer of steady, two-dimensional flows in the subsonic speed range. Other chapt

  11. Centrifugal gas separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Mitsuo.

    1970-01-01

    A centrifugal gas separator of a highly endurable construction and with improved gas sealing qualities utilizes a cylincrical elastic bellows or similar system in cooperation with a system of dynamic pressure operable gas seals as means for removing separated gases from the interior of the rotor drum, collecting the separated gases in their respective separated gas chambers defined by the corresponding bellows and their supporting stationary wall members, gas seals and rotor end caps, and means for discharging to the exterior of the surrounding cylindrical wall member the gaseous components from their respective separated gas chambers. In the vicinity of the rotary drum motor is a mixed gas chamber and means for providing the gas mixture along a co-axial passage into the rotary drum chamber. Orifices are bored into the end caps of the rotary drum to direct the separated gases into the aforementioned separated gas chambers which, through the action of the gas seals, freely slide upon the rotating drum to collect and thereafter discharge the thus separated gases. Therefore, according to the present invention, helium gas used to prevent separated gas remixture is unnecessary and, furthermore, the gas seals and elastic bellows means provide an air-tight seal superior to that of the contact sealing system of the former art. (K.J. Owens)

  12. Viscoelastic monitoring of curing geo-polymer by ultrasonic rheology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouyer, Julien; Poulesquen, Arnaud; Frizon, Fabien

    2013-01-01

    The suggested method is based on the exploitation of the ultrasonic shear waves reflection phenomenon from an interface which consists in an elastic reference medium and a viscoelastic material of interest. We applied this method to the geo-polymer; this polymer-like material is inorganically synthesized by the alkaline activation of an aluminosilicate source (metakaolin) in an aqueous solution. This work aims to understand the geo-polymerization mechanisms from the early fresh paste up to the hardened state. A dedicated self-made cell was built to transmit a broadband pulse in the mega-hertz range to study the reflected shear wave from the elastic/viscoelastic interface. An important issue of this method is the accurate determination of the phase angle and the module of the acoustic reflection coefficient. Both parameters are directly linked to the viscoelastic evolution and, thus, to physicochemical properties. The complex shear modulus is obtained with this method. At present, the percolation time is well correlated with standard dynamic rheology characterization. (authors)

  13. An evaluation of human factors research for ultrasonic inservice inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pond, D.J.; Donohoo, D.T.; Harris, R.V. Jr.

    1998-03-01

    This work was undertaken to determine if human factors research has yielded information applicable to upgrading requirements in ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section XI, improving methods and techniques in Section V, and/or suggesting relevant research. A preference was established for information and recommendations which have become accepted and standard practice. Manual Ultrasonic Testing/Inservice Inspection (UT/ISI) is a complex task subject to influence by dozens of variables. This review frequently revealed equivocal findings regarding effects of environmental variables as well as repeated indications that inspection performance may be more, and more reliably, influenced by the workers` social environment, including managerial practices, than by other situational variables. Also of significance are each inspector`s relevant knowledge, skills, and abilities, and determination of these is seen as a necessary first step in upgrading requirements, methods, and techniques as well as in focusing research in support of such programs, While understanding the effects and mediating mechanisms of the variables impacting inspection performance is a worthwhile pursuit for researchers, initial improvements in industrial UTASI performance may be achieved by implementing practices already known to mitigate the effects of potentially adverse conditions. 52 refs., 2 tabs.

  14. An evaluation of human factors research for ultrasonic inservice inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pond, D.J.; Donohoo, D.T.; Harris, R.V. Jr.

    1998-03-01

    This work was undertaken to determine if human factors research has yielded information applicable to upgrading requirements in ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section XI, improving methods and techniques in Section V, and/or suggesting relevant research. A preference was established for information and recommendations which have become accepted and standard practice. Manual Ultrasonic Testing/Inservice Inspection (UT/ISI) is a complex task subject to influence by dozens of variables. This review frequently revealed equivocal findings regarding effects of environmental variables as well as repeated indications that inspection performance may be more, and more reliably, influenced by the workers' social environment, including managerial practices, than by other situational variables. Also of significance are each inspector's relevant knowledge, skills, and abilities, and determination of these is seen as a necessary first step in upgrading requirements, methods, and techniques as well as in focusing research in support of such programs, While understanding the effects and mediating mechanisms of the variables impacting inspection performance is a worthwhile pursuit for researchers, initial improvements in industrial UTASI performance may be achieved by implementing practices already known to mitigate the effects of potentially adverse conditions. 52 refs., 2 tabs

  15. Enhanced ultrasonic focusing and temperature elevation via a therapeutic ultrasonic transducer with sub-wavelength periodic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenghai; Yang, Yanye; Guo, Xiasheng; Tu, Juan; Huang, Pintong; Li, Faqi; Zhang, Dong

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we report a therapeutic ultrasonic transducer with a sub-wavelength periodic structure, by which ultrasonic focusing and temperature elevation have been significantly enhanced compared to a conventional concave transducer with the same size. Enhanced acoustic focusing was demonstrated by both measuring and simulating acoustic pressure and temperature elevation. Compared to the conventional concave transducer, the proposed transducer exhibited stronger capacity in elevating acoustic pressure and temperature rise in the focal region, in which extraordinary acoustic transmission close to Wood's anomaly could be modulated by the spherically curved surface. This work is believed to possess great clinical potential in the safe and efficient application of ultrasonic therapy.

  16. Wideband acoustic activation and detection of droplet vaporization events using a capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novell, Anthony; Arena, Christopher B.; Oralkan, Omer; Dayton, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    An ongoing challenge exists in understanding and optimizing the acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) process to enhance contrast agent effectiveness for biomedical applications. Acoustic signatures from vaporization events can be identified and differentiated from microbubble or tissue signals based on their frequency content. The present study exploited the wide bandwidth of a 128-element capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) array for activation (8 MHz) and real-time imaging (1 MHz) of ADV events from droplets circulating in a tube. Compared to a commercial piezoelectric probe, the CMUT array provides a substantial increase of the contrast-to-noise ratio. PMID:27369143

  17. Model based analysis of the drying of a single solution droplet in an ultrasonic levitator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Jakob; Kiil, Søren; Jensen, Anker

    2006-01-01

    A model for the drying of a single solution droplet into a solid, dense particle is presented and simulations are made to achieve a more fundamental understanding of the single droplet drying process relevant in connection with spray drying processes. Model predictions of drying behaviour...... are compared to data for the drying of aqueous solutions of maltodextrin DE 15 and trehalose from experiments conducted using an ultrasonic levitator. Model predictions are in good agreement with the experimental data, indicating that the model describes the most important physical phenomena of the process....

