WorldWideScience

Sample records for understanding systems knowledge

  1. KNOWLEDGE UNDERSTANDING AND ADVANCED SEARCHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Vidya

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available It’s a comprehensive fact that millions of people around the world surf the Internet for want of answers for their questions. Generally, the questions are asked in the form of Searching or direct questions which follow perfect ontological directions. It is important that the system understands the questions in the right sense and can provide the best answer for all the questions raised in the web forum. One such pragmatic method is required which is expected to provide optimum solution to achieve best answers for questions that not only percepts language but also follows perfect ontological information in accordance with the cyber law. This Proposed Model presents a new dynamic model called Knowledge Understanding and Advance Searching (KUAS that studies the importance of Smart Question Answering with other question answering engines like START and proves to give the optimal solution compared to them.

  2. Understanding images using knowledge based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tascini, G.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to image understanding focusing on low level image processing and proposes a rule-based approach as part of larger knowledge-based system. The general system has a yerarchical structure that comprises several knowledge-based layers. The main idea is to confine at the lower level the domain independent knowledge and to reserve the higher levels for the domain dependent knowledge, that is for the interpretation

  3. System for inspection and quality assurance of software - A knowledge-based experiment with code understanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, B.K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a knowledge-based prototype that inspects and quality-assures software components. The prototype model, which offers a singular representation of these components, is used to automate both the mechanical and nonmechanical activities in the quality assurance (QA) process. It is shown that the prototype, in addition to automating the QA process, provides a novel approach to understanding code. These approaches are compared with recent approaches to code understanding. The paper also presents the results of an experiment with several classes of nonsyntactic bugs. It is argued that a structured environment, as facilitated by this unique architecture, along with software development standards used in the QA process, is essential for meaningful analysis of code. 8 refs

  4. The tourism knowledge system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tribe, John; Liburd, Janne J.

    2016-01-01

    This conceptual study addresses the significant need for every mature field of knowledge to understand itself. It builds upon previous studies of the epistemology and ontology of tourism by critiquing, synthesising, discarding, re-ordering and adding material. Its contribution is an original...... reconceptualisation of the structure, systems, processes and outcomes that define the field of tourism. These are explained by the creation of a model and detailed analysis that examines knowledge space, the knowledge force-field, knowledge networks, four key domains in knowledge creation and their interrelationships....... Finally the model is used to examine some of the key challenges and consequences that the knowledge system reveals for tourism and its research....

  5. Anticipatory Understanding of Adversary Intent: A Signature-Based Knowledge System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    concept of logical positivism has been applied more recently to all human knowledge and reflected in current data fusion research, information mining...this work has been successfully translated into useful analytical tools that can provide a rigorous and quantitative basis for predictive analysis

  6. Test your knowledge and understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This quiz is designed to test your understanding of the concepts covered in this issue and to give you an opportunity to reflect on what you have learnt. These multiple true/false questions were produced in collaboration with the International Council of Ophthalmology (ICO.

  7. The Concept of Embodied Knowledge for Understanding Organisational Knowledge Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsudaira, Yoshito; Fujinami, Tsutomu

    Our goal in this paper is to understand, in the light of intuition and emotion, the problem-finding and value judgments by organisational members that are part of organisational knowledge creation. In doing so, we emphasise the importance of embodied knowledge of organisations as an explanatory concept. We propose ways of approaching intuition and sense of value as these are posited as objects of research. Approaches from the first, second, and third-person viewpoints result in a deeper grasp of embodied knowledge of organisations. Important in organisational knowledge creation is embodied knowledge of organisations, which has a bearing on problem-finding before any problem-solving or decision making takes place, and on value judgments about the importance of problems that have been found. This article proposes the concept of embodied knowledge, and, by introducing it, gives a profound understanding of that facet of organisational knowledge creation characterised by tacit knowledge held by organisational individuals.

  8. Understanding Knowledge Management System antecedents of performance impact: Extending the Task-technology Fit Model with intention to share knowledge construct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada R. El Said

    2015-12-01

    The suggested integrated model helps for better understanding of KMS from the perspective of users’ motivation, system design, and tasks. This paper contributes-with academic and practical implications for KMS researchers, developers, and managers.

  9. TOWARD AN UNDERSTANDING OF NURSING KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Thi Thanh Tuyen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available As nurses, we seek to better understand how to apply nursing knowledge in our daily practice. Nowadays, the term philosophy is widening used in many areas, including nursing. However, there is existence of unclear understanding about nursing knowledge development derived from standpoint of philosophical and methodological perspectives. This article discusses about this issue and mainly focus on empiricism, postpositivistic view, the philosophy of Buddhism and an example related to asthma.

  10. Understanding Intra-Class Knowledge Inside CNN

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Donglai; Zhou, Bolei; Torrabla, Antonio; Freeman, William

    2015-01-01

    Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) has been successful in image recognition tasks, and recent works shed lights on how CNN separates different classes with the learned inter-class knowledge through visualization. In this work, we instead visualize the intra-class knowledge inside CNN to better understand how an object class is represented in the fully-connected layers. To invert the intra-class knowledge into more interpretable images, we propose a non-parametric patch prior upon previous CNN...

  11. How Technology Teachers Understand Technological Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norström, Per

    2014-01-01

    Swedish technology teachers' views of technological knowledge are examined through a written survey and a series of interviews. The study indicates that technology teachers' understandings of what constitutes technological knowledge and how it is justified vary considerably. The philosophical discussions on the topic are unknown to them. This lack…

  12. Understanding knowledge as a commons from theory to practice

    CERN Document Server

    Ostrom, Elinor

    2011-01-01

    Looking at knowledge as a shared resource: experts discuss how to define, protect, and build the knowledge commons in the digital age. Knowledge in digital form offers unprecedented access to information through the Internet but at the same time is subject to ever-greater restrictions through intellectual property legislation, overpatenting, licensing, overpricing, and lack of preservation. Looking at knowledge as a commons―as a shared resource―allows us to understand both its limitless possibilities and what threatens it. In Understanding Knowledge as a Commons, experts from a range of disciplines discuss the knowledge commons in the digital era―how to conceptualize it, protect it, and build it. Contributors consider the concept of the commons historically and offer an analytical framework for understanding knowledge as a shared social-ecological system. They look at ways to guard against enclosure of the knowledge commons, considering, among other topics, the role of research libraries, the advantage...

  13. Knowledge Based Understanding of Radiology Text

    OpenAIRE

    Ranum, David L.

    1988-01-01

    A data acquisition tool which will extract pertinent diagnostic information from radiology reports has been designed and implemented. Pertinent diagnostic information is defined as that clinical data which is used by the HELP medical expert system. The program uses a memory based semantic parsing technique to “understand” the text. Moreover, the memory structures and lexicon necessary to perform this action are automatically generated from the diagnostic knowledge base by using a special purp...

  14. Knowledge about food classification systems and value attributes provides insight for understanding complementary food choices in Mexican working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Oliveros, Maria Guadalupe; Bisogni, Carole A; Frongillo, Edward A

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge about mothers' perceptions of food classification and values about complementary feeding is necessary for designing educational and food supply interventions targeted to young children. To determine classification, attributes, and consumption/preparation routines of key complementary foods, 44 mothers of children right for toddlers. Chicken liver was considered nutritious but dirty and bitter. Egg and fish were viewed as a vitamin source but potentially allergenic. Mothers valued vitamin content, flavor, and convenience of processed foods, but some were suspicious about expiration date, chemical and excessive sugar content and overall safety of these foods. Mothers' perceptions and values may differ from those of nutritionists and program designers, and should be addressed when promoting opportune introduction of complementary foods in social programs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Description Logic Based Knowledge Representation Model for Concept Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2017-01-01

    This research employs Description Logics in order to focus on logical description and analysis of the phenomenon of ‘concept understanding’. The article will deal with a formal-semantic model for figuring out the underlying logical assumptions of ‘concept understanding’ in knowledge representation...... systems. In other words, it attempts to describe a theoretical model for concept understanding and to reflect the phenomenon of ‘concept understanding’ in terminological knowledge representation systems. Finally, it will design an ontology that schemes the structure of concept understanding based...

  16. Understanding dynamic capabilities through knowledge management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Paarup

    2006-01-01

    In the paper eight knowledge management activities are identified; knowledge creation, acquisition, capture, assembly, sharing, integration, leverage and exploitation. These activities are assembled into the three dynamic capabilities of knowledge development, knowledge (re......)combination and knowledge use. The dynamic capabilities and the associated knowledge management activities create flows to and from the firm’s stock of knowledge and they support the creation and use of organizational capabilities....

  17. Managing Distributed Knowledge Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Brian Vejrum; Gelbuda, Modestas

    2005-01-01

    . This paper contributes to the research on organizations as distributed knowledge systems by addressing two weaknesses of the social practice literature. Firstly, it downplays the importance of formal structure and organizational design and intervention efforts by key organizational members. Secondly, it does......The article argues that the growth of de novo knowledge-based organization depends on managing and coordinating increasingly growing and, therefore, distributed knowledge. Moreover, the growth in knowledge is often accompanied by an increasing organizational complexity, which is a result...... of integrating new people, building new units and adding activities to the existing organization. It is argued that knowledge is not a stable capacity that belongs to any actor alone, but that it is rather an ongoing social accomplishment, which is created and recreated as actors engage in mutual activities...

  18. Sharing tacit knowledge to understand reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klostermann, J.E.M.

    2003-01-01

    The author gives her answer to the question of knowledge production in science and society, according to a theoretical framework (The social construction of reality: a treatise in the sociology of knowledge; Berger, Luckmann, 1966)

  19. Understanding land administration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems. Readers may recall the first part of the paper in October issue of Coordinates. Here is the concluding part that focuses on the changing...

  20. Food for thought : Understanding students' vocational knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heusdens, W.T.

    2018-01-01

    The focus of the thesis is an exploration into students’ vocational knowledge in the context of Dutch vocational education and training (VET). The reason students’ vocational knowledge requires exploration is because there is no consensus among scholars in the field of VET about how to theorise the

  1. Understanding the Climate-knowledge Sharing Relation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llopis, Oscar; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2016-01-01

    motivation and job autonomy as moderators of this relationship. We find that the social climate for cooperation better predicts knowledge sharing when employees show low levels of intrinsic motivation and have high levels of job autonomy. This suggests that a cooperative climate and intrinsic motivation...... are substitutes with respect to their impact on knowledge-sharing behaviors, while climate and job autonomy are complements. We find support for these ideas in data gathered from a sample of 170 employees of a knowledge-intensive firm....

  2. Awareness, knowledge, understanding and readiness to adopt

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    functional food consumption by health-conscious consumers of the city of Cape Town. 59 ... hypothesis that the risk of lifestyle-related dis- eases can be ..... and their perceived interest in and knowledge of ...... sumer behaviour & attitudes.

  3. Linking Student Achievement and Teacher Science Content Knowledge about Climate Change: Ensuring the Nations 3 Million Teachers Understand the Science through an Electronic Professional Development System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niepold, F.; Byers, A.

    2009-12-01

    The scientific complexities of global climate change, with wide-ranging economic and social significance, create an intellectual challenge that mandates greater public understanding of climate change research and the concurrent ability to make informed decisions. The critical need for an engaged, science literate public has been repeatedly emphasized by multi-disciplinary entities like the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the National Academies (Rising Above the Gathering Storm report), and the interagency group responsible for the recently updated Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Science. There is a clear need for an American public that is climate literate and for K-12 teachers confident in teaching relevant science content. A key goal in the creation of a climate literate society is to enhance teachers’ knowledge of global climate change through a national, scalable, and sustainable professional development system, using compelling climate science data and resources to stimulate inquiry-based student interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). This session will explore innovative e-learning technologies to address the limitations of one-time, face-to-face workshops, thereby adding significant sustainability and scalability. The resources developed will help teachers sift through the vast volume of global climate change information and provide research-based, high-quality science content and pedagogical information to help teachers effectively teach their students about the complex issues surrounding global climate change. The Learning Center is NSTA's e-professional development portal to help the nations teachers and informal educators learn about the scientific complexities of global climate change through research-based techniques and is proven to significantly improve teacher science content knowledge.

  4. Understanding land administration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems - firstly the land management paradigm and its influence on the land administration framework, secondly the role that the cadastre plays...... in contributing to sustainable development, thirdly the changing nature of ownership and the role of land markets, and lastly a land management vision that promotes land administration in support of sustainable development and spatial enablement of society. We present here the first part of the paper. The second...

  5. Awareness, knowledge, understanding and readiness to adopt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... food consumption by health-conscious consumers of the City of Cape Town. ... and knowledge of, food and nutrition, and health and wellness were determined. ... (87,1%), probiotics (84,9%), soy protein (83,5%) and beta-carotene (68,3%).

  6. Understanding renewable energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaschning, Volker

    2005-01-15

    Beginning with an overview of renewable energy sources including biomass, hydroelectricity, geothermal, tidal, wind and solar power, this book explores the fundamentals of different renewable energy systems. The main focus is on technologies with high development potential such as solar thermal systems, photovoltaics and wind power. This text not only describes technological aspects, but also deals consciously with problems of the energy industry. In this way, the topics are treated in a holistic manner, bringing together maths, engineering, climate studies and economics, and enabling readers to gain a broad understanding of renewable energy technologies and their potential. The book also contains a free CD-ROM resource, which includes a variety of specialist simulation software and detailed figures from the book. (Author)

  7. Societal Dynamics Understanding Social Knowledge and Wisdom

    CERN Document Server

    Betz, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    At both a micro-information level and a macro-societal level, the concepts of “knowledge” and “wisdom” are complementary – in both decisions and in social structures and institutions.  At the decision level, knowledge is concerned with how to make a proper choice of means, where “best” is measured as the efficiency toward achieving an end.  Wisdom is concerned with how to make a proper choice of ends  that attain “best” values. At a societal level, knowledge is managed through science/technology and innovation.  And while science/technology is society's way to create new means with high efficiencies, they reveal nothing about values.  Technology can be used for good or for evil, to make the world into a garden or to destroy all life.  It is societal wisdom which should influence the choice of proper ends -- ends to make the world a garden. How can society make progress in wisdom as well as knowledge?  Historically, the disciplines of the physical sciences and biology have provided sci...

  8. Shape understanding system machine understanding and human understanding

    CERN Document Server

    Les, Zbigniew

    2015-01-01

    This is the third book presenting selected results of research on the further development of the shape understanding system (SUS) carried out by authors in the newly founded Queen Jadwiga Research Institute of Understanding. In this book the new term Machine Understanding is introduced referring to a new area of research aiming to investigate the possibility of building machines with the ability to understand. It is presented that SUS needs to some extent mimic human understanding and for this reason machines are evaluated according to the rules applied for the evaluation of human understanding. The book shows how to formulate problems and how it can be tested if the machine is able to solve these problems.    

  9. Ninth Grade Students' Understanding of The Nature of Scientific Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Kerem; Sungur, Semra; Cakiroglu, Jale; Tekkaya, Ceren

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the 9th-grade students' understandings of the nature of scientific knowledge. The study also aimed to investigate the differences in students' understanding of the nature of scientific knowledge by gender, and school types. A total of 575 ninth grade students from four different school types (General…

  10. Building Sustainable Knowledge Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gowin, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Considerations: • An integrated framework must fully respect and honour: • intellecual property rights and commercial interests; • national regulation, priorities and views. • Note: ''managing knowledge'' can be ''sharing'' or ''restricting''. • The framework should be: • available to stakeholders; • non-prescriptive; • flexible: sharing, restricting, generating, transmitting and preserving knowledge

  11. Knowledge society training system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceclan, Mihail; Ionescu, Tudor Basarab; Ceclan, Rodica Elena; Tatar, Florin; Tiron, Cristian; Georgescu, Luisa Maria

    2005-01-01

    The paper aims to present the results of the Cernavoda NPP Training Department modernization project. In order to achieve a knowledge society training system, in the first stage of the project a Computer Based Training (CBT) or E-Learning software platform and several CBT objects/courses have been implemented. The conceived solution is called CBTCenter which is a complete E-Learning and CBT system, offering a variety of teaching and learning tools and services to its users. CBT and/or E-Learning always mean two things: a software platform and content authoring. Ideally, a software platform should be able to import any type of flat documentation and integrate it into a structured database which keeps track of pedagogically meaningful information like the student's progress in studying materials, tests and quizzes, grades, etc. At the same time, the materials, the study and the tests have to be organized around certain objectives which play the role of guidelines during the entire educational activity. An example of such a course which has been successfully integrated into CBTCenter is Labour safety - code name BB-001. The implementation of the CBT technology at NPP Cernavoda Training Department has brought several advantages: the technology improves overall communication between all individuals which take part in the educational process; the classroom space problem has been considerably reduced; students can access training materials from their own desk using the NPP intranet; the logistics problems will decrease with the conversion of more and more conventional courses and materials into CBT objects/courses. (authors)

  12. Acquisition and understanding of process knowledge using problem solving methods

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez-Pérez, JM

    2010-01-01

    The development of knowledge-based systems is usually approached through the combined skills of knowledge engineers (KEs) and subject matter experts (SMEs). One of the most critical steps in this activity aims at transferring knowledge from SMEs to formal, machine-readable representations, which allow systems to reason with such knowledge. However, this is a costly and error prone task. Alleviating the knowledge acquisition bottleneck requires enabling SMEs with the means to produce the desired knowledge representations without the help of KEs. This is especially difficult in the case of compl

  13. KESS: Knowledge Engineering Support System

    OpenAIRE

    Said, Mohamed Ben; Dougherty, Nini; Anderson, Curtis; Altman, Stanley J.; Bouhaddou, Omar; Warner, Homer R.

    1987-01-01

    KESS (Knowledge Engineering Support System) is a relational information management system created at the University of Utah to document each step in the building of four expert knowledge bases. In weekly knowledge engineering sessions, groups of experts propose decision making criteria and examine information sources in the process of creating HELP knowledge frames. KESS utilizes many-to-many links with multiple files and central link files to track the different kinds of information generate...

  14. Ethnosocial issues within the covers of "Knowledge. Understanding. Skill” Journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Erokhina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Article reviews the most interesting publications regarding the issues of actual ethnosocial processes published in the well-known Russian journal "Knowledge. Understanding, Skill” which marks its 10th anniversary this year.

  15. Understanding radar systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kingsley, Simon

    1999-01-01

    What is radar? What systems are currently in use? How do they work? This book provides engineers and scientists with answers to these critical questions, focusing on actual radar systems in use today. It is a perfect resource for those just entering the field, or as a quick refresher for experienced practitioners. The book leads readers through the specialized language and calculations that comprise the complex world of radar engineering as seen in dozens of state-of-the-art radar systems. An easy to read, wide ranging guide to the world of modern radar systems.

  16. Knowledge and understanding of health insurance: challenges and remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Andrew J; Hanoch, Yaniv

    2017-07-13

    As coverage is expanded in health systems that rely on consumers to choose health insurance plans that best meet their needs, interest in whether consumers possess sufficient understanding of health insurance to make good coverage decisions is growing. The recent IJHPR article by Green and colleagues-examining understanding of supplementary health insurance (SHI) among Israeli consumers-provides an important and timely answer to the above question. Indeed, their study addresses similar problems to the ones identified in the US health care market, with two notable findings. First, they show that overall-regardless of demographic variables-there are low levels of knowledge about SHI, which the literature has come to refer to more broadly as "health insurance literacy." Second, they find a significant disparity in health insurance literacy between different SES groups, where Jews were significantly more knowledgeable about SHI compared to their Arab counterparts.The authors' findings are consistent with a growing body of literature from the U.S. and elsewhere, including our own, presenting evidence that consumers struggle with understanding and using health insurance. Studies in the U.S. have also found that difficulties are generally more acute for populations considered the most vulnerable and consequently most in need of adequate and affordable health insurance coverage.The authors' findings call attention to the need to tailor communication strategies aimed at mitigating health insurance literacy and, ultimately, access and outcomes disparities among vulnerable populations in Israel and elsewhere. It also raises the importance of creating insurance choice environments in health systems relying on consumers to make coverage decisions that facilitate the decision process by using "choice architecture" to, among other things, simplify plan information and highlight meaningful differences between coverage options.

  17. Knowledge-Based Hierarchies: Using Organizations to Understand the Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garicano, Luis; Rossi-Hansberg, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating the decision of how to organize the acquisition, use, and communication of knowledge into economic models is essential to understand a wide variety of economic phenomena. We survey the literature that has used knowledge-based hierarchies to study issues such as the evolution of wage inequality, the growth and productivity of firms,…

  18. New infrastructures for knowledge production understanding e-science

    CERN Document Server

    Hine, Christine

    2006-01-01

    New Infrastructures for Knowledge Production: Understanding E-Science offers a distinctive understanding of new infrastructures for knowledge production based in science and technology studies. This field offers a unique potential to assess systematically the prospects for new modes of science enabled by information and communication technologies. The authors use varied methodological approaches, reviewing the origins of initiatives to develop e-science infrastructures, exploring the diversity of the various solutions and the scientific cultures which use them, and assessing the prospects for wholesale change in scientific structures and practices. New Infrastructures for Knowledge Production: Understanding E-Science contains practical advice for the design of appropriate technological solutions, and long range assessments of the prospects for change useful both to policy makers and those implementing institutional infrastructures. Readers interested in understanding contemporary science will gain a rich pict...

  19. An Integrated Knowledge Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Mazilescu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a Knowledge Management System based on Fuzzy Logic (FLKMS, a real-time expert system to meet the challenges of the dynamic environment. The main feature of our integrated shell FLKMS is that it models and integrates the temporal relationships between the dynamic of the evolution of an economic process with some fuzzy inferential methods, using a knowledge model for control, embedded within the expert system’s operational knowledge base.

  20. Building Community Knowledge Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.

    2003-01-01

    managers. We followed the system from its introduction in early 1997 until it was abandoned in the beginning of 2000. We focused on the way the system was introduced in the organization, how it changed, and how the intended group of users received (and eventually rejected) the system. Based on our...

  1. Knowledge management systems in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørning, Kristian

    which has the strategy of working with knowledge in the form of "best practices" meant to boost performance. The thesis explores the situation that workers are in, since they are meant to share and develop "best practices" knowledge in a portal based Knowledge Management System (KMS). The study...... indentifies a set of problems that prevents knowledge sharing from taking place to the degree to which management was specifically aiming. It was explored whether these problems could, to some degree, be mitigated by employing persuasive design, which is a new stance towards design where the aim...... is to directly seek to change the user's behavior, i.e., persuading more knowledge sharing. The main contribution is an indication of an anomaly with regards to the strategic approach towards knowledge management, where knowledge sharing is seen as an effort by which companies can gain a competitive advantage...

  2. Understanding and Supporing Knowledge Work in Everyday Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey T. Grabill

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Our purpose in writing is two-fold: (1 to introduce this audience to the Writing in Digital Environments (WIDE Research Center, and (2 to make an argument about the importance of understanding and supporting knowledge work for professional and technical communicators. We are particularly interested in what knowledge (writing work looks like in multiple contexts—for instance, in civic organizations as well as in corporate organizations— because contemporary social and community contexts are dependent on high-quality knowledge work. This explains our interest in “everyday life.”

  3. Operational Automatic Remote Sensing Image Understanding Systems: Beyond Geographic Object-Based and Object-Oriented Image Analysis (GEOBIA/GEOOIA. Part 2: Novel system Architecture, Information/Knowledge Representation, Algorithm Design and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Boschetti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available According to literature and despite their commercial success, state-of-the-art two-stage non-iterative geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA systems and three-stage iterative geographic object-oriented image analysis (GEOOIA systems, where GEOOIA/GEOBIA, remain affected by a lack of productivity, general consensus and research. To outperform the Quality Indexes of Operativeness (OQIs of existing GEOBIA/GEOOIA systems in compliance with the Quality Assurance Framework for Earth Observation (QA4EO guidelines, this methodological work is split into two parts. Based on an original multi-disciplinary Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT analysis of the GEOBIA/GEOOIA approaches, the first part of this work promotes a shift of learning paradigm in the pre-attentive vision first stage of a remote sensing (RS image understanding system (RS-IUS, from sub-symbolic statistical model-based (inductive image segmentation to symbolic physical model-based (deductive image preliminary classification capable of accomplishing image sub-symbolic segmentation and image symbolic pre-classification simultaneously. In the present second part of this work, a novel hybrid (combined deductive and inductive RS-IUS architecture featuring a symbolic deductive pre-attentive vision first stage is proposed and discussed in terms of: (a computational theory (system design, (b information/knowledge representation, (c algorithm design and (d implementation. As proof-of-concept of symbolic physical model-based pre-attentive vision first stage, the spectral knowledge-based, operational, near real-time, multi-sensor, multi-resolution, application-independent Satellite Image Automatic Mapper™ (SIAM™ is selected from existing literature. To the best of these authors’ knowledge, this is the first time a symbolic syntactic inference system, like SIAM™, is made available to the RS community for operational use in a RS-IUS pre-attentive vision first stage

  4. School students' knowledge and understanding of the Global Solar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The Global Solar Ultraviolet Index (UVI) is a health communication tool used to inform the public about the health risks of excess solar UV radiation and encourage appropriate sun-protection behaviour. Knowledge and understanding of the UVI has been evaluated among adult populations but not among ...

  5. Fault management and systems knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Pilots are asked to manage faults during flight operations. This leads to the training question of the type and depth of system knowledge required to respond to these faults. Based on discussions with multiple airline operators, there is agreement th...

  6. Understanding indigenous knowledge: Bridging the knowledge gap through a knowledge creation model for agricultural development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edda T. Lwoga

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the management of agricultural indigenous knowledge (IK in developing countries, with a specific focus on Tanzania. It provides background details on IK and its importance for agricultural development. It introduces various knowledge management (KM concepts and discusses their application in managing IK in the developing world by placing Nonaka’s knowledge creation theory (Nonaka 1991; Nonaka & Takeuchi 1995; Nonaka, Toyama & Konno 2000 in the context of the local communities. Data from focus groups were used to triangulate with data from interviews in order to validate, confirm and corroborate quantitative results with qualitative findings. The study findings showed that knowledge creation theory can be used to manage IK in the local communities, however, adequate and appropriate resources need to be allocated for capturing and preserving IK before it disappears altogether. For sustainable agricultural development, the communities have to be placed within a knowledge-creating setting that continuously creates, distributes and shares knowledge within and beyond the communities’ boundaries and integrates it with new agricultural technologies, innovations and knowledge.

  7. Knowledge Sharing for Common Understanding of Technical Specifications Through Artifactual Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahedi, Mansooreh; Babar, Muhammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Context: Software engineering is a knowledge intensive activity that is supported by documenting and sharing the required knowledge through a wide variety of artifacts. Global Software Development (GSD) teams heavily rely on artifacts as a vital means of knowledge sharing. However, there is little...... empirical knowledge about the key reasons and practices of using artifacts in GSD for knowledge sharing to support common understanding of technical specifications. Objective: This study aims at empirically studying the key motivators, practices, and drawbacks of artifact-based knowledge sharing...... specification knowledge. We also present the practices that make up the artifact-based knowledge sharing system in the studied case. Finally, we shed some light on the caveats of knowledge sharing practices adopted by the studied company. The findings can provide useful insights into the artifact...

  8. Understanding Teachers' Pedagogical Knowledge In ESL Vocabulary Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maizatulliza Muhamad

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In communicative language teaching classrooms, one of the main emphases is on students’ ability to use the target language for real life purposes. To achieve this goal, teachers may have to ensure that students have adequate vocabulary to express their feelings and ideas. Previous research on vocabulary teaching and learning tends to be quantitative in nature focusing on testing the effectiveness of some techniques. This research study however, is an attempt to understand teachers’ pedagogical systems that influence their practice in actual classroom interactions during vocabulary teaching and learning. In-depth interviews and classroom observations with two experienced Malaysian ESL teachers were conducted. The interviews highlighted the teachers’ beliefs as well as challenges they faced with regards to vocabulary teaching and learning. The classroom observations revealed that their practice was very much a reflection of their own beliefs, based on their own experience as students as well as teachers. The results of this study showcased the fact that teachers operate within the spectrum of their pedagogical knowledge.

  9. Distributed, cooperating knowledge-based systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truszkowski, Walt

    1991-01-01

    Some current research in the development and application of distributed, cooperating knowledge-based systems technology is addressed. The focus of the current research is the spacecraft ground operations environment. The underlying hypothesis is that, because of the increasing size, complexity, and cost of planned systems, conventional procedural approaches to the architecture of automated systems will give way to a more comprehensive knowledge-based approach. A hallmark of these future systems will be the integration of multiple knowledge-based agents which understand the operational goals of the system and cooperate with each other and the humans in the loop to attain the goals. The current work includes the development of a reference model for knowledge-base management, the development of a formal model of cooperating knowledge-based agents, the use of testbed for prototyping and evaluating various knowledge-based concepts, and beginning work on the establishment of an object-oriented model of an intelligent end-to-end (spacecraft to user) system. An introductory discussion of these activities is presented, the major concepts and principles being investigated are highlighted, and their potential use in other application domains is indicated.

  10. INFORMATION SYSTEM QUALITY CONTROL KNOWLEDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Nikolaevich Babeshko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of the educational system is associated with the need to control the quality of educational services. Quality control knowledge is an important part of the scientific process. The penetration of computers into all areas of activities changing approaches and technologies that previously they were used.

  11. Assessment of Parental Knowledge and Understanding of Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, Amanda E; Lehman, Erik B; Iriana, Sarah M; Lane-Loney, Susan E; Ornstein, Rollyn M

    2018-03-01

    Recommended treatment of adolescent eating disorders includes active parental involvement. The purpose of this study was to assess baseline parental knowledge and understanding of eating disorders and how it is affected by participation in treatment. A cross-sectional and prospective cohort study comparing the parents of children ages 8 to 18 years seeking initial evaluation for an eating disorder at an adolescent medicine clinic (ED) to those attending appointments at a general pediatrics clinic (GP) was performed utilizing a 20-item questionnaire. There was no difference in mean scores at baseline, however after 2 months, the mean score of the ED group was significantly higher, while that of the GP group was not. The change in mean score from the first to second survey was significantly greater for the ED group than the GP group. Increased knowledge may improve self-efficacy, which plays a critical role in parents' ability to adopt eating disorder treatments.

  12. Handling reality: three paths to understanding the knowledge society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Muriel

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The "knowledge society" hypothesis is a useful heuristic for understanding contemporary society after the crisis of modernity that arose in the second half of the 20th century.  I shall examine the ways in which reality can be handled (reality handlings, that is, all those material-semiotic practices  through which we try to influence the world that surrounds us. I shall focus especially on the epistemological problems of current scientific and political practices.  I conclude with three specific, but not mutually exclusive avenues that might (or might not help us fully articulate the idea of the "knowledge society": the modern-sociological, the actantial-articulative, and the genealogical.  

  13. Knowledge management: processes and systems | Igbinovia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge management: processes and systems. ... Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management ... observation, role reversal technique, and discussion forums as well as the forms of knowledge representation to include report writing, database management system and institutional repositories.

  14. Management Of Knowledge And System - Evolution Of Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avishek Choudhury

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of knowledge is one of the most fundamental and necessary components in todays world. A claim to knowledge should be evaluated to determine whether or not it is knowledge in its real sense. To conduct this sort of evaluation understanding of what knowledge is and how much knowledge is possible is required. This paper provides an overview of the important aspects of knowledge and with the help of epistemology tries to answer the most fundamental questions of what is knowledge Moreover how do we know what we know The paper attempts to show the effect of culture on organizations and how foundational knowledge can help us develop logical decisions in a fluctuating environment. To manage an organization within evolving paradigm knowledge of variation acts as a necessary requirement. As Deming defined management as a prediction a leader must have skills to predict and adapt to its external environment. Most of the time organizations fail to observe the paradigm shift and couldnt adjust to the changing environment. The paper also discusses the effect of diverse culture and their respective interpretation of language. Thus the paper highlights the necessity of understanding human psychology attaining foundational knowledge and ability to validate the knowledge to establish a successful organization.

  15. Knowledge representation and knowledge base design for operator advisor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hangos, K.M.; Sziano, T.; Tapolcai, L.

    1990-01-01

    The problems of knowledge representation, knowledge base handling and design has been described for an Operator Advisor System in the Paks Nuclear Power Plant. The Operator Advisor System is to be implemented as a part of the 5th and 6th unit. The knowledge of the Operator Advisor system is described by a few elementary knowledge items (diagnostic event functions, fault graph, action trees), weighted directed graphs have been found as their common structure. List-type and relational representation of these graphs have been used for the on-line and off-line part of the knowledge base respectively. A uniform data base design and handling has been proposed which consists of a design system, a knowledge base editor and a knowledge base compiler

  16. Visual Storytelling – Knowledge and Understanding in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linnéa Stenliden

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an ongoing research project of use and learning with geographic information visualization and Visual Storytelling (geovisual analytics in education. The fully developed study will be applied in school settings in order to 1 customize the application for educational purpose, 2 improve the teaching in social science and 3 study teachers and students experiences and learning. - The application "Open Statistics eXplorer" will be used to improve the students knowledge and understanding of sophisticated statistical relations, - Teachers will be able to, individually and together, develop a dynamic teaching material through storytelling, through the web, - Students will be able to, with help of powerful geographical statistics, explore statistical relations on their own. A better understanding of how educators and their students can elicit deeper user understanding and participation by exploiting dynamic web-enabled statistics visualization is of importance. Results from an usability study in this project are promising. Together with the associated science of perception in learning in relation to the use of multidimensional spatio-temporal statistical data this research will contribute to the research fields of geovisual analytics as well as educational science.

  17. Deep knowledge and knowledge compilation for dynamic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizoguchi, Riichiro

    1994-01-01

    Expert systems are viewed as knowledge-based systems which efficiently solve real-world problems based on the expertise contained in their knowledge bases elicited from domain experts. Although such expert systems that depends on heuristics of domain experts have contributed to the current success, they are known to be brittle and hard to build. This paper is concerned with research on model-based diagnosis and knowledge compilation for dynamic systems conducted by the author's group to overcome these difficulties. Firstly, we summarize the advantages and shortcomings of expert systems. Secondly, deep knowledge and knowledge compilation is discussed. Then, latest results of our research on model-based diagnosis is overviewed. The future direction of knowledge base technology research is also discussed. (author)

  18. Knowledge representation for decision support systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methlie, L.B.

    1985-01-01

    This book is organized into three sections in accordance with the structure of the conference program. First section contains four major papers which were commissioned by the Programme Committee to set the tone for the conference and to provide a structured source of relevant material from contributing disciplines. The second section contains specific papers submitted to the conference, and concerned with the following topics of specific interest: epistemological issues for decision support systems (DSS), capturing organizational knowledge for DSS, complementarity between human and formal DSS, and representations for adaption. The third section contains the short papers on any topic of relevance to the theme of the conference. It is hoped that the two working conferences organized by WG 8.3 will contribute to the development of a coherent knowledge and understanding of the class of computerized information systems called Decision Support Systems. (Auth.)

  19. Balancing regulatory control, scientific knowledge, and public understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, D T

    1988-01-01

    In summary, I would like to emphasize the continued need for broad and vigorous basic research, with a balance between the fundamental work that may eventually lead to commercial products and the fundamental work that is necessary for an understanding of the interaction of many types of organisms within the environment. I would like also to reiterate the need for balance in the regulatory approach so that we do not repress innovation in research and development. Over-regulation has many side effects. In addition to repressing innovation and not taking advantage of our research base, over-regulation leads to reluctance by the capital markets to invest in the future of our new industries, thereby halting their development at an early stage. At the same time, under-regulation leads to lack of confidence by the public and paralysis of the industry based on public outcry and legal proceedings. It is my personal belief that the combination of a sound approach to regulatory practice, based on current scientific knowledge, combined with appropriate communication with the public regarding the new products, will lead to an exciting future for all sectors of industry that use the new biotechnology.

  20. CRESST Human Performance Knowledge Mapping System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chung, Gregory K; Michiuye, Joanne K; Brill, David G; Sinha, Ravi; Saadat, Farzad; de Vries, Linda F; Delacruz, Girlie C; Bewley, William L; Baker, Eva L

    2002-01-01

    .... While several tools exist that are available to construct knowledge maps, CRESST's knowledge mapping tool is one of the only systems designed specifically for assessment purposes, the only system...

  1. Understanding User Behavioral Patterns in Open Knowledge Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xianmin; Song, Shuqiang; Zhao, Xinshuo; Yu, Shengquan

    2018-01-01

    Open knowledge communities (OKCs) have become popular in the era of knowledge economy. This study aimed to explore how users collaboratively create and share knowledge in OKCs. In particular, this research identified the behavior distribution and behavioral patterns of users by conducting frequency distribution and lag sequential analyses. Some…

  2. Children's Religious Knowledge: Implications for Understanding Satanic Ritual Abuse Allegations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Gail S.; Quas, Jodi A.; Bottoms, Bette L.; Qin, Jianjian; Shaver, Phillip R.

    1997-01-01

    Using a structured interview, 48 3- to 16-year-old children were questioned about their knowledge of religious and satanic concepts. Although few children evinced direct knowledge of ritual abuse, many revealed general knowledge of satanism and satanic worship. Results suggest that most children probably do not generally possess sufficient…

  3. Investigating the role of two types of understanding in relationship well-being: Understanding is more important than knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Pollmann, M.M.H.; Finkenauer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding is at the heart of intimate relationships. It is unclear, however, whether understanding-partners' subjective feeling that they understand each other-or knowledge-partners' accurate knowledge of each other-is more important for relationship well-being. The present article pits these two types of understanding against each other and investigates their effects on relationship well-being. In a prospective study among 199 newlywed couples, partners' self-reported and perceived under...

  4. Validation Of Critical Knowledge-Based Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Eugene L.

    1992-01-01

    Report discusses approach to verification and validation of knowledge-based systems. Also known as "expert systems". Concerned mainly with development of methodologies for verification of knowledge-based systems critical to flight-research systems; e.g., fault-tolerant control systems for advanced aircraft. Subject matter also has relevance to knowledge-based systems controlling medical life-support equipment or commuter railroad systems.

  5. Information systems for knowledge management

    CERN Document Server

    Saad, Inès; Gargouri, Faiez

    2014-01-01

    More and more organizations are becoming aware of the importance of tacit and explicit knowledge owned by their members which corresponds to their experience and accumulated knowledge about the firm activities. However, considering the large amount of knowledge created and used in the organization, especially with the evolution of information and communications technologies, the firm must first determine the specific knowledge on which it is necessary to focus. Creating activities to enhance identification, preservation, and use of this knowledge is a powerful mean to improve the level of econ

  6. Training system of knowledge society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceclan, M.; Ionescu, T.B.; Ceclan, Rodica Elena; Tatar, Florin; Tiron, C.; Georgescu, Luisa Maria

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The paper aims at presenting the results of Cernavoda NPP Training Department modernization project. In order to achieve a training system of knowledge society in the first stage of the project a Computer Based Training (CBT) or E-Learning platform and several CBT objects/courses were worked out. The conceived E-Learning solution is called CBT Center and it is a complete system offering a variety of teaching and learning services to its users. CBT and/or E-Learning always mean two things: a software platform and content authoring. Ideally, a software platform should be able to import any type of flat documentation and integrate it into a structured database which keeps track of pedagogically meaningful information like the student's progress in studying materials, tests and quiz, marks, etc. At the same time, the materials, the study and the tests have to be organized around certain objectives which play the role of guidelines during the entire educational activity. An example of such a course which has been successfully integrated into CBT Center is the 'Thermodynamics'. CBT technology implementation at NPP Cernavoda Training Department has brought several advantages: the technology improves overall communication between all individuals which are part of the educational process; there is no space problem any more; students can access training materials from their own desk using the NPP intranet; the logistics problem will decrease, while more and more disciplines will be transformed as CBT objects. (authors)

  7. Intangible Knowledge. The Culture of Knowledge within Organisations from the Perspective of the Sociological Systems Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilia Stingl de Vasconcelos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge can get lost when workers leave the company, or it may be missed when new challenges emerge. Specific knowledge may be important for the value-added chain of an organization, and its inaccessibility could be a problem. The work on this paper seeks to juxtapose this problem with the concept of intangible knowledge. This concept is developed as an observation model for particular situations within organisations, in which specific, useful, knowledge is no longer available and is being missed. This paper considers a potentially useful way to deal with absence of such knowledge by using the social science approach. In addition to social systems theory, the communication and cultural science view was selected here to propose a new understanding of the function of knowledge as a communicational or cultural parameter within structures and meanings of a social system. This should facilitate a better perception of the actions and dynamics inside organizations regarding knowledge or the lack thereof.

