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Sample records for understanding testing reengineering

  1. Testing Understanding and Understanding Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Jean; Ross, Peter

    1985-01-01

    Provides examples in which graphs are used in the statements of problems or in their solutions as a means of testing understanding of mathematical concepts. Examples (appropriate for a beginning course in calculus and analytic geometry) include slopes of lines and curves, quadratic formula, properties of the definite integral, and others. (JN)

  2. Reengineering Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badalamente, R.V.; Carson, M.L.; Rhoads, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    The Department of Energy Richland Operations Office is in the process of reengineering its Hanford Site operations. There is a need to fundamentally rethink and redesign environmental restoration and waste management processes to achieve dramatic improvements in the quality, cost-effectiveness, and timeliness of the environmental services and products that make cleanup possible. Hanford is facing the challenge of reengineering in a complex environment in which major processes cuts across multiple government and contractor organizations and a variety of stakeholders and regulators have a great influence on cleanup activities. By doing the upfront work necessary to allow effective reengineering, Hanford is increasing the probability of its success.

  3. Reengineering Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badalamente, R.V.; Carson, M.L.; Rhoads, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    The Department of Energy Richland Operations Office is in the process of reengineering its Hanford Site operations. There is a need to fundamentally rethink and redesign environmental restoration and waste management processes to achieve dramatic improvements in the quality, cost-effectiveness, and timeliness of the environmental services and products that make cleanup possible. Hanford is facing the challenge of reengineering in a complex environment in which major processes cuts across multiple government and contractor organizations and a variety of stakeholders and regulators have a great influence on cleanup activities. By doing the upfront work necessary to allow effective reengineering, Hanford is increasing the probability of its success

  4. Software reengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridge, Ernest M., III

    1991-01-01

    Today's software systems generally use obsolete technology, are not integrated properly with other software systems, and are difficult and costly to maintain. The discipline of reverse engineering is becoming prominent as organizations try to move their systems up to more modern and maintainable technology in a cost effective manner. JSC created a significant set of tools to develop and maintain FORTRAN and C code during development of the Space Shuttle. This tool set forms the basis for an integrated environment to re-engineer existing code into modern software engineering structures which are then easier and less costly to maintain and which allow a fairly straightforward translation into other target languages. The environment will support these structures and practices even in areas where the language definition and compilers do not enforce good software engineering. The knowledge and data captured using the reverse engineering tools is passed to standard forward engineering tools to redesign or perform major upgrades to software systems in a much more cost effective manner than using older technologies. A beta vision of the environment was released in Mar. 1991. The commercial potential for such re-engineering tools is very great. CASE TRENDS magazine reported it to be the primary concern of over four hundred of the top MIS executives.

  5. Organizational learning as a test-bed for business process reengineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Holm; Leinsdorff, Torben

    1998-01-01

    The fact that a company's learning ability may prevent strategic drift and the fact that many companies are undertaking BPR (business process reengineering) projects leads us to ask whether all these BPR activities promote organizational learning. Within this framework, we studied the extent...... of Enzyme Business, Novo Nordisk A/S. The result of the analysis is that a correlation between BPR and organizational learning has been established, i.e. the BPR elements: customer focus, process orientation, high level of ambition, clean sheet principle, performance measuring, the business system diamond...... to which BPR promotes organizational learning by focusing on the project group and the steering committee. This paper is based partly on a theoretical study of the significant characteristics of BPR and of organizational learning and partly on a field study carried out in cooperation with the business unit...

  6. Understanding Your Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  7. Understanding Laboratory Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates the development and marketing of all laboratory tests that use test kits ... Cancer.gov en español Multimedia Publications Site Map Digital Standards for NCI Websites POLICIES Accessibility Comment Policy ...

  8. IDC Re-Engineering Phase 2 Architecture Document.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, John F.

    2015-12-01

    This document contains a description of the system architecture for the IDC Re-Engineering Phase 2 project. This is a draft version that primarily provides background information for understanding delivered Use Case Realizations.

  9. IDC Re-Engineering Phase 3 Development Plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, James M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Burns, John F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pollock, David L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has prepared a project development plan that proposes how the parties interested in the IDC Re-Engineering system will coordinate its development, testing and transition to operations.

  10. IDC Re-Engineering Phase 3 Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, James M.; Burns, John F.; Pollock, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has prepared a project development plan that proposes how the parties interested in the IDC Re-Engineering system will coordinate its development, testing and transition to operations.

  11. BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING AS THE METHOD OF PROCESS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Honcharova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of process management approach. The main understanding of process management approach has been researched in the article. The definition of process and process management has been given. Also the methods of business process improvement has been analyzed, among them are fast-analysis solution technology (FAST, benchmarking, reprojecting and reengineering. The main results of using business process improvement have been described in figures of reducing cycle time, costs and errors. Also the tasks of business process reengineering have been noticed. The main stages of business process reengineering have been noticed. The main efficiency results of business process reengineering and its success factors have been determined.

  12. Test your knowledge and understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This quiz is designed to test your understanding of the concepts covered in this issue and to give you an opportunity to reflect on what you have learnt. These multiple true/false questions were produced in collaboration with the International Council of Ophthalmology (ICO.

  13. BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena LUCA (DEDIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Business process reengineering determines the change of organizational functions from an orientation focused on operations through a multidimensional approach. Former employees who were mere executors are now determined to take their own decisions and as a result the functional departments lose their reason to exist. Managers do not act anymore as supervisors, but mainly as mentors, while the employees focus more attention on customer needs and less than the head’s. Under these conditions, new organizational paradigms are required, the most important being that of learning organizations. In order to implement a reengineering of the economic processes and promoting a new organizational paradigm the information technology plays a decisive role. The article presents some results obtained in a research theme ANSTI funded by contract no. 501/2000. Economic and financial analysis is performed in order to know the current situation to achieve better results in the future. One of its objectives is the production analyzed as a labour process and the interaction elements of this process. The indicators investigated in the analysis of financial and economic activity of production reflect the development directions, the means and resources to accomplish predetermined objectives and express the results and effectiveness of what is expected.

  14. ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE: BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING OR OUTSOURCING?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellicelli Michela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article will analyze the logic behind the adoption of Business Process Reengineering and outsourcing. The first part analyzes Business Process Reengineering as a technique for analysis and for defining the business processes implemented by organizations in order to make the achievement of corporate objectives more efficient and effective. Nevertheless, this approach has some limits when the reengineering project aims solely at cost reduction. In any event, for several activities management must constantly evaluate the alternative to turning to outsourcing. In the second part we thus observe what should be the evaluations of management in order to pursue the objectives of maximum efficiency, economic efficiency, and productivity. Starting from the methodological assumptions that aid our understanding of the outsourcing of processes and that represent the operational and conceptual framework for the existence of this approach, several models will be analyzed held to be significant for determining those processes that can be outsourced, from a “strategic” point of view, and that are useful for deciding on the shift from BPR to outsourcing.

  15. REENGINEERING PROSES BISNIS : TINJAUAN KONSEPTUAL DAN METODOLOGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Ellitan

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Business process reengineering is fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of an organization's business processes that leads the organization to achieve dramatic improvement in business performance. Many firms have successfully embraced this new innovation paradigm to achieve orders of magnitude improvements in cost, eficiency, quality and value. Even more firms are seeking opportunities to apply reengineering and methodologies to assist them in doing so. The recognition of reengineering as a new management paradigm emerged in the 1990's, though it may be argued that the principle of reengineering has been applied well before then. The early 1990's saw world wide interest in reengineering. Consequently, many organizations have reported their first-cycle experiences in reengineering. Reengineering practices in the period of the 1990's was largerly characterized by application to operational processes and emphasis on operational measure of time, cost, and quality. Quite recently, a more strategic flavor of reengineering has been advocated. One of the hopes of new thinking is that by trancending microscopic concern of operational strategy, it would help the organization derive significantly greater value out of the reengineering effort. This paper presents: 1. The concept of reengineering 2. Various problems in business process reengineering. 3. The rigorous methodology for organizing reengineering activities. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Reengineering proses bisnis adalah pemikiran ulang fundamental dan disain ulang radikal suatu proses bisnis organisasi yang akan mengarahkan organisasi untuk mencapai peningkatan kinerja bisnis secara dramatis. Beberapa perusahaan telah menerapkan paradigma inovasi baru ini untuk mencapai berbagai perbaikan dalam biaya, kualitas, dan efisiensi. Bahkan makin banyak perusahaan yang mencari peluang untuk menerapkan proyek reengineering dan metodologi-metodologi yang membantu mereka dalam mencapai usaha

  16. Parent's Guide to Understanding Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CTB / McGraw-Hill, Monterey, CA.

    This brief introduction to testing is geared to parents. Types of tests are defined, such as standardized tests, achievement tests, norm referenced tests, criterion referenced tests, and aptitude tests. Various types of scores (grade equivalent, percentile rank, and stanine are also defined, and the uses made of tests by administrators, teachers,…

  17. IDC Reengineering Phase 2 Project Scope.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, James M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This report provides a brief description of the scope of the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 project. It describes the goals and objectives of reengineering, the system definition, and the technical scope of the system. REVISIONS Version Date Author/Team Revision Description Authorized by 1.0 9/25/2014 SNL IDC Reengineering Team Unlimited Release for I2 M. Harris 1.1 28/01/2015 IDC Reengineering Team Align with previous IDC scope document E. Tomuta.

  18. Pattern-Oriented Reengineering of a Network System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Horng Lung

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Reengineering is to reorganize and modify existing systems to enhance them or to make them more maintainable. Reengineering is usually necessary as systems evolve due to changes in requirements, technologies, and/or personnel. Design patterns capture recurring structures and dynamics among software participants to facilitate reuse of successful designs. Design patterns are common and well studied in network systems. In this project, we reengineer part of a network system with some design patterns to support future evolution and performance improvement. We start with reverse engineering effort to understand the system and recover its high level architecture. Then we apply concurrent and networked design patterns to restructure the main sub-system. Those patterns include Half-Sync/Half-Async, Monitor Object, and Scoped Locking idiom. The resulting system is more maintainable and has better performance.

  19. Reengineering a cardiovascular surgery service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunick, P A; Etkin, S; Horrocks, A; Jeglinski, G; Kelly, J; Sutton, P

    1997-04-01

    Reengineering, involving the radical redesign of business processes, has been used successfully in a variety of health care settings. In 1994 New York University (NYU) Medical Center (MC) launched its first reengineering team, whose purpose was to redesign the entire process of caring for patients-from referral to discharge-on the cardiovascular (CV) surgery service. REENIGINEERING TEAM: The multidisciplinary CV Surgery Reengineering Team was charged with two goals: improving customer (patient, family, and referring physician) satisfaction and improving profitability. The methodology to be used was based on a reengineering philosophy-discarding basic assumptions and designing the patient care process from the ground up. THE TRANSFER-IN INITIATIVE: A survey of NYU cardiologists, distributed in April 1994, suggested that the organization was considered a difficult place to transfer patients. The team's recommendations led to a new, streamlined transfer-in policy. The average waiting time from when a referring physician requested a patient transfer and the time when an NYUMC physician accepted the transfer decreased from an average of 9 hours under the old system to immediate acceptance. Three customer satisfaction task forces implemented multiple programs to make the service more user friendly. In addition, referrals increased and length of stay decreased, without an adverse impact on the mortality rate. For the first time at NYUMC, a multidisciplinary team was given the mandate to achieve major changes in an entire patient care process. Similar projects are now underway.

  20. Reengineering the Project Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casani, E.; Metzger, R.

    1994-01-01

    In response to NASA's goal of working faster, better and cheaper, JPL has developed extensive plans to minimize cost, maximize customer and employee satisfaction, and implement small- and moderate-size missions. These plans include improved management structures and processes, enhanced technical design processes, the incorporation of new technology, and the development of more economical space- and ground-system designs. The Laboratory's new Flight Projects Implementation Office has been chartered to oversee these innovations and the reengineering of JPL's project design process, including establishment of the Project Design Center and the Flight System Testbed. Reengineering at JPL implies a cultural change whereby the character of its design process will change from sequential to concurrent and from hierarchical to parallel. The Project Design Center will support missions offering high science return, design to cost, demonstrations of new technology, and rapid development. Its computer-supported environment will foster high-fidelity project life-cycle development and cost estimating.

  1. THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT OF INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS REENGINEERING (RECONSTRUCTION AND COMPLETION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kolesnikova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Creative element fate of any activity may not fall to zero because of the turbulent environment in which these activities are carried out, always prevents this. Environment that makes each building unique, that is, provides the main basis of the project. When we are talking about complex construction, the share of the creative component becomes very significant. First and foremost, this is explained by the duration of the construction work, during which time to happen risk events. The article analyses the processes of construction from the point of view of their conformity to the concept of project activities. It is shown that with increasing degree of difficulty of construction or time of the last share of creative activities in the overall project grows. In recent times more and more widespread work on re-engineering complex systems, for example, building constructions. This means repair of the building, but not a simple repair with restoration of the original, incorporated in the design of building elements and their interfaces, and partial or full replacement of items that fail or are outdated, new ones require first, a new design of their structures and production technologies, as well as the design of the accessories for the installation and technology is reshaping the object. Combining the two above-mentioned factors of growth of the share of creative activities during the project management of the re-engineering of building structures: complexity and construction time, received a cognitive model of such growth. Introduced the concept of "reengineering in construction" as a combination of the processes of adjustment and worn or completion of unfinished buildings. It is proved that any re-engineering in construction is the project activities. Provisions are tested in a real reengineering of industrial buildings with a positive technical and economic effect.

  2. THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT OF INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS REENGINEERING (RECONSTRUCTION AND COMPLETION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Kolesikova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Creative element fate of any activity may not fall to zero because of the turbulent environment in which these activities are carried out, always prevents this. Environment that makes each building unique, that is, provides the main basis of the project. When we are talking about complex construction, the share of the creative component becomes very significant. First and foremost, this is explained by the duration of the construction work, during which time to happen risk events. The article analyses the processes of construction from the point of view of their conformity to the concept of project activities. It is shown that with increasing degree of difficulty of construction or time of the last share of creative activities in the overall project grows. In recent times more and more widespread work on re-engineering complex systems, for example, building constructions. This means repair of the building, but not a simple repair with restoration of the original, incorporated in the design of building elements and their interfaces, and partial or full replacement of items that fail or are outdated, new ones require first, a new design of their structures and production technologies, as well as the design of the accessories for the installation and technology is reshaping the object. Combining the two above-mentioned factors of growth of the share of creative activities during the project management of the re-engineering of building structures: complexity and construction time, received a cognitive model of such growth. Introduced the concept of "reengineering in construction" as a combination of the processes of adjustment and worn or completion of unfinished buildings. It is proved that any re-engineering in construction is the project activities. Provisions are tested in a real reengineering of industrial buildings with a positive technical and economic effect.

  3. Re-Engineering Marketing (RM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozhidar Iv. Hadzhiev

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La globalización, el auge de la economía, el progreso de la e-net economía, y el gran dinamismo de las relaciones comerciales se están constituyendo como una función progresiva en constante crecimiento, predeterminando la utilización de unas pocas nuevas oportunidades para aumentar la eficacia de las empresas. Llegados a este punto, a través del prisma de los métodos de reingeniería en el presente artículo se muestran algunos problemas básicos y las oportunidades existentes para la Reingeniería del Marketing (RM.Globalization, the rise of the economy, the progress of the e-net economy, and the high dynamics of business relationships are developing as one of the permanently rising progressive functions, predetermining the use of a few new opportunities for increasing effectiveness of the industry companies. At this point, through the prism of Re-engineering methods, a few basic problems and opportunities for Re-engineering Marketing (RM are presented in this paper.

  4. Reengineering the project design process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane Casani, E.; Metzger, Robert M.

    1995-01-01

    In response to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's goal of working faster, better, and cheaper, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has developed extensive plans to minimize cost, maximize customer and employee satisfaction, and implement small- and moderate-size missions. These plans include improved management structures and processes, enhanced technical design processes, the incorporation of new technology, and the development of more economical space- and ground-system designs. The Laboratory's new Flight Projects Implementation Development Office has been chartered to oversee these innovations and the reengineering of JPL's project design process, including establishment of the Project Design Center (PDC) and the Flight System Testbed (FST). Reengineering at JPL implies a cultural change whereby the character of the Laboratory's design process will change from sequential to concurrent and from hierarchical to parallel. The Project Design Center will support missions offering high science return, design to cost, demonstrations of new technology, and rapid development. Its computer-supported environment will foster high-fidelity project life-cycle development and more accurate cost estimating. These improvements signal JPL's commitment to meeting the challenges of space exploration in the next century.

  5. Reengineering health care materials management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, L R

    1998-01-01

    Health care executives across the country, faced with intense competition, are being forced to consider drastic cost cutting measures as a matter of survival. The entire health care industry is under siege from boards of directors, management and others who encourage health care systems to take actions ranging from strategic acquisitions and mergers to simple "downsizing" or "rightsizing," to improve their perceived competitive positions in terms of costs, revenues and market share. In some cases, management is poorly prepared to work within this new competitive paradigm and turns to consultants who promise that following their methodologies can result in competitive advantage. One favored methodology is reengineering. Frequently, cost cutting attention is focused on the materials management budget because it is relatively large and is viewed as being comprised mostly of controllable expenses. Also, materials management is seldom considered a core competency for the health care system and the organization performing these activities does not occupy a strongly defensible position. This paper focuses on the application of a reengineering methodology to healthcare materials management.

  6. Reengineering in Australia: factors affecting success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity Murphy

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Business process reengineering (BPR is being used in many organisations worldwide to realign operations. Most of the research undertaken has been focused on North American or European practices. The study reported here replicates a US reengineering study in an Australian context by surveying large public and private sector Australian organisations. The study makes three main contributions by: (1 presenting a picture of BPR practices in Australia, (2 clarifying factors critical to the success of reengineering projects in Australia, and (3 providing a comparison of factors leading to success in Australian BPR projects with those found in the US.

  7. Understanding protocol performance: impact of test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Robert G

    2013-01-01

    This is the second of two articles that examine the factors that determine protocol performance. The objective of these articles is to provide a general understanding of protocol performance that can be used to estimate performance, establish limits on performance, decide if a protocol is justified, and ultimately select a protocol. The first article was concerned with protocol criterion and test correlation. It demonstrated the advantages and disadvantages of different criterion when all tests had the same performance. It also examined the impact of increasing test correlation on protocol performance and the characteristics of the different criteria. To examine the impact on protocol performance when individual tests in a protocol have different performance. This is evaluated for different criteria and test correlations. The results of the two articles are combined and summarized. A mathematical model is used to calculate protocol performance for different protocol criteria and test correlations when there are small to large variations in the performance of individual tests in the protocol. The performance of the individual tests that make up a protocol has a significant impact on the performance of the protocol. As expected, the better the performance of the individual tests, the better the performance of the protocol. Many of the characteristics of the different criteria are relatively independent of the variation in the performance of the individual tests. However, increasing test variation degrades some criteria advantages and causes a new disadvantage to appear. This negative impact increases as test variation increases and as more tests are added to the protocol. Best protocol performance is obtained when individual tests are uncorrelated and have the same performance. In general, the greater the variation in the performance of tests in the protocol, the more detrimental this variation is to protocol performance. Since this negative impact is increased as

  8. IDC Reengineering Phase 2 & 3 Project Scope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, James M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Prescott, Ryan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has prepared a cost estimate budgetary planning for the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 & 3 effort. This report provides the cost estimate and describes the methodology, assumptions, and cost model details used to create the cost estimate.

  9. CONCEPT OF REENGINEERING AGAIN RETURNS IN ACTUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Ionel POPESCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Although it was released in the summer of 1990, the concept of reengineering returns in actuality, because in the social and economic conditions that we are experiencing at the moment, to face the increasingly fierce competition more and more companies have to resort to redesign the processes. Throughout this article, after a brief introduction, we will present the factors that contributed to the occurrence of reengineering; trying to highlight what involves this concept, the characteristics of the processes resulted from the reengineering, the importance and methods to prepare a process map, and the method to launch the process redesign. Finally we have issued several opinions and have made a number of recommendations that will lead to achieving a qualitative leap targeted by the companies which resort to reengineering.

  10. Measuring Test Case Similarity to Support Test Suite Understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greiler, M.S.; Van Deursen, A.; Zaidman, A.E.

    2012-01-01

    Preprint of paper published in: TOOLS 2012 - Proceedings of the 50th International Conference, Prague, Czech Republic, May 29-31, 2012; doi:10.1007/978-3-642-30561-0_8 In order to support test suite understanding, we investigate whether we can automatically derive relations between test cases. In

  11. Development of a testlet generator in re-engineering the Indonesian physics national-exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindyarto, Budi Naini; Mardapi, Djemari; Bastari

    2017-08-01

    The Indonesian Physics national-exams are end-of-course summative assessments that could be utilized to support the assessment for learning in physics educations. This paper discusses the development and evaluation of a testlet generator based on a re-engineering of Indonesian physics national exams. The exam problems were dissected and decomposed into testlets revealing the deeper understanding of the underlying physical concepts by inserting a qualitative question and its scientific reasoning question. A template-based generator was built to facilitate teachers in generating testlet variants that would be more conform to students' scientific attitude development than their original simple multiple-choice formats. The testlet generator was built using open source software technologies and was evaluated focusing on the black-box testing by exploring the generator's execution, inputs and outputs. The results showed the correctly-performed functionalities of the developed testlet generator in validating inputs, generating testlet variants, and accommodating polytomous item characteristics.

  12. A Case Study: Business Process Reengineering at Raymond W. Bliss Army Community Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Among the causes listed are: • Inadequate Management of Resistance • Attempting Painless Reengineering • Lack of Understanding About Reengineering...Parathyroid Proc. 0.9554 $5,458 1 0.9554 $5,458 SD 290 Thyroid Proc 0.9362 $5,349 3 2.8086 $16,046 SD 291 Thyroglossal Proc 0.4657 $2,661 2 0.9314 $5,321...Tissues Breast Age 0-17 0.6146 $2,799 SD 284 Minor skin disord. w/o CC 0.4042 $1,841 SD 289 Parathyroid Proc. 0.9554 $4,351 SD 290 Thyroid Proc

  13. The Topical Problems of Reengineering of Production Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chumak Larysa F.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at researching the problems of reengineering of industrial enterprises and determining the efficient ways of their solution. The essence of process of reengineering, conditions and expediency of carrying out reengineering were researched. Elements of the system of principles of reengineering, its stages, problems of implementation, and typical errors arising during reengineering, have been defined. It has been determined that reengineering should be closely connected with the strategies of industrial enterprise in order to achieve maximum efficiency of the enterprise’s activity and to prevent additional costs. Reengineering of an industrial enterprise should be supported by an appropriate organizational structure, sound information technology, and contemporary strategic considerations.

  14. Distance Measures for Information System Reengineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poels, G.; Viaene, S.; Dedene, G.; Wangler, B.; Bergman, L.

    2000-01-01

    We present an approach to assess the magnitude and impact of information system reengineering caused by business process change. This approach is based on two concepts: object-oriented business modeling and distance measurement. The former concept is used to visualize changes in the business layer

  15. Characterization of the key aroma compounds in pink guava (Psidium guajava L.) by means of aroma re-engineering experiments and omission tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, Martin; Sinuco, Diana; Polster, Johannes; Osorio, Coralia; Schieberle, Peter

    2009-04-08

    Seventeen aroma-active volatiles, previously identified with high flavor dilution factors in fresh, pink Colombian guavas (Psidium guajava L.), were quantified by stable isotope dilution assays. On the basis of the quantitative data and odor thresholds in water, odor activity values (OAV; ratio of concentration to odor threshold) were calculated. High OAVs were determined for the green, grassy smelling (Z)-3-hexenal and the grapefruit-like smelling 3-sulfanyl-1-hexanol followed by 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate (black currant-like), hexanal (green, grassy), ethyl butanoate (fruity), acetaldehyde (fresh, pungent), trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal (metallic), 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (caramel, sweet), cinnamyl alcohol (floral), methyl (2S,3S)-2-hydroxy-3-methylpentanoate (fruity), cinnamyl acetate (floral), methional (cooked potato-like), and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (seasoning-like). Studies on the time course of odorant formation in guava puree or cubes, respectively, showed that (Z)-3-hexenal was hardly present in the intact fruits, but was formed very quickly during crushing. The aroma of fresh guava fruit cubes, which showed a very balanced aroma profile, was successfully mimicked in a reconstitute consisting of 13 odorants in their naturally occurring concentrations. Omission tests, in which single odorants were omitted from the entire aroma reconstitute, revealed (Z)-3-hexenal, 3-sulfanyl-1-hexanol, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate, hexanal, ethyl butanoate, cinnamyl acetate, and methional as the key aroma compounds of pink guavas.

  16. ROMANIAN COMPANIES DILEMMAS - BUSINESS REENGINEERING OR KAIZEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA GHICAJANU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of two American and Japanese management strategies, the reengineering and Kaizen strategies, which can be used successfully by the Romanian companies, too. Reengineering is the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical contemporary measures of performance such as cost, quality, service and speed. Kaizen is a philosophy of life that addresses to the best who want to be more and better. It is a process of improvement that never ends and it results in many advantages. The Japanese leadership model has shown that progress in small steps, but fast, reliable and leads to long-term wins. Kaizen method, implemented in Romania, too, has brought to people satisfaction and more money in their pocket.

  17. Genetic Testing: Understanding the Personal Stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, James M

    2015-01-01

    Twelve personal narratives address the challenges, benefits, and pitfalls of genetic testing. Three commentary articles explore these stories and suggest lessons that can be learned from them. The commentators come from backgrounds that include bioethics, public health, psychology, and philosophy.

  18. Innovative model of business process reengineering at machine building enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekrasov, R. Yu; Tempel, Yu A.; Tempel, O. A.

    2017-10-01

    The paper provides consideration of business process reengineering viewed as amanagerial innovation accepted by present day machine building enterprises, as well as waysto improve its procedure. A developed innovative model of reengineering measures isdescribed and is based on the process approach and other principles of company management.

  19. Re-engineering production systems: the Royal Netherlands Naval Dockyard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijm, Willem H.M.

    1996-01-01

    Reengineering production systems in an attempt to meet tight cost, quality and leadtime standards has received considerable attention in the last decade. In this paper, we discuss the reengineering process at the Royal Netherlands Naval Dockyard. The process starts with a characterisation and a

  20. REENGINEERING OF THE AIR SIMULATORS LEGACY SOFTWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay O. Sidorov

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available  There are the technical complexes consisting of components, parts of which are actively used, but the rest has lost working capacity owing to moral and physical deterioration. An example of such a complex is the aviation-flight complex "plane-simulator". High cost of components which continue to be used (plane do the actual task of restoring and supporting the out-of-order components (simulator. The considerable part of such complexes is the software, which owing to replacement of the obsolete and physically worn out hardware requires the rework. The rework method is reengineering.

  1. BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING: CONCEPTS CAUSES AND EFFECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Nugroho Yahya

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Some people made a wrong concept about Business Process Reengineering (BPR. Some were misunderstanding about the BPR term. In other way, so many researches were introduced to describe a better definition about BPR. The thinking about concepts, causes, and effect of BPR will make a new perception about the term of BPR itself as a better methodology instead of the other Quality Management Methodology such as Total Quality Management (TQM, Just In Time (JIT, etc. This paper will mention the context of BPR in some of case study's journal.

  2. Reenginering of the i4 workflow engine

    OpenAIRE

    Likar, Tilen

    2013-01-01

    I4 is an enterprise resource planning system which allows you to manage business processes. Due to increasing demands for managing complex processes and adjusting those processes to global standards, a renewal of a part of the system was required. In this thesis we faced the reengineering of the workflow engine, and corresponding data model. We designed a business process diagram in Bizagi Porcess Modeler. The import to i4 and the export from i4 was developed on XPDL file exported from the mo...

  3. Re-engineering change in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Allen

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Business Process Re-engineering (BPR is being used in a number of UK Higher Education Institutions (HEIs as a change management strategy. Whilst the focus of these HEIs is on re-engineering administrative services, there are also tentative attempts to redesign teaching and learning. This paper adopts a case study approach to determine the applicability of BPR to HEIs. The research started from a broad research question: How does organisational culture in HEIs impact on the implementation of BPR programmes? The conclusions drawn from the research are that the organisational culture and structure of HEIs limit the degree of change sought from a BPR project: the focus of the case study HEIs was on incremental process improvement of administrative services. The projects in these institutions were not about radical change. BPR techniques are shown to have something to offer HEIs in terms of co-ordinating administrative activities, but the emphasis on IT and processes in project design means the human resources change necessary for significant gains in efficiency is unlikely.

  4. Evolving software reengineering technology for the emerging innovative-competitive era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Phillip Q.; Lock, Evan; Prywes, Noah

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports on a multi-tool commercial/military environment combining software Domain Analysis techniques with Reusable Software and Reengineering of Legacy Software. It is based on the development of a military version for the Department of Defense (DOD). The integrated tools in the military version are: Software Specification Assistant (SSA) and Software Reengineering Environment (SRE), developed by Computer Command and Control Company (CCCC) for Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC) and Joint Logistics Commanders (JLC), and the Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA) STARS Software Engineering Environment (SEE) developed by Boeing for NAVAIR PMA 205. The paper describes transitioning these integrated tools to commercial use. There is a critical need for the transition for the following reasons: First, to date, 70 percent of programmers' time is applied to software maintenance. The work of these users has not been facilitated by existing tools. The addition of Software Reengineering will also facilitate software maintenance and upgrading. In fact, the integrated tools will support the entire software life cycle. Second, the integrated tools are essential to Business Process Reengineering, which seeks radical process innovations to achieve breakthrough results. Done well, process reengineering delivers extraordinary gains in process speed, productivity and profitability. Most importantly, it discovers new opportunities for products and services in collaboration with other organizations. Legacy computer software must be changed rapidly to support innovative business processes. The integrated tools will provide commercial organizations important competitive advantages. This, in turn, will increase employment by creating new business opportunities. Third, the integrated system will produce much higher quality software than use of the tools separately. The reason for this is that producing or upgrading software requires keen understanding of extremely complex

  5. TOCUSO: Test of Conceptual Understanding on High School Optics Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akarsu, Bayram

    2012-01-01

    Physics educators around the world often need reliable diagnostic materials to measure students' understanding of physics concept in high school. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a new diagnostic tool on High School Optics concept. Test of Conceptual Understanding on High School Optics (TOCUSO) consists of 25 conceptual items that measures…

  6. The Clean Development Mechanism Re-engineered

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lütken, Søren

    2016-01-01

    for engineering such mechanism, or indeed reengineering the CDM itself, to make it a viable mitigation financing tool, providing receipts for payments in the form of certified emission reductions (CER). Two solutions are presented, both of which secure new financing for projects that deliver real and measurable...... emissions reduction benefits on the basis of prospective revenues from emissions reduction: one introduces up-front securitization of the emissions reductions; the other builds on a defined value of the CERs without the need for a carbon price or a market for trading. Most of us use simple heuristics...... time. Simply put CERs are not project finance and do not address project capital needs when most needed — upfront. CER based returns are available only after a project is operational. That is why only one third of registered CDM projects went as far as to get their carefully calculated CERs issued...

  7. Hospital Registration Process Reengineering Using Simulation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Su

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing competition, many healthcare organizations have undergone tremendous reform in the last decade aiming to increase efficiency, decrease waste, and reshape the way that care is delivered. This study focuses on the operational efficiency improvement of hospital’s registration process. The operational efficiency related factors including the service process, queue strategy, and queue parameters were explored systematically and illustrated with a case study. Guided by the principle of business process reengineering (BPR, a simulation approach was employed for process redesign and performance optimization. As a result, the queue strategy is changed from multiple queues and multiple servers to single queue and multiple servers with a prepare queue. Furthermore, through a series of simulation experiments, the length of the prepare queue and the corresponding registration process efficiency was quantitatively evaluated and optimized.

  8. The effect of business process reengineering (BPR) on human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of business process reengineering (BPR) on human resource management in Addis Ababa City Administration. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, ...

  9. Environmental management compliance reengineering project, FY 1997 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanVliet, J.A.; Davis, J.N.

    1997-09-01

    Through an integrated reengineering effort, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is successfully implementing process improvements that will permit safe and compliant operations to continue during the next 5 years, even though $80 million was removed from the Environmental Management (EM) program budget. A 2-year analysis, design, and implementation project will reengineer compliance-related activities and reduce operating costs by approximately $17 million per year from Fiscal Year (FY) 1998 through 2002, while continuing to meet the INEEL''s environment, safety, and health requirements and milestone commitments. Compliance reengineer''s focus is improving processes, not avoiding full compliance with environmental, safety, and health laws. In FY 1997, compliance reengineering used a three-phase approach to analyze, design, and implement the changes that would decrease operating costs. Implementation for seven specific improvement projects was completed in FY 1997, while five projects will complete implementation in FY 1998. During FY 1998, the three-phase process will be repeated to continue reengineering the INEEL

  10. Environmental management compliance reengineering project, FY 1997 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanVliet, J.A.; Davis, J.N.

    1997-09-01

    Through an integrated reengineering effort, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is successfully implementing process improvements that will permit safe and compliant operations to continue during the next 5 years, even though $80 million was removed from the Environmental Management (EM) program budget. A 2-year analysis, design, and implementation project will reengineer compliance-related activities and reduce operating costs by approximately $17 million per year from Fiscal Year (FY) 1998 through 2002, while continuing to meet the INEEL`s environment, safety, and health requirements and milestone commitments. Compliance reengineer`s focus is improving processes, not avoiding full compliance with environmental, safety, and health laws. In FY 1997, compliance reengineering used a three-phase approach to analyze, design, and implement the changes that would decrease operating costs. Implementation for seven specific improvement projects was completed in FY 1997, while five projects will complete implementation in FY 1998. During FY 1998, the three-phase process will be repeated to continue reengineering the INEEL.

  11. Re-Engineering a High Performance Electrical Series Elastic Actuator for Low-Cost Industrial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Isik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost is an important consideration when transferring a technology from research to industrial and educational use. In this paper, we introduce the design of an industrial grade series elastic actuator (SEA performed via re-engineering a research grade version of it. Cost-constrained design requires careful consideration of the key performance parameters for an optimal performance-to-cost component selection. To optimize the performance of the new design, we started by matching the capabilities of a high-performance SEA while cutting down its production cost significantly. Our posit was that performing a re-engineering design process on an existing high-end device will significantly reduce the cost without compromising the performance drastically. As a case study of design for manufacturability, we selected the University of Texas Series Elastic Actuator (UT-SEA, a high-performance SEA, for its high power density, compact design, high efficiency and high speed properties. We partnered with an industrial corporation in China to research the best pricing options and to exploit the retail and production facilities provided by the Shenzhen region. We succeeded in producing a low-cost industrial grade actuator at one-third of the cost of the original device by re-engineering the UT-SEA with commercial off-the-shelf components and reducing the number of custom-made parts. Subsequently, we conducted performance tests to demonstrate that the re-engineered product achieves the same high-performance specifications found in the original device. With this paper, we aim to raise awareness in the robotics community on the possibility of low-cost realization of low-volume, high performance, industrial grade research and education hardware.

  12. Defense programs business practices re-engineering QFD exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, C.; Halbleib, L.

    1996-03-01

    The end of the cold war has resulted in many changes for the Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC). We now work in a smaller complex, with reduced resources, a smaller stockpile, and no new phase 3 weapons development programs. This new environment demands that we re-evaluate the way we design and produce nuclear weapons. The Defense Program (DP) Business Practices Re-engineering activity was initiated to improve the design and production efficiency of the DP Sector. The activity had six goals: (1) to identify DP business practices that are exercised by the Product Realization Process (PRP); (2) to determine the impact (positive, negative, or none) of these practices on defined, prioritized customer criteria; (3) to identify business practices that are candidates for elimination or re-engineering; (4) to select two or three business practices for re-engineering; (5) to re-engineer the selected business practices; and (6) to exercise the re-engineered practices on three pilot development projects. Business practices include technical and well as administrative procedures that are exercised by the PRP. A QFD exercise was performed to address (1)-(4). The customer that identified, defined, and prioritized the criteria to rate the business practices was the Block Change Advisory Group. Five criteria were identified: cycle time, flexibility, cost, product performance/quality, and best practices. Forty-nine business practices were identified and rated per the criteria. From this analysis, the group made preliminary recommendations as to which practices would be addressed in the re-engineering activity. Sixteen practices will be addressed in the re-engineering activity. These practices will then be piloted on three projects: (1) the Electronic Component Assembly (ECA)/Radar Project, (2) the B61 Mod 11, and (3) Warhead Protection Program (WPP)

  13. Modifying the test of understanding graphs in kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Genaro; Tejeda, Santa; Barniol, Pablo; Beichner, Robert J.

    2017-12-01

    In this article, we present several modifications to the Test of Understanding Graphs in Kinematics. The most significant changes are (i) the addition and removal of items to achieve parallelism in the objectives (dimensions) of the test, thus allowing comparisons of students' performance that were not possible with the original version, and (ii) changes to the distractors of some of the original items that represent the most frequent alternative conceptions. The final modified version (after an iterative process involving four administrations of test variations over two years) was administered to 471 students of an introductory university physics course at a large private university in Mexico. When analyzing the final modified version of the test it was found that the added items satisfied the statistical tests of difficulty, discriminatory power, and reliability; also, that the great majority of the modified distractors were effective in terms of their frequency selection and discriminatory power; and, that the final modified version of the test satisfied the reliability and discriminatory power criteria as well as the original test. Here, we also show the use of the new version of the test, presenting a new analysis of students' understanding not possible to do before with the original version of the test, specifically regarding the objectives and items that in the new version meet parallelisms. Finally, in the PhysPort project (physport.org), we present the final modified version of the test. It can be used by teachers and researchers to assess students' understanding of graphs in kinematics, as well as their learning about them.

  14. ORNL engineering design and construction reengineering report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeese, L.E.

    1998-01-01

    A team composed of individuals representing research and development (R and D) divisions, infrastructure support organizations, and Department of Energy (DOE)-Oak Ridge Operations was chartered to reengineer the engineering, design, and construction (ED and C) process at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The team recognized that ED and C needs of both R and D customers and the ORNL infrastructure program have to be met to maintain a viable and competitive national laboratory. Their goal was to identify and recommend implementable best-in-class ED and C processes that will efficiently and cost-effectively support the ORNL R and D staff by being responsive to their programmatic and infrastructure needs. The team conducted process mapping of current and potential ED and C approaches, developed idealized versions of ED and C processes, and identified potential barriers to an efficient ED and C process. Eight subteams were assigned to gather information and to evaluate the significance of potential barriers through benchmarking, surveys, interviews, and reviews of key topical areas in order to determine whether the perceived barriers were real and important and whether they resulted from laws or regulations over which ORNL has no control.

  15. Business process re-engineering in service operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClintock, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    The concept of business process re-engineering, and how it was applied to the operations of the Consumers Gas Company were discussed. Business process re-engineering was defined as the improvement of the efficiency of the customer-service process, and the overall improvement of practices and operations. The re-engineering project was said to involve a thorough analysis of information technology, current limitations, and business operational needs, undertaken on an enterprise-wide basis. Viewed generically,a re-engineering project was said to have six major components: (1) business drivers (i.e. the articulation of the Company's strategic issues); (2) benchmark measures; (3) future state process models; (4) cost/benefit analysis; (5) a change management plan; and (6) a development plan. Business improvements expected to result from the project include reduced cost of operation, reduction of waste, and a substantially complete re-design of the business process. Management of the project involved a team approach, and help of a consultant to identify the scope of the re-design, its limitations, and future state. A life expectancy of approximately 10 years was given for the re-engineering plan, with annual benefits (in terms of cost reduction) of $4.6 million by the year 2000

  16. Goal-Equivalent Secure Business Process Re-engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acosta, Hugo Andrés Lópes; Massacci, Fabio; Zannone, Nicola

    2008-01-01

    that they are somehow “equivalent”. In this paper we propose a method for passing from SI*, a modeling language for capturing and modeling functional, security, and trust organizational and system requirements, to business process specifications and vice versa. In particular, starting from an old secure business......The introduction of information technologies in health care systems often requires to re-engineer the business processes used to deliver care. Obviously, the new and re-engineered processes are observationally different and thus we cannot use existing model-based techniques to argue...... process, we reconstruct the functional and security requirements at organizational level that such a business process was supposed to meet (including the trust relations that existed among the members of the organization). To ensure that the re-engineered business process meets the elicited requirements...

  17. Application of information and communication technology in process reengineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurović Aleksandar M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role of information communication technologies in reengineering processes. General analysis of a process will show that information communication technologies improve their efficiency. Reengineering model based on the BPMN 2.0 standard will be applied to the process of seeking internship/job by students from Faculty of Transport and Traffic Engineering. In the paper, after defining the technical characteristics and required functionalities, web / mobile application is proposed, enabling better visibility of traffic engineers to companies seeking that education profile.

  18. IDC Re-Engineering Phase 2 System Specification Document Version 1.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satpathi, Meara Allena [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Burns, John F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Harris, James M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This document contains the system specifications derived to satisfy the system requirements found in the IDC System Requirements Document for the IDC Re-Engineering Phase 2 project. This System Specification Document (SSD) defines waveform data processing requirements for the International Data Centre (IDC) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO). The routine processing includes characterization of events with the objective of screening out events considered to be consistent with natural phenomena or non-nuclear, man-made phenomena. This document does not address requirements concerning acquisition, processing and analysis of radionuclide data but does include requirements for the dissemination of radionuclide data and products.

  19. Hospital reengineering: an evolving management innovation: history, current status and future direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walston, S L; Urden, L D; Sullivan, P

    2001-01-01

    This article summarizes six years of research on reengineering in hospitals and is the result of two national surveys and eighteen site visits to hospitals that engaged in reengineering in the 1990s. The research shows that actual hospital reengineering differs substantially from that which was initially proposed by early promoters of reengineering. However, this evolved reengineering continues to be implemented by the majority of hospitals in the United States. The authors illustrate how extensive reductions of managers and changes of nursing models have been in the past six years. Data comparing financial and cost competitiveness changes are also shown. The authors then explore the continued experiences of two early proponents of reengineering and find that their competitive outcomes to be in contrast with their early statements. Finally, the authors suggest a number of reasons that may impact on the success or failure of reengineering.

  20. Leadership processes for re-engineering changes to the health care industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kristina L

    2004-01-01

    As health care organizations seek innovative ways to change financing and delivery mechanisms due to escalated health care costs and increased competition, drastic changes are being sought in the form of re-engineering. This study discusses the leader's role of re-engineering in health care. It specifically addresses the reasons for failures in re-engineering and argues that success depends on senior level leaders playing a critical role. Existing studies lack comprehensiveness in establishing models of re-engineering and management guidelines. This research focuses on integrating re-engineering and leadership processes in health care by creating a step-by-step model. Particularly, it illustrates the four Es: Examination, Establishment, Execution and Evaluation, as a comprehensive re-engineering process that combines managerial roles and activities to result in successfully changed and reengineered health care organizations.

  1. Conceptual Framework of Business Process Reengineering for Civil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tesfaye Deb

    endorsed Business Process Reengineering (BPR) as a foundation for strengthening Result Based ... Ethiopian government recognized the importance of improving ...... finance process. 4. Project process. (research and consultancy). Low frequency, request arrival is random, time interval between two requests can be very.

  2. Downsizing, reengineering and patient safety: numbers, newness and resultant risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, G E; Kelley, M; Hodgson, S; Simpson, K R; Carrier, L; Berry, D

    1999-01-01

    Downsizing and reengineering are facts of life in contemporary healthcare organizations. In most instances, these organizational changes are undertaken in an attempt to increase productivity or cut operational costs with results measured in these terms. Less often considered are potential detrimental effects on patient safety or strategies, which might be used to minimize these risks.

  3. Reshaping the Enterprise through an Information Architecture and Process Reengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudato, Nicholas C.; DeSantis, Dennis J.

    1995-01-01

    The approach used by the University of Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania) in designing a campus-wide information architecture and a framework for reengineering the business process included building consensus on a general philosophy for information systems, using pattern-based abstraction techniques, applying data modeling and application prototyping, and…

  4. THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF REENGINEERING IN SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Stefanović

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reengineering is a fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes - to achieve dramatic improvements in critical, important measures of performances, such as cost, quality, service and speed. This definition contains four keywords: fundamental, radical, dramatic and processes.

  5. Accountability-based reengineering of an order fulfillment process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.; Jiao, J.; Ma, Q.

    2009-01-01

    In view of the dynamic changes in a supply chain network and the significance of order fulfillment processes (OFPs) for the successful implementation of supply chain management, this paper puts forward an accountability-based methodology for companies to reengineer OFPs while considering both

  6. Do doctors understand the test characteristics of lung cancer screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Richard; Breyer, Marie; Breyer-Kohansal, Robab; Urban, Matthias; Funk, Georg-Christian

    2018-04-01

    Screening for lung cancer with a low-dose computed tomography (CT) scan is estimated to prevent 3 deaths per 1000 individuals at high risk; however, false positive results and radiation exposure are relevant harms and deserve careful consideration. Screening candidates can only make an autonomous decision if doctors correctly inform them of the pros and cons of the method; therefore, this study aimed to evaluate whether doctors understand the test characteristics of lung cancer screening. In a randomized trial 556 doctors (members of the Austrian Respiratory Society) were invited to answer questions regarding lung cancer screening based on online case vignettes. Half of the participants were randomized to the group 'solutions provided' and received the correct solutions in advance. The group 'solutions withheld' had to rely on prior knowledge or estimates. The primary endpoint was the between-group difference in the estimated number of deaths preventable by screening. Secondary endpoints were the between-group differences in the prevalence of lung cancer, prevalence of a positive screening results, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and false negative rate. Estimations were also compared with current data from the literature. The response rate was 29% in both groups. The reduction in the number of deaths due to screening was overestimated six-fold (95% confidence interval CI: 4-8) compared with the actual data, and there was no effect of group allocation. Providing the correct solutions to doctors had no systematic effect on their answers. Doctors poorly understand the test characteristics of lung cancer screening. Providing the correct solutions in advance did not improve the answers. Continuing education regarding lung cancer screening and the interpretation of test characteristics may be a simple remedy. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02542332).

  7. New biological research and understanding of Papanicolaou's test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elizabeth R; George, Sophia H; Kobetz, Erin; Xu, Xiang-Xi

    2018-06-01

    The development of the Papanicolaou smear test by Dr. George Nicholas Papanicolaou (1883-1962) is one of the most significant achievements in screening for disease and cancer prevention in history. The Papanicolaou smear has been used for screening of cervical cancer since the 1950s. The test is technically straightforward and practical and based on a simple scientific observation: malignant cells have an aberrant nuclear morphology that can be distinguished from benign cells. Here, we review the scientific understanding that has been achieved and continues to be made on the causes and consequences of abnormal nuclear morphology, the basis of Dr. Papanicolaou's invention. The deformed nuclear shape is caused by the loss of lamina and nuclear envelope structural proteins. The consequences of a nuclear envelope defect include chromosomal numerical instability, altered chromatin organization and gene expression, and increased cell mobility because of a malleable nuclear envelope. HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) infection is recognized as the key etiology in the development of cervical cancer. Persistent HPV infection causes disruption of the nuclear lamina, which presents as a change in nuclear morphology detectable by a Papanicolaou smear. Thus, the causes and consequences of nuclear deformation are now linked to the mechanisms of viral carcinogenesis, and are still undergoing active investigation to reveal the details. Recently a statue was installed in front of the Papanicolaou's Cancer Research Building to honor the inventor. Remarkably, the invention nearly 60 years ago by Dr. Papanicolaou still exerts clinical impacts and inspires scientific inquiries. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. A Process Re-engineering Framework for Reverse Logistics based on a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hing Kai Chan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Reverse logistics has gained increasing attention in recent years as a channel for companies to achieve operational excellence. The process involves manipulation of returned materials, or even products, which forms a pivotal role in sustainable development throughout the whole supply chains. To make reverse logistics possible, process re-engineering may need to be carried out. However, the processes involved in reengineering are practically complicated. Objectives, benefits, and applicability of any process re-engineering require a careful and detailed strategic planning. This paper aims to propose an easy-to-follow step-by-step framework for practitioners to perform process re-engineering, to learn and identify the critical issues in each step, and to be successful in applying process re-engineering in order to enhance reverse logistics performance. A learner-centred approach is adopted based on a case study of process re-engineering, which is demonstrated in the paper for explanation.