  18. ULTRASONIC STUDIES OF THE FUNDAMENTAL MECHANISMS OF RECRYSTALLIZATION AND SINTERING OF METALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TURNER, JOSEPH A.

    2005-11-30

    The purpose of this project was to develop a fundamental understanding of the interaction of an ultrasonic wave with complex media, with specific emphases on recrystallization and sintering of metals. A combined analytical, numerical, and experimental research program was implemented. Theoretical models of elastic wave propagation through these complex materials were developed using stochastic wave field techniques. The numerical simulations focused on finite element wave propagation solutions through complex media. The experimental efforts were focused on corroboration of the models developed and on the development of new experimental techniques. The analytical and numerical research allows the experimental results to be interpreted quantitatively.

  19. Real time automatic discriminating of ultrasonic flaws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhairy Sani; Mohd Hanif Md Saad; Marzuki Mustafa; Mohd Redzwan Rosli

    2009-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the real time automatic discriminating of flaws from two categories; i. cracks (planar defect) and ii. Non-cracks (volumetric defect such as cluster porosity and slag) using pulse-echo ultrasound. The raw ultrasonic flaws signal were collected from a computerized robotic plane scanning system over the whole of each reflector as the primary source of data. The signal is then filtered and the analysis in both time and frequency domain were executed to obtain the selected feature. The real time feature analysis techniques measured the number of peaks, maximum index, pulse duration, rise time and fall time. The obtained features could be used to distinguish between quantitatively classified flaws by using various tools in artificial intelligence such as neural networks. The proposed algorithm and complete system were implemented in a computer software developed using Microsoft Visual BASIC 6.0 (author)

  20. Internal ultrasonic testing of steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furlan, J.; Soleille, G.; Chalaye, H.

    1983-01-01

    The ''in situ'' inspection of steam generator tubes uses generally Foucault currents before starting and along its life. This inspection aims at searching cracks and corrosion defects. The Foucault current method is quite badly adapted to ''closed crack'' detection, for it doesn't introduce neither resistivity or magnetic permeability variation, or lack of matter. More, it is sensible to the magnetic properties of the tube itself and to its environment (tubular or support plates). It is why, this first systematic inspection has to be completed by an ultrasonic one allowing to bring new elements in the uncertain cases. A device with an internal probe has been developed. It ''lights'' the tube wall with the aid of a transducer of which beam reflects on a mirror. Operating conditions are the same as for Foucault current testing, that is to say the probe moves inside the tube without rotation of the device (bent parts are excluded) [fr

  1. Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers for 3-D Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann

    of state-of-the-art 3-D ultrasound systems. The focus is on row-column addressed transducer arrays. This previously sparsely investigated addressing scheme offers a highly reduced number of transducer elements, resulting in reduced transducer manufacturing costs and data processing. To produce...... such transducer arrays, capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) technology is chosen for this project. Properties such as high bandwidth and high design flexibility makes this an attractive transducer technology, which is under continuous development in the research community. A theoretical...... capable of producing 62+62-element row-column addressed CMUT arrays with negligible charging issues. The arrays include an integrated apodization, which reduces the ghost echoes produced by the edge waves in such arrays by 15:8 dB. The acoustical cross-talk is measured on fabricated arrays, showing a 24 d...

  2. Ultrasonic Phase Velocity and Attenuation in Emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesse, Oe.; Froeysa, K.E.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents measurements of ultrasonic phase velocity and attenuation in emulsions in the frequency range 250 kHz to 14 MHz for volume fractions of dispersed phase varying from 2% to 80%. The experimental data are compared to theoretical predictions based on multiple scattering models. Good agreement is found between experimental data and theory for an oil-in-water emulsion at volume fractions up to 50%. For volume fractions of the dispersed phase above 50%, important discrepancies are found between the multiple scattering theories and the experiments for oil-in-water emulsions and for water-in-oil emulsions. However, measurements on water-in-oil emulsions and attenuation in emulsions of aliphatic oils in water deviate considerably from the theories. Measurements of phase velocity and attenuation in emulsions may provide information about droplet size, volume fraction of the dispersed phase and determine whether the emulsion is oil or water continuous. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Design and implementation of spherical ultrasonic motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashimo, Tomoaki; Toyama, Shigeki; Ishida, Hiroshi

    2009-11-01

    We present a mechanical design and implementation of spherical ultrasonic motor (SUSM) that is an actuator with multiple rotational degrees of freedom (multi-DOF). The motor is constructed of 3 annular stators and a spherical rotor and is much smaller and simpler than conventional multi-DOF mechanisms such as gimbals using servomotors. We designed a novel SUSM using experimental data from a single annular stator and a finite element method. The SUSM using a spherical rotor of diameter 20 mm without any reduction gear has demonstrated advantages of high responsiveness, good accuracy, and high torque at low speed. The dynamic implementation of SUSM was consistent with the driving model of SUSM based on a friction drive.

  4. Detecting Blind Spot By Using Ultrasonic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Ajay

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Safety remains a top concern for automobile industries and new-car shoppers. Detection of Blind Spots is a major concern for safety issues. So automobiles have been constantly updating their products with new technologies to detect blind spots so that they can add more safety to the vehicle and also reduce the road accidents. Almost 1.5 million people die in road accidents each year. Blind spot of an automobile is the region of the vehicle which cannot be observed properly while looking either through side or rear mirror view. To meet the above requirements this paper describes detecting blind spot by using ultrasonic sensor and controlling the direction of car by automatic steering. The technology embedded in the system is capable of automatically steer the vehicle away from an obstacle if the system determines that a collision is impending or if the vehicle is in the vicinity of our car.

  5. Ultrasonication and food technology: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishrat Majid

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With increasing consumers demand and tightening of food and environmental regulations, traditional food-processing techniques have lost their optimum performance which gave rise to new and powerful technologies. Ultrasonic is a one of the fast, versatile, emerging, and promising non-destructive green technology used in the food industry from last few years. The ultrasound is being carried out in various areas of food technology namely crystallization, freezing, bleaching, degassing, extraction, drying, filtration, emulsification, sterilization, cutting, etc. Ultrasound is being applied as an effective preservation tool in many food-processing fields viz. vegetables and fruits, cereal products, honey, gels, proteins, enzymes, microbial inactivation, cereal technology, water treatment, diary technology, etc. This review summarizes the latest knowledge on impact and application of ultrasound in food technology.

  6. Ultrasonic velocity measurements in expanded liquid mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, K.; Inutake, M.; Fujiwaka, S.