  8. Understanding the social dimension of knowledge through complex network analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mas Tur, E.M.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis presents five studies on the social dimension of knowledge, with a focus on its creation and diffusion processes. Broadly speaking, the creation and diffusion of knowledge are phenomena inherent to human society as a whole. In this sense, the results of the works in this thesis can be

  9. Knowledge Worker Control: Understanding via Principal and Agency Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rebecca; Meacheam, David

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The growing prominence of knowledge workers in contemporary organisations has led to a considerable amount of research into their role and activities, however, despite this growing interest, there remains a lack of clarity regarding the relationship of knowledge workers to management. This paper aims to respond by investigating the…

  10. "Understanding" medical school curriculum content using KnowledgeMap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Joshua C; Smithers, Jeffrey D; Miller, Randolph A; Spickard, Anderson

    2003-01-01

    To describe the development and evaluation of computational tools to identify concepts within medical curricular documents, using information derived from the National Library of Medicine's Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). The long-term goal of the KnowledgeMap (KM) project is to provide faculty and students with an improved ability to develop, review, and integrate components of the medical school curriculum. The KM concept identifier uses lexical resources partially derived from the UMLS (SPECIALIST lexicon and Metathesaurus), heuristic language processing techniques, and an empirical scoring algorithm. KM differentiates among potentially matching Metathesaurus concepts within a source document. The authors manually identified important "gold standard" biomedical concepts within selected medical school full-content lecture documents and used these documents to compare KM concept recognition with that of a known state-of-the-art "standard"-the National Library of Medicine's MetaMap program. The number of "gold standard" concepts in each lecture document identified by either KM or MetaMap, and the cause of each failure or relative success in a random subset of documents. For 4,281 "gold standard" concepts, MetaMap matched 78% and KM 82%. Precision for "gold standard" concepts was 85% for MetaMap and 89% for KM. The heuristics of KM accurately matched acronyms, concepts underspecified in the document, and ambiguous matches. The most frequent cause of matching failures was absence of target concepts from the UMLS Metathesaurus. The prototypic KM system provided an encouraging rate of concept extraction for representative medical curricular texts. Future versions of KM should be evaluated for their ability to allow administrators, lecturers, and students to navigate through the medical curriculum to locate redundancies, find interrelated information, and identify omissions. In addition, the ability of KM to meet specific, personal information needs should be

  11. Knowledge. Progression and the Understanding of Workplace Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Erik

    2006-01-01

    The book explores new ways of thinking about learning at work, and the understanding of its role and purpose.......The book explores new ways of thinking about learning at work, and the understanding of its role and purpose....

  12. Emancipatory Indigenous Knowledge Systems: implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    Faculty of Education, University of South Africa, P.O. Box 392, Unisa, 0003 South Africa ... Indigenous Knowledge also termed Traditional, Endogenous or Classical .... its civilisation, carries both its indigenous and modern knowledge systems.

  13. Understanding Access to Things: A Knowledge Commons Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Madison, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This chapter explores the related ideas of access to knowledge resources and shared governance of those resources, often known as commons. Knowledge resources consist of many types and forms. Some are tangible, and some are intangible. Some are singular; some are reproduced in copies. Some are singular or unique; some are collected or pooled. Some are viewed, used, or consumed only by a single person; for some resources, collective or social consumption is the norm. Any given resource often h...

  14. The ecosystem approach as a framework for understanding knowledge utilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Roy Haines-Young; Marion Potschin

    2014-01-01

    The ecosystem approach is used to analyse four case studies from England to determine what kind of ecosystem knowledge was used by people, and how it shaped their arguments. The results are reported across decision-making venues concerned with: innovation, conflict management, maintenance of ecosystem function, and recognising the environment as an asset. In each area we identify the sources and uses of conceptual, instrumental, political, and social knowledge. We found that the use of these ...

  15. Knowledge representation within information systems in manufacturing environments

    OpenAIRE

    Sharif, Amir M

    2004-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Representing knowledge as information content alone is insufficient in providing us with an understanding of the world around us. A combination of context as well as reasoning of the information content is fundamental to representing knowledge in an information system. Knowledge Representation is typically concerned with providing structures and theories that are used as a basis for intellige...

  16. Understanding context in knowledge translation: a concept analysis study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Janet E; Graham, Ian D; Hutchinson, Alison M; Linklater, Stefanie; Brehaut, Jamie C; Curran, Janet; Ivers, Noah; Lavis, John N; Michie, Susan; Sales, Anne E; Fiander, Michelle; Fenton, Shannon; Noseworthy, Thomas; Vine, Jocelyn; Grimshaw, Jeremy M

    2015-05-01

    To conduct a concept analysis of clinical practice contexts (work environments) that facilitate or militate against the uptake of research evidence by healthcare professionals in clinical practice. This will involve developing a clear definition of context by describing its features, domains and defining characteristics. The context where clinical care is delivered influences that care. While research shows that context is important to knowledge translation (implementation), we lack conceptual clarity on what is context, which contextual factors probably modify the effect of knowledge translation interventions (and hence should be considered when designing interventions) and which contextual factors themselves could be targeted as part of a knowledge translation intervention (context modification). Concept analysis. The Walker and Avant concept analysis method, comprised of eight systematic steps, will be used: (1) concept selection; (2) determination of aims; (3) identification of uses of context; (4) determination of defining attributes of context; (5) identification/construction of a model case of context; (6) identification/construction of additional cases of context; (7) identification/construction of antecedents and consequences of context; and (8) definition of empirical referents of context. This study is funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (January 2014). This study will result in a much needed framework of context for knowledge translation, which identifies specific elements that, if assessed and used to tailor knowledge translation activities, will result in increased research use by nurses and other healthcare professionals in clinical practice, ultimately leading to better patient care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Understanding the Financial Knowledge Gap: A New Dimension of Inequality in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Nuruzzaman; Rothwell, David W; Cherney, Katrina; Sussman, Tamara

    2017-01-01

    To understand individuals' financial behaviors, it is important to understand the financial knowledge gap - the distance between one's objective and subjective financial knowledge. Overestimating one's financial knowledge can lead to risky financial behaviors. To date, limited empirical work has examined how financial knowledge gap varies across age groups. We analyze the size and nature of the financial knowledge gap and its variation across age groups. Using nationally representative data, we find robust evidence that older adults overestimate their financial knowledge. Social workers can assess the financial knowledge gap and educate their clients to protect from financial fraud, exploitation, and abuse.

  18. Clinical knowledge management: an overview of current understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Rajeev K; Dwivedi, Ashish

    2005-01-01

    This chapter outlines contributions to a workshop for ICMCC 2005. We details some of the central issues surrounding the incorporation of the Knowledge Management (KM) paradigm for the healthcare and clinical sectors. The complex nature of KM is discussed, together with some essential theories and some contemporary applications of the tools and techniques are presented.

  19. Looking beyond superficial knowledge gaps: understanding public representations of biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, A.E.; Fischer, A.; Rink, D.; Young, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Lack of public support for, and protest against, biodiversity management measures have often been explained by the apparently inadequate knowledge of biodiversity in the general public. In stark contrast to this assumption of public ignorance, our results from focus group discussions in The

  20. A preliminary study to understand tacit knowledge and visual routines of medical experts through gaze tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Blake; Shyu, Chi-Ren

    2010-11-13

    Many decisions made by medical experts are based on scans from advanced imaging technologies. Interpreting a medical image is a trained, systematic procedure and an excellent target for identifying potential visual routines through image informatics. These visual routines derived from experts contain many clues about visual knowledge and its representation. This study uses an inexpensive webcam-based gaze tracking method to collect data from multiple technologists' survey of medical and non-medical images. Through computational analysis of the results, we expect to provide insight into the behaviors and properties related to medical visual routines. Discovering the visual processes associated with medical images will help us recognize and understand the tacit knowledge gained from extensive experience with medical imagery. These expert routines could potentially be used to reduce medical error, train new experts, and provide an understanding of the human visual system in medicine.

  1. Understanding terminological systems. I: Terminology and typology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Keizer, N. F.; Abu-Hanna, A.; Zwetsloot-Schonk, J. H.

    2000-01-01

    Terminological systems are an important research issue within the field of medical informatics. For precise understanding of existing terminological systems a referential framework is needed that provides a uniform terminology and typology of terminological systems themselves. In this article a

  2. Practice Alignment and intent as distinctions for understanding cross-boundary knowledge creation practices in knowledge ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Mathias

    This paper explores how practice alignment and intent across organizational boundaries may serve as an explanation for collaborative knowledge creation in a knowledge ecosystem. The paper is based on a longitudinal case study of a large multinational knowledge ecosystem consisting of many...... communities of practices and organisations. By applying a practice theory approach to five data sets collected over a five-year period, the study investigates how two distinctions may serve as a potential gateway into understanding knowledge creation across boundaries. The two distinctions – practice...... are identified and discussed. Potential implications for organisational and knowledge ecosystem conceptions are identified and discussed for further research....

  3. Consumers' knowledge, understanding, and attitudes toward health claims on food labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullmer, S; Geiger, C J; Parent, C R

    1991-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess consumers' knowledge of current fiber recommendations and their attitudes, understanding, and awareness of health claims on breakfast cereal labels. An incidental sample of 241 respondents was drawn from four grocery stores of a local chain in Utah. Data were collected using a computerized interviewing system. The results suggested that consumers with higher education levels had a better understanding of diet-disease-related messages and a more positive attitude toward health messages on food labels. Knowledge of fiber was significantly correlated with positive attitudes toward health messages and understanding of health messages. Overall, attitudes toward placing diet-disease-related messages on food labels were positive. On a scale of 1 through 250, the mean score was 182.5 +/- 37.5 standard deviation (73%). Consumer knowledge of fiber was low. Out of 15 possible points, the mean score for fiber knowledge questions was 8.8 +/- 2.1 (59%). Consumers were more familiar with the role fiber may play in the prevention or treatment of certain diseases or conditions than with sources, classifications, and recommended intakes of fiber. Understanding of health messages was relatively low (45%). Whereas consumer attitudes toward health messages on food labels were positive, consumers (especially less-educated consumers) did not appear to understand the messages well. These results reiterate the concern for public policymakers to exercise caution and ensure that health messages on food labels are responsible and accurate. The results should also remind dietetic practitioners, who are the nutrition experts, of their continual role in providing and ensuring accurate nutrition education to the public.

  4. MSFC Propulsion Systems Department Knowledge Management Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraccioli, Paul A.

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Knowledge Management (KM) project of the Propulsion Systems Department at Marshall Space Flight Center. KM is needed to support knowledge capture, preservation and to support an information sharing culture. The presentation includes the strategic plan for the KM initiative, the system requirements, the technology description, the User Interface and custom features, and a search demonstration.

  5. Knowledge Management System Model for Learning Organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Yousif; Monamad, Roshayu

    2017-01-01

    Based on the literature of knowledge management (KM), this paper reports on the progress of developing a new knowledge management system (KMS) model with components architecture that are distributed over the widely-recognised socio-technical system (STS) aspects to guide developers for selecting the most applicable components to support their KM…

  6. KNOWLEDGE AND XML BASED CAPP SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shijie; SONG Laigang

    2006-01-01

    In order to enhance the intelligent level of system and improve the interactivity with other systems, a knowledge and XML based computer aided process planning (CAPP) system is implemented. It includes user management, bill of materials(BOM) management, knowledge based process planning, knowledge management and database maintaining sub-systems. This kind of nesting knowledge representation method the system provided can represent complicated arithmetic and logical relationship to deal with process planning tasks. With the representation and manipulation of XML based technological file, the system solves some important problems in web environment such as information interactive efficiency and refreshing of web page. The CAPP system is written in ASP VBScript, JavaScript, Visual C++ languages and Oracle database. At present, the CAPP system is running in Shenyang Machine Tools. The functions of it meet the requirements of enterprise production.

  7. CRESST Human Performance Knowledge Mapping System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chung, Gregory K; Michiuye, Joanne K; Brill, David G; Sinha, Ravi; Saadat, Farzad; de Vries, Linda F; Delacruz, Girlie C; Bewley, William L; Baker, Eva L

    2002-01-01

    .... This report presents a review of knowledge mapping scoring methods and current online mapping systems, and the overall design, functionality, scoring, usability testing, and authoring capabilities of the CRESST system...

  8. Preschool-aged children’s understanding of gratitude: Relations with emotion and mental state knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A.; de Lucca Freitas, Lia Beatriz; O’Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Developmental precursors to children’s early understanding of gratitude were examined. A diverse group of 263 children were tested for emotion and mental state knowledge at ages 3 and 4, and their understanding of gratitude was measured at age 5. Children varied widely in their understanding of gratitude, but most understood some aspects of gratitude-eliciting situations. A model-building path analysis approach was used to examine longitudinal relations among early emotion and mental state knowledge and later understanding of gratitude. Children with a better early understanding of emotions and mental states understand more about gratitude. Mental state knowledge at age 4 mediated the relation between emotion knowledge at age 3 and gratitude understanding at age 5. The current study contributes to the scant literature on the early emergence of children’s understanding of gratitude. PMID:23331105

  9. Knowledge Modelling for a Hotel Recommendation System

    OpenAIRE

    B. A. Gobin; R. K. Subramanian

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge modelling, a main activity for the development of Knowledge Based Systems, have no set standards and are mostly done in an ad hoc way. There is a lack of support for the transition from abstract level to implementation. In this paper, a methodology for the development of the knowledge model, which is inspired by both Software and Knowledge Engineering, is proposed. Use of UML which is the de-facto standard for modelling in the software engineering arena is explored for knowledge mod...

  10. Current Hitachi knowledge engineering systems: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masui, S; Maeda, A; Masuishi, T [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1992-02-01

    In order to bring the knowledge engineering technology up to the practical phase, Hitachi has provided several knowledge engineering system products, including expert system building tools, knowledge acquisition tools, and many kinds of stand-alone and build-in expert systems in both the business and process control fields. In this review article, an overview of Hitachi{prime}s recent knowledge systems is described, which includes a trend analysis on recent market recognition. In addition, to introduce the Hitachi{prime}s current activities, a new product, a user interface building tool, and a new method of tuning fuzzy membership functions using a neuro-computing algorithm are also described. Furthermore, it is pointed out that not only practical tools and methodologies, but also a practical development team, including a planning section, a cooperating expert, a user section, and experienced knowledge engineers, is needed to achieve practical expert systems. 20 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  11. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Torres

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available At present, knowledge and information are considered vital resources for organizations, so some of them have realized that the creation, transfer and knowledge management are essential for success. This paper aims to demonstrate knowledge management as a transformative power for organizations using information systems; addressing the study from the interpretive perspective with the use of hermeneutical method in theory, documentary context. It is concluded that people living in a changing characteristic environment of the globalized world companies and motivated by the same company changes have accelerated in them the generation and acquisition of new knowledge and innovative capabilities to achieve competitive positions with the help of systems of information.

  12. Understanding "Understanding" Flow for Network-Centric Warfare: Military Knowledge-Flow Mechanics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nissen, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Network-centric warfare (NCW) emphasizes information superiority for battlespace efficacy, but it is clear that the mechanics of how knowledge flows are just as important as those pertaining to the networks and communication...

  13. Sustainability of Italian wines: Knowledge, understanding, and interest of consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borra Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuous consumption of resources and the progressive climatic changes have contributed to develop a new range of products with a “greener” vocation. After the shift to organic and biodynamic production, companies have started to promote products' sustainability. The wine sector has undergone a transformation connected with the emergence of several projects related to the concept of sustainability. But what the consumer knows and thinks of all this? In this regard, it was carried out a study about the perception of the consumer on issues related to sustainability. The goals are multiple: to define the concept of sustainability perceived by consumers, to evaluate the spread of eco-friendly products, to measure the interest and willingness in spending on these products and finally to assess the knowledge of the main brands that identify some sustainable projects. Thanks to this first part that fits into a larger study still in progress, it was possible to obtain an initial assessment of the motivations that influence the purchase of wine, learn more about the consumer on these issues and assess the prevalence of brands associated with each of these major projects on the Italian scene.

  14. A knowledge based system for plant diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motoda, H.; Yamada, N.; Yoshida, K.

    1984-01-01

    A knowledge based system for plant diagnosis is proposed in which both event-oriented and function-oriented knowledge are used. For the proposed system to be of practical use, these two types of knowledge are represented by mutually nested four frames, i.e. the component, causality, criteriality, and simulator frames, and production rules. The system provides fast inference capability for use as both a production system and a formal reasoning system, with uncertainty of knowledge taken into account in the former. Event-oriented knowledge is used in both diagnosis and guidance and function-oriented knowledge, in diagnosis only. The inference capability required is forward chaining in the former and resolution in the latter. The causality frame guides in the use of event-oriented knowledge, whereas the criteriality frame does so for function-oriented knowledge. Feedback nature of the plant requires the best first search algorithm that uses histories in the resolution process. The inference program is written in Lisp and the plant simulator and the process I/O control programs in Fortran. Fast data transfer between these two languages is realized by enhancing the memory management capability of Lisp to control the numerical data in the global memory. Simulation applications to a BWR plant demonstrated its diagnostic capability

  15. Knowledge-based diagnosis for aerospace systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, David J.

    1988-01-01

    The need for automated diagnosis in aerospace systems and the approach of using knowledge-based systems are examined. Research issues in knowledge-based diagnosis which are important for aerospace applications are treated along with a review of recent relevant research developments in Artificial Intelligence. The design and operation of some existing knowledge-based diagnosis systems are described. The systems described and compared include the LES expert system for liquid oxygen loading at NASA Kennedy Space Center, the FAITH diagnosis system developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the PES procedural expert system developed at SRI International, the CSRL approach developed at Ohio State University, the StarPlan system developed by Ford Aerospace, the IDM integrated diagnostic model, and the DRAPhys diagnostic system developed at NASA Langley Research Center.

  16. Current trends on knowledge-based systems

    CERN Document Server

    Valencia-García, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    This book presents innovative and high-quality research on the implementation of conceptual frameworks, strategies, techniques, methodologies, informatics platforms and models for developing advanced knowledge-based systems and their application in different fields, including Agriculture, Education, Automotive, Electrical Industry, Business Services, Food Manufacturing, Energy Services, Medicine and others. Knowledge-based technologies employ artificial intelligence methods to heuristically address problems that cannot be solved by means of formal techniques. These technologies draw on standard and novel approaches from various disciplines within Computer Science, including Knowledge Engineering, Natural Language Processing, Decision Support Systems, Artificial Intelligence, Databases, Software Engineering, etc. As a combination of different fields of Artificial Intelligence, the area of Knowledge-Based Systems applies knowledge representation, case-based reasoning, neural networks, Semantic Web and TICs used...

  17. Gulf War Syndrome: a review of current knowledge and understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshall, D

    2014-01-01

    The 1991 Persian Gulf War was a resounding military success for coalition forces, who liberated Kuwait following the Iraqi invasion. The medical legacy we have from the conflict is the poorly understood, yet remarkable, phenomenon of Gulf War Syndrome, which surfaced soon after. Epidemiological research has proven beyond doubt that Gulf War veterans report a wide variety of symptoms, in excess of appropriately matched control subjects, and experience worse general health. Numerous toxic environmental hazards have been suggested as causes of Gulf War Syndrome, yet exhaustive scientific study has failed to provide conclusive proof of any link. No novel or recognised disease has been found to account for the symptomatic burden of veterans, and the optimal treatment remains uncertain. This understanding can be added to from an anthropological perspective, where the narratives of those afflicted provide further insight. The nature of military life was changing at the time of the Gulf War, challenging the identity and beliefs of some veterans and causing socio-cultural distress. The symptomatic presentation of Gulf War Syndrome can be considered an articulation of this disharmony. Gulf War Syndrome can also be considered within the group of post-combat disorders such as shellshock, the like of which have occurred after major wars in the last century. With the current withdrawal from Afghanistan, the Defence Medical Services (DMS) should heed the lessons of history.

  18. Innovation system and knowledge-intensive entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermans, Bram

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this deliverable is to investigate the properties and the nature of knowledge-intensive entrepreneurship as a largely distributed phenomenon at firm, sector and national levels in Denmark. Following the guidelines previously developed in the Deliverable 2.2.1 “Innovation systems...... and knowledge-intensive entrepreneurship: Analytical framework and guidelines for case study research” I will investigate the interplay between national innovation systems and knowledge- intensive entrepreneurship by focusing on two main sectors: machine tools, and computer and related activities....

  19. A Foundation for Understanding Knowledge Sharing: Organizational Culture, Informal Workplace Learning, Performance Support, and Knowledge Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Shirley J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper serves as an exploration into some of the ways in which organizations can promote, capture, share, and manage the valuable knowledge of their employees. The problem is that employees typically do not share valuable information, skills, or expertise with other employees or with the entire organization. The author uses research as well as…

  20. Preschool-Aged Children's Understanding of Gratitude: Relations with Emotion and Mental State Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A.; de Lucca Freitas, Lia Beatriz; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Developmental precursors to children's early understanding of gratitude were examined. A diverse group of 263 children was tested for emotion and mental state knowledge at ages 3 and 4, and their understanding of gratitude was measured at age 5. Children varied widely in their understanding of gratitude, but most understood some aspects of…

  1. Intrusion Detection Systems with Live Knowledge System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-31

    people try to reveal sensitive information of Internet users, also called as phishing. Phishing detection has received great attention but there has...node. Figure 3 describes the result of modified nodes from the original RDR rule tree. Red- coloured ‘X’ sign represents the stopping rule, and the...green- coloured boxes describe the refined rule. However, when human knowledge is applied to those incorrectly classified data, not all of the

  2. Home Environment Service Knowledge Management System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jiang; Rossello Busquet, Ana; Soler, José

    2011-01-01

    This paper makes three contributions to assist households to control their home devices in an easy way and to simplify the software installation and configuration processes across multi-vendor environments. First, a Home Environment Service Knowledge Management System is proposed, which is based...... on the knowledge implemented by ontology and uses the inference function of reasoner to find out available software services according to household requests. Second, this paper provides a concrete methodology to exploit and acquire conflict-free information from ontology knowledge by using a reasoner. At last......, a strategy of calculating the sequence of service dependency hierarchy is proposed by this paper....

  3. Understanding and controlling the enteric nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeckxstaens, G. E.

    2002-01-01

    The enteric nervous system or the `Little Brain' of the gut controls gastrointestinal motility and secretion, and is involved in visceral sensation. In this chapter, new developments in understanding the function of the enteric nervous system are described. In particular, the interaction of this

  4. Knowledge Mobilisation in the Polish Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazlagic, Jan; Erkol, Arif

    2015-01-01

    Poland has made substantial progress in improving the quality of its education system in recent years. This paper aims to describe the situation of the Polish education system from a knowledge management perspective and, to some extent, through innovation policies in education. The many challenges, this paper argues, can be tackled only through…

  5. African Traditional Knowledge Systems and Biodiversity Management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a link between African Traditional Knowledge Systems and the management of Biodiversity. These have been passed over from one generation to the next through oral tradition. The lack of documentation of these systems of managing biodiversity has led to the existence of a gap between the scientifi cally based ...

  6. Crucial knowledge gaps in current understanding of climate change impacts on coral reef fishes

    KAUST Repository

    Wilson, S. K.; Adjeroud, M.; Bellwood, D. R.; Berumen, Michael L.; Booth, D.; Bozec, Y.-M.; Chabanet, P.; Cheal, A.; Cinner, J.; Depczynski, M.; Feary, D. A.; Gagliano, M.; Graham, N. A. J.; Halford, A. R.; Halpern, B. S.; Harborne, A. R.; Hoey, A. S.; Holbrook, S. J.; Jones, G. P.; Kulbiki, M.; Letourneur, Y.; De Loma, T. L.; McClanahan, T.; McCormick, M. I.; Meekan, M. G.; Mumby, P. J.; Munday, P. L.; Ohman, M. C.; Pratchett, M. S.; Riegl, B.; Sano, M.; Schmitt, R. J.; Syms, C.

    2010-01-01

    Expert opinion was canvassed to identify crucial knowledge gaps in current understanding of climate change impacts on coral reef fishes. Scientists that had published three or more papers on the effects of climate and environmental factors on reef

  7. Water Diplomacy: A Synthesis of Water Information and Understanding to Create Actionable Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y.; Islam, S.

    2010-12-01

    Water issues are complex because they cross multiple boundaries and involve various stakeholders with competing needs. The origin of many water issues is a dynamic consequence of competition and feedback among variables in the natural, societal and political domains. When viewed as a limited resource, water lends itself to destructive conflicts over its division; knowledge of water, however, can transform a finite water quantity into a flexible resource. To generate such a transformative knowledge base for water, we need a framework to synthesize explicit (scientific information) and tacit (contextual understanding) water knowledge. Such a framework must build on scientific objectivity and be cognizant of contextual differences inherent to water issues. An example of such an approach is qualitative reasoning (QR) that was developed by the artificial intelligence community to provide non-numerical descriptions of systems and their qualitative and quantitative behavior while preserving important behavioral properties and qualitative distinctions. Using the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin (ACF Basin) as an example we will illustrate the use of QR to model and analyze water conflicts in the context of a coupled Natural and Societal Domain (NSD) framework. Two QR models related to the ACF water dispute will be compared and contrasted. Our results suggest that QR models within a NSD framework can provide ways to resolve complex water problems through negotiated solutions.

  8. Understanding Sources of Knowledge for Coaches of Athletes with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Dany J.; Beck, Katie; Erickson, Karl; Côté, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent research has investigated development of coaching knowledge; however, less research has investigated the development of coaches who coach athletes with intellectual disabilities. The purpose of this study was to understand how coaches of athletes with intellectual disabilities gain their knowledge. Method: Forty-five Special…

  9. Connecting the Dots: Understanding the Flow of Research Knowledge within a Research Brokering Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodway, Joelle

    2015-01-01

    Networks are frequently cited as an important knowledge mobilization strategy; however, there is little empirical research that considers how they connect research and practice. Taking a social network perspective, I explore how central office personnel find, understand and share research knowledge within a research brokering network. This mixed…

  10. Towards Modern Collaborative Knowledge Sharing Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Świrski, Konrad

    2012-01-01

    The development of new technologies still accelerates. As a result the requirement of easy access to high quality information is essential in modern scientific society. We believe that new cloud-based online system will replace the old system of books and magazines in the future. This is mainly because contemporary system of journal and conference publications appears to be outdated, especially in such domains as computer science, because process of publishing of an article takes too much time. In this book a new approach of sharing knowledge is proposed. The main idea behind this new approach is to take advantage of collaboration techniques used in industry to share the knowledge and build teams which work on the same subject at different locations. This will allow to accelerate the exchange of information between scientists and allow to build global teams of researchers who deal with the same scientific subjects. Furthermore, an easy access to structured knowledge will facilitate cross domain cooperation. T...

  11. Study on supporting system for operator's comprehensive understanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Shinji

    1996-01-01

    Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. has participated in the development of a system to support the process of operator's plant understanding by the use of information processing techniques such as artificial intelligence since 1994. Analysis and model formation of the process leading to operator's comprehensive understanding of plant (mental model) are undertaken attempting to determine the basic structure of the mental model available for the description of knowledge using the precedent survey and to observe how to utilize operator's own knowledge. After consideration of the way by which plant operators utilize their physical knowledges and the knowledges of physical observation in practice, a basic structure composed of 3 components a qualitative causal network, a hierarchical function model and 3 links joining the two was proposed for the mental model. A questionnaire survey on operator's statements was made and the contents were assigned in several categories for objective analysis. An unified form usable to make a data base was established. Further, we have a plan to develop the first proto-type system to promote operator's understanding by 1998. (M.N.)

  12. Value Creation through IT-supported Knowledge Management? The Utilisation of a Knowledge Management System in a Global Consulting Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlheinz Kautz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Although many consulting companies have introduced IT-supported knowledge-management systems, and proponents of the literature continue to advocate knowledge management as a key to competitive advantage in consultancies, many knowledge management systems have fallen short of expectation in companies that have adopted them. However, empirical studies regarding the performance implications of these systems are missing. This paper reports such an empirical, explorative study identifying the extent as well as impediments of the utilization of an IT-supported knowledge management system in a large, global consulting company. The main findings are that the majority of the IT users are not familiar with the knowledge management framework of the company; still the knowledge management system is used by 3/4 of all respondents, but mainly to search for general information, much less to participate in competence networks to develop shared knowledge assets. The knowledge management system is not used as the primary repository and communication media for knowledge assets. The limited use is explained by the practitioners as being caused by lack of time and their perception of the system as a slow and poorly structured technical infrastructure. These and other findings are discussed with regard to the current understanding of knowledge management as presented by the literature, and important issues with regard to future research integrating individual, organisational, technical and economical perspectives of knowledge management are raised.

  13. Knowledge-based information systems in practice

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi; Watada, Junzo; Howlett, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This book contains innovative research from leading researchers who presented their work at the 17th International Conference on Knowledge-Based and Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems, KES 2013, held in Kitakyusha, Japan, in September 2013. The conference provided a competitive field of 236 contributors, from which 38 authors expanded their contributions and only 21 published. A plethora of techniques and innovative applications are represented within this volume. The chapters are organized using four themes. These topics include: data mining, knowledge management, advanced information processes and system modelling applications. Each topic contains multiple contributions and many offer case studies or innovative examples. Anyone that wants to work with information repositories or process knowledge should consider reading one or more chapters focused on their technique of choice. They may also benefit from reading other chapters to assess if an alternative technique represents a more suitable app...

  14. Understanding the Implementation of Knowledge Management in High-Performance Schools in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmad Sukor Ab. Samad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to assess the implementation of policies in high-performance schools (HPS. One hundred fifty-two administrators in 52 HPS were selected using full sampling. Only two factors serve as contributors in knowledge management model for high-performing schools in Malaysia, which were school culture and school strategy. Whereas the correlation indicated that all 10 factors, namely, mission and vision, school strategy, school culture, intellectual modal, learning organization, leadership management, teamwork and learning community, knowledge sharing, new knowledge generation, and digital advancement, have significant relationships with the understanding of knowledge management, at different levels.

  15. From spoken narratives to domain knowledge: mining linguistic data for medical image understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuan; Yu, Qi; Alm, Cecilia Ovesdotter; Calvelli, Cara; Pelz, Jeff B; Shi, Pengcheng; Haake, Anne R

    2014-10-01

    Extracting useful visual clues from medical images allowing accurate diagnoses requires physicians' domain knowledge acquired through years of systematic study and clinical training. This is especially true in the dermatology domain, a medical specialty that requires physicians to have image inspection experience. Automating or at least aiding such efforts requires understanding physicians' reasoning processes and their use of domain knowledge. Mining physicians' references to medical concepts in narratives during image-based diagnosis of a disease is an interesting research topic that can help reveal experts' reasoning processes. It can also be a useful resource to assist with design of information technologies for image use and for image case-based medical education systems. We collected data for analyzing physicians' diagnostic reasoning processes by conducting an experiment that recorded their spoken descriptions during inspection of dermatology images. In this paper we focus on the benefit of physicians' spoken descriptions and provide a general workflow for mining medical domain knowledge based on linguistic data from these narratives. The challenge of a medical image case can influence the accuracy of the diagnosis as well as how physicians pursue the diagnostic process. Accordingly, we define two lexical metrics for physicians' narratives--lexical consensus score and top N relatedness score--and evaluate their usefulness by assessing the diagnostic challenge levels of corresponding medical images. We also report on clustering medical images based on anchor concepts obtained from physicians' medical term usage. These analyses are based on physicians' spoken narratives that have been preprocessed by incorporating the Unified Medical Language System for detecting medical concepts. The image rankings based on lexical consensus score and on top 1 relatedness score are well correlated with those based on challenge levels (Spearman correlation>0.5 and Kendall

  16. Learning object repositories as knowledge management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetrios G. Sampson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past years, a number of international initiatives that recognize the importance of sharing and reusing digital educational resources among educational communities through the use of Learning Object Repositories (LORs have emerged. Typically, these initiatives focus on collecting digital educational resources that are offered by their creators for open access and potential reuse. Nevertheless, most of the existing LORs are designed more as digital repositories, rather than as Knowledge Management Systems (KMS. By exploiting KMSs functionalities in LORs would bare the potential to support the organization and sharing of educational communities’ explicit knowledge (depicted in digital educational resources constructed by teachers and/or instructional designers and tacit knowledge (depicted in teachers’ and students’ experiences and interactions of using digital educational resources available in LORs. Within this context, in this paper we study the design and the implementation of fourteen operating LORs from the KMSs’ perspective, so as to identify additional functionalities that can support the management of educational communities’ explicit and tacit knowledge. Thus, we propose a list of essential LORs’ functionalities, which aim to facilitate the organization and sharing of educational communities’ knowledge. Finally, we present the added value of these functionalities by identifying their importance towards addressing the current demands of web-facilitated educational communities, as well as the knowledge management activities that they execute.

  17. Japanese Children's Understanding of Notational Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Noboru

    2012-01-01

    This study examined Japanese children's understanding of two Japanese notational systems: "hiragana" and "kanji". In three experiments, 126 3- to 6-year-olds were asked to name words written in hiragana or kanji as they appeared with different pictures. Consistent with Bialystok ("Journal of Experimental Child…

  18. Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Welcome to Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IAJIKS). The name Indilinga: stands for the "circular orientation" of indigenous African communities which is exhibited in their material culture and behaviour. The journal has been motivated by the need for a dependable expression ...

  19. Knowledge representation and use. I. Expert systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauriere, J L

    1982-01-01

    Expert systems are designed as aids in human reasoning in various specific areas. Symbolic knowledge manipulation, uncertain and incomplete deduction capabilities, natural communication with humans in non-procedural ways are their essential features. The paper describes their design and several implementations. 105 references.

  20. Knowledge Systems and Natural Resources: Management, Policy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2007-10-31

    Oct 31, 2007 ... Knowledge Systems and Natural Resources is a unique collection of case studies from Nepal. ... and students of social and political sciences and natural resource management. ... Nepal and founding Editor of the Journal of Forest and Livelihood. ... Ideas from the global climate change hotspot research.

  1. Understanding Nuclear Safety Culture: A Systemic Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afghan, A.N.

    2016-01-01

    The Fukushima accident was a systemic failure (Report by Director General IAEA on the Fukushima Daiichi Accident). Systemic failure is a failure at system level unlike the currently understood notion which regards it as the failure of component and equipment. Systemic failures are due to the interdependence, complexity and unpredictability within systems and that is why these systems are called complex adaptive systems (CAS), in which “attractors” play an important role. If we want to understand the systemic failures we need to understand CAS and the role of these attractors. The intent of this paper is to identify some typical attractors (including stakeholders) and their role within complex adaptive system. Attractors can be stakeholders, individuals, processes, rules and regulations, SOPs etc., towards which other agents and individuals are attracted. This paper will try to identify attractors in nuclear safety culture and influence of their assumptions on safety culture behavior by taking examples from nuclear industry in Pakistan. For example, if the nuclear regulator is an attractor within nuclear safety culture CAS then how basic assumptions of nuclear plant operators and shift in-charges about “regulator” affect their own safety behavior?

  2. Dynamic systems for everyone understanding how our world works

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Asish

    2015-01-01

    This book is a study of the interactions between different types of systems, their environment, and their subsystems.  The author explains how basic systems principles are applied in engineered (mechanical, electromechanical, etc.) systems and then guides the reader to understand how the same principles can be applied to social, political, economic systems, as well as in everyday life.  Readers from a variety of disciplines will benefit from the understanding of system behaviors and will be able to apply those principles in various contexts.  The book includes many examples covering various types of systems.  The treatment of the subject is non-mathematical, and the book considers some of the latest concepts in the systems discipline, such as agent-based systems, optimization, and discrete events and procedures.  ·         Shows how system knowledge may be applied in many different areas without the need for deep mathematical knowledge; ·         Demonstrates how to model and simulate s...

  3. Knowledge-based systems programming for knowledge intensive teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achten, H.H.; Dijkstra, J.; Oxman, R.M.; Colajanni, B.; Pellitteri, G.

    1995-01-01

    Typological design implies extensive knowledge of building types in order to design a building belonging to a building type. It facilitates the design process, which can be considered as a sequence of decisions. The paper gives an outline of a new approach in a course teaching typological knowledge

  4. Knowledge-based systems programming for knowledge intensive teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achten, H.H.; Dijkstra, J.; Oxman, R.M.; Bax, M.F.T.

    1994-01-01

    Typological design implies extensive knowledge of building types in order to design a building belonging to a building type. It facilitates the design process, which can be considered as a sequence of decisions. The paper gives an outline of a new approach in a course teaching typological knowledge

  5. Dynamic systems for everyone understanding how our world works

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Asish

    2017-01-01

    Systems are everywhere and we are surrounded by them. We are a complex amalgam of systems that enable us to interact with an endless array of external systems in our daily lives. They are electrical, mechanical, social, biological, and many other types that control our environment and our well-being. By appreciating how these systems function, will broaden our understanding of how our world works. Readers from a variety of disciplines will benefit from the knowledge of system behavior they will gain from this book and will be able to apply those principles in various contexts. The treatment of the subject is non-mathematical, and the book considers some of the latest concepts in the systems discipline, such as agent based systems, optimization, and discrete events and procedures. The diverse range of examples provided in this book, will allow readers to: Apply system knowledge at work and in daily life without deep mathematical knowledge; Build models and simulate system behaviors on a personal computer; Opti...

  6. Knowledge-based methods for control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis consists of three projects which combine artificial intelligence and control. The first part describes an expert system interface for system identification, using the interactive identification program Idpac. The interface works as an intelligent help system, using the command spy strategy. It contains a multitude of help system ideas. The concept of scripts is introduced as a data structure used to describe the procedural part of the knowledge in the interface. Production rules are used to represent diagnostic knowledge. A small knowledge database of scripts and rules has been developed and an example run is shown. The second part describes an expert system for frequency response analysis. This is one of the oldest and most widely used methods to determine the dynamics of a stable linear system. Though quite simple, it requires knowledge and experience of the user, in order to produce reliable results. The expert system is designed to help the user in performing the analysis. It checks whether the system is linear, finds the frequency and amplitude ranges, verifies the results, and, if errors should occur, tries to give explanation and remedies for them. The third part describes three diagnostic methods for use with industrial processes. They are measurement validation, i.e., consistency checking of sensor and measurement values using any redundancy of instrumentation; alarm analysis, i.e. analysis of multiple alarm situations to find which alarms are directly connected to primary faults and which alarms are consequential effects of the primary ones; and fault diagnosis, i.e., a search for the causes of and remedies for faults. The three methods use multilevel flow models, (MFM), to describe the target process. They have been implemented in the programming tool G2, and successfully tested on two small processes. (164 refs.) (au)

  7. Aiming for knowledge information processing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchi, K

    1982-01-01

    The Fifth Generation Computer Project in Japan intends to develop a new generation of computers by extensive research in many areas. This paper discusses many research topics which the Japanese are hoping will lead to a radical new knowledge information processing system. Topics discussed include new computer architecture, programming styles, semantics of programming languages, relational databases, linguistics theory, artificial intelligence, functional images and interference systems.

  8. Theories are knowledge organizing systems (KOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2015-01-01

    The notion “theory” is a neglected concept in the field of information science and knowledge organization (KO) as well as generally in philosophy and in many other fields, although there are exceptions from this general neglect (e.g., the so-called “theory theory” in cognitive psychology......-laden. The concept of knowledge organization system (KOS) is briefly introduced and discussed. A theory is a fundamental form of KOS and theories are the point of departure of any KOS. It is generally understood in KO that concepts are the units of KOS, but the theory-dependence of concepts brings theories...

  9. Understanding the Influence of knowledge-sharing in Project Portfolio Management in professional services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Mads Lyngsø; Horsager, Betina; Tambo, Torben

    2016-01-01

    that combine the entire project-, program and portfolio life-cycle. The information processing must facilitate controlled knowledge flows and learnings, while helping the project managers to reduce non-productive knowledge acquisition. This is accomplished with a balance between the need for knowledge....... As critical findings of the paper are observations, characterization of knowledge-sharing and -management processes between clients, consultants, consultants-as-a-community, and senior management with information systems often in a retrospective position according to the immediate needs of PPM....... As such there is found knowledge-based deficit in the precision of the PPM system. The originality of this paper relates to knowledge management studies in small professional services organization at the tipping point where KM changes from person-based to be institutionalized in information systems with having...

  10. Geochemistry and the Understanding of Groundwater Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, P. D.; Plummer, L. N.; Weissmann, G. S.; Stute, M.

    2009-12-01

    Geochemical techniques and concepts have made major contributions to the understanding of groundwater systems. Advances continue to be made through (1) development of measurement and characterization techniques, (2) improvements in computer technology, networks and numerical modeling, (3) investigation of coupled geologic, hydrologic, geochemical and biologic processes, and (4) scaling of individual observations, processes or subsystem models into larger coherent model frameworks. Many applications benefit from progress in these areas, such as: (1) understanding paleoenvironments, in particular paleoclimate, through the use of groundwater archives, (2) assessing the sustainability (recharge and depletion) of groundwater resources, and (3) their vulnerability to contamination, (4) evaluating the capacity and consequences of subsurface waste isolation (e.g. geologic carbon sequestration, nuclear and chemical waste disposal), (5) assessing the potential for mitigation/transformation of anthropogenic contaminants in groundwater systems, and (6) understanding the effect of groundwater lag times in ecosystem-scale responses to natural events, land-use changes, human impacts, and remediation efforts. Obtaining “representative” groundwater samples is difficult and progress in obtaining “representative” samples, or interpreting them, requires new techniques in characterizing groundwater system heterogeneity. Better characterization and simulation of groundwater system heterogeneity (both physical and geochemical) is critical to interpreting the meaning of groundwater “ages”; to understanding and predicting groundwater flow, solute transport, and geochemical evolution; and to quantifying groundwater recharge and discharge processes. Research advances will also come from greater use and progress (1) in the application of environmental tracers to ground water dating and in the analysis of new geochemical tracers (e.g. compound specific isotopic analyses, noble gas

  11. ERP System Audit a Control Support For Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traian SURCEL

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The ERP system supports most of the business system that maintains in a single database the data needed for a variety of business functions such as Manufacturing, SCM, Financials, Projects, Human Resources and CRM; the audit of this systems is necessary in order to give reasonable assurance to the company on its core system. Obtained evidence evaluation can ensure whether the organization's IT&C system safeguard assets, maintains data integrity, and is operating effectively and efficiently to achieve the organization's goals or objectives. The audit process respecting the methodology based on: gathering information and plan; obtaining an understanding of internal controls; performing test of controls and substantive tests, develop a control support on quality of flow of information and knowledge from formal perspective, for Knowledge Management in large enterprises.