  9. Business Process Reengineering, a Crisis Solution or a Necessity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela GHEORGHE

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This case study shows that the company decided to implement Business Process Reengineering (BPR not only because external environment had changed, but also due to its obsolete business processes and organizational structure. The article will highlight the importance of the organizations' focusing on sub-goals, in order to finally reach the desired result in the organization's main goals. When rapid evolution has become the fundamental contemporary coordinate, reengineering is a form of company innovative reaction in terms of intensifying competition and globalization. Remodeling the Company in phases of crisis, when time pressure reduces the type and number of solutions that can be adopted, without effective leadership, can lead in most cases to failure. The effect of redesigning the business processes depends on how well it is implemented, coordinated and monitored.

  10. E-learning and the Educational Organizations Structure Reengineering (EOSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Alshara

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available There are many calls for innovative learning methods that utilize advanced technologies. However, we will raise fundamental questions that look deep into the future of the educational organization. Can the educational institute survive without adapting learning technologies? Would the educational institute succeed in adapting new learning technologies without changing its organizational structure and processes? We claim that the answer to both questions is no. Our research will present the need for edu-cational institutes to incorporate learning technologies and focuses on the demand for the educational organization structure reengineering as a basic requirement for the suc-cess of incorporating learning technologies. Our study ex-plores the faculty requirements and policies and procedures of educational institutes in the UAE.The paper concludes with some discussions on findings from a case study of the need of educational organization struc-ture reengineering as a basic requirement for incorporating learning technologies.

  11. Business Process Reengineering, a Crises Solution or a Necessity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela GHEORGHE

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study shows that the company decided to implement Business Process Reengineering (BPR not only because external environment had changed, but also due to its obsolete business processes and organizational structure. The article will highlight the importance of the organizations' focusing on sub-goals, in order to finally reach the desired result in the organization's main goals. When rapid evolution has become the fundamental contemporary coordinate, reengineering is a form of company innovative reaction in terms of intensifying competition and globalization. Remodelling the Company in phases of crisis, when time pressure reduces the type and number of solutions that can be adopted, without effective leadership can lead in most cases to failure. The effect of redesigning the business processes depends on how well it is implemented, coordinated and monitored.

  12. Perceptions of Self-Testing for Chlamydia: Understanding and Predicting Self-Test Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Rachael; Pattison, Helen M; Marriott, John F

    2016-05-10

    Self-testing technology allows people to test themselves for chlamydia without professional support. This may result in reassurance and wider access to chlamydia testing, but anxiety could occur on receipt of positive results. This study aimed to identify factors important in understanding self-testing for chlamydia outside formal screening contexts, to explore the potential impacts of self-testing on individuals, and to identify theoretical constructs to form a Framework for future research and intervention development. Eighteen university students participated in semi-structured interviews; eleven had self-tested for chlamydia. Data were analysed thematically usingaFrameworkapproach. Perceivedbenefitsofself-testingincludeditsbeingconvenient, anonymousandnotrequiringphysicalexamination. Therewasconcernabouttestaccuracyandsome participants lacked confidence in using vulvo-vaginal swabs. While some participants expressed concern about the absence of professional support, all said they would seek help on receiving a positive result. Factors identified in Protection Motivation Theory and the Theory of Planned Behaviour, such as response efficacy and self-efficacy, were found to be highly salient to participants in thinking about self-testing. These exploratory findings suggest that self-testing independentlyofformalhealthcaresystemsmaynomorenegativelyimpactpeoplethanbeingtested by health care professionals. Participants' perceptions about self-testing behaviour were consistent with psychological theories. Findings suggest that interventions which increase confidence in using self-tests and that provide reassurance of test accuracy may increase self-test intentions.

  13. Perceptions of Self-Testing for Chlamydia: Understanding and Predicting Self-Test Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Powell

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-testing technology allows people to test themselves for chlamydia without professional support. This may result in reassurance and wider access to chlamydia testing, but anxiety could occur on receipt of positive results. This study aimed to identify factors important in understanding self-testing for chlamydia outside formal screening contexts, to explore the potential impacts of self-testing on individuals, and to identify theoretical constructs to form a Framework for future research and intervention development. Methods: Eighteen university students participated in semi-structured interviews; eleven had self-tested for chlamydia. Data were analysed thematically usingaFrameworkapproach. Results: Perceivedbenefitsofself-testingincludeditsbeingconvenient, anonymousandnotrequiringphysicalexamination. Therewasconcernabouttestaccuracyandsome participants lacked confidence in using vulvo-vaginal swabs. While some participants expressed concern about the absence of professional support, all said they would seek help on receiving a positive result. Factors identified in Protection Motivation Theory and the Theory of Planned Behaviour, such as response efficacy and self-efficacy, were found to be highly salient to participants in thinking about self-testing. Conclusions: These exploratory findings suggest that self-testing independentlyofformalhealthcaresystemsmaynomorenegativelyimpactpeoplethanbeingtested by health care professionals. Participants’ perceptions about self-testing behaviour were consistent with psychological theories. Findings suggest that interventions which increase confidence in using self-tests and that provide reassurance of test accuracy may increase self-test intentions.

  14. Test of Understanding of Vectors: A Reliable Multiple-Choice Vector Concept Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barniol, Pablo; Zavala, Genaro

    2014-01-01

    In this article we discuss the findings of our research on students' understanding of vector concepts in problems without physical context. First, we develop a complete taxonomy of the most frequent errors made by university students when learning vector concepts. This study is based on the results of several test administrations of open-ended…

  15. Reengineering and health physics within the project Hanford management contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atencio, E.M.

    1997-01-01

    The impending transition of the Hartford Site management and operations (M ampersand O) contract to a management and integrating (M ampersand I) contract format, together with weak radiological performance assessments by external organizations and reduced financial budgets prompted the 're-engineering' of the previous Hanford prime contractor Radiological Control (Rad Con) organization. This paper presents the methodology, identified areas of improvements, and results of the re-engineering process. The conversion from the M ampersand O to the M ampersand I contract concept resulted in multiple independent Rad Con organizations reporting to separate major contractors who are managed by an integrating contractor. This brought significant challenges when establishing minimum site standards for sitewide consistency, developing roles and responsibilities, and maintaining site Rad Con goals. Championed by the previous contractor's Rad Con Director, Denny Newland, a five month planning effort was executed to address the challenges of the M ampersand I and to address identified weaknesses. Fluor Daniel Hanford assumed the responsibility as integrator of the Project Hanford Management Contract on October 1, 1996. The Fluor Daniel Hanford Radiation Protection Director Jeff Foster presents the results of the re-engineering effort, including the significant cost savings, process improvements, field support improvements, and clarification of roles and responsibilities that have been achieved

  16. Test of understanding of vectors: A reliable multiple-choice vector concept test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barniol, Pablo; Zavala, Genaro

    2014-06-01

    In this article we discuss the findings of our research on students' understanding of vector concepts in problems without physical context. First, we develop a complete taxonomy of the most frequent errors made by university students when learning vector concepts. This study is based on the results of several test administrations of open-ended problems in which a total of 2067 students participated. Using this taxonomy, we then designed a 20-item multiple-choice test [Test of understanding of vectors (TUV)] and administered it in English to 423 students who were completing the required sequence of introductory physics courses at a large private Mexican university. We evaluated the test's content validity, reliability, and discriminatory power. The results indicate that the TUV is a reliable assessment tool. We also conducted a detailed analysis of the students' understanding of the vector concepts evaluated in the test. The TUV is included in the Supplemental Material as a resource for other researchers studying vector learning, as well as instructors teaching the material.

  17. Understanding the properties of diagnostic tests - Part 2: Likelihood ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Priya; Aggarwal, Rakesh

    2018-01-01

    Diagnostic tests are used to identify subjects with and without disease. In a previous article in this series, we examined some attributes of diagnostic tests - sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values. In this second article, we look at likelihood ratios, which are useful for the interpretation of diagnostic test results in everyday clinical practice.

  18. Understanding virtual world usage : A multipurpose model and empirical testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, Tibert; Feldberg, Frans; Van Den Hooff, Bart; Meents, Selmar

    2009-01-01

    This study reports an attempt to enhance our understanding of the reasons behind virtual world usage. By providing a mixture of utilitarian and hedonic value, virtual worlds represent an emerging class of multipurpose information systems (MPIS). Previous research seems to fall short in explaining

  19. Understanding the impact of genetic testing for inherited retinal dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Ryan; McAllister, Marion; Payne, Katherine; Lowndes, Jo; Devery, Sophie; Webster, Andrew R; Downes, Susan M; Moore, Anthony T; Ramsden, Simon; Black, Graeme; Hall, Georgina

    2013-11-01

    The capability of genetic technologies is expanding rapidly in the field of inherited eye disease. New genetic testing approaches will deliver a step change in the ability to diagnose and extend the possibility of targeted treatments. However, evidence is lacking about the benefits of genetic testing to support service planning. Here, we report qualitative data about retinal dystrophy families' experiences of genetic testing in United Kingdom. The data were part of a wider study examining genetic eye service provision. Twenty interviewees from families in which a causative mutation had been identified by a genetic eye clinic were recruited to the study. Fourteen interviewees had chosen to have a genetic test and five had not; one was uncertain. In-depth telephone interviews were conducted allowing a thorough exploration of interviewees' views and experiences of the benefits of genetic counselling and testing. Transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. Both affected and unaffected interviewees expressed mainly positive views about genetic testing, highlighting benefits such as diagnostic confirmation, risk information, and better preparation for the future. Negative consequences included the burden of knowledge, moral dilemmas around reproduction, and potential impact on insurance. The offer of genetic testing was often taken up, but was felt unnecessary in some cases. Interviewees in the study reported many benefits, suggesting genetic testing should be available to this patient group. The benefits and risks identified will inform future evaluation of models of service delivery. This research was part of a wider study exploring experiences of families with retinal dystrophy.

  20. Re-engineering caused by ISO-9000 certification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Nielsen, Anders Paarup; Bjarnø, Ole-Christian

    1997-01-01

    Based on a project performed at a medium-sized producer of medical utensils, reviews some of the problems which the company experienced in connection with the system built up during ISO 9001 certification, and the re-engineering efforts which were performed in order to relieve these problems....... Focuses in particular on a re-structuring of the company’s system for production documentation and its relation to the traceability of their products. This system was radically altered during the project without the traceability requirements being violated or reduced. These changes resulted in a marked...... increase in productivity....

  1. The role of business process reengineering in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, D

    1994-02-01

    Business process reengineering (BPR) is a management philosophy capturing attention in health care. It combines some new, old, and recycled management philosophies, and, more often than not, is yielding positive results. BPR's emphasis is on the streamlining of cross-functional processes to significantly reduce time and/or cost, increase revenue, improve quality and service, and reduce risk. Therefore, it has many applications in health care. This article provides an introduction to the concept of BPR, including the definition of BPR, its origin, its champions, and factors for its success.

  2. Using a Foundational Ontology for Reengineering a Software Enterprise Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perini Barcellos, Monalessa; de Almeida Falbo, Ricardo

    The knowledge about software organizations is considerably relevant to software engineers. The use of a common vocabulary for representing the useful knowledge about software organizations involved in software projects is important for several reasons, such as to support knowledge reuse and to allow communication and interoperability between tools. Domain ontologies can be used to define a common vocabulary for sharing and reuse of knowledge about some domain. Foundational ontologies can be used for evaluating and re-designing domain ontologies, giving to these real-world semantics. This paper presents an evaluating of a Software Enterprise Ontology that was reengineered using the Unified Foundation Ontology (UFO) as basis.

  3. Reengineering the Innovation Culture through Social media Crowdsourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scupola, Ada; Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh

    2012-01-01

    In this article we investigate how social media-based crowdsourcing systems can be used to reengineer the innovation culture in an organization. Based on a case study of a large engineering consultancy’s use of a social media crowdsourcing system we investigate the impact on the organizations...... innovation culture using theory on organizational culture and crowdsourcing. The analysis shows that the organizational crowdsourcing event has supported an innovation culture change in the case company towards a more including approach to innovation; creating a new and different awareness of innovation...

  4. Reengineering the Innovation Culture through Social media Crowdsourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scupola, Ada; Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh

    2012-01-01

    innovation culture using theory on organizational culture and crowdsourcing. The analysis shows that the organizational crowdsourcing event has supported an innovation culture change in the case company towards a more including approach to innovation; creating a new and different awareness of innovation......In this article we investigate how social media-based crowdsourcing systems can be used to reengineer the innovation culture in an organization. Based on a case study of a large engineering consultancy’s use of a social media crowdsourcing system we investigate the impact on the organizations...

  5. Re-engineering pre-employment check-up systems: a model for improving health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rateb, Said Abdel Hakim; El Nouman, Azza Abdel Razek; Rateb, Moshira Abdel Hakim; Asar, Mohamed Naguib; El Amin, Ayman Mohammed; Gad, Saad abdel Aziz; Mohamed, Mohamed Salah Eldin

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a model for improving health services provided by the pre-employment medical fitness check-up system affiliated to Egypt's Health Insurance Organization (HIO). Operations research, notably system re-engineering, is used in six randomly selected centers and findings before and after re-engineering are compared. The re-engineering model follows a systems approach, focusing on three areas: structure, process and outcome. The model is based on six main components: electronic booking, standardized check-up processes, protected medical documents, advanced archiving through an electronic content management (ECM) system, infrastructure development, and capacity building. The model originates mainly from customer needs and expectations. The centers' monthly customer flow increased significantly after re-engineering. The mean time spent per customer cycle improved after re-engineering--18.3 +/- 5.5 minutes as compared to 48.8 +/- 14.5 minutes before. Appointment delay was also significantly decreased from an average 18 to 6.2 days. Both beneficiaries and service providers were significantly more satisfied with the services after re-engineering. The model proves that re-engineering program costs are exceeded by increased revenue. Re-engineering in this study involved multiple structure and process elements. The literature review did not reveal similar re-engineering healthcare packages. Therefore, each element was compared separately. This model is highly recommended for improving service effectiveness and efficiency. This research is the first in Egypt to apply the re-engineering approach to public health systems. Developing user-friendly models for service improvement is an added value.

  6. Impact of peculiar features of construction of transport infrastructure on the choice of tools for reengineering of business processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khripko, Elena

    2017-10-01

    In the present article we study the issues of organizational resistance to reengineering of business processes in construction of transport infrastructure. Reengineering in a company of transport sector is, first and foremost, an innovative component of business strategy. We analyze the choice of forward and reverse reengineering tools and terms of their application in connection with organizational resistance. Reengineering is defined taking into account four aspects: fundamentality, radicality, abruptness, business process. We describe the stages of reengineering and analyze key requirements to newly created business processes.

  7. Biocybrid systems and the re-engineering of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Diana; Ferreira da Rocha, Adson; Hamdan, Camila; Augusto, Leci; Miosso, Cristiano Jacques

    2011-03-01

    The reengineering of life expanded by perceptual experiences in the sense of presence in Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality is the theme of our investigation in collaborative practices confirming the artistś creativity close to the inventivity of scientists and mutual capacity for the generation of biocybrid systems. We consider the enactive bodily interfaces for human existence being co-located in the continuum and symbiotic zone between body and flesh - cyberspace and data - and the hybrid properties of physical world. That continuum generates a biocybrid zone (Bio+cyber+hybrid) and the life is reinvented. Results reaffirm the creative reality of coupled body and mutual influences with environment information, enhancing James Gibson's ecological perception theory. The ecosystem life in its dynamical relations between human, animal, plants, landscapes, urban life and objects, bring questions and challenges for artworks and the reengineering of life discussed in our artworks in technoscience. Finally, we describe an implementation in which the immersion experience is enhanced by the datavisualization of biological audio signals and by using wearable miniaturized devices for biofeedback.

  8. Agent-based re-engineering of ErbB signaling: a modeling pipeline for integrative systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arya A; Ajayakumar Darsana, T; Jacob, Elizabeth

    2017-03-01

    Experiments in systems biology are generally supported by a computational model which quantitatively estimates the parameters of the system by finding the best fit to the experiment. Mathematical models have proved to be successful in reverse engineering the system. The data generated is interpreted to understand the dynamics of the underlying phenomena. The question we have sought to answer is that - is it possible to use an agent-based approach to re-engineer a biological process, making use of the available knowledge from experimental and modelling efforts? Can the bottom-up approach benefit from the top-down exercise so as to create an integrated modelling formalism for systems biology? We propose a modelling pipeline that learns from the data given by reverse engineering, and uses it for re-engineering the system, to carry out in-silico experiments. A mathematical model that quantitatively predicts co-expression of EGFR-HER2 receptors in activation and trafficking has been taken for this study. The pipeline architecture takes cues from the population model that gives the rates of biochemical reactions, to formulate knowledge-based rules for the particle model. Agent-based simulations using these rules, support the existing facts on EGFR-HER2 dynamics. We conclude that, re-engineering models, built using the results of reverse engineering, opens up the possibility of harnessing the power pack of data which now lies scattered in literature. Virtual experiments could then become more realistic when empowered with the findings of empirical cell biology and modelling studies. Implemented on the Agent Modelling Framework developed in-house. C ++ code templates available in Supplementary material . liz.csir@gmail.com. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  9. A Longitudinal BPR Study in a Danish Manufacturing Company - From Reengineering to Process Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Holm; Wieth, Christian; Domsten, Zenia Vittarp

    1998-01-01

    , Business Process Reengineering (BPR) is the most applied method for planning and carrying out projects. Novo Nordisk A/S is one of the largest companies in Denmark and the world's largest producer of industrial enzymes with a market share of more than 50%.This paper is a longitudinal study of BPR...... initiatives at Enzyme Business carried out within the time frame of January 1994 to March 1998. The paper provides empirical insight from a number of BPR-projects and related BPR-initiatives, e.g. Business System Reengineering projects. The results of the paper suggest that reengineering with the means...

  10. The Third Edition of the Test of Understanding in College Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Phillip

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the content and cognitive specification of the third edition of the Test of Understanding in College Economics. Presents examples of the construction and sampling criteria employed in the latest and previous versions of the test. Explains that the test emphasizes recognition and understanding of basic terms, concepts, and principles with…

  11. Reengineering NHS Hospitals in Greece: Redistribution Leads to Rational Mergers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolentzos, Athanasios; Kontodimopoulos, Nick; Polyzos, Nikolaos; Thireos, Eleftherios; Tountas, Yannis

    2015-03-18

    The purpose of this study was to record and evaluate existing public hospital infrastructure of the National Health System (NHS), in terms of clinics and laboratories, as well as the healthcare workforce in each of these units and in every health region in Greece, in an attempt to optimize the allocation of these resources. An extensive analysis of raw data according to supply and performance indicators was performed to serve as a solid and objective scientific baseline for the proposed reengineering of the Greek public hospitals. Suggestions for "reshuffling" clinics and diagnostic laboratories, and their personnel, were made by using a best versus worst outcome indicator approach at a regional and national level. This study is expected to contribute to the academic debate about the gap between theory and evidence based decision-making in health policy.

  12. Fifteen years of Superfund at South Valley: Reengineering required

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormier, J.; Horak, F.

    1995-01-01

    It is no surprise to many of Superfund's practitioners that the law and its application are flawed. The South Valley Superfund Site in Albuquerque, New Mexico has not escaped Superfund's problems. The problems and issues arising out of the South Valley Superfund site have spurred the desire to seek a better way to administer and manage cleanup. This new method applies organizational and role changes that bring Superfund closer to an efficient business-like entity. This ''Reengineered'' Superfund strives for reorganization, contractor reduction, improved communication, reporting reduction, and teaming. In addition, modifications are made to the roles of regulators, potentially responsible parties (PRPs), and the public. Today the site encompasses roughly one square mile in area, includes six identified contaminant sources, and deals with solvent and petroleum by-product contamination

  13. IAEA safeguards information system re-engineering project (IRP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, G.; Becar, J.-M.; Ifyland, N.; Kirkgoeze, R.; Koevesd, G.; Szamosi, L.

    2007-01-01

    The Safeguards Information System Re-engineering Project (IRP) was initiated to assist the IAEA in addressing current and future verification and analysis activities through the establishment of a new information technology framework for strengthened and integrated safeguards. The Project provides a unique opportunity to enhance all of the information services for the Department of Safeguards and will require project management 'best practices' to balance limited funds, available resources and Departmental priorities. To achieve its goals, the Project will require the participation of all stakeholders to create a comprehensive and cohesive plan that provides both a flexible and stable foundation for address changing business needs. The expectation is that high quality integrated information systems will be developed that incorporate state-of-the-art technical architectural standards, improved business processes and consistent user interfaces to store various data types in an enterprise data repository which is accessible on-line in a secure environment. (author)

  14. Re-Engineering Complex Legacy Systems at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruszkowski, James; Meshkat, Leila

    2010-01-01

    The Flight Production Process (FPP) Re-engineering project has established a Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) methodology and the technological infrastructure for the design and development of a reference, product-line architecture as well as an integrated workflow model for the Mission Operations System (MOS) for human space exploration missions at NASA Johnson Space Center. The design and architectural artifacts have been developed based on the expertise and knowledge of numerous Subject Matter Experts (SMEs). The technological infrastructure developed by the FPP Re-engineering project has enabled the structured collection and integration of this knowledge and further provides simulation and analysis capabilities for optimization purposes. A key strength of this strategy has been the judicious combination of COTS products with custom coding. The lean management approach that has led to the success of this project is based on having a strong vision for the whole lifecycle of the project and its progress over time, a goal-based design and development approach, a small team of highly specialized people in areas that are critical to the project, and an interactive approach for infusing new technologies into existing processes. This project, which has had a relatively small amount of funding, is on the cutting edge with respect to the utilization of model-based design and systems engineering. An overarching challenge that was overcome by this project was to convince upper management of the needs and merits of giving up more conventional design methodologies (such as paper-based documents and unwieldy and unstructured flow diagrams and schedules) in favor of advanced model-based systems engineering approaches.

  15. Re-engineering of Products and Processes How to Achieve Global Success in the Changing Marketplace

    CERN Document Server

    Rotini, Federico; Cascini, Gaetano

    2012-01-01

    Whilst previous methods for business process re-engineering have focused on time and cost reduction policies to preserve competitive services and products, Re-engineering of Products and Processes: How to Achieve Global Success in the Changing Marketplace presents a new approach which aims to include aspects that impact the customer perceived value. This method supports business re-engineering initiatives by identifying process bottlenecks as well as new products and services available to overcome market competition. This original approach is described step-by-step, explaining the theory through examples of performable tasks and the selection of relevant tools according to the nature of the problem. Supported by illustrations, tables and diagrams, Re-engineering of Products and Processes: How to Achieve Global Success in the Changing Marketplace clearly explains a method which is then applied to several case studies across different industrial sectors. Re-engineering of Products and Processes: How to Achieve...

  16. Business Process Reengineering: A Primer for the Marine Corps' Process Owner

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brewster, Rollin

    1997-01-01

    .... Business Process Reengineering (BPR) is a technique used by the private sector to achieve order of magnitude improvements in organizational performance by leveraging information technology to enable the holistic redesign of business processes...

  17. Technologies and problems of reengineering of the business processes of company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silka, Dmitriy

    2017-10-01

    Management of the combination of business processes is a modern approach in the field of business management. Together with a lot of management approaches business processes allow us to identify all the resultant actions. Article reveals the modern view on the essence of business processes as well as the general approaches of their allocation. Principles of construction and business process re-engineering are proposed. Recommendations on how to perform re-engineering under high cyclic dynamics of business activity are provided.

  18. A Framework for Process Reengineering in Higher Education: A case study of distance learning exam scheduling and distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M'hammed Abdous

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a conceptual and operational framework for process reengineering (PR in higher education (HE institutions. Using a case study aimed at streamlining exam scheduling and distribution in a distance learning (DL unit, we outline a sequential and non-linear four-step framework designed to reengineer processes. The first two steps of this framework – initiating and analyzing – are used to initiate, document, and flowchart the process targeted for reengineering, and the last two steps – reengineering/ implementing and evaluating – are intended to prototype, implement, and evaluate the reengineered process. Our early involvement of all stakeholders, and our in-depth analysis and documentation of the existing process, allowed us to avoid the traditional pitfalls associated with business process reengineering (BPR. Consequently, the outcome of our case study indicates a streamlined and efficient process with a higher faculty satisfaction at substantial cost reduction.

  19. BUSINESS BUZZWORDS: RIGHTSIZING, DOWNSIZING, RE-ENGINEERING, DE-LAYERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Anamaria Mirabela

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to analyse the rise and use of a new vocabulary (economic buzzwords related to staff dismissal in the new economy of the world. In this new economy, the organizational boundaries between states and firms become unclear and a new vocabulary has been conceived in order to express the changes the firms are undergoing. The new rhetoric includes buzzwords like privatization, de-regulation, re-engineering, rightsizing, downsizing, de-layering, quality service or global sourcing. The research is based on the conclusions of bibliographical and direct research of the literature relevant in the field, trying to emphasise the importance of strategic language when it comes to human resources management. Concepts like freedom of speech, politically correct language or non-discriminatory language are brought to attention and analysed focusing on their importance during periods of change and uncertainty characterising the economic environment nowadays. Two trends are depicted in the paper: the first is that of the supporters of political correctness who attempt to homogenize the language and thought to enhance the self-esteem of minorities. One approach to reaching this goal is to eliminate discriminatory or offensive words and phrases and the substitutions of harmless vocabulary at the expense of economy, clarity, and logic. Another approach is to deconstruct a word or phrase into its component parts, treat the component parts as wholes, and focus on secondary meanings of the component parts. On the other hand, reflecting upon the nature of large-scale organizational restructuring, there are the critics arguing that this type of language is a euphemistic form of phraseology. The analysis starts with the assumption that the economic lexis is not a rigid system of terms. Morphologically, there is a high degree of variety in productive types of compounding which exceeds the possibilities that exist in the common English vocabulary. In this

  20. Understanding Test-Takers' Perceptions of Difficulty in EAP Vocabulary Tests: The Role of Experiential Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruç Ertürk, Nesrin; Mumford, Simon E.

    2017-01-01

    This study, conducted by two researchers who were also multiple-choice question (MCQ) test item writers at a private English-medium university in an English as a foreign language (EFL) context, was designed to shed light on the factors that influence test-takers' perceptions of difficulty in English for academic purposes (EAP) vocabulary, with the…

  1. Genetic counselors’ (GC) knowledge, awareness, and understanding of clinical next-generation sequencing (NGS) genomic testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, PM; Ruth, K; Matro, JM; Rainey, KL; Fang, CY; Wong, YN; Daly, MB; Hall, MJ

    2014-01-01

    Genomic tests are increasingly complex, less expensive, and more widely available with the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS). We assessed knowledge and perceptions among genetic counselors pertaining to NGS genomic testing via an online survey. Associations between selected characteristics and perceptions were examined. Recent education on NGS testing was common, but practical experience limited. Perceived understanding of clinical NGS was modest, specifically concerning tumor testing. Greater perceived understanding of clinical NGS testing correlated with more time spent in cancer-related counseling, exposure to NGS testing, and NGS-focused education. Substantial disagreement about the role of counseling for tumor-based testing was seen. Finally, a majority of counselors agreed with the need for more education about clinical NGS testing, supporting this approach to optimizing implementation. PMID:25523111

  2. Genetic counselors' (GC) knowledge, awareness, understanding of clinical next-generation sequencing (NGS) genomic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, P M; Ruth, K; Matro, J M; Rainey, K L; Fang, C Y; Wong, Y N; Daly, M B; Hall, M J

    2015-12-01

    Genomic tests are increasingly complex, less expensive, and more widely available with the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS). We assessed knowledge and perceptions among genetic counselors pertaining to NGS genomic testing via an online survey. Associations between selected characteristics and perceptions were examined. Recent education on NGS testing was common, but practical experience limited. Perceived understanding of clinical NGS was modest, specifically concerning tumor testing. Greater perceived understanding of clinical NGS testing correlated with more time spent in cancer-related counseling, exposure to NGS testing, and NGS-focused education. Substantial disagreement about the role of counseling for tumor-based testing was seen. Finally, a majority of counselors agreed with the need for more education about clinical NGS testing, supporting this approach to optimizing implementation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Reengineering of Permanent Mould Casting with Lean Manufacturing Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Władysiak

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available At the work were introduced main areas of production system project of casts produced in permanent moulds, that constitutes reengineering of conventional production system according to Lean Manufacturing (LM methods. New resolution of cooling of dies with water mist was shown to casting of car wheels made from aluminium alloys in low pressure casting process. It was implemented as a part of goal-oriented project in R.H. Alurad Sp.z o.o. in Gorzyce. Its using intensifies solidification and self-cooling of casts shortening the time of casting cycle by the 30%. It was described reorganizing casting stations into multi-machines cells production and the process of their fast tool’s exchange with applying the SMED method. A project of the system was described controlling the production of the foundry with the computer aided light Kanban system. A visualization of the process was shown the production of casts with use the value stream mapping method. They proved that applying casting new method in the technology and LM methods allowed to eliminate down-times, to reduce the level of stocks, to increase the productivity and the flow of the castings production.

  4. Brooklyn Union strategy: Re-engineering from outside in

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, W.P. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Five years ago, the management at Brooklyn Union embarked on a long, hard look at the way the company conducted business. In effect, they stepped into their customers' shoes. Business Process Improvement (BPI) is designed to construct a lasting corporate culture that can help Brooklyn Union meet its stated goal of becoming the premier energy company in the Northeast. A major component of that culture involves a dedication to service and cost management that is as solid as their credit ratings. To date, the bottom line on BPI has been impressive: By 1995, the customer satisfaction rating, which had been hovering in the '80s, had shot up to 95%. The management commitment has come in the form of resources, and a willingness to put its money where its mouth is (rewards for performance). The employee buy-in has shown up in those outstanding ratings from customers and in the financial results. Changing the culture of any long-established entity is never easy, whether it be on the micro-level (a family, for instance) of the macro-level (a country). It involves issues of trust, and a certain leap of faith that the new approach will bring results. Communication and education are two of the keys to gaining that participation. The company was able to impress upon employees the need for change--in particular the need for them to begin thinking like customers. The paper discusses the implementation of this re-engineering strategy

  5. The impact of usability reports and user test observations on developers understanding of usability data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høegh, Rune Thaarup; Nielsen, Christian Monrad; Pedersen, Michael Bach

    2006-01-01

    of the system. This article presents results from an exploratory study of 2 ways of providing feedback from a usability evaluation: observation of user tests and reading usability reports. A case study and a field experiment were used to explore how observation and usability reports impact developers......' understanding of usability data. The results indicate that observation of user tests facilitated a rich understanding of usability problems and created empathy with the users and their work. The usability report had a strong impact on the developers' understanding of specific usability problems and supported...

  6. The Organizational-Economic Provision of Reengineering of Marketing Activity of Ukrainian Machine-Building Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobyzskyi Denys S.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at developing an organizational mechanism to provide reengineering of the marketing activities of machine-building enterprise for further development of the appropriate methodical recommendations. The meaning and role of organizational structure in the sphere of reengineering are disclosed, the key aspects and principles of its construction are defined; the key elements, in particular business processes, and their role in organizational structure as well as properties of the organizational system are researched; content of the basic components of the organizational mechanism of the provision, their role and peculiarities of communication between them are analyzed. The new attitude to the principles of construction, functional content and content of the constituents of organization of enterprises allows to realize the wide functional potential of organizational possibilities within the terms of reengineering, as well as to form an organizational mechanism of post-reengineering company. Certain aspects of development of the organizational mechanism create the preconditions and disclose a potential instrumentarium for effective and efficient methodical recommendations as to reengineering of marketing activities of Ukrainian machine-building enterprises.

  7. Understanding the Sampling Distribution and Its Use in Testing Statistical Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breunig, Nancy A.

    Despite the increasing criticism of statistical significance testing by researchers, particularly in the publication of the 1994 American Psychological Association's style manual, statistical significance test results are still popular in journal articles. For this reason, it remains important to understand the logic of inferential statistics. A…

  8. Validation of a Video-based Game-Understanding Test Procedure in Badminton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, Minna T.; Luhtanen, Pekka; Laakso, Lauri; Keskinen, Esko

    2000-01-01

    Reports the development and validation of video-based game-understanding tests in badminton for elementary and secondary students. The tests included different sequences that simulated actual game situations. Players had to solve tactical problems by selecting appropriate solutions and arguments for their decisions. Results suggest that the test…

  9. The Reengineering of Processes a Tool in the Administration of Business: Case Cereales "Santiago"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto René Moreno-García

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the research result on the application of the Reengineering of processes in the company Cereales Santiago and the introduction of the information sciences through the PesajeVoz software. In the research it is characterized the main deficiencies of the strategic process of commercialization that affect the economic result of the company and the satisfaction of their clients, by the losses and delays when receiving their raw materials. A study is also realized on the evolution of the reengineering of processes concept from its initial formulation and a characterization of some of the methodologies for its application, reference is made to an own methodology generic for the application of the reengineering of processes in the Cuban system of companies, that have been validated it in the company study object, allowed obtaining of results of impacts in quantitative and qualitative benefits for the company and its clients. 

  10. Spatial confidentiality and GIS: re-engineering mortality locations from published maps about Hurricane Katrina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leitner Michael

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geographic Information Systems (GIS can provide valuable insight into patterns of human activity. Online spatial display applications, such as Google Earth, can democratise this information by disseminating it to the general public. Although this is a generally positive advance for society, there is a legitimate concern involving the disclosure of confidential information through spatial display. Although guidelines exist for aggregated data, little has been written concerning the display of point level information. The concern is that a map containing points representing cases of cancer or an infectious disease, could be re-engineered back to identify an actual residence. This risk is investigated using point mortality locations from Hurricane Katrina re-engineered from a map published in the Baton Rouge Advocate newspaper, and a field team validating these residences using search and rescue building markings. Results We show that the residence of an individual, visualized as a generalized point covering approximately one and half city blocks on a map, can be re-engineered back to identify the actual house location, or at least a close neighbour, even if the map contains little spatial reference information. The degree of re-engineering success is also shown to depend on the urban characteristic of the neighborhood. Conclusion The results in this paper suggest a need to re-evaluate current guidelines for the display of point (address level data. Examples of other point maps displaying health data extracted from the academic literature are presented where a similar re-engineering approach might cause concern with respect to violating confidentiality. More research is also needed into the role urban structure plays in the accuracy of re-engineering. We suggest that health and spatial scientists should be proactive and suggest a series of point level spatial confidentiality guidelines before governmental decisions are made

  11. Spatial confidentiality and GIS: re-engineering mortality locations from published maps about Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Andrew J; Mills, Jacqueline W; Leitner, Michael

    2006-10-10

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can provide valuable insight into patterns of human activity. Online spatial display applications, such as Google Earth, can democratise this information by disseminating it to the general public. Although this is a generally positive advance for society, there is a legitimate concern involving the disclosure of confidential information through spatial display. Although guidelines exist for aggregated data, little has been written concerning the display of point level information. The concern is that a map containing points representing cases of cancer or an infectious disease, could be re-engineered back to identify an actual residence. This risk is investigated using point mortality locations from Hurricane Katrina re-engineered from a map published in the Baton Rouge Advocate newspaper, and a field team validating these residences using search and rescue building markings. We show that the residence of an individual, visualized as a generalized point covering approximately one and half city blocks on a map, can be re-engineered back to identify the actual house location, or at least a close neighbour, even if the map contains little spatial reference information. The degree of re-engineering success is also shown to depend on the urban characteristic of the neighborhood. The results in this paper suggest a need to re-evaluate current guidelines for the display of point (address level) data. Examples of other point maps displaying health data extracted from the academic literature are presented where a similar re-engineering approach might cause concern with respect to violating confidentiality. More research is also needed into the role urban structure plays in the accuracy of re-engineering. We suggest that health and spatial scientists should be proactive and suggest a series of point level spatial confidentiality guidelines before governmental decisions are made which may be reactionary toward the threat of revealing

  12. Understanding of and attitudes to genetic testing for inherited retinal disease: a patient perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, T A; Potrata, B; Ahmed, M; Hewison, J; Gale, R; Downey, L; McKibbin, M

    2013-09-01

    The views of people with inherited retinal disease are important to help develop health policy and plan services. This study aimed to record levels of understanding of and attitudes to genetic testing for inherited retinal disease, and views on the availability of testing. Telephone questionnaires comprising quantitative and qualitative items were completed with adults with inherited retinal disease. Participants were recruited via postal invitation (response rate 48%), approach at clinic or newsletters of relevant charitable organisations. Questionnaires were completed with 200 participants. Responses indicated that participants' perceived understanding of genetic testing for inherited retinal disease was variable. The majority (90%) considered testing to be good/very good and would be likely to undergo genetic testing (90%) if offered. Most supported the provision of diagnostic (97%) and predictive (92%) testing, but support was less strong for testing as part of reproductive planning. Most (87%) agreed with the statement that testing should be offered only after the individual has received genetic counselling from a professional. Subgroup analyses revealed differences associated with participant age, gender, education level and ethnicity (p<0.02). Participants reported a range of perceived benefits (eg, family planning, access to treatment) and risks (eg, impact upon family relationships, emotional consequences). Adults with inherited retinal disease strongly support the provision of publicly funded genetic testing. Support was stronger for diagnostic and predictive testing than for testing as part of reproductive planning.

  13. Development of two tier test to assess conceptual understanding in heat and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winarti; Cari; Suparmi; Sunarno, Widha; Istiyono, Edi

    2017-01-01

    Heat and temperature is a concept that has been learnt from primary school to undergraduate levels. One problem about heat and temperature is that they are presented abstractly, theoretical concept. A student conceptual frameworks develop from their daily experiences. The purpose of this research was to develop a two-tier test of heat and temperature concept and measure conceptual understanding of heat and temperature of the student. This study consist of two method is qualitative and quantitative method. The two-tier test was developed using procedures defined by Borg and Gall. The two-tier test consisted of 20 question and was tested for 137 students for collecting data. The result of the study showed that the two-tier test was effective in determining the students’ conceptual understanding and also it might be used as an alternative for assessment and evaluation of students’ achievement

  14. The complementariness of the business process reengineering and activity-based management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta DOMANOVIC

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to sustain long term growth and development, an enterprise has toenvisage and implement contemporary management innovations altogether. Intransition economies, like Serbia is, it is of great importance to redesign businessprocesses and activities, to analyse activity profitability in order to select value-addedactivities and reduce non-value added ones. This paper considers the possibility forcomplementary implementation of the business process reengineering and activitybased management in the process of long term efficiency improvement. Namely, thebasic postulate of business process reengineering concept might be established in theprocess of activity based management implementation and conversely.

  15. Testing primary-school children's understanding of the nature of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerber, Susanne; Osterhaus, Christopher; Sodian, Beate

    2015-03-01

    Understanding the nature of science (NOS) is a critical aspect of scientific reasoning, yet few studies have investigated its developmental beginnings and initial structure. One contributing reason is the lack of an adequate instrument. Two studies assessed NOS understanding among third graders using a multiple-select (MS) paper-and-pencil test. Study 1 investigated the validity of the MS test by presenting the items to 68 third graders (9-year-olds) and subsequently interviewing them on their underlying NOS conception of the items. All items were significantly related between formats, indicating that the test was valid. Study 2 applied the same instrument to a larger sample of 243 third graders, and their performance was compared to a multiple-choice (MC) version of the test. Although the MC format inflated the guessing probability, there was a significant relation between the two formats. In summary, the MS format was a valid method revealing third graders' NOS understanding, thereby representing an economical test instrument. A latent class analysis identified three groups of children with expertise in qualitatively different aspects of NOS, suggesting that there is not a single common starting point for the development of NOS understanding; instead, multiple developmental pathways may exist. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  16. Family physicians understanding about Mantoux test: A survey from a high endemic TB country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Niloufer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis is a global health emergency and is a big challenge to diagnose and manage it. Family physicians being first contact health persons should be well competent to diagnose and manage the patients with tuberculosis. Aims This study was aimed to assess the level of understanding about Mantoux Test amongst Family Physicians in Karachi, Pakistan and to determine the difference of level of understanding by gender and number of tuberculosis patients seen in a month. Methods A cross sectional survey was conducted among 200 Family Physicians working in Karachi; the largest city and economic hub of Pakistan. Family Physicians who attended Continuous Medical Education sessions were approached after taking consent. Pre-tested, self administered questionnaire was filled consisting of: basic demographic characteristics, questions regarding knowledge about Mantoux Test, its application and interpretation. Data of 159 questionnaires was analyzed for percentages, as rest were incomplete. Chi square test was used to calculate the difference of understanding levels between various groups. Results Almost two thirds of respondents were males and above 35 years of age. Majority of Family Physicians were private practitioners and seeing more than five tuberculosis patients per month. Overall, a big gap was identified about the knowledge of Mantoux Test among study participants. Only 18.8% of Family Physicians secured Excellent (≥ 80% correct responses. This poor level of understanding was almost equally distributed in all comparative groups (Male = 20.8% versus Female = 15.9%; p - 0.69 and (Seen Conclusion Our study revealed an overall major deficit in understanding and interpretation of Mantoux Test amongst Family Physicians which needs to be addressed. Continues Medical Education sessions for Family Physicians should be organized in regular basis for upgrading their knowledge in this regards.

  17. What Does a Verbal Test Measure? A New Approach to Understanding Sources of Item Difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Eric J. Vanden; Lohman, David F.; Cassata, Jennifer Coyne

    Assessing the construct relevance of mental test results continues to present many challenges, and it has proven to be particularly difficult to assess the construct relevance of verbal items. This study was conducted to gain a better understanding of the conceptual sources of verbal item difficulty using a unique approach that integrates…

  18. Understanding patient acceptance and refusal of HIV testing in the emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopoulos Katerina A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background Despite high rates of patient satisfaction with emergency department (ED HIV testing, acceptance varies widely. It is thought that patients who decline may be at higher risk for HIV infection, thus we sought to better understand patient acceptance and refusal of ED HIV testing. Methods In-depth interviews with fifty ED patients (28 accepters and 22 decliners of HIV testing in three ED HIV testing programs that serve vulnerable urban populations in northern California. Results Many factors influenced the decision to accept ED HIV testing, including curiosity, reassurance of negative status, convenience, and opportunity. Similarly, a number of factors influenced the decision to decline HIV testing, including having been tested recently, the perception of being at low risk for HIV infection due to monogamy, abstinence or condom use, and wanting to focus on the medical reason for the ED visit. Both accepters and decliners viewed ED HIV testing favorably and nearly all participants felt comfortable with the testing experience, including the absence of counseling. While many participants who declined an ED HIV test had logical reasons, some participants also made clear that they would prefer not to know their HIV status rather than face psychosocial consequences such as loss of trust in a relationship or disclosure of status in hospital or public health records. Conclusions Testing for HIV in the ED as for any other health problem reduces barriers to testing for some but not all patients. Patients who decline ED HIV testing may have rational reasons, but there are some patients who avoid HIV testing because of psychosocial ramifications. While ED HIV testing is generally acceptable, more targeted approaches to testing are necessary for this subgroup.

  19. Gaming and simulation for transforming and reengineering government : Towards a research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Klievink, B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – In the process of transformation, governments have to deal with a host of stakeholders and complex organizational and technical issues. In this viewpoint paper, an argument is made in favour of using gaming and simulation as tools designed to aid the transformation and reengineering of

  20. Business Process Elicitation, Modeling, and Reengineering: Teaching and Learning with Simulated Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyaraj, Anand

    2010-01-01

    The design of enterprise information systems requires students to master technical skills for elicitation, modeling, and reengineering business processes as well as soft skills for information gathering and communication. These tacit skills and behaviors cannot be effectively taught students but rather experienced and learned by students. This…

  1. As Easy as ABC: Re-engineering the Cost Accounting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trussel, John M.; Bitner, Larry N.

    1996-01-01

    To be useful for management decision making, the college or university's cost accounting system must capture and measure improvements. Activity-based costing (ABC), which determines more accurately the full costs of services and products, tracks improvements and should proceed alongside reengineering of institutional accounting. Guidelines are…

  2. Reforms in Education: The Need for Re-Engineering Teacher Education for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofoego, O. C.; Ebebe, I. E.

    2016-01-01

    The paper is concerned with reforms in Education and the need for re-engineering Teacher education in Nigeria for better professionalism and National Development. In the process, key concepts like Teacher Education and professionalism were explained. A brief review of the state of Teacher Education and Development in Nigeria revealed the…

  3. Refactoring, reengineering and evolution: paths to Geant4 uncertainty quantification and performance improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batič, M; Hoff, G; Pia, M G; Saracco, P; Begalli, M; Han, M; Kim, C H; Seo, H; Hauf, S; Kuster, M; Weidenspointner, G; Zoglauer, A

    2012-01-01

    Ongoing investigations for the improvement of Geant4 accuracy and computational performance resulting by refactoring and reengineering parts of the code are discussed. Issues in refactoring that are specific to the domain of physics simulation are identified and their impact is elucidated. Preliminary quantitative results are reported.

  4. Marketing Cooperatives' Re-engineering: Influences among Organizational Attributes, Strategic Attributes & Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benos, T.; Kalogeras, N.; Verhees, F.J.H.M.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this paper we expand the agribusiness co-op literature by studying the re-engineering process of marketing cooperatives (co-ops). More specifically we discuss and empirically examine organizational innovations adopted by marketing co-ops in Greece. We hypothesize three types of

  5. A business process modeling experience in a complex information system re-engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernonville, Stéphanie; Vantourout, Corinne; Fendeler, Geneviève; Beuscart, Régis

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to share a business process modeling experience in a re-engineering project of a medical records department in a 2,965-bed hospital. It presents the modeling strategy, an extract of the results and the feedback experience.

  6. IDC Re-Engineering Phase 2 Glossary Version 1.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Christopher J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Harris, James M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This document contains the glossary of terms used for the IDC Re-Engineering Phase 2 project. This version was created for Iteration E3. The IDC applies automatic processing methods in order to produce, archive, and distribute standard IDC products on behalf of all States Parties.

  7. Understanding Referral Patterns for Bone Mineral Density Testing among Family Physicians: A Qualitative Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E. P. Munce

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Evidence of inappropriate bone mineral density (BMD testing has been identified in terms of overtesting in low risk women and undertesting among patients at high risk. In light of these phenomena, the objective of this study was to understand the referral patterns for BMD testing among Ontario’s family physicians (FPs. Methods. A qualitative descriptive approach was adopted. Twenty-two FPs took part in a semi-structured interview lasting approximately 30 minutes. An inductive thematic analysis was performed on the transcribed data in order to understand the referral patterns for BMD testing. Results. We identified a lack of clarity about screening for osteoporosis with a tendency for baseline BMD testing in healthy, postmenopausal women and a lack of clarity on the appropriate age for screening for men in particular. A lack of clarity on appropriate intervals for follow-up testing was also described. Conclusions. These findings lend support to what has been documented at the population level suggesting a tendency among FPs to refer menopausal women (at low risk. Emphasis on referral of high-risk groups as well as men and further clarification and education on the appropriate intervals for follow-up testing is warranted.