    1977-10-01

    In this paper we present the first results of the sound velocity measurements in expanded liquid mercury. The measurements were made at temperatures up to 1600 0 C and pressures up to 1700 kg/cm 2 by means of an ultrasonic pulse transmission/echo technique which was newly developed for such high temperature/pressure condition. When the density is larger than 9 g/cm 3 , the observed sound velocity decreases linearly with decreasing density. At densities smaller than 9 g/cm 3 , the linear dependence on the density is no longer observed. The observed sound velocity approaches a minimum near the liquid-gas critical point (rho sub(cr) asymptotically equals 5.5 g/cm 3 ). The existing theories for sound velocity in liquid metals fail to explain the observed results. (auth.)

  7. Advanced Ultrasonic Tomograph of Children's Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasaygues, Philippe; Lefebvre, Jean-Pierre; Guillermin, Régine; Kaftandjian, Valérie; Berteau, Jean-Philippe; Pithioux, Martine; Petit, Philippe

    This study deals with the development of an experimental device for performing ultrasonic computed tomography (UCT) on bone in pediatric degrees. The children's bone tomographs obtained in this study, were based on the use of a multiplexed 2-D ring antenna (1 MHz and 3 MHz) designed for performing electronic and mechanical scanning. Although this approach is known to be a potentially valuable means of imaging objects with similar acoustical impedances, problems arise when quantitative images of more highly contrasted media such as bones are required. Various strategies and various mathematical procedures for modeling the wave propagation based on Born approximations have been developed at our laboratory, which are suitable for use with pediatric cases. Inversions of the experimental data obtained are presented.

  8. Ultrasonic guided waves in eccentric annular pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattanayak, Roson Kumar; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Rajagopal, Prabhu

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the feasibility of using ultrasonic guided waves to rapidly inspect tubes and pipes for possible eccentricity. While guided waves are well established in the long range inspection of structures such as pipes and plates, studies for more complex cross sections are limited and analytical solutions are often difficult to obtain. Recent developments have made the Semi Analytical Finite Element (SAFE) method widely accessible for researchers to study guided wave properties in complex structures. Here the SAFE method is used to study the effect of eccentricity on the modal structures and velocities of lower order guided wave modes in thin pipes of diameters typically of interest to the industry. Results are validated using experiments. The paper demonstrates that even a small eccentricity in the pipe can strongly affect guided wave mode structures and velocities and hence shows potential for pipe eccentricity inspection

  9. Ultrasonic sweep arm for sodium cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohrbacher, H.A.; Bartholomay, R.

    1975-05-01

    This report describes experience in the use of a new type of monitoring and testing device to be applied in conjunction with components under sodium. In the method outlined, ultrasonic pulses are used which are emitted into the sodium plenum of fast breeder reactors by newly developed high temperature transducers. The basic work was conducted under out-of-pile conditions in a sodium tank of the sodium tank facility of the Karlsruhe Institute for Reactor Development. The sensor development, which preceded this phase, resulted in the use of soldered lithium niobate crystals whose operating characteristics were improved by the preliminary treatment outlined in the report. Special materials and techniques suitable for sensor fabrication are proposed. An alternative to soldering is suggested for contacting the crystals with their diaphragms, i.e. a contact pressure concept for the range of application up to 2 MHz. (orig.) [de

  10. Salt-Assisted Ultrasonic Deaggregation of Nanodiamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcheniuk, K; Trecazzi, C; Deeleepojananan, C; Mochalin, V N

    2016-09-28

    We report a new facile, inexpensive, and contaminant-free technique of salt-assisted ultrasonic deaggregation (SAUD) of nanodiamond into single-digit particles stable in aqueous colloidal solution in a wide pH range. The technique utilizes the energy of ultrasound to break apart nanodiamond aggregates in sodium chloride aqueous slurry. In contrast to current deaggregation techniques, which introduce zirconia contaminants into nanodiamond, the single-digit nanodiamond colloids produced by SAUD have no toxic or difficult-to-remove impurities and are therefore well-suited to produce nanodiamonds for numerous applications, including theranostics, composites, and lubrication, etc. Requiring only aqueous slurry of sodium chloride and standard horn sonicator, and yielding highly pure well-dispersed nanodiamond colloids, the technique is an attractive alternative to current nanodiamond deaggregation protocols and can be easily implemented in any laboratory or scaled up for industrial use.

  11. Composite biaxially textured substrates using ultrasonic consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, Craig A; Goyal, Amit

    2013-04-23

    A method of forming a composite sheet includes disposing an untextured metal or alloy first sheet in contact with a second sheet in an aligned opposing position; bonding the first sheet to the second sheet by applying an oscillating ultrasonic force to at least one of the first sheet and the second sheet to form an untextured intermediate composite sheet; and annealing the untextured intermediate composite sheet at a temperature lower than a primary re-crystallization temperature of the second sheet and higher than a primary re-crystallization temperature of the first sheet to convert the untextured first sheet into a cube textured sheet, wherein the cube texture is characterized by a .phi.-scan having a FWHM of no more than 15.degree. in all directions, the second sheet remaining untextured, to form a composite sheet.

  12. Ultrasonic trap for light scattering measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Petr; Pavlu, Jiri

    2017-04-01

    Light scattering is complex phenomenon occurring widely in space environments, including the dense dusty clouds, nebulas or even the upper atmosphere of the Earth. However, when the size of the dust (or of other scattering center) is close to the incident light wavelength, theoretical determination is difficult. In such case, Mie theory is to be used but there is a lack of the material constants for most space-related materials. For experimental measurement of light scattering, we designed unique apparatus, based on ultrasonic trap. Using acoustic levitation we are able to capture the dust grain in midair, irradiate it with laser, and observe scattering directly with goniometer-mounted photodiode. Advantage of this approach is ability to measure directly in the air (thus, no need for the carrier medium) and possibility to study non-spherical particles. Since the trap development is nearly finished and initial experiments are carried out, the paper presents first tests on water droplets.

  13. Ultrasonic Velocity Studies of Vanadium-Sesquioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, David Newell

    1981-02-01

    The elastic stiffness moduli of pure single crystal V(,2)O(,3) at 296K are determined up to 4 kbar from measurements of the travel times of 30 MHz ultrasonic waves. Linear pressure dependences are found for all modes. Four elastic constants C(,11), C(,12), C(,13), and C(,33) have large positive pressure dependences. Comparison with results for (alpha)-Al(,2)O(,3) indicate that these large dependences are due in part to the highly anisotropic contraction of V(,2)O(,3) under pressure. The softening with pressure of the shear elastic stiffness C(,ST) suggests that a high pressure transition occurs in V(,2)O(,3) between 150 and 250 kbars. Using the values and pressure dependences of C(,11), C(,12), C(,13), and C(,33) we calculate the changes in lattice parameters with pressure up to 140 kbar. Our results are compared with x-ray data of others. The elastic stiffness moduli of V(,2)O(,3) are also determined between 300 and 640K from measurements of the travel times of 30MHz and 150MHz ultrasonic waves. Unusual behavior is found. Elastic constants C(,11), and C(,12), and the bulk modulus each goes through a deep minimum at 540K, in the region of the high temperature electrical transition. Some modes soften drastically between 300K and 540K and then less strongly at higher temperatures. Two shear modes stiffen monotonically with temperature. C(,44) is observed to increase very slightly with temperature near room temperature, go through a maximum, then pass through a minimum near 540K. These results are discussed in the context of the high and low temperature electrical transitions in V(,2)O(,3).