  12. Understanding A Special Operations Role: Network Caretakers Of Knowledge-Based Communities Of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    contextual understanding of an area. In Team of Teams, the landmark doctrinal book describing McChrystalian management styles , the author writes, “Team...4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington, DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2...practice, design, knowledge management , knowledge, learning, Libya, organizational design, SOCAFRICA, Special Operations, strategic arena 15. NUMBER OF

  13. NASDA knowledge-based network planning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaya, K.; Fujiwara, M.; Kosugi, S.; Yambe, M.; Ohmori, M.

    1993-01-01

    One of the SODS (space operation and data system) sub-systems, NP (network planning) was the first expert system used by NASDA (national space development agency of Japan) for tracking and control of satellite. The major responsibilities of the NP system are: first, the allocation of network and satellite control resources and, second, the generation of the network operation plan data (NOP) used in automated control of the stations and control center facilities. Up to now, the first task of network resource scheduling was done by network operators. NP system automatically generates schedules using its knowledge base, which contains information on satellite orbits, station availability, which computer is dedicated to which satellite, and how many stations must be available for a particular satellite pass or a certain time period. The NP system is introduced.

  14. Knowledge to Action - Understanding Natural Hazards-Induced Power Outage Scenarios for Actionable Disaster Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, B.; Robinson, C.; Koch, D. B.; Omitaomu, O.

    2017-12-01

    The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 identified the following four priorities to prevent and reduce disaster risks: i) understanding disaster risk; ii) strengthening governance to manage disaster risk; iii) investing in disaster risk reduction for resilience and; iv) enhancing disaster preparedness for effective response, and to "Build Back Better" in recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction. While forecasting and decision making tools are in place to predict and understand future impacts of natural hazards, the knowledge to action approach that currently exists fails to provide updated information needed by decision makers to undertake response and recovery efforts following a hazard event. For instance, during a tropical storm event advisories are released every two to three hours, but manual analysis of geospatial data to determine potential impacts of the event tends to be time-consuming and a post-event process. Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have developed a Spatial Decision Support System that enables real-time analysis of storm impact based on updated advisory. A prototype of the tool that focuses on determining projected power outage areas and projected duration of outages demonstrates the feasibility of integrating science with decision making for emergency management personnel to act in real time to protect communities and reduce risk.

  15. Media System, Public Knowledge and Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka; Curran, James; Iyengar, Shanto

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the implications of the movement towards entertainment-centred, market-driven media by comparing what is reported and what the public knows in four countries with different media systems. The different systems are public service (Denmark and Finland), a `dual' model (UK) an...... consumption and contributes to a smaller within-nation knowledge gap between the advantaged and disadvantaged. But wider processes in society take precedence over the organization of the media in determining how much people know about public life......) and the market model (US). The comparison shows that public service television devotes more attention to public affairs and international news, and fosters greater knowledge in these areas, than the market model. Public service television also gives greater prominence to news, encourages higher levels of news...

  16. Automated knowledge acquisition - an aid to understanding the actions of a skilled operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    The operator of an accelerator experiment often appears to be a highly skilled magician. The diagnostics used, such as oscilloscope traces, may be only indirectly related to the state of the accelerator. The operator adjusts the knobs so that the experiment runs well, but is not always able to describe in words exactly what is happening. The tool described in this paper, acc-plot-tool, was developed as a supplement to note-taking while attempting to develop an expert system that might function as an apprentice operator. During an experiment, a historical record is made of all operator actions and the resulting changes in the state of the equipment, including digitized records of the oscilloscope traces used to make decisions. These records are transformed into a set of graphical objects in the knowledge engineering environment (KEE). A flexible set of KEE functions has been developed, allowing both graphical and numerical manipulation of the data. The acc-plot-tool is not only useful in helping to understand the operator's actions, but also in discovering correlations between operator actions and system-parameter changes, in detecting equipment failures and in the mathematical modeling of the system. Examples will be given from ion-source operation. (orig.)

  17. Aware Computing in Spatial Language Understanding Guided by Cognitively Inspired Knowledge Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Yokota

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental image directed semantic theory (MIDST has proposed an omnisensory mental image model and its description language Lmd. This language is designed to represent and compute human intuitive knowledge of space and can provide multimedia expressions with intermediate semantic descriptions in predicate logic. It is hypothesized that such knowledge and semantic descriptions are controlled by human attention toward the world and therefore subjective to each human individual. This paper describes Lmd expression of human subjective knowledge of space and its application to aware computing in cross-media operation between linguistic and pictorial expressions as spatial language understanding.

  18. Knowledge Systems and Natural Resources : Management, Policy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    31 oct. 2007 ... Depuis quelques années, les chercheurs, les responsables des politiques et les militants du développement s'intéressent fortement aux systèmes de connaissances. Knowledge Systems and Natural Resources est un recueil unique d'études de cas réalisées au Népal. Cet ouvrage apporte un éclairage ...

  19. Serving Diverse Knowledge Systems in Academia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William F. Birdsall

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Libraries and academic disciplines are experiencing a major transformation to the digital era. A challenge for libraries is to adapt and coordinate their transformation with differing rates and types of changes in teaching, research, and scholarly communication among the disciplines they serve. This paper argues libraries need to acknowledge the diversity of knowledge systems and adopt a strategy that requires collaboration between libraries and multiple communities of knowing in the development and provision of heterogeneous services.

  20. Does knowledge of seat design and whiplash injury mechanisms translate to understanding outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, Paul C

    2011-12-01

    Review of whiplash injury mechanisms and effects of anti-whiplash systems including active head restraint (AHR) and Whiplash Protection System (WHIPS). This article provides an overview of previous biomechanical and epidemiological studies of AHR and WHIPS and investigates whether seat design and biomechanical knowledge of proposed whiplash injury mechanisms translates to understanding outcomes of rear crash occupants. In attempt to reduce whiplash injuries, some newer automobiles incorporate anti-whiplash systems such as AHR or WHIPS. During a rear crash, mechanically based systems activate by occupant momentum pressing into the seatback whereas electronically based systems activate using crash sensors and an electronic control unit linked to the head restraint. To investigate the effects of AHR and WHIPS on occupant responses including head and neck loads and motions, biomechanical studies of simulated rear crashes have been performed using human volunteers, mathematical models, crash dummies, whole cadavers, and hybrid cadaveric/surrogate models. Epidemiological studies have evaluated the effects of AHR and WHIPS on reducing whiplash injury claims and lessening subjective complaints of neck pain after rear crashes. RESULTS.: Biomechanical studies indicate that AHR and WHIPS reduced the potential for some whiplash injuries but did not completely eliminate the injury risk. Epidemiological outcomes indicate reduced whiplash injury claims or subjective complaints of crash-related neck pain between 43 and 75% due to AHR and between 21% and 49% due to WHIPS as compared to conventional seats and head restraints. Yielding energy-absorbing seats aim to reduce occupant loads and accelerations whereas AHRs aim to provide early head support to minimize head and neck motions. Continued objective biomechanical and epidemiological studies of anti-whiplash systems together with industry, governmental, and clinical initiatives will ultimately lead to reduced whiplash injuries

  1. Moving beyond a knowledge deficit perspective to understand climate action by youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, K. C.

    2016-12-01

    This presentation reports on an experiment testing two framings of uncertainty on students' intent to take action to mitigate climate change. Additionally, to explore possible mechanisms involved in the choice of taking mitigating action, several factors highlighted within behavior theory literature were measured to create a theoretical model for youth's choice to take mitigating action. The factors explored were: knowledge, certainty, affect, efficacy, and social norms. The experiment was conducted with 453 middle and high school students within the Bay Area. Findings indicated that these students did hold a basic understanding of the causes and effects of climate change. They were worried and felt negatively about the topic. They felt somewhat efficacious about their personal ability to mitigate climate change. The students reported that they associated with people who were more likely to think climate change was real and caused by humans. Students also reported that they often take part in private pro-environmental behaviors such as using less electricity. When asked to respond freely to a question about what think about climate change, participants described the negative effects of human-caused climate change on Earth systems at the global scale and as a current phenomenon. The results of the experiment showed that while the text portraying climate change with high uncertainty did affect student's own certainty and their perception of scientists' certainty, it did not affect behavioral intention. This result can be explained through regression analysis. It was found that efficacy and social norms were direct determinants of pro-environmental behaviors. The cognitive variables - knowledge and certainty - and the psychological variable - affect - were not significant predictors of pro-environmental behavior. The implications for this study are that while students hold basic understanding of the causes and effects of climate change, this understanding lacks

  2. Describing Instrumental Music Teachers' Thinking: Implications for Understanding Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millican, J. Si

    2013-01-01

    Pedagogical content knowledge, the particular ways that teachers understand their subjects in order to instruct others, has been described and explored in the math and science education fields in some depth, yet little research exists illustrating this concept in music instruction. I used a descriptive approach to explore expert beginning band…

  3. Belief, Knowledge and Understanding: How to Deal with the Relations between Different Cultural Perspectives in Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-dos-Santos, Frederik; El-Hani, Charbel N.

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses how to deal with the relations between different cultural perspectives in classrooms, based on a proposal for considering understanding and knowledge as goals of science education, inspired by Dewey's naturalistic humanism. It thus combines educational and philosophical interests. In educational terms, our concerns relate to…

  4. Knowledge based systems for intelligent robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, N. S.

    1982-01-01

    It is pointed out that the construction of large space platforms, such as space stations, has to be carried out in the outer space environment. As it is extremely expensive to support human workers in space for large periods, the only feasible solution appears to be related to the development and deployment of highly capable robots for most of the tasks. Robots for space applications will have to possess characteristics which are very different from those needed by robots in industry. The present investigation is concerned with the needs of space robotics and the technologies which can be of assistance to meet these needs, giving particular attention to knowledge bases. 'Intelligent' robots are required for the solution of arising problems. The collection of facts and rules needed for accomplishing such solutions form the 'knowledge base' of the system.

  5. Dependency visualization for complex system understanding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smart, J. Allison Cory [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    With the volume of software in production use dramatically increasing, the importance of software maintenance has become strikingly apparent. Techniques now sought and developed for reverse engineering and design extraction and recovery. At present, numerous commercial products and research tools exist which are capable of visualizing a variety of programming languages and software constructs. The list of new tools and services continues to grow rapidly. Although the scope of the existing commercial and academic product set is quite broad, these tools still share a common underlying problem. The ability of each tool to visually organize object representations is increasingly impaired as the number of components and component dependencies within systems increases. Regardless of how objects are defined, complex ``spaghetti`` networks result in nearly all large system cases. While this problem is immediately apparent in modem systems analysis involving large software implementations, it is not new. As will be discussed in Chapter 2, related problems involving the theory of graphs were identified long ago. This important theoretical foundation provides a useful vehicle for representing and analyzing complex system structures. While the utility of directed graph based concepts in software tool design has been demonstrated in literature, these tools still lack the capabilities necessary for large system comprehension. This foundation must therefore be expanded with new organizational and visualization constructs necessary to meet this challenge. This dissertation addresses this need by constructing a conceptual model and a set of methods for interactively exploring, organizing, and understanding the structure of complex software systems.

  6. Border Crossing Knowledge Systems: A PNG Teacher's Autoethnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reta, Medi

    2010-01-01

    Narratives have always been integral to Indigenous knowledge transfer. In this autoethnography the author shares her border crossings between her Indigenous knowledge systems and the often dominant Western knowledge system. Pertinent to these experiences are the stark contrasts that exist between the two knowledge systems and their educational…

  7. Understanding Organizational Learning via Knowledge Management in Government-Link Companies in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmi, Asleena; Ahmad, Zainal Ariffin; Hung, Daisy Kee Mui

    The knowledge management or KM discipline conjures a host of understanding and impact upon the global business community albeit commercially or socially. Regardless of the different approach to KM, it has inarguably brought about changes in viewing the knowledge capabilities and capacities of organizations. Peter Drucker (1998) argued that knowledge has become the key economic resource and the only source of competitive advantage. Hence organizational learning is an integral part of KM initiatives and has been widely practiced in many large organizations and across nations such as Europe, North America and Asia Pacific. Thus, this paper explores the KM initiatives of government link companies (GLCs) in Malaysia via synergizing knowledge strategy and capabilities in order to achieve competitive advantage.

  8. Toward Knowledge Systems for Sustainability Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaks, D. P.; Jahn, M.

    2011-12-01

    Managing ecosystems for the outcomes of agricultural productivity and resilience will require fundamentally different knowledge management systems. In the industrial paradigm of the 20th century, land was considered an open, unconstrained system managed for maximum yield. While dramatic increases in yield occurred in some crops and locations, unintended but often foreseeable consequences emerged. While productivity remains a key objective, we must develop analytic systems that can identify better management options for the full range of monetized and non-monetized inputs, outputs and outcomes that are captured in the following framing question: How much valued service (e.g. food, materials, energy) can we draw from a landscape while maintaining adequate levels of other valued or necessary services (e.g. biodiversity, water, climate regulation, cultural services) including the long-term productivity of the land? This question is placed within our contemporary framing of valued services, but structured to illuminate the shifts required to achieve long-term sufficiency and planetary resilience. This framing also highlights the need for fundamentally new knowledge systems including information management infrastructures, which effectively support decision-making on landscapes. The purpose of this initiative by authors from diverse fields across government and academic science is to call attention to the need for a vision and investment in sustainability science for landscape management. Substantially enhanced capabilities are needed to compare and integrate information from diverse sources, collected over time that link choices made to meet our needs from landscapes to both short and long term consequences. To further the goal of an information infrastructure for sustainability science, three distinct but interlocking domains are best distinguished: 1) a domain of data, information and knowledge assets; 2) a domain that houses relevant models and tools in a curated

  9. Understanding and Modeling Teams As Dynamical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Jamie C.; Dunbar, Terri A.; Grimm, David; Gipson, Christina L.

    2017-01-01

    By its very nature, much of teamwork is distributed across, and not stored within, interdependent people working toward a common goal. In this light, we advocate a systems perspective on teamwork that is based on general coordination principles that are not limited to cognitive, motor, and physiological levels of explanation within the individual. In this article, we present a framework for understanding and modeling teams as dynamical systems and review our empirical findings on teams as dynamical systems. We proceed by (a) considering the question of why study teams as dynamical systems, (b) considering the meaning of dynamical systems concepts (attractors; perturbation; synchronization; fractals) in the context of teams, (c) describe empirical studies of team coordination dynamics at the perceptual-motor, cognitive-behavioral, and cognitive-neurophysiological levels of analysis, and (d) consider the theoretical and practical implications of this approach, including new kinds of explanations of human performance and real-time analysis and performance modeling. Throughout our discussion of the topics we consider how to describe teamwork using equations and/or modeling techniques that describe the dynamics. Finally, we consider what dynamical equations and models do and do not tell us about human performance in teams and suggest future research directions in this area. PMID:28744231

  10. Understanding Arsenic Dynamics in Agronomic Systems to ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review is on arsenic in agronomic systems, and covers processes that influence the entry of arsenic into the human food supply. The scope is from sources of arsenic (natural and anthropogenic) in soils, biogeochemical and rhizosphere processes that control arsenic speciation and availability, through to mechanisms of uptake by crop plants and potential mitigation strategies. This review makes a case for taking steps to prevent or limit crop uptake of arsenic, wherever possible, and to work toward a long-term solution to the presence of arsenic in agronomic systems. The past two decades have seen important advances in our understanding of how biogeochemical and physiological processes influence human exposure to soil arsenic, and thus must now prompt an informed reconsideration and unification of regulations to protect the quality of agricultural and residential soils. Consumption of staple foods such as rice, beverages such as apple juice, or vegetables grown in historically arsenic-contaminated soils is now recognized as a tangible route of arsenic exposure that, in many cases, is more significant than exposure from drinking water. Understanding the sources of arsenic to crop plants and the factors that influence them is key to reducing exposure now and preventing exposure in future. In addition to the abundant natural sources of arsenic, there are a large number of industrial and agricultural sources of arsenic to the soil; from mining wastes, coal fly

  11. Knowledge-based dialogue in Intelligent Decision Support Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollnagel, E.

    1987-01-01

    The overall goal for the design of Intelligent Decision Support Systems (IDSS) is to enhance understanding of the process under all operating conditions. For an IDSS to be effective, it must: select or generate the right information; produce reliable and consistent information; allow flexible and effective operator interaction; relate information presentation to current plant status and problems; and make the presentation at the right time. Several ongoing R and D programs try to design and build IDSSs. A particular example is the ESPRIT project Graphics and Knowledge Based Diaglogue for Dynamic Systems (GRADIENT). This project, the problems it addresses, and its uses, are discussed here

  12. Reconceptualizing the understanding of professional knowledge in day care work in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Camilla

    Re conceptualizing the understanding of professional knowledge in day care work As development of children’s competences increasingly sets the agenda for what counts as professional practice in day care, there is a risk that the majority of everyday practices become invisible, unnoticed and regar...... of departure in participative research conducted in day care institutions for 0-6 year olds, focusing on reconceptualizing pedagogical knowledge and paying attention to interrelations in every day practices.......Re conceptualizing the understanding of professional knowledge in day care work As development of children’s competences increasingly sets the agenda for what counts as professional practice in day care, there is a risk that the majority of everyday practices become invisible, unnoticed...... and regarded as unimportant in professional knowledge. Hence we lose sight of unique learning arenas for developing professional knowledge in day care work, and the everyday practices and routines are not considered to be in need for reflection and attention. The proposed presentation takes its’ point...

  13. Belief, Knowledge and Understanding. How to Deal with the Relations Between Different Cultural Perspectives in Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-dos-Santos, Frederik; El-Hani, Charbel N.

    2017-05-01

    This article discusses how to deal with the relations between different cultural perspectives in classrooms, based on a proposal for considering understanding and knowledge as goals of science education, inspired by Dewey's naturalistic humanism. It thus combines educational and philosophical interests. In educational terms, our concerns relate to how science teachers position themselves in multicultural classrooms. In philosophical terms, we are interested in discussing the relations between belief, understanding, and knowledge under the light of Dewey's philosophy. We present a synthesis of Dewey's theory of inquiry through his naturalistic humanism and discuss its implications for the concepts of belief, understanding, and knowledge, as well as for the goals of science teaching. In particular, we highlight problems arising in the context of possible conflicts between scientific and religious claims in the school environment that result from totalitarian positions. We characterize an individual's position as totalitarian if he or she takes some way of thinking as the only one capable of expressing the truth about all that exists in the world, lacks open-mindedness to understand different interpretative perspectives, and attempts to impose her or his interpretation about the facts to others by violent means or not. From this stance, any other perspective is taken to be false a priori and, accordingly, as a putative target to be suppressed or adapted to the privileged way of thinking. We argue, instead, for a more fallibilist evaluation of our own beliefs and a more respectful appraisal of the diversity of students' beliefs by both students and teachers.

  14. Applications of Ontologies in Knowledge Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Zobia; Kifor, Claudiu V.

    2014-12-01

    Enterprises are realizing that their core asset in 21st century is knowledge. In an organization knowledge resides in databases, knowledge bases, filing cabinets and peoples' head. Organizational knowledge is distributed in nature and its poor management causes repetition of activities across the enterprise. To get true benefits from this asset, it is important for an organization to "know what they know". That's why many organizations are investing a lot in managing their knowledge. Artificial intelligence techniques have a huge contribution in organizational knowledge management. In this article we are reviewing the applications of ontologies in knowledge management realm

  15. Nuclear knowledge management system in the regulatory activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosovskij, A.V.; Klevtsov, A.L.; Kravchenko, N.A.

    2010-01-01

    Important issues on collection, storage and spread of knowledge among organisation dealing with the use of nuclear technologies, role of close cooperation between enterprises and organizations in developing knowledge management, general requirements for creating a nuclear knowledge management system are considered. Recommendations and the main mechanisms are identified to create the knowledge management system in technical support organizations of the regulatory authority.

  16. Understanding Complex Construction Systems Through Modularity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tor Clarke; Bekdik, Baris; Thuesen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops a framework for understanding complexity in construction projects by combining theories of complexity management and modularization. The framework incorporates three dimensions of product, process, and organizational modularity with the case of gypsum wall elements. The analysis...... system, rather than a modular, although the industry forces modular organizational structures. This creates a high complexity degree caused by the non-alignment of building parts and organizations and the frequent swapping of modules....... finds that the main driver of complexity is the fragmentation of the design and production, which causes the production modules to construct and install new product types and variants for each project as the designers are swapped for every project. The many interfaces are characteristics of an integral...

  17. Computerized examination system on radioprotection knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanescu, Gabriel; Rosca Fartat, Gabriela; Ghilea, Simion

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the recognition system of the education and training in the field of radioprotection based on the examination system and the software solutions adopted by the regulatory authority in Romania. The Romanian Radiation Protection system is in place since 1950, when the first nuclear research reactor was built and activities involving radioactive sources started to be developed, and several developing phases were passed through. Linked to the Romanian Radiation Protection system an Education, Training and Recognition system was developed. The recognition of the competencies achieved by the personnel in the framework of the education and training system consists in obtaining a work permit. It is mandatory at least for the radiological safety officers to posses a work permit granted by the Romanian Regulatory Body (CNCAN) based on an examination of the radioprotection knowledge. The examination consists in solving a questionnaire on radioprotection and legislation issues. Each participant receives a questionnaire with 60 questions and has to solve it in a time limit of one hour. In 2007 the examination system has been improved by authors who designed a software and a database which contains all the questions and answers with related explanations. For each examination session the software generates randomly for each participant the examination questionnaire. More than 2000 questions and answers from the database are published on the web site of CNCAN for different fields of ionizing radiation applications. Moreover the generated questions and participant's answers are registered in order to perform the further analysis and review. The result is an objective and transparent examination system which encourages the continuous training and retraining. (author)

  18. Immediate And Retention Effects Of Teaching Games For Understanding Approach On Basketball Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olosová Gabriela

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU links tactics and skills by emphasizing the appropriate timing and application within the tactical context of the game. It has been linked to the development of enhanced tactical knowledge. The purpose of the study was to determine immediate and delayed effects of TGfU on procedural and declarative knowledge of basketball and to compare it with a technical approach. Experimental group (EG (11 fifth graders + 18 sixth graders was taught by TGfU and a control group (CG (16 fifth graders + 24 sixth graders was taught by a technical approach for 8 weeks in Physical Education (PE classes, both. A written test was constructed to evaluate pupils’ declarative and procedural knowledge of basketball. The test was applied after the intervention to determine immediate effects and 8 months after the intervention to determine retention effects of the experimental programme. Shapiro-Wilk test, Wilcoxon T-test, Man-Whitney U-test were used for statistical analysis of obtained data. Cohen’s d was used to calculate effect size. Generally basketball knowledge was better in EG than in CG after the intervention (p<0.05 what confirms moderate effect size. When declarative and procedural knowledge were analysed separately there was no significant difference between EG and CG. Nevertheless, moderate effect sizes indicate that the data are particularly meaningful in terms of school practice. Retention effects of both approaches were similar. Total knowledge and declarative knowledge were worse after 8 months than immediately after the intervention in both groups (p<0.01. In both groups, there was no significant difference in procedural knowledge between the test written immediately after the intervention and 8 months later. Differences of changes were not significant between the groups.

  19. Understanding a High School Physics Teacher's Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianlan; Buck, Gayle A.

    2016-08-01

    Scientific argumentation is an important learning objective in science education. It is also an effective instructional approach to constructivist science learning. The implementation of argumentation in school settings requires science teachers, who are pivotal agents of transforming classroom practices, to develop sophisticated knowledge of argumentation. However, there is a lack of understanding about science teachers' knowledge of argumentation, especially the dialogic meaning of argumentation. In this case study, we closely examine a high school physics teacher's argumentation-related pedagogic content knowledge (PCK) in the context of dialogic argumentation. We synthesize the teacher's performed PCK from his argumentation practices and narrated PCK from his reflection on the argumentation practices, from which we summarize his PCK of argumentation from the perspectives of orientation, instructional strategies, students, curriculum, and assessment. Finally, we describe the teacher's perception and adaption of argumentation in his class. We also identity the barriers to argumentation implementation in this particular case and suggest solutions to overcome these barriers.

  20. IGENPRO knowledge-based operator support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morman, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    Research and development is being performed on the knowledge-based IGENPRO operator support package for plant transient diagnostics and management to provide operator assistance during off-normal plant transient conditions. A generic thermal-hydraulic (T-H) first-principles approach is being implemented using automated reasoning, artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic to produce a generic T-H system-independent/plant-independent package. The IGENPRO package has a modular structure composed of three modules: the transient trend analysis module PROTREN, the process diagnostics module PRODIAG and the process management module PROMANA. Cooperative research and development work has focused on the PRODIAG diagnostic module of the IGENPRO package and the operator training matrix of transients used at the Braidwood Pressurized Water Reactor station. Promising simulator testing results with PRODIAG have been obtained for the Braidwood Chemical and Volume Control System (CVCS), and the Component Cooling Water System. Initial CVCS test results have also been obtained for the PROTREN module. The PROMANA effort also involves the CVCS. Future work will be focused on the long-term, slow and mild degradation transients where diagnoses of incipient T-H component failure prior to forced outage events is required. This will enhance the capability of the IGENPRO system as a predictive maintenance tool for plant staff and operator support

  1. Current understanding of interactions between nanoparticles and the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrovolskaia, Marina A; Shurin, Michael; Shvedova, Anna A

    2016-05-15

    The delivery of drugs, antigens, and imaging agents benefits from using nanotechnology-based carriers. The successful translation of nanoformulations to the clinic involves thorough assessment of their safety profiles, which, among other end-points, includes evaluation of immunotoxicity. The past decade of research focusing on nanoparticle interaction with the immune system has been fruitful in terms of understanding the basics of nanoparticle immunocompatibility, developing a bioanalytical infrastructure to screen for nanoparticle-mediated immune reactions, beginning to uncover the mechanisms of nanoparticle immunotoxicity, and utilizing current knowledge about the structure-activity relationship between nanoparticles' physicochemical properties and their effects on the immune system to guide safe drug delivery. In the present review, we focus on the most prominent pieces of the nanoparticle-immune system puzzle and discuss the achievements, disappointments, and lessons learned over the past 15years of research on the immunotoxicity of engineered nanomaterials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Knowledge Representation Using Multilevel Flow Model in Expert System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wenlin; Yang, Ming

    2015-01-01

    As for the knowledge representation, of course, there are a great many methods available for knowledge representation. These include frames, causal models, and many others. This paper presents a novel method called Multilevel Flow Model (MFM), which is used for knowledge representation in G2 expert system. Knowledge representation plays a vital role in constructing knowledge bases. Moreover, it also has impact on building of generic fault model as well as knowledge bases. The MFM is particularly useful to describe system knowledge concisely as domain map in expert system when domain experts are not available

  3. Knowledge Representation Using Multilevel Flow Model in Expert System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wenlin; Yang, Ming [Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China)

    2015-05-15

    As for the knowledge representation, of course, there are a great many methods available for knowledge representation. These include frames, causal models, and many others. This paper presents a novel method called Multilevel Flow Model (MFM), which is used for knowledge representation in G2 expert system. Knowledge representation plays a vital role in constructing knowledge bases. Moreover, it also has impact on building of generic fault model as well as knowledge bases. The MFM is particularly useful to describe system knowledge concisely as domain map in expert system when domain experts are not available.

  4. Interfacing knowledge systems: Local knowledge and science in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article, with reference to Ghana and Zimbabwe, we explore the traditional African worldview, life-world, belief systems and ways of thinking and reasoning. This discourse captures the rich combination of spirituality, materiality and the social in a concept referred to here as Cosmo vision. Nowadays this worldview ...

  5. Radionuclides in groundwater flow system understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erőss, Anita; Csondor, Katalin; Horváth, Ákos; Mádl-Szőnyi, Judit; Surbeck, Heinz

    2017-04-01

    Using radionuclides is a novel approach to characterize fluids of groundwater flow systems and understand their mixing. Particularly, in regional discharge areas, where different order flow systems convey waters with different temperature, composition and redox-state to the discharge zone. Radium and uranium are redox-sensitive parameters, which causes fractionation along groundwater flow paths. Discharging waters of regional flow systems are characterized by elevated total dissolved solid content (TDS), temperature and by reducing conditions, and therefore with negligible uranium content, whereas local flow systems have lower TDS and temperature and represent oxidizing environments, and therefore their radium content is low. Due to the short transit time, radon may appear in local systems' discharge, where its source is the soil zone. However, our studies revealed the importance of FeOOH precipitates as local radon sources throughout the adsorption of radium transported by the thermal waters of regional flow systems. These precipitates can form either by direct oxidizing of thermal waters at discharge, or by mixing of waters with different redox state. Therefore elevated radon content often occurs in regional discharge areas as well. This study compares the results of geochemical studies in three thermal karst areas in Hungary, focusing on radionuclides as natural tracers. In the Buda Thermal Karst, the waters of the distinct discharge areas are characterized by different temperature and chemical composition. In the central discharge area both lukewarm (20-35°C, 770-980 mg/l TDS) and thermal waters (40-65°C, 800-1350 mg/l TDS), in the South only thermal water discharge (33-43°C, 1450-1700 mg/l TDS) occur. Radionuclides helped to identify mixing of fluids and to infer the temperature and chemical composition of the end members for the central discharge area. For the southern discharge zone mixing components could not be identified, which suggests different cave

  6. The representation of knowledge within model-based control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weygand, D.P.; Koul, R.

    1987-01-01

    Representation of knowledge in artificially intelligent systems is discussed. Types of knowledge that might need to be represented in AI systems are listed, and include knowledge about objects, events, knowledge about how to do things, and knowledge about what human beings know (meta-knowledge). The use of knowledge in AI systems is discussed in terms of acquiring and retrieving knowledge and reasoning about known facts. Different kinds of reasonings or representations are ghen described with some examples given. These include formal reasoning or logical representation, which is related to mathematical logic, production systems, which are based on the idea of condition-action pairs (production), procedural reasoning, which uses pre-formed plans to solve problems, frames, which provide a structure for representing knowledge in an organized manner, direct analogical representations, which represent knowledge in such a manner that permits some observation without deduction

  7. Features of Knowledge Building in Biology: Understanding Undergraduate Students’ Ideas about Molecular Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southard, Katelyn; Wince, Tyler; Meddleton, Shanice; Bolger, Molly S.

    2016-01-01

    Research has suggested that teaching and learning in molecular and cellular biology (MCB) is difficult. We used a new lens to understand undergraduate reasoning about molecular mechanisms: the knowledge-integration approach to conceptual change. Knowledge integration is the dynamic process by which learners acquire new ideas, develop connections between ideas, and reorganize and restructure prior knowledge. Semistructured, clinical think-aloud interviews were conducted with introductory and upper-division MCB students. Interviews included a written conceptual assessment, a concept-mapping activity, and an opportunity to explain the biomechanisms of DNA replication, transcription, and translation. Student reasoning patterns were explored through mixed-method analyses. Results suggested that students must sort mechanistic entities into appropriate mental categories that reflect the nature of MCB mechanisms and that conflation between these categories is common. We also showed how connections between molecular mechanisms and their biological roles are part of building an integrated knowledge network as students develop expertise. We observed differences in the nature of connections between ideas related to different forms of reasoning. Finally, we provide a tentative model for MCB knowledge integration and suggest its implications for undergraduate learning. PMID:26931398

  8. Informationalising matter : systems understandings of the nanoscale.

    OpenAIRE

    Kearnes, M. B.

    2008-01-01

    Themes of mastery, domination and power are familiar to any scholar of modern technology. Science is commonly cast as enabling the technological control over both the natural and physical worlds. Indeed, Francis Bacon famously equated scientific knowledge with power itself—stating that ‘knowledge itself is a power’ (Bacon in Montagu 1825, 71). Bacon’s now ubiquitous phrase—commonly repeated as the banal ‘knowledge is power’—was an attempt to combat three heresies in scriptural interpretation ...

  9. Measuring the ROI on Knowledge Management Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickhorst, Vickie

    2002-01-01

    Defines knowledge management and corporate portals and provides a model that can be applied to assessing return on investment (ROI) for a knowledge management solution. Highlights include leveraging knowledge in an organization; assessing the value of human capital; and the Intellectual Capital Performance Measurement Model. (LRW)

  10. Electronic Geometry Textbook: A Geometric Textbook Knowledge Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiaoyu

    2010-01-01

    Electronic Geometry Textbook is a knowledge management system that manages geometric textbook knowledge to enable users to construct and share dynamic geometry textbooks interactively and efficiently. Based on a knowledge base organizing and storing the knowledge represented in specific languages, the system implements interfaces for maintaining the data representing that knowledge as well as relations among those data, for automatically generating readable documents for viewing or printing, ...

  11. From conventional software based systems to knowledge based systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bologna, S.

    1995-01-01

    Even if todays nuclear power plants have a very good safety record, there is a continuous search for still improving safety. One direction of this effort address operational safety, trying to improve the handling of disturbances and accidents partly by further automation, partly by creating a better control room environment, providing the operator with intelligent support systems to help in the decision making process. Introduction of intelligent computerised operator support systems has proved to be an efficient way of improving the operators performance. A number of systems have been developed worldwide, assisting in tasks like process fault detection and diagnosis, selection and implementation of proper remedial actions. Unfortunately, the use of Knowledge Based Systems (KBSs), introduces a new dimension to the problem of the licensing process. KBSs, despite the different technology employed, are still nothing more than a computer program. Unfortunately, quite a few people building knowledge based systems seem to ignore the many good programming practices that have evolved over the years for producing traditional computer programs. In this paper the author will try to point out similarities and differences between conventional software based systems, and knowledge based systems, introducing also the concept of model based reasoning. (orig.) (25 refs., 2 figs.)

  12. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM DESIGN AT HUMAN RESOURCES DIVISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanti Yanti

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The Human Resources Division of a company is a vital division. Most of the time, they perform their work manually, and therefore creating limitations to their capacity. The knowledge contained is very important for human resources development and subsequently for developing the company. In order to manage this knowledge well, the company shall require a knowledge management system. This knowledge management system would be a solution to be used for the company to manage all knowledge contained in that particular division. Phases in designing knowledge managements starts from analyzing knowledge sources of the company, knowledge identification and definition, and determining knowledge goals. Knowledge management systems contain many functions such as collecting, recording and managing the knowledge and sharing this to all related employees easily. The company may also use knowledge management systems to share and inform employees regarding updates of information, news and/or activity regarding the employees themselves. Information from knowledge management systems may also be used by employees to monitor their performance and thereby increasing it. Knowledge management systems may also help employees in their learning activities.Keywords: knowledge management, human resources, employee

  13. Collaborative ethnography for information systems research Studying knowledge work practices and designing supportive information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Maier

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding knowledge work and supporting it with information systems (ISs are challenging tasks. Knowledge work has changed substantially recently and studies on how knowledge work is currently performed are scarce. Ethnography is the most suitable qualitative research method for studying knowledge work, yet too time-consuming, costly and unfocused for the fast changing IS domain. Moreover, results from qualitative studies need to be transformed into artefacts useful for IS requirements engineering and design. This paper proposes a procedure for collaborative ethnography to study knowledge work practices and inform IS requirements gathering and design illustrated with the case of a collaborative ethnographic study of seven organisations in four European countries performed in a large-scale international IS research and development project. The paper also critically discusses the procedure’s applicability and limitations.

  14. Activity Theory as a Lens to Understand How Facebook Develops Knowledge Application Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagarukayo, Emily; Ssentamu, Proscovia; Mayisela, Tabisa; Brown, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    Uganda's higher education system has generally been criticized for concentrating on theory leading to a mismatch between training received and practical skills required by employers. Studies have documented the inability of graduates from some programmes at Makerere University in applying knowledge in the work environment. This could partly be…

  15. Ethics, Collaboration, and Presentation Methods for Local and Traditional Knowledge for Understanding Arctic Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, M. A.; Gearheard, S.; McNeave, C.

    2009-12-01

    Local and traditional knowledge (LTK) provides rich information about the Arctic environment at spatial and temporal scales that scientific knowledge often does not have access to (e.g. localized observations of fine-scale ecological change potentially from many different communities, or local sea ice and conditions prior to 1950s ice charts and 1970s satellite records). Community-based observations and monitoring are an opportunity for Arctic residents to provide ‘frontline’ observations and measurements that are an early warning system for Arctic change. The Exchange for Local Observations and Knowledge of the Arctic (ELOKA) was established in response to the growing number of community-based and community-oriented research and observation projects in the Arctic. ELOKA provides data management and user support to facilitate the collection, preservation, exchange, and use of local observations and knowledge. Managing these data presents unique ethical challenges in terms of appropriate use of rare human knowledge and ensuring that knowledge is not lost from the local communities and not exploited in ways antithetical to community culture and desires. Local Arctic residents must be engaged as true collaborative partners while respecting their perspectives, which may vary substantially from a western science perspective. At the same time, we seek to derive scientific meaning from the local knowledge that can be used in conjunction with quantitative science data. This creates new challenges in terms of data presentation, knowledge representations, and basic issues of metadata. This presentation reviews these challenges, some initial approaches to addressing them, and overall lessons learned and future directions.

  16. Analysis of the effect of specific vocabulary instruction on high school chemistry students' knowledge and understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrosse, Peggy

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of specific vocabulary instruction on high school chemistry students' knowledge and understanding. Students might be able to formally recite a definition for a term without actually having understood the meaning of the term and its connection to other terms or to related concepts. Researchers (Cassels & Johnstone, 1983; Gabel, 1999; Johnstone, 1991) have been studying the difficulty students have in learning science, particularly chemistry. Gabel (1999) suggests that, "while research into misconceptions (also known as alternative conceptions) and problem-solving has dominated the field for the past 25 years, we are no closer to a solution that would improve the teaching and learning of chemistry" (P. 549). Gabel (1999) relates the difficulty in learning chemistry to use of language. She refers to student difficulty both with words that have more than one meaning in English and with words that are used to mean one idea in chemistry and another idea in every day language. The Frayer Model, a research-based teaching strategy, is a graphic organizer which students use to create meaningful definitions for terms in context (Frayer, Frederick, & Klausmeier, 1969). It was used as the treatment---the specific vocabulary instruction---in this research study. The researcher collected and analyzed data to answer three research questions that focused on the effect of using the Frayer model (a graphic organizer) on high school students' knowledge and understanding of academic language used in chemistry. The research took place in a New England high school. Four intact chemistry classes provided the student participants; two classes were assigned to the treatment group (TG) and two classes were assigned to the control group (CG). The TG received vocabulary instruction on 14 chosen terms using the Frayer Model. The CG received traditional vocabulary instruction with no special attention to the 14 terms selected for this study

  17. Research Experience for Undergraduates: Understanding the Arctic as a System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeev, V. A.; Walsh, J. E.; Arp, C. D.; Hock, R.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Kaden, U.; Polyakov, I.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Trainor, S.

    2017-12-01

    Today, more than ever, an integrated cross-disciplinary approach is necessary to understand and explain changes in the Arctic and the implications of those changes. Responding to needs in innovative research and education for understanding high-latitude rapid climate change, scientists at the International Arctic research Center of the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) established a new REU (=Research Experience for Undergraduates) NSF-funded site, aiming to attract more undergraduates to arctic sciences. The science focus of this program, building upon the research strengths of UAF, is on understanding the Arctic as a system with emphasis on its physical component. The goals, which were to disseminate new knowledge at the frontiers of polar science and to ignite the enthusiasm of the undergraduates about the Arctic, are pursued by involving undergraduate students in research and educational projects with their mentors using the available diverse on-campus capabilities. IARC hosted the first group of eight students this past summer, focusing on a variety of different disciplines of the Arctic System Science. Students visited research sites around Fairbanks and in remote parts of Alaska (Toolik Lake Field Station, Gulkana glacier, Bonanza Creek, Poker Flats, the CRREL Permafrost Tunnel and others) to see and experience first-hand how the arctic science is done. Each student worked on a research project guided by an experienced instructor. The summer program culminated with a workshop that consisted of reports from the students about their experiences and the results of their projects.

  18. A relational data-knowledge base system and its potential in developing a distributed data-knowledge system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimian, Eric N.; Graves, Sara J.

    1988-01-01

    A new approach used in constructing a rational data knowledge base system is described. The relational database is well suited for distribution due to its property of allowing data fragmentation and fragmentation transparency. An example is formulated of a simple relational data knowledge base which may be generalized for use in developing a relational distributed data knowledge base system. The efficiency and ease of application of such a data knowledge base management system is briefly discussed. Also discussed are the potentials of the developed model for sharing the data knowledge base as well as the possible areas of difficulty in implementing the relational data knowledge base management system.

  19. Engaging Systems Understanding through Games (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Lee, J. J.; Eklund, K.; Turrin, M.; O'Garra, T.; Orlove, B. S.