  8. Greek Co-ops' Re-Engineering: Exploring the Influences among Organizational Attributes, Strategic Attributes, and Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benos, T.; Kalogeras, N.; Verhees, F.J.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract We develop an actual classification entailing traditional vs. reengineered cooperative organizational attributes. Using this classification, we conceptualize and empirically investigate three types of relationships: a) organizational (i.e., collective ownership, control and cost/benefit

  9. Evaluation Policy Alternatives for the Reengineering of the Department of Defense Personal Property Shipment and Storage Program - A Stakeholder Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lepson, Michael

    1999-01-01

    ...) to evaluate the personal property pilot programs as part of Management Reform Memorandum # 6. This thesis evaluates the policy alternatives for reengineering the DOD personal property program using a stakeholder approach...

  10. Reengineering the laboratory: strategic process and systems innovation to improve performance. Recreating our role on the health-care team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E

    1995-01-01

    The author describes reengineering efforts in the laboratory of a 550-bed hospital. Key benefits include reduced costs, improved turnaround time, and redirection of staff into new roles in information management and outreach.

  11. Re-Engineering Control Systems using Automatic Generation Tools and Process Simulation: the LHC Water Cooling Case

    CERN Document Server

    Booth, W; Bradu, B; Gomez Palacin, L; Quilichini, M; Willeman, D

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the approach used at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) to perform the re-engineering of the control systems dedicated to the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) water cooling systems.

  12. What do men understand about lifetime risk following genetic testing? The effect of context and numeracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolison, Jonathan J; Hanoch, Yaniv; Miron-Shatz, Talya

    2012-07-01

    Genetic testing for gene mutations associated with specific cancers provides an opportunity for early detection, surveillance, and intervention (Smith, Cokkinides, & Brawley, 2008). Lifetime risk estimates provided by genetic testing refer to the risk of developing a specific disease within one's lifetime, and evidence suggests that this is important for the medical choices people make, as well as their future family and financial plans. The present studies tested whether adult men understand the lifetime risks of prostate cancer informed by genetic testing. In 2 experiments, adult men were asked to interpret the lifetime risk information provided in statements about risks of prostate cancer. Statement format was manipulated such that the most appropriate interpretation of risk statements referred to an absolute risk of cancer in experiment 1 and a relative risk in experiment 2. Experiment 1 revealed that few men correctly interpreted the lifetime risks of cancer when these refer to an absolute risk of cancer, and numeracy levels positively predicted correct responding. The proportion of correct responses was greatly improved in experiment 2 when the most appropriate interpretation of risk statements referred instead to a relative rather than an absolute risk, and numeracy levels were less involved. Understanding of lifetime risk information is often poor because individuals incorrectly believe that these refer to relative rather than absolute risks of cancer.

  13. Reengineering water treatment units for removal of Sr-90, I-129, Tc-99, and uranium from contaminated groundwater at the DOE's Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serkiz, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    The 33 years of active operation of the F- and H-Area Seepage Basins to dispose of liquid low-level radioactive waste at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site has resulted in the contamination of the groundwater underlying these basins with a wide variety of radionuclides and stable metals. The current Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit requires the operation of a pump-and-treat system capable of (1) maintaining hydraulic control of a specified contaminated groundwater plume, (2) treatment of the extracted groundwater, and (3) reinjection of the treated water hydraulically upgradient of the basins. Two multimillion-dollar water treatment units (WTUs) were designed and built in 1997 and the basic design consists of (1) reverse osmosis concentration, (2) chemical addition, neutralization, precipitation, polymer addition, flocculation, and clarification of the reverse osmosis concentrate, and (3) final polishing of the clarified water by ion exchange (IX) and sorption. During startup of these units numerous process optimizations were identified and, therefore, the WTUs have been recently reengineered. A systematic approach of: (1) developing a technical baseline through laboratory studies, (2) scale-up and plant testing, (3) plant modification, and (4) system performance monitoring was the basis for reengineering the WTUs. Laboratory experiments were conducted in order to establish a technical baseline for further scale-up/plant testing and system modifications. These studies focused on the following three areas of the process: (1) contaminant removal during chemical addition, neutralization and precipitation, (2) solids separation by flocculation, coagulation, clarification, and filtration, and (3) contaminant polishing of the clarified liquid by IX/sorption. Using standard laboratory-scale jar tests, the influences of pH and Fe concentration on contaminant removal during precipitation/neutralization were evaluated. The results of

  14. Educational Process Reengineering and Diffusion of Innovation in Formal Learning Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Hossain, Mohammad Shahadat; Rongbutsri, Nikorn

    2011-01-01

    administration and evaluation and assessment. Educational environments are flexible and not governed by standard operating procedures, making technology use lithe. Theory of diffusion of innovations‟ is recommended to be integrated to reason and measure acceptance or rejection of EPR selected technology......In technology mediated learning while relative advantages of technologies is proven, lack of contextualization and process centric change, and lack of user driven change has kept intervention and adoption of educational technologies among individuals and organizations as challenges. Reviewing...... the formal, informal and non-formal learning environments, this study focuses on the formal part. This paper coins the term 'Educational Process Reengineering (EPR) based on the established concept of 'Business Process Reengineering (BPR) for process improvement of teaching learning activities, academic...

  15. Applying object technology principles to business reengineering in the oil, gas, and petrochemical industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The oil, gas, and petrochemical industries face a dilemma, to be financially competitive while complying with strict and expanding environmental, safety, and health regulation. Companies need new tools and techniques, indeed a completely new paradigm for organizing and performing work. They must build efficient and flexible business processes, ones that rely on advanced information systems for improved decision making and productivity. And they must adopt a culture of change and improvement to permit the business to change as the business climate changes. Fortunately, two industry developments are changing the traditional business paradigm in a dramatic way; business reengineering and object technology. Applying principles of object technology in the performance of business reengineering makes available a new form of business modeling that transforms the technique of modeling a business while directly supported the development of its enabling information systems. This modeling technique is called Object Modeling and is becoming an important force in improving business competitiveness

  16. Proposal of an Embedded Methodology that uses Organizational Diagnosis and Reengineering: Case of bamboo panel company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Selene Hernández Gress

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This work is an extension of the Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering, Management Science and Applications, which presented some of the phases of Reengineering applied to Bamboo Panel Company; the results were Strategic planning, Systemic Diagnosis and Performance Indicators through the Balanced Scorecard. Now, the main purpose of this article is to present a methodology that embedding Organizational Diagnosis and Reengineering, which emphasizes the incorporation of culture, context, management style, and knowledge as well as inner and outer actors. The results of the proposed methodology applied to the case study are included, up to the moment of the writing of this article. Future work consists on the development of strategies for Innovation as a strategy planned in the Balanced Scorecard and derived from the embedded methodology.

  17. Process Reengineering of Cold Chain Logistics of Agricultural Products Based on Low-carbon Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Hong-xia; Shao, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Through the process analysis of cold chain logistics of agricultural products, we find that cold chain logistics of agricultural products contradict the development model of low-carbon economy to some extent. We apply the development idea of low-carbon economy, introduce the third-party logistics companies, establish distribution center of cold chain logistics of agricultural products, and strengthen information sharing, to reengineer the process of cold chain logistics of agricultural produc...

  18. RE-ENGINEERING PRIMARY HEALTHCARE NURSING AS A FIRST CAREER CHOICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Emily; Govan, Linda

    2016-08-01

    In line with international models and critical to the primary healthcare nursing workforce, the Australian Primary Health Care Nursing Association (APNA) has been funded by the Commonwealth Department of Health to develop an Education and Career Framework and Toolkit for primary healthcare nurses. The aim of the project is to improve the recruitment and retention of nurses and to re-engineer primary healthcare as a first choice career option.

  19. Reengineering of Analytical Data Management for the Environmental Restoration Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolivar, S.; Dorries, A.; Nasser, K.; Scherma, S.

    2003-01-01

    The Environmental Restoration (ER) Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is responsible for the characterization, clean up, and monitoring of over 2,124 identified potential release sites (PRS). These PRSs have resulted from operations associated with weapons and energy related research which has been conducted at LANL since 1942. To accomplish mission goals, the ER Project conducts field sampling to determine possible types and levels of chemical contamination as well as their geographic extent. Last fiscal year, approximately 4000 samples were collected during ER Project field sampling campaigns. In the past, activities associated with field sampling such as sample campaign planning, paperwork, shipping and analytical laboratory tracking; verification and order fulfillment; validation and data quality assurance were performed by multiple groups working with a variety of software applications, databases and hard copy reports. This resulted in significant management and communication difficulties, data delivery delays, and inconsistent processes; it also represented a potential threat to overall data integrity. Creation of an organization, software applications and a data process that could provide for cost-effective management of the activities and data mentioned above became a management priority, resulting in a development of a reengineering task. This reengineering effort--currently nearing completion--has resulted in personnel reorganization, the development of a centralized data repository, and a powerful web-based sample management system that allows for an appreciably streamlined and more efficient data process. These changes have collectively cut data delivery times, allowed for larger volumes of samples and data to be handled with fewer personnel, and resulted in significant cost savings. This paper will provide a case study of the reengineering effort undertaken by the ER Project of its analytical data management process. It includes

  20. IT & C Projects Duration Assessment Based on Audit and Software Reengineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the effect of applying the core elements of software engineering and reengineering, probabilistic simulations and system development auditing to software development projects. Our main focus is reducing software development project duration. Due to the fast changing economy, the need for efficiency and productivity is greater than ever. Optimal allocation of resources has proved to be the main element contributing to an increase in efficiency.

  1. Reengineering of Analytical Data Management for the Environmental Restoration Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolivar, S.; Dorries, A.; Nasser, K.; Scherma, S.

    2003-02-27

    The Environmental Restoration (ER) Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is responsible for the characterization, clean up, and monitoring of over 2,124 identified potential release sites (PRS). These PRSs have resulted from operations associated with weapons and energy related research which has been conducted at LANL since 1942. To accomplish mission goals, the ER Project conducts field sampling to determine possible types and levels of chemical contamination as well as their geographic extent. Last fiscal year, approximately 4000 samples were collected during ER Project field sampling campaigns. In the past, activities associated with field sampling such as sample campaign planning, paperwork, shipping and analytical laboratory tracking; verification and order fulfillment; validation and data quality assurance were performed by multiple groups working with a variety of software applications, databases and hard copy reports. This resulted in significant management and communication difficulties, data delivery delays, and inconsistent processes; it also represented a potential threat to overall data integrity. Creation of an organization, software applications and a data process that could provide for cost-effective management of the activities and data mentioned above became a management priority, resulting in a development of a reengineering task. This reengineering effort--currently nearing completion--has resulted in personnel reorganization, the development of a centralized data repository, and a powerful web-based sample management system that allows for an appreciably streamlined and more efficient data process. These changes have collectively cut data delivery times, allowed for larger volumes of samples and data to be handled with fewer personnel, and resulted in significant cost savings. This paper will provide a case study of the reengineering effort undertaken by the ER Project of its analytical data management process. It includes

  2. The software-cycle model for re-engineering and reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, John W.; Basili, Victor R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the progress of a study which will contribute to our ability to perform high-level, component-based programming by describing means to obtain useful components, methods for the configuration and integration of those components, and an underlying economic model of the costs and benefits associated with this approach to reuse. One goal of the study is to develop and demonstrate methods to recover reusable components from domain-specific software through a combination of tools, to perform the identification, extraction, and re-engineering of components, and domain experts, to direct the applications of those tools. A second goal of the study is to enable the reuse of those components by identifying techniques for configuring and recombining the re-engineered software. This component-recovery or software-cycle model addresses not only the selection and re-engineering of components, but also their recombination into new programs. Once a model of reuse activities has been developed, the quantification of the costs and benefits of various reuse options will enable the development of an adaptable economic model of reuse, which is the principal goal of the overall study. This paper reports on the conception of the software-cycle model and on several supporting techniques of software recovery, measurement, and reuse which will lead to the development of the desired economic model.

  3. Reengineering of waste management at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myrick, T.E.

    1997-08-01

    A reengineering evaluation of the waste management program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was conducted during the months of February through July 1997. The goal of the reengineering was to identify ways in which the waste management process could be streamlined and improved to reduce costs while maintaining full compliance and customer satisfaction. A Core Team conducted preliminary evaluations and determined that eight particular aspects of the ORNL waste management program warranted focused investigations during the reengineering. The eight areas included Pollution Prevention, Waste Characterization, Waste Certification/Verification, Hazardous/Mixed Waste Stream, Generator/WM Teaming, Reporting/Records, Disposal End Points, and On-Site Treatment/Storage. The Core Team commissioned and assembled Process Teams to conduct in-depth evaluations of each of these eight areas. The Core Team then evaluated the Process Team results and consolidated the 80 process-specific recommendations into 15 overall recommendations. Benchmarking of a commercial nuclear facility, a commercial research facility, and a DOE research facility was conducted to both validate the efficacy of these findings and seek additional ideas for improvement. The outcome of this evaluation is represented by the 15 final recommendations that are described in this report.

  4. Managing hospital supplies: process reengineering at Gujarat Cancer Research Institute, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, K V

    2006-01-01

    Aims to give an overview of the re-engineering of processes and structures at Gujarat Cancer Research Institute (GCRI), Ahmedabad. A general review of the design, development and implementation of reengineered systems in order to address concerns about the existing systems. Findings GCRI is a comprehensive cancer care center with 550 beds and well equipped with modern diagnostic and treatment facilities. It serves about 200,000 outpatients and 16,000 inpatients annually. The approach to a better management of hospital supplies led to the design, development, and implementation of an IT-based reengineered and integrated purchase and inventory management system. The new system has given GCRI a saving of about 8 percent of its annual costs of purchases, and improved the availability of materials to the user departments. Shows that the savings obtained are used not only for buying more hospital supplies, but also to buy better quality of hospital supplies, and thereby satisfactorily address the GCRI responsibility towards meeting its social obligations for cancer care.

  5. Reengineering of waste management at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myrick, T.E.

    1997-08-01

    A reengineering evaluation of the waste management program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was conducted during the months of February through July 1997. The goal of the reengineering was to identify ways in which the waste management process could be streamlined and improved to reduce costs while maintaining full compliance and customer satisfaction. A Core Team conducted preliminary evaluations and determined that eight particular aspects of the ORNL waste management program warranted focused investigations during the reengineering. The eight areas included Pollution Prevention, Waste Characterization, Waste Certification/Verification, Hazardous/Mixed Waste Stream, Generator/WM Teaming, Reporting/Records, Disposal End Points, and On-Site Treatment/Storage. The Core Team commissioned and assembled Process Teams to conduct in-depth evaluations of each of these eight areas. The Core Team then evaluated the Process Team results and consolidated the 80 process-specific recommendations into 15 overall recommendations. Volume 2 consists of nine appendices which contain the Process Team reports and Benchmarking reports.

  6. Reengineering of waste management at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myrick, T.E.

    1997-08-01

    A reengineering evaluation of the waste management program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was conducted during the months of February through July 1997. The goal of the reengineering was to identify ways in which the waste management process could be streamlined and improved to reduce costs while maintaining full compliance and customer satisfaction. A Core Team conducted preliminary evaluations and determined that eight particular aspects of the ORNL waste management program warranted focused investigations during the reengineering. The eight areas included Pollution Prevention, Waste Characterization, Waste Certification/Verification, Hazardous/Mixed Waste Stream, Generator/WM Teaming, Reporting/Records, Disposal End Points, and On-Site Treatment/Storage. The Core Team commissioned and assembled Process Teams to conduct in-depth evaluations of each of these eight areas. The Core Team then evaluated the Process Team results and consolidated the 80 process-specific recommendations into 15 overall recommendations. Volume 2 consists of nine appendices which contain the Process Team reports and Benchmarking reports

  7. Reengineering of waste management at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myrick, T.E.

    1997-08-01

    A reengineering evaluation of the waste management program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was conducted during the months of February through July 1997. The goal of the reengineering was to identify ways in which the waste management process could be streamlined and improved to reduce costs while maintaining full compliance and customer satisfaction. A Core Team conducted preliminary evaluations and determined that eight particular aspects of the ORNL waste management program warranted focused investigations during the reengineering. The eight areas included Pollution Prevention, Waste Characterization, Waste Certification/Verification, Hazardous/Mixed Waste Stream, Generator/WM Teaming, Reporting/Records, Disposal End Points, and On-Site Treatment/Storage. The Core Team commissioned and assembled Process Teams to conduct in-depth evaluations of each of these eight areas. The Core Team then evaluated the Process Team results and consolidated the 80 process-specific recommendations into 15 overall recommendations. Benchmarking of a commercial nuclear facility, a commercial research facility, and a DOE research facility was conducted to both validate the efficacy of these findings and seek additional ideas for improvement. The outcome of this evaluation is represented by the 15 final recommendations that are described in this report

  8. Using Modeling and Simulation to Complement Testing for Increased Understanding of Weapon Subassembly Response.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Michael K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Davidson, Megan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    As part of Sandia’s nuclear deterrence mission, the B61-12 Life Extension Program (LEP) aims to modernize the aging weapon system. Modernization requires requalification and Sandia is using high performance computing to perform advanced computational simulations to better understand, evaluate, and verify weapon system performance in conjunction with limited physical testing. The Nose Bomb Subassembly (NBSA) of the B61-12 is responsible for producing a fuzing signal upon ground impact. The fuzing signal is dependent upon electromechanical impact sensors producing valid electrical fuzing signals at impact. Computer generated models were used to assess the timing between the impact sensor’s response to the deceleration of impact and damage to major components and system subassemblies. The modeling and simulation team worked alongside the physical test team to design a large-scale reverse ballistic test to not only assess system performance, but to also validate their computational models. The reverse ballistic test conducted at Sandia’s sled test facility sent a rocket sled with a representative target into a stationary B61-12 (NBSA) to characterize the nose crush and functional response of NBSA components. Data obtained from data recorders and high-speed photometrics were integrated with previously generated computer models in order to refine and validate the model’s ability to reliably simulate real-world effects. Large-scale tests are impractical to conduct for every single impact scenario. By creating reliable computer models, we can perform simulations that identify trends and produce estimates of outcomes over the entire range of required impact conditions. Sandia’s HPCs enable geometric resolution that was unachievable before, allowing for more fidelity and detail, and creating simulations that can provide insight to support evaluation of requirements and performance margins. As computing resources continue to improve, researchers at Sandia are hoping

  9. Ethics or Morals: Understanding Students' Values Related to Genetic Tests on Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Mats Gunnar

    2009-10-01

    To make meaning of scientific knowledge in such a way that concepts and values of the life-world are not threatened is difficult for students and laymen. Ethics and morals pertaining to the use of genetic tests for hereditary diseases have been investigated and discussed by educators, anthropologists, medical doctors and philosophers giving, at least in part, diverging results. This study investigates how students explain and understand their argumentation about dilemmas concerning gene testing for the purpose to reduce hereditary diseases. Thirteen students were interviewed about their views on this issue. Qualitative analysis was done primarily by relating students’ argumentation to their movements between ethics and morals as opposing poles. Students used either objective or subjective knowledge but had difficulties to integrate them. They tried to negotiate ethic arguments using utilitarian motives and medical knowledge with sympathy or irrational and personal arguments. They discussed the embryo’s moral status to decide if it was replaceable in a social group or not. The educational implications of the students’ use of knowledge in personal arguments are discussed.

  10. Re-engineering quality related processes and activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preisser, T.E.

    1995-01-01

    Given both desire and opportunity, improvements to program quality hinge upon a thorough understanding of what processes are currently performed, which are necessary to support the product or service, and what ideal processes should look like. Thorough understanding derives from process analysis, process mapping, and the use of other quality tools. Despite the level of knowledge any process team claims, there is likely to be at least one area that was hidden before the process was deeply analyzed. Finding that hidden element may mean the difference between evolving an improvement versus a breakthrough

  11. Using Two-Tier Test to Identify Primary Students' Conceptual Understanding and Alternative Conceptions in Acid Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrak, Beyza Karadeniz

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify primary students' conceptual understanding and alternative conceptions in acid-base. For this reason, a 15 items two-tier multiple choice test administered 56 eighth grade students in spring semester 2009-2010. Data for this study were collected using a conceptual understanding scale prepared to include…

  12. Applying Business Process Re-Engineering to Public Sector as A New Public Management Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ropinder Oberoi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of Business Process Reengineering (BPR to the public sector follows the much broader trend of New Public Management. BPR in the public sector mostly means amalgamation of business processes, computerization of various activities and removal of some unnecessary ones. BPR assimilates a radical premeditated scheme of business pro-cess reengineering and an additional progressive technique of uninterrupted process improvement with adequate information technology (IT and e-business infrastructure strategies. Public organizations have specific and exclusive features that differentiae-ate them from private sector organizations. Based on the literature review and examining of study find-ings, it is argued that a public sector organization can employ BPR to get better its process and overall organizational performance, if it (1 has accrues a collection of BPR-relevant resources and capabilities; (2 has embarked on BPR with adequate depth and breadth; (3 is developing a post-BPR complementary set of skills, systems and technologies, which are essential to further develop the organizational impact of the BPR; and (4 has successfully mitigated the effects of BPR implementation problems. In addition to its effect on administration and ser-vice delivery processes through reduction of the processing time, work steps and cost of government processes, BPR also contributes to enhancing citizen/customer and employee satisfaction, increasing organizational transparency and responsiveness which have also become an essential objective of New Public Management. Therefore, public sector BPR is emerging as an indispensable to performance of organizations in the developing economy. The essential questions addressed in this paper are: What are the scenario and impending problems of reengineering applications in the public sector? Can it be functional for the public sector in attending to frequent problems blockading bureaucracies of developed and

  13. Reengineering the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) process for digital imaging networks PACS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, M C; Lewis, T E; Kinsey, T V

    1999-05-01

    Prior to June 1997, military picture archiving and communications systems (PACS) were planned, procured, and installed with key decisions on the system, equipment, and even funding sources made through a research and development office called Medical Diagnostic Imaging Systems (MDIS). Beginning in June 1997, the Joint Imaging Technology Project Office (JITPO) initiated a collaborative and consultative process for planning and implementing PACS into military treatment facilities through a new Department of Defense (DoD) contract vehicle called digital imaging networks (DIN)-PACS. The JITPO reengineered this process incorporating multiple organizations and politics. The reengineered PACS process administered through the JITPO transformed the decision process and accountability from a single office to a consultative method that increased end-user knowledge, responsibility, and ownership in PACS. The JITPO continues to provide information and services that assist multiple groups and users in rendering PACS planning and implementation decisions. Local site project managers are involved from the outset and this end-user collaboration has made the sometimes difficult transition to PACS an easier and more acceptable process for all involved. Corporately, this process saved DoD sites millions by having PACS plans developed within the government and proposed to vendors second, and then having vendors respond specifically to those plans. The integrity and efficiency of the process have reduced the opportunity for implementing nonstandard systems while sharing resources and reducing wasted government dollars. This presentation will describe the chronology of changes, encountered obstacles, and lessons learned within the reengineering of the PACS process for DIN-PACS.

  14. High-tech organizations: What can they tell us about reengineering (grow and reproduce, or die)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, F.J.

    1996-06-10

    Change is the norm of the 1990s, and it will continue to be a major factor in running a company and/or organization as the coming decades unfold. The former cycle of change followed by stability is gone; change as a continuous reality is the new cycle. The necessity to be customer-driven implies a fundamental transformation of the way organizations and their managers choose to do business. Much has been learned about the way people interact with information systems/engineering information (IS/EI) systems technologies. The cultures of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) National Laboratories are built on a research and development (R and D) mentality that greatly increases the difficulty of building an effective IS/EI systems cross-functional group for various organizations. Classical planning approaches ignore cultural and organizational factors. These factors, however, are crucial in devising meaningful and relevant plans. Also, as more and more organizations strive to become competitive, the philosophy and concepts of total quality management (TQM) are receiving increased attention. This paper: discusses the possibility of applying manufacturing reengineering techniques to other industries to help them overcome the risk of failure; provides a comprehensive look at the changes that have occurred in the business environment since the advent of reengineering; discusses why reengineering is so important and how people and executives of organizations can play even more pivotal roles as long-term strategists in there organizations; introduces the concept of the core mission to planning; provides business process redesign that takes into consideration the interaction of humans and technology.

  15. Reengineering GSM/GPRS Towards a Dedicated Network for Massive Smart Metering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madueño, Germán Corrales; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2014-01-01

    GSM is a synonym for a major success in wireless technology, achieving widespread use and high technology maturity. However, its future is questionable, as many stakeholders indicate that the GSM spectrum should be re-farmed for LTE. On the other hand, the advent of smart grid and the ubiquity...... of smart meters will require reliable, long-lived wide area connections. This motivates to investigate the potential of GSM to be evolved into a dedicated network for smart metering. We introduce simple mechanisms to reengineer the access control in GSM. The result is a system that offers excellent support...

  16. Rural district hospitals - essential cogs in the district health system - and primary healthcare re-engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Roux, K W D P; Couper, I

    2015-06-01

    The re-engineering of primary healthcare (PHC) is regarded as an essential precursor to the implementation of National Health Insurance in South Africa, but improvements in the provision of PHC services have been patchy. The authors contend that the role of well- functioning rural district hospitals as a hub from which PHC services can be most efficiently managed has been underestimated, and that the management of district hospitals and PHC clinics need to be co-located at the level of the rural district hospital, to allow for proper integration of care and effective healthcare provision.

  17. Bringing content understanding into usability testing in complex application domains—a case study in eHealth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Bruntse; Rasmussen, Claire Kirchert; Frøkjær, Erik

    2017-01-01

    A usability evaluation technique, Cooperative Usability Testing with Questions of Understanding (CUT with QU) intended to illuminate users’ ability to understand the content information of an application is proposed. In complex application domains as for instance the eHealth domain, this issue...... of users’ content understanding is sometimes crucial, and thus should be carefully evaluated. Unfortunately, conventional usability evaluation techniques do not address challenges of content understanding. In a case study within eHealth, specifically the setting of a rehabilitation clinic involving...... the participation of four physiotherapists and four clients in a period of 3.5 months, it was demonstrated how CUT with QU can complement conventional usability testing and provide insight into users’ challenges with understanding of a new complex eHealth application. More experiments in other complex application...

  18. Evaluating College Students' Conceptual Knowledge of Modern Physics: Test of Understanding on Concepts of Modern Physics (TUCO-MP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akarsu, Bayram

    2011-01-01

    In present paper, we propose a new diagnostic test to measure students' conceptual knowledge of principles of modern physics topics. Over few decades since born of physics education research (PER), many diagnostic instruments that measure students' conceptual understanding of various topics in physics, the earliest tests developed in PER are Force…

  19. Beyond reengineering: Transformation seen as next step for companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrich, S.; Tey, M.

    1994-01-01

    The future of the oil and gas industry is perpetually clouded, and the authors believe its chief executive officers (CEOs) have a special need to take the time to understand where they are going to be able to meet the business transformation needs of their customers in the years ahead. The challenges facing the oil and gas business today are largely external, and even magnificently run companies that are inwardly focused will fail in a business climate that is dominated by environmental and political concerns on the one hand, and supply and demand pressures on the other. What does transformation mean? First, companies need to establish clearly how to reframe their corporate responses to the issues they face. Where are they competitive? Will they focus on upstream midstream, or downstream activities for new alliances, new products, new businesses? Second, corporations must establish how to restructure their efforts in terms of their future customers and markets, not in terms of their current products. Third, companies must develop strategies to revitalize their business through leveraging their core competencies to create new products, markets, and industries. And finally, corporations need to prepare their employees constantly to renew themselves in an industry that will be redefined at an ever-increasing rate in the future

  20. Chemical Reactive Anchoring Lipids with Different Performance for Cell Surface Re-engineering Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vabbilisetty, Pratima; Boron, Mallorie; Nie, Huan; Ozhegov, Evgeny; Sun, Xue-Long

    2018-02-28

    Introduction of selectively chemical reactive groups at the cell surface enables site-specific cell surface labeling and modification opportunity, thus facilitating the capability to study the cell surface molecular structure and function and the molecular mechanism it underlies. Further, it offers the opportunity to change or improve a cell's functionality for interest of choice. In this study, two chemical reactive anchor lipids, phosphatidylethanolamine-poly(ethylene glycol)-dibenzocyclooctyne (DSPE-PEG 2000 -DBCO) and cholesterol-PEG-dibenzocyclooctyne (CHOL-PEG 2000 -DBCO) were synthesized and their potential application for cell surface re-engineering via lipid fusion were assessed with RAW 264.7 cells as a model cell. Briefly, RAW 264.7 cells were incubated with anchor lipids under various concentrations and at different incubation times. The successful incorporation of the chemical reactive anchor lipids was confirmed by biotinylation via copper-free click chemistry, followed by streptavidin-fluorescein isothiocyanate binding. In comparison, the cholesterol-based anchor lipid afforded a higher cell membrane incorporation efficiency with less internalization than the phospholipid-based anchor lipid. Low cytotoxicity of both anchor lipids upon incorporation into the RAW 264.7 cells was observed. Further, the cell membrane residence time of the cholesterol-based anchor lipid was evaluated with confocal microscopy. This study suggests the potential cell surface re-engineering applications of the chemical reactive anchor lipids.

  1. An IoT Knowledge Reengineering Framework for Semantic Knowledge Analytics for BI-Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilamadhab Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In a progressive business intelligence (BI environment, IoT knowledge analytics are becoming an increasingly challenging problem because of rapid changes of knowledge context scenarios along with increasing data production scales with business requirements that ultimately transform a working knowledge base into a superseded state. Such a superseded knowledge base lacks adequate knowledge context scenarios, and the semantics, rules, frames, and ontology contents may not meet the latest requirements of contemporary BI-services. Thus, reengineering a superseded knowledge base into a renovated knowledge base system can yield greater business value and is more cost effective and feasible than standardising a new system for the same purpose. Thus, in this work, we propose an IoT knowledge reengineering framework (IKR framework for implementation in a neurofuzzy system to build, organise, and reuse knowledge to provide BI-services to the things (man, machines, places, and processes involved in business through the network of IoT objects. The analysis and discussion show that the IKR framework can be well suited to creating improved anticipation in IoT-driven BI-applications.

  2. Chemical Reactive Anchoring Lipids with Different Performance for Cell Surface Re-engineering Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Introduction of selectively chemical reactive groups at the cell surface enables site-specific cell surface labeling and modification opportunity, thus facilitating the capability to study the cell surface molecular structure and function and the molecular mechanism it underlies. Further, it offers the opportunity to change or improve a cell’s functionality for interest of choice. In this study, two chemical reactive anchor lipids, phosphatidylethanolamine–poly(ethylene glycol)–dibenzocyclooctyne (DSPE–PEG2000–DBCO) and cholesterol–PEG–dibenzocyclooctyne (CHOL–PEG2000–DBCO) were synthesized and their potential application for cell surface re-engineering via lipid fusion were assessed with RAW 264.7 cells as a model cell. Briefly, RAW 264.7 cells were incubated with anchor lipids under various concentrations and at different incubation times. The successful incorporation of the chemical reactive anchor lipids was confirmed by biotinylation via copper-free click chemistry, followed by streptavidin-fluorescein isothiocyanate binding. In comparison, the cholesterol-based anchor lipid afforded a higher cell membrane incorporation efficiency with less internalization than the phospholipid-based anchor lipid. Low cytotoxicity of both anchor lipids upon incorporation into the RAW 264.7 cells was observed. Further, the cell membrane residence time of the cholesterol-based anchor lipid was evaluated with confocal microscopy. This study suggests the potential cell surface re-engineering applications of the chemical reactive anchor lipids. PMID:29503972

  3. Scope and prospects of re-engineering and retrofitting wind farms in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajsekhar, B.; Van Hulle, F.J.L.

    2001-09-01

    The paper starts with a brief analysis of the characteristics of the Indian wind energy programmes while enumerating the developments that have taken place so far. In view of the large scope for renewable energy based power generation and in order to boost the present uprise of the wind farm development, the authors investigate the possibilities that lay in re-engineering of existing wind farms. Existing wind farm entrepreneurs are showing interest to improve the performance of their wind farms. New initiatives are suggested addressing the involved technical and commercial concerns of both the state-run utility (the principal customer of wind generated electricity) and wind farm entrepreneur to spur development of economically competitive wind-power plants In addition, inferences are drawn from a recently conducted detailed case study at a 5 year old large wind farm in Muppandal area. The study involved conducting detailed WAsP based analysis based on remote land use and land cover details interfacing with GIS. In addition, detailed site investigations were conducted to assess the health of the machines and the adequacy of the power evacuation facility together with the analysis of the machine down times. The paper highlights the benefits that can be expected from such undertakings for several parties both in India and in EU. The paper finally outlines the possible business opportunities and economic benefits that exist for retrofitting and re-engineering in the country, which has over 700 individually designed wind farms. 2 refs

  4. USULAN PERBAIKAN PROSES BISNIS DENGAN KONSEP BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING (STUDI KASUS : PERMATA GUEST HOUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaswara Adhitya Wardhana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Permata Guest House Semarang merupakan usaha bisnis yang bergerak di bidang jasa penginapan. Perkembangan skala bisnis Permata Guest House yang pesat tidak disertai dengan penataan dan pengelolaan proses bisnis (Business Process yang memadai, mengakibatkan banyak kemunculan keluhan dari stakeholder, yaitu dari pelanggan (customer, dan kalangan internal karyawan. Key Performance Indicator (KPI yang digunakan dalam penelitian terhadap Permata Guest House ini adalah KPI yang diturunkan dari Critical Success Factor (CSF. Pengukuran kinerja dilakukan dengan berdasarkan indikator performansi (Performance Indicator yang telah ditentukan pada observasi awal beserta ukuran dan target yang dicapai untuk tiap indikatornya. Dari hasil observasi awal didapatkan selisih indikator moral kerja dan loyalitas sebesar 20%, komplain keramahtamahan sebesar 16,67%, komplain penampilan dan sikap sebesar 16,67%, tingkat okupansi marketing sales sebesar 30%, dan kepuasan layanan sebesar 77,78%. Berdasarkan analisis pengukuran kinerja dan proses bisnis telah didapatkan faktor-faktor yang menyebabkan kinerja proses bisnis belum sesuai target, salah satu penyelesaian untuk dapat memperbaiki kinerja adalah dengan merancang ulang proses bisnis dengan menggunakan metode Business Process Reengineering (BPR. Dari hasil BPR perlu dilakukan peninjauan kembali (rethinking, perancangan ulang (redesign, dan evaluasi (retool terhadap model kinerja bisnis. Hasil dari rekayasa ulang proses bisnis berupa pembakuan usulan proses bisnis, penyusunan visi misi perusahaan, perancangan struktur organisasi dan job description, serta penyusunan Standart Operating Procedure Kata Kunci  : critical success factor, key performance indicator, business process reengineering   Abstract Permata Guest House Semarang is a business engaged in the lodging services. The development of business scale rapid Permata Guest House is not accompanied by the administration and management of business processes are

  5. Software SCMS re-engineering for a objected oriented language (JAVA) for use in construction of segmented phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possani, Rafael Guedes

    2012-01-01

    Recent treatment planning systems depend strongly on CT images and the tendency is that the internal dosimetry procedures in nuclear medicine therapy be also based on images, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT), to extract anatomical and histological information, as well as, functional imaging or activities map as PET and SPECT. This information associated with a radiation transport simulation software is used to estimate internal dose in patients undergoing treatment in nuclear medicine. This work aims to re-engineer the software SCMS, which is an interface software between the Monte Carlo code MCNP, and the medical images, that carry information from the patient in treatment. In other words, the necessary information contained in the images are interpreted and presented in a specific format to the Monte Carlo MCNP code to perform the simulation of radiation transport. Therefore, the user does not need to understand the complex process of inputting data on MCNP, as the SCMS is responsible for automatically constructing anatomical data from the patient, as well as the radioactive source data. The SCMS was originally developed in Fortran-77. In this work it was rewritten in an object-oriented language (JAVA). New features and data options have also been incorporated into the software. Thus, the new software has a number of improvements, such as intuitive GUI and a menu for the selection of the energy spectra correspondent to a specific radioisotope stored in a XML data bank. The new version also supports new materials and the user can specify an image region of interest for the calculation of absorbed dose. (author)

  6. Re-engineering closing watersheds: The negotiated expansion of a dam-based irrigation system in Bolivia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rocha Lopez, R.F.; Vincent, L.F.; Rap, E.R.

    2015-01-01

    The expansion of the Totora Khocha dam-based irrigation system in the Pucara watershed is a case of planned re-engineering of a closing watershed. This article shows how, when irrigation systems expand in space and across boundaries to capture new water, they also involve new claims by existing and

  7. The Battle for the Soul of Management Denmark-The Shaping of the Danish Versions of Business Process Reengineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Vogelius, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Managerial theory distilled into tidy concepts is continually and almost ritually launched into the international and national management audiences. The paper discuss the contemporary exemplar of such management concepts: Business Process Reengineering (BPR). By taking the management fads serious...... to the concept. And on the other hand the need for the consultants to differentiate their product (the concept) from others available on the market....

  8. Re-Engineering Vocational and Technical Education (VTE) for Sustainable Development in North Central Geo-Political Zone, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofoluwe, Abayomi Olumade

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to re-engineer vocational and technical education for sustainable development in the North Central Geo-Political Zone in Nigeria. The research design adopted was a survey inferential type. Stratified random was used to select 36 schools out of 98 schools while 920 students out of 3680 students were sampled. The data…

  9. Reliable real-time applications - and how to use tests to model and understand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Krogsgaard

    Test and analysis of real-time applications, where temporal properties are inspected, analyzed, and verified in a model developed from timed traces originating from measured test result on a running application......Test and analysis of real-time applications, where temporal properties are inspected, analyzed, and verified in a model developed from timed traces originating from measured test result on a running application...

  10. Reengineered glucose oxidase for amperometric glucose determination in diabetes analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango Gutierrez, Erik; Mundhada, Hemanshu; Meier, Thomas; Duefel, Hartmut; Bocola, Marco; Schwaneberg, Ulrich

    2013-12-15

    Glucose oxidase is an oxidoreductase exhibiting a high β-D-glucose specificity and high stability which renders glucose oxidase well-suited for applications in diabetes care. Nevertheless, GOx activity is highly oxygen dependent which can lead to inaccuracies in amperometric β-D-glucose determinations. Therefore a directed evolution campaign with two rounds of random mutagenesis (SeSaM followed by epPCR), site saturation mutagenesis studies on individual positions, and one simultaneous site saturation library (OmniChange; 4 positions) was performed. A diabetes care well suited mediator (quinone diimine) was selected and the GOx variant (T30V I94V) served as starting point. For directed GOx evolution a microtiter plate detection system based on the quinone diimine mediator was developed and the well-known ABTS-assay was applied in microtiter plate format to validate oxygen independency of improved GOx variants. Two iterative rounds of random diversity generation and screening yielded to two subsets of amino acid positions which mainly improved activity (A173, A332) and oxygen independency (F414, V560). Simultaneous site saturation of all four positions with a reduced subset of amino acids using the OmniChange method yielded finally variant V7 with a 37-fold decreased oxygen dependency (mediator activity: 7.4 U/mg WT, 47.5 U/mg V7; oxygen activity: 172.3 U/mg WT, 30.1 U/mg V7). V7 is still highly β-D-glucose specific, highly active with the quinone diimine mediator and thermal resistance is retained (prerequisite for GOx coating of diabetes test stripes). The latter properties and V7's oxygen insensitivity make V7 a very promising candidate to replace standard GOx in diabetes care applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. CORBA technology in reengineering the FTU data acquisition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertocchi, A; Buceti, G; Centioli, C; Di Muzio, D; Iannone, F.; Panella, M; Vitale, V

    2002-06-01

    In its early stages, Frascati tokamak upgrade DAS was essentially devoted to acquiring data from experiments in CAMAC standard, using a software system (code and database) entirely written by domestic professionals. In 15 years of life DAS has been growing in size and complexity, still preserving its original structure; at the same time new standards were introduced (VME, PCI) to take into account users' ever increasing demands for amount of data and acquisition frequency with which the existing code couldn't cope. Moreover, machines were getting old and the maintenance became troublesome. Finally, the data archive porting to Unix has definitely shown that the DAS system was ageing and a thorough redesign was needed. The system we are planning to introduce is founded on a standard CORBA bus: (i) to integrate heterogeneous platforms and define a standard layer for interactions between the different acquisition units; (ii) to grant, with open source tools (MySql) and interfaces (Html and Java), unified access to hardware and software configuration data. So, a dedicated PC server, connected via a suitable PCI serial highway driver card, will perform the CAMAC access for all the clients interacting through the CORBA layer. Up to now we have successfully tested CAMAC access, and we designed an acquisition unit, which will be the building block of the new system. The next step will be migrating to Alpha/VMS the software related to CAMAC data acquisition, which has been so far the cornerstone of the whole DAS; it will be completely redesigned to fit the 'acquisition unit' paradigm we have defined. Finally we will have a fully distributed data acquisition system with VME (at present six such units have been operating since 1999) and PCI stations, an Alpha/VMS client of the CAMAC/PC server and any possible platform interacting through a CORBA bus for getting data configuration, synchronisation and data archiving.

  12. CORBA technology in reengineering the FTU data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertocchi, A.; Buceti, G.; Centioli, C.; Di Muzio, D.; Iannone, F.; Panella, M.; Vitale, V.

    2002-01-01

    In its early stages, Frascati tokamak upgrade DAS was essentially devoted to acquiring data from experiments in CAMAC standard, using a software system (code and database) entirely written by domestic professionals. In 15 years of life DAS has been growing in size and complexity, still preserving its original structure; at the same time new standards were introduced (VME, PCI) to take into account users' ever increasing demands for amount of data and acquisition frequency with which the existing code couldn't cope. Moreover, machines were getting old and the maintenance became troublesome. Finally, the data archive porting to Unix has definitely shown that the DAS system was ageing and a thorough redesign was needed. The system we are planning to introduce is founded on a standard CORBA bus: (i) to integrate heterogeneous platforms and define a standard layer for interactions between the different acquisition units; (ii) to grant, with open source tools (MySql) and interfaces (Html and Java), unified access to hardware and software configuration data. So, a dedicated PC server, connected via a suitable PCI serial highway driver card, will perform the CAMAC access for all the clients interacting through the CORBA layer. Up to now we have successfully tested CAMAC access, and we designed an acquisition unit, which will be the building block of the new system. The next step will be migrating to Alpha/VMS the software related to CAMAC data acquisition, which has been so far the cornerstone of the whole DAS; it will be completely redesigned to fit the 'acquisition unit' paradigm we have defined. Finally we will have a fully distributed data acquisition system with VME (at present six such units have been operating since 1999) and PCI stations, an Alpha/VMS client of the CAMAC/PC server and any possible platform interacting through a CORBA bus for getting data configuration, synchronisation and data archiving

  13. Common pitfalls in statistical analysis: Understanding the properties of diagnostic tests - Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Priya; Aggarwal, Rakesh

    2018-01-01

    In this article in our series on common pitfalls in statistical analysis, we look at some of the attributes of diagnostic tests (i.e., tests which are used to determine whether an individual does or does not have disease). The next article in this series will focus on further issues related to diagnostic tests.

  14. Bringing content understanding into usability testing in complex application domains—a case study in eHealth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Bruntse; Rasmussen, Claire Kirchert; Frøkjær, Erik

    2017-01-01

    A usability evaluation technique, Cooperative Usability Testing with Questions of Understanding (CUT with QU) intended to illuminate users’ ability to understand the content information of an application is proposed. In complex application domains as for instance the eHealth domain, this issue...... the participation of four physiotherapists and four clients in a period of 3.5 months, it was demonstrated how CUT with QU can complement conventional usability testing and provide insight into users’ challenges with understanding of a new complex eHealth application. More experiments in other complex application...... domains involving different kinds of users and evaluators are needed before we can tell whether CUT with QU is an effective usability testing technique of wider applicability. Performing CUT with QU is very demanding by drawing heavily on the evaluators’ ability to respond effectively to openings...

  15. Using Guided Reinvention to Develop Teachers' Understanding of Hypothesis Testing Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolor, Jason; Noll, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Statistics education reform efforts emphasize the importance of informal inference in the learning of statistics. Research suggests statistics teachers experience similar difficulties understanding statistical inference concepts as students and how teacher knowledge can impact student learning. This study investigates how teachers reinvented an…

  16. Understanding the Gender Gap in Science and Engineering: Evidence from the Chilean College Admissions Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gándara, Fernanda; Silva, Monica

    2016-01-01

    This study seeks to develop a better understanding of the underrepresentation of women in science and engineering by analyzing the gender gaps (a) in the interest in pursuing a science degree and (b) on science achievement. We use national-level college admissions data to examine gender differences and to explore the association between these…

  17. Understanding Student Teachers' Behavioural Intention to Use Technology: Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) Validation and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kung-Teck; Osman, Rosma bt; Goh, Pauline Swee Choo; Rahmat, Mohd Khairezan

    2013-01-01

    This study sets out to validate and test the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) in the context of Malaysian student teachers' integration of their technology in teaching and learning. To establish factorial validity, data collected from 302 respondents were tested against the TAM using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and structural equation…

  18. Using a Two-Tier Test to Assess Students' Understanding and Alternative Conceptions of Cyber Copyright Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chien; Chan, Pei-Shan; Wu, Huan-Chueh

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore students' understanding of cyber copyright laws. This study developed a two-tier test with 10 two-level multiple-choice questions. The first tier presented a real-case scenario and asked whether the conduct was acceptable whereas the second-tier provided reasons to justify the conduct. Students in Taiwan…

  19. Young Adults' Knowledge and Understanding of Personal Finance in Germany: Interviews with Experts and Test-Takers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happ, Roland; Förster, Manuel; Rüspeler, Ann-Katrin; Rothweiler, Jasmin

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, the financial education of young adults has gained importance in Germany; however, very few valid test instruments to assess the knowledge and understanding of personal finance are suitable for use in Germany. In this article, we describe results of a survey in which experts in Germany in areas related to personal finance judged…

  20. A user-operated test of suprathreshold acuity in noise for adult hearing screening: The SUN (Speech Understanding in Noise) test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglialonga, Alessia; Tognola, Gabriella; Grandori, Ferdinando

    2014-09-01

    A novel, user-operated test of suprathreshold acuity in noise for use in adult hearing screening (AHS) was developed. The Speech Understanding in Noise test (SUN) is a speech-in-noise test that makes use of a list of vowel-consonant-vowel (VCV) stimuli in background noise presented in a three-alternative forced choice (3AFC) paradigm by means of a touch sensitive screen. The test is automated, easy-to-use, and provides self-explanatory results (i.e., 'no hearing difficulties', or 'a hearing check would be advisable', or 'a hearing check is recommended'). The test was developed from its building blocks (VCVs and speech-shaped noise) through two main steps: (i) development of the test list through equalization of the intelligibility of test stimuli across the set and (ii) optimization of the test results through maximization of the test sensitivity and specificity. The test had 82.9% sensitivity and 85.9% specificity compared to conventional pure-tone screening, and 83.8% sensitivity and 83.9% specificity to identify individuals with disabling hearing impairment. Results obtained so far showed that the test could be easily performed by adults and older adults in less than one minute per ear and that its results were not influenced by ambient noise (up to 65dBA), suggesting that the test might be a viable method for AHS in clinical as well as non-clinical settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The role equilibrium leach testing in understanding the behaviour of nuclear wastes under disposal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biddle, P.; Rees, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    Results from the equilibrium leach testing of a range of intermediate level nuclear wastes have been modelled successfully using sorption and solubility data obtained in experiments with individual radionuclides. The wastes involved included fuel cladding (after removal of irradiated fuel for reprocessing), combustible plutonium-contaminated materials and ferric/aluminium hydroxide flocs. The test has an important role in validating nearfield models, and helps to build confidence in disposal assessments. (orig.)