  14. A new approach to ultrasonic elasticity imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerig, Cameron; Ghaboussi, Jamshid; Fatemi, Mostafa; Insana, Michael F.

    2016-04-01

    Biomechanical properties of soft tissues can provide information regarding the local health status. Often the cells in pathological tissues can be found to form a stiff extracellular environment, which is a sensitive, early diagnostic indicator of disease. Quasi-static ultrasonic elasticity imaging provides a way to image the mechanical properties of tissues. Strain images provide a map of the relative tissue stiffness, but ambiguities and artifacts limit its diagnostic value. Accurately mapping intrinsic mechanical parameters of a region may increase diagnostic specificity. However, the inverse problem, whereby force and displacement estimates are used to estimate a constitutive matrix, is ill conditioned. Our method avoids many of the issues involved with solving the inverse problem, such as unknown boundary conditions and incomplete information about the stress field, by building an empirical model directly from measured data. Surface force and volumetric displacement data gathered during imaging are used in conjunction with the AutoProgressive method to teach artificial neural networks the stress-strain relationship of tissues. The Autoprogressive algorithm has been successfully used in many civil engineering applications and to estimate ocular pressure and corneal stiffness; here, we are expanding its use to any tissues imaged ultrasonically. We show that force-displacement data recorded with an ultrasound probe and displacements estimated at a few points in the imaged region can be used to estimate the full stress and strain vectors throughout an entire model while only assuming conservation laws. We will also demonstrate methods to parameterize the mechanical properties based on the stress-strain response of trained neural networks. This method is a fundamentally new approach to medical elasticity imaging that for the first time provides full stress and strain vectors from one set of observation data.

  15. Ultrasonic guided wave tomography for wall thickness mapping in pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, Carson L.

    . An inversion method that iteratively uses the forward model is then developed to form a map of wall thickness for the entire pipe section comprised between two ring arrays of ultrasonic transducers that encircle the pipe. It is shown that time independent parametric uncertainties relative to the pipe manufacturing tolerances, transducers position, and ultrasonic properties of the material of the pipe can be minimized through a differential approach that is aimed at determining the change in state of the pipe relative to a reference condition. On the other hand, time dependent parametric uncertainties, such as those caused by temperature variations, can be addressed by exploiting the spatial diversity of array measurements and the non-contact nature of electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs). The range of possible applications of GWT to pipes is investigated through theoretical and numerical studies aimed at developing an understanding of how the performance of GWT varies depending on damage morphology, pipe geometry, and array configuration.

  16. Old World frog and bird vocalizations contain prominent ultrasonic harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narins, Peter M.; Feng, Albert S.; Lin, Wenyu; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich; Denzinger, Annette; Suthers, Roderick A.; Xu, Chunhe

    2004-02-01

    Several groups of mammals such as bats, dolphins and whales are known to produce ultrasonic signals which are used for navigation and hunting by means of echolocation, as well as for communication. In contrast, frogs and birds produce sounds during night- and day-time hours that are audible to humans; their sounds are so pervasive that together with those of insects, they are considered the primary sounds of nature. Here we show that an Old World frog (Amolops tormotus) and an oscine songbird (Abroscopus albogularis) living near noisy streams reliably produce acoustic signals that contain prominent ultrasonic harmonics. Our findings provide the first evidence that anurans and passerines are capable of generating tonal ultrasonic call components and should stimulate the quest for additional ultrasonic species.

  17. Fatigue Behavior of Glassy Polymers by Ultrasonic NDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, O. S.; Rho, E. H.

    1990-01-01

    It is well-known that the defects (existing in structures) and the material degradation(caused by the fatigue load) generally initiate the failure of structures. The NDE such as ultrasonic technique which can be used to detect the size and the orientation of defects has been utilized to estimate the life and stability of structures. However, only few experimental reports made by using the ultrasonic technique have been published for the case of fatigue estimation of materials and structures. The purpose of this study is, thus, to derive the relationship between ultrasonic attenuation and fatigue behavior of Polycarbonate and PMMA through ultrasonic characterization. It is also attempted to offer NDE experimental procedure which may be useful to predict fatigue life

  18. Ultrasonic characterization of zirconia-toughened alumina ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phani, K.K.; Mukherjee, S.; Basu, D.

    1996-01-01

    Ultrasonic pulse-echo technique was used for the characterization of sintered zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA) ceramics. The variation of the ultrasonic velocity and elastic constants with the volume fraction of zirconia in the alumina matrix was studied. The ultrasonic velocity variation in these materials also was modeled using a mean-value approach. The zirconia grains in ZTA were modeled by oblate spheroids, whose aspect ratio was estimated from the two-dimensional microstructure of the material using stereological relations. The aspect ratio was then used as a parameter to estimate the ultrasonic velocity variation in the material using self-consistent spheroidal inclusion theory, and the model was validated by comparing the estimated data with the measured velocity values, which showed very good agreement

  19. Estimation of in vivo cortical bone thickness using ultrasonic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Isao; Horii, Kaoru; Hagino, Hiroshi; Miki, Takami; Matsukawa, Mami; Otani, Takahiko

    2015-07-01

    To verify the measurement of cortical bone thickness at the distal radius in vivo using an ultrasonic method. The method for estimating cortical bone thickness was derived from experiments with in vitro bovine specimens. Propagation time of echo waves and propagation time of slow waves were used for the estimation. The outside diameter of cortical bone and the cortical bone thickness at the distal 5.5 % site of radius were measured with the new ultrasonic bone measurement system, and the results were compared with X-ray pQCT clinical measurements. There was a high positive correlation (r: 0.76) between the cortical bone thickness measured by the new ultrasonic system and the X-ray pQCT results. We will be able to measure not only cancellous bone density but also cortical bone thickness in vivo using ultrasonic waves (without X-ray) safely and repeatedly.

  20. A modern approach to surgical endodontics: ultrasonic apical preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellert, M; Solomon, C; Chalfin, H

    1994-01-01

    Ultrasonic devices are capable of generating better apical preparations than rotary instruments with less sacrifice of root structure. Regardless of the technique used, good lighting and magnification are necessary to insure an adequate apical preparation.