    2013-12-01

    The Polar Learning And Responding (PoLAR) Climate Change Education Partnership (CCEP), supported by the National Science Foundation's CCEP Phase II program, uses novel educational approaches to engage adult learners and to inform public understanding about climate change. Both previous studies and our experience show that games and game-like activities lead people to explore systems and motivate problem-solving. This presentation focuses on three games developed by the PoLAR team: a multiplayer card game, a strategy board game, and a serious game, and discusses them within the larger framework of research and evaluation of learning outcomes. In the multiplayer card game EcoChains: Arctic Crisis, players learn how to build marine food chains, then strategize ways to make them resilient to a variety of natural and anthropogenic events. In the strategy board game Arctic SMARTIC (Strategic MAnagement of Resources in TImes of Change), participants take on roles, set developmental priorities, and then negotiate to resolve conflicts and deal with climate change scenarios. In the serious game FUTURE COAST, players explore "what if" scenarios in a collaborative narrative environment. Grounded on the award-winning WORLD WITHOUT OIL, which employed a similar story frame to impart energy concepts and realities, FUTURE COAST uses voicemails from the future to impel players through complexities of disrupted systems and realities of human interactions when facing change. Launching February 2014, FUTURE COAST is played online and in field events; players create media designed to be spreadable through their social networks. As players envision possible futures, they create diverse communities of practice that synthesize across human-environment interactions. Playtests highlight how the game evokes systems thinking, and engages and problem-solves via narrative: * 'While I was initially unsure how I'd contribute to a group I'd never met, the project itself proved so engaging that I

  20. Understanding the knowledge and attitudes of commercial drivers in Ghana regarding alcohol impaired driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiamah, G; Mock, C; Blantari, J

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: The knowledge and attitudes of commercial drivers in Ghana as regards alcohol impaired driving were investigated. This was done in order to provide information that could subsequently be used to develop antidrunk driving social marketing messages built upon the intrinsic values and motivation of these drivers. Methods: Focus group discussions were held with 43 bus and minibus drivers in the capital city, Accra. A structured discussion guide was used to capture information related to values, risk perceptions, leisure time activities, and attitudes on alcohol impaired driving. Results: The majority of drivers expressed an understanding that drunk driving was a significant risk factor for crashes. There was a significant under-appreciation of the extent of the problem, however. Most believed that it was only rare, extremely intoxicated drivers who were the problem. The drivers also had a minimal understanding of the concept of blood alcohol concentration and related legal limits. Despite these factors, there was widespread support for increased enforcement of existing antidrunk driving laws. Conclusions: In Ghana, commercial drivers understand the basic danger of drunk driving and are motivated to assist in antidrunk driving measures. There are misconceptions and deficits in knowledge that need to be addressed in subsequent educational campaigns. PMID:11928975

  1. Deepening Understanding of Prior Knowledge: What Diverse First-Generation College Students in the U.S. Can Teach Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Montoya, Milagros

    2017-01-01

    Educational research indicates that teachers revealing and utilizing students' prior knowledge supports students' academic learning. Yet, the variation in students' prior knowledge is not fully known. To better understand students' prior knowledge, I drew on sociocultural learning theories to examine racially and ethnically diverse college…

  2. Integrated Knowledge Based Expert System for Disease Diagnosis System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbaiy, Nureize; Sulaiman, Shafiza Eliza; Hassan, Norlida; Afizah Afip, Zehan

    2017-08-01

    The role and importance of healthcare systems to improve quality of life and social welfare in a society have been well recognized. Attention should be given to raise awareness and implementing appropriate measures to improve health care. Therefore, a computer based system is developed to serve as an alternative for people to self-diagnose their health status based on given symptoms. This strategy should be emphasized so that people can utilize the information correctly as a reference to enjoy healthier life. Hence, a Web-based Community Center for Healthcare Diagnosis system is developed based on expert system technique. Expert system reasoning technique is employed in the system to enable information about treatment and prevention of the diseases based on given symptoms. At present, three diseases are included which are arthritis, thalassemia and pneumococcal. Sets of rule and fact are managed in the knowledge based system. Web based technology is used as a platform to disseminate the information to users in order for them to optimize the information appropriately. This system will benefit people who wish to increase health awareness and seek expert knowledge on the diseases by performing self-diagnosis for early disease detection.

  3. Understanding How Students Perceive the Role of Ideas for Their Knowledge Work in a Knowledge-Building Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Huang-Yao; Chiu, Chieh-Hsin

    2016-01-01

    This study explored how students viewed the role of ideas for knowledge work and how such a view was related to their inquiry activities. Data mainly came from students' online interaction logs, group discussion and inquiry, and a survey concerning the role of ideas for knowledge work. The findings suggest that knowledge building was conducive to…

  4. Understanding cities as social-ecological systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, C

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper builds on earlier ecological approaches to urban development, as well as more recent thinking in the fields of sustainability science, resilience thinking and complexity theory, to propose a conceptual framework for understanding cities...

  5. Applying Knowledge Management in Teacher Evaluation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essandoh, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Teacher evaluations are underused in public schools, resulting in the loss of knowledge critical to professional development. Knowledge management (KM) theory offers approaches that can lead to improvements in the effectiveness of evaluations and teacher performance. This multiple case study of 9 campuses in an exemplary school district…

  6. Anthropophagy: a singular concept to understand Brazilian culture and psychology as specific knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Arthur Arruda Leal

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this work is to present the singularity of the concept of anthropophagy in Brazilian culture. This article examines its use in the Modernist Movement of the 1920s and explores the possibilities it creates for thinking about Brazilian culture in nonidentitarian terms. We then use the concept of anthropophagy in a broader, practical sense to understand psychology as a kind of anthropophagical knowledge. We do so because in many ways the discipline of psychology is similar to Brazilian culture in its plurality and complexity. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Features of Knowledge Building in Biology: Understanding Undergraduate Students' Ideas about Molecular Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southard, Katelyn; Wince, Tyler; Meddleton, Shanice; Bolger, Molly S

    2016-01-01

    Research has suggested that teaching and learning in molecular and cellular biology (MCB) is difficult. We used a new lens to understand undergraduate reasoning about molecular mechanisms: the knowledge-integration approach to conceptual change. Knowledge integration is the dynamic process by which learners acquire new ideas, develop connections between ideas, and reorganize and restructure prior knowledge. Semistructured, clinical think-aloud interviews were conducted with introductory and upper-division MCB students. Interviews included a written conceptual assessment, a concept-mapping activity, and an opportunity to explain the biomechanisms of DNA replication, transcription, and translation. Student reasoning patterns were explored through mixed-method analyses. Results suggested that students must sort mechanistic entities into appropriate mental categories that reflect the nature of MCB mechanisms and that conflation between these categories is common. We also showed how connections between molecular mechanisms and their biological roles are part of building an integrated knowledge network as students develop expertise. We observed differences in the nature of connections between ideas related to different forms of reasoning. Finally, we provide a tentative model for MCB knowledge integration and suggest its implications for undergraduate learning. © 2016 K. Southard et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  8. Foundation of a Knowledge Representation System for Image Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    rather general. In the category module we see that a subclass of ships could be " fishing boat", and we see that the value of the feature could change. Thus...we would have, X = size( fishing boat(Enterprise)). size( fishing boat(Enterprise)) = very, very big. In the case of features whose values depend on...edge or boundary segments. Thus, we have:: (1) bars: parallel edge pairs (2) blobs : closed contours which can be defined from a cloud nf tokens, for

  9. Genetic counselors’ (GC) knowledge, awareness, and understanding of clinical next-generation sequencing (NGS) genomic testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, PM; Ruth, K; Matro, JM; Rainey, KL; Fang, CY; Wong, YN; Daly, MB; Hall, MJ

    2014-01-01

    Genomic tests are increasingly complex, less expensive, and more widely available with the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS). We assessed knowledge and perceptions among genetic counselors pertaining to NGS genomic testing via an online survey. Associations between selected characteristics and perceptions were examined. Recent education on NGS testing was common, but practical experience limited. Perceived understanding of clinical NGS was modest, specifically concerning tumor testing. Greater perceived understanding of clinical NGS testing correlated with more time spent in cancer-related counseling, exposure to NGS testing, and NGS-focused education. Substantial disagreement about the role of counseling for tumor-based testing was seen. Finally, a majority of counselors agreed with the need for more education about clinical NGS testing, supporting this approach to optimizing implementation. PMID:25523111

  10. Genetic counselors' (GC) knowledge, awareness, understanding of clinical next-generation sequencing (NGS) genomic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, P M; Ruth, K; Matro, J M; Rainey, K L; Fang, C Y; Wong, Y N; Daly, M B; Hall, M J

    2015-12-01

    Genomic tests are increasingly complex, less expensive, and more widely available with the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS). We assessed knowledge and perceptions among genetic counselors pertaining to NGS genomic testing via an online survey. Associations between selected characteristics and perceptions were examined. Recent education on NGS testing was common, but practical experience limited. Perceived understanding of clinical NGS was modest, specifically concerning tumor testing. Greater perceived understanding of clinical NGS testing correlated with more time spent in cancer-related counseling, exposure to NGS testing, and NGS-focused education. Substantial disagreement about the role of counseling for tumor-based testing was seen. Finally, a majority of counselors agreed with the need for more education about clinical NGS testing, supporting this approach to optimizing implementation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The Role of Domain and System Knowledge on Text Comprehension and Information Search in Hypermedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waniek, Jacqueline; Schafer, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the role of domain and system knowledge on learner performance in reading and information search in hypermedia. Previous studies have shown that prior knowledge is an important individual factor for effective hypermedia use. However, current research lacks a full understanding of how these two aspects of prior…

  12. Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems - Vol 4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems. ... Resource conservation and utilisation through indigenous knowledge in a tribal community of Orissa, ... \\'The snake will swallow you': supernatural snakes and the creation of the ...

  13. Several required OWL features for indigenous knowledge management systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Alberts, R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the features required of OWL (Web Ontology Language) to realise and enhance Indigenous Knowledge (IK) digital repositories. Several needs for Indigenous Knowledge management systems (IKMSs) are articulated, based on extensive...

  14. Systemic study of knowledge generation at IPEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, Carlos Anisio

    2016-01-01

    With the aim of providing subsidies to understand how scientific collaboration process occurs and develops into a research institution, particularly IPEN, this study used two methodological approaches. The first used the social networking analysis (SNA) technique to map the scientific collaboration networks in R&D of IPEN. The data used for the SNA technique were extracted from the technical and scientific publications database of IPEN, using a computer program, and were based on co-authorship from 2001 to 2010 period. These data were grouped into consecutive intervals of two years generating five biennial networks. This first approach showed several structural features related to collaborative networks, especially the most prominent authors, distribution of components, density, boundary spanners and aspects related to distance and clustering to define small world networks. In the second approach, partial least squares, a method to structure equation modeling, was used to evaluate and test a conceptual model based on personal, social, cultural and circumstantial factors to identify those that best explain the propensity of an IPENs author in establishing links of collaboration in R&D environments. From the consolidated model, we evaluated how much it explains the structural position of an author on the network based on SNA indicators. In this second part, the data were collected through a survey research using a questionnaire. The results showed that the model explains about 41% of the propensity of an IPEN author in collaborating with others authors, and in relation to the structural position of an author on the network, the explanation power of model ranged between 3% and 3.6%. Other results have shown that collaboration between IPEN authors have a positive correlation with moderate intensity to productivity, in the same way, the most central authors in the network tend to increase its visibility. Finally, several other bibliometric statistical indicators related

  15. Knowledge-based analysis and understanding of 3D medical images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhawan, A.P.; Juvvadi, S.

    1988-01-01

    The anatomical three-dimensional (3D) medical imaging modalities, such as X-ray CT and MRI, have been well recognized in the diagnostic radiology for several years while the nuclear medicine modalities, such as PET, have just started making a strong impact through functional imaging. Though PET images provide the functional information about the human organs, they are hard to interpret because of the lack of anatomical information. The authors objective is to develop a knowledge-based biomedical image analysis system which can interpret the anatomical images (such as CT). The anatomical information thus obtained can then be used in analyzing PET images of the same patient. This will not only help in interpreting PET images but it will also provide a means of studying the correlation between the anatomical and functional imaging. This paper presents the preliminary results of the knowledge based biomedical image analysis system for interpreting CT images of the chest

  16. Crucial knowledge gaps in current understanding of climate change impacts on coral reef fishes

    KAUST Repository

    Wilson, S. K.

    2010-02-26

    Expert opinion was canvassed to identify crucial knowledge gaps in current understanding of climate change impacts on coral reef fishes. Scientists that had published three or more papers on the effects of climate and environmental factors on reef fishes were invited to submit five questions that, if addressed, would improve our understanding of climate change effects on coral reef fishes. Thirty-three scientists provided 155 questions, and 32 scientists scored these questions in terms of: (i) identifying a knowledge gap, (ii) achievability, (iii) applicability to a broad spectrum of species and reef habitats, and (iv) priority. Forty-two per cent of the questions related to habitat associations and community dynamics of fish, reflecting the established effects and immediate concern relating to climate-induced coral loss and habitat degradation. However, there were also questions on fish demographics, physiology, behaviour and management, all of which could be potentially affected by climate change. Irrespective of their individual expertise and background, scientists scored questions from different topics similarly, suggesting limited bias and recognition of a need for greater interdisciplinary and collaborative research. Presented here are the 53 highest-scoring unique questions. These questions should act as a guide for future research, providing a basis for better assessment and management of climate change impacts on coral reefs and associated fish communities.

  17. A stratified myeloid system, the challenge of understanding macrophage diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissmann, F; Mass, E

    2015-12-01

    The present issue of 'Seminars in Immunology' addresses the topic of macrophage biology, 100 years after the death of Elie Metchnikoff (May 1845-July 1916). As foreseen by Metchnikoff, the roles of macrophages in the maintenance of homeostasis and immunity against pathogens have become a broad and active area of investigation. We now start to realize that the myeloid system includes a multiplicity of cell types with diverse developmental origins and functions. Therefore, the textbook picture of a plastic and multifunctional macrophage does not meet the requirements of our current knowledge anymore. Further development toward a quantitative and molecular understanding of myeloid cell biology in vivo and their roles in tissue homeostasis and remodeling will benefit from taking this complexity into account. A tentative model to help in this pursuit and account for myeloid cell and macrophage diversity is discussed below. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Knowledge requirements for information systems outsourcing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smuts, H

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available resources and independent specialist contractors hired in by the client organisation. A key objective for the outsource vendor was to design a future-proof, integrated and optimised business process set and this requirement emphasised the re- quirement... for knowledge sharing and knowledge flow between all three groups of resources. The tar- get audience for this data collection consisted of permanent employees, contractor and consultant re- sources, as well as business users and programme sponsors...

  19. Modeling systems-level dynamics: Understanding without mechanistic explanation in integrative systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Miles; Nersessian, Nancy J

    2015-02-01

    In this paper we draw upon rich ethnographic data of two systems biology labs to explore the roles of explanation and understanding in large-scale systems modeling. We illustrate practices that depart from the goal of dynamic mechanistic explanation for the sake of more limited modeling goals. These processes use abstract mathematical formulations of bio-molecular interactions and data fitting techniques which we call top-down abstraction to trade away accurate mechanistic accounts of large-scale systems for specific information about aspects of those systems. We characterize these practices as pragmatic responses to the constraints many modelers of large-scale systems face, which in turn generate more limited pragmatic non-mechanistic forms of understanding of systems. These forms aim at knowledge of how to predict system responses in order to manipulate and control some aspects of them. We propose that this analysis of understanding provides a way to interpret what many systems biologists are aiming for in practice when they talk about the objective of a "systems-level understanding." Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Understanding aging in containment cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lofaro, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    A study has been performed to assess the effects of aging in nuclear power plant containment cooling systems. Failure records from national databases, as well as plant specific data were reviewed and analyzed to identify aging characteristics for this system. The predominant aging mechanisms were determined, along with the most frequently failed components and their associated failure modes. This paper discusses the aging mechanisms present in the containment spray system and the containment fan cooler system, which are two systems used to provide the containment cooling function. The failure modes, along with the relative frequency of each is also discussed

  1. Understanding primary school science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge: The case of teaching global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chordnork, Boonliang; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2018-01-01

    This aim of this research was to investigate primary school science teachers understanding and teaching practice as well as the influence on teaching and learning a topic like global warming. The participants were four primary science teachers, who were not graduated in science education. Methodology was the case study method, which was under the qualitative research regarded from interpretive paradigm. Data were collected by openended questionnaire, semi-structure interview, and document colleting. The questionnaire examined teachers' background, teachers' understanding of problems and threats of science teaching, desiring of development their PCK, sharing the teaching approaches, and their ideas of strength and weakness. a semi-structured interview was conducted based on the approach for capturing PCK of Loughran [23] content representation (CoRe). And, the document was collected to clarify what evidence which was invented to effect on students' learning. These document included lesson plan, students' task, and painting about global warming, science projects, the picture of activities of science learning, the exercise and test. Data analysis employed multiple approach of evidence looking an issue from each primary science teachers and used triangulation method to analyze the data with aiming to make meaning of teachers' representation of teaching practice. These included descriptive statistics, CoRe interpretation, and document analysis. The results show that teachers had misunderstanding of science teaching practice and they has articulated the pedagogical content knowledge in terms of assessment, goal of teaching and linking to the context of socio cultural. In contrast, knowledge and belief of curriculum, students' understanding of content global warming, and strategies of teaching were articulated indistinct by non-graduate science teacher. Constructing opportunities for personal development, the curiosity of the student learning center, and linking context

  2. Solving problems by interrogating sets of knowledge systems: Toward a theory of multiple knowledge systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekorvin, Andre

    1989-01-01

    The main purpose is to develop a theory for multiple knowledge systems. A knowledge system could be a sensor or an expert system, but it must specialize in one feature. The problem is that we have an exhaustive list of possible answers to some query (such as what object is it). By collecting different feature values, in principle, it should be possible to give an answer to the query, or at least narrow down the list. Since a sensor, or for that matter an expert system, does not in most cases yield a precise value for the feature, uncertainty must be built into the model. Also, researchers must have a formal mechanism to be able to put the information together. Researchers chose to use the Dempster-Shafer approach to handle the problems mentioned above. Researchers introduce the concept of a state of recognition and point out that there is a relation between receiving updates and defining a set valued Markov Chain. Also, deciding what the value of the next set valued variable is can be phrased in terms of classical decision making theory such as minimizing the maximum regret. Other related problems are examined.

  3. Is Sustainability Knowledge Half the Battle? An Examination of Sustainability Knowledge, Attitudes, Norms, and Efficacy to Understand Sustainable Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeren, Alexander John; Singh, Ajay S.; Zwickle, Adam; Koontz, Tomas M.; Slagle, Kristina M.; McCreery, Anna C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship of sustainability knowledge to pro-environmental behaviour. A common misperception is that unsustainable behaviours are largely driven by a lack of knowledge of the underlying societal costs and the contributing factors leading to environmental degradation. Such a perception assumes…

  4. Conference | The Big Bang and the interfaces of knowledge: towards a common understanding? | 11 November

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The third in a series of conferences organised by CERN and Wilton Park, this event will once again bring together scientists, theologians and philosophers to discuss the themes of the nature and understanding of a common language, truth and logic.   Wednesday, 11 November at 4 p.m. in the Main Auditorium For more information and to register, click here. In 2012, CERN and Wilton Park hosted the pioneering international conference “The Big Bang and the interfaces of knowledge: towards a common language?”. The event was very successful and a follow-up conference was organised in June 2014 with the purpose of widening the spectrum of scientists, theologians and philosophers involved, continuing the dialogue on one of the key themes that emerged during the first meeting: the nature and the understanding of “truth”. A key theme emerging from the 2014 event was the nature and understanding of logic, and this third meeting will focu...

  5. Developing Higher-Order Materials Knowledge Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Anthony Nathan

    2011-12-01

    Advances in computational materials science and novel characterization techniques have allowed scientists to probe deeply into a diverse range of materials phenomena. These activities are producing enormous amounts of information regarding the roles of various hierarchical material features in the overall performance characteristics displayed by the material. Connecting the hierarchical information over disparate domains is at the crux of multiscale modeling. The inherent challenge of performing multiscale simulations is developing scale bridging relationships to couple material information between well separated length scales. Much progress has been made in the development of homogenization relationships which replace heterogeneous material features with effective homogenous descriptions. These relationships facilitate the flow of information from lower length scales to higher length scales. Meanwhile, most localization relationships that link the information from a from a higher length scale to a lower length scale are plagued by computationally intensive techniques which are not readily integrated into multiscale simulations. The challenge of executing fully coupled multiscale simulations is augmented by the need to incorporate the evolution of the material structure that may occur under conditions such as material processing. To address these challenges with multiscale simulation, a novel framework called the Materials Knowledge System (MKS) has been developed. This methodology efficiently extracts, stores, and recalls microstructure-property-processing localization relationships. This approach is built on the statistical continuum theories developed by Kroner that express the localization of the response field at the microscale using a series of highly complex convolution integrals, which have historically been evaluated analytically. The MKS approach dramatically improves the accuracy of these expressions by calibrating the convolution kernels in these

  6. Linking a Conceptual Framework on Systems Thinking with Experiential Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavito-Bermúdez, Diana; Lundholm, Cecilia; Crona, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses a systemic approach for the study of fishers' ecological knowledge in order to describe fishers' ways of knowing and dealing with complexity in ecosystems, and discusses how knowledge is generated through, e.g. apprenticeship, experiential knowledge, and testing of hypotheses. The description and analysis of fishers'…

  7. Information Technology Management Strategies to Implement Knowledge Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Mary Jane Christy

    2017-01-01

    More than 38% of the U.S. public workforce will likely retire by 2030, which may result in a labor shortage. Business leaders may adopt strategies to mitigate knowledge loss within their organizations by capturing knowledge in a knowledge management system (KMS). The purpose of this single case study was to explore strategies that information…

  8. Knowledge based expert system approach to instrumentation selection (INSEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Barai

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The selection of appropriate instrumentation for any structural measurement of civil engineering structure is a complex task. Recent developments in Artificial Intelligence (AI can help in an organized use of experiential knowledge available on instrumentation for laboratory and in-situ measurement. Usually, the instrumentation decision is based on the experience and judgment of experimentalists. The heuristic knowledge available for different types of measurement is domain dependent and the information is scattered in varied knowledge sources. The knowledge engineering techniques can help in capturing the experiential knowledge. This paper demonstrates a prototype knowledge based system for INstrument SELection (INSEL assistant where the experiential knowledge for various structural domains can be captured and utilized for making instrumentation decision. In particular, this Knowledge Based Expert System (KBES encodes the heuristics on measurement and demonstrates the instrument selection process with reference to steel bridges. INSEL runs on a microcomputer and uses an INSIGHT 2+ environment.

  9. Intelligent use of knowledge in the EUM system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starynkevitch, B.

    1987-05-01

    A system accepting truely descriptive knowledge should receive (on build) meta-knowledge for using knowledge. The EUM system, in development, described in this paper, accepts such a knowledge. On the bottom level, it is a programming language (or a virtual machine) designed to be able to self-improve by introspection. Upper levels use meta-knowledge. EUM can access all objects its uses, it executes orders by using explicit methods. These can be meta-expertises. Hence, EUM can reason about its own operation, and cleverly use its knowledge and methods. Interaction with user is done by orders; thus it can be expertly driven. The initial inference engine is made of modules which can be replaced or completed by meta-expertises, of which some partial examples are given. Hence, it is possible to extend the knowledge langage, and the inference mechanism, by meta-expertises. In the same way, knowledge bases can be expertly compiled into orders [fr

  10. Knowledge acquisition for nuclear power plant unit diagnostic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaodong; Xi Shuren

    2003-01-01

    The process of acquiring knowledge and building a knowledge base is critical to realize fault diagnostic system at unit level in a nuclear power plant. It directly determines whether the diagnostic system can be applied eventually in a commercial plant. A means to acquire knowledge and its procedures was presented in this paper for fault diagnostic system in a nuclear power plant. The work can be carried out step by step and it is feasible in a commercial nuclear power plant. The knowledge base of the fault diagnostic system for a nuclear power plant can be built after the staff finish the tasks according to the framework presented in this paper

  11. Knowledge management: processes and systems | Igbinovia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8, No 3 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  12. Survey of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    processing large volumes of unstructured information such as natural language documents, email, audio , images and video [Ferrucci et al. 2006]. Using this...information we hope to obtain improved es- timation and prediction, data-mining, social network analysis, and semantic search and visualisation . Knowledge

  13. Optical engineering: understanding optical system by experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Toralf

    2017-08-01

    Students have to be educated in theoretical and practical matters. Only one of them does not allow attacking complex problems in research, development, and management. After their study, students should be able to design, construct and analyze technical problems at highest levels of complexity. Who never experienced the difficulty of setting up measurements will not be able to understand, plan and manage such complex tasks in her/his future career. At EPFL a course was developed for bachelor education and is based on three pillars: concrete actions (enactive) to be done by the students, a synthesis of their work by writing a report (considered as the iconic part) and inputs from the teacher to generalize the findings and link it to a possible complete abstract description (symbolic). Intensive tutoring allowed an intermodal transfer between these categories. This EIS method originally introduced by Jerome Bruner for small children is particular well adapted for engineer education for which theoretical understanding often is not enough. The symbiosis of ex-cathedra lecture and practical work in a classroom-like situation presents an innovative step towards integrated learning that complements perfectly more abstract course principles like online courses.

  14. Understanding The Resistance to Health Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    David Ackah; Angelito E Alvarado; Heru Santoso Wahito Nugroho; Sanglar Polnok; Wiwin Martiningsih

    2017-01-01

    User resistance is users’ opposition to system implementation. Resistance often occurs as a result of a mismatch between management goals and employee preferences. There are two types of resistance to health iformation system namely active resistance and passive resistance. The manifestation of active resistance are being critical,  blaming/accusing, blocking, fault finding, sabotaging, undermining, ridiculing, intimidating/threatening, starting rumors, appealing to fear, manipulating arguing...

  15. Knowledge management systems success in healthcare: Leadership matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nor'ashikin; Tretiakov, Alexei; Whiddett, Dick; Hunter, Inga

    2017-01-01

    To deliver high-quality healthcare doctors need to access, interpret, and share appropriate and localised medical knowledge. Information technology is widely used to facilitate the management of this knowledge in healthcare organisations. The purpose of this study is to develop a knowledge management systems success model for healthcare organisations. A model was formulated by extending an existing generic knowledge management systems success model by including organisational and system factors relevant to healthcare. It was tested by using data obtained from 263 doctors working within two district health boards in New Zealand. Of the system factors, knowledge content quality was found to be particularly important for knowledge management systems success. Of the organisational factors, leadership was the most important, and more important than incentives. Leadership promoted knowledge management systems success primarily by positively affecting knowledge content quality. Leadership also promoted knowledge management use for retrieval, which should lead to the use of that better quality knowledge by the doctors, ultimately resulting in better outcomes for patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. From Global Sustainability to Inclusive Education: Understanding urban children's ideas about the food system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese Barton, Angela; Koch, Pamela D.; Contento, Isobel R.; Hagiwara, Sumi

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report our findings from a qualitative study intended to develop our understandings of: what high-poverty urban children understand and believe about food and food systems; and how such children transform and use that knowledge in their everyday lives (i.e. how do they express their scientific literacies including content understandings, process understandings, habits of mind in these content areas). This qualitative study is part of a larger study focused on understanding and developing science and nutritional literacies among high-poverty urban fourth-grade through sixth-grade students and their teachers and caregivers.

  17. Current understanding of interactions between nanoparticles and the immune system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrovolskaia, Marina A.; Shurin, Michael; Shvedova, Anna A.

    2016-01-01

    The delivery of drugs, antigens, and imaging agents benefits from using nanotechnology-based carriers. The successful translation of nanoformulations to the clinic involves thorough assessment of their safety profiles, which, among other end-points, includes evaluation of immunotoxicity. The past decade of research focusing on nanoparticle interaction with the immune system has been fruitful in terms of understanding the basics of nanoparticle immunocompatibility, developing a bioanalytical infrastructure to screen for nanoparticle-mediated immune reactions, beginning to uncover the mechanisms of nanoparticle immunotoxicity, and utilizing current knowledge about the structure–activity relationship between nanoparticles' physicochemical properties and their effects on the immune system to guide safe drug delivery. In the present review, we focus on the most prominent pieces of the nanoparticle–immune system puzzle and discuss the achievements, disappointments, and lessons learned over the past 15 years of research on the immunotoxicity of engineered nanomaterials. - Graphical abstract: API — active pharmaceutical ingredient; NP — nanoparticles; PCP — physicochemical properties, CARPA — complement activation-related pseudoallergy, ICH — International Conference on Harmonization. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Achievements, disappointments and lessons learned over past decade are reviewed. • Areas in focus include characterization, immunotoxicity and utility in drug delivery. • Future direction focusing on mechanistic immunotoxicity studies is proposed.

  18. Current understanding of interactions between nanoparticles and the immune system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobrovolskaia, Marina A., E-mail: marina@mail.nih.gov [Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory, Cancer Research Technology Program, Leidos Biomedical Research Inc., Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, NCI at Frederick, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); Shurin, Michael [Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Department of Immunology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Shvedova, Anna A., E-mail: ats1@cdc.gov [Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Morgantown, WV 26505 (United States); Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    The delivery of drugs, antigens, and imaging agents benefits from using nanotechnology-based carriers. The successful translation of nanoformulations to the clinic involves thorough assessment of their safety profiles, which, among other end-points, includes evaluation of immunotoxicity. The past decade of research focusing on nanoparticle interaction with the immune system has been fruitful in terms of understanding the basics of nanoparticle immunocompatibility, developing a bioanalytical infrastructure to screen for nanoparticle-mediated immune reactions, beginning to uncover the mechanisms of nanoparticle immunotoxicity, and utilizing current knowledge about the structure–activity relationship between nanoparticles' physicochemical properties and their effects on the immune system to guide safe drug delivery. In the present review, we focus on the most prominent pieces of the nanoparticle–immune system puzzle and discuss the achievements, disappointments, and lessons learned over the past 15 years of research on the immunotoxicity of engineered nanomaterials. - Graphical abstract: API — active pharmaceutical ingredient; NP — nanoparticles; PCP — physicochemical properties, CARPA — complement activation-related pseudoallergy, ICH — International Conference on Harmonization. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Achievements, disappointments and lessons learned over past decade are reviewed. • Areas in focus include characterization, immunotoxicity and utility in drug delivery. • Future direction focusing on mechanistic immunotoxicity studies is proposed.

  19. The Evolution of Knowledge Management System(Knowledge Management/Two)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭艳坤

    2015-01-01

    <正>Introduction"Knowledge is neither data nor information,though it is related to both,and the differences between these terms are often a matter of degree"(Davenport&Prusak,2000;1).Knowledge Management System(KMS)can be differentiated based on the types of functions,its purposes,and the number of features as well as its chronological development.

  20. Formal system of communication and understanding. II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zsuzsanna, M

    1982-01-01

    For pt.I see IBID., no.5, p.252-8 (1982). In this article G. Pask's (1975) formal theory of dialogues and talk is summarized. Part II describes the talk-environment and modelling. The conscious systems and machine-intelligence are mainly dealt with. Finally a couple of cases with Pask's theory implemented are looked at. 7 references.

  1. From Words to Concepts: Focusing on Word Knowledge When Teaching for Conceptual Understanding within an Inquiry-Based Science Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Berit S.; Ødegaard, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative video study explores how two elementary school teachers taught for conceptual understanding throughout different phases of science inquiry. The teachers implemented teaching materials with a focus on learning science key concepts through the development of word knowledge. A framework for word knowledge was applied to examine the…

  2. Developing a Deeper Understanding of Autism: Connecting Knowledge through Literature Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Macedoni-Lukšič

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the field of autism, an enormous increase in available information makes it very difficult to connect fragments of knowledge into a more coherent picture. We present a literature mining method, RaJoLink, to search for matched themes in unrelated literature that may contribute to a better understanding of complex pathological conditions, such as autism. 214 full text articles on autism, published in PubMed, served as a source of data. Using ontology construction, we identified the main concepts of what is already known about autism. Then, the RaJoLink method, based on Swanson's ABC model, was used to reveal potentially interesting, but not yet investigated, connections between different concepts in research. Among the more interesting concepts identified with RaJoLink in our study were calcineurin and NF-kappaB. Both terms can be linked to neuro-immune abnormalities in the brain of patients with autism. Further research is needed to provide stronger evidence about calcineurin and NF-kappaB involvement in autism. However, the analysis presented confirms that this method could support experts on their way towards discovering hidden relationships and towards a better understanding of the disorder.

  3. Production monitoring system for understanding product robustness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boorla, Srinivasa Murthy; Howard, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    study is used to demonstrate how the monitoring system can be used to efficiently guide corrective action to improve product performance. It is claimed that the monitoring system can be used to dramatically cut the time taken to identify, planand execute corrective action related to typical quality......In the current quality paradigm, the performance of a product is kept within specification by ensuring that its parts are within specification. Product performance is then validated after final assembly. However, this does not control how robust the product performance is, i.e. how much...... it will vary between the specification limits. In this paper, a model for predicting product performance is proposed, taking into account design, assembly and process parameters live from production. This empowers production to maintain final product performance, instead of part quality. The PRECI‐IN case...

  4. Understanding The Resistance to Health Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ackah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available User resistance is users’ opposition to system implementation. Resistance often occurs as a result of a mismatch between management goals and employee preferences. There are two types of resistance to health iformation system namely active resistance and passive resistance. The manifestation of active resistance are being critical,  blaming/accusing, blocking, fault finding, sabotaging, undermining, ridiculing, intimidating/threatening, starting rumors, appealing to fear, manipulating arguing, using facts selectively, distorting facts and  raising objections. The manifestation of passive resistance are agreeing verbally but not following through, failing to implement change, procrastinating/dragging feet, feigning ignorance, withholding information, suggestions, help or support, and standing by and allowing the change to fail.

  5. Designing a fuzzy expert system for selecting knowledge management strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameneh Khadivar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available knowledge management strategy is mentioned as one of the most important success factors for implementing knowledge management. The KM strategy selection is a complex decision that requires consideration of several factors. For evaluation and selection of an appropriate knowledge management strategy in organizations, many factors must be considered. The identified factors and their impact on knowledge management strategy are inherently ambiguous. In this study, an overview of theoretical foundations of research regarding the different knowledge management strategies has been done And factors influencing the knowledge management strategy selection have been extracted from conceptual frameworks and models. How these factors influence the knowledge management strategy selection is extracted through the fuzzy Delphi. Next a fuzzy expert system for the selection of appropriate knowledge management strategy is designed with respect to factors that have an impact on knowledge management strategy. The factors which influence the selection of knowledge management strategy include: general business strategy, organizational structure, cultural factors, IT strategy, strategic human resource management, social level, the types of knowledge creation processes and release it. The factors which influence the knowledge management strategy selection include: business strategy general, organizational structure, cultural factors, IT strategy, human resource management strategies, socialization level, knowledge types and its creation and diffusion processes. According to identified factors which affect the knowledge management strategy, the final strategy is recommended based on the range of human-oriented and system-oriented by keep the balance of explicit and implicit knowledge. The Designed system performance is tested and evaluated by the information related to three Iranian organization.

  6. Knowledge Based Help desk System in Nuclear Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Safuan Sulaiman; Abdul Muin Abdul Rahman; Norzalina Nasirudin; Khairiel Adyani Abdul Ghani; Abdul Aziz Mhd Ramli; Mohd Ashhar Khalid

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge based (K-based) Help desk system is a knowledge oriented web based system that provides support to business process of the technical service providers. It is a multi-centric system which focuses on end-users, technical workers and higher level management through utilization of knowledge which resides and grows within the system. The objectives of the system are to be a user-friendly, capture technical knowledge for efficient performance and educating users for self reliance. These were achieved through the improvement of the help desk business process and better management of technical knowledge. This system has been tested and implemented in Information Technology Center (IT), Engineering Division (BKJ) and Instrumentation and Automation Center (IAC) at the Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia). Higher levels of user satisfaction and faster growth in technical knowledge repository have been recorded in the system. This paper describes the help desk system in the perspective of management of its technical knowledge contributing to strengthening organizational knowledge asset of Nuclear Malaysia as national nuclear research institution. (Author)

  7. Understanding the Lunar System Architecture Design Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arney, Dale C.; Wilhite, Alan W.; Reeves, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Based on the flexible path strategy and the desire of the international community, the lunar surface remains a destination for future human exploration. This paper explores options within the lunar system architecture design space, identifying performance requirements placed on the propulsive system that performs Earth departure within that architecture based on existing and/or near-term capabilities. The lander crew module and ascent stage propellant mass fraction are primary drivers for feasibility in multiple lander configurations. As the aggregation location moves further out of the lunar gravity well, the lunar lander is required to perform larger burns, increasing the sensitivity to these two factors. Adding an orbit transfer stage to a two-stage lunar lander and using a large storable stage for braking with a one-stage lunar lander enable higher aggregation locations than Low Lunar Orbit. Finally, while using larger vehicles enables a larger feasible design space, there are still feasible scenarios that use three launches of smaller vehicles.

  8. Using Knowledge-Based Systems to Support Learning of Organizational Knowledge: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Lynne P.; Nash, Rebecca L.; Phan, Tu-Anh T.; Bailey, Teresa R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the deployment of a knowledge system to support learning of organizational knowledge at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), a US national research laboratory whose mission is planetary exploration and to 'do what no one has done before.' Data collected over 19 weeks of operation were used to assess system performance with respect to design considerations, participation, effectiveness of communication mechanisms, and individual-based learning. These results are discussed in the context of organizational learning research and implications for practice.

  9. Recommender systems in knowledge-mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volna, Eva

    2017-07-01

    The subject of the paper is to analyse the possibilities of application of recommender systems in the field of data mining. The work focuses on three basic types of recommender systems (collaborative, content-based and hybrid). The goal of the article is to evaluate which of these three concepts of recommender systems provides forecast with the lowest error rate in the domain of recommending movies. This target is fulfilled by the practical part of the work - at first, the own recommender system was designed and created, capable of obtaining movies recommendation from the database based on the user's preferences. Next, we verified experimentally which recommender system produces more accurate results.

  10. Knowledge-based systems for power management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lollar, L. F.

    1992-01-01

    NASA-Marshall's Electrical Power Branch has undertaken the development of expert systems in support of further advancements in electrical power system automation. Attention is given to the features (1) of the Fault Recovery and Management Expert System, (2) a resource scheduler or Master of Automated Expert Scheduling Through Resource Orchestration, and (3) an adaptive load-priority manager, or Load Priority List Management System. The characteristics of an advisory battery manager for the Hubble Space Telescope, designated the 'nickel-hydrogen expert system', are also noted.

  11. Irrelevance Reasoning in Knowledge Based Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, A. Y.

    1993-01-01

    This dissertation considers the problem of reasoning about irrelevance of knowledge in a principled and efficient manner. Specifically, it is concerned with two key problems: (1) developing algorithms for automatically deciding what parts of a knowledge base are irrelevant to a query and (2) the utility of relevance reasoning. The dissertation describes a novel tool, the query-tree, for reasoning about irrelevance. Based on the query-tree, we develop several algorithms for deciding what formulas are irrelevant to a query. Our general framework sheds new light on the problem of detecting independence of queries from updates. We present new results that significantly extend previous work in this area. The framework also provides a setting in which to investigate the connection between the notion of irrelevance and the creation of abstractions. We propose a new approach to research on reasoning with abstractions, in which we investigate the properties of an abstraction by considering the irrelevance claims on which it is based. We demonstrate the potential of the approach for the cases of abstraction of predicates and projection of predicate arguments. Finally, we describe an application of relevance reasoning to the domain of modeling physical devices.

  12. Knowledge Management System Di Bidang Pelayaran Menggunakan Metodologi USDP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Nasihin

    2017-03-01

                                                                Abstract Karunia Samudera Indonesia Co. Ltd. is a company that engaged in shipping more than 22 years since 1995 up to now handle a variety of water transport fleet services, the agency, processing of documents, crew recruitment, docking ships, often using social media and email in the dissemination of knowledge and information that is carried out so far. However, these media can not accommodate this company in some ways as the notes of the knowledge that can be searched back and not as a recording medium for the knowledges based on experience in the field. Therefore, we need to design a system that can convert tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge that is useful for Karunia Samudera Indonesia Co. Ltd. and ease to communicate information to the users of services. The system was designed using the methodology of the Unified Software Development Process (USDP in this research is a web application that implements the concept of Knowledge Management System (Knowledge Managements, which the user can interact with Karunia Samudera Indonesia Co. Ltd. as a member of the system by commenting on the article which is a form of knowledge that has been documented.   Keywords:   Knowledge Management System, Unified Software Development Process, Web Application.

  13. Understanding healthcare innovation systems: the Stockholm region case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larisch, Lisa-Marie; Amer-Wåhlin, Isis; Hidefjäll, Patrik

    2016-11-21

    Purpose There is an increasing interest in understanding how innovation processes can address current challenges in healthcare. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the wider socio-economic context and conditions for such innovation processes in the Stockholm region, using the functional dynamics approach to innovation systems (ISs). Design/methodology/approach The analysis is based on triangulation using data from 16 in-depth interviews, two workshops, and additional documents. Using the functional dynamics approach, critical structural and functional components of the healthcare IS were analyzed. Findings The analysis revealed several mechanisms blocking innovation processes such as fragmentation, lack of clear leadership, as well as insufficient involvement of patients and healthcare professionals. Furthermore, innovation is expected to occur linearly as a result of research. Restrictive rules for collaboration with industry, reimbursement, and procurement mechanisms limit entrepreneurial experimentation, commercialization, and spread of innovations. Research limitations/implications In this study, the authors analyzed how certain functions of the functional dynamics approach to ISs related to each other. The authors grouped knowledge creation, resource mobilization, and legitimacy as they jointly constitute conditions for needs articulation and entrepreneurial experimentation. The economic effects of entrepreneurial experimentation and needs articulation are mainly determined by the stage of market formation and existence of positive externalities. Social implications Stronger user involvement; a joint innovation strategy for healthcare, academia, and industry; and institutional reform are necessary to remove blocking mechanisms that today prevent innovation from occurring. Originality/value This study is the first to provide an analysis of the system of innovation in healthcare using a functional dynamics approach, which has evolved as a tool for public

  14. Pre-Service Primary Teachers' Knowledge and Understanding of Geography and Its Teaching: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catling, Simon

    2014-01-01

    It is a decade since the last review of the geographical understandings of pre-service primary teachers. Examining the range of research about novice primary teachers' geographical and environmental knowledge and understanding, it is clear there have been limited follow up studies, and there remain important gaps in the research. Research relevant…

  15. Knowledge management method for knowledge based BWR Core Operation Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, Yutaka; Fukuzaki, Takaharu; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro

    1989-03-01

    A knowledge management method is proposed to support an except whose knowledge is stored in a knowledge base in the BWR Core Operation Management System. When the alterations in the operation plans are motivated by the expert after evaluating them, the method attempts to find the knowledge which must be modified and to give the expert guidances. In this way the resultant operation plans are improved by modifying values of referenced data. Using data dependency among data, which are defined and referred during inference, data to be modified are retrieved. In generating modification guidances, data reference and definition procedures are classified by syntactic analysis of knowledge. The modified data values are calculated with a sensitivity between the increment in the data to be modified and the resultant one in the performance of operation plans. The efficiency of the knowledge management by the proposed method, when applied to the knowledge based system including 500 pieces of knowledge for BWR control rod programming, is higher than that for interactive use of existing general purpose editors. (author).