  2. Understanding of BRCA1/2 genetic tests results: the importance of objective and subjective numeracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanoch, Yaniv; Miron-Shatz, Talya; Rolison, Jonathan J; Ozanne, Elissa

    2014-10-01

    The majority of women (71%) who undergo BRCA1/2 testing-designed to identify genetic mutations associated with increased risk of cancer-receive results that are termed 'ambiguous' or 'uninformative negative'. How women interpret these results and the association with numerical ability was examined. In this study, 477 women at increased risk for breast and ovarian cancer were recruited via the Cancer Genetics Network. They were presented with information about the four different possible BRCA1/2 test results-positive, true negative, ambiguous and uninformative negative-and asked to indicate which of six options represents the best response. Participants were then asked which treatment options they thought a woman receiving the results should discuss with her doctor. Finally, participants completed measures of objective and subjective numeracy. Almost all of the participants correctly interpreted the positive and negative BRCA1/2 genetic test results. However, they encountered difficulties interpreting the uninformative and ambiguous BRCA1/2 genetic test results. Participants were almost equally likely to think either that the woman had learned nothing from the test result or that she was as likely to develop cancer as the average woman. Highly numerate participants were more likely to correctly interpret inconclusive test results (ambiguous, OR = 1.62; 95% CI [1.28, 2.07]; p psychological ramifications of genetic testing, healthcare professionals should consider devoting extra effort to ensuring proper comprehension of ambiguous and uninformative negative test results by women. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. The role of equilibrium leach testing in understanding the behaviour of nuclear wastes under disposal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biddle, P.; Rees, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    Results from the equilibrium leach testing of a range of intermediate level nuclear wastes have been modelled using sorption and solubility data obtained in experiments with individual radionuclides. The wastes involved were AGR hulls, Magnox cladding wastes, combustible plutonium-contaminated materials and ferric/aluminium hydroxide flocs. The test has an important role in validating near-field models, and helps to build confidence in disposal assessments. (author)

  4. Downsizing, reengineering, and restructuring: long-term implications for healthcare organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatt, P; Baker, G R; Halverson, P K; Aird, C

    1997-01-01

    This article provides a framework for analyzing how downsizing and reengineering have affected healthcare organizations. These approaches are reviewed, and key tools that have been used, such as across-the-board cuts, reorganizing, and redesigning, are described. Examples are drawn from healthcare as well as other business sectors. The consequences of cost reduction strategies for an organizations's performance in terms of costs, quality of services, and satisfaction of consumers and employees are explored. The case is made that an organization's context--that is, its culture, level of trust, and leadership--is an important factor that influences the effect of cost-cutting strategies. Characteristics of organizations where downsizing has a better chance of succeeding also are described.

  5. Business Process Reengineering Of Funding On Indonesia’s Islamic Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslam Mei Nur Widigdo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This research attempts to analyze the value chain of Islamic banking business processes and to develop a business processes model on depositors’ funds in order to improve the performance of Islamic banks. Four models of Islamic banking operating in Indonesia are used as the objects of the study. This research applies qualitative study (exploratory approach and utilizes primary data obtained from questionnaire and interviews. This data are then processed by value stream mapping and process activity mapping. This study shows that the waiting time for services is the sub-stage of business process that does not have value added and categorized as pure waste based on VSM criteria.The reengineering of business process of the third party fundraising may reduce collection time up to 1490 minutes for corporate customer and 22 minutes for individual customer.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v8i1.2506

  6. Managing your practice's first impression: the process of front-desk reengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Alison L

    2004-01-01

    Patients must be regarded as consumers. As such, they are increasingly informed, questioning, cost-conscious, technologically savvy, and demanding. Just as health plans have developed defined contribution products that offer consumers more control over how and where their health-care dollars are spent, practice success is linked to reengineering office operations to offer consumers and patients greater choice, control, autonomy, and service. Patients and consumers want practices that deliver clinical and business services that meet the criteria of reliability, effciency, service offerings, patient focus, enthusiasm, customization, and trust. Physician practices must also take care to avoid destructive and disruptive behaviors and conditions such as noise, interference, excessive repetition, long waits, appointment delays, and staff rudeness. A successful patient-focused practice emerges when physicians and office staff begin to look at the clinical and service experience through the patient's eyes.

  7. Re-Engineering Biosafety Regulations In India: Towards a Critique of Policy, Law and Prescriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Damodaran

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This article surveys the structure and essence of India’s biosafety regulations from an evolutionary perspective. After detailing the processes associated with the biosafety law and guidelines in the country, this article looks critically at recent efforts to re-engineer the regulations. It is argued that India’s biosafety regulations should move towards a more inclusive approach, which will facilitate transparent and informed decision-making, based on stakeholder-convergence. It is also suggested that the entire spectrum of laws and regulations that have a direct or indirect bearing on biosafety in India, need to be explored so that greater coherence could be secured in the management of biotechnology products that are sensitive to the environment. Drawing from the experience of the Bt cotton case, the article advocates a greater role for civil society and grassroots organizations.

  8. Implementation of 5S tools as a starting point in business process reengineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorkapić Miloš 0000-0002-3463-8665

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the analysis of elements which represent a starting point in implementation of a business process reengineering. We have used Lean tools through the analysis of 5S model in our research. On the example of finalization of the finished transmitter in IHMT-CMT production, 5S tools were implemented with a focus on Quality elements although the theory shows that BPR and TQM are two opposite activities in an enterprise. We wanted to distinguish the significance of employees’ self-discipline which helps the process of product finalization to develop in time and without waste and losses. In addition, the employees keep their work place clean, tidy and functional.

  9. Beyond the computer-based patient record: re-engineering with a vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genn, B; Geukers, L

    1995-01-01

    In order to achieve real benefit from the potential offered by a Computer-Based Patient Record, the capabilities of the technology must be applied along with true re-engineering of healthcare delivery processes. University Hospital recognizes this and is using systems implementation projects, such as the catalyst, for transforming the way we care for our patients. Integration is fundamental to the success of these initiatives and this must be explicitly planned against an organized systems architecture whose standards are market-driven. University Hospital also recognizes that Community Health Information Networks will offer improved quality of patient care at a reduced overall cost to the system. All of these implementation factors are considered up front as the hospital makes its initial decisions on to how to computerize its patient records. This improves our chances for success and will provide a consistent vision to guide the hospital's development of new and better patient care.

  10. Reengineering of the business process in the Serbian post's department for express parcel service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Dragan M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the model that solves the problem of exceeding time limit in the system of express parcel shipping in the Post of Serbia is described. The existing principle of the organization of the area serving is explained, as well as the problem of exceeding time limit that appears and leads to the delay of the service to the user. Two approaches for problem solving are suggested. The reengineering of the existing business processes is carried out to some extent through these two approaches, and will be presented by BPMN notation. The first approach is based on the use of the fuzzy set theory, i.e. fuzzy logical systems, while the other one is based on the use of algorithm 'zoning-routing'.

  11. Construction of RNA nanocages by re-engineering the packaging RNA of Phi29 bacteriophage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Chenhui; Li, Xiang; Tian, Cheng; Jiang, Wen; Wang, Guansong; Mao, Chengde

    2014-05-01

    RNA nanotechnology promises rational design of RNA nanostructures with wide array of structural diversities and functionalities. Such nanostructures could be used in applications such as small interfering RNA delivery and organization of in vivo chemical reactions. Though having impressive development in recent years, RNA nanotechnology is still quite limited and its programmability and complexity could not rival the degree of its closely related cousin: DNA nanotechnology. Novel strategies are needed for programmed RNA self-assembly. Here, we have assembled RNA nanocages by re-engineering a natural, biological RNA motif: the packaging RNA of phi29 bacteriophage. The resulting RNA nanostructures have been thoroughly characterized by gel electrophoresis, cryogenic electron microscopy imaging and dynamic light scattering.

  12. Reengineering a PC-based System into the Mobile Device Product Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Weishan; Jarzabek, Stanislaw; Loughran, Neil

    2003-01-01

    There is a growing demand to port existing PC-based software systems to mobile device platforms. Systems running on mobile devices share basic characteristics with their PC-based counterparts, but differ from them in details of user interfaces, application models, etc. Systems running on mobile...... devices must also perform well using less memory than PC-based systems. Mobile devices themselves are different from each other in many ways, too. We describe how we made an existing PC-based City Guide System available on a wide range of mobile devices, in a cost-effective way. We applied "reengineering...... into a product line architecture" approach to achieve the goal. Our product line architecture facilitates reuse via generation. We generate specific City Guide Systems for target platforms including PC, Pocket PC and other mobile devices, from generic meta-components that form the City Guide System product line...

  13. Re-engineering the process of medical imaging physics and technology education and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprawls, Perry

    2005-09-01

    The extensive availability of digital technology provides an opportunity for enhancing both the effectiveness and efficiency of virtually all functions in the process of medical imaging physics and technology education and training. This includes degree granting academic programs within institutions and a wide spectrum of continuing education lifelong learning activities. Full achievement of the advantages of technology-enhanced education (e-learning, etc.) requires an analysis of specific educational activities with respect to desired outcomes and learning objectives. This is followed by the development of strategies and resources that are based on established educational principles. The impact of contemporary technology comes from its ability to place learners into enriched learning environments. The full advantage of a re-engineered and implemented educational process involves changing attitudes and functions of learning facilitators (teachers) and resource allocation and sharing both within and among institutions.

  14. Re-engineering the mission life cycle with ABC and IDEF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandl, Daniel; Rackley, Michael; Karlin, Jay

    1994-01-01

    The theory behind re-engineering a business process is to remove the non-value added activities thereby lowering the process cost. In order to achieve this, one must be able to identify where the non-value added elements are located which is not a trivial task. This is because the non-value added elements are often hidden in the form of overhead and/or pooled resources. In order to be able to isolate these non-value added processes from among the other processes, one must first decompose the overall top level process into lower layers of sub-processes. In addition, costing data must be assigned to each sub-process along with the value the sub-process adds towards the final product. IDEF0 is a Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) process-modeling tool that allows for this functional decomposition through structured analysis. In addition, it illustrates the relationship of the process and the value added to the product or service. The value added portion is further defined in IDEF1X which is an entity relationship diagramming tool. The entity relationship model is the blueprint of the product as it moves along the 'assembly line' and therefore relates all of the parts to each other and the final product. It also relates the parts to the tools that produce the product and all of the paper work that is used in their acquisition. The use of IDEF therefore facilitates the use of Activity Based Costing (ABC). ABC is an essential method in a high variety, product-customizing environment, to facilitate rapid response to externally caused change. This paper describes the work being done in the Mission Operations Division to re-engineer the development and operation life cycle of Mission Operations Centers using these tools.

  15. [Contributions of cortisol suppression tests to understanding of psychiatric disorders: a narrative review of literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima-Pozo, Kazuhiro; Montes-Montero, Ana; Güemes, Itziar; González-Vives, Sara; Díaz-Marsá, Marina; Carrasco, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    Activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis had been studied for the past half century, when some researchers noted that some patients with Cushing's syndrome and severe mood disorders had high baseline cortisol levels, which resulted in an inhibited response in the 1mg dexamethasone suppression test. Altered dexamethasone suppression test results were subsequently found in many psychiatric diseases, including anorexia nervosa, obsessive-compulsive disorder, degenerative dementia, bipolar disorders, and schizophrenia. The relationship between high baseline cortisol levels and stress has also been studied. Some researches on the genesis of borderline personality disorder focused on traumatic childhood backgrounds. Other investigations aimed at elucidating the relationship between traumatic backgrounds and some psychiatric disorders noted that patients with post-traumatic stress disorder and borderline personality disorder showed an enhanced cortisol suppression with low cortisol doses (0.5 mg). Recent studies showed that use of an ultra-low dose of cortisol during the dexamethasone suppression test may be helpful for detecting disorders with hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Recent advances in neuroimaging support the existence of hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in patients with borderline personality disorder, relating a decreased pituitary gland volume to major traumatic backgrounds and suicidal attempts. The purpose of this paper is to make a narrative review of research using dexamethasone suppression test in psychiatric disorders, in order to ascertain its value as a supplemental diagnostic test or as a prognostic marker. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Understanding family health information seeking: a test of the theory of motivated information management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovick, Shelly R

    2014-01-01

    Although a family health history can be used to assess disease risk and increase health prevention behaviors, research suggests that few people have collected family health information. Guided by the Theory of Motivated Information Management, this study seeks to understand the barriers to and facilitators of interpersonal information seeking about family health history. Individuals who were engaged to be married (N = 306) were surveyed online and in person to understand how factors such as uncertainty, expectations for an information search, efficacy, and anxiety influence decisions and strategies for obtaining family health histories. The results supported the Theory of Motivated Information Management by demonstrating that individuals who experienced uncertainty discrepancies regarding family heath history had greater intention to seek information from family members when anxiety was low, outcome expectancy was high, and communication efficacy was positive. Although raising uncertainty about family health history may be an effective tool for health communicators to increase communication among family members, low-anxiety situations may be optimal for information seeking. Health communication messages must also build confidence in people's ability to communicate with family to obtain the needed health information.

  17. Understanding water uptake in bioaerosols using laboratory measurements, field tests, and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Zahra; Ratnesar-Shumate, Shanna A.; Buckley, Thomas J.; Kalter, Jeffrey M.; Gilberry, Jerome U.; Eshbaugh, Jonathan P.; Corson, Elizabeth C.; Santarpia, Joshua L.; Carter, Christopher C.

    2013-05-01

    Uptake of water by biological aerosols can impact their physical and chemical characteristics. The water content in a bioaerosol can affect the backscatter cross-section as measured by LIDAR systems. Better understanding of the water content in controlled-release clouds of bioaerosols can aid in the development of improved standoff detection systems. This study includes three methods to improve understanding of how bioaerosols take up water. The laboratory method measures hygroscopic growth of biological material after it is aerosolized and dried. Hygroscopicity curves are created as the humidity is increased in small increments to observe the deliquescence point, then the humidity is decreased to observe the efflorescence point. The field component of the study measures particle size distributions of biological material disseminated into a large humidified chamber. Measurements are made with a Twin-Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS, TSI, Inc), -Relative Humidity apparatus where two APS units measure the same aerosol cloud side-by-side. The first operated under dry conditions by sampling downstream of desiccant dryers, the second operated under ambient conditions. Relative humidity was measured within the sampling systems to determine the difference in the aerosol water content between the two sampling trains. The water content of the bioaerosols was calculated from the twin APS units following Khlystov et al. 2005 [1]. Biological material is measured dried and wet and compared to laboratory curves of the same material. Lastly, theoretical curves are constructed from literature values for components of the bioaerosol material.

  18. Do Children Understand the Basic Relationship Between Speech and Writing? The Mow-Motorcycle Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozin, Paul; And Others

    School children (N=218) who have not yet attained moderate reading fluency were tested for their awareness of a fundamental relationship between our writing system and speech: that the sounds of speech are represented in writing. Children were shown a long and short word written on a card (e.g., mow and motorcycle), and asked which word…

  19. Understanding Student Teachers’ Behavioural Intention to Use Technology: Technology Acceptance Model (TAM Validation and Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kung-Teck, Wong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sets out to validate and test the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM in the context of Malaysian student teachers’ integration of their technology in teaching and learning. To establish factorial validity, data collected from 302 respondents were tested against the TAM using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, and structural equation modelling (SEM was used for model comparison and hypotheses testing. The goodness-of-fit test of the analysis shows partial support of the applicability of the TAM in a Malaysian context. Overall, the TAM accounted for 37.3% of the variance in intention to use technology among student teachers and of the five hypotheses formulated, four are supported. Perceived usefulness is a significant influence on attitude towards computer use and behavioural intention. Perceived ease of use significantly influences perceived usefulness, and finally, behavioural intention is found to be influenced by attitude towards computer use. The findings of this research contribute to the literature by validating the TAM in the Malaysian context and provide several prominent implications for the research and practice of technology integration development.

  20. Ethics or Morals: Understanding Students' Values Related to Genetic Tests on Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Mats Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    To make meaning of scientific knowledge in such a way that concepts and values of the life-world are not threatened is difficult for students and laymen. Ethics and morals pertaining to the use of genetic tests for hereditary diseases have been investigated and discussed by educators, anthropologists, medical doctors and philosophers giving, at…

  1. Improving Student Understanding of Lipids Concepts in a Biochemistry Course Using Test-Enhanced Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Savannah; Hernick, Marcy

    2015-01-01

    Test-enhanced learning has successfully been used as a means to enhance learning and promote knowledge retention in students. We have examined whether this approach could be used in a biochemistry course to enhance student learning about lipids-related concepts. Students were provided access to two optional learning modules with questions related…

  2. Understanding users’ motivations to engage in virtual worlds: A multipurpose model and empirical testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, T.; Feldberg, J.F.M.; van den Hooff, B.J.; Meents, S.; Merikivi, J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the growth and commercial potential of virtual worlds, relatively little is known about what drives users' motivations to engage in virtual worlds. This paper proposes and empirically tests a conceptual model aimed at filling this research gap. Given the multipurpose nature of virtual words

  3. Innovative approaches to reduce animal testing : replace whenever possible, reduce through refinement and mechanistic understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravenzwaay, van B.

    2013-01-01

    'Many of the in vitro toxicological studies have not been sufficiently validated to determine their applicability domain, even less have gained regulatory acceptance. Major advantage of in vitro testing today is the early identification of significant hazards in compound development and reduced and

  4. Immunotoxicity testing: Implementation of mechanistic understanding, key pathways of toxicological concern and components of these pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    At present, several animal-based assays are used to assess immunotoxic effects such as immunosuppression and sensitization. Growing societal and ethical concerns, European legislation and current research demands by industry are driving animal-based toxicity testing towards new a...

  5. User testing and stakeholder feedback contributed to the development of understandable and useful Summary of Findings tables for Cochrane reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Sarah E; Glenton, Claire; Nylund, Hilde Kari; Oxman, Andrew D

    2010-06-01

    To develop a Summary of Findings (SoF) table for use in Cochrane reviews that is understandable and useful for health professionals, acceptable to Cochrane Collaboration stakeholders, and feasible to implement. We gathered stakeholder feedback on the format and content of an SoF table from an advisory group of more than 50 participants and their constituencies through e-mail consultations. We conducted user tests using a think-aloud protocol method, collecting feedback from 21 health professionals and researchers in Norway and the UK. We analyzed the feedback, defined problem areas, and generated new solutions in brainstorming workshops. Stakeholders were concerned about precision in the data representation and about production feasibility. User testing revealed unexpected comprehension problems, mainly confusion about what the different numbers referred to (class reference). Resolving the tension between achieving table precision and table simplicity became the main focus of the working group. User testing led to a table more useful and understandable for clinical audiences. We arrived at an SoF table that was acceptable to the stakeholders and in principle feasible to implement technically. Some challenges remain, including presenting continuous outcomes and technical/editorial implementation.

  6. Improving understanding in the research informed consent process: a systematic review of 54 interventions tested in randomized control trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Adam; Carey, Jantey; Erwin, Patricia J; Tilburt, Jon C; Murad, M Hassan; McCormick, Jennifer B

    2013-07-23

    Obtaining informed consent is a cornerstone of biomedical research, yet participants comprehension of presented information is often low. The most effective interventions to improve understanding rates have not been identified. To systematically analyze the random controlled trials testing interventions to research informed consent process. The primary outcome of interest was quantitative rates of participant understanding; secondary outcomes were rates of information retention, satisfaction, and accrual. Interventional categories included multimedia, enhanced consent documents, extended discussions, test/feedback quizzes, and miscellaneous methods. The search spanned from database inception through September 2010. It was run on Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, Ovid CINAHL, Ovid PsycInfo and Cochrane CENTRAL, ISI Web of Science and Scopus. Five reviewers working independently and in duplicate screened full abstract text to determine eligibility. We included only RCTs. 39 out of 1523 articles fulfilled review criteria (2.6%), with a total of 54 interventions. A data extraction form was created in Distiller, an online reference management system, through an iterative process. One author collected data on study design, population, demographics, intervention, and analytical technique. Meta-analysis was possible on 22 interventions: multimedia, enhanced form, and extended discussion categories; all 54 interventions were assessed by review. Meta-analysis of multimedia approaches was associated with a non-significant increase in understanding scores (SMD 0.30, 95% CI, -0.23 to 0.84); enhanced consent form, with significant increase (SMD 1.73, 95% CI, 0.99 to 2.47); and extended discussion, with significant increase (SMD 0.53, 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.84). By review, 31% of multimedia interventions showed significant improvement in understanding; 41% for enhanced consent form; 50% for extended discussion; 33% for test/feedback; and 29% for miscellaneous.Multiple sources of variation

  7. Implementation plan for waste management reengineering at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.B.

    1997-10-01

    An intensive reengineering evaluation of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) waste management program was conducted from February to July 1997 resulting in the following vision for ORNL waste management: ORNL Waste Management will become an integrated Waste Management/Generator function that: (1) Treats ORNL as a single generator for expert-based waste characterization and certification purposes; (2) Recognizes Generators, Department of Energy (DOE), and the Management and Integration (M ampersand I) contractor as equally important customers; (3) Focuses on pollution prevention followed by waste generation, collection, treatment, storage, and disposal operations that reflect more cost-effective commercial approaches; and (4) Incorporates new technology and outsourcing of services where appropriate to provide the lowest cost solutions. A cross-functional Core Team recommended 15 cost-effectiveness improvements that are expected to reduce the fiscal year (FY) 1996 ORNL waste management costs of $75M by $10-$15M annually. These efficiency improvements will be realized by both Research and Waste Management Organizations

  8. Re-engineering of Bacterial Luciferase; For New Aspects of Bioluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Da-Som; Choi, Jeong-Ran; Ko, Jeong-Ae; Kim, Kangmin

    2018-01-01

    Bacterial luminescence is the end-product of biochemical reactions catalyzed by the luciferase enzyme. Nowadays, this fascinating phenomenon has been widely used as reporter and/or sensors to detect a variety of biological and environmental processes. The enhancement or diversification of the luciferase activities will increase the versatility of bacterial luminescence. Here, to establish the strategy for luciferase engineering, we summarized the identity and relevant roles of key amino acid residues modulating luciferase in Vibrio harveyi, a model luminous bacterium. The current opinions on crystal structures and the critical amino acid residues involved in the substrate binding sites and unstructured loop have been delineated. Based on these, the potential target residues and/or parameters for enzyme engineering were also suggested in limited scale. In conclusion, even though the accurate knowledge on the bacterial luciferase is yet to be reported, the structure-guided site-directed mutagenesis approaches targeting the regulatory amino acids will provide a useful platform to re-engineer the bacterial luciferase in the future. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Stakeholder Analysis as a Medium to Aid Change in Information System Reengineering Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Davison

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of involving stakeholders within a change process is well recognised, and successfully managed change is equally important. Information systems development and redesign is a form of change activity involving people and social issues and therefore resistance to change may occur. A stakeholder identification and analysis (SIA technique has been developed as an enhancement to PISO® (Process Improvement for Strategic Objectives, a method that engages the users of a system in the problem solving and reengineering of their own work-based problem areas. The SIA technique aids the identification and analysis of system stakeholders, and helps view the projected outcome of system changes and their effect on relevant stakeholders with attention being given to change resistance to ensure smooth negotiation and achieve consensus. A case study is presented here describing the successful implementation of a direct appointment booking system for patients within the National Health Service in the UK, utilising the SIA technique, which resulted in a feeling of empowerment and ownership of the change of those involved.

  10. Re-engineering the urban drainage system for resource recovery and protection of drinking water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumbo, B

    2000-01-01

    The Harare metropolis in Zimbabwe, extending upstream from Manyame Dam in the Upper Manyame River Basin, consists of the City of Harare and its satellite towns: Chitungwiza, Norton, Epworth and Ruwa. The existing urban drainage system is typically a single-use-mixing system: water is used and discharged to "waste", excreta are flushed to sewers and eventually, after "treatment", the effluent is discharged to a drinking water supply source. Polluted urban storm water is evacuated as fast as possible. This system not only ignores the substantial value in "waste" materials, but it also exports problems to downstream communities and to vulnerable fresh-water sources. The question is how can the harare metropolis urban drainage system, which is complex and has evolved over time, be rearranged to achieve sustainability (i.e. water conservation, pollution prevention at source, protection of the vulnerable drinking water sources and recovery of valuable materials)? This paper reviews current concepts regarding the future development of the urban drainage system in line with the new vision of "Sustainable Cities of the Future". The Harare Metropolis in Zimbabwe is taken as a case, and philosophical options for re-engineering the drainage system are discussed.

  11. IDC Reengineering Phase 2 & 3 Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) Cost Estimate Summary (Leveraged NDC Case).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, James M.; Prescott, Ryan; Dawson, Jericah M.; Huelskamp, Robert M.

    2014-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has prepared a ROM cost estimate for budgetary planning for the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 & 3 effort, based on leveraging a fully funded, Sandia executed NDC Modernization project. This report provides the ROM cost estimate and describes the methodology, assumptions, and cost model details used to create the ROM cost estimate. ROM Cost Estimate Disclaimer Contained herein is a Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) cost estimate that has been provided to enable initial planning for this proposed project. This ROM cost estimate is submitted to facilitate informal discussions in relation to this project and is NOT intended to commit Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) or its resources. Furthermore, as a Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC), Sandia must be compliant with the Anti-Deficiency Act and operate on a full-cost recovery basis. Therefore, while Sandia, in conjunction with the Sponsor, will use best judgment to execute work and to address the highest risks and most important issues in order to effectively manage within cost constraints, this ROM estimate and any subsequent approved cost estimates are on a 'full-cost recovery' basis. Thus, work can neither commence nor continue unless adequate funding has been accepted and certified by DOE.

  12. IDC reengineering Phase 2 & 3 US industry standard cost estimate summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, James M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Huelskamp, Robert M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has prepared a ROM cost estimate for budgetary planning for the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 & 3 effort, using a commercial software cost estimation tool calibrated to US industry performance parameters. This is not a cost estimate for Sandia to perform the project. This report provides the ROM cost estimate and describes the methodology, assumptions, and cost model details used to create the ROM cost estimate. ROM Cost Estimate Disclaimer Contained herein is a Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) cost estimate that has been provided to enable initial planning for this proposed project. This ROM cost estimate is submitted to facilitate informal discussions in relation to this project and is NOT intended to commit Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) or its resources. Furthermore, as a Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC), Sandia must be compliant with the Anti-Deficiency Act and operate on a full-cost recovery basis. Therefore, while Sandia, in conjunction with the Sponsor, will use best judgment to execute work and to address the highest risks and most important issues in order to effectively manage within cost constraints, this ROM estimate and any subsequent approved cost estimates are on a 'full-cost recovery' basis. Thus, work can neither commence nor continue unless adequate funding has been accepted and certified by DOE.

  13. Understanding Your Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... scan (positron emission tomography) PET scanning is a “real-time” study that shows where, and to what extent, ... produce elevated serum β2M levels. Bone marrow: The soft, spongy tissue in the center of bones that ...

  14. I just ran a thousand analyses: benefits of multiple testing in understanding equivocal evidence on gene-environment interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera E Heininga

    Full Text Available In psychiatric genetics research, the volume of ambivalent findings on gene-environment interactions (G x E is growing at an accelerating pace. In response to the surging suspicions of systematic distortion, we challenge the notion of chance capitalization as a possible contributor. Beyond qualifying multiple testing as a mere methodological issue that, if uncorrected, leads to chance capitalization, we advance towards illustrating the potential benefits of multiple tests in understanding equivocal evidence in genetics literature.We focused on the interaction between the serotonin-transporter-linked promotor region (5-HTTLPR and childhood adversities with regard to depression. After testing 2160 interactions with all relevant measures available within the Dutch population study of adolescents TRAILS, we calculated percentages of significant (p < .05 effects for several subsets of regressions. Using chance capitalization (i.e. overall significance rate of 5% alpha and randomly distributed findings as a competing hypothesis, we expected more significant effects in the subsets of regressions involving: 1 interview-based instead of questionnaire-based measures; 2 abuse instead of milder childhood adversities; and 3 early instead of later adversities. Furthermore, we expected equal significance percentages across 4 male and female subsamples, and 5 various genotypic models of 5-HTTLPR.We found differences in the percentages of significant interactions among the subsets of analyses, including those regarding sex-specific subsamples and genetic modeling, but often in unexpected directions. Overall, the percentage of significant interactions was 7.9% which is only slightly above the 5% that might be expected based on chance.Taken together, multiple testing provides a novel approach to better understand equivocal evidence on G x E, showing that methodological differences across studies are a likely reason for heterogeneity in findings - but chance

  15. Development and Evaluation of a Three-Tier Diagnostic Test to Assess Undergraduate Primary Teachers' Understanding of Ecological Footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liampa, Vasiliki; Malandrakis, George N.; Papadopoulou, Penelope; Pnevmatikos, Dimitrios

    2017-08-01

    This study focused on the development and validation of a three-tier multiple-choice diagnostic instrument about the ecological footprint. Each question in the three-tier test comprised by; (a) the content tier, assessing content knowledge; (b) the reason tier, assessing explanatory knowledge; and (c) the confidence tier that differentiates lack of knowledge from misconception through the use of a certainty response index. Based on the literature, the propositional knowledge statements and the identified misconceptions of 97 student-teachers, a first version of the test was developed and subsequently administered to another group of 219 student-teachers from Primary and Early Childhood Education Departments. Due to the complexity of the ecological footprint concept, and that it is a newly introduced concept, unknown to the public, both groups have been previously exposed to relevant instruction. Experts in the field established face and content validity. The reliability, in terms of Cronbach's alpha, was found adequate (α = 0.839), and the test-retest reliability, as indicated by Pearson r, was also satisfactory (0.554). The mean performance of the students was 56.24% in total score, 59.75% in content tiers and 48.05% in reason tiers. A variety of concepts about the ecological footprint were also observed. The test can help educators to understand the alternative views that students hold about the ecological footprint concept and assist them in developing the concept through appropriately designed teaching methods and materials.

  16. Exploring one aspect of pedagogical content knowledge of teaching assistants using the test of understanding graphs in kinematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Maries

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Test of Understanding Graphs in Kinematics (TUG-K is a multiple-choice test developed by Beichner in 1994 to assess students’ understanding of kinematics graphs. Many of the items on the TUG-K have strong distractor choices which correspond to students’ common difficulties with kinematics graphs. Instruction is unlikely to be effective if instructors do not know the common difficulties of introductory physics students and explicitly take them into account in their instructional design. We evaluate one aspect of the pedagogical content knowledge of first-year physics graduate students enrolled in a teaching assistant training course related to topics covered in the TUG-K. In particular, for each item on the TUG-K, the graduate students were asked to identify which incorrect answer choice they thought would be most commonly selected by introductory physics students if they did not know the correct answer after instruction in relevant concepts. We used the graduate student data and the data from Beichner’s original paper for introductory physics students (which was collected from over 500 college and high school students to assess this aspect of the pedagogical content knowledge of the graduate students, i.e., knowledge of student difficulties related to kinematics graphs as they are revealed by the TUG-K. We find that, although the graduate students, on average, performed better than random guessing at identifying introductory student difficulties on the TUG-K, they did not identify many common difficulties that introductory students have with graphs in kinematics. In addition, we find that the ability of graduate students to identify the difficulties of introductory students is context dependent and that discussions among the graduate students improved their understanding of student difficulties related to kinematics graphs. Moreover, we find that the ability of American graduate students in identifying common student difficulties is

  17. Understanding overpressure in the FAA aerosol can test by C3H2F3Br (2-BTP)✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linteris, Gregory Thomas; Babushok, Valeri Ivan; Pagliaro, John Leonard; Burgess, Donald Raymond; Manion, Jeffrey Alan; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Katta, Viswanath Reddy; Baker, Patrick Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations, as well as perfectly-stirred reactor (PSR) simulations with detailed reaction kinetics, are performed for a potential halon replacement, C3H2F3Br (2-BTP, C3H2F3Br, 2-Bromo-3,3,3-trifluoropropene), to understand the reasons for the unexpected enhanced combustion rather than suppression in a mandated FAA test. The high pressure rise with added agent is shown to depend on the amount of agent, and is well-predicted by an equilibrium model corresponding to stoichiometric reaction of fuel, oxygen, and agent. A kinetic model for the reaction of C3H2F3Br in hydrocarbon-air flames has been applied to understand differences in the chemical suppression behavior of C3H2F3Br vs. CF3Br in the FAA test. Stirred-reactor simulations predict that in the conditions of the FAA test, the inhibition effectiveness of C3H2F3Br at high agent loadings is relatively insensitive to the overall stoichiometry (for fuel-lean conditions), and the marginal inhibitory effect of the agent is greatly reduced, so that the mixture remains flammable over a wide range of conditions. Most important, the flammability of the agent-air mixtures themselves (when compressively preheated), can support low-strain flames which are much more difficult to extinguish than the easy-to extinguish, high-strain primary fireball from the impulsively released fuel mixture. Hence, the exothermic reaction of halogenated hydrocarbons in air should be considered in other situations with strong ignition sources and low strain flows, especially at preheated conditions. PMID:29628525

  18. Understanding overpressure in the FAA aerosol can test by C3H2F3Br (2-BTP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linteris, Gregory Thomas; Babushok, Valeri Ivan; Pagliaro, John Leonard; Burgess, Donald Raymond; Manion, Jeffrey Alan; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Katta, Viswanath Reddy; Baker, Patrick Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations, as well as perfectly-stirred reactor (PSR) simulations with detailed reaction kinetics, are performed for a potential halon replacement, C 3 H 2 F 3 Br (2-BTP, C 3 H 2 F 3 Br, 2-Bromo-3,3,3-trifluoropropene), to understand the reasons for the unexpected enhanced combustion rather than suppression in a mandated FAA test. The high pressure rise with added agent is shown to depend on the amount of agent, and is well-predicted by an equilibrium model corresponding to stoichiometric reaction of fuel, oxygen, and agent. A kinetic model for the reaction of C 3 H 2 F 3 Br in hydrocarbon-air flames has been applied to understand differences in the chemical suppression behavior of C 3 H 2 F 3 Br vs. CF 3 Br in the FAA test. Stirred-reactor simulations predict that in the conditions of the FAA test, the inhibition effectiveness of C 3 H 2 F 3 Br at high agent loadings is relatively insensitive to the overall stoichiometry (for fuel-lean conditions), and the marginal inhibitory effect of the agent is greatly reduced, so that the mixture remains flammable over a wide range of conditions. Most important, the flammability of the agent-air mixtures themselves (when compressively preheated), can support low-strain flames which are much more difficult to extinguish than the easy-to extinguish, high-strain primary fireball from the impulsively released fuel mixture. Hence, the exothermic reaction of halogenated hydrocarbons in air should be considered in other situations with strong ignition sources and low strain flows, especially at preheated conditions.

  19. Understanding the extremely low fracture toughness of freestanding gold thin films by in-situ bulge testing in an AFM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preiß, Eva I., E-mail: eva.preiss@fau.de; Merle, Benoit; Göken, Mathias

    2017-04-13

    The fracture toughness of freestanding gold films with thicknesses between 60 nm and 320 nm was determined by bulge testing to be around 2 MPa m{sup 1/2}. This surprisingly low value confirms the trend also observed for other metals that thin films exhibit only a fraction of the bulk fracture toughness. In order to understand this behavior, the fracture process of freestanding gold films with a crack introduced by focused ion beam (FIB) milling was observed in-situ in an atomic force microscope (AFM). AFM scans of the crack tip region show stable crack growth mainly along grain boundaries. Plastic deformation is localized in a narrow corridor in front of the crack tip. A large plastic zone, as one would typically expect under plane stress, is not observed. Instead, strong local necking is evidenced. We conclude that the spatial confinement of the plastic deformation is the primary reason for the low fracture toughness of metallic thin films.

  20. In-situ tracer tests and models developed to understand flow paths in a shear zone at the Grimsel Test Site, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blechschmidt, I.; Martin, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Grimsel Test Site (www.grimsel.com) is an international underground research laboratory excavated at a depth of 450m below the surface in the crystalline Aare Massif of southern Switzerland in 1984. It is operated and owned by the National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste of Switzerland (NAGRA) which is the organization responsible for managing and researching the geological disposal of all types of radioactive wastes originating in Switzerland. One experiment, the Colloid Formation and Migration test (CFM*), is an ongoing in-situ migration test started in 2004 to study colloid facilitated transport behavior of radionuclides through a shear zone. The importance of colloid transport in the context of a radioactive waste repository is that it provides a mechanism for potentially enhancing the advective transport of radionuclides. The montmorillonite clays that are planned to be used as an engineered barrier around the radioactive waste in many repository concepts may be a source of such colloids under specific hydraulic and/or chemical boundary conditions. The CFM project includes an integrated programme of field testing, laboratory studies and modelling/interpretation. The field tests are performed in a shear zone where the natural outflow has been controlled by a tunnel packer system and flow is monitored with an array of boreholes drilled for CFM and previous experiments at the site. The flow field is controlled by a low-rate extraction from a surface packer. The controlled low-rate extraction creates a region of low hydraulic gradients and fluid velocity within the shear zone, suitable for study under repository-relevant or other geo-resource relevant conditions. Here we present a summary of the migration tracer tests carried out so far to understand the hydraulic properties and transport characteristics of the shear zone using both stable and radioactive (Na-22, Cs-137, Ba-133, Th-232, Np-237, Am-243, Pu-242) tracers as well as colloids, and

  1. Design implications for task-specific search utilities for retrieval and re-engineering of code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Rahat; Grzywaczewski, Adam; Halloran, John; Doctor, Faiyaz; Iqbal, Kashif

    2017-05-01

    The importance of information retrieval systems is unquestionable in the modern society and both individuals as well as enterprises recognise the benefits of being able to find information effectively. Current code-focused information retrieval systems such as Google Code Search, Codeplex or Koders produce results based on specific keywords. However, these systems do not take into account developers' context such as development language, technology framework, goal of the project, project complexity and developer's domain expertise. They also impose additional cognitive burden on users in switching between different interfaces and clicking through to find the relevant code. Hence, they are not used by software developers. In this paper, we discuss how software engineers interact with information and general-purpose information retrieval systems (e.g. Google, Yahoo!) and investigate to what extent domain-specific search and recommendation utilities can be developed in order to support their work-related activities. In order to investigate this, we conducted a user study and found that software engineers followed many identifiable and repeatable work tasks and behaviours. These behaviours can be used to develop implicit relevance feedback-based systems based on the observed retention actions. Moreover, we discuss the implications for the development of task-specific search and collaborative recommendation utilities embedded with the Google standard search engine and Microsoft IntelliSense for retrieval and re-engineering of code. Based on implicit relevance feedback, we have implemented a prototype of the proposed collaborative recommendation system, which was evaluated in a controlled environment simulating the real-world situation of professional software engineers. The evaluation has achieved promising initial results on the precision and recall performance of the system.

  2. Deriving a research agenda for a financial service industry's methodology for carrying out business process re-engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kader, I. A.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Why do projects fail? This is a question that has been researched across various project disciplines, including that of Business Process Re-engineering (BPR. This paper introduces a different angle on why BPR projects fail. An analysis of a case study conducted within a financial institution revealed new factors that could influence BPR project outcomes, but that have not been identified in the literature. The Organisation Ring of Influence model was developed to indicate the impact that organisation behaviours and structures had on the outcome of an executed BPR project. This model also helps to highlight which factors were more influential than others.

  3. The effect of intranasal oxytocin on perceiving and understanding emotion on the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Christopher; Ellenbogen, Mark A; Linnen, Anne-Marie

    2014-02-01

    Evidence suggests that intranasal oxytocin enhances the perception of emotion in facial expressions during standard emotion identification tasks. However, it is not clear whether this effect is desirable in people who do not show deficits in emotion perception. That is, a heightened perception of emotion in faces could lead to "oversensitivity" to the emotions of others in nonclinical participants. The goal of this study was to assess the effects of intranasal oxytocin on emotion perception using ecologically valid social and nonsocial visual tasks. Eighty-two participants (42 women) self-administered a 24 IU dose of intranasal oxytocin or a placebo in a double-blind, randomized experiment and then completed the perceiving and understanding emotion components of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test. In this test, emotion identification accuracy is based on agreement with a normative sample. As expected, participants administered intranasal oxytocin rated emotion in facial stimuli as expressing greater emotional intensity than those given a placebo. Consequently, accurate identification of emotion in faces, based on agreement with a normative sample, was impaired in the oxytocin group relative to placebo. No such effect was observed for tests using nonsocial stimuli. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that intranasal oxytocin enhances the salience of social stimuli in the environment, but not nonsocial stimuli. The present findings support a growing literature showing that the effects of intranasal oxytocin on social cognition can be negative under certain circumstances, in this case promoting "oversensitivity" to emotion in faces in healthy people. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Study of a low-dose capsule filling process by dynamic and static tests for advanced process understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranzinger, S; Faulhammer, E; Scheibelhofer, O; Calzolari, V; Biserni, S; Paudel, A; Khinast, J G

    2018-04-05

    Precise filling of capsules with doses in the mg-range requires a good understanding of the filling process. Therefore, we investigated the various process steps of the filling process by dynamic and static mode tests. Dynamic tests refer to filling of capsules in a regular laboratory dosator filling machine. Static tests were conducted using a novel filling system developed by us. Three grades of lactose excipients were filled into size 3 capsules with different dosing chamber lengths, nozzle diameters and powder bed heights, and, in the dynamic mode, with two filling speeds (500, 3000 caps/h). The influence of the gap at the bottom of the powder container on the fill weight and variability was assessed. Different gaps resulted in a change in fill weight in all materials, although in different ways. In all cases, the fill weight of highly cohesive Lactohale 220 increased when decreasing the gap. Furthermore, experiments with the stand-alone static test tool indicated that this very challenging powder could successfully be filled without any pre-compression in the range of 5 mg-20 mg with acceptable RSDs. This finding is of great importance since for very fine lactose powders high compression ratios (dosing-chamber-length-to-powder-bed height compression ratios) may result in jamming of the piston. Moreover, it shows that the static mode setup is suitable for studying fill weight and variability. Since cohesive powders, such as Lactohale 220, are hard to fill, we investigated the impact of vibration on the process. Interestingly, we found no correlation between the reported fill weight changes in dynamic mode at 3000 cph and static mode using similar vibration. However, we could show that vibrations during sampling in the static mode dramatically reduced fill weight variability. Overall, our results indicate that by fine-tuning instrumental settings even very challenging powders can be filled with a low-dose dosator capsule filling machine. This study is a

  5. Preparing for the future: a case study of role changing and reengineering. Recognize and seize the new opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, C A

    1995-01-01

    Today's laboratory managers are caught in the midst of a tumultuous environment as a result of managed care, mergers and acquisitions, and downsizing. We must prepare ourselves through continuous learning, recognize the marketable value of our skills outside of the laboratory, and seize opportunities to expand into new roles. At Arkansas Children's Hospital, the Chief Executive Officer selected the Administrative Director of Laboratories to reengineer the General Pediatric Center. Our goals were to improve quality of care, efficiency, teamwork, clinic visit times, and satisfaction of patients, staff, and physicians. We developed ideal objectives from surveys, brainstorming sessions, and interviews to serve as guidelines for reengineering teams. Teams met the goals and 12 of 15 ideal objectives. Patient flow redesign resulted in different processes for different patient populations and a 35% decrease in the average clinic visit time. Patient, staff, and physician satisfaction improved, as did the clinic's financial status. The project's success confirms that our leadership and analytical skills are transferable from the laboratory to carry us to new heights in other health-care arenas.

  6. Evaluating the Implementation of the Re-Engineering Systems of Primary Care Treatment in the Military (RESPECT-Mil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Eunice C.; Jaycox, Lisa H.; Ayer, Lynsay; Batka, Caroline; Harris, Racine; Naftel, Scott; Paddock, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A RAND team conducted an independent implementation evaluation of the Re-Engineering Systems of Primary Care Treatment in the Military (RESPECT-Mil) Program, a system of care designed to screen, assess, and treat posttraumatic stress disorder and depression among active duty service members in the Army's primary care settings. Evaluating the Implementation of the Re-Engineering Systems of Primary Care Treatment in the Military (RESPECT-Mil) presents the results from RAND's assessment of the implementation of RESPECT-Mil in military treatment facilities and makes recommendations to improve the delivery of mental health care in these settings. Analyses were based on existing program data used to monitor fidelity to RESPECT-Mil across the Army's primary care clinics, as well as discussions with key stakeholders. During the time of the evaluation, efforts were under way to implement the Patient Centered Medical Home, and uncertainties remained about the implications for the RESPECT-Mil program. Consideration of this transition was made in designing the evaluation and applying its findings more broadly to the implementation of collaborative care within military primary care settings. PMID:28083389

  7. Topological Characteristics of the Hong Kong Stock Market: A Test-based P-threshold Approach to Understanding Network Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ronghua; Wong, Wing-Keung; Chen, Guanrong; Huang, Shuo

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we analyze the relationship among stock networks by focusing on the statistically reliable connectivity between financial time series, which accurately reflects the underlying pure stock structure. To do so, we firstly filter out the effect of market index on the correlations between paired stocks, and then take a t-test based P-threshold approach to lessening the complexity of the stock network based on the P values. We demonstrate the superiority of its performance in understanding network complexity by examining the Hong Kong stock market. By comparing with other filtering methods, we find that the P-threshold approach extracts purely and significantly correlated stock pairs, which reflect the well-defined hierarchical structure of the market. In analyzing the dynamic stock networks with fixed-size moving windows, our results show that three global financial crises, covered by the long-range time series, can be distinguishingly indicated from the network topological and evolutionary perspectives. In addition, we find that the assortativity coefficient can manifest the financial crises and therefore can serve as a good indicator of the financial market development.

  8. Development and Application of a Two-Tier Multiple-Choice Diagnostic Test for High School Students' Understanding of Cell Division and Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesli, Ertugrul; Kara, Yilmaz

    2012-01-01

    This study involved the development and application of a two-tier diagnostic test for measuring students' understanding of cell division and reproduction. The instrument development procedure had three general steps: defining the content boundaries of the test, collecting information on students' misconceptions, and instrument development.…

  9. Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    "Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding" is a 19-minute award-winning short-film about teaching at university and higher-level educational institutions. It is based on the "Constructive Alignment" theory developed by Prof. John Biggs. The film delivers a foundation for understanding what...

  10. The Physical Understanding of the Use of Coatings to Mitigate Hypervelocity Gouging Considering Real Test Sled Dimensions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Szmerekovsky, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    A dimensional analysis with accompanying numerical investigation is conducted. A simplified model of the real test sled is created that allows test sled dimensions to be converted to a numerical model for analysis...