  1. Ultrasonic enhancement of lipase-catalysed transesterification for biodiesel synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhangu, Sukhvir Kaur; Gupta, Shweta; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    2017-01-01

    The production of biodiesel was carried out from canola oil and methanol catalysed by lipase from Candida rugosa under different ultrasonic experimental conditions using horn (20kHz) and plate (22, 44, 98 and 300kHz) transducers. The effects of experimental conditions such as horn tip diameter, ultrasonic power, ultrasonic frequency and enzyme concentrations on biodiesel yield were investigated. The results showed that the application of ultrasound decreased the reaction time from 22-24h to 1.5h with the use of 3.5cm ultrasonic horn, an applied power of 40W, methanol to oil molar ratio of 5:1 and enzyme concentration of 0.23wt/wt% of oil. Low intensity ultrasound is efficient and a promising tool for the enzyme catalysed biodiesel synthesis as higher intensities tend to inactivate the enzyme and reduce its efficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Ultrasonic Inspection Techniques Possibilities for Centrifugal Cast Copper Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konar R.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with ultrasonic testing possibilities of the copper alloy centrifugal casts. It focused on the problems that arise when testing of castings is made of non-ferrous materials. Most common types of casting defects is dedicated in theoretical introduction of article. Ultrasonic testing technique by conventional ultrasound system is described in the theoretical part too. Practical ultrasonic testing of centrifugal copper alloy cast - brass is in experimental part. The experimental sample was part of centrifugally cast brass ring with dimensions of Ø1200x34 mm. The influence of microstructure on ultrasonic attenuation and limitations in testing due to attenuation is describes in experimental part. Conventional direct single element contact ultrasound probe with frequencies of 5 MHz, 3.5 MHz and 2 MHz were used for all experimental measurements. The results of experimental part of article are recommendations for selecting equipment and accessories for casting testing made of non-ferrous metals.

  3. Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing for Efficient Space Vehicles, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this Phase II SBIR program is to demonstrate the application of Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing (UAM) solid state metal 3D printing to create new and...

  4. Cavitation Measurement during Sonic and Ultrasonic Activated Irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macedo, Ricardo; Verhaagen, Bram; Rivas, David Fernandez; Versluis, Michel; Wesselink, Paul; van der Sluis, Luc

    Introduction: The aims of this study were to quantify and to visualize the possible occurrence of transient cavitation (bubble formation and implosion) during sonic and ultrasonic (UAI) activated irrigation. Methods: The amount of cavitation generated around several endodontic instruments was

  5. The electro-mechanical behaviour of flexural ultrasonic transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Steve; Kang, Lei; Ginestier, Michael; Wells, Christopher; Rowlands, George; Feeney, Andrew

    2017-05-01

    Flexural ultrasonic transducers are capable of high electro-mechanical coupling efficiencies for the generation or detection of ultrasound in fluids. They are the most common type of ultrasonic sensor, commonly used in parking sensors, because the devices are efficient, robust, and inexpensive. The simplest design consists of a piezoelectric disc, bonded to the inner surface of a metal cap, the face of which provides a vibrating membrane for the generation or detection of ultrasonic waves in fluids. Experimental measurements demonstrate that during the excitation of the piezoelectric element by an electrical voltage, there are three characteristic regions, where the frequency of the emitted ultrasonic wave changes during the excitation, steady-state, and the final decay process. A simple mechanical analogue model is capable of describing this behaviour.

  6. Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers (CMUTs for Underwater Imaging Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinlong Song

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer structure for use in underwater imaging is designed, fabricated and tested in this paper. In this structure, a silicon dioxide insulation layer is inserted between the top electrodes and the vibration membrane to prevent ohmic contact. The capacitance-voltage (C-V characteristic curve shows that the transducer offers suitable levels of hysteresis and repeatability performance. The −6 dB center frequency is 540 kHz and the transducer has a bandwidth of 840 kHz for a relative bandwidth of 155%. Underwater pressure of 143.43 Pa is achieved 1 m away from the capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer under 20  excitation. Two-dimensional underwater ultrasonic imaging, which is able to prove that a rectangular object is present underwater, is achieved. The results presented here indicate that our work will be highly beneficial for the establishment of an underwater ultrasonic imaging system.

  7. Moisture content effect on ultrasonic velocity in Goupia glabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Goia Rosa de Oliveira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the application of ultrasound waves on a Brazilian hardwood, Goupia glabra, to evaluate the sensitivity of the ultrasonic technique to the moisture content in wood. The velocity of ultrasonic wave is sensitive to the material's quality-determining factors; hence, this technique is an important industrial tool to improve the quality control of processes. The nature of the response of velocity of sound to changes in moisture content led us to conclude that moisture gradients during drying exert a dominating effect. The ultrasonic velocity was measured both parallel and perpendicular to the fibers of Goupia glabra during drying from green to 6% moisture content. The results of this study showed that velocity of ultrasonic waves is sensitive to changes in moisture content of lumber during drying. The velocity under dry conditions was always higher than the velocity under more humid conditions, in both directions of propagation.

  8. Resonant difference-frequency atomic force ultrasonic microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, John H. (Inventor); Cantrell, Sean A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A scanning probe microscope and methodology called resonant difference-frequency atomic force ultrasonic microscopy (RDF-AFUM), employs an ultrasonic wave launched from the bottom of a sample while the cantilever of an atomic force microscope, driven at a frequency differing from the ultrasonic frequency by one of the contact resonance frequencies of the cantilever, engages the sample top surface. The nonlinear mixing of the oscillating cantilever and the ultrasonic wave in the region defined by the cantilever tip-sample surface interaction force generates difference-frequency oscillations at the cantilever contact resonance. The resonance-enhanced difference-frequency signals are used to create images of nanoscale near-surface and subsurface features.

  9. Ultrasonic spectroscopy applications in condensed matter physics and materials science

    CERN Document Server

    Leisure, Robert G

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonic spectroscopy is a technique widely used in solid-state physics, materials science, and geology that utilizes acoustic waves to determine fundamental physical properties of materials, such as their elasticity and mechanical energy dissipation. This book provides complete coverage of the main issues relevant to the design, analysis, and interpretation of ultrasonic experiments. Topics including elasticity, acoustic waves in solids, ultrasonic loss, and the relation of elastic constants to thermodynamic potentials are covered in depth. Modern techniques and experimental methods including resonant ultrasound spectroscopy, digital pulse-echo, and picosecond ultrasound are also introduced and reviewed. This self-contained book includes extensive background theory and is accessible to students new to the field of ultrasonic spectroscopy, as well as to graduate students and researchers in physics, engineering, materials science, and geophysics.