  16. Knowledge management method for knowledge based BWR Core Operation Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Yutaka; Fukuzaki, Takaharu; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro

    1989-01-01

    A knowledge management method is proposed to support an except whose knowledge is stored in a knowledge base in the BWR Core Operation Management System. When the alterations in the operation plans are motivated by the expert after evaluating them, the method attempts to find the knowledge which must be modified and to give the expert guidances. In this way the resultant operation plans are improved by modifying values of referenced data. Using data dependency among data, which are defined and referred during inference, data to be modified are retrieved. In generating modification guidances, data reference and definition procedures are classified by syntactic analysis of knowledge. The modified data values are calculated with a sensitivity between the increment in the data to be modified and the resultant one in the performance of operation plans. The efficiency of the knowledge management by the proposed method, when applied to the knowledge based system including 500 pieces of knowledge for BWR control rod programming, is higher than that for interactive use of existing general purpose editors. (author)

  17. Characterizing and comparing innovation systems by different ‘modes’ of knowledge production: A proximity approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardeman, Sjoerd; Frenken, Koen; Nomaler, Önder; Ter Wal, Anne L. J.

    2015-01-01

    Though the concept of innovation systems has become influential in both academia and policymaking, an analytical approach to understanding innovation systems is still lacking. In particular, there is no analytical framework to measure `Mode 1? and `Mode 2? knowledge production. We propose a

  18. Understanding Knowledge through the Example of C. S. Peirce’s Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enn Kasak

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the era of Charles Sanders Peirce, cosmology was similar to philosophy that was still aspiring to be scientific. Peirce, having worked as an astrophysicist, supported cosmology’s strive towards science. In cosmology, one often relies on knowledge different from everyday knowledge: such knowledge is very general and is situated on the boundaries of what is known; it is very difficult to ascertain it empirically. After Karl Popper, a realist may distinguish between subjective and objective knowledge but this distinction does not suffice for cosmology. A pragmaticist following Peirce could distinguish knowledge about real ideas, which could be termed i-knowledge. This could mean being made party to or being grasped by real ideas functioning outside ourselves. Expressing all i-knowledge as propositional knowledge is difficult. However, non-propositional i-knowledge can sometimes be expressed as principles or paradoxically.

  19. 7th International Conference on Intelligent Systems and Knowledge Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Tianrui; Li, Hongbo

    2014-01-01

    These proceedings present technical papers selected from the 2012 International Conference on Intelligent Systems and Knowledge Engineering (ISKE 2012), held on December 15-17 in Beijing. The aim of this conference is to bring together experts from different fields of expertise to discuss the state-of-the-art in Intelligent Systems and Knowledge Engineering, and to present new findings and perspectives on future developments. The proceedings introduce current scientific and technical advances in the fields of artificial intelligence, machine learning, pattern recognition, data mining, knowledge engineering, information retrieval, information theory, knowledge-based systems, knowledge representation and reasoning, multi-agent systems, and natural-language processing, etc. Furthermore they include papers on new intelligent computing paradigms, which combine new computing methodologies, e.g., cloud computing, service computing and pervasive computing with traditional intelligent methods. By presenting new method...

  20. What Does Industry Really Want in a Knowledge Management System? A Longitudinal Study of Taiwanese Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liang-Chih; Lu, Hsi-Peng

    This paper depicts a longitudinal investigation of knowledge management system development from industrial perspectives. Snapshots on three surveys (2002, 2006, and 2010) of Taiwanese companies were conducted and compared, which is to explore the perceived understandings and requirements for the applications of a knowledge management system.From the surveys, it was found that the most useful applications were document management, knowledge search and retrieval, and knowledge repository and map. The emerging applications were expert management, document security, and knowledge automation such as auto-classification, auto-abstract and auto-keyword generation. The most wanted services along with KMS were consulting service, success story-sharing, and modularization while deploying knowledge management system in the enterprises. The trends and transformation of a KM system were also collected and analyzed. We suggest that a company should use different knowledge management approach according to its corporate main business function. Combing intellectual capital theories proposed by other researchers, we categorize knowledge management focus as staff-centric, system-centric, and customer-centric knowledge from industrial perspectives.

  1. A Representation System User Interface for Knowledge Base Designers

    OpenAIRE

    Fikes, Richard E.

    1982-01-01

    A major strength of frame-based knowledge representation languages is their ability to provide the knowledge base designer with a concise and intuitively appealing means expression. The claim of intuitive appeal is based on the observation that the object -centered style of description provided by these languages often closely matches a designer's understanding of the domain being modeled and therefore lessens the burden of reformulation involved in developing a formal description. To be effe...

  2. Critical Care nurses' understanding of the NHS knowledge and skills framework. An interpretative phenomenological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Laura F M; Rae, Agnes M

    2013-01-01

    This small-scale research study aimed to explore Critical Care nurses' understanding of the National Health Service (NHS) Knowledge and Skills Framework (KSF) in relationship to its challenges and their nursing role. The NHS KSF is central to the professional development of nurses in Critical Care and supports the effective delivery of health care in the UK. KSF was implemented in 2004 yet engagement seems lacking with challenges often identified. This qualitative study adopted an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis framework. Data were collected from five Critical Care nurses using semi-structured interviews that were transcribed for analysis. Two super-ordinate themes of 'engagement' and 'theory-practice gap' were identified. Six subthemes of 'fluency', 'transparency', 'self-assessment', 'achieving for whom', 'reflection' and 'the nursing role' further explained the super-ordinate themes. Critical Care nurses demonstrated layers of understanding about KSF. Challenges identified were primarily concerned with complex language, an unclear process and the use of reflective and self-assessment skills. Two theory-practice gaps were found. Critical Care nurses understood the principles of KSF but they either did not apply or did not realize they applied these principles. They struggled to relate KSF to Critical Care practice and felt it did not capture the 'essence' of their nursing role in Critical Care. Recommendations were made for embedding KSF into Critical Care practice, using education and taking a flexible approach to KSF to support the development and care delivery of Critical Care nurses. © 2012 The Authors. Nursing in Critical Care © 2012 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  3. Knowledge Management System in Health & Social Care: Review on 20 Practiced Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Saiful Ridhwan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of managing medical information has become very critical in the healthcare delivery system. Medical information nowadays are optimized towards serving different areas such as; diagnosing of diseases, planning and administration, treatment and monitoring of patient outcomes, services and costs. This article provides a review into various Health and Social Care systems which encompasses the Knowledge Management value. For analysis, more than 30 systems that are related to Health and Social Care were gathered via Internet research, only 20 of these systems were finally selected based on recent system development and popularity of the system.Keywords: Health Care, Knowledge, Knowledge Management, Social Care, systemdoi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.4 How to cite this article:Ridhwan, M.S., and Oyefolahan, I.O. (2013. Knowledge Management System in Health & Social Care: Review on 20 Practiced Knowledge Management. The Asian Journal of Technology Management 6 (2: 92-101. Print ISSN: 1978-6956; Online ISSN: 2089-791X. doi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.4

  4. Models, Metaphors and Symbols for Information and Knowledge Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Williams

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A literature search indicates that Data, Information and Knowledge continue to be placed into a hierarchical construct where it is considered that information is more valuable than data and that information can be processed into becoming precious knowledge. Wisdom continues to be added to the model to further confuse the issue. This model constrains our ability to think more logically about how and why we develop knowledge management systems to support and enhance knowledge- intensive processes, tasks or projects. This paper seeks to summarise development of the Data-Information-Knowledge-Wisdom hierarchy, explore the extensive criticism of it and present a more logical (and accurate construct for the elements of intellectual capital when developing and managing Knowledge Management Systems.

  5. A knowledge continuity management program for the energy, infrastructure and knowledge systems center, Sandia National Laboratories.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menicucci, David F.

    2006-07-01

    A growing recognition exists in companies worldwide that, when employees leave, they take with them valuable knowledge that is difficult and expensive to recreate. The concern is now particularly acute as the large ''baby boomer'' generation is reaching retirement age. A new field of science, Knowledge Continuity Management (KCM), is designed to capture and catalog the acquired knowledge and wisdom from experience of these employees before they leave. The KCM concept is in the final stages of being adopted by the Energy, Infrastructure, and Knowledge Systems Center and a program is being applied that should produce significant annual cost savings. This report discusses how the Center can use KCM to mitigate knowledge loss from employee departures, including a concise description of a proposed plan tailored to the Center's specific needs and resources.

  6. Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Debates on methodology, epistemology, ethics, gender, education, science and technology, arts, food systems and social-cultural issues are invited. ... Using fuzzy cognitive maps in modelling and representing weather lore for seasonal ...

  7. Developing a knowledge system for information operations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Leenen, L

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe a research project to develop an optimal information retrieval system in an Information Operations domain. Information Operations is the application and management of information to gain an advantage over an opponent...

  8. Understanding Digital Learning from the Perspective of Systems Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Ayse

    2009-01-01

    The System Dynamics approach can be seen as a new way of understanding dynamical phenonema (natural, physical, biological, etc.) that occur in our daily lives taking into consideration not only single pairs of cause-effect variables, but the functioning of the system as a whole. This approach also provides the students with a new understanding in…

  9. Soft Systems Methodology Embedded in Organizational Knowledge-Creating Process

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Taketoshi

    2005-01-01

    We clarify the role of tacit knowing in the soft systems methodology. For the purpose we investigate the basic structure of its seven-stage model, while embedding the soft systems methodology in organizational knowledge-creating process. This leads to the introduction of concept creation to the methodology. This changes the basic shape of the soft systems methodology from learning cycle to organizational knowledge-creating spiral where concept creation is the key point.

  10. The knowledge dynamics of organizational innovation : understanding the implementation of decision support for planners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjarbaini, Vivyane Larissa Ratna Nirma

    2009-01-01

    This thesis argues that a knowledge perspective on organizational innovation provides essential insights. A cognitive-semiotic model on knowledge dynamics is presented and used to perform an empirical study. We seek an answer to the question: What happens to the knowledge of planners during an

  11. Understanding Geometric Ideas: Pre-Service Primary Teachers' Knowledge as a Basis for Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seah, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports part of an ongoing investigation into aspects of pre-service teachers' geometric knowledge. One hundred and fifty-two Australian pre-service teachers responded to a series of questions that reflect the type of knowledge teachers are expected to know and teach. Analysis of their responses shows that teacher knowledge can be…

  12. SOME CONCEPTUAL PROPERTIES FOR KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile MAZILESCU

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge Management Systems (KMS are important tools by which organizations can better useinformation and, more importantly, manage knowledge. Unlike other strategies, knowledge management (KM isdifficult to define because it encompasses a range of concepts, management tasks, technologies, and organizationalpractices, all of which come under the umbrella of the information management. Semantic approaches alloweasier and more efficient training, maintenance, and support knowledge. Current ICT markets are dominated byrelational databases and document-centric information technologies, procedural algorithmic programmingparadigms, and stack architecture. A key driver of global economic growth in the coming decade is the build-out ofbroadband telecommunications and the deployment of intelligent services bundling. This paper introduces themain characteristics of an Intelligent Knowledge Management System as a multi-agent system used in a LearningControl Problem (IKMSLCP. We describe an intelligent KM framework, allowing the observer (a human agentto learn from experience.

  13. Knowledge preservation in scope of International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Hafizal Yusof; Habibah Adnan; Iberahim Ali

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge preservation is one of the important aspects in knowledge management. Developing organization must look back how they preserve their knowledge from loss because of retirement and so on. One approach suggested by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) through establishment of International Nuclear Information System (INIS) that can functioned as database and research centres where its operation based on cooperation between the member states. This system also can function as main contributor to knowledge preservation centres based on research in nuclear science and technology related. The main objectives of this paper is to see how far this system relevant to meet this agency to preserve their knowledge. Besides that, the process of increasing individual competency also is discussed in context of INIS scope. (author)

  14. Organic contaminant transport and fate in the subsurface: evolution of knowledge and understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essaid, Hedeff I.; Bekins, Barbara A.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2015-01-01

    Toxic organic contaminants may enter the subsurface as slightly soluble and volatile nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) or as dissolved solutes resulting in contaminant plumes emanating from the source zone. A large body of research published in Water Resources Research has been devoted to characterizing and understanding processes controlling the transport and fate of these organic contaminants and the effectiveness of natural attenuation, bioremediation, and other remedial technologies. These contributions include studies of NAPL flow, entrapment, and interphase mass transfer that have advanced from the analysis of simple systems with uniform properties and equilibrium contaminant phase partitioning to complex systems with pore-scale and macroscale heterogeneity and rate-limited interphase mass transfer. Understanding of the fate of dissolved organic plumes has advanced from when biodegradation was thought to require oxygen to recognition of the importance of anaerobic biodegradation, multiple redox zones, microbial enzyme kinetics, and mixing of organic contaminants and electron acceptors at plume fringes. Challenges remain in understanding the impacts of physical, chemical, biological, and hydrogeological heterogeneity, pore-scale interactions, and mixing on the fate of organic contaminants. Further effort is needed to successfully incorporate these processes into field-scale predictions of transport and fate. Regulations have greatly reduced the frequency of new point-source contamination problems; however, remediation at many legacy plumes remains challenging. A number of fields of current relevance are benefiting from research advances from point-source contaminant research. These include geologic carbon sequestration, nonpoint-source contamination, aquifer storage and recovery, the fate of contaminants from oil and gas development, and enhanced bioremediation.

  15. Knowledge-based fault diagnosis system for refuse collection vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, CheeFai; Juffrizal, K.; Khalil, S. N.; Nidzamuddin, M. Y.

    2015-01-01

    The refuse collection vehicle is manufactured by local vehicle body manufacturer. Currently; the company supplied six model of the waste compactor truck to the local authority as well as waste management company. The company is facing difficulty to acquire the knowledge from the expert when the expert is absence. To solve the problem, the knowledge from the expert can be stored in the expert system. The expert system is able to provide necessary support to the company when the expert is not available. The implementation of the process and tool is able to be standardize and more accurate. The knowledge that input to the expert system is based on design guidelines and experience from the expert. This project highlighted another application on knowledge-based system (KBS) approached in trouble shooting of the refuse collection vehicle production process. The main aim of the research is to develop a novel expert fault diagnosis system framework for the refuse collection vehicle

  16. Knowledge-based fault diagnosis system for refuse collection vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, CheeFai; Juffrizal, K.; Khalil, S. N.; Nidzamuddin, M. Y. [Centre of Advanced Research on Energy, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Hang Tuah Jaya, Durian Tunggal, Melaka (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    The refuse collection vehicle is manufactured by local vehicle body manufacturer. Currently; the company supplied six model of the waste compactor truck to the local authority as well as waste management company. The company is facing difficulty to acquire the knowledge from the expert when the expert is absence. To solve the problem, the knowledge from the expert can be stored in the expert system. The expert system is able to provide necessary support to the company when the expert is not available. The implementation of the process and tool is able to be standardize and more accurate. The knowledge that input to the expert system is based on design guidelines and experience from the expert. This project highlighted another application on knowledge-based system (KBS) approached in trouble shooting of the refuse collection vehicle production process. The main aim of the research is to develop a novel expert fault diagnosis system framework for the refuse collection vehicle.

  17. Formal Support for Development of Knowledge-Based Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fensel, Dieter; Van Harmelen, Frank; Reif, Wolfgang; Ten Teije, Annette

    1998-01-01

    This article provides an approach for developing reliable knowledge-based systems. Its main contributions are: Specification is done at an architectural level that abstracts from a specific implementation formalism. The model of expertise of CommonKADS distinguishs different types of knowledge and

  18. Local Conceptualisation of Nature, Forest Knowledge Systems and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conventional forest and natural resource management tend to overshadow local forest management practices and ecological knowledge on which rural communities base their survival and livelihood strategies. This article examines how rural communities conceptualize nature, what forest knowledge systems they use and ...

  19. Development of knowledge base system linked to material database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Mashiko, Shinichi; Miyakawa, Shunichi; Fujita, Mitsutane; Kinugawa, Junichi; Iwata, Shuichi

    2002-01-01

    The distributed material database system named 'Data-Free-Way' has been developed by four organizations (the National Institute for Materials Science, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, and the Japan Science and Technology Corporation) under a cooperative agreement in order to share fresh and stimulating information as well as accumulated information for the development of advanced nuclear materials, for the design of structural components, etc. In order to create additional values of the system, knowledge base system, in which knowledge extracted from the material database is expressed, is planned to be developed for more effective utilization of Data-Free-Way. XML (eXtensible Markup Language) has been adopted as the description method of the retrieved results and the meaning of them. One knowledge note described with XML is stored as one knowledge which composes the knowledge base. Since this knowledge note is described with XML, the user can easily convert the display form of the table and the graph into the data format which the user usually uses. This paper describes the current status of Data-Free-Way, the description method of knowledge extracted from the material database with XML and the distributed material knowledge base system. (author)

  20. Development of maintenance knowledge management system for power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohi, Tadashi; Hirai, Kenji

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the knowledge management framework to systematize maintenance knowledge in power plant. The features of the framework are (1) to construct a decision tree of trouble cases incrementally based on Ripple Down Rules (RDR) method and (2) to decide the timing of installing new knowledge based on several metrics obtained by evaluating a structure of a decision tree. We are developing the experimental prototype of maintenance knowledge management system. The system is integrated with plant database (ex. the operation journals and maintenance records). The management of trouble cases is based on the format of XML. For practical purpose, each trouble case is linked with related data (ex. maintenance manuals, equipment configuration, records). Plant workers can easily search for maintenance knowledge and relevant data by specifying observed status. On the other hand, knowledge engineers can monitor occurrence counts of exceptional cases to each node. The metrics calculation gives a cue to locate the effective node for improving the efficiency of retrieval. We are evaluating the functionality and the effectiveness of the system through the application to maintenance work of controller systems. We believe that this framework will be helpful to share common knowledge among plant sites as well as to manage site-specific knowledge. (author)

  1. The construction of knowledge service system in professional libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xue

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the challenges for the professional libraries under the new situation are pointed out. Combined with characteristics of knowledge service, its hierarchical structure is proposed and elaborated. It also describes the practices and outcomes obtained from the construction of knowledge service system of nuclear science and technology library. Recommendations for its future work are also presented. (author)

  2. Synergy between indigenous knowledge systems, modern health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the people of this country should harness a synergy between indigenous health care systems, scientific research and modern health care methods. This article attempts to address the historical evolution of health care methods in South Africa, its effect on the community as well as challenges facing the health professions.

  3. Reusing knowledge in embedded system modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marincic, J.; Mader, Angelika H.; Wieringa, Roelf J.; Lucas, Yan

    Model-based design is a promising technique to improve the quality of software and the efficiency of the software development process. We are investigating how to efficiently model embedded software and its environment to verify the requirements for the system controlled by the software. The

  4. Understanding the organization of sharing economy in agri-food systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miralles, Isabel; Dentoni, Domenico; Pascucci, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Despite the proliferation of sharing economy initiatives in agri-food systems, the recent literature has still not unravelled what sharing exactly entails from an organizational standpoint. In light of this knowledge gap, this study aims to understand which resources are shared, and how, in a

  5. Fuzzy Dynamic Discrimination Algorithms for Distributed Knowledge Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile MAZILESCU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A reduction of the algorithmic complexity of the fuzzy inference engine has the following property: the inputs (the fuzzy rules and the fuzzy facts can be divided in two parts, one being relatively constant for a long a time (the fuzzy rule or the knowledge model when it is compared to the second part (the fuzzy facts for every inference cycle. The occurrence of certain transformations over the constant part makes sense, in order to decrease the solution procurement time, in the case that the second part varies, but it is known at certain moments in time. The transformations attained in advance are called pre-processing or knowledge compilation. The use of variables in a Business Rule Management System knowledge representation allows factorising knowledge, like in classical knowledge based systems. The language of the first-degree predicates facilitates the formulation of complex knowledge in a rigorous way, imposing appropriate reasoning techniques. It is, thus, necessary to define the description method of fuzzy knowledge, to justify the knowledge exploiting efficiency when the compiling technique is used, to present the inference engine and highlight the functional features of the pattern matching and the state space processes. This paper presents the main results of our project PR356 for designing a compiler for fuzzy knowledge, like Rete compiler, that comprises two main components: a static fuzzy discrimination structure (Fuzzy Unification Tree and the Fuzzy Variables Linking Network. There are also presented the features of the elementary pattern matching process that is based on the compiled structure of fuzzy knowledge. We developed fuzzy discrimination algorithms for Distributed Knowledge Management Systems (DKMSs. The implementations have been elaborated in a prototype system FRCOM (Fuzzy Rule COMpiler.

  6. Managing Temporal Knowledge in Port Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Gudelj

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Large ports need to deal with a number of disparate activities:the movement of ships, containers and other cargo, theloading and unloading of ships and containers, customs activities.As well as human resources, anchorages, channels, lighters,tugs, berths, warehouse and other storage spaces have to beallocated and released. The efficient management of a port involvesmanaging these activities and resources, managing theflows of money involved between the agents providing and usingthese resources, and providing management information.Many information systems will be involved.Many applications have to deal with a large amount of datawhich not only represent the perceived state of the real world atpresent, but also past and/or future states. These applicationsare not served adequately by today's computer managementand database systems. In particular, deletions and updates insuch systems have destructive semantics. This means that previousdatabase contents (representing previous perceived statesof the real world cannot be accessed anymore.A review of how define temporal data models, based ongeneralizing a non-temporal data model in to a temporal one toimprove port management is presented. This paper describes apractical experiment which supports managing temporal dataalong with the corresponding prototype implementations.

  7. Developing knowledge management systems with an active expert methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandahl, K.

    1992-01-01

    Knowledge management, understood as the ability to store, distribute and utilize human knowledge in an organization, is the subject of this dissertation. In particular we have studied the design of methods and supporting software for this process. Detailed and systematic description of the design and development processes of three case-study implementations of knowledge management software are provided. The outcome of the projects is explained in terms of an active expert development methodology, which is centered around support for a domain expert to take substantial responsibility for the design and maintenance of a knowledge management system in a given area of application. Based on the experiences from the case studies and the resulting methodology, an environment for automatically supporting knowledge management was designed in the KNOWLEDGE-LINKER research project. The vital part of this architecture is a knowledge acquisition tool, used directly by the experts in creating and maintaining a knowledge base. An elaborated version of the active expert development methodology was then formulated as the result of applying the KNOWLEDGE-LINKER approach in a fourth case study. This version of the methodology is also accounted for and evaluated together within the supporting KNOWLEDGE-LINKER architecture. (au)

  8. The politics of knowledge: implications for understanding and addressing mental health and illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Emily K

    2014-03-01

    While knowledge represents a valuable commodity, not all forms of knowledge are afforded equal status. The politics of knowledge, which entails the privileging of particular ways of knowing through linkages between the producers of knowledge and other bearers of authority or influence, represents a powerful force driving knowledge development. Within the health research and practice community, biomedical knowledge (i.e. knowledge pertaining to the biological factors influencing health) has been afforded a privileged position, shaping the health research and practice community's view of health, illness and appropriate intervention. The aim of this study is to spark critical reflection and dialogue surrounding the ways in which the politics of knowledge have constrained progress in addressing mental health and illness, one of today's leading public health issues. I argue that the hegemony of biological knowledge represents an ethical issue as it limits the breadth of knowledge available to support practitioners to 'do good' in terms of addressing mental illness. Given the power and influence inherent within the nursing community, I propose that nurses ought to engage in critical reflection and action in an effort to better situate the health research and practice community to effectively address the mental health of populations. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Process fault diagnosis using knowledge-based systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudduth, A.L.

    1991-01-01

    Advancing technology in process plants has led to increased need for computer based process diagnostic systems to assist the operator. One approach to this problem is to use an embedded knowledge based system to interpret measurement signals. Knowledge based systems using only symptom based rules are inadequate for real time diagnosis of dynamic systems; therefore a model based approach is necessary. Though several forms of model based reasoning have been proposed, the use of qualitative causal models incorporating first principles knowledge of process behavior structure, and function appear to have the most promise as a robust modeling methodology. In this paper the structure of a diagnostic system is described which uses model based reasoning and conventional numerical methods to perform process diagnosis. This system is being applied to emergency diesel generator system in nuclear stations

  10. A Knowledge Dictionary System for Scheduling Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-01

    quantity of the resource is allocated; (g) two (or more) activities that conflict temporall , can only proceed if one or more of the activities are re...does not allow any parameter substitution but merely processes the contents of the file as a series of I:eystrokes. To create a macro, simply type...bytes in the system. When the hardware actually uses such a struc- ture (e.g., the Motorola 68000 series CPU) the OS will almost always present it that

  11. Indigenous knowledge systems for the treatment of hypertension in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indigenous knowledge systems for the treatment of hypertension in Lusaka, Zambia: ... are said to access traditional medicine (TM) for their disease management. ... Healers & Practitioners Association of Zambia (THPAZ) operating from within ...

  12. Role of indigenous knowledge systems in the conservation of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... human and animal health, education and more important in natural resource management. ... these knowledge systems from the time of Kenya's pre-independence to the 2000s era.

  13. Knowledge asset management pertinent to information systems outsourcing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smuts, H

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Organisations have over time realised that leveraging their already accumulated knowledge assets are the most cost effective way to increase their competitive standing and to harness innovation. In choosing to outsource their information systems (IS...

  14. Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems - Vol 11 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems. ... halting the spread of HIV and AIDS in South Africa: The case of Soshanguve township in the ... Tourism policies and management practices as perceived by indigenous people in ...

  15. Enhanced digital library system that supports sustainable knowledge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhanced digital library system that supports sustainable knowledge: A focus ... This research work provides a Web-Based University library, ability to access the ... and generates pins to authorize bonafide students and staff of the University.

  16. INTELLIGENT AUTOMATED SYSTEM OF CONTROL OF KNOWLEDGE: LINGUISTIC SUBSYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Katerynchuk

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A flowchart linguistic structure (morfological, syntactical, semantic and pragmatic analysis of sentences of the automated system of control of intellectual knowledge. The model of artificial intelligence recognition and evaluation of textual answers.

  17. Knowledge management: An abstraction of knowledge base and database management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedesel, Joel D.

    1990-01-01

    Artificial intelligence application requirements demand powerful representation capabilities as well as efficiency for real-time domains. Many tools exist, the most prevalent being expert systems tools such as ART, KEE, OPS5, and CLIPS. Other tools just emerging from the research environment are truth maintenance systems for representing non-monotonic knowledge, constraint systems, object oriented programming, and qualitative reasoning. Unfortunately, as many knowledge engineers have experienced, simply applying a tool to an application requires a large amount of effort to bend the application to fit. Much work goes into supporting work to make the tool integrate effectively. A Knowledge Management Design System (KNOMAD), is described which is a collection of tools built in layers. The layered architecture provides two major benefits; the ability to flexibly apply only those tools that are necessary for an application, and the ability to keep overhead, and thus inefficiency, to a minimum. KNOMAD is designed to manage many knowledge bases in a distributed environment providing maximum flexibility and expressivity to the knowledge engineer while also providing support for efficiency.

  18. Frame model of knowledge in quality control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macherauskas, V.Yu.

    1982-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to develop a semiotic model for representation of data and knowledge in a system for supplying operational information to management personnel on the progress of a technological process, with the aim of enabling an analysis of deviations of product quality and formulation of recommendations to the technologists as to how to eliminate them. Since any knowledge of people that can be realistically utilized in machine systems is represented in natural language form, special languages for representation of knowledge, based on the concept of frames, are being developed for formation of semiotic models in computers. This article defines the frames, followed by a description of a mechanism of knowledge manipulation and of some aspects of realization of a frame model of knowledge. 9 references.

  19. Understanding physicians' professional knowledge and practice in research on skilled migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiß, Anja

    2016-08-01

    Research on the integration of migrant professionals into high-skilled labor markets either focuses on differences between nation states which may be exacerbated by national closure or it celebrates the global versatility of professional knowledge, especially in the natural and health sciences. Building on a pragmatist approach to professional knowledge, the article argues that professional knowledge should not be seen as either universal or local, but both the institutionalized and the incorporated aspects of cultural capital are characterized by 'local universality'. Professionals recreate professional knowledge in specific 'local' situations by relating to universal standards and to internalized 'libraries' of situated expert experience. While the more common notion of knowledge as a socially contested resource continues to be relevant for research on skilled migration, professional knowledge should also be seen as emerging in situations in response to socio-material problems. These problems can be structured by the nation-state, but they can also be transnational in nature.

  20. Promoting Student Teachers' Content Related Knowledge in Teaching Systems Thinking: Measuring Effects of an Intervention through Evaluating a Videotaped Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkränzer, Frank; Kramer, Tim; Hörsch, Christian; Schuler, Stephan; Rieß, Werner

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of complex, dynamic and animate systems has a special standing in education for sustainable development and biology. Thus one important role of science teacher education is to promote student teachers' Content Related Knowledge (CRK) for teaching systems thinking, consisting of extensive Content Knowledge (CK) and well formed…

  1. Predictors of attitude and intention to use knowledge management system among Korean nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Eun Kyoung

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge sharing using Knowledge Management (KM) systems helps nurses to understand and acquire appropriate knowledge that influences the quality of healthcare service. The purpose of this study was to identify organizational and individual factors influencing attitude and intention to use KM systems among Korean nurses. A cross-sectional survey design was used to study a sample of 245 nurses employed at five hospitals in Seoul. A multiple hierarchical regression was used to examine predictors of nurses' attitude and intention to use. From an individual perspective, nurse's informatics competency was identified as a significant factor influencing attitudes toward knowledge management usage within adhocracy and clan cultures. However, from an organizational perspective, level of hospital information system was identified as a significant factor influencing KM system usage within adhocracy cultures. The findings of this study will be helpful in better understanding and assessing the impact of the factors affecting the implementation of nursing knowledge management systems and in further developing successful managerial strategies using knowledge resources in healthcare settings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Knowledge-based operator guidance system for Japanese PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Y.; Ito, K.; Kawanago, S.; Tani, M.; Murata, R.

    1986-01-01

    A knowledge-based operator support system for nuclear power plant operation is under development. The main theme of the study is the incorporation of operator's cognitive structure as the framework of the knowledge representation and inference control mechanisms. Based upon information collected from interviews, and experiments using a real-time simulator, an operator's model related to diagnostic tasks was developed. A knowledge-based system incorporating the proposed model demonstrated highly efficient problem solving capabilities and the dynamic fitness to operator's perceptual feeling, thereby suggesting the potential importance and practical benefit of such a study

  3. Understanding bicycling in cities using system dynamics modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmillan, Alexandra; Woodcock, James

    2017-12-01

    Increasing urban bicycling has established net benefits for human and environmental health. Questions remain about which policies are needed and in what order, to achieve an increase in cycling while avoiding negative consequences. Novel ways of considering cycling policy are needed, bringing together expertise across policy, community and research to develop a shared understanding of the dynamically complex cycling system. In this paper we use a collaborative learning process to develop a dynamic causal model of urban cycling to develop consensus about the nature and order of policies needed in different cycling contexts to optimise outcomes. We used participatory system dynamics modelling to develop causal loop diagrams (CLDs) of cycling in three contrasting contexts: Auckland, London and Nijmegen. We combined qualitative interviews and workshops to develop the CLDs. We used the three CLDs to compare and contrast influences on cycling at different points on a "cycling trajectory" and drew out policy insights. The three CLDs consisted of feedback loops dynamically influencing cycling, with significant overlap between the three diagrams. Common reinforcing patterns emerged: growing numbers of people cycling lifts political will to improve the environment; cycling safety in numbers drives further growth; and more cycling can lead to normalisation across the population. By contrast, limits to growth varied as cycling increases. In Auckland and London, real and perceived danger was considered the main limit, with added barriers to normalisation in London. Cycling congestion and "market saturation" were important in the Netherlands. A generalisable, dynamic causal theory for urban cycling enables a more ordered set of policy recommendations for different cities on a cycling trajectory. Participation meant the collective knowledge of cycling stakeholders was represented and triangulated with research evidence. Extending this research to further cities, especially in low

  4. Understanding the Dynamics of High Tech Knowledge Creation across Organizational Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Pernille; Ulhøi, John Parm

    . Existing literature, however, offers little in-depth insight into why and how such inter-organizational collaborations often encounter difficulties in crossing these boundaries and thus in accomplishing the expected joint knowledge creation and exchange. Departing from Carlile's (2004) integrated framework...... for managing knowledge across boundaries, in this paper we identify the knowledge boundaries present in a longitudinal R&D collaboration between six organizations. We analyzed how these boundaries were partially overcome, and present a fourth knowledge boundary, which causes major challenges in the inter...

  5. Nutrition knowledge, and use and understanding of nutrition information on food labels among consumers in the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Wills, Josephine M.; Fernández-Celemín, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Based on in-store observations in three major UK retailers, in-store interviews (2019) and questionnaires filled out at home and returned (921), use of nutrition information on food labels and its understanding were investigated. Respondents' nutrition knowledge was also measured, using...... a comprehensive instrument covering knowledge of expert recommendations, nutrient content in different food products, and calorie content in different food products. Across six product categories, 27% of shoppers were found to have looked at nutrition information on the label, with guideline daily amount (GDA...... information on food labels is mainly related to nutrition knowledge. Both are in turn affected by demographic variables, but in different ways....

  6. A Note on Systems Intelligence in Knowledge Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Yasuo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to show that systems intelligence (SI) can be a useful perspective in knowledge management, particularly in the context of the socialization, externalization, combination and internalization (SECI) model. SI is a recently developed systemic concept, a certain kind of human intelligence based on a systems thinking…

  7. Knowledge based development of graphic display systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, D.D.

    1985-01-01

    Most human factors guidelines on computer display design attempt to ensure that human sensory limits are not strained or that users can potentially access data. While this is a necessary and too often an overlooked step in interface design, it does not address issues about how to use computer displays to aid human performance at domain tasks. This challenge to human factors guidance is particularly acute in complex environments such as nuclear power plants where the goal is more than a useable interface system; the interface must support effective human performance at tasks like situation assessment, fault management, problem solving and planning. Studies of human performance in complex domains reveal that human-machine performance failures can often be linked to problems in information handling - data overload, getting lost, keyhole effects, tunnel vision to name but a few. All of these information handling problems represent manifestations of an inability to find, integrate or interpret the ''right'' data at the ''right'' time, i.e., failures where critical information is not detected among the ambient data load, where critical information is not assembled from data distributed over time or over space; and where critical information is not looked for because of misunderstandings or erroneous assumptions (cf., Woods, 1985). Problems of this kind illustrate that the potential to see, read, or access data does not guarantee successful user information extraction. The result is a need for research and guidance on design for enhanced information extraction in addition to design for data availability

  8. The representation of knowledge within model-based control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weygand, D.P.; Koul, R.

    1987-01-01

    The ability to represent knowledge is often considered essential to build systems with reasoning capabilities. In computer science, a good solution often depends on a good representation. The first step in development of most computer applications is selection of a representation for the input, output, and intermediate results that the program will operate upon. For applications in artificial intelligence, this initial choice of representation is especially important. This is because the possible representational paradigms are diverse and the forcing criteria for the choice are usually not clear in the beginning. Yet, the consequences of an inadequate choice can be devastating in the later state of a project if it is discovered that critical information cannot be encoded within the chosen representational paradigm. Problems arise when designing representational systems to support any kind of Knowledge-Base System, that is a computer system that uses knowledge to perform some task. The general case of knowledge-based systems can be thought of as reasoning agents applying knowledge to achieve goals. Artificial Intelligence (AI) research involves building computer systems to perform tasks of perception and reasoning, as well as storage and retrieval of data. The problem of automatically perceiving large patterns in data is a perceptual task that begins to be important for many expert systems applications. Most of AI research assumes that what needs to be represented is known a priori; an AI researcher's job is just figuring out how to encode the information in the system's data structure and procedures. 10 refs

  9. Knowledge and adoption of solar home systems in rural Nicaragua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebane, Kaja L.; Barham, Bradford L.

    2011-01-01

    Solar home systems (SHSs) are a promising electrification option for many households in the developing world. In most countries SHSs are at an early stage of dissemination, and thus face a hurdle common to many emerging alternative energy technologies: many people do not know enough about them to decide whether to adopt one or not. This study uses survey data collected in Nicaragua to investigate characteristics that predict the knowledge and adoption of SHSs among the rural population. First, a series of probit models is used to model the determinants of four measures of SHS knowledge. Next, a biprobit model with sample selection is employed to investigate the factors that predict SHS adoption, conditional on having sufficient knowledge to make an adoption decision. Comparison of the biprobit formulation to a standard probit model of adoption affirms its value. This study identifies multiple determinants of SHS knowledge and adoption, offers several practical recommendations to project planners, and provides an analytical framework for future work in this policy-relevant area. - Research highlights: → Solar home systems (SHSs) are a promising rural electrification option in the developing world. → As with many emerging renewable energy technologies, lack of knowledge may limit SHS adoption. → We use probit models to investigate the determinants of SHS knowledge in rural Nicaragua. → We also employ a biprobit model linking the determinants of knowledge and adoption. → We find that in analyzing SHS adoption, accounting for sample selection based on knowledge is key.

  10. Understanding Service-Oriented Systems Using Dynamic Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espinha, T.; Zaidman, A.; Gross, H.G.

    2011-01-01

    When trying to understand a system that is based on the principles of Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA), it is typically not enough to understand the individual services in the architecture, but also the interactions between the services. In this paper, we present a technique based on dynamic

  11. Understanding the Knowledge and Use of Experiential Learning within Pennsylvania 4-H Clubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtel, Robyn; Ewing, John C.; Threeton, Mark; Mincemoyer, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Experiential learning is incorporated into the National 4-H curriculum. However, the state 4-H staff in Pennsylvania is unsure of the current knowledge and use of experiential learning within the local 4-H clubs. An online survey was distributed to Extension educators and volunteer leaders within Pennsylvania to assess the current knowledge and…

  12. Understanding the Influence of Two Mathematics Textbooks on Prospective Secondary Teachers' Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jon D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the influence of reading and planning from two differently organized mathematics textbooks on prospective high school mathematics teachers' pedagogical content knowledge and content knowledge of exponential functions. The teachers completed a pretest and two posttests. On the pretest, the teachers possessed an incomplete…

  13. Understanding the application of knowledge management to the safety critical facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilina, Elena

    2010-01-01

    Challenges to the operating nuclear power plants and transport infrastructures are outlined. It is concluded that most aggravating factors are related to knowledge. Thus, of necessity, effective knowledge management is required. Knowledge management theories are reviewed in their historical perspective as a natural extension and unification of information theories and theories about learning. The first line is identified with names as Wiener, Ashby, Shannon, Jaynes, Dretske, Harkevich. The second line - with Vygotsky, Engestroem, Carayannis. The recent developments of knowledge management theorists as Davenport, Prusak, Drew, Wiig, Zack are considered stressing learning, retaining of knowledge, approaching the state awareness of awareness, and alignment of knowledge management with the strategy of the concerned organizations. Further, some of the details and results are presented of what is achieved so far. More specifically, knowledge management tools are applied to the practical work activities as event reporting, data collection, condition assessment, verification of safety functions and incident investigation. Obstacles are identified and improvements are proposed. Finally, it is advised to continue to implement and further develop knowledge management tools in the organizations involved in various aspects of safety critical facilities

  14. Real-time expert systems and deep knowledge models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felkel, L.

    1990-01-01

    To guide operators in normal and disturbed plant conditions expert systems are feasible. These, however, must be on-line and real-time systems. The knowledge contained in such a system cannot be represented in a 'classical' role-based manner. The paper describes problems and solutions with regard to process reference models as these are important in order to provide so-called deep-knowledge for the operators. The system described is being implemented and is meant to support both diagnosis and prediction

  15. An Intelligent Knowledge Management System from a Semantic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile MAZILESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge Management Systems (KMS are important tools by whichorganizations can better use information and, more importantly, manageknowledge. Unlike other strategies, knowledge management (KM is difficult todefine because it encompasses a range of concepts, management tasks,technologies, and organizational practices, all of which come under the umbrella ofthe information management. Semantic approaches allow easier and more efficienttraining, maintenance, and support knowledge. Current ICT markets are dominatedby relational databases and document-centric information technologies, proceduralalgorithmic programming paradigms, and stack architecture. A key driver of globaleconomic expansion in the coming decade is the build-out of broadbandtelecommunications and the deployment of intelligent services bundling. This paperintroduces the main characteristics of an Intelligent Knowledge ManagementSystem as a multiagent system used in a Learning Control Problem (IKMSLCP,from a semantic perspective. We describe an intelligent KM framework, allowingthe observer (a human agent to learn from experience. This framework makes thesystem dynamic (flexible and adaptable so it evolves, guaranteeing high levels ofstability when performing his domain problem P. To capture by the agent who learnthe control knowledge for solving a task-allocation problem, the control expertsystem uses at any time, an internal fuzzy knowledge model of the (businessprocess based on the last knowledge model.

  16. Bridging the Gap between Scientific and Indigenous knowledge to Better Understand Social Impacts of Changing Rainfall Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, A. H.; Joachim, L.; Zhu, X.; Hammer, C.; Harris, M.; Griggs, D.