  11. Using the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction to Understand College Students' STI Testing Beliefs, Intentions, and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wombacher, Kevin; Dai, Minhao; Matig, Jacob J; Harrington, Nancy Grant

    2018-03-22

    To identify salient behavioral determinants related to STI testing among college students by testing a model based on the integrative model of behavioral (IMBP) prediction. 265 undergraduate students from a large university in the Southeastern US. Formative and survey research to test an IMBP-based model that explores the relationships between determinants and STI testing intention and behavior. Results of path analyses supported a model in which attitudinal beliefs predicted intention and intention predicted behavior. Normative beliefs and behavioral control beliefs were not significant in the model; however, select individual normative and control beliefs were significantly correlated with intention and behavior. Attitudinal beliefs are the strongest predictor of STI testing intention and behavior. Future efforts to increase STI testing rates should identify and target salient attitudinal beliefs.

  12. The Impact of the Dimensions of the Administrative Decision Support Systems on the Re-engineering of the Systems of the Palestinian universities in Gaza Strip from the Employees’ Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazen Jehad I. Al Shobaki

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the impact of the dimensions of the administrative decision support systems on the re-engineering of the systems of the Palestinian universities in Gaza Strip from the standpoint of employees. A descriptive approach was used through which a questionnaire was developed and distributed to a stratified random sample. (500 questionnaires were distributed and (449 were returned, with (89.8% response rate. The study revealed these results: There was an effect for the potentials (physical, human, technical, and organizational design available for the decision support systems and re-engineering of the systems in the Palestinian higher education institutions in Gaza Strip.There were significant differences between the assessment means of the study sample about the impact of decision support systems to re-engineer the systems in the Palestinian higher education institutions in Gaza Strip due to the gender variable in favor of males. There also differences due to the name of the university variable in favor of the Islamic University, Al Azhar University, Al Aqsa University, respectively. It was recommended that Palestinian higher education institutions which intend to start re-engineering the systems should be encouraged immediately start the process. These institutions should also develop the infrastructure of the decisions support systems when re-engineering their operations. Keywords: Decision support systems, Re-engineering, Palestinian higher education institutions.

  13. Is Perceived Control a Critical Factor in Understanding the Negative Relationship between Cognitive Test Anxiety and Examination Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putwain, David W.; Aveyard, Ben

    2018-01-01

    A well established finding is that the cognitive component of test anxiety (worry) is negatively related to examination performance. The present study examined how 3 self-beliefs (academic buoyancy, perceived control, and test competence) moderated the strength of the relationship between worry and examination performance in a sample of 270 final…

  14. Evaluating the Gifted Students' Understanding Related to Plasma State Using Plasma Experimental System and Two-Tier Diagnostic Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Saadet Deniz; Ayas, Bahadir; Aybek, Eren Can; Pat, Suat

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the experimental system design related to plasma state on the gifted students' understanding on the subject of the plasma state. To test the research hypothesis, one group pretest-posttest research model was carried out with 18 eighth-grade (4 girls and 14 boys) gifted students in…

  15. Complex Parts, Complex Data: Why You Need to Understand What Radiation Single Event Testing Data Does and Doesn't Show and the Implications Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Berg, Melanie D.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic parts (integrated circuits) have grown in complexity such that determining all failure modes and risks from single particle event testing is impossible. In this presentation, the authors will present why this is so and provide some realism on what this means. Its all about understanding actual risks and not making assumptions.

  16. Analysis Test of Understanding of Vectors with the Three-Parameter Logistic Model of Item Response Theory and Item Response Curves Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakkapao, Suttida; Prasitpong, Singha; Arayathanitkul, Kwan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the multiple-choice test of understanding of vectors (TUV), by applying item response theory (IRT). The difficulty, discriminatory, and guessing parameters of the TUV items were fit with the three-parameter logistic model of IRT, using the parscale program. The TUV ability is an ability parameter, here estimated assuming…

  17. Designing Process Improvement of Finished Good On Time Release and Performance Indicator Tool in Milk Industry Using Business Process Reengineering Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachyar, M.; Christy, E.

    2014-04-01

    To maintain position as a major milk producer, the Indonesian milk industry should do some business development with the purpose of increasing customer service level. One strategy is to create on time release conditions for finished goods which will be distributed to customers and distributors. To achieve this condition, management information systems of finished goods on time release needs to be improved. The focus of this research is to conduct business process improvement using Business Process Reengineering (BPR). The deliverable key of this study is a comprehensive business strategy which is the solution of the root problems. To achieve the goal, evaluation, reengineering, and improvement of the ERP system are conducted. To visualize the predicted implementation, a simulation model is built by Oracle BPM. The output of this simulation showed that the proposed solution could effectively reduce the process lead time and increase the number of quality releases.

  18. HIV coping self-efficacy: a key to understanding stigma and HIV test acceptance among incarcerated men in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Kerrigan, Deanna; Figueroa, J Peter; Reese, Richard; Ellen, Jonathan M

    2010-03-01

    Although prisons have been noted as important venues for HIV testing, few studies have explored the factors within this context that may influence HIV test acceptance. Moreover, there is a dearth of research related to HIV and incarcerated populations in middle and low-income countries, where both the burden of HIV and the number of people incarcerated is higher compared to high-income countries. This study explores the relationship between HIV coping self-efficacy, HIV-related stigma, and HIV test acceptance in the largest prisons in Jamaica. A random sample of inmates (n=298) recruited from an HIV testing demonstration project were asked to complete a cross-sectional quantitative survey. Participants who reported high HIV coping self-efficacy (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.86: 95% confidence interval CI 1.24-2.78, p-value=0.003), some perceived risk of HIV (AOR 2.51: 95% (CI) 1.57-4.01, p-value=0.000), and low HIV testing stigma (AOR 1.71: 95% CI 1.05-2.79, p-value=0.032) were more likely to test for HIV. Correlates of HIV coping self-efficacy included external and internal HIV stigma (AOR 1.28: 95% CI 1.25-1.32, p-value=0.000 and AOR 1.76: 95% CI 1.34-2.30, p-value=0.000, respectively), social support (AOR 2.09: 95% CI 1.19-3.68, p-value=0.010), and HIV knowledge (AOR 2.33: 95% CI 1.04-5.22, p-value=0.040). Policy and programs should focus on the interrelationships of these constructs to increase participation in HIV testing in prison.

  19. Risk, reassurance and routine: a qualitative study of narrative understandings of the potential for HIV self-testing among men who have sex with men in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Charles Witzel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV testing has seen a rapid evolution over the last decade with multiple modalities now in use globally. In recent years HIV self-testing (HIVST has been legalised in the UK paving the way for further expansion of testing. Interventions are delivered in particular social contexts which shape uptake. It is therefore important to understand how novel interventions are likely to be received by their intended users. This study aims to understand how HIVST compliments existing testing strategies considered or adopted by men who have sex with men (MSM. We do this by analysing normative discourses surrounding HIV testing and their perceptions of HIVST’s potential future roles. Methods Six focus group discussions (FGDs were conducted with 47 MSM in London, Manchester and Plymouth. One focus group included only MSM who reported higher risk behaviours and one with those who had never tested for HIV. Data were analysed through a thematic framework analysis. Results Three main narratives for testing for HIV were identified: (i testing in response to a specific risk event; (ii as reassurance when there was a small amount of doubt or anxiety related to HIV; and (iii in response to social norms perpetuated through peers, HIV community groups and the medical establishment to test regularly for HIV. HIVST had limited utility for men when testing in response to specific risk events except in the case of significant structural barriers to other testing opportunities. HIVST was considered to have utility when seeking reassurance, and was thought to be very useful when testing to satisfy the needs and expectations of others around regular testing. There was some ambivalence about the incursion of a clinical intervention into the home. Conclusions HIVST following risk events will likely be limited to those for whom existing service provision is insufficient to meet immediate needs based on structural or personal barriers to testing. Obligations

  20. Reengineering of MeSH thesauri for term selection to optimize literature retrieval and knowledge reconstruction in support of stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yan; Andrews, James; Huang, Hong; Wang, Yue; Kong, Liangliang; Cannon, Peter; Xu, Ping

    2016-05-23

    PubMed is a widely used database for scientists to find biomedical-related literature. Due to the complexity of the selected research subject and its interdisciplinary nature, as well as the exponential growth in the number of disparate pieces of biomedical literature, it is an overwhelming challenge for scientists to define the right search strategies and quickly locate all related information. Specialized subsets and groupings of controlled vocabularies, such as Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), can enhance information retrieval in specialized domains, such as stem cell research. There is a need to develop effective search strategies and convenient solutions for knowledge organization in stem cell research. The understanding of the interrelationships between these MeSH terms also facilitates the building of knowledge organization systems in related subject fields. This study collected empirical data for MeSH-related terms from stem cell literature and developed a novel approach that uses both automation and expert-selection to create a set of terms that supports enhanced retrieval. The selected MeSH terms were reconstructed into a classified thesaurus that can guide researchers towards a successful search and knowledge organization of stem cell literature. First, 4253 MeSH terms were harvested from a sample of 5527 stem cell related research papers from the PubMed database. Next, unrelated terms were filtered out based on term frequency and specificity. Precision and recall measures were used to help identify additional valuable terms, which were mostly non-MeSH terms. The study identified 15 terms that specifically referred to stem cell research for information retrieval, which would yield a higher precision (97.7 %) and recall (94.4 %) rates in comparison to other approaches. In addition, 128 root MeSH terms were selected to conduct knowledge organization of stem cell research in categories of anatomy, disease, and others. This study presented a novel strategy

  1. Testing the Impact of a Pre-Instructional Digital Game on Middle-Grade Students' Understanding of Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, Katherine McMillan; Martin, Wendy; Clements, Margaret; Lewis Presser, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Rigorous studies of the impact of digital games on student learning remain relatively rare, as do studies of games as supports for learning difficult, core curricular concepts in the context of normal classroom practices. This study uses a blocked, cluster randomized controlled trial design to test the impact of a digital game, played as homework…

  2. Understanding the Adolescent Gap in HIV Testing Among Clients of Antenatal Care Services in West and Central African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helleringer, Stephane

    2017-09-01

    New HIV infections among children have declined significantly more slowly in West and central African countries (WCA) than in eastern and southern African countries between 2009 and 2015. Since adolescent fertility is particularly high in WCA countries, frequent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV may in part be due to low coverage of HIV testing among adolescents during antenatal care (ANC). We investigated this adolescent gap in HIV testing using survey data from the demographic and health surveys and multiple indicators cluster surveys collected in 21 WCA countries since 2009. We found significant adolescent gaps in HIV testing in 12 out of 21 WCA countries, with the largest gap observed in Nigeria. In countries with a significant adolescent gap in HIV testing, we used Fairlie decompositions to assess what proportion of these gaps were explained by age-related differences in the distribution of (a) marital status, (b) socioeconomic status (SES), (c) MTCT-related knowledge, and (d) patterns of ANC utilization. Differences in SES and MTCT-related knowledge were the most consistent determinants of adolescent gaps in HIV testing during ANC. Differences in ANC utilization (e.g., fewer and possibly delayed ANC visits) also contributed to the adolescent gap in 8 out of 12 countries. Interventions that improve knowledge of MTCT risks, and/or promote the sustained use of ANC services, could help engage HIV-infected adolescents who become pregnant in PMTCT services. Targeting these interventions at the most disadvantaged households will be crucial in further reducing HIV infections among children.

  3. Online monitoring and conditional regression tree test: Useful tools for a better understanding of combined sewer network behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersinger, T; Bareille, G; Pigot, T; Bru, N; Le Hécho, I

    2018-06-01

    A good knowledge of the dynamic of pollutant concentration and flux in a combined sewer network is necessary when considering solutions to limit the pollutants discharged by combined sewer overflow (CSO) into receiving water during wet weather. Identification of the parameters that influence pollutant concentration and flux is important. Nevertheless, few studies have obtained satisfactory results for the identification of these parameters using statistical tools. Thus, this work uses a large database of rain events (116 over one year) obtained via continuous measurement of rainfall, discharge flow and chemical oxygen demand (COD) estimated using online turbidity for the identification of these parameters. We carried out a statistical study of the parameters influencing the maximum COD concentration, the discharge flow and the discharge COD flux. In this study a new test was used that has never been used in this field: the conditional regression tree test. We have demonstrated that the antecedent dry weather period, the rain event average intensity and the flow before the event are the three main factors influencing the maximum COD concentration during a rainfall event. Regarding the discharge flow, it is mainly influenced by the overall rainfall height but not by the maximum rainfall intensity. Finally, COD discharge flux is influenced by the discharge volume and the maximum COD concentration. Regression trees seem much more appropriate than common tests like PCA and PLS for this type of study as they take into account the thresholds and cumulative effects of various parameters as a function of the target variable. These results could help to improve sewer and CSO management in order to decrease the discharge of pollutants into receiving waters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Understanding treatment refusal among adults presenting for HIV-testing in Soweto, South Africa: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Ingrid T; Dietrich, Janan; Tshabalala, Gugu; Essien, Thandekile; Rough, Kathryn; Wright, Alexi A; Bangsberg, David R; Gray, Glenda E; Ware, Norma C

    2015-04-01

    HIV treatment initiatives have focused on increasing access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). There is growing evidence, however, that treatment availability alone is insufficient to stop the epidemic. In South Africa, only one third of individuals living with HIV are actually on treatment. Treatment refusal has been identified as a phenomenon among people who are asymptomatic, however, factors driving refusal remain poorly understood. We interviewed 50 purposively sampled participants who presented for voluntary counseling and testing in Soweto to elicit a broad range of detailed perspectives on ART refusal. We then integrated our core findings into an explanatory framework. Participants described feeling "too healthy" to start treatment, despite often having a diagnosis of AIDS. This subjective view of wellness was framed within the context of treatment being reserved for the sick. Taking ART could also lead to unintended disclosure and social isolation. These data provide a novel explanatory model of treatment refusal, recognizing perceived risks and social costs incurred when disclosing one's status through treatment initiation. Our findings suggest that improving engagement in care for people living with HIV in South Africa will require optimizing social integration and connectivity for those who test positive.

  5. Analysis test of understanding of vectors with the three-parameter logistic model of item response theory and item response curves technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakkapao, Suttida; Prasitpong, Singha; Arayathanitkul, Kwan

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the multiple-choice test of understanding of vectors (TUV), by applying item response theory (IRT). The difficulty, discriminatory, and guessing parameters of the TUV items were fit with the three-parameter logistic model of IRT, using the parscale program. The TUV ability is an ability parameter, here estimated assuming unidimensionality and local independence. Moreover, all distractors of the TUV were analyzed from item response curves (IRC) that represent simplified IRT. Data were gathered on 2392 science and engineering freshmen, from three universities in Thailand. The results revealed IRT analysis to be useful in assessing the test since its item parameters are independent of the ability parameters. The IRT framework reveals item-level information, and indicates appropriate ability ranges for the test. Moreover, the IRC analysis can be used to assess the effectiveness of the test's distractors. Both IRT and IRC approaches reveal test characteristics beyond those revealed by the classical analysis methods of tests. Test developers can apply these methods to diagnose and evaluate the features of items at various ability levels of test takers.

  6. A Comparative Investigation into Understandings and Uses of the "TOEFL iBT"® Test, the International English Language Testing Service (Academic) Test, and the Pearson Test of English for Graduate Admissions in the United States and Australia: A Case Study of Two University Contexts. "TOEFL iBT"® Research Report. TOEFL iBT-24. ETS Research Report. RR-14-44

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginther, April; Elder, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    In line with expanded conceptualizations of validity that encompass the interpretations and uses of test scores in particular policy contexts, this report presents results of a comparative analysis of institutional understandings and uses of 3 international English proficiency tests widely used for tertiary selection--the "TOEFL iBT"®…

  7. Sculpting carbon bonds for allotropic transformation through solid-state re-engineering of –sp2 carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hyun Young; Araujo, Paulo T.; Kim, Young Lae; Jung, Sung Mi; Jia, Xiaoting; Hong, Sanghyun; Ahn, Chi Won; Kong, Jing; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.; Kar, Swastik; Jung, Yung Joon

    2014-09-15

    Carbon forms one of nature’s strongest chemical bonds; its allotropes having provided some of the most exciting scientific discoveries in recent times. The possibility of inter-allotropic transformations/hybridization of carbon is hence a topic of immense fundamental and technological interest. Such modifications usually require extreme conditions (high temperature, pressure and/or high-energy irradiations), and are usually not well controlled. Here we demonstrate inter-allotropic transformations/hybridizations of specific types that appear uniformly across large-area carbon networks, using moderate alternating voltage pulses. By controlling the pulse magnitude, small-diameter single-walled carbon nanotubes can be transformed predominantly into larger-diameter single-walled carbon nanotubes, multi-walled carbon nanotubes of different morphologies, multi-layered graphene nanoribbons or structures with sp3 bonds. This re-engineering of carbon bonds evolves via a coalescence-induced reconfiguration of sp2 hybridization, terminates with negligible introduction of defects and demonstrates remarkable reproducibility. This reflects a potential step forward for large-scale engineering of nanocarbon allotropes and their junctions.

  8. Re-engineering therapeutic antibodies for Alzheimer's disease as blood-brain barrier penetrating bi-specific antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardridge, William M

    2016-12-01

    Therapeutic antibodies are large molecule drugs that do not cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Therefore, drug development of therapeutic antibodies for Alzheimer's disease (AD) requires that these molecules be re-engineered to enable BBB delivery. This is possible by joining the therapeutic antibody with a transporter antibody, resulting in the engineering of a BBB-penetrating bispecific antibody (BSA). Areas covered: The manuscript covers transporter antibodies that cross the BBB via receptor-mediated transport systems on the BBB, such as the insulin receptor or transferrin receptor. Furthermore, it highlights therapeutic antibodies for AD that target the Abeta amyloid peptide, beta secretase-1, or the metabotropic glutamate receptor-1. BSAs are comprised of both the transporter antibody and the therapeutic antibody, as well as IgG constant region, which can induce immune tolerance or trigger transport via Fc receptors. Expert opinion: Multiple types of BSA molecular designs have been used to engineer BBB-penetrating BSAs, which differ in valency and spatial orientation of the transporter and therapeutic domains of the BSA. The plasma pharmacokinetics and dosing regimens of BSAs differ from that of conventional therapeutic antibodies. BBB-penetrating BSAs may be engineered in the future as new treatments of AD, as well as other neural disorders.

  9. Conversion of Sox17 into a pluripotency reprogramming factor by reengineering its association with Oct4 on DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauch, Ralf; Aksoy, Irene; Hutchins, Andrew Paul; Ng, Calista Keow Leng; Tian, Xian Feng; Chen, Jiaxuan; Palasingam, Paaventhan; Robson, Paul; Stanton, Lawrence W; Kolatkar, Prasanna R

    2011-06-01

    Very few proteins are capable to induce pluripotent stem (iPS) cells and their biochemical uniqueness remains unexplained. For example, Sox2 cooperates with other transcription factors to generate iPS cells, but Sox17, despite binding to similar DNA sequences, cannot. Here, we show that Sox2 and Sox17 exhibit inverse heterodimerization preferences with Oct4 on the canonical versus a newly identified compressed sox/oct motif. We can swap the cooperativity profiles of Sox2 and Sox17 by exchanging single amino acids at the Oct4 interaction interface resulting in Sox2KE and Sox17EK proteins. The reengineered Sox17EK now promotes reprogramming of somatic cells to iPS, whereas Sox2KE has lost this potential. Consistently, when Sox2KE is overexpressed in embryonic stem cells it forces endoderm differentiation similar to wild-type Sox17. Together, we demonstrate that strategic point mutations that facilitate Sox/Oct4 dimer formation on variant DNA motifs lead to a dramatic swap of the bioactivities of Sox2 and Sox17. Copyright © 2011 AlphaMed Press.

  10. Business process re-engineering in the logistics industry: a study of implementation, success factors, and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chien-wen; Chou, Ching-Chih

    2010-02-01

    As business process re-engineering (BPR) is an important foundation to ensure the success of enterprise systems, this study would like to investigate the relationships among BPR implementation, BPR success factors, and business performance for logistics companies. Our empirical findings show that BPR companies outperformed non-BPR companies, not only on information processing, technology applications, organisational structure, and co-ordination, but also on all of the major logistics operations. Comparing the different perceptions of the success factors for BPR, non-BPR companies place greater emphasis on the importance of employee involvement while BPR companies are more concerned about the influence of risk management. Our findings also suggest that management attitude towards BPR success factors could affect performance with regard to technology applications and logistics operations. Logistics companies which have not yet implemented the BPR approach could refer to our findings to evaluate the advantages of such an undertaking and to take care of those BPR success factors affecting performance before conducting BPR projects.

  11. Analysis test of understanding of vectors with the three-parameter logistic model of item response theory and item response curves technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suttida Rakkapao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the multiple-choice test of understanding of vectors (TUV, by applying item response theory (IRT. The difficulty, discriminatory, and guessing parameters of the TUV items were fit with the three-parameter logistic model of IRT, using the parscale program. The TUV ability is an ability parameter, here estimated assuming unidimensionality and local independence. Moreover, all distractors of the TUV were analyzed from item response curves (IRC that represent simplified IRT. Data were gathered on 2392 science and engineering freshmen, from three universities in Thailand. The results revealed IRT analysis to be useful in assessing the test since its item parameters are independent of the ability parameters. The IRT framework reveals item-level information, and indicates appropriate ability ranges for the test. Moreover, the IRC analysis can be used to assess the effectiveness of the test’s distractors. Both IRT and IRC approaches reveal test characteristics beyond those revealed by the classical analysis methods of tests. Test developers can apply these methods to diagnose and evaluate the features of items at various ability levels of test takers.

  12. A Challenging Diagnosis of IgG4-Related Disease When Understanding Limitations of Laboratory Testing Was Pivotal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Y. Y. Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 76-year-old man was incidentally found on a CT scan to have lymphadenopathy and bilateral kidney enlargement suggestive of infiltrative renal disease. He was largely asymptomatic but had bilateral salivary and lacrimal gland enlargement. A grossly elevated serum IgG (>70 g/L with concomitant suppression of other immunoglobulins, a small IgG restriction, and a parotid biopsy revealing lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with slight kappa light chain excess all suggested a lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD. The diagnostic workup was further confounded by a normal serum IgG4 concentration. Moreover, bone marrow and renal biopsies did not reveal evidence of LPD. Discussion with the laboratory not only clarified that the markedly increased total IgG could not be accounted for by the small IgG restriction, but also identified a discrepancy in the IgG4 measurement. Repeat analysis of a follow-up sample revealed an elevated IgG4 of 5.94 (reference interval: 0.039–0.864 g/L, which prompted a repeat parotid biopsy that showed predominant IgG4+ lymphocytic infiltrates. Despite the deluding presentations, a final diagnosis of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD was made based on elevated serum IgG4 concentrations and histopathological findings. This case highlights the importance of recognizing limitations of laboratory testing and the benefit of close communications among clinical subspecialties and the laboratory.

  13. Associations between speech understanding and auditory and visual tests of verbal working memory: effects of linguistic complexity, task, age, and hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sherri L; Pichora-Fuller, M Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Listeners with hearing loss commonly report having difficulty understanding speech, particularly in noisy environments. Their difficulties could be due to auditory and cognitive processing problems. Performance on speech-in-noise tests has been correlated with reading working memory span (RWMS), a measure often chosen to avoid the effects of hearing loss. If the goal is to assess the cognitive consequences of listeners' auditory processing abilities, however, then listening working memory span (LWMS) could be a more informative measure. Some studies have examined the effects of different degrees and types of masking on working memory, but less is known about the demands placed on working memory depending on the linguistic complexity of the target speech or the task used to measure speech understanding in listeners with hearing loss. Compared to RWMS, LWMS measures using different speech targets and maskers may provide a more ecologically valid approach. To examine the contributions of RWMS and LWMS to speech understanding, we administered two working memory measures (a traditional RWMS measure and a new LWMS measure), and a battery of tests varying in the linguistic complexity of the speech materials, the presence of babble masking, and the task. Participants were a group of younger listeners with normal hearing and two groups of older listeners with hearing loss (n = 24 per group). There was a significant group difference and a wider range in performance on LWMS than on RWMS. There was a significant correlation between both working memory measures only for the oldest listeners with hearing loss. Notably, there were only few significant correlations among the working memory and speech understanding measures. These findings suggest that working memory measures reflect individual differences that are distinct from those tapped by these measures of speech understanding.

  14. Associations between speech understanding and auditory and visual tests of verbal working memory: effects of linguistic complexity, task, age, and hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sherri L.; Pichora-Fuller, M. Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Listeners with hearing loss commonly report having difficulty understanding speech, particularly in noisy environments. Their difficulties could be due to auditory and cognitive processing problems. Performance on speech-in-noise tests has been correlated with reading working memory span (RWMS), a measure often chosen to avoid the effects of hearing loss. If the goal is to assess the cognitive consequences of listeners’ auditory processing abilities, however, then listening working memory span (LWMS) could be a more informative measure. Some studies have examined the effects of different degrees and types of masking on working memory, but less is known about the demands placed on working memory depending on the linguistic complexity of the target speech or the task used to measure speech understanding in listeners with hearing loss. Compared to RWMS, LWMS measures using different speech targets and maskers may provide a more ecologically valid approach. To examine the contributions of RWMS and LWMS to speech understanding, we administered two working memory measures (a traditional RWMS measure and a new LWMS measure), and a battery of tests varying in the linguistic complexity of the speech materials, the presence of babble masking, and the task. Participants were a group of younger listeners with normal hearing and two groups of older listeners with hearing loss (n = 24 per group). There was a significant group difference and a wider range in performance on LWMS than on RWMS. There was a significant correlation between both working memory measures only for the oldest listeners with hearing loss. Notably, there were only few significant correlations among the working memory and speech understanding measures. These findings suggest that working memory measures reflect individual differences that are distinct from those tapped by these measures of speech understanding. PMID:26441769

  15. Testing our understanding of Arctic denitrification using MIPAS-E satellite measurements in winter 2002/2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Davies

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations of gas-phase HNO3 and N2O in the polar stratosphere from the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding aboard the ENVISAT satellite (MIPAS-E were made during the cold Arctic winter of 2002/2003. Vortex temperatures were unusually low in early winter and remained favourable for polar stratospheric cloud formation and denitrification until mid-January. MIPAS-E observations provide the first dataset with sufficient coverage of the polar vortex in mid-winter which enables a reasonable estimate of the timing of onset and spatial distribution of denitrification of the Arctic lower stratosphere to be performed. We use the observations from MIPAS-E to test the evolution of denitrification in the DLAPSE (Denitrification by Lagrangian Particle Sedimentation microphysical denitrification model coupled to the SLIMCAT chemical transport model. In addition, the predicted denitrification from a simple equilibrium nitric acid trihydrate-based scheme is also compared with MIPAS-E. Modelled denitrification is compared with in-vortex NOy and N2O observations from the balloon-borne MarkIV interferometer in mid-December. Denitrification was clearly observed by MIPAS-E in mid-December 2002 and reached 80% in the core of the vortex by early January 2003. The DLAPSE model is broadly able to capture both the timing of onset and the spatial distribution of the observed denitrification. A simple thermodynamic equilibrium scheme is able to reproduce the observed denitrification in the core of the vortex but overestimates denitrification closer to the vortex edge. This study also suggests that the onset of denitrification in simple thermodynamic schemes may be earlier than in the MIPAS-E observations.

  16. Understanding intention to undergo colonoscopy among intermediate-risk siblings of colorectal cancer patients: a test of a mediational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, Sharon; Markowitz, Arnold; Winawer, Sidney; Guillem, Jose; Meropol, Neal J; Haller, Daniel; Jandorf, Lina; Rakowski, William; Babb, James; Duncan, Terry

    2003-01-01

    There is a need for research to identify factors influencing intentions to undergo colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among family members at risk for CRC. This study tested a mediational model primarily guided by Ronis' elaboration of the Health Belief Model in predicting intention to have colorectal cancer screening among siblings of individuals diagnosed with colorectal cancer prior to age 56 years. Data were collected from 534 siblings of individuals diagnosed with CRC. A baseline survey was administered by telephone. Measures included perceived susceptibility, CRC severity, physician and family support for CRC screening, cancer-specific distress, the closeness of the relationship with the affected sibling, and future intention to have a colonoscopy. Participant age, gender, and number of prior colonoscopies, as well as the stage of the affected patient's cancer and time from the patient's diagnosis to the interview, were controlled for in the analyses. The proposed model was not a good fit to the data. A respecified model was fit to the data. In this model, physician support, family support, and sibling closeness were significantly associated with both perceived benefits and barriers. Perceived severity was associated with barriers. Benefits and barriers, as well as cancer-specific distress, were directly associated with colonoscopy intentions. Results were consistent with a mediational role for benefits and barriers in the associations of sibling closeness and with a mediational role for barriers in the association between perceived severity and colonoscopy intentions. Family and physician support impacted intentions both directly and indirectly through effects on benefits and barriers. Perceived risk was not associated with benefits, barriers, or colonoscopy intentions. Intervention efforts to increase colonoscopy intentions may benefit from targeting family influences, particularly the affected proband in the family, as well as physician influence, cancer

  17. El CAD en la actividad de reingeniería e ingeniería en los mantenimientos a centrales eléctricas // CAD in the reengineering and engineering activity in maintenance of power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. García Ramírez

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo muestra algunas experiencias obtenidas en la actividad de ingeniería y reingeniería durante elmantenimiento a centrales eléctricas con empleo del CAD (Computer Aided Design, se muestran además las estrategiasseguidas con vistas a automatizar la actividad de reingeniería en ordenadores y a lograr mejoras económicas en la actividada costa de disminuir los costos de producción.Palabras claves: CAD, reingeniería, mantenimiento de calderas._________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe present work shows some experiences obtained in the engineering and reengineering during the maintenance activity inpower plants carried out by our company applying the CAD (Computer Aided Design, it is also exposed the strategyfollowed with a view to automating the reengineering activity with the use of computers, keeping in mind a view to achieveconomic improvements in the activity to diminish production costs.Key words: reengineering, CAD, maintenance, boiler.

  18. Role of performance measures in reengineering U.S. Department of Energy's management of environmental management programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, K.S.; Harroun, W.P.

    1996-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Rocky Flats) contributed to America's defense up to the end of the Cold War. It is one of several large US Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear industrial facilities, currently undergoing cleanup and closure. The Site was constructed in a sparsely populated area along the Rocky Mountain Foothills, near Denver, in 1952. In the 45 years since, Denver has grown to a major metropolitan area. Over 2 million people live within the Site's 50-mile radius. The Site is directly upstream of water supplies that serve over 300,000 people. As a result, accelerated cleanup, consolidation, reuse, and closure of the Site are the current essentials. The Site has had three management and operating (M and O) contractors since inception. In keeping with the shift in the Site's paradigm from one of weapon-parts production program to cleanup and closure project, DOE changed its contracting philosophy for the Site from the M and O type of contract to a Performance-based Incentive Fee Integrating Management contract (PBIF IMC). Doe selected the Site's fourth contractor as an IMC contractor in July 1995. Kaiser-Hill Company L.L.C. was awarded the contract and assumed IMC responsibility for the Site on July 1, 1995. Integral to this contract is the establishment and implementation of a performance measures system. Performance measures are the bases for incentives that motivate the IMC and the subcontractors working at Rocky Flats. This paper provides an overview of Performance Measures system practiced at Rocky Flats from July 1995 to December 1995. Also described are the developments in reengineering during the July 1995--March 1996 interval

  19. The development and validation of a three-tier diagnostic test measuring pre-service elementary education and secondary science teachers' understanding of the water cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Dannah Lynn

    The main goal of this research study was to develop and validate a three-tier diagnostic test to determine pre-service teachers' (PSTs) conceptual knowledge of the water cycle. For a three-tier diagnostic test, the first tier assesses content knowledge; in the second tier, a reason is selected for the content answer; and the third tier allows test-takers to select how confident they are in their answers for the first two tiers. The second goal of this study was to diagnose any alternative conceptions PSTs might have about the water cycle. The Water Cycle Diagnostic Test (WCDT) was developed using the theoretical framework by Treagust (1986, 1988, and 1995), and in similar studies that developed diagnostic tests (e.g., Calean & Subramaniam, 2010a; Odom & Barrow, 2007; Pesman & Eryilmaz, 2010). The final instrument consisted of 15 items along with a demographic survey that examined PSTs' weather-related experiences that may or may not have affected the PSTs' understanding of the water cycle. The WCDT was administered to 77 PSTs enrolled in science methods courses during the fall of 2012. Among the 77 participants, 37 of the PSTs were enrolled in elementary education (EPST) and 40 in secondary science (SPST). Using exploratory factor analysis, five categories were factored out for the WCDT: Phase Change of Water; Condensation and Storage; Clouds; Global Climate Change; and Movement through the Water Cycle. Analysis of the PSTs' responses demonstrated acceptable reliability (alpha = 0.62) for the instrument, and acceptable difficulty indices and discrimination indices for 12 of the items. Analysis indicated that the majority of the PSTs had a limited understanding of the water cycle. Of the PSTs sampled, SPSTs were significantly more confident in their answers' on the WCDT than the EPSTs. Completion of an undergraduate atmospheric science and/or meteorology course, as well as a higher interest in listening and/or viewing weather-related programs, resulted in PSTs

  20. Understanding the Alteration of Bentonite Backfill Using Coupled THMC Modeling for a Long Term Heater Test at the Grimsel Underground Research Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkholzer, J. T.; Zheng, L.; Xu, H.; Rutqvist, J.

    2017-12-01

    Compacted bentonite is commonly used as backfill material in emplacement tunnels of nuclear waste repositories because of its low permeability, high swelling pressure, and retardation capacity of radionuclide. To assess whether this backfill material can maintain these favorable features when undergoing heating from the waste package and hydration from the host rock, we need a thorough understanding of the thermal, hydrological, mechanical, and chemical evolution of bentonite under disposal conditions. Dedicated field tests integrated with THMC modeling provide an effective way to deepen such understanding. Here, we present coupled THMC models for an in situ heater test which was conducted at the Grimsel Test Site in Switzerland for 18 years. The comprehensive monitoring data obtained in the test provide a unique opportunity to evaluate bentonite integrity and test coupled THMC models. We developed a modeling strategy where conceptual model complexity is increased gradually by adding/testing processes such as Non-Darcian flow, enhanced vapor diffusion, thermal osmosis and different constitutive relationships for permeability/porosity changes due to swelling. The final THMC model explains well all the THM data and the concentration profiles of conservative chemical species. Over the course of modeling the in situ test, we learned that (1) including Non-Darcian flow into the model leads to a significant underestimation of hydration rate of bentonite, (2) chemical data provide an important additional piece of information for calibrating a THM model; (3) key processes needed to reproduce the data include vapor diffusion, as well as porosity and permeability changes due to swelling and thermal osmosis; (4) the concentration profiles of cations (calcium, potassium, magnesium and sodium) were largely shaped by transport processes despite their concentration levels being affected by mineral dissolution/precipitation and cation exchange. The concentration profiles of p

  1. Hearing impairment, cognition and speech understanding: exploratory factor analyses of a comprehensive test battery for a group of hearing aid users, the n200 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnberg, Jerker; Lunner, Thomas; Ng, Elaine Hoi Ning; Lidestam, Björn; Zekveld, Adriana Agatha; Sörqvist, Patrik; Lyxell, Björn; Träff, Ulf; Yumba, Wycliffe; Classon, Elisabet; Hällgren, Mathias; Larsby, Birgitta; Signoret, Carine; Pichora-Fuller, M Kathleen; Rudner, Mary; Danielsson, Henrik; Stenfelt, Stefan

    2016-11-01

    The aims of the current n200 study were to assess the structural relations between three classes of test variables (i.e. HEARING, COGNITION and aided speech-in-noise OUTCOMES) and to describe the theoretical implications of these relations for the Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) model. Participants were 200 hard-of-hearing hearing-aid users, with a mean age of 60.8 years. Forty-three percent were females and the mean hearing threshold in the better ear was 37.4 dB HL. LEVEL1 factor analyses extracted one factor per test and/or cognitive function based on a priori conceptualizations. The more abstract LEVEL 2 factor analyses were performed separately for the three classes of test variables. The HEARING test variables resulted in two LEVEL 2 factors, which we labelled SENSITIVITY and TEMPORAL FINE STRUCTURE; the COGNITIVE variables in one COGNITION factor only, and OUTCOMES in two factors, NO CONTEXT and CONTEXT. COGNITION predicted the NO CONTEXT factor to a stronger extent than the CONTEXT outcome factor. TEMPORAL FINE STRUCTURE and SENSITIVITY were associated with COGNITION and all three contributed significantly and independently to especially the NO CONTEXT outcome scores (R(2) = 0.40). All LEVEL 2 factors are important theoretically as well as for clinical assessment.

  2. Hearing impairment, cognition and speech understanding: exploratory factor analyses of a comprehensive test battery for a group of hearing aid users, the n200 study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnberg, Jerker; Lunner, Thomas; Ng, Elaine Hoi Ning; Lidestam, Björn; Zekveld, Adriana Agatha; Sörqvist, Patrik; Lyxell, Björn; Träff, Ulf; Yumba, Wycliffe; Classon, Elisabet; Hällgren, Mathias; Larsby, Birgitta; Signoret, Carine; Pichora-Fuller, M. Kathleen; Rudner, Mary; Danielsson, Henrik; Stenfelt, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The aims of the current n200 study were to assess the structural relations between three classes of test variables (i.e. HEARING, COGNITION and aided speech-in-noise OUTCOMES) and to describe the theoretical implications of these relations for the Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) model. Study sample: Participants were 200 hard-of-hearing hearing-aid users, with a mean age of 60.8 years. Forty-three percent were females and the mean hearing threshold in the better ear was 37.4 dB HL. Design: LEVEL1 factor analyses extracted one factor per test and/or cognitive function based on a priori conceptualizations. The more abstract LEVEL 2 factor analyses were performed separately for the three classes of test variables. Results: The HEARING test variables resulted in two LEVEL 2 factors, which we labelled SENSITIVITY and TEMPORAL FINE STRUCTURE; the COGNITIVE variables in one COGNITION factor only, and OUTCOMES in two factors, NO CONTEXT and CONTEXT. COGNITION predicted the NO CONTEXT factor to a stronger extent than the CONTEXT outcome factor. TEMPORAL FINE STRUCTURE and SENSITIVITY were associated with COGNITION and all three contributed significantly and independently to especially the NO CONTEXT outcome scores (R2 = 0.40). Conclusions: All LEVEL 2 factors are important theoretically as well as for clinical assessment. PMID:27589015

  3. SiGe-based re-engineering of electronic warfare subsystems

    CERN Document Server

    Lambrechts, Wynand

    2017-01-01

    This book equips readers with a thorough understanding of the applicability of new-generation silicon-germanium (SiGe) electronic subsystems for the military purposes of electronic warfare and defensive countermeasures. The theoretical and technical background is extensively explained and all aspects of the integration of SiGe as an enabling technology for maritime, land, and airborne (including space) electronic warfare are addressed, including research, design, development, and implementation. The coverage is supported by mathematical derivations, informative illustrations, practical examples, and case studies. While SiGe technology provides speed, performance, and price advantages in many markets, sharing of information on its use in electronic warfare systems has to date been limited, especially in developing nations. This book will therefore be warmly welcomed as an engineering guideline that focuses especially on the speed and reliability of current-generation SiGe circuits and highlights emerging innov...

  4. On the realism of the re-engineered simple point charge water model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chialvo, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    The realism of the recently proposed high-temperature reparameterization of the simple point charge (SPC) water model [C. D. Berweger, W. F. van Gunsteren, and F. Mueller-Plathe, Chem. Phys. Lett. 232, 429 (1995)] is tested by comparing the simulated microstructure and dielectric properties to the available experimental data. The test indicates that the new parameterization fails dramatically to describe the microstructural and dielectric properties of water at high temperature; it predicts rather strong short-range site endash site pair correlations, even stronger than those for water at ambient conditions, and a threefold smaller dielectric constant. Moreover, the resulting microstructure suggests that the high-temperature force-field parameters would predict a twofold higher critical density. The failure of the high-temperature parameterization is analyzed and some suggestions on alternative choices of the target properties for the weak-coupling are discussed. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  5. Study on the Modifications Required to Re-Engine the Lockheed D-21 Drone

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This report was prepared by Lockheed Martin (LM). The purpose of this 45 day study contract was to investigate the feasibility of using the D-21 as a Rocket Based Combined Cycle engine test-bed. The new NASA engine is entitled "Demonstration of Rocket Combined Cycle Operations (DRACO)". Four objectives were defined and modification study provide an estimation of the: (1) mudified vehicle performance; (2) required engine performance; (3) required vehicle modification; and (4) modification cost and schedule.

  6. Organizational re-engineering using systems modelling: rediscovering the physics of the health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolstenholme, E

    1995-01-01

    This paper explores the general role of systems modelling and its specific use in the UK National Health Service for providing a balanced overview of change management which links organizational structure, strategy, and process. The maps and modelling tools of the method are described, together with an outline of how they can be used to simulate and test alternative interventions in complex organizations and to create a management focus on generic insights, accelerated business learning, and improved financial performance. A case study involving the use of systems modelling at the interface between the health service and community care is presented as a specific example of the method in action.

  7. Understanding users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Carl Gustav Viggo

    2014-01-01

    Segmentation of users can help libraries in the process of understanding user similarities and differences. Segmentation can also form the basis for selecting segments of target users and for developing tailored services for specific target segments. Several approaches and techniques have been...... tested in library contexts and the aim of this article is to identify the main approaches and to discuss their perspectives, including their strenghts and weaknesses in, especially, public library contexts. The purpose is also to prsent and discuss the results of a recent - 2014 - Danish library user...... segmentation project using computer-generated clusters. Compared to traditional marketing texts, this article also tries to identify user segments or images or metaphors by the library profession itself....

  8. IDC Re-Engineering Phase 2 System Requirements Document V1.3.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, James M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Burns, John F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Satpathi, Meara Allena [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This System Requirements Document (SRD) defines waveform data processing requirements for the International Data Centre (IDC) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO). The IDC applies, on a routine basis, automatic processing methods and interactive analysis to raw International Monitoring System (IMS) data in order to produce, archive, and distribute standard IDC products on behalf of all States Parties. The routine processing includes characterization of events with the objective of screening out events considered to be consistent with natural phenomena or non-nuclear, man-made phenomena. This document does not address requirements concerning acquisition, processing and analysis of radionuclide data but includes requirements for the dissemination of radionuclide data and products.

  9. IDC Re-Engineering Phase 2 System Requirements Document Version 1.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, James M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Burns, John F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Satpathi, Meara Allena [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This System Requirements Document (SRD) defines waveform data processing requirements for the International Data Centre (IDC) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO). The IDC applies, on a routine basis, automatic processing methods and interactive analysis to raw International Monitoring System (IMS) data in order to produce, archive, and distribute standard IDC products on behalf of all States Parties. The routine processing includes characterization of events with the objective of screening out events considered to be consistent with natural phenomena or non-nuclear, man-made phenomena. This document does not address requirements concerning acquisition, processing and analysis of radionuclide data, but includes requirements for the dissemination of radionuclide data and products.

  10. Re-engineering and evaluation of anti-DNA autoantibody 3E10 for therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattray, Zahra; Dubljevic, Valentina; Rattray, Nicholas J W; Greenwood, Deanne L; Johnson, Caroline H; Campbell, James A; Hansen, James E

    2018-02-12

    A key challenge in the development of novel chemotherapeutics is the design of molecules capable of selective toxicity to cancer cells. Antibodies have greater target specificity compared to small molecule drugs, but most are unable to penetrate cells, and predominantly target extracellular antigens. A nuclear-penetrating anti-DNA autoantibody isolated from the MRL/lpr lupus mouse model, 3E10, preferentially localizes to tumors, inhibits DNA repair, and selectively kills cancer cells with defects in DNA repair. A murine divalent single chain variable fragment of 3E10 with mutations for improved DNA binding affinity, 3E10 (D31N) di-scFv, has previously been produced in P. pastoris and yielded promising pre-clinical findings, but is unsuitable for clinical testing. The present study reports the design, expression and testing of a panel of humanized 3E10 (D31N) di-scFvs, some of which contain CDR substitution. These variants were expressed in a modified CHO system and evaluated for their physicochemical attributes and ability to penetrate nuclei to selectively cause DNA damage accumulation in and kill cancer cells with DNA repair defects. Secondary structure was conserved and most variants retained the key characteristics of the murine 3E10 (D31N) di-scFv produced in P. pastoris. Moreover, several variants with CDR substitutions outperformed the murine prototype. In conclusion, we have designed several humanized variants of 3E10 (D31N) di-scFv that have potential for application as monotherapy or conjugates for targeted nuclear drug delivery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Re-engineering the nuclear medicine residency curriculum in the new era of PET imaging: Perspectives on PET education and training in the Philippine context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascual, T.N.; Santiago, J.F.; Leus, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: There is rapid development in PET Imaging and Molecular Nuclear Medicine. In the context of a residency training program, there is a need to incorporate these technologies in the existing Nuclear Medicine Residency Training Curriculum. This will ensure that trainees are constantly updated with the latest innovations in Nuclear Medicine making them apply this progress in their future practice hence making them achieve the goals and objectives of the curriculum. In residency training programs wherein no PET facilities are existing, these may be remedied by re-engineering the curriculum to include mandatory /electives rotations to other hospitals where the facilities are available. In order to ensure the integrity of the training program in this process of development, a proper sequence of this re-engineering process adhering to educational principles is suggested. These steps reflect the adoption of innovations and developments in the field of Nuclear Medicine essential for nuclear medicine resident learning. Curriculum re-engineering is a scientific and logical method reflecting the processes of addressing changes in the curriculum in order to deliver the desired goals and objectives of the program as dictated by time and innovations. The essential steps in this curriculum re-engineering process, which in this case aim to incorporate and/or update PET Imaging and Molecular Nuclear Imaging education and training, include (1) Curriculum Conceptualization and Legitimatisation, (2) Curriculum Diagnosis, (3) Curriculum Engineering, Designing and Organization, (4) Curriculum Implementation, (5) Curriculum Evaluation, (6) Curriculum Maintenance and (7) Curriculum Re-engineering. All of these sequences consider the participation of the different stakeholders of the training program. They help develop the curriculum, which seeks to promote student learning according to the dictates of the goals and objectives of the program and technology development. Once the

  12. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  13. Earthworms and in vitro physiologically-based extraction tests: complementary tools for a holistic approach towards understanding risk at arsenic-contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Mark; Watts, Michael J; Cave, Mark R; Harrington, Chris F; Jenkin, Gawen T

    2009-04-01

    The relationship of the total arsenic content of a soil and its bioaccumulation by earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus and Dendrodrilus rubidus) to the arsenic fraction bioaccessible to humans, measured using an in vitro physiologically-based extraction test (PBET), was investigated. Soil and earthworm samples were collected at 24 sites at the former arsenic mine at the Devon Great Consols (DGC) in southwest England (UK), along with an uncontaminated site in Nottingham, UK, for comparison. Analysis of soil and earthworm total arsenic via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was performed following a mixed acid digestion. Arsenic concentrations in the soil were elevated (204-9,025 mg kg(-1)) at DGC. The arsenic bioaccumulation factor (BAF) for both earthworm species was found to correlate positively with the human bioaccessible fraction (HBF), although the correlation was only significant (P earthworms as complementary tools is explored as a holistic and multidisciplinary approach towards understanding risk at contaminated sites. Arsenic resistant earthworm species such as the L. rubellus populations at DGC are presented as a valuable tool for understanding risk at highly contaminated sites.