  10. Ultrasonic de-agglomeration of barium titanate powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, S; Mitrić, M; Starcević, G; Uskoković, D

    2008-01-01

    BaTiO3 (BT) powder, with average particle size of 1.4 microm, was synthesized by solid-state reaction. A high-intensity ultrasound irradiation (ultrasonication) was used to de-agglomerate micro-sized powder to nano-sized one. The crystal structure, crystallite size, morphology, particle size, particle size distribution, and specific surface area of the BT powder de-agglomerated for different ultrasonication times (0, 10, 60, and 180 min) were determined. It was found that the particles size of the BT powder was influenced by ultrasonic treatment, while its tetragonal structure was maintained. Therefore, ultrasonic irradiation can be proposed as an environmental-friendly, economical, and effective tool for the de-agglomeration of barium titanate powders.

  11. Development of functionally graded materials by ultrasonic consolidation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumar, S

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Development of Functionally Graded Materials (FGM) using Ultrasonic Consolidation (UC) needs the joining of different metallic foils together. The present work deals with the joining of stainless steel, Al and Cufoils. Optimum experimental...

  12. Laser Ultrasonic Sensors with Near PZT-Transducer. DURIP99

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Achenbach, Jan

    2000-01-01

    ... s. This means that the crystal response time must be less than 60-80 micro s such that the grating can be formed during the first part of the laser pulse and the ultrasonic signal can be detected...

  13. Ultrasonic Derivative Measurements of Bone Strain During Exercise Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Luna Innovations, Inc., in collaboration with the SUNY Stony Brook, proposes to extend ultrasonic pulsed phase locked loop (PPLL) derivative measurements to the...

  14. Development of automatic ultrasonic testing system and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Sang Hong; Matsuura, Toshihiko; Iwata, Ryusuke; Nakagawa, Michio; Horikawa, Kohsuke; Kim, You Chul

    1997-01-01

    The radiographic testing (RT) has been usually applied to a nondestructive testing, which is carried out on purpose to detect internal defects at welded joints of a penstock. In the case that RT could not be applied to, the ultrasonic testing (UT) was performed. UT was generally carried out by manual scanning and the inspections data were recorded by the inspector in a site. So, as a weak point, there was no objective inspection records correspond to films of RT. It was expected that the automatic ultrasonic testing system by which automatic scanning and automatic recording are possible was developed. In this respect, the automatic ultrasonic testing system was developed. Using newly developed the automatic ultrasonic testing system, test results to the circumferential welded joints of the penstock at a site were shown in this paper.

  15. Effect of ultrasonic pretreatment on emulsion polymerization of styrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatomo, Daichi; Horie, Takafumi; Hongo, Chizuru; Ohmura, Naoto

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of pretreatment of ultrasonic irradiation on emulsion polymerization of styrene to propose a process intensification method which gives high conversion, high reaction rate, and high energy efficiency. The solution containing styrene monomer was irradiated by a horn mounted on the ultrasonic transducer with the diameter of 5mm diameter and the frequency of 28 kHz before starting polymerization. The pretreatment of ultrasound irradiation as short as 1 min drastically improved monomer dispersion and increased reaction rate even under the agitation condition with low rotational speed of impeller. Furthermore, the ultrasonic pretreatment resulted in higher monomer concentration in polymer particles and produced larger polymer particles than conventional polymerization without ultrasonic pretreatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. IVA Ultrasonic and Eddy Current NDE for ISS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project intends to develop a combined Ultrasonic and Eddy Current nondestructive evaluation (NDE) instrument for IVA use on ISS. A suite of IVA and EVA NDE...

  17. Ultrasonic Derivative Measurements of Bone Strain During Exercise, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Luna Innovations, Inc., in collaboration with the SUNY Stony Brook, proposes to extend ultrasonic pulsed phase locked loop (PPLL) derivative measurements to the...

  18. Ultrasonic-resonator-combined apparatus for purifying nuclear aerosol particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Suxia; Zhang, Quanhu; Li, Sufen; Chen, Chen; Su, Xianghua [Xi' an Hi-Tech Institute, Xi' an (China)

    2017-12-15

    The radiation hazards of radionuclides in the air arising from the storage room of nuclear devices to the operators cannot be ignored. A new ultrasonic-resonator-combined method for purifying nuclear aerosol particles is introduced. To remove particles with diameters smaller than 0.3 μm, an ultrasonic chamber is induced to agglomerate these submicron particles. An apparatus which is used to purify the nuclear aerosol particles is described in the article. The apparatus consists of four main parts: two filtering systems, an ultrasonic chamber and a high-pressure electrostatic precipitator system. Finally, experimental results demonstrated the effectiveness of the implementation of the ultrasonic resonators. The feasibility of the method is proven by its application to the data analysis of the experiments.

  19. Ultrasonic testing using time of flight diffraction technique (TOFD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khurram Shahzad; Ahmad Mirza Safeer Ahmad; Muhammad Asif Khan

    2009-04-01

    This paper describes the ultrasonic testing using Time Flight Diffraction (TOFD) Technique for welded samples having different types and sizes of defects. TOFD is a computerized ultrasonic system, able to scan, store and evaluate indications in terms of location, through thickness and length in a more easy and convenient. Time of Flight Diffraction Technique (TOFD) is more fast and easy technique for ultrasonic testing as we can examine a weld i a single scan along the length of the weld with two probes known as D-scan. It shows the image of the complete weld with the defect information. The examinations were performed on carbon steel samples used for ultrasonic testing using 70 degree probes. The images for different type of defects were obtained. (author)

  20. Non-linear Ultrasonic Bond-Strength Monitor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To date, bond strength is considered one of the ?holy grails? for NDE. Preliminary data indicates that the Luna Nonlinear Ultrasonic Bond Strength (NUBS) monitor...

  1. Detection of Laser Generated Ultrasonic Wave Using Michelson Interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Cho; Yamawaki, Hisashi; Jhang, Kyung Young

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, ultrasonic wave in the thermoelastic regime was generated in a steel disk by illuminating a pulse laser (Q-switched Nd:YAG) on the surface of the sample and was detected on the other side by Michelson interferometer which was stabilized by feed back control. The experimentally detected displacement waveform of the ultrasonic wave showed good agreement with the theoretically expected one. Also it was shown that sound speeds of longitudinal and shear wave were similar to ones measured by pulse-echo method using a contact transducer. As an application of the noncontact ultrasonic measurement by using laser based ultrasonics, the sound speed in the sample was monitored while the sample was heated in a furnace, and the result showed that it decreased according to the increase of sample temperature

  2. Failed fuel rod detection method by ultrasonic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamatsu, Masatoshi; Muraoka, Shoichi; Ono, Yukio; Yasojima, Yujiro.