    2011-12-01

    The Murray-Darling Basin incorporates Australia's three longest rivers and is important for an agricultural industry worth more than $9 billion per annum, a rich biodiversity of habitat and species, and the very life of its traditional owners. The complex and sometimes enigmatic relationships between modes of variability and Australian regional rainfall distribution means that reliable projections of future water availability remain highly uncertain. Persistent drought, with associated heat stress and high fire danger, and episodic flooding rains present further challenges. Indeed, recent extremes likely herald a tipping point for the communities and ecosystems that rely on the river system. The Barmah-Millewa region in the Murray-Darling Basin is the heart of Yorta Yorta Traditional Tribal Lands. The Yorta Yorta continue to assert their inherent rights to country and have shown through oral, documentary and material evidence, that their social, spiritual, economic and cultural links with country have never been broken. Current water policy and practice, highly contested community consultation processes, cross-border governance issues and a changing social landscape create in this region a microcosm for understanding the complex demands of economic, environmental and cultural security along the Murray-Darling Basin as the climate changes. New approaches to bridging the gap between scientific and Indigenous epistemologies have emerged in recent years, including for example ecosystem-based adaptation (Vignola et al. 2009) and the analysis of cultural water flows (Weir 2010). The potential for innovation using these approaches has informed a study that investigates how the deep knowledge of country of the Yorta Yorta people can be combined with state of the art climate science to develop a better understanding of the competing demands on water resources in the Barmah-Millewa region now and in the future. An important dimension of this collaborative work with the Yorta

  17. Assessing the Dynamic Behavior of Online Q&A Knowledge Markets: A System Dynamics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Mostafa; Hesamamiri, Roozbeh; Sadjadi, Jafar; Bourouni, Atieh

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this paper is to propose a holistic dynamic model for understanding the behavior of a complex and internet-based kind of knowledge market by considering both social and economic interactions. Design/methodology/approach: A system dynamics (SD) model is formulated in this study to investigate the dynamic characteristics of…

  18. Learning Management Systems: Are They Knowledge Management Tools?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayan Aref Abu Shawar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The new adventure of online world has helped to improve many domains and sectors. Knowledge management era which originally related to business sector is now required in industry, health, or any institute that needs to manage its knowledge. Education is no exception! The advancement in computers speed and memory, and the growth of Internet usage are behind the inspiration of e-learning approach. In which the computer is used as a medium to deliver and share educational materials and knowledge instead of face-to-face tutoring. This makes education available to any one, any place, and any time as learner need. This paper presents the relationship between knowledge management and learning management system (LMS that is used in e-learning paradigms. A detailed description of the LMS used at Arab Open University (AOU is included in this paper. We claim that the LMS used at AOU can be considered as a knowledge management tool.

  19. Space nuclear reactor system diagnosis: Knowledge-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, Y.T.D.

    1990-01-01

    SP-100 space nuclear reactor system development is a joint effort by the Department of Energy, the Department of Defense and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The system is designed to operate in isolation for many years, and is possibly subject to little or no remote maintenance. This dissertation proposes a knowledge based diagnostic system which, in principle, can diagnose the faults which can either cause reactor shutdown or lead to another serious problem. This framework in general can be applied to the fully specified system if detailed design information becomes available. The set of faults considered herein is identified based on heuristic knowledge about the system operation. The suitable approach to diagnostic problem solving is proposed after investigating the most prevalent methodologies in Artificial Intelligence as well as the causal analysis of the system. Deep causal knowledge modeling based on digraph, fault-tree or logic flowgraph methodology would present a need for some knowledge representation to handle the time dependent system behavior. A proposed qualitative temporal knowledge modeling methodology, using rules with specified time delay among the process variables, has been proposed and is used to develop the diagnostic sufficient rule set. The rule set has been modified by using a time zone approach to have a robust system design. The sufficient rule set is transformed to a sufficient and necessary one by searching the whole knowledge base. Qualitative data analysis is proposed in analyzing the measured data if in a real time situation. An expert system shell - Intelligence Compiler is used to develop the prototype system. Frames are used for the process variables. Forward chaining rules are used in monitoring and backward chaining rules are used in diagnosis

  20. Closing global knowledge gaps : Producing generalized knowledge from case studies of social-ecological systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magliocca, Nicholas R.; Ellis, Erle C.; Allington, Ginger R.H.; de Bremond, Ariane; Dell'Angelo, Jampel; Mertz, Ole; Messerli, Peter; Meyfroidt, Patrick; Seppelt, Ralf; Verburg, Peter H.

    2018-01-01

    Concerns over rapid widespread changes in social-ecological systems and their consequences for biodiversity, ecosystem functioning, food security, and human livelihoods are driving demands for globally comprehensive knowledge to support decision-making and policy development. Claims of regional or

  1. Optimize knowledge uptake - employ a knowledge management system to drive principles to practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeYoe, D.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text:' All too often the R&D community questions why good results based on sound science are not readily adopted by decision makers. We publish, hold conferences, even conduct workshops to engage policy developers and practitioners,who rarely show up. A closer look uncovers a common fault - although we may target decision makers we design information and tools to suit our interests, needs and/or standards then wonder why we end up always preaching to the converted. Are we missing the boat? In a word - yes! Employing the principles of knowledge transfer to infuse critical adaptive and/or mitigative strategies into policy and practice requires the right attitude, the right approach, the right tools and the right audience. The knowledge management cycle provides a framework that focuses on transfer of science principles or innovation into practice. It embodies the array of critical functions and activities inherent in a cycle that integrates knowledge generation, exchange and application. Knowledge exchange specialists play a pivotal role by helping translate technical knowledge into an appropriate suite of facts and figures well suited for consumption by decision makers. More importantly, they can facilitate adoption and the mainstream use of information and tools through collaborative efforts with knowledge application specialists in target organizations. This relationship can enable a knowledge management cycle that stimulates innovation and fosters informed decision making. Examples will be presented that describe what can happen when partners either fail to use, or succeed in using, a knowledge exchange system to manage projects in a manner that helps ensure inter-organizational collaboration. Examples include: a) a pilot study to demonstrate an emerging technology, b) striving for perfection in the face of ill-fated decisions, c) development of science-based policy and d) extension messaging at its best. (author)

  2. Toward a Blended Ontology: Applying Knowledge Systems to ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bionanomedicine and environmental research share need common terms and ontologies. This study applied knowledge systems, data mining, and bibliometrics used in nano-scale ADME research from 1991 to 2011. The prominence of nano-ADME in environmental research began to exceed the publication rate in medical research in 2006. That trend appears to continue as a result of the growing products in commerce using nanotechnology, that is, 5-fold growth in number of countries with nanomaterials research centers. Funding for this research virtually did not exist prior to 2002, whereas today both medical and environmental research is funded globally. Key nanoparticle research began with pharmacology and therapeutic drug-delivery and contrasting agents, but the advances have found utility in the environmental research community. As evidence ultrafine aerosols and aquatic colloids research increased 6-fold, indicating a new emphasis on environmental nanotoxicology. User-directed expert elicitation from the engineering and chemical/ADME domains can be combined with appropriate Boolean logic and queries to define the corpus of nanoparticle interest. The study combined pharmacological expertise and informatics to identify the corpus by building logical conclusions and observations. Publication records informatics can lead to an enhanced understanding the connectivity between fields, as well as overcoming the differences in ontology between the fields. The National Exposure Resea

  3. Knowledge based system for control rod programming of BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuzaki, Takaharu; Yoshida, Ken-ichi; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro

    1988-01-01

    A knowledge based system has been developed to support designers in control rod programming of BWRs. The programming searches through optimal control rod patterns to realize safe and effective burning of nuclear fuel. Knowledge of experienced designers plays the main role in minimizing the number of calculations by the core performance evaluation code. This code predicts power distibution and thermal margins of the nuclear fuel. This knowledge is transformed into 'if-then' type rules and subroutines, and is stored in a knowledge base of the knowledge based system. The system consists of working area, an inference engine and the knowledge base. The inference engine can detect those data which have to be regenerated, call those subroutine which control the user's interface and numerical computations, and store competitive sets of data in different parts of the working area. Using this system, control rod programming of a BWR plant was traced with about 500 rules and 150 subroutines. Both the generation of control rod patterns for the first calculation of the code and the modification of a control rod pattern to reflect the calculation were completed more effectively than in a conventional method. (author)

  4. Integrated knowledge base tool for acquisition and verification of NPP alarm systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Joo Hyun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    1998-01-01

    Knowledge acquisition and knowledge base verification are important activities in developing knowledge-based systems such as alarm processing systems. In this work, we developed the integrated tool, for knowledge acquisition and verification of NPP alarm processing systems, by using G2 tool. The tool integrates document analysis method and ECPN matrix analysis method, for knowledge acquisition and knowledge verification, respectively. This tool enables knowledge engineers to perform their tasks from knowledge acquisition to knowledge verification consistently

  5. Development of a knowledge-based system for loop diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, L.Y.; Tang, H.C.; Chen, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    An accident diagnostic system is developed as an attempt to provide a useful aid for the operators of an experimental loop or a nuclear power plant in the case of emergency condition. Because the current practices in the system diagnosis are not satisfactory, there is an increasing demand on the establishment of various operator decision support systems. The knowledge based system is a new and promising technique which can be used to fulfill this demand. With the capability of automatic reasoning and by incorporating the information about system status, the knowledge based system can simulate the process of human thinking and serve as a good decision support system. This knowledge based decision support system can be helpful for both a fast, violent accident and a slowly developed accident. Specifically, a fast diagnostic report can be provided for a fast and violent accident of which time is the main concern and a complete diagnostic report can be provided for a slowly developed accident of which complexity is the main concern. Such a knowledge based decision support system also provides many other equally important advantages, such as the elimination of human error, the automatic validation of signal readings, the establishment of human error, the automatic validation of signal readings, and the establishment of a simulation environment

  6. Tropical Rainforests: A Case Study of UK, 13-Year-Olds' Knowledge and Understanding of These Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Tropical rainforests are biologically rich ecosystems, which are threatened by a variety of different human activities. This study focuses on students' knowledge and understanding of rainforest locations, their reasons for protecting these environments and their familiarity with selected concepts about rainforest vegetation and soil. These…

  7. Evaluating College Students' Conceptual Knowledge of Modern Physics: Test of Understanding on Concepts of Modern Physics (TUCO-MP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akarsu, Bayram

    2011-01-01

    In present paper, we propose a new diagnostic test to measure students' conceptual knowledge of principles of modern physics topics. Over few decades since born of physics education research (PER), many diagnostic instruments that measure students' conceptual understanding of various topics in physics, the earliest tests developed in PER are Force…

  8. Development and Analysis of an Instrument to Assess Student Understanding of GOB Chemistry Knowledge Relevant to Clinical Nursing Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Corina E.; Hyslop, Richard M.; Barbera, Jack

    2015-01-01

    The General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Knowledge Assessment (GOB-CKA) is a multiple-choice instrument designed to assess students' understanding of the chemistry topics deemed important to clinical nursing practice. This manuscript describes the development process of the individual items along with a psychometric evaluation of the…

  9. Understanding Preservice Teachers' Development of Pedagogical Knowledge Practices When Co-Teaching Primary Science to Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Preservice teachers articulate the need for more teaching experiences for developing their practices, however, extending beyond existing school arrangements may present difficulties. Thus, it is important to understand preservice teachers' development of pedagogical knowledge practices when in the university setting. This mixed-method study…

  10. Young Adults' Knowledge and Understanding of Personal Finance in Germany: Interviews with Experts and Test-Takers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happ, Roland; Förster, Manuel; Rüspeler, Ann-Katrin; Rothweiler, Jasmin

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, the financial education of young adults has gained importance in Germany; however, very few valid test instruments to assess the knowledge and understanding of personal finance are suitable for use in Germany. In this article, we describe results of a survey in which experts in Germany in areas related to personal finance judged…

  11. Development, validation, and implementation of a questionnaire assessing disease knowledge and understanding in adult cystic fibrosis patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Siklosi, Karen R

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: The number of adults living with cystic fibrosis (CF) is increasing, necessitating an assessment of knowledge in this growing population. METHODS: A questionnaire assessing CF knowledge was completed by 100 CF patients (median age: 26.0 years, range 17-49 years; median FEV: 57.0% predicted, range 20-127% predicted). Level of knowledge was correlated with clinical and sociodemographic characteristics. RESULTS: Questionnaire validation showed acceptable internal consistency (alpha=0.75) and test-retest reliability (0.94). Patients had fair overall understanding of CF (mean=72.4%, SD=13.1), with greater knowledge of lung and gastrointestinal topics (mean=81.6%, SD=11.6) than reproduction and genetics topics (mean=57.9%, SD=24.1). Females and those with post-secondary education scored significantly higher (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This study validated a questionnaire that can be utilized to assess CF knowledge. Although CF patients understand most aspects of their disease, knowledge deficits are common - particularly regarding genetics and reproduction - and should be considered when developing CF education programs.

  12. Understanding knowledge disclosure of bioscientists: more than a question of contextual and organizational ambidexterity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leisyte, Liudvika

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses the extent to which university scientists integrate scientific excellence and industry relevance in their knowledge disclosure. Universities are increasingly expected to be entrepreneurial and to fulfill the traditional missions of teaching and research and to transfer the

  13. Towards an Understanding of Information Technology Strategy Development Based on Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique de Souza Bermejo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8077.2014v16n40p139 The formulation of IT strategies is increasingly seen as a collaborative process, where knowledge management (KM and learning become central to building a shared view of how information technology (IT can support and extend business strategies. This article presents three interrelated components that support the application of KM to IT strategy development (actors and types of knowledge, knowledge conversion modes, and technological tools and artifacts. Through a longitudinal, qualitative case study, we illustrate strategies for applying these components. Faced with the importance of knowledge and collaboration to IT strategies, the results provide recommendations so that organizations can apply concepts and practices of KM processes in formulating IT strategies.

  14. Online system for knowledge assessment enhances students' results on school knowledge test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralj, Benjamin; Glazar, Sasa Aleksej

    2013-01-01

    Variety of online tools were built to help assessing students' performance in school. Many teachers changed their methods of assessment from paper-and-pencil (P&P) to online systems. In this study we analyse the influence that using an online system for knowledge assessment has on students' knowledge. Based on both a literature study and our own research we designed and built an online system for knowledge assessment. The system is evaluated using two groups of primary school teachers and students (N = 686) in Slovenia: an experimental and a control group. Students solved P&P exams on several occasions. The experimental group was allowed to access the system either at school or at home for a limited period during the presentation of a selected school topic. Students in the experimental group were able to solve tasks and compare their own achievements with those of their coevals. A comparison of the P&P school exams results achieved by both groups revealed a positive effect on subject topic comprehension for those with access to the online self-assessment system.

  15. Knowledge based systems advanced concepts, techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    1997-01-01

    The field of knowledge-based systems (KBS) has expanded enormously during the last years, and many important techniques and tools are currently available. Applications of KBS range from medicine to engineering and aerospace.This book provides a selected set of state-of-the-art contributions that present advanced techniques, tools and applications. These contributions have been prepared by a group of eminent researchers and professionals in the field.The theoretical topics covered include: knowledge acquisition, machine learning, genetic algorithms, knowledge management and processing under unc

  16. Relational dynamics in the multi-helices knowledge production system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thai, Thi Minh; Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée

    -level dynamics are characterized by political ambidexterity that enables the state to maintain control by privileging traditional science and education constituencies, and at the same time support the transition of the knowledge production system towards international methodology and quality standards through......Drawing on the triple helix framework and organizational institutionalism, this article applies a qualitative research approach to analyze structures, institutional logics, power relations that shape inter-organizational relations and the structuration of a knowledge production system...... in an emerging economy. Findings highlight the emergence of a fifth-helices knowledge production system includes the state, science and education, industry, international actors, and society. The system comprises two major segments, one associated with the traditional command economy and characterized...

  17. Traditional Knowledge of Western Herbal Medicine and Complex Systems Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Kathryn; Bell, Iris R; Koithan, Mary

    2013-09-01

    Traditional knowledge of Western herbal medicine (WHM) supports experiential approaches to healing that have evolved over time. This is evident in the use of polyherb formulations comprised of crude plant parts, individually tailored to treat the cause of dysfunction and imbalance by addressing the whole person holistically. The challenge for WHM is to integrate science with traditional knowledge that is a foundation of the practice of WHM. The purpose of this paper is to provide a plausible theoretical hypothesis by applying complex systems science to WHM, illustrating how medicinal plants are complex, adaptive, environmentally interactive systems exhibiting synergy and nonlinear healing causality. This paper explores the conceptual congruence between medicinal plants and humans as complex systems coherently coupled through recurrent interaction. Complex systems science provides the theoretical tenets that explain traditional knowledge of medicinal plants while supporting clinical practice and expanding research and documentation of WHM.

  18. Knowledge based system for fouling assessment of power plant boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afgan, N.H.; He, X.; Carvalho, M.G.; Azevedo, J.L.T.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents the design of an expert system for fouling assessment in power plant boilers. It is an on-line expert system based on selected criteria for the fouling assessment. Using criteria for fouling assessment based on 'clean' and 'not-clean' radiation heat flux measurements, the diagnostic variable are defined for the boiler heat transfer surface. The development of the prototype knowledge-based system for fouling assessment in power plants boiler comprise the integrations of the elements including knowledge base, inference procedure and prototype configuration. Demonstration of the prototype knowledge-based system for fouling assessment was performed on the Sines power plant. It is a 300 MW coal fired power plant. 12 fields are used with 3 on each side of boiler

  19. A real time knowledge-based alarm system EXTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancelin, J.; Gaussot, J.P.; Legaud, P.

    1987-01-01

    EXTRA is an experimental expert system for industrial process control. The main objectives are the diagnosis and operation aids. From a methodological point of view, EXTRA is based on a deep knowledge of the plant operation and on qualitative simulation principles. The application concerns all the electric power and the Chemical and Volume Control System of a P.W.R. nuclear plant. The tests conducted on a full-scope simulator representative of the real plant yielded excellent results and taught the authors a number of lessons. The main lesson concerns the efficiency and flexibility provided by the combination of a knowledge-based system and of an advanced mini-computer

  20. [Information system in nursing: interacion of tacit-explicit knowledge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Sérgio Ribeiro

    2005-01-01

    The present article aims to trace some theoretical and conceptual considerations on information systems in nursing, seeking to point out the knowledge based on the clinical practice evidences to construct a model of system integrated to the conceptual structures, formed by the combination of three sciences: information, computing and nursing. This knowledge can systematically describe and explain the necessary phenomena to develop a comprehensive information system that contribute for nursing records improvement and to consolidate a mechanism to provide basic measuring of costs, quality, patient access to care, and results of this care.

  1. [Knowledge management system for laboratory work and clinical decision support].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inada, Masanori; Sato, Mayumi; Yoneyama, Akiko

    2011-05-01

    This paper discusses a knowledge management system for clinical laboratories. In the clinical laboratory of Toranomon Hospital, we receive about 20 questions relevant to laboratory tests per day from medical doctors or co-medical staff. These questions mostly involve the essence to appropriately accomplish laboratory tests. We have to answer them carefully and suitably because an incorrect answer may cause a medical accident. Up to now, no method has been in place to achieve a rapid response and standardized answers. For this reason, the laboratory staff have responded to various questions based on their individual knowledge. We began to develop a knowledge management system to promote the knowledge of staff working for the laboratory. This system is a type of knowledge base for assisting the work, such as inquiry management, laboratory consultation, process management, and clinical support. It consists of several functions: guiding laboratory test information, managing inquiries from medical staff, reporting results of patient consultation, distributing laboratory staffs notes, and recording guidelines for laboratory medicine. The laboratory test information guide has 2,000 records of medical test information registered in the database with flexible retrieval. The inquiry management tool provides a methos to record all questions, answer easily, and retrieve cases. It helps staff to respond appropriately in a short period of time. The consulting report system treats patients' claims regarding medical tests. The laboratory staffs notes enter a file management system so they can be accessed to aid in clinical support. Knowledge sharing using this function can achieve the transition from individual to organizational learning. Storing guidelines for laboratory medicine will support EBM. Finally, it is expected that this system will support intellectual activity concerning laboratory work and contribute to the practice of knowledge management for clinical work support.

  2. Knowledge Representation Artifacts for Use in Sensemaking Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-12

    and manual processing must be replaced by automated processing wherever it makes sense and is possible. Clearly, given the data and cognitive...knowledge-centric view to situation analysis and decision-making as previously discussed, has lead to the development of several automated processing components...for use in sensemaking support systems [6-11]. In turn, automated processing has required the development of appropriate knowledge

  3. Integrating knowledge based functionality in commercial hospital information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M L; Ganslandt, T; Eich, H P; Lang, K; Ohmann, C; Prokosch, H U

    2000-01-01

    Successful integration of knowledge-based functions in the electronic patient record depends on direct and context-sensitive accessibility and availability to clinicians and must suit their workflow. In this paper we describe an exemplary integration of an existing standalone scoring system for acute abdominal pain into two different commercial hospital information systems using Java/Corba technolgy.

  4. Understanding Patterns for System-of-Systems Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazman, Rick; Nielsen, Claus Ballegård; Schmid, Klaus

    Creating a successful system of systems—one that meets the needs of its stakeholders today and can evolve and scale to sustain those stakeholders into the future—is a very complex engineering challenge. In a system of systems (SoS), one of the biggest challenges is in achieving cooperation and in...

  5. Eighth International Conference on Intelligent Systems and Knowledge Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Tianrui; ISKE 2013; Foundations of Intelligent Systems; Knowledge Engineering and Management; Practical Applications of Intelligent Systems

    2014-01-01

    "Foundations of Intelligent Systems" presents selected papers from the 2013 International Conference on Intelligent Systems and Knowledge Engineering (ISKE2013). The aim of this conference is to bring together experts from different expertise areas to discuss the state-of-the-art in Intelligent Systems and Knowledge Engineering, and to present new research results and perspectives on future development. The topics in this volume include, but not limited to: Artificial Intelligence Theories, Pattern Recognition, Intelligent System Models, Speech Recognition, Computer Vision, Multi-Agent Systems, Machine Learning, Soft Computing and Fuzzy Systems, Biological Inspired Computation, Game Theory, Cognitive Systems and Information Processing, Computational Intelligence, etc. The proceedings are benefit for both researchers and practitioners who want to utilize intelligent methods in their specific research fields. Dr. Zhenkun Wen is a Professor at the College of Computer and Software Engineering, Shenzhen University...

  6. The role of conceptual knowledge in understanding synaesthesia: Evaluating contemporary findings from a ‘hub-and-spoke’ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco eChiou

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Synaesthesia is a phenomenon in which stimulation in one sensory modality triggers involuntary experiences typically not associated with that stimulation. Inducing stimuli (inducers and synaesthetic experiences (concurrents may occur within the same modality (e.g., seeing colours while reading achromatic text or span across different modalities (e.g., tasting flavours while listening to music. Although there has been considerable progress over the last decade in understanding the cognitive and neural mechanisms of synaesthesia, the focus of current neurocognitive models of synaesthesia does not encompass many crucial psychophysical characteristics documented in behavioural research. Prominent theories of the neurophysiological basis of synaesthesia construe it as a perceptual phenomenon and hence focus primarily on the modality-specific brain regions for perception. Many behavioural studies, however, suggest an essential role for conceptual-level information in synaesthesia. For example, there is evidence that synaesthetic experience arises subsequent to identification of an inducing stimulus, differs substantially from real perceptual events, can be akin to perceptual memory, and is susceptible to lexical/semantic contexts. These data suggest that neural mechanisms lying beyond the realm of the perceptual cortex (especially the visual system, such as regions subserving conceptual knowledge, may play pivotal roles in the neural architecture of synaesthesia. Here we discuss the significance of non-perceptual mechanisms that call for a re-evaluation of the emphasis on synaesthesia as a perceptual phenomenon. We also review recent studies which hint that some aspects of synaesthesia resemble our general conceptual knowledge for object attributes, at both psychophysical and neural level. We then present a conceptual-mediation model of synaesthesia in which the inducer and concurrent are linked within a conceptual-level representation. This

  7. Learning and Understanding System Stability Using Illustrative Dynamic Texture Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huaping; Xiao, Wei; Zhao, Hongyan; Sun, Fuchun

    2014-01-01

    System stability is a basic concept in courses on dynamic system analysis and control for undergraduate students with computer science backgrounds. Typically, this was taught using a simple simulation example of an inverted pendulum. Unfortunately, many difficult issues arise in the learning and understanding of the concepts of stability,…

  8. KBGIS-2: A knowledge-based geographic information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T.; Peuquet, D.; Menon, S.; Agarwal, P.

    1986-01-01

    The architecture and working of a recently implemented knowledge-based geographic information system (KBGIS-2) that was designed to satisfy several general criteria for the geographic information system are described. The system has four major functions that include query-answering, learning, and editing. The main query finds constrained locations for spatial objects that are describable in a predicate-calculus based spatial objects language. The main search procedures include a family of constraint-satisfaction procedures that use a spatial object knowledge base to search efficiently for complex spatial objects in large, multilayered spatial data bases. These data bases are represented in quadtree form. The search strategy is designed to reduce the computational cost of search in the average case. The learning capabilities of the system include the addition of new locations of complex spatial objects to the knowledge base as queries are answered, and the ability to learn inductively definitions of new spatial objects from examples. The new definitions are added to the knowledge base by the system. The system is currently performing all its designated tasks successfully, although currently implemented on inadequate hardware. Future reports will detail the performance characteristics of the system, and various new extensions are planned in order to enhance the power of KBGIS-2.

  9. Understanding information retrieval systems management, types, and standards

    CERN Document Server

    Bates, Marcia J

    2011-01-01

    In order to be effective for their users, information retrieval (IR) systems should be adapted to the specific needs of particular environments. The huge and growing array of types of information retrieval systems in use today is on display in Understanding Information Retrieval Systems: Management, Types, and Standards, which addresses over 20 types of IR systems. These various system types, in turn, present both technical and management challenges, which are also addressed in this volume. In order to be interoperable in a networked environment, IR systems must be able to use various types of

  10. How Do I Understand the Term Queer? Preservice Teachers, LGBTQ Knowledge, and LGBTQ Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brant, Cathy A. R.

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a study that investigated preservice teachers' understandings and self-efficacy related to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or queer (LGBTQ) students and families. The preservice teachers indicated a broad range of understandings in relation to LGBTQ terms. They reported a relatively high sense of self-efficacy in…

  11. Understanding Early Elementary Children's Conceptual Knowledge of Plant Structure and Function through Drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Janice L.; Ellis, Jane P.; Jones, Alan M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined children's drawings to explain children's conceptual understanding of plant structure and function. The study explored whether the children's drawings accurately reflect their conceptual understanding about plants in a manner that can be interpreted by others. Drawing, survey, interview, and observational data were collected…

  12. Understanding the Validity of Data: A Knowledge-Based Network Underlying Research Expertise in Scientific Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Ros

    2016-01-01

    This article considers what might be taught to meet a widely held curriculum aim of students being able to understand research in a discipline. Expertise, which may appear as a "chain of practice," is widely held to be underpinned by networks of understanding. Scientific research expertise is considered from this perspective. Within…

  13. A Reasoning Algorithm Embedded in a Knowledge Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Mazilescu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of this paper consists of demonstrating the possibility of employing an expert Knowledge Management System (KMS in problems of process control and planning, using imprecise knowledge. It was necessary to continuously adapt known models (e.g. theory of possibilities, discrete event systems to synthesize a control structure based on fuzzy knowledge. We also tried to conceptually develop a multi-agent real control structure, which is a solution to meet a series of demands on the complexity of the process control. Such systems, especially those based on communication between agents by sharing memory, bring up features well suited for real-time applications, such as: integration of heterogeneous agents, interaction between activities of acquisition, reasoning and action on the external environment, fusion of data coming from sensors of different nature and operation, flexibility and efficiency in the integration of new data needed for reasoning, by simply writing them in the common memory.

  14. Understanding the Knowledge Gap Experienced by U.S. Safety Net Patients in Teleretinal Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sheba M; Hayes, Erin Moran; Fish, Allison; Daskivich, Lauren Patty; Ogunyemi, Omolola I

    2016-01-01

    Safety-net patients' socioeconomic barriers interact with limited digital and health literacies to produce a "knowledge gap" that impacts the delivery of healthcare via telehealth technologies. Six focus groups (2 African- American and 4 Latino) were conducted with patients who received teleretinal screening in a U.S. urban safety-net setting. Focus groups were analyzed using a modified grounded theory methodology. Findings indicate that patients' knowledge gap is primarily produced at three points during the delivery of care: (1) exacerbation of patients' pre-existing personal barriers in the clinical setting; (2) encounters with technology during screening; and (3) lack of follow up after the visit. This knowledge gap produces confusion, potentially limiting patients' perceptions of care and their ability to manage their own care. It may be ameliorated through delivery of patient education focused on both disease pathology and specific role of telehealth technologies in disease management.

  15. Understanding the Interplay Between Consumer Knowledge, Trust and Relationship Satisfaction in Financial Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben; Grønholdt, Lars; Josiassen, Alexander

    , this study contributes to previous research by examining how consumer knowledge O/U affects two types of trust (broad-scope trust and narrow-scope trust) and consumer relationship satisfaction. Trust does not only concern consumer trust in individual companies (i.e., narrow.-scope confidence NST), but also...... concerns consumer confidence in the broader business context in which consumers plan and implement their behavior (i.e., broad scope trust, BST). NST is defined as "the expectation that the service provider can be relied on to deliver on its promises’, while BST is defined as ‘the expectation....../U a consumer becomes, the higher/lower NST and levels of relationship satisfaction will be. Second, it is demonstrated that BST has a negative moderating effect on the relationship between knowledge O/U and satisfaction, such that knowledge O/U has a higher positive/negative effect on relationship satisfaction...

  16. Understanding foreign language teachers’ practical knowledge: What’s the role of prior language learning experience?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Arıoğul

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Teachers’ practical knowledge is considered as teachers’ general knowledge, beliefsand thinking (Borg, 2003 which can be traced in teachers’ practices (Connelly & Clandinin,1988 and shaped by various background sources (Borg, 2003; Grossman, 1990; Meijer,Verloop, and Beijard, 1999. This paper initially discusses how language teachers areinfluenced by three background sources: teachers’ prior language learning experiences, priorteaching experience, and professional coursework in pre- and in-service education. Bydrawing its data from the author’s longitidunal study, it also presents the findings of a crosscasetheme emerged from the investigation of three English as a foreign language (EFLteachers’ prior language learning experiences. The paper also discusses how the participationin studies on teachers’ knowledge raises teachers’ own awareness while it informs theresearch.

  17. The analysis phase in development of knowledge-based systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooking, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    Over the past twenty years computer scientists have realized that, in order to produce reliable software that is easily modifiable, a proven methodology is required. Unlike conventional systems there is little knowledge of the life cycle of these knowledge-based systems. However, if the life cycle of conventional systems, it is not unreasonable to assume that analysis will come first. With respect to the analysis task there is an enormous difference in types of analysis. Conventional systems analysis is predominately concerned with what happens within the system. Typically, procedures will be noted in the way they relate to each other, the way data moves and changes within the system. There is often an example, on paper or machine, that can be observed

  18. Understanding Genetic Breast Cancer Risk: Processing Loci of the BRCA Gist Intelligent Tutoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Christopher R; Reyna, Valerie F; Widmer, Colin L; Cedillos-Whynott, Elizabeth M; Brust-Renck, Priscila G; Weil, Audrey M; Hu, Xiangen

    2016-07-01

    The BRCA Gist Intelligent Tutoring System helps women understand and make decisions about genetic testing for breast cancer risk. BRCA Gist is guided by Fuzzy-Trace Theory, (FTT) and built using AutoTutor Lite. It responds differently to participants depending on what they say. Seven tutorial dialogues requiring explanation and argumentation are guided by three FTT concepts: forming gist explanations in one's own words, emphasizing decision-relevant information, and deliberating the consequences of decision alternatives. Participants were randomly assigned to BRCA Gist , a control, or impoverished BRCA Gist conditions removing gist explanation dialogues, argumentation dialogues, or FTT images. All BRCA Gist conditions performed significantly better than controls on knowledge, comprehension, and risk assessment. Significant differences in knowledge, comprehension, and fine-grained dialogue analyses demonstrate the efficacy of gist explanation dialogues. FTT images significantly increased knowledge. Providing more elements in arguments against testing correlated with increased knowledge and comprehension.

  19. Young Children's Knowledge About the Moon: A Complex Dynamic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venville, Grady J.; Louisell, Robert D.; Wilhelm, Jennifer A.

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this research was to use a multidimensional theoretical framework to examine young children's knowledge about the Moon. The research was conducted in the interpretive paradigm and the design was a multiple case study of ten children between the ages of three and eight from the USA and Australia. A detailed, semi-structured interview was conducted with each child. In addition, each child's parents were interviewed to determine possible social and cultural influences on the child's knowledge. We sought evidence about how the social and cultural experiences of the children might have influenced the development of their ideas. From a cognitive perspective we were interested in whether the children's ideas were constructed in a theory like form or whether the knowledge was the result of gradual accumulation of fragments of isolated cultural information. Findings reflected the strong and complex relationship between individual children, their social and cultural milieu, and the way they construct ideas about the Moon and astronomy. Findings are presented around four themes including ontology, creatures and artefacts, animism, and permanence. The findings support a complex dynamic system view of students' knowledge that integrates the framework theory perspective and the knowledge in fragments perspective. An initial model of a complex dynamic system of young children's knowledge about the Moon is presented.

  20. Knowledge based operation assist system for JAERI AVF cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agematsu, T.; Okumura, S.; Yokota, W.; Arakawa, K.; Murakami, T.; Okamura, T.

    1992-01-01

    We have developed two operation assist systems for easy and rapid operation of the JAERI AVF cyclotron. One is a knowledge based expert system guiding the sequence of parameter adjustment to inexperienced cyclotron operators. The other is a real-time simulation of the beam trajectories which are calculated from actual operating parameters. It graphically indicates feasible setting range of parameters that satisfies the acceptance of the cyclotron. These systems provide a human interface to adjust the parameters of the cyclotron. (author)

  1. Consultation system with knowledge representation by decision rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senne, E L.F.; Simoni, P O

    1982-04-01

    The use of decision rules in the representation of empirical knowledge supplied by application domain experts is discussed. Based on this representation, a system is described which employs artificial intelligence techniques to yield inferences within a specific domain. Three modules composing the system are described: the acquisition one, that allows the insertion of new rules; the diagnostic one, that uses rules in the inference process; and the explanation one, that exhibits reasons for each system action.

  2. USE OF ONTOLOGIES FOR KNOWLEDGE BASES CREATION TUTORING COMPUTER SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Cheremisina Lyubov

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the use of ontology for the use and development of intelligent tutoring systems. We consider the shortcomings of educational software and distance learning systems and the advantages of using ontology’s in their design. Actuality creates educational computer systems based on systematic knowledge. We consider classification of properties, use and benefits of ontology’s. Characterized approaches to the problem of ontology mapping, the first of which – manual mapping, the s...

  3. Research on the status of acceptance of Fukushima nuclear power accidents and the understanding of knowledge for college students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yilong; Liao Li; He Xu

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the connection between the understanding of basic knowledge of nuclear power and whether to accept the changes in attitude with Fukushima nuclear accidents for college students who were education in public. Methods 3000 questionnaires were distributed for college students by anonymity before and after the accident in the Fukushima nuclear power plant, respectively. Results the results of investigation showed that Fukushima nuclear accidents have influenced on the mental of college students, there significant differences between the two investigations. Conclusion college students have a little knowledge of nuclear power, it is necessary to strengthen publicity and education efforts for college students. (authors)

  4. Developing Conceptual Understanding of Natural Selection: The Role of Interest, Efficacy, and Basic Prior Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa; Pugh, Kevin J.; Koskey, Kristin L. K.; Stewart, Victoria C.

    2012-01-01

    Changes in high school students' (n = 94) conceptions of natural selection were examined as a function of motivational beliefs (individual interest, academic self-efficacy), basic prior knowledge, and gender across three assessments (pre, post, follow-up). Results from variable-centered analyses suggested that these variables had relatively little…

  5. Children's understanding of the Earth in a multicultural community: Mental models or fragments of knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobes, G.; Moore, D. G.; Martin, A. E.; Clifford, B. R.; Butterworth, G.; Panagiotaki, G.; Siegal, M.

    Asian and white British students ages 4-8 (N=167) were asked to select an earth from a set of plastic models and then respond to forced-choice questions. There were no significant differences in performance after accounting for language differences. Evidence suggests that children hold fragmentary knowledge rather than mental models, as suggested by previous researchers.

  6. Understanding and Promoting Thinking about Knowledge: Origins, Issues, and Future Directions of Research on Epistemic Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, William A.; Greene, Jeffrey A.; Bråten, Ivar

    2016-01-01

    Epistemic cognition is the thinking that people do about what and how they know. Education has long been concerned with promoting reflection on knowledge and processes of knowing, but research into epistemic cognition began really in the past half century, with a tremendous expansion in the past 20 years. This review summarizes the broad range of…

  7. Understanding a High School Physics Teacher's Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianlan; Buck, Gayle A.

    2016-01-01

    Scientific argumentation is an important learning objective in science education. It is also an effective instructional approach to constructivist science learning. The implementation of argumentation in school settings requires science teachers, who are pivotal agents of transforming classroom practices, to develop sophisticated knowledge of…

  8. Linking hunter knowledge with forest change to understand changing deer harvest opportunities in intensively logged landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidd J. Brinkman; Terry Chapin; Gary Kofinas; David K. Person

    2009-01-01

    The effects of landscape changes caused by intensive logging on the availability of wild game are important when the harvest of wild game is a critical cultural practice, food source, and recreational activity. We assessed the influence of extensive industrial logging on the availability of wild game by drawing on local knowledge and ecological science to evaluate the...

  9. Understanding Knowledge Sharing between IT Professionals--An Integration of Social Cognitive and Social Exchange Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Tien; Cheng, Nai-Chang

    2012-01-01

    The research includes various constructs based on social exchange theory and social cognitive theory. This study mainly explored the relationships among organisational justice, trust, commitment and knowledge-sharing cognition and verified their mediating effects through two variables of trust and commitment. A survey utilising a questionnaire was…

  10. Teachers' Understanding of Mathematical Cognition in Childhood: Towards a Shift in Pedagogical Content Knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This article about the discourse of pedagogy as related to child cognition in mathematics addresses the issue of what constitutes the main disciplinary content and the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of foundation-phase teachers. I argue that, unless child cognition itself is the primary disciplinary content of foundation-phase teacher's…

  11. Understanding Knowledge Sharing Behavior: An Examination of the Extended Model of Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina O. Sihombing

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Knowledge is recognized as one valuable asset for many organizations. Thus, knowledge-sharing is one of important activities in many organizations, including university. Knowledge sharing is defined as activities of transferring or disseminating organizationally relevant information, ideas, suggestions, and expertise with one another. This research applied Christian values as a moderating variable in the framework of theory of planned behavior. The aims of this research to assess applicability of the theory of planned behavior to predict knowledge sharing and to examine the effects of Christian values in the relationship between attitude and intention to share knowledge. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data for this study. The data was then analyzed using structural equation modeling. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  12. Using Best Practices to Extract, Organize, and Reuse Embedded Decision Support Content Knowledge Rules from Mature Clinical Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesAutels, Spencer J; Fox, Zachary E; Giuse, Dario A; Williams, Annette M; Kou, Qing-Hua; Weitkamp, Asli; Neal R, Patel; Bettinsoli Giuse, Nunzia

    2016-01-01

    Clinical decision support (CDS) knowledge, embedded over time in mature medical systems, presents an interesting and complex opportunity for information organization, maintenance, and reuse. To have a holistic view of all decision support requires an in-depth understanding of each clinical system as well as expert knowledge of the latest evidence. This approach to clinical decision support presents an opportunity to unify and externalize the knowledge within rules-based decision support. Driven by an institutional need to prioritize decision support content for migration to new clinical systems, the Center for Knowledge Management and Health Information Technology teams applied their unique expertise to extract content from individual systems, organize it through a single extensible schema, and present it for discovery and reuse through a newly created Clinical Support Knowledge Acquisition and Archival Tool (CS-KAAT). CS-KAAT can build and maintain the underlying knowledge infrastructure needed by clinical systems.

  13. Using Best Practices to Extract, Organize, and Reuse Embedded Decision Support Content Knowledge Rules from Mature Clinical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesAutels, Spencer J.; Fox, Zachary E.; Giuse, Dario A.; Williams, Annette M.; Kou, Qing-hua; Weitkamp, Asli; Neal R, Patel; Bettinsoli Giuse, Nunzia

    2016-01-01

    Clinical decision support (CDS) knowledge, embedded over time in mature medical systems, presents an interesting and complex opportunity for information organization, maintenance, and reuse. To have a holistic view of all decision support requires an in-depth understanding of each clinical system as well as expert knowledge of the latest evidence. This approach to clinical decision support presents an opportunity to unify and externalize the knowledge within rules-based decision support. Driven by an institutional need to prioritize decision support content for migration to new clinical systems, the Center for Knowledge Management and Health Information Technology teams applied their unique expertise to extract content from individual systems, organize it through a single extensible schema, and present it for discovery and reuse through a newly created Clinical Support Knowledge Acquisition and Archival Tool (CS-KAAT). CS-KAAT can build and maintain the underlying knowledge infrastructure needed by clinical systems. PMID:28269846

  14. A knowledge-based system for prototypical reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieto, Antonio; Minieri, Andrea; Piana, Alberto; Radicioni, Daniele P.