  14. The "Fetal Reserve Index": Re-Engineering the Interpretation and Responses to Fetal Heart Rate Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, Robert D; Evans, Mark I; Evans, Shara M; Schifrin, Barry S

    2018-01-01

    Electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) correlates poorly with neonatal outcome. We present a new metric: the "Fetal Reserve Index" (FRI), formally incorporating EFM with maternal, obstetrical, fetal risk factors, and excessive uterine activity for assessment of risk for cerebral palsy (CP). We performed a retrospective, case-control series of 50 term CP cases with apparent intrapartum neurological injury and 200 controls. All were deemed neurologically normal on admission. We compared the FRI against ACOG Category (I-III) system and long-term outcome parameters against ACOG monograph (NEACP) requirements for labor-induced fetal neurological injury. Abnormal FRI's identified 100% of CP cases and did so hours before injury. ACOG Category III identified only 44% and much later. Retrospective ACOG monograph criteria were found in at most 30% of intrapartum-acquired CP patients; only 27% had umbilical or neonatal pH <7.0. In this initial, retrospective trial, an abnormal FRI identified all cases of labor-related neurological injury more reliably and earlier than Category III, which may allow fetal therapy by intrauterine resuscitation. The combination of traditional EFM with maternal, obstetrical, and fetal risk factors creating the FRI performed much better as a screening test than EFM alone. Our quantified screening system needs further evaluation in prospective trials. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Re-Engineering the ISS Payload Operations Control Center During Increased Utilization and Critical Onboard Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Stephanie R. B.; Marsh, Angela L.

    2014-01-01

    With an increase in utilization and hours of payload operations being executed onboard the International Space Station (ISS), upgrading the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) ISS Payload Control Area (PCA) was essential to gaining efficiencies and assurance of current and future payload health and science return. PCA houses the Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) responsible for the execution of all NASA payloads onboard the ISS. POIC Flight Controllers are responsible for the operation of voice, stowage, command, telemetry, video, power, thermal, and environmental control in support of ISS science experiments. The methodologies and execution of the PCA refurbishment were planned and performed within a four-month period in order to assure uninterrupted operation of ISS payloads and minimal impacts to payload operations teams. To vacate the PCA, three additional HOSC control rooms were reconfigured to handle ISS real-time operations, Backup Control Center (BCC) to Mission Control in Houston, simulations, and testing functions. This involved coordination and cooperation from teams of ISS operations controllers, multiple engineering and design disciplines, management, and construction companies performing an array of activities simultaneously and in sync delivering a final product with no issues that impacted the schedule. For each console operator discipline, studies of Information Technology (IT) tools and equipment layouts, ergonomics, and lines of sight were performed. Infusing some of the latest IT into the project was an essential goal in ensuring future growth and success of the ISS payload science returns. Engineering evaluations led to a state of the art Video Wall implementation and more efficient ethernet cabling distribution providing the latest products and the best solution for the POIC. These engineering innovations led to cost savings for the project. Constraints involved in the management of

  16. Revisiting and re-engineering the classical zinc finger peptide: consensus peptide-1 (CP-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besold, Angelique N; Widger, Leland R; Namuswe, Frances; Michalek, Jamie L; Michel, Sarah L J; Goldberg, David P

    2016-04-01

    Zinc plays key structural and catalytic roles in biology. Structural zinc sites are often referred to as zinc finger (ZF) sites, and the classical ZF contains a Cys2His2 motif that is involved in coordinating Zn(II). An optimized Cys2His2 ZF, named consensus peptide 1 (CP-1), was identified more than 20 years ago using a limited set of sequenced proteins. We have reexamined the CP-1 sequence, using our current, much larger database of sequenced proteins that have been identified from high-throughput sequencing methods, and found the sequence to be largely unchanged. The CCHH ligand set of CP-1 was then altered to a CAHH motif to impart hydrolytic activity. This ligand set mimics the His2Cys ligand set of peptide deformylase (PDF), a hydrolytically active M(II)-centered (M = Zn or Fe) protein. The resultant peptide [CP-1(CAHH)] was evaluated for its ability to coordinate Zn(II) and Co(II) ions, adopt secondary structure, and promote hydrolysis. CP-1(CAHH) was found to coordinate Co(II) and Zn(II) and a pentacoordinate geometry for Co(II)-CP-1(CAHH) was implicated from UV-vis data. This suggests a His2Cys(H2O)2 environment at the metal center. The Zn(II)-bound CP-1(CAHH) was shown to adopt partial secondary structure by 1-D (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Both Zn(II)-CP-1(CAHH) and Co(II)-CP-1(CAHH) show good hydrolytic activity toward the test substrate 4-nitrophenyl acetate, exhibiting faster rates than most active synthetic Zn(II) complexes.

  17. Shape understanding system machine understanding and human understanding

    CERN Document Server

    Les, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    This is the third book presenting selected results of research on the further development of the shape understanding system (SUS) carried out by authors in the newly founded Queen Jadwiga Research Institute of Understanding. In this book the new term Machine Understanding is introduced referring to a new area of research aiming to investigate the possibility of building machines with the ability to understand. It is presented that SUS needs to some extent mimic human understanding and for this reason machines are evaluated according to the rules applied for the evaluation of human understanding. The book shows how to formulate problems and how it can be tested if the machine is able to solve these problems.    

  18. Testing and Contrasting Road Safety Education, Deterrence, and Social Capital Theories: A Sociological Approach to the Understanding of Male Drink-Driving in Chile's Metropolitan Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazif, José Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    Three theories offer different explanations to the understanding of male drink-driving. In order to test road safety education, deterrence, and social capital theories, logistic regression analysis was applied to predict respondents' statements of having or not having engaged in actual drink-driving (DD). Variable for road safety education theory was whether a driver had graduated from a professional driving school or not. Deterrence theory was operationalized with a variable of whether a driver had been issued a traffic ticket or not. Social capital theory was operationalized with two variables, having children or not and having religion identification or not. Since both variables 'years of formal education' and 'years of driving experience' have been reported to be correlated to alcohol consumption and DD respectively, these were introduced as controls. In order to assess the significance of each variable statistically, Wald tests were applied in seven models. Results indicate on the one hand that road safety education variable is not statistically significant; and on the other, deterrence theory variable and social capital theory variable 'having children' were both statistically significant at the level of .01. Findings are discussed in reference to Chile's context. Data were taken from the "Road Users Attitudes and Behaviors towards Traffic Safety" survey from the National Commission of Road Safety of the Government of Chile (2005). The sample size was reported to be 2,118 (N of male drivers was 396). This survey was representative of Chile's Metropolitan Region road users' population.

  19. Are CH2O measurements in the marine boundary layer suitable for testing the current understanding of CH4 photooxidation?: A model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, V.; von Glasow, R.; Fischer, H.; Crutzen, P. J.

    2002-02-01

    On the basis of a data set collected during the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) campaign 1999, we investigated the formaldehyde (CH2O) budget in the southern Indian Ocean (SIO). With a photochemical box model we simulated the contribution of methane and nonmethane volatile organic compounds to the CH2O budget. To identify the reactions and model constraints that introduce the largest uncertainties in the modeled CH2O concentration, we carried out a local sensitivity analysis. Furthermore, a Monte Carlo method was used to assess the global error of the model predictions. According to this analysis the 2σ uncertainty in the modeled CH2O concentration is 49%. The deviation between observed (200 +/- 70 parts per trillion by volume (pptv) (2σ)) and modeled (224 +/- 110 pptv (2σ)) daily mean CH2O concentration is 12%. However, the combined errors of model and measurement are such that deviations as large as 65% are not significant at the 2σ level. Beyond the ``standard'' photochemistry we analyzed the impact of halogen and aerosol chemistry on the CH2O concentration and investigated the vertical distribution of CH2O in the marine boundary layer (MBL). Calculations with the Model of Chemistry Considering Aerosols indicate that, based on the current understanding, halogen chemistry and aerosol chemistry have no significant impact on the CH2O concentration under conditions encountered in the SIO. However, a detailed investigation including meteorological effects such as precipitation scavenging and convection reveals an uncertainty in state-of-the-art model predictions for CH2O in the MBL that is too large for a meaningful test of the current understanding of CH4 photooxidation.

  20. The knowledge reengineering bottleneck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, R.

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge engineering upholds a longstanding tradition that emphasises methodological issues associated with the acquisition and representation of knowledge in some (formal) language. This focus on methodology implies an ex ante approach: "think before you act". The rapid increase of linked data

  1. Understanding clinician attitudes towards implementation of guided self-help cognitive behaviour therapy for those who hear distressing voices: using factor analysis to test normalisation process theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazell, Cassie M; Strauss, Clara; Hayward, Mark; Cavanagh, Kate

    2017-07-24

    The Normalisation Process Theory (NPT) has been used to understand the implementation of physical health care interventions. The current study aims to apply the NPT model to a secondary mental health context, and test the model using exploratory factor analysis. This study will consider the implementation of a brief cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis (CBTp) intervention. Mental health clinicians were asked to complete a NPT-based questionnaire on the implementation of a brief CBTp intervention. All clinicians had experience of either working with the target client group or were able to deliver psychological therapies. In total, 201 clinicians completed the questionnaire. The results of the exploratory factor analysis found partial support for the NPT model, as three of the NPT factors were extracted: (1) coherence, (2) cognitive participation, and (3) reflexive monitoring. We did not find support for the fourth NPT factor (collective action). All scales showed strong internal consistency. Secondary analysis of these factors showed clinicians to generally support the implementation of the brief CBTp intervention. This study provides strong evidence for the validity of the three NPT factors extracted. Further research is needed to determine whether participants' level of seniority moderates factor extraction, whether this factor structure can be generalised to other healthcare settings, and whether pre-implementation attitudes predict actual implementation outcomes.

  2. The Development of a Virtual Company to Support the Reengineering of the NASA/Goddard Hubble Space Telescope Control Center System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Ken

    1999-01-01

    This is a report to the Third Annual International Virtual Company Conference, on The Development of a Virtual Company to Support the Reengineering of the NASA/Goddard Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Control Center System. It begins with a HST Science "Commercial": Brief Tour of Our Universe showing various pictures taken from the Hubble Space Telescope. The presentation then reviews the project background and goals. Evolution of the Control Center System ("CCS Inc.") is then reviewed. Topics of Interest to "virtual companies" are reviewed: (1) "How To Choose A Team" (2) "Organizational Model" (3) "The Human Component" (4) "'Virtual Trust' Among Teaming Companies" (5) "Unique Challenges to Working Horizontally" (6) "The Cultural Impact" (7) "Lessons Learned".

  3. Understanding Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Alzheimer's Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents For ... and brain scans. No treatment so far stops Alzheimer's. However, for some in the disease's early and ...

  4. Stress Corrosion Cracking of Pipeline Steels in Fuel Grade Ethanol and Blends - Study to Evaluate Alternate Standard Tests and Phenomenological Understanding of SCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-30

    Main aim of this project was to evaluate alternate standard test methods for stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and compare them with the results from slow strain rate test (SSRT) results under equivalent environmental conditions. Other important aim of...

  5. Testing methodology of embedded software in digital plant protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Ah Young; Choi, Bong Joo; Lee, Na Young; Hwang, Il Soon

    2001-01-01

    It is necessary to assure the reliability of software in order to digitalize RPS(Reactor Protection System). Since RPS causes fatal damage on accidental cases, it is classified as Safety 1E class. Therefore we propose the effective testing methodology to assure the reliability of embedded software in the DPPS(Digital Plant Protection System). To test the embedded software effectively in DPPS, our methodology consists of two steps. The first is the re-engineering step that extracts classes from structural source program, and the second is the level of testing step which is composed of unit testing, Integration Testing and System Testing. On each testing step we test the embedded software with selected test cases after the test item identification step. If we use this testing methodology, we can test the embedded software effectively by reducing the cost and the time

  6. Embodied Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Leonard Johnson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Western culture has inherited a view of understanding as an intellectual cognitive operation of grasping of concepts and their relations. However, cognitive science research has shown that this received intellectualist conception is substantially out of touch with how humans actually make and experience meaning. The view emerging from the mind sciences recognizes that understanding is profoundly embodied, insofar as our conceptualization and reasoning recruit sensory, motor, and affective patterns and processes to structure our understanding of, and engagement with, our world. A psychologically realistic account of understanding must begin with the patterns of ongoing interaction between an organism and its physical and cultural environments and must include both our emotional responses to changes in our body and environment, and also the actions by which we continuously transform our experience. Consequently, embodied understanding is not merely a conceptual/propositional activity of thought, but rather constitutes our most basic way of being in, and engaging with, our surroundings in a deep visceral manner.

  7. Empirically assessing the impact of business process reengineering on manufacturing firms Avaliando empiricamente o impacto da reengenharia de processos empresariais nas firmas de manufatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor Guimaraes

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available While the BPR (Business Process Reengineering concept is conceptually appealing, in pratice there are many unsuccessful cases. This study aimed to exhaustively identify and rate: the importance of factors proposed as important for successfully implementing BPR projects in organizations; the extent to which various problems and benefits are being encountered; the extent to which proposed BPR objectives are being included in project plans and are actually being derived; and the impact of BPR projects on specific business processes and on the organization as a whole. Several basic hypotheses regarding the BPR implementation process were tested. Last, based on the results, recommendations are made for managers to focus attention and resources on factors important to success, and to proceed in a fashion which minimizes the risk of failure. In general, organizations are not emphasizing some of the most important activies and tasks recommended in the BPR literature, such as changes to customer/market related business processes, the value-added element of every business activity, and others. On the average, the most commonly encountered problems while implementing BPR seem to be very difficult to address in pratice: making business mistakes under pressure to produce quick results, implementation difficulties due to communication barriers between company sub-units, the unexpected size of the required BPR effort, its disruption to business operations, and others. Based on the findings as a whole, it behooves top managers to engage in BPR projects only as a controlled experiment to strategically reposition the organization.Embora o conceito de Reegenharia de Processos Empresariais (BPR possua um forte apelo conceitual, na prática existem muitos casos que redundaram em fracasso. Este trabalho pretende identificar e medir exaustivamente: a importância dos fatores que pensamos que são importantes para que a implantação nas organizações dos projetos de

  8. Understanding Maple

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Maple is a powerful symbolic computation system that is widely used in universities around the world. This short introduction gives readers an insight into the rules that control how the system works, and how to understand, fix, and avoid common problems. Topics covered include algebra, calculus, linear algebra, graphics, programming, and procedures. Each chapter contains numerous illustrative examples, using mathematics that does not extend beyond first-year undergraduate material. Maple worksheets containing these examples are available for download from the author's personal website. The book is suitable for new users, but where advanced topics are central to understanding Maple they are tackled head-on. Many concepts which are absent from introductory books and manuals are described in detail. With this book, students, teachers and researchers will gain a solid understanding of Maple and how to use it to solve complex mathematical problems in a simple and efficient way.

  9. Understanding physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Understanding Physics - Second edition is a comprehensive, yet compact, introductory physics textbook aimed at physics undergraduates and also at engineers and other scientists taking a general physics course. Written with today's students in mind, this text covers the core material required by an introductory course in a clear and refreshing way. A second colour is used throughout to enhance learning and understanding. Each topic is introduced from first principles so that the text is suitable for students without a prior background in physics. At the same time the book is designed to enable

  10. PRINCIPLES OF RE-ENGINEERING METHODOLOGY FOR TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS IN PROCESSING OF RAW MATERIAL COMPONENTS WHILE PRODUCING CEMENT AND SILICATE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Busel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Grinding process is characterized by high energy consumption and low productivity. Nowadays efficiency of the ball mills applied for grinding is rather low. Only 3-6 % of the supplied power energy is used for material grinding. The rest part of the energy disappears in the form of heat, vibration and noise. So matter concerning reduction of energy consumption is of great importance.Improvement of efficiency and quality of technological process in grinding of raw material components while producing construction materials is considered as one of priority-oriented targets of power- and resource saving in construction industry with the purpose to reduce energy consumption for grinding. Grinding efficiency at operating enterprises is reasonable to improve by modernization of the equipment and existing technological, management and other processes which are related to grinding of mineral raw material. In order to reduce grinding power consumption it is necessary to carry out a complex re-engineering of technological process in grinding of various materials which is based on usage of new modifications of grinding bodies, physical and chemical grinding aids, modern information technologies and industrial automation equipment. Application of modern information technologies and industrial automation equipment makes it possible to execute the grinding process with maximum achievable productivity for existing capacity due to automatic control and consideration of continuous changes in technological parameters. In addition to this such approach gives an opportunity to control processes in real time by immediate adjustments of technological equipment operational modes.The paper considers an approach to the development of re-engineering methodology for technological process in grinding of raw material components while producing construction materials. The present state of technological grinding process is presented in the paper. The paper points out the

  11. Understanding Federalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickok, Eugene W., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Urges returning to the original federalist debates to understand contemporary federalism. Reviews "The Federalist Papers," how federalism has evolved, and the centralization of the national government through acts of Congress and Supreme Court decisions. Recommends teaching about federalism as part of teaching about U.S. government…

  12. Understanding Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Deepika; Shelby, Blake; Mattingly, Christine

    2016-01-01

    "Energy" is a term often used in everyday language. Even young children associate energy with the food they eat, feeling tired after playing soccer, or when asked to turn the lights off to save light energy. However, they may not have the scientific conceptual understanding of energy at this age. Teaching energy and matter could be…

  13. The Development and Validation of a Three-Tier Diagnostic Test Measuring Pre-Service Elementary Education and Secondary Science Teachers' Understanding of the Water Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Dannah Lynn

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this research study was to develop and validate a three-tier diagnostic test to determine pre-service teachers' (PSTs) conceptual knowledge of the water cycle. For a three-tier diagnostic test, the first tier assesses content knowledge; in the second tier, a reason is selected for the content answer; and the third tier allows…

  14. Understanding Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Gottlieb, Henrik; Klitgård, Ida

    Understanding Translation is designed as a textbook for courses on the theory and practice of translation in general and of particular types of translation - such as interpreting, screen translation and literary translation. The aim of the book is to help you gain an in-depth understanding...... of the phenomenon of translation and to provide you with a conceptual framework for the analysis of various aspects of professional translation. Intended readers are students of translation and languages, but the book will also be relevant for others who are interested in the theory and practice of translation...... - translators, language teachers, translation users and literary, TV and film critics, for instance. Discussions focus on translation between Danish and English....

  15. Understanding Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang eWu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Resilience is the ability to adapt successfully in the face of stress and adversity. Stressful life events, trauma and chronic adversity can have a substantial impact on brain function and structure, and can result in the development of PTSD, depression and other psychiatric disorders. However, most individuals do not develop such illnesses after experiencing stressful life events, and are thus thought to be resilient. Resilience as successful adaptation relies on effective responses to environmental challenges and ultimate resistance to the deleterious effects of stress, therefore a greater understanding of the factors that promote such effects is of great relevance. This review focuses on recent findings regarding genetic, epigenetic, developmental, psychosocial and neurochemical factors that are considered essential contributors to the development of resilience. Neural circuits and pathways involved in mediating resilience are also discussed. The growing understanding of resilience factors will hopefully lead to the development of new pharmacological and psychological interventions for enhancing resilience and mitigating the untoward consequences.

  16. Understand electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Understand Electronics provides a readable introduction to the exciting world of electronics for the student or enthusiast with little previous knowledge. The subject is treated with the minimum of mathematics and the book is extensively illustrated.This is an essential guide for the newcomer to electronics, and replaces the author's best-selling Beginner's Guide to Electronics.The step-by-step approach makes this book ideal for introductory courses such as the Intermediate GNVQ.

  17. Understanding unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Guillaume Rocheteau

    2006-01-01

    Modern economists have built models of the labor market, which isolate the market’s key drivers and describe the way these interact to produce particular levels of unemployment. One of the most popular models used by macroeconomists today is the search-matching model of equilibrium unemployment. We explain this model, and show how it can be applied to understand the way various policies, such as unemployment benefits, taxes, or technological changes, can affect the unemployment rate.

  18. Understanding Technology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Bendtsen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We are facing radical changes in our ways of living in the nearest future. Not necessarily of our own choice, but because tchnological development is moving so fast, that it will have still greater impact on many aspects of our lives. We have seen the beginnings of that change within the latest 35 years or so, but according to newest research that change will speed up immensely in the nearest years to come. The impact of that change or these changes will affect our working life immensely as a consequence of automation. How these changes are brought about and which are their consequences in a broad sense is being attempted to be understood and guessed by researchers. No one knows for sure, but specific patterns are visible. This paper will not try to guess, what will come, but will rather try to understand the deepest ”nature” of technology in order to understand the driving factors in this development: the genesis of technology in a broad sense in order to contibute to the understanding of the basis for the expected development.

  19. Understanding Magnitudes to Understand Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Fractions are known to be difficult to learn and difficult to teach, yet they are vital for students to have access to further mathematical concepts. This article uses evidence to support teachers employing teaching methods that focus on the conceptual understanding of the magnitude of fractions.

  20. Development of the re-engineered European decision support system for off-site nuclear and radiological emergencies - JRODOS. Application to air pollution transport modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ievdin, I.; Treebushny, D.; Raskob, W.; Zheleznyak, M.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The European decision support system for nuclear and radiological emergencies RODOS includes a set of numerical models simulating the transport of radionuclides in the environment, estimating potential doses to the public and simulating and evaluating the efficiency of countermeasures. The re-engineering of the RODOS system using the Java technology has started recently which will allow to apply the new system called JRODOS on nearly any computational platform running Java virtual machine. Modern software development approaches were used for the JRODOS system architecture and implementation: distributed system design (client, management server, computational server), geo-database utilization, plug-in model structure and OpenMI-like compatibility to support seamless model inter-connection. Stable open source components such as an ORM solution (Hibernate), an OpenGIS component (Geotools) and a charting/reporting component (JFree, Pentaho) were utilized to optimize the development effort and allow a fast completion of the project. The architecture of the system is presented and illustrated for the atmospheric dispersion module ALSMC (Atmospheric Local Scale Model Chain) performing calculations of atmospheric pollution transport and the corresponding acute doses and dose rates. The example application is based on a synthetic scenario of a release from a nuclear power plant located in Europe. (author)

  1. Supraphysiologic control over HIV-1 replication mediated by CD8 T cells expressing a re-engineered CD4-based chimeric antigen receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel S Leibman

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available HIV is adept at avoiding naturally generated T cell responses; therefore, there is a need to develop HIV-specific T cells with greater potency for use in HIV cure strategies. Starting with a CD4-based chimeric antigen receptor (CAR that was previously used without toxicity in clinical trials, we optimized the vector backbone, promoter, HIV targeting moiety, and transmembrane and signaling domains to determine which components augmented the ability of T cells to control HIV replication. This re-engineered CAR was at least 50-fold more potent in vitro at controlling HIV replication than the original CD4 CAR, or a TCR-based approach, and substantially better than broadly neutralizing antibody-based CARs. A humanized mouse model of HIV infection demonstrated that T cells expressing optimized CARs were superior at expanding in response to antigen, protecting CD4 T cells from infection, and reducing viral loads compared to T cells expressing the original, clinical trial CAR. Moreover, in a humanized mouse model of HIV treatment, CD4 CAR T cells containing the 4-1BB costimulatory domain controlled HIV spread after ART removal better than analogous CAR T cells containing the CD28 costimulatory domain. Together, these data indicate that potent HIV-specific T cells can be generated using improved CAR design and that CAR T cells could be important components of an HIV cure strategy.

  2. Understanding uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Lindley, Dennis V

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition ""...a reference for everyone who is interested in knowing and handling uncertainty.""-Journal of Applied Statistics The critically acclaimed First Edition of Understanding Uncertainty provided a study of uncertainty addressed to scholars in all fields, showing that uncertainty could be measured by probability, and that probability obeyed three basic rules that enabled uncertainty to be handled sensibly in everyday life. These ideas were extended to embrace the scientific method and to show how decisions, containing an uncertain element, could be rationally made.

  3. Understanding analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This lively introductory text exposes the student to the rewards of a rigorous study of functions of a real variable. In each chapter, informal discussions of questions that give analysis its inherent fascination are followed by precise, but not overly formal, developments of the techniques needed to make sense of them. By focusing on the unifying themes of approximation and the resolution of paradoxes that arise in the transition from the finite to the infinite, the text turns what could be a daunting cascade of definitions and theorems into a coherent and engaging progression of ideas. Acutely aware of the need for rigor, the student is much better prepared to understand what constitutes a proper mathematical proof and how to write one. Fifteen years of classroom experience with the first edition of Understanding Analysis have solidified and refined the central narrative of the second edition. Roughly 150 new exercises join a selection of the best exercises from the first edition, and three more project-sty...

  4. Understanding ayurveda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadgil, Vaidya Dilip

    2010-01-01

    Ayurveda needs to achieve its full potential both in India and globally. This requires imparting to its students full appreciation of Ayurveda's power and strength, particularly proper understanding of the advantages of applying it to treat chronic and acute diseases. To this end, we explain the necessity of learning Sanskrit as a medium of study, and the advantages of learning the Texts in the traditional way, rather than relying on translations with all the loss of meaning and precision, which that entails. We emphasize the use of Triskandhakosha as a means to fully understand Ayurveda fundamental concepts and technical terms, so that all their shades of meaning are fully understood, and all their usages given in different places in the texts. Only by such methods can full appreciation of Ayurvedic wisdom be achieved, and the full depth and power of its knowledge be applied. Only then will its true status among systems of medicine come to be appreciated, either in India or more widely in the world as a whole.

  5. Understanding Ayurveda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidya Dilip Gadgil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ayurveda needs to achieve its full potential both in India and globally. This requires imparting to its students full appreciation of Ayurveda′s power and strength, particularly proper understanding of the advantages of applying it to treat chronic and acute diseases. To this end, we explain the necessity of learning Sanskrit as a medium of study, and the advantages of learning the Texts in the traditional way, rather than relying on translations with all the loss of meaning and precision, which that entails. We emphasize the use of Triskandhakosha as a means to fully understand Ayurveda fundamental concepts and technical terms, so that all their shades of meaning are fully understood, and all their usages given in different places in the texts. Only by such methods can full appreciation of Ayurvedic wisdom be achieved, and the full depth and power of its knowledge be applied. Only then will its true status among systems of medicine come to be appreciated, either in India or more widely in the world as a whole.

  6. Contrasts between channels and backwaters in a large, floodplain river: Testing our understanding of nutrient cycling, phytoplankton abundance, and suspended solids dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, Jeff N.

    2016-01-01

    In floodplain rivers, variability in hydraulic connectivity interacts with biogeochemistry to determine the distribution of suspended and dissolved substances. Nutrient, chlorophyll a, and suspended solids data spanning longitudinal (5 study reaches across 1300 river km), lateral (main channel and backwaters), and temporal (1994–2011) gradients in the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) were used to examine the extent to which observed differences between the main channel and backwaters were consistent with expectations based on current understanding of biogeochemical processes in large rivers. For N and P, the results largely conformed to expectations. N concentrations were greater in the main channel than in the backwaters in 82 to 96% of the observations across river reaches. Maximum TP concentrations generally occurred in backwaters during summer, when backwater TP often exceeded that of the main channel. Flux of P from sediments may be a substantial source of water-column P in UMR backwaters in summer. The data for suspended solids and chlorophyll a suggest that some refinements are needed of our understanding of ecosystem processes in large rivers. During low-discharge conditions, concentrations of inorganic suspended solids often were greater in backwaters than in the main channel, suggesting the importance of sediment resuspension. Chlorophyll a concentrations were usually greater in backwaters than in the main channel, but exceptions indicate that phytoplankton abundance in the main channel of the UMR can sometimes be greater than is typically expected for large rivers.

  7. Understanding physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cassidy, David; Rutherford, James

    2002-01-01

    Understanding Physics provides a thorough grounding in contemporary physics while placing physics into its social and historical context Based in large part on the highly respected Project Physics Course developed by two of the authors, it also integrates the results of recent pedagogical research The text thus - teaches about the basic phenomena in the physical world and the concepts developed to explain them - shows that science is a rational human endeavor with a long and continuing tradition, involving many different cultures and people - develops facility in critical thinking, reasoned argumentation, evaluation of evidence, mathematical modeling, and ethical values The treatment emphasizes not only what we know but also how we know it, why we believe it, and what effects that knowledge has - Why do we believe the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun? - Why do we believe that matter is made of atoms? - How do relativity theory and quantum mechanics alter our conception of Nature and in what ways do th...

  8. Earthworms and in vitro physiologically-based extraction tests : complementary tools for a holistic approach towards understanding risk at arsenic-contaminated sites

    OpenAIRE

    Button, Mark; Watts, Michael J.; Cave, Mark R.; Harrington, Chris F.; Jenkin, Gawen R.T.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship of the total arsenic content of a soil and its bioaccumulation by earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus and Dendrodrilus rubidus) to the arsenic fraction bioaccessible to humans, measured using an in vitro physiologically-based extraction test (PBET), was investigated. Soil and earthworm samples were collected at 24 sites at the former arsenic mine at the Devon Great Consols (DGC) in southwest England (UK), along with an uncontaminated site in Nottingham, UK, for comparison. Analysi...

  9. Intermediate Scale Laboratory Testing to Understand Mechanisms of Capillary and Dissolution Trapping during Injection and Post-Injection of CO2 in Heterogeneous Geological Formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illangasekare, Tissa [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Trevisan, Luca [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Agartan, Elif [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Mori, Hiroko [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Vargas-Johnson, Javier [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Gonzalez-Nicolas, Ana [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Cihan, Abdullah [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Birkholzer, Jens [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Zhou, Quanlin [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-03-31

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) represents a technology aimed to reduce atmospheric loading of CO2 from power plants and heavy industries by injecting it into deep geological formations, such as saline aquifers. A number of trapping mechanisms contribute to effective and secure storage of the injected CO2 in supercritical fluid phase (scCO2) in the formation over the long term. The primary trapping mechanisms are structural, residual, dissolution and mineralization. Knowledge gaps exist on how the heterogeneity of the formation manifested at all scales from the pore to the site scales affects trapping and parameterization of contributing mechanisms in models. An experimental and modeling study was conducted to fill these knowledge gaps. Experimental investigation of fundamental processes and mechanisms in field settings is not possible as it is not feasible to fully characterize the geologic heterogeneity at all relevant scales and gathering data on migration, trapping and dissolution of scCO2. Laboratory experiments using scCO2 under ambient conditions are also not feasible as it is technically challenging and cost prohibitive to develop large, two- or three-dimensional test systems with controlled high pressures to keep the scCO2 as a liquid. Hence, an innovative approach that used surrogate fluids in place of scCO2 and formation brine in multi-scale, synthetic aquifers test systems ranging in scales from centimeter to meter scale developed used. New modeling algorithms were developed to capture the processes controlled by the formation heterogeneity, and they were tested using the data from the laboratory test systems. The results and findings are expected to contribute toward better conceptual models, future improvements to DOE numerical codes, more accurate assessment of storage capacities, and optimized placement strategies. This report presents the experimental and modeling methods

  10. The pallid sturgeon: Scientific investigations help understand recovery needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLonay, Aaron J.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding of the pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) has increased significantly since the species was listed as endangered over two decades ago. Since 2005, scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Columbia Environmental Research Center (CERC) have been engaged in an interdisciplinary research program in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Missouri River Recovery Program, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, and numerous other State and Federal cooperators to provide managers and policy makers with the knowledge needed to evaluate recovery options. During that time, the USGS has worked collaboratively with river scientists and managers to develop methods, baseline information, and research approaches that are critical contributions to recovery success. The pallid sturgeon is endangered throughout the Missouri River because of insufficient reproduction and survival of early life stages. Primary management actions on the Missouri River designed to increase reproductive success and survival have focused on flow regime, channel morphology, and propagation. The CERC research strategies have, therefore, been designed to examine the linkages among flow regime, re-engineered channel morphology, and reproductive success and survival. Specific research objectives include the following: (1) understanding reproductive physiology of pallid sturgeon and relations to environmental conditions; (2) determining movement, habitat use, and reproductive behavior of pallid sturgeon; and (3) quantifying availability and dynamics of aquatic habitats needed by pallid sturgeon for all life stages.

  11. Understanding PISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen DOWNES

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding PISA Stephen DOWNESMoncton, CANADA ABSTRACT The headline was dramatic enough to cause a ripple in the reading public. "Students who use computers a lot at school have worse maths and reading performance," noted the BBC news article, citing a 2004 study by Ludger Woessmann and Thomas Fuchs (Fuchs and Woessman, 2004. It was not long before the blogosphere took notice. Taking the theme and running with it, Alice and Bill ask, "Computers Make School Kids Dumber?" They theorize, "If you track the admitted decline of education, you'll probably notice that it follows along with the increase of technology in the classroom." In a similar vein, James Bartholomew asks, "Do you think that the government will turn down the volume of its boasting about how it has spent billions introducing computers in schools (while keeping down the pay of teachers so much that there are shortages? Do you think it will stop sending governors of state schools glossy pamphlets about insisting that computers are used in their schools as much as possible?" In this study, therefore, PISA looks well beyond educational attainment, and also includes school demographics, such as whether it is a public or private school, has large or small classes, or has access or not to technological resources. Finally, it does measure student information-their family background, access to books and computers and parental support as well. The PISA survey departs from previous surveys in disregarding the stated curricula of the schools being measured. Therefore, the conclusion is not surprising, nor even wrong for him to consider independently of any parental or teacher support, considered without reference to the software running on it, considered without reference to student attitudes and interests, does not positively impact an education. Finally, he focus on missing the reporting of results

  12. Text understanding for computers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kenter, T.M.

    2017-01-01

    A long-standing challenge for computers communicating with humans is to pass the Turing test, i.e., to communicate in such a way that it is impossible for humans to determine whether they are talking to a computer or another human being. The field of natural language understanding — which studies

  13. Early Understanding of Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavy, Aisling; Hourigan, Mairéad; McMahon, Áine

    2013-01-01

    Quite a bit of the arithmetic in elementary school contains elements of algebraic reasoning. After researching and testing a number of instructional strategies with Irish third graders, these authors found effective methods for cultivating a relational concept of equality in third-grade students. Understanding equality is fundamental to algebraic…

  14. Impact of a reengineered electronic error-reporting system on medication event reporting and care process improvements at an urban medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKaig, Donald; Collins, Christine; Elsaid, Khaled A

    2014-09-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the impact of a reengineered approach to electronic error reporting at a 719-bed multidisciplinary urban medical center. The main outcome of interest was the monthly reported medication errors during the preimplementation (20 months) and postimplementation (26 months) phases. An interrupted time series analysis was used to describe baseline errors, immediate change following implementation of the current electronic error-reporting system (e-ERS), and trend of error reporting during postimplementation. Errors were categorized according to severity using the National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention (NCC MERP) Medication Error Index classifications. Reported errors were further analyzed by reporter and error site. During preimplementation, the monthly reported errors mean was 40.0 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 36.3-43.7). Immediately following e-ERS implementation, monthly reported errors significantly increased by 19.4 errors (95% CI: 8.4-30.5). The change in slope of reported errors trend was estimated at 0.76 (95% CI: 0.07-1.22). Near misses and no-patient-harm errors accounted for 90% of all errors, while errors that caused increased patient monitoring or temporary harm accounted for 9% and 1%, respectively. Nurses were the most frequent reporters, while physicians were more likely to report high-severity errors. Medical care units accounted for approximately half of all reported errors. Following the intervention, there was a significant increase in reporting of prevented errors and errors that reached the patient with no resultant harm. This improvement in reporting was sustained for 26 months and has contributed to designing and implementing quality improvement initiatives to enhance the safety of the medication use process.

  15. A reengineering success story: process improvement in emergency department x-ray cycle time, leading to breakthrough performance in the ED ambulatory care (Fast Track) process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, J A; Treiber, P M; Kosnik, L

    1997-01-01

    This article describes the journey of a multidisciplinary reengineering team, which worked to reduce a critical, high-leverage process in an emergency department setting. The process selected was emergency department radiology services. This process was selected on a rational basis. The team knew tht 60 percent of our emergency department patients were truly ambulatory, and that most could be seen in a "fast track" process as part of our emergency department's core mission. However, we knew from customer satisfaction data, that patients would like to be "in and out" of emergency department Fast Track in less than an hour. Over half of our Fast Track patients require x-rays. For most, this was their sole reason for seeking emergency care. Our state, at the start of the project, included an average x-ray cycle time of over 60 minutes. The associated Fast-Track cycle time was over 90 minutes median. It was clear to the emergency department leadership, as well as to members of the Fast-Track management team, that a cycle time of 30 minutes or less for x-ray service was needed as a necessary condition to an hour or less Fast Track cycle time. It was also felt that a more rapid x-ray cycle time would allow for more rapid turn over of ED rooms, leading to a virtual greater capacity to the ED. It was hoped that this would lead to a reduction in the time from arrival to treatment by the emergency physician for all patients.

  16. Usability evaluation of an experimental text summarization system and three search engines: implications for the reengineering of health care interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushniruk, Andre W; Kan, Min-Yem; McKeown, Kathleen; Klavans, Judith; Jordan, Desmond; LaFlamme, Mark; Patel, Vimia L

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the comparative evaluation of an experimental automated text summarization system, Centrifuser and three conventional search engines - Google, Yahoo and About.com. Centrifuser provides information to patients and families relevant to their questions about specific health conditions. It then produces a multidocument summary of articles retrieved by a standard search engine, tailored to the user's question. Subjects, consisting of friends or family of hospitalized patients, were asked to "think aloud" as they interacted with the four systems. The evaluation involved audio- and video recording of subject interactions with the interfaces in situ at a hospital. Results of the evaluation show that subjects found Centrifuser's summarization capability useful and easy to understand. In comparing Centrifuser to the three search engines, subjects' ratings varied; however, specific interface features were deemed useful across interfaces. We conclude with a discussion of the implications for engineering Web-based retrieval systems.

  17. Testing Testing Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, Craig; O'Neill, Thomas; Wright, Benjamin D.; Woodcock, Richard W.; Munoz-Sandoval, Ana; Gershon, Richard C.; Bergstrom, Betty

    1998-01-01

    Articles in this special section consider (1) flow in test taking (Craig Deville); (2) testwiseness (Thomas O'Neill); (3) test length (Benjamin Wright); (4) cross-language test equating (Richard W. Woodcock and Ana Munoz-Sandoval); (5) computer-assisted testing and testwiseness (Richard Gershon and Betty Bergstrom); and (6) Web-enhanced testing…

  18. Generic test platform for representative tests of safety I/C systems - 15546

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourestie, B.; Kuck, H.; Richter, J.; Rieche, S.; Waitz, M.

    2015-01-01

    In compliance with the IEC 61513 safety Instrumentation and Control (I/C) systems must be successfully validated in their final configuration prior to installation on site and commissioning. However the contingent need for modifications during system validation activities or subsequently during the commissioning phase may entail long and costly re-engineering of the I/C systems. With the view to ease these possible modifications, a Generic Test Platform has been developed by AREVA which allows combining a real I/C system subpart with an emulation server. This platform provides a faithful representation of the I/C System allowing crediting the validation test results carried out on this platform. (authors)

  19. Using the FLUKA Monte Carlo Code to Simulate the Interactions of Ionizing Radiation with Matter to Assist and Aid Our Understanding of Ground Based Accelerator Testing, Space Hardware Design, and Secondary Space Radiation Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddell, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    Designing hardware to operate in the space radiation environment is a very difficult and costly activity. Ground based particle accelerators can be used to test for exposure to the radiation environment, one species at a time, however, the actual space environment cannot be duplicated because of the range of energies and isotropic nature of space radiation. The FLUKA Monte Carlo code is an integrated physics package based at CERN that has been under development for the last 40+ years and includes the most up-to-date fundamental physics theory and particle physics data. This work presents an overview of FLUKA and how it has been used in conjunction with ground based radiation testing for NASA and improve our understanding of secondary particle environments resulting from the interaction of space radiation with matter.

  20. Reliable cloning of functional antibody variable domains from hybridomas and spleen cell repertoires employing a reengineered phage display system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebber, A; Bornhauser, S; Burmester, J; Honegger, A; Willuda, J; Bosshard, H R; Plückthun, A

    1997-02-14

    A prerequisite for the use of recombinant antibody technologies starting from hybridomas or immune repertoires is the reliable cloning of functional immunoglobulin genes. For this purpose, a standard phage display system was optimized for robustness, vector stability, tight control of scFv-delta geneIII expression, primer usage for PCR amplification of variable region genes, scFv assembly strategy and subsequent directional cloning using a single rare cutting restriction enzyme. This integrated cloning, screening and selection system allowed us to rapidly obtain antigen binding scFvs derived from spleen-cell repertoires of mice immunized with ampicillin as well as from all hybridoma cell lines tested to date. As representative examples, cloning of monoclonal antibodies against a his tag, leucine zippers, the tumor marker EGP-2 and the insecticide DDT is presented. Several hybridomas whose genes could not be cloned in previous experimental setups, but were successfully obtained with the present system, expressed high amounts of aberrant heavy and light chain mRNAs, which were amplified by PCR and greatly exceeded the amount of binding antibody sequences. These contaminating variable region genes were successfully eliminated by employing the optimized phage display system, thus avoiding time consuming sequencing of non-binding scFv genes. To maximize soluble expression of functional scFvs subsequent to cloning, a compatible vector series to simplify modification, detection, multimerization and rapid purification of recombinant antibody fragments was constructed.

  1. Understanding Medicare Prescription Drug Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to know what your insurance company is paying…Health Insurance: Understanding What It CoversRead Article >>Insurance & BillsHealth Insurance: Understanding What It CoversYour insurance policy lists a package of medical benefits such as tests, drugs, and treatment services. These ...

  2. Reengineering the Wikipedia for Reputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Thomas Rune; Jensen, Christian D.

    2008-01-01

    The Wikipedia is a free online encyclopedia collaboratively edited by Internet users with a minimum of administration. Anybody can write an article for the Wikipedia and there is no verification of the author’s expertise on the particular subject. This may lead to problems relating to the quality...... of articles, especially completeness and correctness of information, and inaccuracies in the Wikipedia have been rumoured to cause students to fail courses; innocent people have been associated with the killing of John F. Kennedy, etc. Providing a means to assess the correctness, completeness and impartiality...... of information in the Wikipedia is therefore vitally important for the users to build trust in the Wikipedia and ensure the continued success and growth of the system. Integrating a reputation system into the Wikipedia would help users assess the quality of articles and provide a powerful incentive for authors...

  3. Corrective action program reengineering project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernick, H.R.

    1996-01-01

    A series of similar refueling floor events that occurred during the early 1990s prompted Susquehanna steam electric station (SSES) management to launch a broad-based review of how the Nuclear Department conducts business. This was accomplished through the formation of several improvement initiative teams. Clearly, one of the key areas that benefited from this management initiative was the corrective action program. The corrective action improvement team was charged with taking a comprehensive look at how the Nuclear Department identified and resolved problems. The 10-member team included management and bargaining unit personnel as well as an external management consultant. This paper provides a summary of this self-assessment initiative, including a discussion of the issues identified, opportunities for improvement, and subsequent completed or planned actions

  4. Understanding Algorithms in Different Presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernoch, Mária; Biró, Piroska; Abari, Kálmán; Máth, János

    2015-01-01

    Within the framework of the Testing Algorithmic and Application Skills project we tested first year students of Informatics at the beginning of their tertiary education. We were focusing on the students' level of understanding in different programming environments. In the present paper we provide the results from the University of Debrecen, the…

  5. Intuitive Understanding of Base Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Laurel

    Purpose: This study examines whether physicians and other adults intuitively understand that the probability a positive test result is a true positive (positive predictive value, PPV) depends on the base rate of disease in the population tested. In particular, this research seeks to examine perce...

  6. Understanding engineering mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Bill

    2001-01-01

    * Unique interactive style enables students to diagnose their strengths and weaknesses and focus their efforts where needed* Ideal for self-study and tutorial work, building from an initially supportive approach to the development of independent learning skills * Free website includes solutions to all exercises, additional topics and applications, guide to learning mathematics, and practice materialStudents today enter engineering courses with a wide range of mathematical skills, due to the many different pre-university qualifications studied. Bill Cox''s aim is for students to gain a thorough understanding of the maths they are studying, by first strengthening their background in the essentials of each topic. His approach allows a unique self-paced study style, in which students Review their strengths and weaknesses through self-administered diagnostic tests, then focus on Revision where they need it, to finally Reinforce the skills required.The book is structured around a highly successful ''transition'' ma...

  7. Understanding person perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Andrew W; Bruce, Vicki

    2011-11-01

    Bruce and Young's (1986) theoretical framework was actually a synthesis of ideas contributed by several people. Some of its insights have stood the test of time - especially the importance of using converging evidence from as wide a range of methods of enquiry as possible, and an emphasis on understanding the demands that are made by particular face perception tasks. But there were also areas where Bruce and Young failed to obey their own edicts (emotion recognition), and some topics they simply omitted (gaze perception). We discuss these, and then look at how the field has been transformed by computing developments, finishing with a few thoughts about where things may go over the next few (25?) years. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  8. Ultrasonic testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Sung Jin [Sungkwunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hyun Jo [Wonkwang Univ., Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    For the proper performance of ultrasonic testing of steel welded joints, and anisotropic material it is necessary to have sound understanding on the underlying physics. To provide such an understanding, it is beneficial to have simulation tools for ultrasonic testing. In order to address such a need, we develop effective approaches to simulate angle beam ultrasonic testing with a personal computer. The simulation is performed using ultrasonic measurement models based on the computationally efficient multi-Gaussian beams. This reach will describe the developed ultrasonic testing models together with the experimental verification of their accuracy.

  9. Do Children Understand Fraction Addition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, David W.; Tian, Jing; Siegler, Robert S.

    2017-01-01

    Many children fail to master fraction arithmetic even after years of instruction. A recent theory of fraction arithmetic (Braithwaite, Pyke, & Siegler, in press) hypothesized that this poor learning of fraction arithmetic procedures reflects poor conceptual understanding of them. To test this hypothesis, we performed three experiments…

  10. Understanding in mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Sierpinska, Anna

    1994-01-01

    The concept of understanding in mathematics with regard to mathematics education is considered in this volume, the main problem for mathematics teachers being how to facilitate their students'' understanding of the mathematics being taught.

  11. Understand Your Medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Lookup > Asthma > Living with Asthma > Managing Asthma Understand Your Asthma Medication There are a variety of ... healthcare team. They can help make sure you understand the correct way to take the medicines, or ...

  12. Understanding Puberty (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Understanding Puberty KidsHealth / For Parents / Understanding Puberty What's in this ... your child through all the changes? Stages of Puberty Sure, most of us know the telltale signs ...

  13. Understanding Identity and Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger

    2013-01-01

    The article reviews the book "Understanding Identity and Organizations," by Kate Kenny, Andrea Whitle, and Hugh Wilmott.......The article reviews the book "Understanding Identity and Organizations," by Kate Kenny, Andrea Whitle, and Hugh Wilmott....

  14. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Understanding Cancer What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Understanding Cancer What Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview ...

  15. Understanding Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy eating for girls Understanding food labels Understanding food labels There is lots of info on food ... need to avoid because of food allergies. Other food label terms top In addition to the Nutrition ...