    1990-01-01

    Ultrasonic wave signals sent from an ultrasonic receiving element are supplied to an evaluation circuit by way of a gate. A table for gate opening and closing timings at the detecting position in each of the fuel rods in a fuel assembly is stored in a memory. A fuel rod is placed between an ultrasonic transmitting element and the receiving element to determine the positions of the transmitting element and the receiving element by positional sensors. The opening and closing timings at the positions corresponding to the result of the detection are read out from the table, and the gates are opened and closed by the timing. This can introduce the ultrasonic wave signals transmitted through a control rod always to the evaluation circuit passing through the gate. Accordingly, the state of failure of the fuel rod can be detected accurately. (I.N.)

  3. Integration of a piezoelectric transformer and an ultrasonic motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuspiya, Suwan; Laoratanakul, Pitak; Uchino, Kenji

    2003-03-01

    Ultrasonic motors are usually operated at an AC voltage higher than a regular battery. This implies the need of a voltage step-up transformer. In this paper, we report the integration of a piezoelectric transformer (PT) with an ultrasonic motor and a simple drive circuit. The stator of the ultrasonic motor and the PT were operated in the same radial vibration mode. Their dimensions were very close to each other yielding nearly matching resonance frequencies. Consequently, they could be combined together without inductor. The drive circuit was designed by using a 555 timer as an astable multivibrator, and high-speed dual MOSFET drivers as a class D half-bridge switching amplifier. This integrated PT-ultrasonic motor performed reasonably without the use of electromagnetic transformer or inductor. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  4. Ultrasonic partial discharge monitoring method on instrument transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartalović Nenad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sonic and ultrasonic partial discharge monitoring have been applied since the early days of these phenomena monitoring. Modern measurement and partial discharge acoustic (ultrasonic and sonic monitoring method has been rapidly evolving as a result of new electronic component design, information technology and updated software solutions as well as the development of knowledge in the partial discharge diagnosis. Electrical discharges in the insulation system generate voltage-current pulses in the network and ultrasonic waves that propagate through the insulation system and structure. Amplitude-phase-frequency analysis of these signals reveals information about the intensity, type and location of partial discharges. The paper discusses the possibility of ultrasonic method selectivity improvement and the increase of diagnosis reliability in the field. Measurements were performed in the laboratory and in the field while a number of transformers were analysed for dissolved gases in the oil. A comparative review of methods for the partial discharge detection is also presented in this paper.

  5. Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing for High Performance Combustion Chambers, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of using ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) to dramatically reduce the cost and lead-time of...

  6. Damage Identification in Composite Panels Using Acousto-Ultrasonic Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Loendersloot, Richard; Moix-Bonet, Maria

    2015-01-01

    A methodology for the identification of barely visible impact damage using acousto-ultrasonic waves on a typical aircraft composite structure is implemented. Delaminations and debondings have been introduced in two stiffened panels by means of impact loads.

  7. Understanding classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subianto, M.

    2009-01-01

    In practical data analysis, the understandability of models plays an important role in their acceptance. In the data mining literature, however, understandability plays is hardly ever mentioned. If it is mentioned, it is interpreted as meaning that the models have to be simple. In this thesis we

  8. Separation of ionic solutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The conference proceedings contain 44 papers of which 19 were incorporated in INIS. The subject of these is the use of solvent extraction or emulsion membrane extraction for separation of fission products, rare earth compounds and actinide compunds; the sorption of radionuclides; and the use of adsorbents and chelating agents in separation processes. (J.P.)

  9. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.K.

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for the isotopically selective excitation of gas phase molecules by multiple infrared photon absorption after which more of the excited molecules than nonexcited molecules are converted to a chemically different form which may be separated by means known in the art. This invention is useful for, but not limited to, the separation of the principal isotopes of uranium

  10. Separation anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, M.H.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Sturmey, P.; Hersen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Separation anxiety disorder (SAD) is the only anxiety disorder that is specific to childhood; however, SAD has hardly ever been addressed as a separate disorder in clinical trials investigating treatment outcome. So far, only parent training has been developed specifically for SAD. This particular

  11. THE SEPARATION GAME

    OpenAIRE

    TRISTAN CAZENAVE

    2006-01-01

    The separation game is different from the connection game, but has some similarities. In the game of Go, it is often useful because it helps to enclose groups and areas. An evaluation function, moves generation functions and a search algorithm for the separation game are described in this paper.

  12. Carbon nanotube composites prepared by ultrasonically assisted twin screw extrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Todd

    Two ultrasonic twin screw extrusion systems were designed and manufactured for the ultrasonic dispersion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in viscous polymer matrices at residence times of the order of seconds in the ultrasonic treatment zones. The first design consisted of an ultrasonic slit die attachment in which nanocomposites were treated. A second design incorporated an ultrasonic treatment section into the barrel of the extruder to utilize the shearing of the polymer during extrusion while simultaneously applying treatment. High performance, high temperature thermoset phenylethynyl terminate imide oligomer (PETI-330) and two different polyetherether ketones (PEEK) were evaluated at CNT loadings up to 10 wt%. The effects of CNT loading and ultrasonic amplitude on the processing characteristics and rheological, mechanical, electrical, thermal and morphological properties of nanocomposites were investigated. PETI and PEEK nanocomposites showed a decrease in resistivity, an increase in modulus and strength and a decrease in strain at break and toughness with increased CNT loading. Ultrasonically treated samples showed a decrease in die pressure and extruder torque with increasing ultrasonic treatment and an increase in complex viscosity and storage modulus at certain ultrasonic treatment levels. Optical microscopy showed enhanced dispersion of the CNT bundles in ultrasonically treated samples. However, no significant improvement of mechanical properties was observed with ultrasonic treatment due to lack of adhesion between the CNT and matrix in the solid state. A curing model for PETI-330 was proposed that includes the induction and curing stages to predict the degree of cure of PETI-330 under non-isothermal conditions. Induction time parameters, rate constant and reaction order of the model were obtained based on differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) data. The model correctly predicted experimentally measured degrees of cure of compression molded plaques cured

  13. Embodied understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Western culture has inherited a view of understanding as an intellectual cognitive operation of grasping of concepts and their relations. However, cognitive science research has shown that this received intellectualist conception is substantially out of touch with how humans actually make and experience meaning. The view emerging from the mind sciences recognizes that understanding is profoundly embodied, insofar as our conceptualization and reasoning recruit sensory, motor, and affective patterns and processes to structure our understanding of, and engagement with, our world. A psychologically realistic account of understanding must begin with the patterns of ongoing interaction between an organism and its physical and cultural environments and must include both our emotional responses to changes in our body and environment, and also the actions by which we continuously transform our experience. Consequently, embodied understanding is not merely a conceptual/propositional activity of thought, but rather constitutes our most basic way of being in, and engaging with, our surroundings in a deep visceral manner.