    2015-04-01

    In this work we present a knowledge-based system equipped with a hybrid, cognitively inspired architecture for the representation of conceptual information. The proposed system aims at extending the classical representational and reasoning capabilities of the ontology-based frameworks towards the realm of the prototype theory. It is based on a hybrid knowledge base, composed of a classical symbolic component (grounded on a formal ontology) with a typicality based one (grounded on the conceptual spaces framework). The resulting system attempts to reconcile the heterogeneous approach to the concepts in Cognitive Science with the dual process theories of reasoning and rationality. The system has been experimentally assessed in a conceptual categorisation task where common sense linguistic descriptions were given in input, and the corresponding target concepts had to be identified. The results show that the proposed solution substantially extends the representational and reasoning 'conceptual' capabilities of standard ontology-based systems.

  15. Knowledge gaps in tropical Southeast Asian seagrass systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Jillian Lean Sim; Kendrick, Gary A.; Van Niel, Kimberly P.; Affendi, Yang Amri

    2011-03-01

    Seagrasses are habitats with significant ecological and economic functions but we have limited knowledge of seagrasses in Southeast Asia, the hypothesized centre-of-origin for tropical seagrasses. There have been only 62 ISI-cited publications on the seagrasses of Southeast Asia in the last three decades and most work has been in few sites such as Northwest Luzon in the Philippines and South Sulawesi in Indonesia. Our understanding of the processes driving spatial and temporal distributions of seagrass species here has focussed primarily on backreef and estuarine seagrass meadows, with little work on forereef systems. We used Pulau Tinggi, an island off the southeast coast of Peninsular Malaysia, as an example of a subtidal forereef system. It is characterized by a community of small and fast growing species such as Halophila ovalis (mean shoot density 1454.6 ± 145.1 m -2) and Halodule uninervis (mean shoot density 861.7 ± 372.0 m -2) growing in relatively low light conditions (mean PAR 162.1 ± 35.0 μmol m -2 s -1 at 10 m depth to 405.8 ± 99.0 μmol m -2 s -1 at 3 m water depth) on sediment with low carbonate (mean 9.24 ± 1.74 percentage dry weight), organic matter (mean 2.56 ± 0.35 percentage dry weight) and silt-clay content (mean 2.28 ± 2.43 percentage dry weight). The literature reveals that there is a range of drivers operating in Southeast Asian seagrass systems and we suggest that this is because there are various types of seagrass habitats in this region, i.e. backreef, forereef and estuary, each of which has site characteristics and ecological drivers unique to it. Based on our case study of Pulau Tinggi, we suggest that seagrasses in forereef systems are more widespread in Southeast Asia than is reflected in the literature and that they are likely to be driven by recurring disturbance events such as monsoons, sediment burial and herbivory.

  16. Scientometric trends and knowledge maps of global health systems research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qiang; Chen, Kai; Yao, Lan; Lyu, Peng-hui; Yang, Tian-an; Luo, Fei; Chen, Shan-quan; He, Lu-yang; Liu, Zhi-yong

    2014-06-05

    In the last few decades, health systems research (HSR) has garnered much attention with a rapid increase in the related literature. This study aims to review and evaluate the global progress in HSR and assess the current quantitative trends. Based on data from the Web of Science database, scientometric methods and knowledge visualization techniques were applied to evaluate global scientific production and develop trends of HSR from 1900 to 2012. HSR has increased rapidly over the past 20 years. Currently, there are 28,787 research articles published in 3,674 journals that are listed in 140 Web of Science subject categories. The research in this field has mainly focused on public, environmental and occupational health (6,178, 21.46%), health care sciences and services (5,840, 20.29%), and general and internal medicine (3,783, 13.14%). The top 10 journals had published 2,969 (10.31%) articles and received 5,229 local citations and 40,271 global citations. The top 20 authors together contributed 628 papers, which accounted for a 2.18% share in the cumulative worldwide publications. The most productive author was McKee, from the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, with 48 articles. In addition, USA and American institutions ranked the first in health system research productivity, with high citation times, followed by the UK and Canada. HSR is an interdisciplinary area. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries showed they are the leading nations in HSR. Meanwhile, American and Canadian institutions and the World Health Organization play a dominant role in the production, collaboration, and citation of high quality articles. Moreover, health policy and analysis research, health systems and sub-systems research, healthcare and services research, health, epidemiology and economics of communicable and non-communicable diseases, primary care research, health economics and health costs, and pharmacy of hospital have been identified as the

  17. Knowledge of Dementia: Do family members understand dementia as a terminal condition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Sharon; McInerney, Fran; Toye, Christine; Parkinson, Camillus-Anthony; Robinson, Andrew

    2017-07-01

    Current research identifies advanced dementia to be the terminal phase of this progressive and incurable condition. However, there has been relatively little investigation into how family members of people with advanced dementia understand their relative's condition. In this article, we report on semi-structured interviews with 10 family members of people with advanced dementia, in a residential aged care facility. Using a qualitative, descriptive design, we explored family members' understandings of dementia, whether they were aware that it was a terminal condition, and the ways they developed their understandings. Findings revealed that the majority of family members could not recognize the terminal nature of dementia. Relying on predominantly lay understandings, they had little access to formal information and most failed to conceptualize a connection between dementia and death. Moreover, family members engaged in limited dialogue with aged care staff about such issues, despite their relatives being in an advanced stage of the disease. Findings from our study suggest that how family members understand their relative's condition requires greater attention. The development of staff/family partnerships that promote shared communication about dementia and dying may enhance family members' understandings of the dementia trajectory and the types of decisions they may be faced with during the more advanced stages of the disease.

  18. Understanding complex urban systems multidisciplinary approaches to modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Gurr, Jens; Schmidt, J

    2014-01-01

    Understanding Complex Urban Systems takes as its point of departure the insight that the challenges of global urbanization and the complexity of urban systems cannot be understood – let alone ‘managed’ – by sectoral and disciplinary approaches alone. But while there has recently been significant progress in broadening and refining the methodologies for the quantitative modeling of complex urban systems, in deepening the theoretical understanding of cities as complex systems, or in illuminating the implications for urban planning, there is still a lack of well-founded conceptual thinking on the methodological foundations and the strategies of modeling urban complexity across the disciplines. Bringing together experts from the fields of urban and spatial planning, ecology, urban geography, real estate analysis, organizational cybernetics, stochastic optimization, and literary studies, as well as specialists in various systems approaches and in transdisciplinary methodologies of urban analysis, the volum...

  19. Dissemination of Knowledge about NPP Instrumentation and Control Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yastrebenetsky, M.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Instrumentation and control (I&C) systems are the most variable part in the nuclear power plants (NPP) comparatively with any other NPP systems. This statement is connected with the wide use of computers, rapid changes in information technologies, with the appearance of new computer complex electronic components, e.g., field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) and with appropriate point of their insertion into NPP I&C life cycle. The changes in NPP I&C systems require the dissemination of the knowledge about these systems. Lessons after Fukushima accident increase necessity of these actions. The elaboration and following dissemination of this knowledge took place in different directions: • Writing and issue of three new books about NPP I&C systems for specialists and for students which were issued in Ukrainian and USA public houses (the last book was issued in 2014); • Organization of five international scientific technical conferences, devoted to NPP I&C safety problems; • Elaboration of national (Ukrainian) standards and regulations pertaining to safety important NPP I&C systems (the last standard was issued in 2015) and participation in elaboration of international standards; • Lecturing for university students, NPP specialists and I&C designers. These actions in all directions are added to IAEA activity in the area NPP I&C systems (e.g., IAEA NP-T-3.12 “Core Knowledge on I&C systems in NPP”). (author

  20. A case for understanding user experience challenges confronting indigenous knowledge recorders in rural communities in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khalala, G

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available . The South African government adopted a policy in 2004; to develop the Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS). The policy provided a platform for the recognition, affirmation, development, promotion and protection of IKS in South Africa. The NRS initiative... that have attempted to implement IKS are highlighted below: 3.1 Biozulua database The Biozulua database initiative from Venezuela was established to record IK in order to encourage innovation using traditional knowledge and to facilitate the sharing...

  1. Advancing Capabilities for Understanding the Earth System Through Intelligent Systems, the NSF Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Y.; Zanzerkia, E. E.; Munoz-Avila, H.

    2015-12-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) Directorate for Geosciences (GEO) and Directorate for Computer and Information Science (CISE) acknowledge the significant scientific challenges required to understand the fundamental processes of the Earth system, within the atmospheric and geospace, Earth, ocean and polar sciences, and across those boundaries. A broad view of the opportunities and directions for GEO are described in the report "Dynamic Earth: GEO imperative and Frontiers 2015-2020." Many of the aspects of geosciences research, highlighted both in this document and other community grand challenges, pose novel problems for researchers in intelligent systems. Geosciences research will require solutions for data-intensive science, advanced computational capabilities, and transformative concepts for visualizing, using, analyzing and understanding geo phenomena and data. Opportunities for the scientific community to engage in addressing these challenges are available and being developed through NSF's portfolio of investments and activities. The NSF-wide initiative, Cyberinfrastructure Framework for 21st Century Science and Engineering (CIF21), looks to accelerate research and education through new capabilities in data, computation, software and other aspects of cyberinfrastructure. EarthCube, a joint program between GEO and the Advanced Cyberinfrastructure Division, aims to create a well-connected and facile environment to share data and knowledge in an open, transparent, and inclusive manner, thus accelerating our ability to understand and predict the Earth system. EarthCube's mission opens an opportunity for collaborative research on novel information systems enhancing and supporting geosciences research efforts. NSF encourages true, collaborative partnerships between scientists in computer sciences and the geosciences to meet these challenges.

  2. Understanding knowledge management and information management: the need for an empirical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    France Bouthillier

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been argued that Knowledge Management (KM is not a new field but a different way to refer to Information Management (IM. This article seeks to summarize empirical evidence of how KM is practiced in several types of organizations to show the variety of organizational approaches that are used and the processes that are involved. Based on an exploratory study of KM practices, the article presents a typology of methodologies that are employed in various organizations, to help illustrate the particular nature of KM and show that it is substantially different from IM. In the first part of the article, the concepts associated with the management of information and knowledge are examined and definitions of IM and KM are presented to clarify their differences. The second part of the article  contains the a description of the conceptual framework used for the study and a presentation and discussion of  the results.

  3. A framework of knowledge creation processes in participatory simulation of hospital work systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Simone Nyholm; Broberg, Ole

    2017-04-01

    Participatory simulation (PS) is a method to involve workers in simulating and designing their own future work system. Existing PS studies have focused on analysing the outcome, and minimal attention has been devoted to the process of creating this outcome. In order to study this process, we suggest applying a knowledge creation perspective. The aim of this study was to develop a framework describing the process of how ergonomics knowledge is created in PS. Video recordings from three projects applying PS of hospital work systems constituted the foundation of process mining analysis. The analysis resulted in a framework revealing the sources of ergonomics knowledge creation as sequential relationships between the activities of simulation participants sharing work experiences; experimenting with scenarios; and reflecting on ergonomics consequences. We argue that this framework reveals the hidden steps of PS that are essential when planning and facilitating PS that aims at designing work systems. Practitioner Summary: When facilitating participatory simulation (PS) in work system design, achieving an understanding of the PS process is essential. By applying a knowledge creation perspective and process mining, we investigated the knowledge-creating activities constituting the PS process. The analysis resulted in a framework of the knowledge-creating process in PS.

  4. Understanding the Implementation of Knowledge Management in High-Performance Schools in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmad Sukor Ab. Samad; Mohamed Iskandar Rahmad Sukor; Darwyan Syah; Eneng Muslihah

    2014-01-01

    This study intends to assess the implementation of policies in high-performance schools (HPS). One hundred fifty-two administrators in 52 HPS were selected using full sampling. Only two factors serve as contributors in knowledge management model for high-performing schools in Malaysia, which were school culture and school strategy. Whereas the correlation indicated that all 10 factors, namely, mission and vision, schoo...

  5. A philosophical approach to Emotions: understanding Love’s Knowledge through a Frog in Love

    OpenAIRE

    Murris, Karin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper I offer a philosophical approach to the emotion ‘love’, as a response to more psychological approaches presupposed in ‘emotional intelligence’, ‘emotional literacy’ programmes, or how some Philosophy for Children practitioners interpret ‘caring thinking’. Martha Nussbaum’s philosophy of emotions expressed in her book Love’s Knowledge, and the complex arguments contained within it have been given a narrative context: the picturebook Frog in Love by Max Velthuijs. The narrative co...

  6. Development of educational system for nuclear power plant operators using knowledge processing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Seiichi

    1990-01-01

    It is important to carry out effective education optimally adapted to the operator's knowledge level for the enhancement of the operator's ability to deal with abnormal situations. This paper outlines the educational system that realizes effective education using knowledge-processing techniques. This system is composed of three devices. One is a knowledge-processing computer that evaluates the operator's knowledge level and presents educational materials optimally adapted to his knowledge level. Another is a computer for displaying transients and plant equipments. The other is a computer for voice input and output. The educational materials utilize cause-and-effect relationships. It is possible to perform effective education by pointing out the parts the operator failed to understand using the relationships. An evaluation test was performed using several tens of operators by actually operating the system and then impressions were gathered by questionnaire. As a result, the cause-and-effect relationships were proved to be useful to understand the transients. And the contents of the educational materials and the display pictures were also deemed to have practical value. (author)

  7. Knowledge Workers, Identities, and Communication Practices: Understanding Code Farmers in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Sun Ping

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Extending the concept of “knowledge workers”, this paper studies the identity dynamics of IT programmers from small companies in China. Through the discursive analysis of programmers’ personal memoirs (collected via personal interviews and online ethnography, four themes of identity dynamics emerge: IT programmers demonstrate identification with professionalism and technology; they naturalize the high mobility and internal precarity of their work via discourses of the self and social improvement; the term manong (“code monkey” or “code farmer” in English is used to support a sense of selfhood amidst high pressure schedules and “panoptic control”; the disparaging term diaosi (“loser” in English is appropriated in order to activate a sense of self-expression and collective resistance regarding the programmers’ working and living conditions. These four themes are integrated into: 1 hegemonic discourses of economic development and technical innovation; and 2 the processes of individualization among IT programmers on a global scale. Our findings suggest that being a knowledge worker means not only to provide professional expertise, communication, creativity and knowledge, it also interrogates questions of survival, struggle, and solidarity.

  8. Understanding knowledge transfer in an ergonomics intervention at a poultry processing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antle, David M; MacKinnon, Scott N; Molgaard, John; Vézina, Nicole; Parent, Robert; Bornstein, Stephen; Leclerc, Louise

    2011-01-01

    This case study reviews the knowledge transfer (KT) process of implementing a knife sharpening and steeling program into a poultry processing plant via a participatory ergonomics intervention. This ergonomics intervention required stakeholder participation at the company level to move a 'train-the-trainer' program, developed in Québec, Canada, into action on the plant's deboning line. Communications and exchanges with key stakeholders, as well as changes in steeling and production behaviours were recorded. The intervention was assumed to be at least partially successful because positive changes in work operations occurred. Ergonomic-related changes such as those documented have been cited in the academic literature as beneficial to worker health. However, several components cited in literature that are associated with a successful participatory ergonomics intervention were not attained during the project. A Dynamic Knowledge Transfer Model was used to identify KT issues that impacted on the success of train-the-trainer program. A debriefing analysis reveals that a failure to consider key participatory ergonomics factors necessary for success were related to capacity deficits in the knowledge dissemination strategy.

  9. Knowledge Organisation Systems in North American Digital Library Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Ali; Chase-Kruszewski, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report an investigation into the types of knowledge organisation systems (KOSs) utilised in North American digital library collections. Design/methodology/approach: The paper identifies, analyses and deep scans online North American hosted digital libraries. It reviews the literature related to the…

  10. Indigenous knowledge systems, local community and community in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The title of the paper requires some brief reflection on the main topics implied. It is appropriate to start off with a definition of Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS) as well as a statement regarding the constitutional status of a community. Thereafter I will expand on the merits of IKS towards community development as well as ...

  11. Training Sessions Provide Working Knowledge of National Animal Identification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaze, J. Benton, Jr.; Ahola, Jason K.

    2010-01-01

    One in-service and two train-the-trainer workshops were conducted by University of Idaho Extension faculty, Idaho State Department of Agriculture personnel, and allied industry representatives to increase Extension educators' knowledge and awareness of the National Animal Identification System (NAIS) and related topics. Training sessions included…

  12. Deming's System of Profound Knowledge: An Overview for International Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Thomas J.

    W. Edwards Deming called for the transformation to a new style of organizational management based on greater cooperation between managers and employees. This transformation could be achieved by introducing "profound knowledge" into the system. This paper is a presentation outline that was used to introduce the basics of Deming's theory…

  13. An Expert System toward Buiding An Earth Science Knowledge Graph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Duan, X.; Ramachandran, R.; Lee, T. J.; Bao, Q.; Gatlin, P. N.; Maskey, M.

    2017-12-01

    In this ongoing work, we aim to build foundations of Cognitive Computing for Earth Science research. The goal of our project is to develop an end-to-end automated methodology for incrementally constructing Knowledge Graphs for Earth Science (KG4ES). These knowledge graphs can then serve as the foundational components for building cognitive systems in Earth science, enabling researchers to uncover new patterns and hypotheses that are virtually impossible to identify today. In addition, this research focuses on developing mining algorithms needed to exploit these constructed knowledge graphs. As such, these graphs will free knowledge from publications that are generated in a very linear, deterministic manner, and structure knowledge in a way that users can both interact and connect with relevant pieces of information. Our major contributions are two-fold. First, we have developed an end-to-end methodology for constructing Knowledge Graphs for Earth Science (KG4ES) using existing corpus of journal papers and reports. One of the key challenges in any machine learning, especially deep learning applications, is the need for robust and large training datasets. We have developed techniques capable of automatically retraining models and incrementally building and updating KG4ES, based on ever evolving training data. We also adopt the evaluation instrument based on common research methodologies used in Earth science research, especially in Atmospheric Science. Second, we have developed an algorithm to infer new knowledge that can exploit the constructed KG4ES. In more detail, we have developed a network prediction algorithm aiming to explore and predict possible new connections in the KG4ES and aid in new knowledge discovery.

  14. Structural design systems using knowledge-based techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orsborn, K.

    1993-01-01

    Engineering information management and the corresponding information systems are of a strategic importance for industrial enterprises. This thesis treats the interdisciplinary field of designing computing systems for structural design and analysis using knowledge-based techniques. Specific conceptual models have been designed for representing the structure and the process of objects and activities in a structural design and analysis domain. In this thesis, it is shown how domain knowledge can be structured along several classification principles in order to reduce complexity and increase flexibility. By increasing the conceptual level of the problem description and representation of the domain knowledge in a declarative form, it is possible to enhance the development, maintenance and use of software for mechanical engineering. This will result in a corresponding increase of the efficiency of the mechanical engineering design process. These ideas together with the rule-based control point out the leverage of declarative knowledge representation within this domain. Used appropriately, a declarative knowledge representation preserves information better, is more problem-oriented and change-tolerant than procedural representations. 74 refs

  15. Towards a systems understanding of plant-microbe interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira eMine

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Plants are closely associated with microorganisms including pathogens and mutualists that influence plant fitness. Molecular genetic approaches have uncovered a number of signaling components from both plants and microbes and their mode of actions. However, signaling pathways are highly interconnected and influenced by diverse sets of environmental factors. Therefore, it is important to have systems views in order to understand the true nature of plant-microbe interactions. Indeed, systems biology approaches have revealed previously overlooked or misinterpreted properties of the plant immune signaling network. Experimental reconstruction of biological networks using exhaustive combinatorial mutants is particularly powerful to elucidate network structure and properties and relationships among network components. Recent advances in metagenomics of microbial communities associated with plants further point to the importance of systems approaches and open a research area of microbial community reconstruction. In this review, we highlight the importance of a systems understanding of plant-microbe interactions, with a special emphasis on reconstruction strategies.

  16. A systemic approach to understanding mental health and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Mark

    2017-10-01

    In the UK mental health and associated NHS services face considerable challenges. This paper aims to form an understanding both of the complexity of context in which services operate and the means by which services have sought to meet these challenges. Systemic principles as have been applied to public service organisations with reference to interpersonal relations, the wider social culture and its manifestation in service provision. The analysis suggests that the wider culture has shaped service demand and the approaches adopted by services resulting in a number of unintended consequences, reinforcing loops, increased workload demands and the limited value of services. The systemic modelling of this situation provides a necessary overview prior to future policy development. The paper concludes that mental health and attendant services requires a systemic understanding and a whole system approach to reform. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Database management systems understanding and applying database technology

    CERN Document Server

    Gorman, Michael M

    1991-01-01

    Database Management Systems: Understanding and Applying Database Technology focuses on the processes, methodologies, techniques, and approaches involved in database management systems (DBMSs).The book first takes a look at ANSI database standards and DBMS applications and components. Discussion focus on application components and DBMS components, implementing the dynamic relationship application, problems and benefits of dynamic relationship DBMSs, nature of a dynamic relationship application, ANSI/NDL, and DBMS standards. The manuscript then ponders on logical database, interrogation, and phy

  18. Building HVAC control knowledge data schema – Towards a unified representation of control system knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yan; Treado, Stephen J.; Messner, John I.

    2016-12-01

    Building control systems for Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) play a key role in realizing the functionality and operation of building systems and components. Building Control Knowledge (BCK) is the logic and algorithms embedded throughout building control system. There are different methods to represent the BCK. These methods differ in the selection of BCK representing elements and the format of those elements. There is a lack of standard data schema, for storing, retrieving, and reusing structured BCK. In this study, a modular data schema is created for BCK representation. The data schema contains eleven representing elements, i.e., control module name, operation mode, system schematic, control flow diagram, data point, alarm, parameter, control sequence, function, and programming code. Each element is defined with specific attributes. This data schema is evaluated through a case study demonstration. The demonstration shows a new way to represent the BCK with standard formats.

  19. Understanding Learner Agency as a Complex Dynamic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to contribute to a fuller understanding of the nature of language learner agency by considering it as a complex dynamic system. The purpose of the study was to explore detailed situated data to examine to what extent it is feasible to view learner agency through the lens of complexity theory. Data were generated through a…

  20. Semantics-enabled knowledge management for global Earth observation system of systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Roger L.; Durbha, Surya S.; Younan, Nicolas H.

    2007-10-01

    The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) is a distributed system of systems built on current international cooperation efforts among existing Earth observing and processing systems. The goal is to formulate an end-to-end process that enables the collection and distribution of accurate, reliable Earth Observation data, information, products, and services to both suppliers and consumers worldwide. One of the critical components in the development of such systems is the ability to obtain seamless access of data across geopolitical boundaries. In order to gain support and willingness to participate by countries around the world in such an endeavor, it is necessary to devise mechanisms whereby the data and the intellectual capital is protected through procedures that implement the policies specific to a country. Earth Observations (EO) are obtained from a multitude of sources and requires coordination among different agencies and user groups to come to a shared understanding on a set of concepts involved in a domain. It is envisaged that the data and information in a GEOSS context will be unprecedented and the current data archiving and delivery methods need to be transformed into one that allows realization of seamless interoperability. Thus, EO data integration is dependent on the resolution of conflicts arising from a variety of areas. Modularization is inevitable in distributed environments to facilitate flexible and efficient reuse of existing ontologies. Therefore, we propose a framework for modular ontologies based knowledge management approach for GEOSS and present methods to enable efficient reasoning in such systems.

  1. Modelling and Simulating Electronics Knowledge: Conceptual Understanding and Learning through Active Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twissell, Adrian

    2018-01-01

    Abstract electronics concepts are difficult to develop because the phenomena of interest cannot be readily observed. Visualisation skills support learning about electronics and can be applied at different levels of representation and understanding (observable, symbolic and abstract). Providing learners with opportunities to make transitions…

  2. Public understandings of nature: a case study of local knowledge about "natural" forest conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Bruce Hull; David P. Robertson; Angelina Kendra

    2001-01-01

    This study is intended to serve as an explicit and specific example of the social construction of nature. It is motivated by the need to develop a more sophisticated language for a critical public dialogue about society's relationship with nature. We conducted a case study of environmental discourse in one local population in hopes of better understanding how a...

  3. Improved semantic interoperability for content reuse through knowledge organization systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Moreiro González

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Knowledge Organization Systems (KOS are resources designed to improve the knowledge interoperability, management and retrieval. As increases the web resources, it’s evidenced the lack of KOS, with the consequent impact in the resources interoperability. The KOSS are, by definition, complicated and costly tools, so much in his creation as in his management. The reuse of similar organizational structures is a necessary element in this context. They analyses experiences of reuse of The KOS and signals like the new standards are impinged on this appearance.

  4. The value of a combined word recognition and knowledge measure to understand characteristics of our patients' oral health literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, Kathryn A; Macek, Mark D; Markovic, Daniela

    2017-08-01

    The objective of the analysis was to examine the association between sociodemographic and dental understanding and utilization characteristics and lower oral health literacy (HL) and knowledge. The cross-sectional Multicenter Oral Health Literacy Research Study (MOHLRS) recruited and interviewed 923 English-speaking, initial care-seeking adults. The questionnaire included participant sociodemographic characteristics, measures of the participant's understanding and utilization of dentistry, and two oral HL measures, the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine and Dentistry (REALM-D) and the Comprehensive Measure of Oral Health Knowledge (CMOHK), which were combined into a new composite HL and knowledge measure, the MOHLR-K. In adjusted multivariable analysis, persons who reported more understanding of dentist instructions had higher mean scores for all HL measures. Subjects reporting the highest level of understanding had greater scores by an average of 1.6 points for the MOHLR-K (95% CI: 0.85-2.40, Pdental understanding and utilization factors. Persons who reported history of tooth decay had higher MOHLR-K scores by an average of about 0.77 points (95% CI: 0.49-1.04, Ptooth decay history after controlling for the other factors. Persons who had support all of the time for travel to the dentist had higher scores by an average of about 0.5 points for the MOHLR-K (95% CI: 0.04-0.96, P=.03) and about 0.89 points for the REALMD-20 (95% CI: 0-1.79, P=.05) as compared to subjects with no support after controlling for other factors. Report of periodontal history, financial challenges to delay a dental visit and dental utilization were not significantly associated with any of the HL measures once the other factors were adjusted for in the model. The analysis confirmed that pronunciation of medical and dental terms may not fully reflect comprehension and revealed that understanding both patients' sociodemographic and dental understanding and utilization factors, such as

  5. Leveraging medical taxonomies to improve knowledge management within online communities of practice: The knowledge maps system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Samuel Alan; Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

    2017-05-01

    Online communities of practice contain a wealth of information, stored in the free text of shared communications between community members. The Knowledge Maps (KMaps) system is designed to facilitate Knowledge Translation in online communities through multi-level analyses of the shared messages of these communications. Using state-of-the-art semantic mapping technologies (Metamap) the contents of the messages shared within an online community are mapped to terms from the MeSH medical lexicon, providing a multi-level topic-specific summary of the knowledge being shared within the community. Using the inherent hierarchical structure of the lexicon important insights can be found within the community. The KMaps system was applied to two medical mailing lists, the PPML (archives from 2009-02 to 2013-02) and SURGINET (archives from 2012-01 to 2013-04), identifying 27,924 and 50,597 medical terms respectively. KMaps identified content areas where both communities found interest, specifically around Diseases, 22% and 24% of the total terms, while also identifying field-specific areas that were more popular: SURGINET expressed an interest in Anatomy (14% vs 4%) while the PPML was more interested in Drugs (19% vs 9%). At the level of the individual KMaps identified 6 PPML users and 9 SURGINET users that had noticeably more contributions to the community than their peers, and investigated their personal areas of interest. The KMaps system provides valuable insights into the structure of both communities, identifying topics of interest/shared content areas and defining content-profiles for individual community members. The system provides a valuable addition to the online KT process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The knowledge and understanding of preanalytical phase among biomedicine students at the University of Zagreb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukic, Lora; Jokic, Anja; Kules, Josipa; Pasalic, Daria

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The educational program for health care personnel is important for reducing preanalytical errors and improving quality of laboratory test results. The aim of our study was to assess the level of knowledge on preanalytical phase in population of biomedicine students through a cross-sectional survey. Materials and methods A survey was sent to students on penultimate and final year of Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry – study of medical biochemistry (FPB), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (FVM) and School of Medicine (SM), University of Zagreb, Croatia, using the web tool SurveyMonkey. Survey was composed of demographics and 14 statements regarding the preanalytical phase of laboratory testing. Comparison of frequencies and proportions of correct answers was done with Fisher’s exact test and test of comparison of proportions, respectively. Results Study included 135 participants, median age 24 (23-40) years. Students from FPB had higher proportion of correct answers (86%) compared to students from other biomedical faculties 62%, P sample (P order of draw during blood specimen collection (P < 0.001), in comparison with students from SM and FVM. Conclusions Students from FPB are more conscious of the importance of preanalytical phase of testing in comparison with their colleagues from other biomedical faculties. No difference in knowledge between penultimate and final year of the same faculty was found. PMID:26981023

  7. Towards a Consensus View on Understanding Nanomaterials Hazards and Managing Exposure: Knowledge Gaps and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Geoffrey; Lynch, Iseult; Cassee, Flemming; Handy, Richard D.; Fernandes, Teresa F.; Berges, Markus; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A. J.; Dusinska, Maria; Riediker, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present an overview of salient issues of exposure, characterisation and hazard assessment of nanomaterials as they emerged from the consensus-building of experts undertaken within the four year European Commission coordination project NanoImpactNet. The approach adopted is to consolidate and condense the findings and problem-identification in such a way as to identify knowledge-gaps and generate a set of interim recommendations of use to industry, regulators, research bodies and funders. The categories of recommendation arising from the consensual view address: significant gaps in vital factual knowledge of exposure, characterisation and hazards; the development, dissemination and standardisation of appropriate laboratory protocols; address a wide range of technical issues in establishing an adequate risk assessment platform; the more efficient and coordinated gathering of basic data; greater inter-organisational cooperation; regulatory harmonization; the wider use of the life-cycle approaches; and the wider involvement of all stakeholders in the discussion and solution-finding efforts for nanosafety. PMID:28809359

  8. Integrating movement in academic classrooms: understanding, applying and advancing the knowledge base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, C A; Russ, L; Vazou, S; Goh, T L; Erwin, H

    2015-08-01

    In the context of comprehensive and coordinated approaches to school health, academic classrooms have gained attention as a promising setting for increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary time among children. The aims of this paper are to review the rationale and knowledge base related to movement integration in academic classrooms, consider the practical applications of current knowledge to interventions and teacher education, and suggest directions for future research. Specifically, this paper (i) situates movement integration amid policy and research related to children's health and the school as a health-promoting environment; (ii) highlights the benefits of movement integration; (iii) summarizes movement integration programs and interventions; (iv) examines factors associated with classroom teachers' movement integration; (v) offers strategies for translating research to practice and (vi) forwards recommendations for future inquiry related to the effectiveness and sustainability of efforts to integrate movement into classroom routines. This paper provides a comprehensive resource for developing state-of-the-art initiatives to maximize children's movement in academic classrooms as a key strategy for important goals in both education and public health. © 2015 World Obesity.

  9. Beyond Learning Management Systems: Designing for Interprofessional Knowledge Building in the Health Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Lax

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines theoretical, pedagogical, and technological differences between two technologies that have been used in undergraduate interprofessional health sciences at the University of Toronto. One, a learning management system, WebCT 2.0, supports online coursework. The other, a Knowledge Building environment, Knowledge Forum 2.0, supports the collaborative work of knowledge-creating communities. Seventy students from six health science programs (Dentistry, Medicine, Nursing, Occupational Therapy, Pharmacy and Physical Therapy participated online in a 5-day initiative to advance understanding of core principles and professional roles in pain assessment and management. Knowledge Forum functioned well as a learning management system but to preserve comparability between the two technologies its full resources were not brought into play. In this paper we examine three distinctive affordances of Knowledge Forum that have implications for health sciences education: (1 supports for Knowledge Building discourse as distinct from standard threaded discourse; (2 integration of sociocognitive functions as distinct from an assortment of separate tools; and (3 resources for multidimensional social and cognitive assessment that go beyond common participation indicators and instructor-designed quizzes and analyses. We argue that these design characteristics have the potential to open educational pathways that traditional learning management systems leave closed.

  10. A knowledge-based system for fluidization studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-04-01

    Chemical engineers depend on process simulation models to determine optimal'' plant configurations which are technically feasible and economically viable. This research was undertaken to develop a comprehensive knowledge based simulation environment IPSE (Intelligent Process Simulation Environment) that can enhance the productivity of chemical engineers/modelers by serving as an intelligent assistant during all phases of process simulation involving fossil energy processes. In summary, the goals of this research are: application of knowledge-based techniques to the process modeling domain for enhancement of productivity; archiving and distribution of the knowledge of the best experts of process modeling; cross-model inference assistance to modelers not familiar with the process; and development of IPSE to serve as an intelligent tutoring system for process simulation. 18 figs.

  11. A System Theoretical Inspired Approach to Knowledge Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Helle

    2008-01-01

    student's knowledge construction, in the light of operative constructivism, inspired by the German sociologist N. Luhmann's system theoretical approach to epistemology. Taking observations as operations based on distinction and indication (selection) contingency becomes a fundamental condition in learning......  Abstract The aim of this paper is to discuss the relation between teaching and learning. The point of departure is that teaching environments (communication forums) is a potential facilitator for learning processes and knowledge construction. The paper present a theoretical frame work, to discuss...... processes, and a condition which teaching must address as far as teaching strives to stimulate non-random learning outcomes. Thus learning outcomes understood as the individual learner's knowledge construction cannot be directly predicted from events and characteristics in the environment. This has...

  12. Design of Knowledge Management System for Diabetic Complication Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiarni, Cut

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines how to develop a Model for Knowledge Management System (KMS) for diabetes complication diseases. People with diabetes have a higher risk of developing a series of serious health problems. Each patient has different condition that could lead to different disease and health problem. But, with the right information, patient could have early detection so the health risk could be minimized and avoided. Hence, the objective of this research is to propose a conceptual framework that integrates social network model, Knowledge Management activities, and content based reasoning (CBR) for designing such a diabetes health and complication disease KMS. The framework indicates that the critical knowledge management activities are in the process to find similar case and the index table for algorithm to fit the framework for the social media. With this framework, KMS developers can work with healthcare provider to easily identify the suitable IT associated with the CBR process when developing a diabetes KMS.

  13. Improving knowledge management systems with latent semantic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebok, A.; Plott, C.; LaVoie, N.

    2006-01-01

    Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) offers a technique for improving lessons learned and knowledge management systems. These systems are expected to become more widely used in the nuclear industry, as experienced personnel leave and are replaced by younger, less-experienced workers. LSA is a machine learning technology that allows searching of text based on meaning rather than predefined keywords or categories. Users can enter and retrieve data using their own words, rather than relying on constrained language lists or navigating an artificially structured database. LSA-based tools can greatly enhance the usability and usefulness of knowledge management systems and thus provide a valuable tool to assist nuclear industry personnel in gathering and transferring worker expertise. (authors)

  14. Knowledge-based system for flight information management. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricks, Wendell R.

    1990-01-01

    The use of knowledge-based system (KBS) architectures to manage information on the primary flight display (PFD) of commercial aircraft is described. The PFD information management strategy used tailored the information on the PFD to the tasks the pilot performed. The KBS design and implementation of the task-tailored PFD information management application is described. The knowledge acquisition and subsequent system design of a flight-phase-detection KBS is also described. The flight-phase output of this KBS was used as input to the task-tailored PFD information management KBS. The implementation and integration of this KBS with existing aircraft systems and the other KBS is described. The flight tests are examined of both KBS's, collectively called the Task-Tailored Flight Information Manager (TTFIM), which verified their implementation and integration, and validated the software engineering advantages of the KBS approach in an operational environment.

  15. Understanding energy technology developments from an innovation system perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borup, M.; Nygaard Madsen, A. [Risoe National Lab., DTU, Systems Analysis Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Gregersen, Birgitte [Aalborg Univ., Department of Business Studies (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    With the increased market-orientation and privatisation of the energy area, the perspective of innovation is becoming more and more relevant for understanding the dynamics of change and technology development in the area. A better understanding of the systemic and complex processes of innovation is needed. This paper presents an innovation systems analysis of new and emerging energy technologies in Denmark. The study focuses on five technology areas: bio fuels, hydrogen technology, wind energy, solar cells and energy-efficient end-use technologies. The main result of the analysis is that the technology areas are quite diverse in a number of innovation-relevant issues like actor set-up, institutional structure, maturity, and connections between market and non-market aspects. The paper constitutes background for discussing the framework conditions for transition to sustainable energy technologies and strengths and weaknesses of the innovation systems. (au)

  16. Understanding complex urban systems integrating multidisciplinary data in urban models

    CERN Document Server

    Gebetsroither-Geringer, Ernst; Atun, Funda; Werner, Liss

    2016-01-01

    This book is devoted to the modeling and understanding of complex urban systems. This second volume of Understanding Complex Urban Systems focuses on the challenges of the modeling tools, concerning, e.g., the quality and quantity of data and the selection of an appropriate modeling approach. It is meant to support urban decision-makers—including municipal politicians, spatial planners, and citizen groups—in choosing an appropriate modeling approach for their particular modeling requirements. The contributors to this volume are from different disciplines, but all share the same goal: optimizing the representation of complex urban systems. They present and discuss a variety of approaches for dealing with data-availability problems and finding appropriate modeling approaches—and not only in terms of computer modeling. The selection of articles featured in this volume reflect a broad variety of new and established modeling approaches such as: - An argument for using Big Data methods in conjunction with Age...

  17. Knowledge Building Conceptualisation within Smart Constructivist Learning Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    2017-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the meeting of Constructivism (as a learning theory) and Smart Learning and, thus, theorises Smart Constructivist Learning. The main field of research is Smart Learning Environments. Relying on the phenomena of ‘meaning construction’ and ‘meaningful understanding production......’ in the framework of smart constructivism, we will focus on analysing Smart Constructivist Knowledge Building. Accordingly, we analysed Learning-and-Constructing-Together as a smart constructivist model. The outcomes of this chapter could support the developments of smart learning strategies....

  18. Systematic approach to understanding the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Lihua; Luo, Hui; Li, Yisha; Zhu, Honglin

    2017-10-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a complex heterogeneous autoimmune disease. Progressive organ fibrosis is a major contributor to SSc mortality. Despite extensive efforts, the underlying mechanism of SSc remains unclear. Efforts to understand the pathogenesis of SSc have included genomics, epigenetics, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic studies in the last decade. This review focuses on recent studies in SSc research based on multi-omics. The combination of these technologies can help us understand the pathogenesis of SSc. This review aims to provide important information for disease identification, therapeutic targets and potential biomarkers. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Critical Knowledge Gaps in Our Understanding of Environmental Cycling and Transmission of Leptospira spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragan, Veronica; Olivas, Sonora; Keim, Paul; Pearson, Talima

    2017-10-01

    Exposure to soil or water contaminated with the urine of Leptospira -infected animals is the most common way in which humans contract leptospirosis. Entire populations can be at high risk of leptospirosis while working in inundated fields, when engaging in aquatic sports, or after periods of heavy rainfall. The risk of infection after contact with these environmental sources depends on the ability of Leptospira bacteria to survive, persist, and infect new hosts. Multiple variables such as soil and water pH, temperature, and even environmental microbial communities are likely to shape the environmental conditions needed by the pathogen to persist. Here we review what is known about the environmental phase of the infectious Leptospira transmission cycle and identify knowledge gaps that will serve as a guide for future research. Copyright © 2017 Barragan et al.

  20. Business systems for knowledge management in the NGL industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remmington, S.

    1999-01-01

    Effective knowledge management involves a complex blend of culture, structure, process and technology. Traditional organization structures, processes and systems cannot deal with the new volume and velocity of information. Separate functional departments such as marketing, operations, logistics and accounting typically have separate functional systems or modules. These separate structures and systems create islands of information and barriers to effective knowledge management. New cross-functional structures, processes and systems offer a fundamentally different approach. Cross-functional systems support marketing, operations, logistics and accounting activities from a single, shared data repository. Unlike separate systems, or even integrated modular systems, each data element is stored once and only once. All information is available to the entire organization in near real time as soon as it is captured. These types of systems can support various organizational structures and processes, including cross-functional teams. Change is not easy, but organizations that act on this opportunity early will gain a significant competitive advantage. Those that do not change quickly enough are unlikely to survive

  1. The knowledge and understanding of preanalytical phase among biomedicine students at the University of Zagreb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukic, Lora; Jokic, Anja; Kules, Josipa; Pasalic, Daria

    2016-01-01

    The educational program for health care personnel is important for reducing preanalytical errors and improving quality of laboratory test results. The aim of our study was to assess the level of knowledge on preanalytical phase in population of biomedicine students through a cross-sectional survey. A survey was sent to students on penultimate and final year of Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry--study of medical biochemistry (FPB), Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (FVM) and School of Medicine (SM), University of Zagreb, Croatia, using the web tool SurveyMonkey. Survey was composed of demographics and 14 statements regarding the preanalytical phase of laboratory testing. Comparison of frequencies and proportions of correct answers was done with Fisher's exact test and test of comparison of proportions, respectively. Study included 135 participants, median age 24 (23-40) years. Students from FPB had higher proportion of correct answers (86%) compared to students from other biomedical faculties 62%, P < 0.001. Students from FPB were more conscious of the importance of specimen mixing (P = 0.027), prevalence of preanalytical errors (P = 0.001), impact of hemolysis (P = 0.032) and lipemia interferences (P = 0.010), proper choice of anticoagulants (P = 0.001), transport conditions for ammonia sample (P < 0.001) and order of draw during blood specimen collection (P < 0.001), in comparison with students from SM and FVM. Students from FPB are more conscious of the importance of preanalytical phase of testing in comparison with their colleagues from other biomedical faculties. No difference in knowledge between penultimate and final year of the same faculty was found.