  16. Advances in understanding hypopituitarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieg, Mareike R.; Renner, Ulrich; Stalla, Günter K.; Kopczak, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The understanding of hypopituitarism has increased over the last three years. This review provides an overview of the most important recent findings. Most of the recent research in hypopituitarism has focused on genetics. New diagnostic techniques like next-generation sequencing have led to the description of different genetic mutations causative for congenital dysfunction of the pituitary gland while new molecular mechanisms underlying pituitary ontogenesis have also been described. Furthermore, hypopituitarism may occur because of an impairment of the distinctive vascularization of the pituitary gland, especially by disruption of the long vessel connection between the hypothalamus and the pituitary. Controversial findings have been published on post-traumatic hypopituitarism. Moreover, autoimmunity has been discussed in recent years as a possible reason for hypopituitarism. With the use of new drugs such as ipilimumab, hypopituitarism as a side effect of pharmaceuticals has come into focus. Besides new findings on the pathomechanism of hypopituitarism, there are new diagnostic tools in development, such as new growth hormone stimulants that are currently being tested in clinical trials. Moreover, cortisol measurement in scalp hair is a promising tool for monitoring cortisol levels over time. PMID:28299199

  17. Valuation of Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiberg, Merete

    An important aim for the teacher in Higher Education is that students, in order to learn, achieve understanding in terms of being able to handle knowledge in a certain way. In this paper focus will be on understanding as a phenomenon which is permeated with values of what good understanding might...... be. Understanding is to be discussed as a phenomenon which in its definition is relative to the paradigm of educational thinking in which it is embedded. Paradigms of valuation of understanding in higher education will be viewed from two perspectives: An anglosaxon curriculum studies tradition...

  18. Understanding quantum physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spillner, Vera

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents a bundle definition for 'scientific understanding' through which the empirically equivalent interpretations of quantum mechanics can be evaluated with respect to the understanding they generate. The definition of understanding is based on a sufficient and necessary criterion, as well as a bundle of conditions - where a theory can be called most understandable whenever it fulfills the highest number of bundle criteria. Thereby the definition of understanding is based on the one hand on the objective number of criteria a theory fulfills, as well as, on the other hand, on the individual's preference of bundle criteria. Applying the definition onto three interpretations of quantum mechanics, the interpretation of David Bohm appears as most understandable, followed by the interpretation of Tim Maudlin and the Kopenhagen interpretation. These three interpretations are discussed in length in my thesis. (orig.)

  19. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... our information on Coping With Cancer helpful. Understanding Statistics About Survival Doctors estimate prognosis by using statistics that researchers have collected over many years about ...

  20. Understanding "people" people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Timothy; Waldroop, James

    2004-06-01

    Nearly all areas of business--not just sales and human resources--call for interpersonal savvy. Relational know-how comprises a greater variety of aptitudes than many executives think. Some people can "talk a dog off a meat truck," as the saying goes. Others are great at resolving interpersonal conflicts. Some have a knack for translating high-level concepts for the masses. And others thrive when they're managing a team. Since people do their best work when it most closely matches their interests, the authors contend, managers can increase productivity by taking into account employees' relational interests and skills when making personnel choices and project assignments. After analyzing psychological tests of more than 7,000 business professionals, the authors have identified four dimensions of relational work: influence, interpersonal facilitation, relational creativity, and team leadership. This article explains each one and offers practical advice to managers--how to build a well-balanced team, for instance, and how to gauge the relational skills of potential employees during interviews. To determine whether a job candidate excels in, say, relational creativity, ask her to describe her favorite advertising campaign, slogan, or image and tell you why she finds it to be so effective. Understanding these four dimensions will help you get optimal performance from your employees, appropriately reward their work, and assist them in setting career goals. It will also help you make better choices when it comes to your own career development. To get started, try the authors' free online assessment tool, which will measure both your orientation toward relational work in general and your interest level in each of its four dimensions.

  1. Blood Test: Testosterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Test: Estradiol Precocious Puberty Understanding Puberty Endocrine System Male Reproductive System Getting a Blood Test (Video) All About Puberty Blood Test (Video) Male Reproductive System View more About Us Contact Us Partners Editorial ...

  2. From understanding to participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa

    2013-01-01

    in which entities (for example, the world, culture, society, organization and identities) emerge through entangled, layered practices in concrete circumstances. Understanding is not treated as a philosophical puzzle or as a purely linguistic phenomenon. Rather, it is conceptualized as an embodied...... a residential home where mutual understanding is an everyday challenge, namely the Danish Acquired Brain Injury Centre North....

  3. Understanding Business Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-05

    analytics have been used in organizations for a variety of reasons for quite some time; ranging from the simple (generating and understanding business analytics...process. understanding business analytics 3 How well these two components are orchestrated will determine the level of success an organization has in

  4. Conceptions of Musical Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, Susan; Papageorgi, Ioulia

    2016-01-01

    Music can be understood in many ways. This has important implications for music education. The research reported here explored how groups of people conceptualise musical understanding and what they believe supports its acquisition. In this study 463 participants completed two statements: "Musical understanding is" and "You learn to…

  5. Approaches to understand culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Rauner, Felix

    1996-01-01

    Different approaches to understand the concept ofculture are presented and evaluated. The author'sconcept of culture is defined. Different aspectsof the concept are discussed.......Different approaches to understand the concept ofculture are presented and evaluated. The author'sconcept of culture is defined. Different aspectsof the concept are discussed....

  6. Understanding Menstrual Migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Anne H

    2018-04-01

    Menstrual-related migraine is very prevalent, very disabling, yet very easy to manage given a good understanding of its cause. This article is intended to help with that understanding and to enable headache specialists to prescribe or create effective hormonal preventives of menstrual-related migraine. © 2018 American Headache Society.

  7. Understanding the visual resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd L. Newby

    1971-01-01

    Understanding our visual resources involves a complex interweaving of motivation and cognitive recesses; but, more important, it requires that we understand and can identify those characteristics of a landscape that influence the image formation process. From research conducted in Florida, three major variables were identified that appear to have significant effect...

  8. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Questions to Ask about Your Diagnosis Research Understanding Cancer Prognosis Oncologist Anthony L. Back, M.D., a ... for provider care teams (PDF-210KB). Understanding Your Cancer Prognosis Video View this video on YouTube. Three ...

  9. Natural language understanding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, S

    1982-04-01

    Language understanding is essential for intelligent information processing. Processing of language itself involves configuration element analysis, syntactic analysis (parsing), and semantic analysis. They are not carried out in isolation. These are described for the Japanese language and their usage in understanding-systems is examined. 30 references.

  10. Understanding community traits - understanding public concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wlodarczyk, T.

    2003-01-01

    No two communities are alike. Therefore, one should not expect that public concerns and socio-economic effects of a proposed undertaking would be the same everywhere. Public concerns and the potential for social and economic effects of nuclear waste management facilities in one community will be different from those in another because communities differ in their fundamental sociological and economic traits. Research and experience with various types of nuclear and hazardous waste management facilities, generating stations and other energy developments across Canada and the United States indicate that an analysis of only a few key community traits can yield a more thorough understanding of the ways in which a community might perceive and respond to a project, the kinds of concerns that might dominate the public agenda, and the types of socio-economic effects that will be of primary concern. (author)

  11. Thermometers: Understand the Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the options Thermometers come in a variety of styles. Understand the different types of thermometers and how ... MA. Fever in infants and children: Pathophysiology and management. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed July 23, ...

  12. Understanding cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000759.htm Understanding cardiovascular disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... lead to heart attack or stroke. Types of Cardiovascular Disease Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common ...

  13. Understanding Blood Pressure Readings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Understanding Blood Pressure Readings Updated:Jun 1,2018 What do your blood ... and Live Our Interactive Cardiovascular Library has detailed animations and illustrations to help you learn about conditions, ...

  14. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Prognosis Questions to Ask about Your Diagnosis Research Understanding Cancer Prognosis Oncologist Anthony L. Back, M.D., a national expert on doctor-patient communications, talks with one of his patients about what ...

  15. Understanding the New Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Louis R.

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that while the Nasdaq bubble did burst, the new economy is real and that failure to understand the rules of the digital economy can lead to substandard investment portfolio performance. Offers guidelines for higher education institutional investors. (EV)

  16. Understanding Vector Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curjel, C. R.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are activities that help students understand the idea of a vector field. Included are definitions, flow lines, tangential and normal components along curves, flux and work, field conservation, and differential equations. (KR)

  17. Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Disorders » Patient & Caregiver Education Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep Anatomy of Sleep Sleep Stages ... t form or maintain the pathways in your brain that let you learn and create new memories, ...

  18. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Costs & Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Understanding Cancer ... Care Finding Health Care Services Managing Costs and Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types ...

  19. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Costs & Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Understanding ... Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Managing Costs and Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources ...

  20. Understanding Your Cancer Prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Your Cancer Prognosis is the main video in the NCI Prognosis Video Series, which offers the perspectives of three cancer patients and their doctor, an oncologist who is also a national expert in doctor-patient communication.

  1. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... D., a national expert on doctor-patient communications, talks with one of his patients about what she' ... understand what prognosis means and also hard to talk about, even for doctors. Many Factors Can Affect ...

  2. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... disease will go for you is called prognosis. It can be hard to understand what prognosis means ... prognosis include: The type of cancer and where it is in your body The stage of the ...

  3. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to talk about, even for doctors. Many Factors Can Affect Your Prognosis Some of the factors that ... Understanding your cancer and knowing what to expect can help you and your loved ones make decisions. ...

  4. Understanding your cancer prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about: Treatment Palliative care Personal matters such as finances Knowing what to expect may make it easier ... treatment. www.cancer.net/navigating-cancer-care/cancer-basics/understanding-statistics-used-guide-prognosis-and-evaluate-treatment . ...

  5. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Understanding Cancer Prognosis Oncologist Anthony L. Back, M.D., a national expert on doctor-patient communications, talks with one of his patients about what she'd like to know of her prognosis. Credit: National ...

  6. Tinnitus: Understanding the Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Tinnitus Association Donate Become A Member Member Login Find A Provider Support Search form Search Menu Close Understanding The Facts Managing Your Tinnitus Research Toward A Cure About Us Initiatives News & ...

  7. Understanding Yugoslavia's Killing Fields

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swigert, James W

    1994-01-01

    Since Yugoslavia disintegrated in violence 3 years ago, observers have struggled to understand why the Yugoslav conflict has been so brutal and has involved such extensive violence against civilian populations...

  8. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Care Finding Health Care Services Costs & Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Understanding Cancer What Is ... Health Care Services Managing Costs and Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and ...

  9. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you have cancer, you and your loved ones face many unknowns. Understanding your cancer and knowing what ... make decisions. Some of the decisions you may face include: Which treatment is best for you If ...

  10. Understanding Teen Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Teen Dating Violence Fact Sheet 2014 Dating violence is a type of intimate partner violence. It occurs between two people in a close relationship. The nature of dating violence can be physical, emotional, or sexual. • Physical— This ...

  11. Understanding health insurance plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000879.htm Understanding health insurance plans To use the sharing features on this ... plan for you and your family. Types of Health Insurance Plans Depending on how you get your health ...

  12. Understanding Medical Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Medical Words Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table of Contents For ... Medicine that teaches you about many of the words related to your health care Do you have ...

  13. Health Insurance: Understanding Your Health Plan's Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to know what your insurance company is paying…Health Insurance: Understanding What It CoversRead Article >>Insurance & BillsHealth Insurance: Understanding What It CoversYour insurance policy lists a package of medical benefits such as tests, drugs, and treatment services. These ...

  14. Upper High School Students' Understanding of Electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saglam, Murat; Millar, Robin

    2006-01-01

    Although electromagnetism is an important component of upper secondary school physics syllabuses in many countries, there has been relatively little research on students' understanding of the topic. A written test consisting of 16 diagnostic questions was developed and used to survey the understanding of electromagnetism of upper secondary school…

  15. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Overview Research Cancer Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening Tests Research Diagnosis and Staging Symptoms Diagnosis Staging Prognosis ... Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening Tests Diagnosis & Staging Symptoms Diagnosis Staging Prognosis Treatment Types ...

  16. Understanding Sex for Sale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book Understanding Sex for Sale: Meanings and Moralities of Sexual Commerce is dedicated to the exploration of the ways in which sex prostitution, sex work or sex for sale are taken for granted by particularly looking at how the relation between sex and money is interpreted and enacted....... This interdisciplinary book aims to understand how prostitution, sex work or sex for sale are defined, delineated, contested and understood in different places and times. The book offers contributions from a number of scholars who, based on their on their own research, discuss on going theoretical issues and analytical...... challenges Some chapters focuses on how prostitution, sex work or sex for sale have been regulated by the authorities and what understandings this regulation builds on. Other chapters investigate the experiences of the sex workers and sex buyers asking how these actors adjust to or resist the categorisation...

  17. Understanding Organizational Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stea, Diego; Linder, Stefan; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2015-01-01

    The attention-based view (ABV) of the firm highlights the role of decision makers’ attention in firm behavior. The ABV vastly improves our understanding of decision makers’ focus of attention; how that focus is situated in an organization’s procedural and communication channels; and how the distr......The attention-based view (ABV) of the firm highlights the role of decision makers’ attention in firm behavior. The ABV vastly improves our understanding of decision makers’ focus of attention; how that focus is situated in an organization’s procedural and communication channels; and how...... the distribution of the focus of attention among decision makers participating in those procedural and communication channels affects their understanding of a situation, their motivation to act, and, ultimately, their behavior. Significant progress has been made in recent years in refining and extending the ABV...

  18. Understanding pastoral mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    2008-01-01

    Based on a case study from Sahelian Senegal, this paper analyses how various actors perceive the importance of pastoral mobility and presents issues of importance for understanding the use of mobility among Fulani of Ferlo. One knowledge system is a scientific one, the 'new rangeland paradigm...... territory, which they consider their place, but are unwilling to employ large-scale mobility themselves. Mobility is not of importance for their ethnic identity and some use paid herders to care for their livestock. By looking at both knowledge systems, we achieve a better understanding of pastoral mobility...

  19. Understanding jet noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabasov, S A

    2010-08-13

    Jets are one of the most fascinating topics in fluid mechanics. For aeronautics, turbulent jet-noise modelling is particularly challenging, not only because of the poor understanding of high Reynolds number turbulence, but also because of the extremely low acoustic efficiency of high-speed jets. Turbulent jet-noise models starting from the classical Lighthill acoustic analogy to state-of-the art models were considered. No attempt was made to present any complete overview of jet-noise theories. Instead, the aim was to emphasize the importance of sound generation and mean-flow propagation effects, as well as their interference, for the understanding and prediction of jet noise.

  20. Understanding Creativity Methods in Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biskjaer, Michael Mose; Dalsgaard, Peter; Halskov, Kim

    2017-01-01

    This paper contributes an analytical framework to improve understanding of the composition of recognized creativity methods used in design. Based on an extensive literature review, our framework synthesizes key concepts from design and particularly creativity research, and is further supported...... by significant experience with creativity methods in design. We propose that nine concepts are relevant for analyzing creativity methods in design: process structure, materials, tools, combination, metaphor, analogy, framing, divergence, and convergence. To test their relevance as components of an analytical...... are composed, how and why they work, and how they potentially may be tweaked or refined for enhanced deployment in design....

  1. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Research Cancer Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening Tests Research Diagnosis and Staging Symptoms Diagnosis Staging Prognosis Questions ...

  2. Historical hydronuclear testing: Characterization and remediation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaulis, L.; Wilson, G.; Jacobson, R.

    1997-09-01

    This report examines the most current literature and information available on characterization and remediation technologies that could be used on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) historical hydronuclear test areas. Historical hydronuclear tests use high explosives and a small amount of plutonium. The explosion scatters plutonium within a contained subsurface environment. There is currently a need to characterize these test areas to determine the spatial extent of plutonium in the subsurface and whether geohydrologic processes are transporting the plutonium away from the event site. Three technologies were identified to assist in the characterization of the sites. These technologies are the Pipe Explorer trademark, cone penetrometer, and drilling. If the characterization results indicate that remediation is needed, three remediation technologies were identified that should be appropriate, namely: capping or sealing the surface, in situ grouting, and in situ vitrification. Capping the surface would prevent vertical infiltration of water into the soil column, but would not restrict lateral movement of vadose zone water. Both the in situ grouting and vitrification techniques would attempt to immobilize the radioactive contaminants to restrict or prevent leaching of the radioactive contaminants into the groundwater. In situ grouting uses penetrometers or boreholes to inject the soil below the contaminant zone with low permeability grout. In situ vitrification melts the soil containing contaminants into a solid block. This technique would provide a significantly longer contaminant immobilization, but some research and development would be required to re-engineer existing systems for use at deep soil depths. Currently, equipment can only handle shallow depth vitrification. After existing documentation on the historical hydronuclear tests have been reviewed and the sites have been visited, more specific recommendations will be made

  3. Historical hydronuclear testing: Characterization and remediation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaulis, L.; Wilson, G.; Jacobson, R.

    1997-09-01

    This report examines the most current literature and information available on characterization and remediation technologies that could be used on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) historical hydronuclear test areas. Historical hydronuclear tests use high explosives and a small amount of plutonium. The explosion scatters plutonium within a contained subsurface environment. There is currently a need to characterize these test areas to determine the spatial extent of plutonium in the subsurface and whether geohydrologic processes are transporting the plutonium away from the event site. Three technologies were identified to assist in the characterization of the sites. These technologies are the Pipe Explorer{trademark}, cone penetrometer, and drilling. If the characterization results indicate that remediation is needed, three remediation technologies were identified that should be appropriate, namely: capping or sealing the surface, in situ grouting, and in situ vitrification. Capping the surface would prevent vertical infiltration of water into the soil column, but would not restrict lateral movement of vadose zone water. Both the in situ grouting and vitrification techniques would attempt to immobilize the radioactive contaminants to restrict or prevent leaching of the radioactive contaminants into the groundwater. In situ grouting uses penetrometers or boreholes to inject the soil below the contaminant zone with low permeability grout. In situ vitrification melts the soil containing contaminants into a solid block. This technique would provide a significantly longer contaminant immobilization, but some research and development would be required to re-engineer existing systems for use at deep soil depths. Currently, equipment can only handle shallow depth vitrification. After existing documentation on the historical hydronuclear tests have been reviewed and the sites have been visited, more specific recommendations will be made.

  4. Understanding Contemporary Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Thomas H.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the issue of terrorism as it exists today and examines progress that has been made toward understanding its dimensions. Suggests how this subject can be explored in the classroom. Dispels misconceptions about terrorism by defining the term, and examines some causes of terrorism and strategies employed by terrorists. (KO)

  5. Understanding the structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak

    1994-01-01

    Urban forests are complex ecosystems created by the interaction of anthropogenic and natural processes. One key to better management of these systems is to understand urban forest structure and its relationship to forest functions. Through sampling and inventories, urban foresters often obtain structural information (e.g., numbers, location, size, and condition) on...

  6. Understanding land administration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems. Readers may recall the first part of the paper in October issue of Coordinates. Here is the concluding part that focuses on the changing...

  7. Understanding modern transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, A.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/172436729

    2009-01-01

    Proponents and opponents fiercely debate whether computer-mediated transparency has a positive effect on trust in the public sector. This article enhances our understanding of transparency by presenting three perspectives: a premodern, modern and post-modern perspective, and analyzing the basic

  8. Understanding Your Water Bill

    Science.gov (United States)

    An easy to way to understand individual water use is to look at your water bill—not just the amount due, but how much water you used. Pull out your water bill and follow our steps to learn more about it.

  9. Interviewing to Understand Strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, Michael R.

    2018-01-01

    Interviewing clients about their strengths is an important part of developing a complete understanding of their lives and has several advantages over simply focusing on problems and pathology. Prerequisites for skillfully interviewing for strengths include the communication skills that emerge from a stance of not knowing, developing a vocabulary…

  10. Understanding Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

  11. Understanding Inclusion in Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamas, Christoforos

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a framework for understanding inclusion in Cyprus. The evidence base is the result of a six-month qualitative research study in five Cypriot mainstream primary schools. Despite the rhetoric in favour of inclusion, it seems that the Cypriot educational system is still highly segregating in its philosophy and does not fully…

  12. Understanding Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This curriculum module is designed for students who are taking high school chemistry. Students should already have some experience with the following: (1) Understanding and reading the pH scale; (2) Knowledge of the carbon cycle; (3) Using scientific notation to express large and small values; and (4) Reading chemical equations. This curriculum…

  13. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español 1-800-4-CANCER Live Chat Publications Dictionary Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors ... Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Costs & Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Understanding Cancer ...

  14. Measuring Spreadsheet Formula Understandability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, F.F.J.; Pinzger, M.; Van Deursen, A.

    2012-01-01

    Spreadsheets are widely used in industry, because they are flexible and easy to use. Often they are used for business-critical applications. It is however difficult for spreadsheet users to correctly assess the quality of spreadsheets, especially with respect to the understandability.

  15. Understanding Dyscalculia for Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Sheila Rao

    2004-01-01

    Dyscalculia, a poor understanding of the number concept and the number system, is a learning problem affecting many individuals. However, less is known about this disability than about the reading disability, dyslexia, because society accepts learning problems in mathematics as quite normal. This article provides a summary of the research on…

  16. Understanding your capital options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Christopher T

    2012-05-01

    When planning capital expenditures, hospitals and health systems should understand the following financing considerations: Traditional fixed-rate tax-exempt bonds; Variable-rate financing alternatives; Basel III Accord requirements; Direct tax-exempt bank loans; Total return swaps Taxable financings; Interest-rate swaps and collateral requirements

  17. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Diagnosis Research Understanding Cancer Prognosis Oncologist Anthony L. Back, M.D., a national expert on doctor- ... Centered Approach View this video on YouTube. Anthony L. Back, M.D., coaches other oncologists about how ...

  18. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a link to this page included, e.g., “Understanding Cancer Prognosis was originally published by the National Cancer Institute.” Please note that blog posts that are written by individuals from outside the government may be owned by the writer, and graphics ...

  19. Phun Week: Understanding Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limson, Mel; Matyas, Marsha Lakes

    2009-01-01

    Topics such as sports, exercise, health, and nutrition can make the science of physiology relevant and engaging for students. In addition, many lessons on these topics, such as those on the cardiovascular, respiratory, and digestive systems, align with national and state life science education standards. Physiology Understanding Week (PhUn…

  20. Understanding and motivating health care employees: integrating Maslow's hierarchy of needs, training and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Suzanne G; Dundis, Stephen P

    2003-09-01

    This paper applies Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Model to the challenges of understanding and motivating employees in a rapidly changing health care industry. The perspective that Maslow's Model brings is an essential element that should be considered as the health care arena is faced with reorganization, re-engineering, mergers, acquisitions, increases in learning demands, and the escalating role of technology in training. This paper offers a new perspective related to how Maslow's Model, as used in business/organizational settings, can be directly related to current workforce concerns: the need for security and freedom from stress, social belongingness, self-esteem, self-actualization, altered work/social environments, and new opportunities for learning and self-definition. Changes in health care will continue at an accelerated pace and with these changes will come the need for more and more training. The use of technology in training has heightened access, faster distribution, innovation and increased collaboration. However, with this technology come attendant challenges including keeping up with the technology, the increased pace of training, depersonalization, and fear of the unknown. The Maslow model provides a means for understanding these challenges in terms of universal individual needs. How does one motivate employees in the face of increased demands, particularly when they are being asked to meet these demands with fewer resources? The answer is, in large part, to make the employee feel secure, needed, and appreciated. This is not at all easy, but if leaders take into consideration the needs of the individual, the new technology that provides challenges and opportunities for meeting those needs, and provides the training to meet both sets of needs, enhanced employee motivation and commitment is possible.

  1. Understanding Popper's experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Tabish

    2005-06-01

    An experiment proposed by Karl Popper is considered by many to be a crucial test of quantum mechanics. Although many loopholes in the original proposal have been pointed out, they are not crucial to the test. We use only the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics to point out what is fundamentally wrong with the proposal, and demonstrate that Popper's basic premise was faulty.

  2. Evaluation of Students' Conceptual Understanding of Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Irene Poh-Ai; Treagust, David; Kyeleve, Iorhemen J.; Oh, Peck-Yoke

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a two-tier diagnostic test for understanding malaria was developed and administered to 314 Bruneian students in Year 12 and in a nursing diploma course. The validity, reliability, difficulty level, discriminant indices, and reading ability of the test were examined and found to be acceptable in terms of measuring students'…

  3. Toddler test or procedure preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a test or procedure: Explain the procedure in language your child understands, using plain words. Avoid abstract terms. Make sure your child understands the exact body part involved in the test, and that the ...

  4. Resonant Vibrations Resulting from the Re-Engineering of a Constant-Speed 2-Bladed Turbine to a Variable-Speed 3-Bladed Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, P.; Wright, A. D.; Finersh, L. J.

    2010-12-01

    The CART3 (Controls Advanced Research Turbine, 3-bladed) at the National Wind Technology Center has recently been converted from a 2-bladed constant speed machine to a 3-bladed variable speed machine designed specically for controls research. The purpose of this conversion was to develop an advanced controls field-testing platform which has the more typical 3-bladed configuration. A result of this conversion was the emergence of several resonant vibrations, some of which initially prevented operation of the turbine until they could be explained and resolved. In this paper, the investigations into these vibrations are presented as 'lessons-learned'. Additionally, a frequency-domain technique called waterfall plotting is discussed and its usefulness in this research is illustrated.

  5. Understanding China's Transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xing

    The objective of this paper is to offer a framework of understanding the dialectical nexus between China's internal evolutions and the external influences with a focus on the century-long "challenge-response" dynamism. That is to explore how external factors helped shaping China's internal...... transformations, i.e. how generations of Chinese have been struggling in responding to the external challenges and attempting to sinicize external political ideas in order to change China from within. Likewise, it is equally important to understand how China's inner transformation contributed to reshaping...... the world. Each time, be it China's dominance or decline, the capitalist world system has to adjust and readjust itself to the opportunities and constraints brought about by the "China factors"....

  6. Understanding Games as Played

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leino, Olli Tapio

    2009-01-01

    Researchers interested in player’s experience would assumedly, across disciplines, agree that the goal behind enquiries into player’s experience is to understand the how games’ features end up affecting the player’s experience. Much of the contemporary interdisciplinary research into player......’s experience leans toward the empirical-scientific, in the forms (neuro)psychology, sociology and cognitive science, to name a few. In such approaches, for example demonstrating correlation between physiological symptoms and an in-game event may amount to ‘understanding’. However, the experience of computer...... game play is a viable topic also for computer game studies within the general tradition of humanities. In such context, the idea of ‘understanding an experience’ invites an approach focusing on the experienced significance of events and objects within computer game play. This focus, in turn, suggests...

  7. Towards Better Understanding QBism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2018-01-01

    Recently I posted a paper entitled "External observer reflections on QBism". As any external observer, I was not able to reflect all features of QBism properly. The comments I received from one of QBism's creators, C. A. Fuchs, were very valuable to me in better understanding the views of QBists. Some of QBism's features are very delicate and extracting them from articles of QBists is not a simple task. Therefore, I hope that the second portion of my reflections on QBism (or, strictly speaking, my reflections on Fuchs reflections on my earlier reflections) might be interesting and useful for other experts in quantum foundations and quantum information theory (especially, taking into account my previous aggressively anti-QBism position). In the present paper I correct some of my earlier posted critical comments on QBism. At the same time, other critical comments gained new validation through my recent deeper understanding of QBists views on a number of problems.

  8. Intention Understanding in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boria, Sonia; Fabbri-Destro, Maddalena; Cattaneo, Luigi; Sparaci, Laura; Sinigaglia, Corrado; Santelli, Erica; Cossu, Giuseppe; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2009-01-01

    When we observe a motor act (e.g. grasping a cup) done by another individual, we extract, according to how the motor act is performed and its context, two types of information: the goal (grasping) and the intention underlying it (e.g. grasping for drinking). Here we examined whether children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) are able to understand these two aspects of motor acts. Two experiments were carried out. In the first, one group of high-functioning children with ASD and one of typically developing (TD) children were presented with pictures showing hand-object interactions and asked what the individual was doing and why. In half of the “why” trials the observed grip was congruent with the function of the object (“why-use” trials), in the other half it corresponded to the grip typically used to move that object (“why-place” trials). The results showed that children with ASD have no difficulties in reporting the goals of individual motor acts. In contrast they made several errors in the why task with all errors occurring in the “why-place” trials. In the second experiment the same two groups of children saw pictures showing a hand-grip congruent with the object use, but within a context suggesting either the use of the object or its placement into a container. Here children with ASD performed as TD children, correctly indicating the agent's intention. In conclusion, our data show that understanding others' intentions can occur in two ways: by relying on motor information derived from the hand-object interaction, and by using functional information derived from the object's standard use. Children with ASD have no deficit in the second type of understanding, while they have difficulties in understanding others' intentions when they have to rely exclusively on motor cues. PMID:19440332

  9. Understanding traditional African healing

    OpenAIRE

    MOKGOBI, M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional African healing has been in existence for many centuries yet many people still seem not to understand how it relates to God and religion/spirituality. Some people seem to believe that traditional healers worship the ancestors and not God. It is therefore the aim of this paper to clarify this relationship by discussing a chain of communication between the worshipers and the Almighty God. Other aspects of traditional healing namely types of traditional healers, training of tradition...

  10. Understanding nuclear issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, G [Department of Atomic Physics, Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest (Hungary)

    1999-09-01

    In our days technological progress for the benefit of society is slowed down by the fact that common citizens (opinion-forming media reporters, journalists, furthermore elected decision-makers) are underinformed about basic numerical facts concerning harms and benefits of high technology. Here a comparative risk study is presented about smoking, ozone hole, global warming, and ionizing radiation. This approach has turned out to be successful in educating the youth in Hungary; because school-going teenagers do understand numbers. (author)

  11. Understanding nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marx, G.

    1999-01-01

    In our days technological progress for the benefit of society is slowed down by the fact that common citizens (opinion-forming media reporters, journalists, furthermore elected decision-makers) are underinformed about basic numerical facts concerning harms and benefits of high technology. Here a comparative risk study is presented about smoking, ozone hole, global warming, and ionizing radiation. This approach has turned out to be successful in educating the youth in Hungary; because school-going teenagers do understand numbers. (author)

  12. Understanding Mediation Support

    OpenAIRE

    Lanz, David; Pring, Jamie; von Burg, Corinne; Zeller, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    Recent decades have witnessed increasing institutionalization of mediation support through the establishment of mediation support structures (MSS) within foreign ministries and secretariats of multilateral organizations. This study sheds light on this trend and aims to better understand the emergence, design and development of different MSS. This study analyzes six MSS, namely those established in the United Nations (UN), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the Eu...

  13. The Understanding of libertarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Staśkiewicz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This scientific article treats of libertarianism. This school of political thought is based on methodological individualism, methodological subjectivism, anti-empiricism, apriorism. Libertarian philosophers demand almost absolute freedom in every area of life and that is why they are at the opposite pole to all totalitarian ideologies. The greatest influence on the understanding of libertarianism had Carl Menger, Murray Rothbard and David Nolan.

  14. Intention understanding in autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Boria

    Full Text Available When we observe a motor act (e.g. grasping a cup done by another individual, we extract, according to how the motor act is performed and its context, two types of information: the goal (grasping and the intention underlying it (e.g. grasping for drinking. Here we examined whether children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD are able to understand these two aspects of motor acts. Two experiments were carried out. In the first, one group of high-functioning children with ASD and one of typically developing (TD children were presented with pictures showing hand-object interactions and asked what the individual was doing and why. In half of the "why" trials the observed grip was congruent with the function of the object ("why-use" trials, in the other half it corresponded to the grip typically used to move that object ("why-place" trials. The results showed that children with ASD have no difficulties in reporting the goals of individual motor acts. In contrast they made several errors in the why task with all errors occurring in the "why-place" trials. In the second experiment the same two groups of children saw pictures showing a hand-grip congruent with the object use, but within a context suggesting either the use of the object or its placement into a container. Here children with ASD performed as TD children, correctly indicating the agent's intention. In conclusion, our data show that understanding others' intentions can occur in two ways: by relying on motor information derived from the hand-object interaction, and by using functional information derived from the object's standard use. Children with ASD have no deficit in the second type of understanding, while they have difficulties in understanding others' intentions when they have to rely exclusively on motor cues.

  15. Advances in understanding hypopituitarism

    OpenAIRE

    Stieg, Mareike R.; Renner, Ulrich; Stalla, G?nter K.; Kopczak, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The understanding of hypopituitarism has increased over the last three years. This review provides an overview of the most important recent findings. Most of the recent research in hypopituitarism has focused on genetics. New diagnostic techniques like next-generation sequencing have led to the description of different genetic mutations causative for congenital dysfunction of the pituitary gland while new molecular mechanisms underlying pituitary ontogenesis have also been described. Furtherm...

  16. The Systematic Medical Appraisal, Referral and Treatment (SMART) Mental Health Project: Development and Testing of Electronic Decision Support System and Formative Research to Understand Perceptions about Mental Health in Rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulik, Pallab K; Tewari, Abha; Devarapalli, Siddhardha; Kallakuri, Sudha; Patel, Anushka

    2016-01-01

    Common mental disorders (CMD) such as depression, suicidal risk and emotional/medically unexplained complaints affect a large number of people in India, but few receive appropriate care. Key reasons for this include few trained mental health professionals and stigma associated with mental health. A potential approach to address poor access to care is by training village healthcare workers in providing basic mental health care, and harnessing India's vast mobile network to support such workers using mobile-based applications. We propose an intervention to implement such an approach that incorporates the use of mobile-based electronic decision support systems (EDSS) to provide mental health services for CMD, combined with a community-based anti-stigma campaign. This will be implemented and evaluated across 42 villages in Andhra Pradesh, a south Indian state. This paper discusses the development and testing of the EDSS, and the formative research that informed the anti-stigma campaign. The development of the EDSS used an iterative process that was validated against clinical diagnosis. A mixed methods approach tested the user acceptability of the EDSS. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews provided community-level perceptions about mental health. This study involved 3 villages and one primary health centre. The EDSS application was found to be acceptable, but some modifications were needed. The community lacked adequate knowledge about CMD and its treatment and there was stigma associated with mental illness. Faith and traditional healers were considered to be important mental health service providers. A number of barriers and facilitators were identified in implementing the intervention analysed in a framework using Andersen's behavioural model of health services use. The findings assisted with refining the intervention prior to large-scale implementation and evaluation.

  17. The Systematic Medical Appraisal, Referral and Treatment (SMART Mental Health Project: Development and Testing of Electronic Decision Support System and Formative Research to Understand Perceptions about Mental Health in Rural India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallab K Maulik

    Full Text Available Common mental disorders (CMD such as depression, suicidal risk and emotional/medically unexplained complaints affect a large number of people in India, but few receive appropriate care. Key reasons for this include few trained mental health professionals and stigma associated with mental health. A potential approach to address poor access to care is by training village healthcare workers in providing basic mental health care, and harnessing India's vast mobile network to support such workers using mobile-based applications. We propose an intervention to implement such an approach that incorporates the use of mobile-based electronic decision support systems (EDSS to provide mental health services for CMD, combined with a community-based anti-stigma campaign. This will be implemented and evaluated across 42 villages in Andhra Pradesh, a south Indian state. This paper discusses the development and testing of the EDSS, and the formative research that informed the anti-stigma campaign.The development of the EDSS used an iterative process that was validated against clinical diagnosis. A mixed methods approach tested the user acceptability of the EDSS. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews provided community-level perceptions about mental health. This study involved 3 villages and one primary health centre.The EDSS application was found to be acceptable, but some modifications were needed. The community lacked adequate knowledge about CMD and its treatment and there was stigma associated with mental illness. Faith and traditional healers were considered to be important mental health service providers.A number of barriers and facilitators were identified in implementing the intervention analysed in a framework using Andersen's behavioural model of health services use.The findings assisted with refining the intervention prior to large-scale implementation and evaluation.

  18. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... suggest that your cancer is likely to respond well to treatment. Or, he may tell you that ... will monitor you for many years and do tests to look for signs of cancer’s return. They ...

  19. Guide to Understanding Lymphedema

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ACTH CAF CMF FAC TAC TC TCH TH THP Radiation Therapy Whole Breast Radiation Partial Breast Radiation ... Basics Treatments and Your Bone Health Bone Health Tests Improving Bone Health Medicines To Protect Bones Diet, ...

  20. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that there are no signs of cancer at this time. Because of the chance that cancer can come back, your doctor will monitor you for many years and do tests to look for signs of ...

  1. Mathematics understanding and anxiety in collaborative teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, B. I.; Wahyu, N.

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to examine students’ mathematical understanding and anxiety using collaborative teaching. The sample consists of 51 students in the 7th-grade of MTs N Jeureula, one of the Islamic public junior high schools in Jeureula, Aceh, Indonesia. A test of mathematics understanding was administered to the students twice during the period of two months. The result suggests that there is a significant increase in mathematical understanding in the pre-test and post-test. We categorized the students into the high, intermediate, and low level of prior mathematics knowledge. In the high-level prior knowledge, there is no difference of mathematical understanding between the experiment and control group. Meanwhile, in the intermediate and low level of prior knowledge, there is a significant difference of mathematical understanding between the experiment and control group. The mathematics anxiety is at an intermediate level in the experiment class and at a high level in the control group. There is no interaction between the learning model and the students’ prior knowledge towards the mathematical understanding, but there are interactions towards the mathematics anxiety. It indicates that the collaborative teaching model and the students’ prior knowledge do not simultaneously impacts on the mathematics understanding but the mathematics anxiety.

  2. Comparing patient and healthcare worker experiences during a dengue outbreak in Singapore: understanding the patient journey and the introduction of a point-of-care test (POCT) toward better care delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qinghui; Hildon, Zoe J-L; Singh, Shweta; Jing, Jin; Thein, Tun Linn; Coker, Richard; Vrijhoef, Hubertus J M; Leo, Yee Sin

    2017-07-19

    In the aftermath of an upsurge in the number of dengue cases in 2013 and 2014, the SD BIOLINE Dengue Duo rapid diagnostic Point-of-Care Test (POCT) kit was introduced in Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore in June 2013. It is known that the success of POCT usage is contingent on its implementation within the health system. We evaluated health services delivery and the Dengue Duo rapid diagnostic test kit application in Singapore from healthcare workers' perspectives and patient experiences of dengue at surge times. Focus group discussions were conducted with dengue patients, from before and after the POCT implementation period. In-depth interviews with semi-structured components with healthcare workers were carried out. A patient centred process mapping technique was used for evaluation, which mapped the patient's journey and was mirrored from the healthcare worker's perspective. Patients and healthcare workers confirmed a wide range of symptoms in adults, making it challenging to determine diagnosis. There were multiple routes to help seeking, and no 'typical patient journey', with patients either presenting directly to the hospital emergency department, or being referred there by a primary care provider. Patients groups diagnosed before and after POCT implementation expressed some differences between speed of diagnoses and attitudes of doctors, yet shared negative feelings about waiting times and a lack of communication and poor information delivery. However, the POCT did not in its current implementation do much to help waiting times. Healthcare workers expressed that public perceptions of dengue in recent years was a major factor in changing patient management, and that the POCT kit was helpful in improving the speed and accuracy of diagnoses. Health service delivery for dengue patients in Singapore was overall perceived to be of an acceptable clinical standard, which was enhanced by the introduction of the POCT. However, improvements can be focused on Adapting

  3. Understanding Teen UX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitton, Daniel; Iversen, Ole Sejer; Bell, Beth

    2014-01-01

    UX is a widely explored topic within HCI and has a large practitioners' community. However, the users considered in research and practice, are most often adults -- since adults represent the largest technology market share. However teenagers represent a growing market of unique users, and more...... needs to be understood about this population, from a UX perspective. The theme of this workshop is Building a Bridge to the Future and the aim is to gather together academics and UX practitioners, interested in teen users specifically, in order to discuss experiences, understandings, insights...

  4. Understanding land administration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems - firstly the land management paradigm and its influence on the land administration framework, secondly the role that the cadastre plays...... in contributing to sustainable development, thirdly the changing nature of ownership and the role of land markets, and lastly a land management vision that promotes land administration in support of sustainable development and spatial enablement of society. We present here the first part of the paper. The second...

  5. Understanding signal integrity

    CERN Document Server

    Thierauf, Stephen C

    2010-01-01

    This unique book provides you with practical guidance on understanding and interpreting signal integrity (SI) performance to help you with your challenging circuit board design projects. You find high-level discussions of important SI concepts presented in a clear and easily accessible format, including question and answer sections and bulleted lists.This valuable resource features rules of thumb and simple equations to help you make estimates of critical signal integrity parameters without using circuit simulators of CAD (computer-aided design). The book is supported with over 120 illustratio

  6. Understanding the bubbles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    that are identified to exist between the Internet and housing market bubbles: uncertainty and sentiments. The iteration between uncertainty and sentiments leads to the emergence of the third commonality: residue. The residue is the difference between the actors’ overall sentiment about exaggerated future prospects...... all boils down to the role pricing plays vis-à-vis the emergence of a new venture and its perceived value. Being in the midst of the global economic crisis provides us with a unique opportunity to refine the proposed model, especially by understanding its temporal and contextual boundaries....

  7. Understanding DSGE models

    CERN Document Server

    Costa Junior, Celso Jose

    2016-01-01

    While the theoretical development of DSGE models is not overly difficult to understand, practical application remains somewhat complex. The literature on this subject has some significant obscure points. This book can be thought of, firstly, as a tool to overcome initial hurdles with this type of modeling. Secondly, by showcasing concrete applications, it aims to persuade incipient researchers to work with this methodology. In principle, this is not a book on macroeconomics in itself, but on tools used in the construction of this sort of models. It strives to present this technique in a detail

  8. Understanding Computational Bayesian Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Bolstad, William M

    2011-01-01

    A hands-on introduction to computational statistics from a Bayesian point of view Providing a solid grounding in statistics while uniquely covering the topics from a Bayesian perspective, Understanding Computational Bayesian Statistics successfully guides readers through this new, cutting-edge approach. With its hands-on treatment of the topic, the book shows how samples can be drawn from the posterior distribution when the formula giving its shape is all that is known, and how Bayesian inferences can be based on these samples from the posterior. These ideas are illustrated on common statistic

  9. Understanding Infusion Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Jeff E

    2018-04-01

    Infusion systems are complicated electromechanical systems that are used to deliver anesthetic drugs with moderate precision. Four types of systems are described-gravity feed, in-line piston, peristaltic, and syringe. These systems are subject to a number of failure modes-occlusion, disconnection, siphoning, infiltration, and air bubbles. The relative advantages of the various systems and some of the monitoring capabilities are discussed. A brief example of the use of an infusion system during anesthetic induction is presented. With understanding of the functioning of these systems, users may develop greater comfort.

  10. Understanding disruptions in tokamaksa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, Leonid E.; Galkin, Sergei A.; Gerasimov, Sergei N.; contributors, JET-EFDA

    2012-05-01

    This paper describes progress achieved since 2007 in understanding disruptions in tokamaks, when the effect of plasma current sharing with the wall was introduced into theory. As a result, the toroidal asymmetry of the plasma current measurements during vertical disruption event (VDE) on the Joint European Torus was explained. A new kind of plasma equilibria and mode coupling was introduced into theory, which can explain the duration of the external kink 1/1 mode during VDE. The paper presents first results of numerical simulations using a free boundary plasma model, relevant to disruptions.

  11. Understanding Our Only Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Marra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In an imaginary dialogue between a professor and a layman about the future of cosmology, the said professor relates the paradoxical story of scientist Zee Prime, a bold thinker of a future civilization, stuck in a lonely galaxy, forever unaware of the larger universe. Zee Prime comes to acknowledge his position and shows how important it is to question standard models and status quo, as only the most imaginative ideas give us the chance to understand what he calls “our only universe” — the special place and time in which we live.

  12. Understanding MARC: Another Look

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Chang

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available 無MARC format has been widely used and discussed in our profession. However, there appear to have a wide spread misunderstanding of its real structure and attributes. This article discuss the needs for us to understand it a little more. Also, it presents the general misconceptions about MARC, the compatibility of MARC, the structure of MARC, standardization and - data communication, and some major issues related to MARC format. In this library automation age, MARC is a key element in library services, and it deserves us to take another look.

  13. Understanding Ebola Virus Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Judson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fill these voids in our knowledge about the transmission of Ebola virus.

  14. Students' understandings of electrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady-Morris, Kathryn

    Electrochemistry is considered by students to be a difficult topic in chemistry. This research was a mixed methods study guided by the research question: At the end of a unit of study, what are students' understandings of electrochemistry? The framework of analysis used for the qualitative and quantitative data collected in this study was comprised of three categories: types of knowledge used in problem solving, levels of representation of knowledge in chemistry (macroscopic, symbolic, and particulate), and alternative conceptions. Although individually each of the three categories has been reported in previous studies, the contribution of this study is the inter-relationships among them. Semi-structured, task-based interviews were conducted while students were setting up and operating electrochemical cells in the laboratory, and a two-tiered, multiple-choice diagnostic instrument was designed to identify alternative conceptions that students held at the end of the unit. For familiar problems, those involving routine voltaic cells, students used a working-forwards problem-solving strategy, two or three levels of representation of knowledge during explanations, scored higher on both procedural and conceptual knowledge questions in the diagnostic instrument, and held fewer alternative conceptions related to the operation of these cells. For less familiar problems, those involving non-routine voltaic cells and electrolytic cells, students approached problem-solving with procedural knowledge, used only one level of representation of knowledge when explaining the operation of these cells, scored higher on procedural knowledge than conceptual knowledge questions in the diagnostic instrument, and held a greater number of alternative conceptions. Decision routines that involved memorized formulas and procedures were used to solve both quantitative and qualitative problems and the main source of alternative conceptions in this study was the overgeneralization of theory

  15. 'I wanted to safeguard the baby': a qualitative study to understand the experiences of Option B+ for pregnant women and the potential implications for 'test-and-treat' in four sub-Saharan African settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Estelle; Renju, Jenny; Wamoyi, Joyce; Bukenya, Dominic; Ddaaki, William; Church, Kathryn; Zaba, Basia; Wringe, Alison

    2017-07-01

    To explore what influences on engagement with Option B+ in four sub-Saharan African settings. In-depth interviews were conducted in 2015, with 22 HIV-positive women who had been pregnant since Option B+ was available, and 15 healthcare workers (HCWs) involved in HIV service delivery. Participants were purposely selected from four health and demographic surveillance sites in Malawi, Tanzania and Uganda. A thematic content analysis was conducted to investigate what influenced engagement with Option B+. Feeling 'ready' was key to pregnant women accepting antiretroviral treatment (ART) on the same day as diagnosis at antenatal clinic; this was influenced by previous knowledge of HIV-positive status, interactions with HCWs and relationship with their partners. The desire to protect their unborn infant was the main issue that motivated women to initiate treatment, temporarily over-riding barriers to starting ART. Many HCWs recognised that pressurising women into starting ART may lead them to stop treatment following delivery. However, their own responsibility to protect the infant sometimes drove HCWs to use strong persuasive techniques to initiate pregnant women onto ART as early as possible, occasionally causing women to disengage. Protecting the baby superseded feelings of unpreparedness for lifelong ART and may explain poor retention observed in Option B+ programmes. Women may benefit from more time to accept their status, and counselling on the long-term value of ART beyond the pregnancy and breastfeeding period. Strategies to promote readiness for same-day initiation of lifelong treatment are urgently needed, and may provide important lessons for universal test-and-treat implementation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Student Teachers' Levels of Understanding and Model of Understanding about Newton's Laws of Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saglam-Arslan, Aysegul; Devecioglu, Yasemin

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the level of student teachers' understandings of Newton's laws of motion and relating these levels to identify student teachers' models of understanding. An achievement test composed of two parts comprising 12 open ended questions was constructed and given to 45 pre-service classroom teachers. The first part…

  17. Understanding postoperative fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, E A; King, T C

    1978-07-01

    Performance characteristics of the central nervous, cardiovascular, respiratory and muscular systems in man postoperatively have received little investigative attention, despite the well known syndrome of postoperative fatigue. The impairmen in perception and psychomotor skills that has been shown to result from caloric restriction, bedrest, sedation and sleep deprivation suggests that a similar deficit may occur after surgical procedures. After a simple elective surgical procedure, maximal oxygen uptake decreases and the adaptability of heart rate to submaximal workloads is impaired. Similar deleterious effects on cardiorespiratory performance have been documented with starvation and bedrest; an understanding of cardiorespiratory performance postoperatively awaits further investigation. Maximal muscular force of contraction is also impaired by caloric restriction and bedrest, suggesting that similar effects may be seen in the postoperative state, although this has not been studied. A better understanding of the syndrome of postoperative fatigue could be achieved by a descriptive analysis of physiologic performance postoperatively. Such descriptive data could form the basis for objective evaluation of therapeutic measures intended to improve performance, such as nutritional supplementation and pharmacologic intervention. The observation that exercise with the patient in the supine position may decrease the impairment in maximal aerobic power otherwise expected in immobilized patients suggests that controlled exercise therapy may be of value in reducing physiologic impairment postoperatively.