  14. Ultrasonic level indicator for liquids and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanngiesser, P.

    1976-01-01

    Ultrasonic level indicator for liquids where a piezo-element is used to reverse the piezoelectric effect may be applied in a more versatile way if the indicator is provided with a reflector. It becomes less susceptible to faults and may be used for all liquids, including liquid metals. The piezo-element may then be used at the same time as receiver for ultrasonic waves emitted previously and, in that case, echoed back by the refelctor. (UWI) [de

  15. Additive Manufacturing of Thermoplastic Matrix Composites Using Ultrasonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Meghan

    Advanced composite materials have great potential for facilitating energy efficient product design and their manufacture if improvements are made to current composite manufacturing processes. This thesis focuses on the development of a novel manufacturing process for thermoplastic composite structures entitled Laser-Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing ('LUAM'), which is intended to combine the benefits of laser processing technology, developed by Automated Dynamics Inc., with ultrasonic bonding technology that is used commercially for unreinforced polymers. These technologies used together have the potential to significantly reduce the energy consumption and void content of thermoplastic composites made using Automated Fiber Placement (AFP). To develop LUAM in a methodical manner with minimal risk, a staged approach was devised whereby coupon-level mechanical testing and prototyping utilizing existing equipment was accomplished. Four key tasks have been identified for this effort: Benchmarking, Ultrasonic Compaction, Laser Assisted Ultrasonic Compaction, and Demonstration and Characterization of LUAM. This thesis specifically addresses Tasks 1 and 2, i.e. Benchmarking and Ultrasonic Compaction, respectively. Task 1, fabricating test specimens using two traditional processes (autoclave and thermal press) and testing structural performance and dimensional accuracy, provide results of a benchmarking study by which the performance of all future phases will be gauged. Task 2, fabricating test specimens using a non-traditional process (ultrasonic conpaction) and evaluating in a similar fashion, explores the the role of ultrasonic processing parameters using three different thermoplastic composite materials. Further development of LUAM, although beyond the scope of this thesis, will combine laser and ultrasonic technology and eventually demonstrate a working system.

  16. Ultrasonic Surface Treatment of Titanium Alloys. The Submicrocrystalline State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenov, V. A.; Vlasov, V. A.; Borozna, V. Y.; Klopotov, A. A.

    2015-09-01

    The paper presents the results of the research on improvement of physical-and- mechanical properties of titanium alloys VT1-0 and VT6 by modification of surfaces using ultrasonic treatment, and a comprehensive study of the microstructure and mechanical properties of modified surface layers. It has been established that exposure to ultrasonic treatment leads to formation in the surface layer of a structure with an average size of elements 50 - 100 nm, depending on the brand of titanium alloy.

  17. Ultrasonic Monitoring of the Progress of Lactic Acid Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuzawa, Nobuyoshi; Kimura, Akihiro; Ohdaira, Etsuzo

    2003-05-01

    Promotion of lactic acid fermentation by ultrasonic irradiation has been attempted. It is possible to determine the progress of fermentation and production of a curd, i.e., yoghurt and or kefir, by measuring acidity using a pH meter. However, this method is inconvenient and indirect for the evaluation of the progress of lactic acid fermentation under anaerobic condition. In this study, an ultrasonic monitoring method for evaluating the progress of lactic acid fermentation was examined.

  18. Considerations for ultrasonic testing application for on-orbit NDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshti, Ajay M.

    2015-04-01

    The paper addresses some on-orbit nondestructive evaluation (NDE) needs of NASA for International Space Station (ISS). The presentation gives NDE requirements for inspecting suspect damage due to micro-meteoroids and orbital debris (MMOD) impact on the pressure wall of the ISS. This inspection is meant to be conducted from inside of the ISS module. The metallic wall of the module has a fixed wall thickness but also has integral orthogrid ribs for reinforcement. Typically, a single MMOD hit causes localized damage in a small area causing loss of material similar to pitting corrosion, but cracks may be present too. The impact may cause bulging of the wall. Results of the ultrasonic and eddy current demonstration scans on test samples are provided. The ultrasonic technique uses shear wave scans to interrogate the localized damage area from the surrounding undamaged area. The scanning protocol results in multiple scans, each with multiple "vee" paths. A superimposition and mosaic of the three-dimensional ultrasonic data from individual scans is desired to create C-scan images of the damage. This is a new data reduction process which is not currently implemented in state-of-art ultrasonic instruments. Results of ultrasonic scans on the simulated MMOD damage test plates are provided. The individual C-scans are superimposed manually creating mosaic of the inspection. The resulting image is compared with visibly detected damage boundaries, X-ray images, and localized ultrasonic and eddy current scans for locating crack tips to assess effectiveness of the ultrasonic scanning. The paper also discusses developments needed in improving ergonomics of the ultrasonic testing for on-orbit applications.

  19. High-power ultrasonic processing: Recent developments and prospective advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Juarez, Juan A.

    2010-01-01

    Although the application of ultrasonic energy to produce or to enhance a wide variety of processes have been explored since about the middle of the 20th century, only a reduced number of ultrasonic processes have been established at industrial level. However, during the last ten years the interest in ultrasonic processing has revived particularly in industrial sectors where the ultrasonic technology may represent a clean and efficient tool to improve classical existing processes or an innovation alternative for the development of new processes. Such seems to be the case of relevant sectors such as food industry, environment, pharmaceuticals and chemicals manufacture, machinery, mining, etc where power ultrasound is becoming an emerging technology for process development. The possible major problem in the application of high-intensity ultrasound on industrial processing is the design and development of efficient power ultrasonic systems (generators and reactors) capable of large scale successful operation specifically adapted to each individual process. In the area of ultrasonic processing in fluid media and more specifically in gases, the development of the steppedplate transducers and other power ge with extensive radiating surface has strongly contributed to the implementation at semi-industrial and industrial stage of several commercial applications, in sectors such as food and beverage industry (defoaming, drying, extraction, etc), environment (air cleaning, sludge filtration, etc...), machinery and process for manufacturing (textile washing, paint manufacture, etc). The development of different cavitational reactors for liquid treatment in continuous flow is helping to introduce into industry the wide potential of the area of sonochemistry. Processes such as water and effluent treatment, crystallization, soil remediation, etc have been already implemented at semi-industrial and/or industrial stage. Other single advances in sectors like mining or energy have

  20. Calibration of ultrasonic sensors of a mobile robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paunović Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses a mobile robot localization. Due to cost and simplicity of signal processing, the ultrasonic sensors are very suitable for this application. However, their nonlinear characteristics requires thorough calibrating procedure in order to achieve reliable readings from the obstacles around the robot. Here we describe SMR400 ultrasonic sensor and its calibration procedure. The suggested calibration procedure was tested through a number of experiments, and the results are presented in this paper. .