  18. Understanding nurse practitioner autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Sandra A

    2015-02-01

    This Gadamerian hermeneutic study was undertaken to understand the meaning of autonomy as interpreted by nurse practitioners (NPs) through their lived experiences of everyday practice in primary health care. A purposive sample of nine NPs practicing in primary health care was used. Network sampling achieved a broad swath of primary care NPs and practice settings. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews. Because NP autonomy is concerned with gender and marginalization, Gilligan's feminist perspective was utilized during interpretive analysis. Having Genuine NP Practice was the major theme, reflecting the participants' overall meaning of their autonomy. Practicing alone with the patient provided the context within which participants shaped the meaning of Having Genuine NP Practice. Having Genuine NP Practice had four subthemes: relationships, self-reliance, self-empowerment, and defending the NP role. The understanding of Having Genuine NP Practice will enable NPs to articulate their autonomy clearly and better influence healthcare reform. Implications for advanced practice nursing education include integrating findings into classroom discussion to prompt self-reflection of what autonomy means and socialization to the NP role. ©2014 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  19. Understanding Lustre Internals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Feiyi [ORNL; Oral, H Sarp [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL; Drokin, Oleg [ORNL; Wang, Di [ORNL; Huang, He [ORNL

    2009-04-01

    Lustre was initiated and funded, almost a decade ago, by the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) Office of Science and National Nuclear Security Administration laboratories to address the need for an open source, highly-scalable, high-performance parallel filesystem on by then present and future supercomputing platforms. Throughout the last decade, it was deployed over numerous medium-to-large-scale supercomputing platforms and clusters, and it performed and met the expectations of the Lustre user community. As it stands at the time of writing this document, according to the Top500 list, 15 of the top 30 supercomputers in the world use Lustre filesystem. This report aims to present a streamlined overview on how Lustre works internally at reasonable details including relevant data structures, APIs, protocols and algorithms involved for Lustre version 1.6 source code base. More importantly, it tries to explain how various components interconnect with each other and function as a system. Portions of this report are based on discussions with Oak Ridge National Laboratory Lustre Center of Excellence team members and portions of it are based on our own understanding of how the code works. We, as the authors team bare all responsibilities for all errors and omissions in this document. We can only hope it helps current and future Lustre users and Lustre code developers as much as it helped us understanding the Lustre source code and its internal workings.

  20. Towards better process understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matero, Sanni Elina; van der Berg, Franciscus Winfried J; Poutiainen, Sami

    2013-01-01

    these techniques, destructive end-product testing could be avoided. In this paper the most prominent multivariate data analysis measuring tools within tablet manufacturing and basic research on operations are reviewed.© 2013 Wiley-Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 102...

  1. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... there are no signs of cancer at this time. Because of the chance that cancer can come back, your doctor will monitor you for many years and do tests to look for signs of cancer’s return. They will also look for signs of late side effects from the cancer treatments you received. Video Series ...

  2. From understanding to participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents some methodological considerations around the topic of the AFinLA 2012 Autumn Symposium: Multimodal discourses of participation. The aim is to shed theoretical and analytical light on embodied participation in material settings. The research is placed in a relational perspective...... in which entities (for example, the world, culture, society, organization and identities) emerge through entangled, layered practices in concrete circumstances. Understanding is not treated as a philosophical puzzle or as a purely linguistic phenomenon. Rather, it is conceptualized as an embodied......, multimodal process in which language together with bodily senses (vision, hearing, touch, smell and taste) and a sense of place contribute to a phenomenon being recognized (as shared). Participation can result in inclusion or exclusion, a claim which is discussed with the help of a pilot study from...

  3. Understanding traditional African healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokgobi, M G

    2014-09-01

    Traditional African healing has been in existence for many centuries yet many people still seem not to understand how it relates to God and religion/spirituality. Some people seem to believe that traditional healers worship the ancestors and not God. It is therefore the aim of this paper to clarify this relationship by discussing a chain of communication between the worshipers and the Almighty God. Other aspects of traditional healing namely types of traditional healers, training of traditional healers as well as the role of traditional healers in their communities are discussed. In conclusion, the services of traditional healers go far beyond the uses of herbs for physical illnesses. Traditional healers serve many roles which include but not limited to custodians of the traditional African religion and customs, educators about culture, counselors, social workers and psychologists.

  4. Understanding Socio Technical Modularity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian Langhoff; Kudsk, Anders; Hvam, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Modularity has gained an increasing popularity as a central concept for exploring product structure, process structure, organization structure and supply chain structure. With the offset in system theory the predominant understanding of modularity however faces difficulties in explaining the social...... dimension of modularity like irrational behaviors, cultural differences, learning processes, social organization and institutional influences on modularity. The paper addresses this gab offering a reinterpretation of the modularity concept from a socio-technical perspective in general and Actor Network...... Theory in particular. By formulating modularity from an ANT perspective covering social, material and process aspects, the modularity of a socio-technical system can be understood as an entanglement of product, process, organizational and institutional modularity. The theoretical framework is illustrated...

  5. Understanding ADHD through entification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikka

    How do we perceive ourselves and what explanations are we drawing upon in order to understand ourselves as morally acting individuals? In this presentation, I focus on how we live with, accept, and work on parts of ourselves that we find less desirable or even pathological. Based on interviews wi...... of acknowledging that some actions are beyond control; and 2) a way of concretising problematic actions and parts of oneself in order to work on and subdue these traits and reactions....... as a part of the self, a kind of quirk, and on the other hand as separated from the self, a foreign agent. By making a parallel to phenomena as spirit possession, I discuss how the entification process can be understood as 1) a distancing to what is perceived as amoral actions and a liberating process...

  6. Understanding renewable energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaschning, Volker

    2005-01-15

    Beginning with an overview of renewable energy sources including biomass, hydroelectricity, geothermal, tidal, wind and solar power, this book explores the fundamentals of different renewable energy systems. The main focus is on technologies with high development potential such as solar thermal systems, photovoltaics and wind power. This text not only describes technological aspects, but also deals consciously with problems of the energy industry. In this way, the topics are treated in a holistic manner, bringing together maths, engineering, climate studies and economics, and enabling readers to gain a broad understanding of renewable energy technologies and their potential. The book also contains a free CD-ROM resource, which includes a variety of specialist simulation software and detailed figures from the book. (Author)

  7. Understanding climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellous, J.L.; Gautier, C.; Andre, J.C.; Balstad, R.; Boucher, O.; Brasseur, G.; Chahine, M.T.; Chanin, M.L.; Ciais, P.; Corell, W.; Duplessy, J.C.; Hourcade, J.C.; Jouzel, J.; Kaufman, Y.J.; Laval, K.; Le Treut, H.; Minster, J.F.; Moore, B. III; Morel, P.; Rasool, S.I.; Remy, F.; Smith, R.C.; Somerville, R.C.J.; Wood, E.F.; Wood, H.; Wunsch, C.

    2007-01-01

    Climatic change is gaining ground and with no doubt is stimulated by human activities. It is therefore urgent to better understand its nature, importance and potential impacts. The chapters of this book have been written by US and French experts of the global warming question. After a description of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, GIEC in French) consensus, they present the past and present researches on each of the main component of the climate system, on the question of climatic change impacts and on the possible answers. The conclusion summarizes the results of each chapter. Content: presentation of the IPCC; greenhouse effect, radiation balance and clouds; atmospheric aerosols and climatic change; global water cycle and climate; influence of climatic change on the continental hydrologic cycle; ocean and climate; ice and climate; global carbon cycle; about some impacts of climatic change on Europe and the Atlantic Ocean; interaction between atmospheric chemistry and climate; climate and society, the human dimension. (J.S.)

  8. Understanding representations in design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne

    1998-01-01

    Representing computer applications and their use is an important aspect of design. In various ways, designers need to externalize design proposals and present them to other designers, users, or managers. This article deals with understanding design representations and the work they do in design....... The article is based on a series of theoretical concepts coming out of studies of scientific and other work practices and on practical experiences from design of computer applications. The article presents alternatives to the ideas that design representations are mappings of present or future work situations...... and computer applications. It suggests that representations are primarily containers of ideas and that representation is situated at the same time as representations are crossing boundaries between various design and use activities. As such, representations should be carriers of their own contexts regarding...

  9. Understanding Unemployment Hysteresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels Framroze

    What explains the persistence of unemployment? The literature on hysteresis, which is based on unit root testing in autoregressive models, consists of a vast number of univariate studies, i.e. that analyze unemployment series in isolation, but few multivariate analyses that focus on the sources...... of hysteresis. As a result, this question remains largely unanswered. This paper presents a multivariate econometric framework for analyzing hysteresis, which allows one to test different hypotheses about non-stationarity of unemployment against one another. For example, whether this is due to a persistently...... to UK quarterly data on prices, wages, output, unemployment and crude oil prices, suggests that, for the period 1988 up to the onset of the …financial crisis, the non-stationarity of UK unemployment cannot be explained as a result of slow adjustment, including sluggish wage formation as emphasized...

  10. Understanding core conductor fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, D E

    2011-01-01

    ESD Association standard test method ANSI/ESD STM2.1 - Garments (STM2.1), provides electrical resistance test procedures that are applicable for materials and garments that have surface conductive or surface dissipative properties. As has been reported in other papers over the past several years 1 fabrics are now used in many industries for electrostatic control purposes that do not have surface conductive properties and therefore cannot be evaluated using the procedures in STM2.1 2 . A study was conducted to compare surface conductive fabrics with samples of core conductor fibre based fabrics in order to determine differences and similarities with regards to various electrostatic properties. This work will be used to establish a new work item proposal within WG-2, Garments, in the ESD Association Standards Committee in the USA.

  11. Understanding Alliance Formation Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    military, transportation, and communications technologies, which caused every place in the world to be politically significant. Second, “divisions of power...test a similar claim about the association between distance and dyadic alliance formation. In their first model, in which they use the complete data...1885 to 1990] are positively related to dyadic trade levels, and that their non- defense-pact counterparts are not significantly related to trade in

  12. Tools for Understanding Identity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creese, Sadie; Gibson-Robinson, Thomas; Goldsmith, Michael; Hodges, Duncan; Kim, Dee DH; Love, Oriana J.; Nurse, Jason R.; Pike, William A.; Scholtz, Jean

    2013-12-28

    Identity attribution and enrichment is critical to many aspects of law-enforcement and intelligence gathering; this identity typically spans a number of domains in the natural-world such as biographic information (factual information – e.g. names, addresses), biometric information (e.g. fingerprints) and psychological information. In addition to these natural-world projections of identity, identity elements are projected in the cyber-world. Conversely, undesirable elements may use similar techniques to target individuals for spear-phishing attacks (or worse), and potential targets or their organizations may want to determine how to minimize the attack surface exposed. Our research has been exploring the construction of a mathematical model for identity that supports such holistic identities. The model captures the ways in which an identity is constructed through a combination of data elements (e.g. a username on a forum, an address, a telephone number). Some of these elements may allow new characteristics to be inferred, hence enriching the holistic view of the identity. An example use-case would be the inference of real names from usernames, the ‘path’ created by inferring new elements of identity is highlighted in the ‘critical information’ panel. Individual attribution exercises can be understood as paths through a number of elements. Intuitively the entire realizable ‘capability’ can be modeled as a directed graph, where the elements are nodes and the inferences are represented by links connecting one or more antecedents with a conclusion. The model can be operationalized with two levels of tool support described in this paper, the first is a working prototype, the second is expected to reach prototype by July 2013: Understanding the Model The tool allows a user to easily determine, given a particular set of inferences and attributes, which elements or inferences are of most value to an investigator (or an attacker). The tool is also able to take

  13. Understanding genetics in neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Marina Lipkin; Renault, Ilana Zalcberg

    2015-02-01

    Gene expression is a process of DNA sequence reading into protein synthesis. In cases of problems in DNA repair/apoptosis mechanisms, cells accumulate genomic abnormalities and pass them through generations of cells. The accumulation of mutations causes diseases and even tumors. In addition to cancer, many other neurologic conditions have been associated with genetic mutations. Some trials are testing patients with epigenetic treatments. Epigenetic therapy must be used with caution because epigenetic processes and changes happen constantly in normal cells, giving rise to drug off-target effects. Scientists are making progress in specifically targeting abnormal cells with minimal damage to normal ones. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Understanding Licensing Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabaleiro, Goretti; Moreira, Solon; Reichstein, Toke

    The potential for rent dissipation has been argued to be the main cause of firms? licensing out behavior being stifled.However, this aspect has been scarcely studied empirically. We draw on rent dissipation arguments, and hypothesize that firms suffering from the not-invented-here (NIH) syndrome......, firms in competitive product markets, and firms that have incurred substantial sunk cost are associated with lower rates of technology out-licensing. We also posit that sunk costs negatively moderate the relationship between competition in the licensor?s product market, and licensing rate. We test our...

  15. Understanding noninferiority trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seokyung Hahn

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Noninferiority trials test whether a new experimental treatment is not unacceptably less efficacious than an active control treatment already in use. With continuous improvements in health technologies, standard care, and clinical outcomes, the incremental benefits of newly developed treatments may be only marginal over existing treatments. Sometimes assigning patients to a placebo is unethical. In such circumstances, there has been increasing emphasis on the use of noninferiority trial designs. Noninferiority trials are more complex to design, conduct, and interpret than typical superiority trials. This paper reviews the concept of noninferiority trials and discusses some important issues related to them.

  16. Understanding Image Virality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-07

    Example non-viral images. Figure 1: Top: Images with high viral scores in our dataset depict internet “celebrity” memes ex. “Grumpy Cat”; Bottom: Images...of images that is most similar to ours is the concurrently introduced viral meme generator of Wang et al., that combines NLP and Computer Vision (low...doing any of our tasks. The test included questions about widely spread Reddit memes and jargon so that anyone familiar with Reddit can easily get a high

  17. Understanding Citizenship, Understanding Social Media? The effects of digital media on citizenship understanding and political participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohme, Jakob; Albæk, Erik

    Is there a connection between increased use of digital media and changing patterns of political participation? This study tests how use of online media for different purposes (social interaction, creative expression, online news use, social media news use) is related to three types of political...... participation. It examines whether mobilizing effects are partly indirect due to different understandings of citizenship (dutiful, optional, individual, collective) that may be fostered by digital media use. The study is based on a survey of a sample of the Danish population (n=1322), including data from two...... online survey waves and a smartphone-based media diary that documents respondents’ social media use. Results indicate support for a new pathway to participation, but the relationship depends on whether citizens are socialized in a digital media environment....

  18. Understanding Autism in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Ballerini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Detachment from external reality, distancing from others, closure into a sort of virtual hermitage, and prevalence of inner fantasies, are the descriptive aspects of autism. However, from an anthropological-phenomenological point of view, in schizophrenia, the autistic mode of life can arise from a person’s being confronted with a pathological crisis in the obviousness of the intersubjective world, essentially a crisis in the intersubjective foundation of human presence. The “condition of possibility” of the autistic way of being is the deficiency of the operation that phenomenology call empathetic-intuitive constitution of the Other, an Other which is the naturalness of evidence of being a subject like me. The theme of the Other, of intersubjectivity, has become so central in the psychopathological analysis of schizophrenic disorders because the modifications of interhuman encounter cannot be seen as the secondary consequences of symptoms but constitute the fundamental disorder of schizophrenic alienation. Revision of the concept of autism from the original definition, centered on the prevalence of inner fantasies, leads to the profound change with the vision of autism as “loss” and “void.” I call attention to possibility of phenomenological research to understand autistic world starting from this “void.”

  19. Towards understanding oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaura, Egija; ten Cate, Jacob M

    2015-01-01

    During the last century, dental research has focused on unraveling the mechanisms behind various oral pathologies, while oral health was typically described as the mere absence of oral diseases. The term 'oral microbial homeostasis' is used to describe the capacity of the oral ecosystem to maintain microbial community stability in health. However, the oral ecosystem itself is not stable: throughout life an individual undergoes multiple physiological changes while progressing through infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age. Recent discussions on the definition of general health have led to the proposal that health is the ability of the individual to adapt to physiological changes, a condition known as allostasis. In this paper the allostasis principle is applied to the oral ecosystem. The multidimensionality of the host factors contributing to allostasis in the oral cavity is illustrated with an example on changes occurring in puberty. The complex phenomenon of oral health and the processes that prevent the ecosystem from collapsing during allostatic changes in the entire body are far from being understood. As yet individual components (e.g. hard tissues, microbiome, saliva, host response) have been investigated, while only by consolidating these and assessing their multidimensional interactions should we be able to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the ecosystem, which in turn could serve to develop rational schemes to maintain health. Adapting such a 'system approach' comes with major practical challenges for the entire research field and will require vast resources and large-scale multidisciplinary collaborations. 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel

  20. Understanding Organizational Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith O. Owen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available To achieve their purposes, organizations must constantly learn, adapt, and grow, a process typically referred to as change. Research shows that only a relatively few change efforts achieve great success—most just get by while the majority fail to reach predefined performance goals and objectives. That the success of planned change is relatively rare led to the following questions: (a What facilitates or inhibits the change process? (b How do these facilitators and inhibitors evolve within an organization? and (c What are the implications of understanding this evolutionary process relative to achieving a more sustainable level of performance? This article addresses these questions and presents a holistic model for creating an open, fully transparent environment in which the many differences of potential relevance to a change are put in the open for analysis. The approach, the Full Dimensional Systems Model, assumes there are multiple, interrelated domains of influence that affect change and that these must each be appreciated and addressed simultaneously to achieve sustainable performance improvement.

  1. Understanding the supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aćimović Slobodan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain management represents new business philosophy and includes strategically positioned and much wider scope of activity in comparison with its "older brother" - management of logistics. Philosophy of the concept of supply chain is directed to more coordination of key business functions of every link in distribution chain in the process of organization of the flow of both goods and information, while logistic managing instruments are focused on internal optimum of flows of goods and information within one company. Applying the concept of integrated supply chain among several companies makes the importance of operative logistics activity even greater on the level of one company, thus advancing processes of optimum and coordination within and between different companies and confirms the importance of logistics performances for the company’s profitability. Besides the fact that the borders between companies are being deleted, this concept of supply chain in one distribution channel influences increasing of importance of functional, i.e. traditional business managing approaches but instead it points out the importance of process managing approaches. Although the author is aware that "there is nothing harder, more dangerous and with uncertain success, but to find a way for introducing some novelties (Machiavelli, it would be even his additional stimulation for trying to bring closer the concept and goals of supply chain implementation that are identified in key, relevant, modern, theoretical and consulting approaches in order to achieve better understanding of the subject and faster implementation of the concept of supply chain management by domestic companies.

  2. Understanding portable generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hills, A.; Hawkins, B. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada); Clarke, S. [Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2000-06-01

    This factsheet is intended to help consumers select a small portable generator for emergency electrical needs. Interest in standby generators has been heightened ever since the prolonged power outage in Eastern Ontario and Southwestern Quebec during the 1998 ice storm and the concern over Y2K related outages. Farmers, in particular, have been reassessing their need for emergency electrical power supply. This document presents some of the factors that should be considered when purchasing and operating a portable generator in the 3 to 12 kW size. It provides a detailed review of power quality and describes the use of tractor-driven power-take-off generators of 15 kW and larger. Several manufacturers make portable generators in many sizes with a whole range of features. This document includes a table depicting generator Feature/Benefit analysis to help consumers understand the differences between features and benefits. A second table provides a check list for generator feature/benefits. Specific details for the operations of various generators are available from manufacturers, distributors and electrical contractors. 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  3. Understanding autism in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballerini, Arnaldo

    2012-01-01

    Detachment from external reality, distancing from others, closure into a sort of virtual hermitage, and prevalence of inner fantasies, are the descriptive aspects of autism. However, from an anthropological-phenomenological point of view, in schizophrenia, the autistic mode of life can arise from a person's being confronted with a pathological crisis in the obviousness of the intersubjective world, essentially a crisis in the intersubjective foundation of human presence. The "condition of possibility" of the autistic way of being is the deficiency of the operation that phenomenology call empathetic-intuitive constitution of the Other, an Other which is the naturalness of evidence of being a subject like me. The theme of the Other, of intersubjectivity, has become so central in the psychopathological analysis of schizophrenic disorders because the modifications of interhuman encounter cannot be seen as the secondary consequences of symptoms but constitute the fundamental disorder of schizophrenic alienation. Revision of the concept of autism from the original definition, centered on the prevalence of inner fantasies, leads to the profound change with the vision of autism as "loss" and "void." I call attention to possibility of phenomenological research to understand autistic world starting from this "void."

  4. Re-engineering Nascom's network management architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Brian C.; Messent, David

    1994-01-01

    The development of Nascom systems for ground communications began in 1958 with Project Vanguard. The low-speed systems (rates less than 9.6 Kbs) were developed following existing standards; but, there were no comparable standards for high-speed systems. As a result, these systems were developed using custom protocols and custom hardware. Technology has made enormous strides since the ground support systems were implemented. Standards for computer equipment, software, and high-speed communications exist and the performance of current workstations exceeds that of the mainframes used in the development of the ground systems. Nascom is in the process of upgrading its ground support systems and providing additional services. The Message Switching System (MSS), Communications Address Processor (CAP), and Multiplexer/Demultiplexer (MDM) Automated Control System (MACS) are all examples of Nascom systems developed using standards such as, X-windows, Motif, and Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). Also, the Earth Observing System (EOS) Communications (Ecom) project is stressing standards as an integral part of its network. The move towards standards has produced a reduction in development, maintenance, and interoperability costs, while providing operational quality improvement. The Facility and Resource Manager (FARM) project has been established to integrate the Nascom networks and systems into a common network management architecture. The maximization of standards and implementation of computer automation in the architecture will lead to continued cost reductions and increased operational efficiency. The first step has been to derive overall Nascom requirements and identify the functionality common to all the current management systems. The identification of these common functions will enable the reuse of processes in the management architecture and promote increased use of automation throughout the Nascom network. The MSS, CAP, MACS, and Ecom projects have indicated the potential value of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) and standards through reduced cost and high quality. The FARM will allow the application of the lessons learned from these projects to all future Nascom systems.

  5. Reengineering observatory operations for the time domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Robert L.; Vestrand, W. T.; Hessman, Frederic V.

    2014-07-01

    Observatories are complex scientific and technical institutions serving diverse users and purposes. Their telescopes, instruments, software, and human resources engage in interwoven workflows over a broad range of timescales. These workflows have been tuned to be responsive to concepts of observatory operations that were applicable when various assets were commissioned, years or decades in the past. The astronomical community is entering an era of rapid change increasingly characterized by large time domain surveys, robotic telescopes and automated infrastructures, and - most significantly - of operating modes and scientific consortia that span our individual facilities, joining them into complex network entities. Observatories must adapt and numerous initiatives are in progress that focus on redesigning individual components out of the astronomical toolkit. New instrumentation is both more capable and more complex than ever, and even simple instruments may have powerful observation scripting capabilities. Remote and queue observing modes are now widespread. Data archives are becoming ubiquitous. Virtual observatory standards and protocols and astroinformatics data-mining techniques layered on these are areas of active development. Indeed, new large-aperture ground-based telescopes may be as expensive as space missions and have similarly formal project management processes and large data management requirements. This piecewise approach is not enough. Whatever challenges of funding or politics facing the national and international astronomical communities it will be more efficient - scientifically as well as in the usual figures of merit of cost, schedule, performance, and risks - to explicitly address the systems engineering of the astronomical community as a whole.

  6. Military Reengineering Between the World Wars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    exhaustive arguments Patton made on behalf of the horseman when he abandoned the Tank Corps to return to the cavalry, followed by his subsequent...untimely death , at the age of 44, before a Russian People’s Commissariat of Internal Affairs (NKVD) firing squad in 1937. Stalin could not tolerate the...that relied on close coordination, rigorous training, and innovative weap- onry. Advanced Base Operations would serve, after Ellis’s death from al

  7. Re-engineering bacteria for ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yomano, Lorraine P; York, Sean W; Zhou, Shengde; Shanmugam, Keelnatham; Ingram, Lonnie O

    2014-05-06

    The invention provides recombinant bacteria, which comprise a full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes. Expression of the full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes causes the recombinant bacteria to produce ethanol as the primary fermentation product when grown in mineral salts medium, without the addition of complex nutrients. Methods for producing the recombinant bacteria and methods for producing ethanol using the recombinant bacteria are also disclosed.

  8. Business Process Reengineering within the bicycle industry

    OpenAIRE

    Bartolomé Rodriguez, David

    2010-01-01

    Bicycle leader brands have shift production overseas to reduce the cost of labor and to implement new technologies at lower cost. Bike manufacturer both in Asia and Europe employ a traditional way of production  based on economics of scale that aims cost per unit reduction. Where MRP systems and forecasting are part of their day basis operations. This traditional way of operation offers room for innovation that must be seen as a business opportunity. Thus, alternative management approaches ca...

  9. Business Process Reengineering And Systemic Productivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... through questionnaire administration. The results significantly affirmed the efficacy of BPR and its generational relevance. Nigerian banks and other business organizations are expected to demonstrate utmost managerial objectivity and social responsibility to maximize the gains of BPR. JORIND Vol. 3 (2) 2005: pp. 13-18 ...

  10. Reengineering through natural structures: the fractal factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihn, Wilfried

    1995-08-01

    Many branches of European industry have had to recognize that their lead in the world market has been caught up with, particularly through Asian competition. In many cases a deficit of up to 30% in costs and productivity already exists. The reasons are rigid, Tayloristic company structures. The companies are not in a position to react flexibly to constantly changing environmental conditions. This article illustrates the methods of the `fractal company' which are necessary to solve the structure crisis. The fractal company distinguishes itself through its dynamics and its vitality, as well as its independent reaction to the changing circumstances. The developed methods, procedures, and framework conditions such as company structuring, human networking, hierarchy formation, and models for renumeration and working time are explained. They are based on practical examples from IPA's work with the automobile industry, their suppliers, and the engineering industry.

  11. Reengineering Biomedical Translational Research with Engineering Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Mary E; Nayak, Rahul Uday

    2015-08-01

    It is widely accepted that translational research practitioners need to acquire special skills and knowledge that will enable them to anticipate, analyze, and manage a range of ethical issues. While there is a small but growing literature that addresses the ethics of translational research, there is a dearth of scholarship regarding how this might apply to engineers. In this paper we examine engineers as key translators and argue that they are well positioned to ask transformative ethical questions. Asking engineers to both broaden and deepen their consideration of ethics in their work, however, requires a shift in the way ethics is often portrayed and perceived in science and engineering communities. Rather than interpreting ethics as a roadblock to the success of translational research, we suggest that engineers should be encouraged to ask questions about the socio-ethical dimensions of their work. This requires expanding the conceptual framework of engineering beyond its traditional focus on "how" and "what" questions to also include "why" and "who" questions to facilitate the gathering of normative, socially-situated information. Empowering engineers to ask "why" and "who" questions should spur the development of technologies and practices that contribute to improving health outcomes.

  12. Business process reengineering in Ethiopian public organizations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 1, No 2 (2009) > ... organizations, the effort required was too much as compared to the benefits obtained. ... These stages are automation, horizontal integration, BPR, network redesign and organizational scope redefinition.

  13. Simulation software: engineer processes before reengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepley, C J

    2001-01-01

    People make decisions all the time using intuition. But what happens when you are asked: "Are you sure your predictions are accurate? How much will a mistake cost? What are the risks associated with this change?" Once a new process is engineered, it is difficult to analyze what would have been different if other options had been chosen. Simulating a process can help senior clinical officers solve complex patient flow problems and avoid wasted efforts. Simulation software can give you the data you need to make decisions. The author introduces concepts, methodologies, and applications of computer aided simulation to illustrate their use in making decisions to improve workflow design.

  14. Advanced Lockouts: Reengineering Safety Programs for Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalscheck, Jimi

    2015-08-01

    Remember one golden rule when engineering out lockout/tagout: No additional risk can be introduced to the employees by using alternative procedures. If you can design alternative procedures and an overall alternative program to ensure equivalent protection for specific tasks...the sky is the limit to enhancing productivity.

  15. Reengineering hemodialysis for the home environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treu, Denny

    2010-01-01

    Denny Treu of NxStage Medical, Inc., who has led the development of six dialysis systems with various companies, reports here on a home hemodialysis system that his company successfully designed specifically for home use.

  16. Reengineering Real-Time Software Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-09

    Advisor : Yutaka Kanayama Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 93-29769 93 12 6 098 Form Appmoved REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 1o No. PI rep...line...and~parabola() Queue.c inc...getinst() Queue.c readjinst() Queue.c se~_insto ImmCmd.c accO0) ImmCmd.c getjineO() ImmCmd.c get robO () ImmCmd.c

  17. Matching intelligent systems with business process reengineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hart, 't M.W.

    1996-01-01

    According to Venkatraman (1991) five degrees of IT-induced business reconfiguration can be distinguished: (1) localized exploitation of IT, (2) internal integration, (3) business process redesign, (4) business network redesign, and (5) business scope redefinition. On each of these levels, different

  18. Re-Engineering the Stomatopod Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-21

    Biology 25: R1-R3. 17. J. Marshall, K.L. Carleton and T. Cronin. 2015. Colour vision in marine organisms. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 34:86-94...20130032. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2013.0032 34. *N.J. Marshall, M.F. Land, and T.W. Cronin. 2014. Shrimps that pay attention : Saccadic...Marshall, K.L. Carleton and T. Cronin. 2015. Colour vision in marine organisms. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 34:86-94. K. Feller, J. Cohen, and T.W

  19. Assessing Student Understanding of Physical Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, A. J.; Marshall, J.; Cardenas, M. B.

    2012-12-01

    Our objective is to characterize and assess upper division and graduate student thinking by developing and testing an assessment tool for a physical hydrology class. The class' learning goals are: (1) Quantitative process-based understanding of hydrologic processes, (2) Experience with different methods in hydrology, (3) Learning, problem solving, communication skills. These goals were translated into two measurable tasks asked of students in a questionnaire: (1) Describe the significant processes in the hydrological cycle and (2) Describe laws governing these processes. A third question below assessed the students' ability to apply their knowledge: You have been hired as a consultant by __ to (1) assess how urbanization and the current drought have affected a local spring and (2) predict what the effects will be in the future if the drought continues. What information would you need to gather? What measurements would you make? What analyses would you perform? Student and expert responses to the questions were then used to develop a rubric to score responses. Using the rubric, 3 researchers independently blind-coded the full set of pre and post artifacts, resulting in 89% inter-rater agreement on the pre-tests and 83% agreement on the post-tests. We present student scores to illustrate the use of the rubric and to characterize student thinking prior to and following a traditional course. Most students interpreted Q1 in terms of physical processes affecting the water cycle, the primary organizing framework for hydrology, as intended. On the pre-test, one student scored 0, indicating no response, on this question. Twenty students scored 1, indicating rudimentary understanding, 2 students scored a 2, indicating a basic understanding, and no student scored a 3. Student scores on this question improved on the post-test. On the 22 post-tests that were blind scored, 11 students demonstrated some recognition of concepts, 9 students showed a basic understanding, and 2

  20. Understanding Social Media Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José van Dijck

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, social media platforms have penetrated deeply into the mech­anics of everyday life, affecting people's informal interactions, as well as institutional structures and professional routines. Far from being neutral platforms for everyone, social media have changed the conditions and rules of social interaction. In this article, we examine the intricate dynamic between social media platforms, mass media, users, and social institutions by calling attention to social media logic—the norms, strategies, mechanisms, and economies—underpin­ning its dynamics. This logic will be considered in light of what has been identified as mass me­dia logic, which has helped spread the media's powerful discourse outside its institutional boundaries. Theorizing social media logic, we identify four grounding principles—programmabil­ity, popularity, connectivity, and datafication—and argue that these principles become increas­ingly entangled with mass media logic. The logic of social media, rooted in these grounding principles and strategies, is gradually invading all areas of public life. Besides print news and broadcasting, it also affects law and order, social activism, politics, and so forth. Therefore, its sustaining logic and widespread dissemination deserve to be scrutinized in detail in order to better understand its impact in various domains. Concentrating on the tactics and strategies at work in social media logic, we reassess the constellation of power relationships in which social practices unfold, raising questions such as: How does social media logic modify or enhance ex­isting mass media logic? And how is this new media logic exported beyond the boundaries of (social or mass media proper? The underlying principles, tactics, and strategies may be relat­ively simple to identify, but it is much harder to map the complex connections between plat­forms that distribute this logic: users that employ them, technologies that

  1. Understanding individual routing behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Antonio; Stanojevic, Rade; Papagiannaki, Dina; Rodriguez, Pablo; González, Marta C

    2016-03-01

    Knowing how individuals move between places is fundamental to advance our understanding of human mobility (González et al. 2008 Nature 453, 779-782. (doi:10.1038/nature06958)), improve our urban infrastructure (Prato 2009 J. Choice Model. 2, 65-100. (doi:10.1016/S1755-5345(13)70005-8)) and drive the development of transportation systems. Current route-choice models that are used in transportation planning are based on the widely accepted assumption that people follow the minimum cost path (Wardrop 1952 Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. 1, 325-362. (doi:10.1680/ipeds.1952.11362)), despite little empirical support. Fine-grained location traces collected by smart devices give us today an unprecedented opportunity to learn how citizens organize their travel plans into a set of routes, and how similar behaviour patterns emerge among distinct individual choices. Here we study 92 419 anonymized GPS trajectories describing the movement of personal cars over an 18-month period. We group user trips by origin-destination and we find that most drivers use a small number of routes for their routine journeys, and tend to have a preferred route for frequent trips. In contrast to the cost minimization assumption, we also find that a significant fraction of drivers' routes are not optimal. We present a spatial probability distribution that bounds the route selection space within an ellipse, having the origin and the destination as focal points, characterized by high eccentricity independent of the scale. While individual routing choices are not captured by path optimization, their spatial bounds are similar, even for trips performed by distinct individuals and at various scales. These basic discoveries can inform realistic route-choice models that are not based on optimization, having an impact on several applications, such as infrastructure planning, routing recommendation systems and new mobility solutions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. Understanding Brown Dwarf Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Surveys of brown dwarf variability continue to find that roughly half of all brown dwarfs are variable. While variability is observed amongst all types of brown dwarfs, amplitudes are typically greatest for L-T transition objects. In my talk I will discuss the possible physical mechanisms that are responsible for the observed variability. I will particularly focus on comparing and contrasting the effects of changes in atmospheric thermal profile and cloud opacity. The two different mechanisms will produce different variability signatures and I will discuss the extent to which the current datasets constrain both mechanisms. By combining constraints from studies of variability with existing spectral and photometric datasets we can begin to construct and test self-consistent models of brown dwarf atmospheres. These models not only aid in the interpretation of existing objects but also inform studies of directly imaged giant planets.

  3. Understanding vented gas explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lautkaski, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1997-12-31

    The report is an introduction to vented gas explosions for nonspecialists, particularly designers of plants for flammable gases and liquids. The phenomena leading to pressure generation in vented gas explosions in empty and congested rooms are reviewed. The four peak model of vented gas explosions is presented with simple methods to predict the values of the individual peaks. Experimental data on the external explosion of dust and gas explosions is discussed. The empirical equation relating the internal and external peak pressures in vented dust explosions is shown to be valid for gas explosion tests in 30 m{sup 3} and 550 m{sup 3} chambers. However, the difficulty of predicting the internal peak pressure in large chambers remains. Methods of explosion relief panel design and principles of vent and equipment layout to reduce explosion overpressures are reviewed. (orig.) 65 refs.

  4. Understanding vented gas explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lautkaski, R [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1998-12-31

    The report is an introduction to vented gas explosions for nonspecialists, particularly designers of plants for flammable gases and liquids. The phenomena leading to pressure generation in vented gas explosions in empty and congested rooms are reviewed. The four peak model of vented gas explosions is presented with simple methods to predict the values of the individual peaks. Experimental data on the external explosion of dust and gas explosions is discussed. The empirical equation relating the internal and external peak pressures in vented dust explosions is shown to be valid for gas explosion tests in 30 m{sup 3} and 550 m{sup 3} chambers. However, the difficulty of predicting the internal peak pressure in large chambers remains. Methods of explosion relief panel design and principles of vent and equipment layout to reduce explosion overpressures are reviewed. (orig.) 65 refs.

  5. Understanding Leadership: An Experimental-Experiential Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hole, George T.

    2014-01-01

    Books about leadership are dangerous to readers who fantasize about being leaders or apply leadership ideas as if they were proven formulas. As an antidote, I offer an experimental framework in which any leadership-management model can be tested to gain experiential understanding of the model. As a result one can gain reality-based insights about…

  6. Bilingualism and Conversational Understanding in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Michael; Iozzi, Laura; Surian, Luca

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the two experiments reported here was to investigate whether bilingualism confers an advantage on children's conversational understanding. A total of 163 children aged 3-6 years were given a Conversational Violations Test to determine their ability to identify responses to questions as violations of Gricean maxims of conversation…

  7. Understanding catchment behaviour through model concept improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenicia, F.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes an approach to model development based on the concept of iterative model improvement, which is a process where by trial and error different hypotheses of catchment behaviour are progressively tested, and the understanding of the system proceeds through a combined process of

  8. Pancreatic Exocrine Function Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Berk, J. Edward

    1982-01-01

    It is important to understand which pancreatic function tests are available and how to interpret them when evaluating patients with malabsorption. Available direct tests are the secretin stimulation test, the Lundh test meal, and measurement of serum or fecal enzymes. Indirect tests assess pancreatic exocrine function by measuring the effect of pancreatic secretion on various nutrients. These include triglycerides labeled with carbon 14, cobalamin labeled with cobalt 57 and cobalt 58, and par...

  9. Music, empathy and cultural understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Eric; DeNora, Tia; Vuoskoski, Jonna

    2015-12-01

    In the age of the Internet and with the dramatic proliferation of mobile listening technologies, music has unprecedented global distribution and embeddedness in people's lives. It is a source of intense experiences of both the most intimate and solitary, and public and collective, kinds - from an individual with their smartphone and headphones, to large-scale live events and global simulcasts; and it increasingly brings together a huge range of cultures and histories, through developments in world music, sampling, the re-issue of historical recordings, and the explosion of informal and home music-making that circulates via YouTube. For many people, involvement with music can be among the most powerful and potentially transforming experiences in their lives. At the same time, there has been increasing interest in music's communicative and affective capacities, and its potential to act as an agent of social bonding and affiliation. This review critically discusses a considerable body of research and scholarship, across disciplines ranging from the neuroscience and psychology of music to cultural musicology and the sociology and anthropology of music, that provides evidence for music's capacity to promote empathy and social/cultural understanding through powerful affective, cognitive and social factors; and explores ways in which to connect and make sense of this disparate evidence (and counter-evidence). It reports the outcome of an empirical study that tests one aspect of those claims, demonstrating that 'passive' listening to the music of an unfamiliar culture can significantly change the cultural attitudes of listeners with high dispositional empathy; presents a model that brings together the primary components of the music and empathy research into a single framework; and considers both some of the applications, and some of the shortcomings and problems, of understanding music from the perspective of empathy.

  10. Music, empathy and cultural understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Eric; DeNora, Tia; Vuoskoski, Jonna

    2015-12-01

    In the age of the Internet and with the dramatic proliferation of mobile listening technologies, music has unprecedented global distribution and embeddedness in people's lives. It is a source of intense experiences of both the most intimate and solitary, and public and collective, kinds - from an individual with their smartphone and headphones, to large-scale live events and global simulcasts; and it increasingly brings together a huge range of cultures and histories, through developments in world music, sampling, the re-issue of historical recordings, and the explosion of informal and home music-making that circulates via YouTube. For many people, involvement with music can be among the most powerful and potentially transforming experiences in their lives. At the same time, there has been increasing interest in music's communicative and affective capacities, and its potential to act as an agent of social bonding and affiliation. This review critically discusses a considerable body of research and scholarship, across disciplines ranging from the neuroscience and psychology of music to cultural musicology and the sociology and anthropology of music, that provides evidence for music's capacity to promote empathy and social/cultural understanding through powerful affective, cognitive and social factors; and explores ways in which to connect and make sense of this disparate evidence (and counter-evidence). It reports the outcome of an empirical study that tests one aspect of those claims, demonstrating that 'passive' listening to the music of an unfamiliar culture can significantly change the cultural attitudes of listeners with high dispositional empathy; presents a model that brings together the primary components of the music and empathy research into a single framework; and considers both some of the applications, and some of the shortcomings and problems, of understanding music from the perspective of empathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Usability testing for dummies

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Usability testing seems complicated and time-consuming. Is it though? In fact, it is the best way to understand how real users experience your product. In this interactive session, we will do a live usability test and you will get advice on how to conduct your own usability tests.

  12. Students' Understanding of Conditional Probability on Entering University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaburn, Robyn

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of conditional probability is essential for students of inferential statistics as it is used in Null Hypothesis Tests. Conditional probability is also used in Bayes' theorem, in the interpretation of medical screening tests and in quality control procedures. This study examines the understanding of conditional probability of…

  13. The Understanding of Emotion among Young Chinese Children

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Yulong; Harris, Paul L.; Pons, Francisco; Zou, Hong; Zhang, Wenjuan; Xu, Qunxia

    2017-01-01

    The development of emotion understanding in young Chinese children was examined. The overall trend in the development of emotion understanding among Chinese preschoolers – as measured by the Test of Emotion Comprehension (TEC) proved similar to that found among preschoolers in Western Europe. However, Chinese children performed better at understanding the distinction between real and apparent emotion and worse at understanding the connection between reminders and emotion. Children’s theory of...

  14. Kriging: Understanding allays intimidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olea, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    calculations are more demanding. The kriging system of equations differs from classical regression in that the observations are allowed to be correlated and that neither the estimate nor the observations are necessarily points - they may have a volume, shape, and orientation. The mean square error is the average of the squares of the differences between the true and the estimated values. Simple kriging, the most basic form of kriging in that the system of equations has the fewest terms, requires the phenomena to have a constant and known mean. The next step up, ordinary kriging, does not require knowledge of the population mean. The external drift method, universal kriging, and intrinsic kriging go even further by allowing fluctuations in the mean. In practice, estimation by kriging is not as difficult to handle as it may look at first glance. In these days of high technology, all the details in the procedure are coded into computer programs. When properly used, kriging has several appealing attributes, the most important being that it does the work more accurately. By design, kriging provides the weights that result in the minimum mean square error. And yes, there have been people who have tested its superiority with real data. Practice has consistently confirmed theory. Kriging is also robust. Within reasonable limits, kriging tends to persist in yielding correct estimates even when the user selects the wrong model, misspecifies parameters, or both. This property should be an incentive for the novice to try the method. Gross misuse of kriging, though, can lead to poor results, worse even than those produced by alternative methods. Kriging has evolved and continues to expand to accommodate the estimation of increasingly demanding realities. Conclusions Theory and practice show that computer contour maps generated using kriging have the least mean square estimation error. In addition, the method provides information to assess the reliability of the maps.

  15. Test Architecture, Test Retrofit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcher, Glenn; Davidson, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Just like buildings, tests are designed and built for specific purposes, people, and uses. However, both buildings and tests grow and change over time as the needs of their users change. Sometimes, they are also both used for purposes other than those intended in the original designs. This paper explores architecture as a metaphor for language…

  16. Public understandings of genetics and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condit, C M

    2010-01-01

    This review of adult public understandings of genetics related to health indicates that the public's understandings overlap with those of professionals in some areas, but not others. Specifically, the majority of the world's people who have been studied understand genetics through the lens of heredity, not in terms of the structural and functional nature of genes. Public understandings of hereditary processes are influenced by models of social relationships and by experiential familiarity with particular conditions as much as by academic research results. Most people hold a fairly strong belief that many health conditions are substantially influenced by both genes and other factors. However, they do not have a stable understanding of the nature of gene-environment interactions. People in cultures where science is not a prominent cultural mode are even less likely to hold the belief structures of professional geneticists. In some areas--notably with regard to racialization of genetic medicine and characterizations of genetic variations as 'mutations'--at least some members of the public strongly reject some geneticists' constructions. Public understanding of details pertinent to genetic testing generally appears to be weak.

  17. Ecological Understanding 2: Transformation--A Key to Ecological Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Britta

    2002-01-01

    Describes the structure and general features of the phenomenon of ecological understanding. Presents qualitatively different ways of experiencing cycling of matter and the flow of energy in the context of ecosystems. The idea of transformation is key to the development of ecological understanding. (Contains 17 references.) (Author/YDS)

  18. Understanding Understanding Mathematics. Artificial Intelligence Memo No. 488.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michener, Edwina Rissland

    This document is concerned with the important extra-logical knowledge that is often outside of traditional discussions in mathematics, and looks at some of the ingredients and processes involved in the understanding of mathematics. The goal is to develop a conceptual framework in which to talk about mathematical knowledge and to understand the…

  19. Assessing student understanding of measurement and uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirungnimitsakul, S.; Wattanakasiwich, P.

    2017-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop and assess student understanding of measurement and uncertainty. A test has been adapted and translated from the Laboratory Data Analysis Instrument (LDAI) test, consists of 25 questions focused on three topics including measures of central tendency, experimental errors and uncertainties, and fitting regression lines. The test was evaluated its content validity by three physics experts in teaching physics laboratory. In the pilot study, Thai LDAI was administered to 93 freshmen enrolled in a fundamental physics laboratory course. The final draft of the test was administered to three groups—45 freshmen taking fundamental physics laboratory, 16 sophomores taking intermediated physics laboratory and 21 juniors taking advanced physics laboratory at Chiang Mai University. As results, we found that the freshmen had difficulties in experimental errors and uncertainties. Most students had problems with fitting regression lines. These results will be used to improve teaching and learning physics laboratory for physics students in the department.

  20. Using statistics to understand the environment

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, Penny A

    2000-01-01

    Using Statistics to Understand the Environment covers all the basic tests required for environmental practicals and projects and points the way to the more advanced techniques that may be needed in more complex research designs. Following an introduction to project design, the book covers methods to describe data, to examine differences between samples, and to identify relationships and associations between variables.Featuring: worked examples covering a wide range of environmental topics, drawings and icons, chapter summaries, a glossary of statistical terms and a further reading section, this book focuses on the needs of the researcher rather than on the mathematics behind the tests.