  2. Life and Understanding: The Origins of "Understanding" in Self-Organizing Nervous Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yufik, Yan M; Friston, Karl

    2016-01-01

    This article is motivated by a formulation of biotic self-organization in Friston (2013), where the emergence of "life" in coupled material entities (e.g., macromolecules) was predicated on bounded subsets that maintain a degree of statistical independence from the rest of the network. Boundary elements in such systems constitute a Markov blanket ; separating the internal states of a system from its surrounding states. In this article, we ask whether Markov blankets operate in the nervous system and underlie the development of intelligence, enabling a progression from the ability to sense the environment to the ability to understand it. Markov blankets have been previously hypothesized to form in neuronal networks as a result of phase transitions that cause network subsets to fold into bounded assemblies, or packets (Yufik and Sheridan, 1997; Yufik, 1998a). The ensuing neuronal packets hypothesis builds on the notion of neuronal assemblies (Hebb, 1949, 1980), treating such assemblies as flexible but stable biophysical structures capable of withstanding entropic erosion. In other words, structures that maintain their integrity under changing conditions. In this treatment, neuronal packets give rise to perception of "objects"; i.e., quasi-stable (stimulus bound) feature groupings that are conserved over multiple presentations (e.g., the experience of perceiving "apple" can be interrupted and resumed many times). Monitoring the variations in such groups enables the apprehension of behavior; i.e., attributing to objects the ability to undergo changes without loss of self-identity. Ultimately, "understanding" involves self-directed composition and manipulation of the ensuing "mental models" that are constituted by neuronal packets, whose dynamics capture relationships among objects: that is, dependencies in the behavior of objects under varying conditions. For example, movement is known to involve rotation of population vectors in the motor cortex (Georgopoulos et al

  3. VIP: A knowledge-based design aid for the engineering of space systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Steven M.; Bellman, Kirstie L.

    1990-01-01

    The Vehicles Implementation Project (VIP), a knowledge-based design aid for the engineering of space systems is described. VIP combines qualitative knowledge in the form of rules, quantitative knowledge in the form of equations, and other mathematical modeling tools. The system allows users rapidly to develop and experiment with models of spacecraft system designs. As information becomes available to the system, appropriate equations are solved symbolically and the results are displayed. Users may browse through the system, observing dependencies and the effects of altering specific parameters. The system can also suggest approaches to the derivation of specific parameter values. In addition to providing a tool for the development of specific designs, VIP aims at increasing the user's understanding of the design process. Users may rapidly examine the sensitivity of a given parameter to others in the system and perform tradeoffs or optimizations of specific parameters. A second major goal of VIP is to integrate the existing corporate knowledge base of models and rules into a central, symbolic form.

  4. Understanding Absorptive Capacities is an "Innovation Systems" Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narula, Rajneesh

    2004-01-01

    This paper seeks to broaden our understanding of the concept underlying absorptive capacity atthe macro -level, paying particular attention to the growth and development perspectives. Weprovide definitions of absorptive and technological capacity, external technology flows,productivity growth....... We also undertake to explain how the nature ofabsorptive capacity changes with stages of economic development, and the importance of thedifferent aspects of absorptive capability at different stages. The relationship is not a linear one:the benefits that accrue from marginal increases in absorptive...... capability change over time.Finally, we provide a tentative and preliminary conceptual argument of how the different stagesof absorptive capacity are related to productivity growth, economic growth and employmentcreation.Key words: New economy, absorptive capacity, knowledge...

  5. Epigenetics: Its Understanding Is Crucial to a Sustainable Healthcare System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Thunders

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the molecular impact of lifestyle factors has never been so important; a period in time where there are so many adults above retirement age has been previously unknown. As a species, our life expectancy is increasing yet the period of our lives where we enjoy good health is not expanding proportionately. Over the next 50 years we will need to almost double the percentage of GDP spent on health care, largely due to the increasing incidence of obesity related chronic diseases. A greater understanding and implementation of an integrated approach to health is required. Research exploring the impact of nutritional and exercise intervention on the epigenetically flexible genome is up front in terms of addressing healthy aging. Alongside this, we need a greater understanding of the interaction with our immune and nervous systems in preserving and maintaining health and cognition.

  6. Conference on development of JAEA knowledge management system, 2010 (Conference report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notoya, Shin; Sasao, Eiji; Ota, Kunio; Shimizu, Kazuhiko

    2010-11-01

    In March 2010, a prototype of 'next generation' knowledge management system (KMS) and a status report (CoolRep H22) synthesizing the R and D results were made publicly available at the conclusion of R and D for the first Midterm Plan (October 2005 to March 2010). This could further reinforce the technical knowledge base and thus enable the geological disposal project and associated safety regulations to be continuously supported. The conference on 'Development of JAEA Knowledge Management System, 2010' was held on 16th June 2010 in Tokyo, with main aims of introducing KMS and CoolRep H22 to broader stakeholders, promoting their understanding and having input from them for further improvement of KMS. This report compiles presentation materials and comments to KMS and CoolRep H22 from participants. (author)

  7. Deploying a knowledge management system for well construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Stephen; Soffried, Klaus; Sousa, Tadeu V. de; Tatro, Matt [Landmark Graphics, Houston, TX (United States); Rocha, Luiz A. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The overall E and P workforce is rapidly aging since companies have been recruiting fewer and fewer new hires. Should such trends continue, we could lose more than half of our current knowledge workers over the next five to seven years as J. W. Gibson pointed out in his article in World Energy. One obvious remedy is to start recruiting more staff, but as older people retire and younger people enter the company, the workforce will become increasingly dominated by inexperienced professionals. Without implementation of an effective knowledge management system, the industry will likely incur costly mistakes in the future. This paper will highlight an advanced software-based solution being designed to successfully offset this continuous drain of intellectual capital to achieve 'Excellence in Drilling'. The solutions concept includes the deployment of an advanced, user-friendly workflow management system within a web-based portal environment to support both well planning and operations. The system provides capabilities for remote access to databases, data input forms, software applications, best practices, lessons learned, technical references, and experts, all within the context of user configurable workflow maps. The integrated system will enable asset teams to work more effectively together and become 'learning organizations' by taking full advantage of the knowledge gained on previous wells during the design of new wells. (author)

  8. Do Zoo Visitors Need Zoology Knowledge to Understand Conservation Messages? An Exploration of the Public Understanding of Animal Biology and of the Conservation of Biodiversity in a Zoo Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Tracy; Byrne, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the current knowledge and understanding about animal biology of zoo visitors and investigates whether knowledge of animal biology influences the ability of people to understand how human activity affects biodiversity. Zoos can play a role in the development of scientific literacy in the fields of animal biology and biodiversity…

  9. Knowledges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berling, Trine Villumsen

    2012-01-01

    Scientific knowledge in international relations has generally focused on an epistemological distinction between rationalism and reflectivism over the last 25 years. This chapter argues that this distinction has created a double distinction between theory/reality and theory/practice, which works...... and reflectivism. Bourdieu, on the contrary, lets the challenge to the theory/reality distinction spill over into a challenge to the theory/practice distinction by thrusting the scientist in the foreground as not just a factor (discourse/genre) but as an actor. In this way, studies of IR need to include a focus...... as a ghost distinction structuring IR research. While reflectivist studies have emphasised the impossibility of detached, objective knowledge production through a dissolution of the theory/reality distinction, the theory/practice distinction has been left largely untouched by both rationalism...

  10. Development of a component centered fault monitoring and diagnosis knowledge based system for space power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. C.; Lollar, Louis F.

    1988-01-01

    The overall approach currently being taken in the development of AMPERES (Autonomously Managed Power System Extendable Real-time Expert System), a knowledge-based expert system for fault monitoring and diagnosis of space power systems, is discussed. The system architecture, knowledge representation, and fault monitoring and diagnosis strategy are examined. A 'component-centered' approach developed in this project is described. Critical issues requiring further study are identified.

  11. Understanding Global Change: Frameworks and Models for Teaching Systems Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, J. R.; Mitchell, K.; Zoehfeld, K.; Oshry, A.; Menicucci, A. J.; White, L. D.; Marshall, C. R.

    2017-12-01

    The scientific and education communities must impart to teachers, students, and the public an understanding of how the various factors that drive climate and global change operate, and why the rates and magnitudes of these changes related to human perturbation of Earth system processes today are cause for deep concern. Even though effective educational modules explaining components of the Earth and climate system exist, interdisciplinary learning tools are necessary to conceptually link the causes and consequences of global changes. To address this issue, the Understanding Global Change Project at the University of California Museum of Paleontology (UCMP) at UC Berkeley developed an interdisciplinary framework that organizes global change topics into three categories: (1) causes of climate change, both human and non-human (e.g., burning of fossil fuels, deforestation, Earth's tilt and orbit), (2) Earth system processes that shape the way the Earth works (e.g., Earth's energy budget, water cycle), and (3) the measurable changes in the Earth system (e.g., temperature, precipitation, ocean acidification). To facilitate student learning about the Earth as a dynamic, interacting system, a website will provide visualizations of Earth system models and written descriptions of how each framework topic is conceptually linked to other components of the framework. These visualizations and textual summarizations of relationships and feedbacks in the Earth system are a unique and crucial contribution to science communication and education, informed by a team of interdisciplinary scientists and educators. The system models are also mechanisms by which scientists can communicate how their own work informs our understanding of the Earth system. Educators can provide context and relevancy for authentic datasets and concurrently can assess student understanding of the interconnectedness of global change phenomena. The UGC resources will be available through a web-based platform and

  12. Prostate Cancer Patients' Understanding of the Gleason Scoring System: Implications for Shared Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagai, Erin K; Miller, Suzanne M; Kutikov, Alexander; Diefenbach, Michael A; Gor, Ronak A; Al-Saleem, Tahseen; Chen, David Y T; Fleszar, Sara; Roy, Gem

    2018-01-15

    The Gleason scoring system is a key component of a prostate cancer diagnosis, since it indicates disease aggressiveness. It also serves as a risk communication tool that facilitates shared treatment decision-making. However, the system is highly complex and therefore difficult to communicate: factors which have been shown to undermine well-informed and high-quality shared treatment decision-making. To systematically explore prostate cancer patients' understanding of the Gleason scoring system (GSS), we assessed knowledge and perceived importance among men who had completed treatment (N = 50). Patients were administered a survey that assessed patient knowledge and patients' perceived importance of the GSS, as well as demographics, medical factors (e.g., Gleason score at diagnosis), and health literacy. Bivariate analyses were conducted to identify associations with patient knowledge and perceived importance of the GSS. The sample was generally well-educated (48% with a bachelor's degree or higher) and health literate (M = 12.9, SD = 2.2, range = 3-15). Despite this, patient knowledge of the GSS was low (M = 1.8, SD = 1.4, range = 1-4). Patients' understanding of the importance of the GSS was moderate (M = 2.8, SD = 1.0, range = 0-4) and was positively associated with GSS knowledge (p decision-making. Future studies are needed to explore the potential utility of a simplified Gleason grading system and improved patient-provider communication.

  13. Knowledge of medical doctors in Turkey about the relationship between periodontal disease and systemic health

    OpenAIRE

    TAŞDEMIR,Zekeriya; ALKAN,Banu Arzu

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between periodontal disease (PD) and systemic health (SH) is necessary for the accurate diagnosis and treatment of both. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of medical doctors in Turkey with regard to the association between PD and SH. This study was carried out using self-reported questionnaires that were sent to medical doctors who work at various universities and public and private hospitals in different cities in Turkey. The questionnaires co...

  14. LPS: a rule-based, schema-oriented knowledge representation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anzai, Y; Mitsuya, Y; Nakajima, S; Ura, S

    1981-01-01

    A new knowledge representation system called LPS is presented. The global control structure of LPS is rule-based, but the local representational structure is schema-oriented. The present version of LPS was designed to increase the understandability of representation while keeping time efficiency reasonable. Pattern matching through slot-networks and meta-actions from among the implemented facilities of LPS, are especially described in detail. 7 references.

  15. A Qualitative Study of Agricultural Literacy in Urban Youth: What Do Elementary Students Understand about the Agri-Food System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Alexander J.; Trexler, Cary J.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural literacy of K-12 students is a national priority for both scientific and agricultural education professional organizations. Development of curricula to address this priority has not been informed by research on what K-12 students understand about the agri-food system. While students' knowledge of food and fiber system facts have been…

  16. Structure of the knowledge base for an expert labeling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, N. S.

    1981-01-01

    One of the principal objectives of the NASA AgRISTARS program is the inventory of global crop resources using remotely sensed data gathered by Land Satellites (LANDSAT). A central problem in any such crop inventory procedure is the interpretation of LANDSAT images and identification of parts of each image which are covered by a particular crop of interest. This task of labeling is largely a manual one done by trained human analysts and consequently presents obstacles to the development of totally automated crop inventory systems. However, development in knowledge engineering as well as widespread availability of inexpensive hardware and software for artificial intelligence work offers possibilities for developing expert systems for labeling of crops. Such a knowledge based approach to labeling is presented.

  17. 6th International Conference on Knowledge and Systems Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Le, Anh-Cuong; Huynh, Van-Nam

    2015-01-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the Sixth International Conference on Knowledge and Systems Engineering (KSE 2014), which was held in Hanoi, Vietnam, during 9–11 October, 2014. The conference was organized by the University of Engineering and Technology, Vietnam National University, Hanoi. Besides the main track of contributed papers, this proceedings  feature the results of four special sessions focusing on specific topics of interest and three invited keynote speeches. The book gathers a total of 51 carefully reviewed papers describing recent advances and development on various topics including knowledge discovery and data mining, natural language processing, expert systems, intelligent decision making, computational biology, computational modeling, optimization algorithms, and industrial applications.

  18. Knowledge Management System Untuk SDM Menggunakan Seci Model (Studi Kasus: Koperasi Karyawan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Zuraidah

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Koperasi Pegawai Badan Urusan Logistik adalah sebuah Koperasi yang bergerak dalam bidang jasa, simpan-pinjam. Knowledge Managment System tersebut, nampaknya sudah menjadi suatu kebutuhan mendasarkan untuk meningkatkan kualitas sumber daya manusia yang khususnya kepada karyawan. Knowledge management merupakan usaha untuk meningkatkan knowledge yang berguna dalam koperasi. Knowledge management tidak hanya merupakan pengaturan akan knowldge, namun lebih pada manajemen suatu koperasi dengan fokus khususnya terhadap knowledge, knowledge management dengan sebuah sistem, yang diharapkan dapat menjadi solusi dari kebutuhan aliran knowledge yang tidak dihalangi oleh batasan waktu dan tempat. Penelitian ini akan mengembangkan analisa knowledge management system dan merancang aplikasi dari analisa yang dikembangkan. Metodologi yang digunakan dengan model SECI dan melakukan analisa untuk mendapatkan knowledge management system tersebut. Analisa knowledge management system yang dihasilkan mendukung proses Sosialisasi, Eksternalisasi, Kombinasi, Internalisasi (SECI. Knowledge management system ini dikembangkan sebagai sarana sharing pada karyawan. Kata kunci: Knowledge Management System,SECI, Koperasi,SDM Abstract Employee Cooperative Agency of Logistics Affairs is a cooperative engaged in services, savings, and loans. Knowledge Managment System, it seems to have become a basic need to improve the quality of human resources, especially to employees. Knowledge management is an attempt to improve knowledge useful in cooperatives. Knowledge management is not only an arrangement of knowledge but rather the management of a cooperative with a particular focus on knowledge, knowledge management with a system, which is expected to be a solution of the needs of the flow of knowledge that is not hindered by time and space constraints. This research will develop the knowledge management system and design the application of the developed analysis. The methodology

  19. Understanding how orthopaedic surgery practices generate value for healthcare systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Steven A; Mather, Richard C

    2013-06-01

    Orthopaedic surgery practices can provide substantial value to healthcare systems. Increasingly, healthcare administrators are speaking of the need for alignment between physicians and healthcare systems. However, physicians often do not understand what healthcare administrators value and therefore have difficulty articulating the value they create in discussions with their hospital or healthcare organization. Many health systems and hospitals use service lines as an organizational structure to track the relevant data and manage the resources associated with a particular type of care, such as musculoskeletal care. Understanding service lines and their management can be useful for orthopaedic surgeons interested in interacting with their hospital systems. We provide an overview of two basic types of value orthopaedic surgeons create for healthcare systems: financial or volume-driven benefits and nonfinancial quality or value-driven patient care benefits. We performed a search of PubMed from 1965 to 2012 using the term "service line." Of the 351 citations identified, 18 citations specifically involved the use of service lines to improve patient care in both nursing and medical journals. A service line is a structure used in healthcare organizations to enable management of a subset of activities or resources in a focused area of patient care delivery. There is not a consistent definition of what resources are managed within a service line from hospital to hospital. Physicians can positively impact patient care through engaging in service line management. There is increasing pressure for healthcare systems and hospitals to partner with orthopaedic surgeons. The peer-reviewed literature demonstrates there are limited resources for physicians to understand the value they create when attempting to negotiate with their hospital or healthcare organization. To effectively negotiate for resources to provide the best care for patients, orthopaedic surgeons need to claim and

  20. Understanding Science: Frameworks for using stories to facilitate systems thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElShafie, S. J.; Bean, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    Studies indicate that using a narrative structure for teaching and learning helps audiences to process and recall new information. Stories also help audiences retain specific information, such as character names or plot points, in the context of a broader narrative. Stories can therefore facilitate high-context systems learning in addition to low-context declarative learning. Here we incorporate a framework for science storytelling, which we use in communication workshops, with the Understanding Science framework developed by the UC Museum of Paleontology (UCMP) to explore the application of storytelling to systems thinking. We translate portions of the Understanding Science flowchart into narrative terms. Placed side by side, the two charts illustrate the parallels between the scientific process and the story development process. They offer a roadmap for developing stories about scientific studies and concepts. We also created a series of worksheets for use with the flowcharts. These new tools can generate stories from any perspective, including a scientist conducting a study; a character that plays a role in a larger system (e.g., foraminifera or a carbon atom); an entire system that interacts with other systems (e.g., the carbon cycle). We will discuss exemplar stories about climate change from each of these perspectives, which we are developing for workshops using content and storyboard models from the new UCMP website Understanding Global Change. This conceptual framework and toolkit will help instructors to develop stories about scientific concepts for use in a classroom setting. It will also help students to analyze stories presented in class, and to create their own stories about new concepts. This approach facilitates student metacognition of the learning process, and can also be used as a form of evaluation. We are testing this flowchart and its use in systems teaching with focus groups, in preparation for use in teacher professional development workshops.

  1. Compiling knowledge-based systems from KEE to Ada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filman, Robert E.; Bock, Conrad; Feldman, Roy

    1990-01-01

    The dominant technology for developing AI applications is to work in a multi-mechanism, integrated, knowledge-based system (KBS) development environment. Unfortunately, systems developed in such environments are inappropriate for delivering many applications - most importantly, they carry the baggage of the entire Lisp environment and are not written in conventional languages. One resolution of this problem would be to compile applications from complex environments to conventional languages. Here the first efforts to develop a system for compiling KBS developed in KEE to Ada (trademark). This system is called KATYDID, for KEE/Ada Translation Yields Development Into Delivery. KATYDID includes early prototypes of a run-time KEE core (object-structure) library module for Ada, and translation mechanisms for knowledge structures, rules, and Lisp code to Ada. Using these tools, part of a simple expert system was compiled (not quite automatically) to run in a purely Ada environment. This experience has given us various insights on Ada as an artificial intelligence programming language, potential solutions of some of the engineering difficulties encountered in early work, and inspiration on future system development.

  2. Dynamic reasoning in a knowledge-based system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Anand S.; Foo, Norman Y.

    1988-01-01

    Any space based system, whether it is a robot arm assembling parts in space or an onboard system monitoring the space station, has to react to changes which cannot be foreseen. As a result, apart from having domain-specific knowledge as in current expert systems, a space based AI system should also have general principles of change. This paper presents a modal logic which can not only represent change but also reason with it. Three primitive operations, expansion, contraction and revision are introduced and axioms which specify how the knowledge base should change when the external world changes are also specified. Accordingly the notion of dynamic reasoning is introduced, which unlike the existing forms of reasoning, provide general principles of change. Dynamic reasoning is based on two main principles, namely minimize change and maximize coherence. A possible-world semantics which incorporates the above two principles is also discussed. The paper concludes by discussing how the dynamic reasoning system can be used to specify actions and hence form an integral part of an autonomous reasoning and planning system.

  3. Understanding of the management information system based on MVC pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sida

    2018-04-01

    With the development of the society, people have come to realize the significance of information, not only linguistically but also in the written form. To build an effective and efficient working flow, a new subject called Management Information System (MIS) came up. MIS is an integrated discipline, which utilizes comprehensive and systematical methods to manage information, and it enhances the work efficiency through building structured information platform. This paper demonstrates the Management Information System from shallow too deep with the understanding of MVC pattern, including its basic structure and application with ASP.NET. Also some discussions about its features are made in the last section.

  4. Artificial intelligence and tutoring systems computational and cognitive approaches to the communication of knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Wenger, Etienne

    2014-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence and Tutoring Systems: Computational and Cognitive Approaches to the Communication of Knowledge focuses on the cognitive approaches, methodologies, principles, and concepts involved in the communication of knowledge. The publication first elaborates on knowledge communication systems, basic issues, and tutorial dialogues. Concerns cover natural reasoning and tutorial dialogues, shift from local strategies to multiple mental models, domain knowledge, pedagogical knowledge, implicit versus explicit encoding of knowledge, knowledge communication, and practical and theoretic

  5. Student teachers' pedagogical content knowledge for teaching systems thinking: effects of different interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkränzer, Frank; Hörsch, Christian; Schuler, Stephan; Riess, Werner

    2017-09-01

    Systems' thinking has become increasingly relevant not only in education for sustainable development but also in everyday life. Even if teachers know the dynamics and complexity of living systems in biology and geography, they might not be able to effectively explain it to students. Teachers need an understanding of systems and their behaviour (content knowledge), and they also need to know how systems thinking can be fostered in students (pedagogical content knowledge (PCK)). But the effective development of teachers' professional knowledge in teaching systems thinking is empirically uncertain. From a larger study (SysThema) that investigated teaching systems thinking, this article reports the effects of the three different interventions (technical course, didactic course and mixed course) in student teachers' PCK for teaching systems thinking. The results show that student teachers' PCK for teaching systems thinking can be promoted in teacher education. The conclusion to be drawn from our findings is that a technically orientated course without didactical aspects seems to be less effective in fostering student teachers' PCK for teaching systems thinking. The results inform educators in enhancing curricula of future academic track and non-academic track teacher education.

  6. ISPE: A knowledge-based system for fluidization studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, S.

    1991-01-01

    Chemical engineers use mathematical simulators to design, model, optimize and refine various engineering plants/processes. This procedure requires the following steps: (1) preparation of an input data file according to the format required by the target simulator; (2) excecuting the simulation; and (3) analyzing the results of the simulation to determine if all specified goals'' are satisfied. If the goals are not met, the input data file must be modified and the simulation repeated. This multistep process is continued until satisfactory results are obtained. This research was undertaken to develop a knowledge based system, IPSE (Intelligent Process Simulation Environment), that can enhance the productivity of chemical engineers/modelers by serving as an intelligent assistant to perform a variety tasks related to process simulation. ASPEN, a widely used simulator by the US Department of Energy (DOE) at Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) was selected as the target process simulator in the project. IPSE, written in the C language, was developed using a number of knowledge-based programming paradigms: object-oriented knowledge representation that uses inheritance and methods, rulebased inferencing (includes processing and propagation of probabilistic information) and data-driven programming using demons. It was implemented using the knowledge based environment LASER. The relationship of IPSE with the user, ASPEN, LASER and the C language is shown in Figure 1.

  7. Explaining the significance of participationist approaches for understanding students' knowledge acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Nina Bonderup

    2016-01-01

    an appraisal in the article's second part of a claim inherent to participationist views: It is necessary to adopt a system's view on learning opportunities presented to students in class because of the way positioning, recognition, and identity negotiation influence students' engagement with curricular content...

  8. Knowledge and Understanding of 21st Century Skills through Educator Externships: Programs in Southern New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson-Cayouette, Lizann R.

    2010-01-01

    An acute shortage of a competent, highly-skilled workforce faces the United States workplace. Studies and reports from 1983 to present, repeatedly state that the education system in the United States must change to prepare the emergent workforce for success in the 21st century global challenges of both post-secondary education and the workplace.…

  9. On knowledge representation for high energy physics control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huuskonen, P.; Kaarela, K.; Meri, M.; Le Goff, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    A framework for knowledge representation in the domain of high energy physics control systems is presented. Models of process equipment, controls, documents, information systems, functional dependencies, physical interconnections, and design decisions are necessary to allow for automated reasoning about such systems. A number of support systems can use these models: alarm processing, fault diagnosis, sensor validation, preventive maintenance, action analysis, information abstraction, intelligent help systems, and on-line documentation. Our aim is to achieve representations that would be understood by end users, could be constructed by domain experts, and would be powerful enough to function as a basis for these support systems. It is proposed to base these models on means-end-analysis, implemented through an entity-relationship type of representation and extended with the notion of contribution. The paper outlines class hierarchies and relation types to form a vocabulary for talking about this specific domain. A number of implementation concerns are raised and some examples of how these representations can be used in real cases are offered. The representations are likely to prove most useful for support systems that function in the user assisting mode, as opposed to fully autonomous systems. Intelligent help and information abstraction applications, in particular, are expected to benefit. The main focus of the work is that of the control information system concepts based on encapsulated real- time objects (CICERO) project at CERN, experiment controls, but the results are usable for accelerator control systems and for industrial control systems in general. (author). 37 refs., 7 figs

  10. Knowledge based support for real time application of multiagent control and automation in electric power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem, Arshad; Nordstrom, Lars; Lind, Morten

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a mechanism for developing knowledge based support for real time application of multiagent systems (MAS) in control, automation and diagnosis of electric power systems. In particular it presents a way for autonomous agents to utilize a qualitative means-ends based model...... for reasoning about control situations. The proposed mechanism has been used in different scenarios of electric power distribution system protection and control. Results show that agents can use local models of their environment and coordinate with other agents to analyze and understand a disturbance situation...

  11. Contribution of local knowledge to understand socio-hydrological dynamics. Examples from a study in Senegal river valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckmann, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    In developing countries many watersheds are low monitored. However, rivers and its floodplains provides ecosystem services to societies, especially for agriculture, grazing and fishing. This uses of rivers and floodplains offer to communities an important local knowledge about hydrological dynamics. This knowledge can be useful to researchers studying ecological or hydrological processes. This presentation aims to discuss and present the interest of using qualitative data from surveys and interviews to understand relations between society and hydrology in floodplain from developing countries, but also to understand changes in hydrological dynamics. This communication is based on a PhD thesis held on from 2012 and 2016, that analyzes socio-ecological changes in the floodplain of the Senegal river floodplain following thirty years of transboundary water management. The results of this work along Senegal river valley suggest that the use of social data and qualitative study are beneficial in understanding the hydrological dynamics in two dimensions. First, it established the importance of perception of hydrological dynamics, particularly floods, on local water management and socio-agricultural trajectories. This perception of people is strictly derived from ecosystems services provided by river and its floodplain. Second, surveys have enlightened new questions concerning the hydrology of the river that are often cited by people, like a decrease of flood water fertility. This type of socio-hydrological study, combining hydrological and qualitative data, has great potential for guiding water management policies. Using local knowledge in their analyzes, researchers also legitimize river users, who are for the most part forgotten by water policies.

  12. Exploring one aspect of pedagogical content knowledge of teaching assistants using the test of understanding graphs in kinematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Maries

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Test of Understanding Graphs in Kinematics (TUG-K is a multiple-choice test developed by Beichner in 1994 to assess students’ understanding of kinematics graphs. Many of the items on the TUG-K have strong distractor choices which correspond to students’ common difficulties with kinematics graphs. Instruction is unlikely to be effective if instructors do not know the common difficulties of introductory physics students and explicitly take them into account in their instructional design. We evaluate one aspect of the pedagogical content knowledge of first-year physics graduate students enrolled in a teaching assistant training course related to topics covered in the TUG-K. In particular, for each item on the TUG-K, the graduate students were asked to identify which incorrect answer choice they thought would be most commonly selected by introductory physics students if they did not know the correct answer after instruction in relevant concepts. We used the graduate student data and the data from Beichner’s original paper for introductory physics students (which was collected from over 500 college and high school students to assess this aspect of the pedagogical content knowledge of the graduate students, i.e., knowledge of student difficulties related to kinematics graphs as they are revealed by the TUG-K. We find that, although the graduate students, on average, performed better than random guessing at identifying introductory student difficulties on the TUG-K, they did not identify many common difficulties that introductory students have with graphs in kinematics. In addition, we find that the ability of graduate students to identify the difficulties of introductory students is context dependent and that discussions among the graduate students improved their understanding of student difficulties related to kinematics graphs. Moreover, we find that the ability of American graduate students in identifying common student difficulties is

  13. Research teams as complex systems: implications for knowledge management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasileiadou, E.

    2012-01-01

    The recent increase in research collaboration creates the need to better understand the interaction between individual researchers and the collaborative team. The paper elaborates the conceptualisation of research teams as complex systems which emerge out of the local interactions of individual

  14. Image/video understanding systems based on network-symbolic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuvich, Gary

    2004-03-01

    Vision is a part of a larger information system that converts visual information into knowledge structures. These structures drive vision process, resolve ambiguity and uncertainty via feedback projections, and provide image understanding that is an interpretation of visual information in terms of such knowledge models. Computer simulation models are built on the basis of graphs/networks. The ability of human brain to emulate similar graph/network models is found. Symbols, predicates and grammars naturally emerge in such networks, and logic is simply a way of restructuring such models. Brain analyzes an image as a graph-type relational structure created via multilevel hierarchical compression of visual information. Primary areas provide active fusion of image features on a spatial grid-like structure, where nodes are cortical columns. Spatial logic and topology naturally present in such structures. Mid-level vision processes like perceptual grouping, separation of figure from ground, are special kinds of network transformations. They convert primary image structure into the set of more abstract ones, which represent objects and visual scene, making them easy for analysis by higher-level knowledge structures. Higher-level vision phenomena are results of such analysis. Composition of network-symbolic models combines learning, classification, and analogy together with higher-level model-based reasoning into a single framework, and it works similar to frames and agents. Computational intelligence methods transform images into model-based knowledge representation. Based on such principles, an Image/Video Understanding system can convert images into the knowledge models, and resolve uncertainty and ambiguity. This allows creating intelligent computer vision systems for design and manufacturing.

  15. Knowledge-based system for automatic MBR control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comas, J; Meabe, E; Sancho, L; Ferrero, G; Sipma, J; Monclús, H; Rodriguez-Roda, I

    2010-01-01

    MBR technology is currently challenging traditional wastewater treatment systems and is increasingly selected for WWTP upgrading. MBR systems typically are constructed on a smaller footprint, and provide superior treated water quality. However, the main drawback of MBR technology is that the permeability of membranes declines during filtration due to membrane fouling, which for a large part causes the high aeration requirements of an MBR to counteract this fouling phenomenon. Due to the complex and still unknown mechanisms of membrane fouling it is neither possible to describe clearly its development by means of a deterministic model, nor to control it with a purely mathematical law. Consequently the majority of MBR applications are controlled in an "open-loop" way i.e. with predefined and fixed air scour and filtration/relaxation or backwashing cycles, and scheduled inline or offline chemical cleaning as a preventive measure, without taking into account the real needs of membrane cleaning based on its filtration performance. However, existing theoretical and empirical knowledge about potential cause-effect relations between a number of factors (influent characteristics, biomass characteristics and operational conditions) and MBR operation can be used to build a knowledge-based decision support system (KB-DSS) for the automatic control of MBRs. This KB-DSS contains a knowledge-based control module, which, based on real time comparison of the current permeability trend with "reference trends", aims at optimizing the operation and energy costs and decreasing fouling rates. In practice the automatic control system proposed regulates the set points of the key operational variables controlled in MBR systems (permeate flux, relaxation and backwash times, backwash flows and times, aeration flow rates, chemical cleaning frequency, waste sludge flow rate and recycle flow rates) and identifies its optimal value. This paper describes the concepts and the 3-level architecture

  16. Conceptualizing In-service Secondary School Science Teachers' Knowledge Base for Promoting Understanding about the Science of Global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Devarati

    Efforts to adapt and mitigate the effects of global climate change (GCC) have been ongoing for the past two decades and have become a major global concern. However, research and practice for promoting climate literacy and understanding about GCC have only recently become a national priority. The National Research Council (NRC), has recently emphasized upon the importance of developing learners' capacity of reasoning, their argumentation skills and understanding of GCC (Framework for K-12 Science Education, National Research Council, 2012). This framework focuses on fostering conceptual clarity about GCC to promote innovation, resilience, and readiness in students as a response towards the threat of a changing environment. Previous research about teacher understanding of GCC describes that in spite of the prevalent frameworks like the AAAS Science Literacy Atlas (AAAS, 2007) and the Essential Principles for Climate Literacy (United States Global Climate Research Program, 2009; Bardsley, 2007), most learners are challenged in understanding the science of GCC (Michail et al., 2007) and misinformed perceptions about basic climate science content and the role of human activities in changing climate remain persistent (Reibich and Gautier, 2006). Our teacher participants had a rather simplistic knowledge structure. While aware of climate change, teacher participants lacked in depth understanding of how change in climate can impact various ecosystems on the Earth. Furthermore, they felt overwhelmed with the extensive amount of information needed to comprehend the complexity in GCC. Hence, extensive efforts not only focused on assessing conceptual understanding of GCC but also for teaching complex science topics like GCC are essential. This dissertation explains concept mapping, and the photo elicitation method for assessing teachers' understanding of GCC and the use of metacognitive scaffolding in instruction of GCC for developing competence of learners in this complex

  17. Linking Hunter Knowledge with Forest Change to Understand Changing Deer Harvest Opportunities in Intensively Logged Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd J. Brinkman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of landscape changes caused by intensive logging on the availability of wild game are important when the harvest of wild game is a critical cultural practice, food source, and recreational activity. We assessed the influence of extensive industrial logging on the availability of wild game by drawing on local knowledge and ecological science to evaluate the relationship between forest change and opportunities to harvest Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis on Prince of Wales Island, Alaska. We used data collected through interviews with local deer hunters and GIS analysis of land cover to determine relationships among landscape change, hunter access, and habitat for deer hunting over the last 50 yr. We then used these relationships to predict how harvest opportunities may change in the future. Intensive logging from 1950 into the 1990s provided better access to deer and habitat that facilitated deer hunting. However, successional changes in intensively logged forests in combination with a decline in current logging activity have reduced access to deer and increased undesirable habitat for deer hunting. In this new landscape, harvest opportunities in previously logged landscapes have declined, and hunters identify second-growth forest as one of the least popular habitats for hunting. Given the current state of the logging industry in Alaska, it is unlikely that the logging of the remaining old-growth forests or intensive management of second-growth forests will cause hunter opportunities to rebound to historic levels. Instead, hunter opportunities may continue to decline for at least another human generation, even if the long-term impacts of logging activity and deer harvest on deer numbers are minimal. Adapting hunting strategies to focus on naturally open habitats such as alpine and muskeg that are less influenced by external market forces may require considerably more hunting effort but provide the best option for

  18. Towards an understanding of resilience: responding to health systems shocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanefeld, Johanna; Mayhew, Susannah; Legido-Quigley, Helena; Martineau, Frederick; Karanikolos, Marina; Blanchet, Karl; Liverani, Marco; Yei Mokuwa, Esther; McKay, Gillian; Balabanova, Dina

    2018-04-01

    The recent outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in West Africa has drawn attention to the role and responsiveness of health systems in the face of shock. It brought into sharp focus the idea that health systems need not only to be stronger but also more 'resilient'. In this article, we argue that responding to shocks is an important aspect of resilience, examining the health system behaviour in the face of four types of contemporary shocks: the financial crisis in Europe from 2008 onwards; climate change disasters; the EVD outbreak in West Africa 2013-16; and the recent refugee and migration crisis in Europe. Based on this analysis, we identify '3 plus 2' critical dimensions of particular relevance to health systems' ability to adapt and respond to shocks; actions in all of these will determine the extent to which a response is successful. These are three core dimensions corresponding to three health systems functions: 'health information systems' (having the information and the knowledge to make a decision on what needs to be done); 'funding/financing mechanisms' (investing or mobilising resources to fund a response); and 'health workforce' (who should plan and implement it and how). These intersect with two cross-cutting aspects: 'governance', as a fundamental function affecting all other system dimensions; and predominant 'values' shaping the response, and how it is experienced at individual and community levels. Moreover, across the crises examined here, integration within the health system contributed to resilience, as does connecting with local communities, evidenced by successful community responses to Ebola and social movements responding to the financial crisis. In all crises, inequalities grew, yet our evidence also highlights that the impact of shocks is amenable to government action. All these factors are shaped by context. We argue that the '3 plus 2' dimensions can inform pragmatic policies seeking to increase health systems resilience.

  19. A knowledge based system for training radiation emergency response personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuriakose, K.K.; Peter, T.U.; Natarajan, A.

    1992-01-01

    One of the important aspects of radiation emergency preparedness is to impart training to emergency handling staff. Mock exercises are generally used for this purpose. But practical considerations limit the frequency of such exercises. A suitably designed computer software can be effectively used to impart training. With the advent of low cost personal computers, the frequency with which the training programme can be conducted is unlimited. A computer software with monotonic behaviour is inadequate for such training. It is necessary to provide human like tutoring capabilities. With the advances in knowledge based computer systems, it is possible to develop such a system. These systems have the capability of providing individualized training. This paper describes the development of such a system for training and evaluation of agencies associated with the management of radiation emergency. It also discusses the utility of the software as a general purpose tutor. The details required for the preparation of data files and knowledge base files are included. It uses a student model based on performance measures. The software is developed in C under MS-DOS. It uses a rule based expert system shell developed in C. The features of this shell are briefly described. (author). 5 refs

  20. Integrated systems understanding using bayesian networks: measuring the effectiveness of a weapon system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    de Waal, A

    2006-02-27

    Full Text Available Complex systems can be described as systems-of-systems as they comprise a hierarchy of systems. The links between sub-systems are often obscure and non-linear and this results in a lack of a whole-systems view and appropriate understanding...

  1. Real-time application of knowledge-based systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbaugh, Randal W.; Duke, Eugene L.

    1989-01-01

    The Rapid Prototyping Facility (RPF) was developed to meet a need for a facility which allows flight systems concepts to be prototyped in a manner which allows for real-time flight test experience with a prototype system. This need was focused during the development and demonstration of the expert system flight status monitor (ESFSM). The ESFSM was a prototype system developed on a LISP machine, but lack of a method for progressive testing and problem identification led to an impractical system. The RPF concept was developed, and the ATMS designed to exercise its capabilities. The ATMS Phase 1 demonstration provided a practical vehicle for testing the RPF, as well as a useful tool. ATMS Phase 2 development continues. A dedicated F-18 is expected to be assigned for facility use in late 1988, with RAV modifications. A knowledge-based autopilot is being developed using the RPF. This is a system which provides elementary autopilot functions and is intended as a vehicle for testing expert system verification and validation methods. An expert system propulsion monitor is being prototyped. This system provides real-time assistance to an engineer monitoring a propulsion system during a flight.

  2. Understanding the performance and impact of public knowledge translation funding interventions: protocol for an evaluation of Canadian Institutes of Health Research knowledge translation funding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Robert K D; Graham, Ian D; Bosompra, Kwadwo; Choudhry, Yumna; Coen, Stephanie E; Macleod, Martha; Manuel, Christopher; McCarthy, Ryan; Mota, Adrian; Peckham, David; Tetroe, Jacqueline M; Tucker, Joanne

    2012-06-22

    The Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) has defined knowledge translation (KT) as a dynamic and iterative process that includes the synthesis, dissemination, exchange, and ethically-sound application of knowledge to improve the health of Canadians, provide more effective health services and products, and strengthen the healthcare system. CIHR, the national health research funding agency in Canada, has undertaken to advance this concept through direct research funding opportunities in KT. Because CIHR is recognized within Canada and internationally for leading and funding the advancement of KT science and practice, it is essential and timely to evaluate this intervention, and specifically, these funding opportunities. The study will employ a novel method of participatory, utilization-focused evaluation inspired by the principles of integrated KT. It will use a mixed methods approach, drawing on both quantitative and qualitative data, and will elicit participation from CIHR funded researchers, knowledge users, KT experts, as well as other health research funding agencies. Lines of inquiry will include an international environmental scan, document/data reviews, in-depth interviews, targeted surveys, case studies, and an expert review panel. The study will investigate how efficiently and effectively the CIHR model of KT funding programs operates, what immediate outcomes these funding mechanisms have produced, and what impact these programs have had on the broader state of health research, health research uptake, and health improvement. The protocol and results of this evaluation will be of interest to those engaged in the theory, practice, and evaluation of KT. The dissemination of the study protocol and results to both practitioners and theorists will help to fill a gap in knowledge in three areas: the role of a public research funding agency in facilitating KT, the outcomes and impacts KT funding interventions, and how KT can best be evaluated.

  3. Strategies for increasing student knowledge and understanding about conflict minerals in a mineralogy class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, G. W.

    2014-12-01

    Conflict minerals, including their uses and methods of extraction, are associated with significant societal and environmental issues in today's world. Minerals such as columbite-tantalite (also referred to as COLTAN), wolframite, cassiterite and gold are important in electronics manufacturing and have a wide variety of other usages. Mining practices are frequently unsustainable and have significant impacts on the environment; moreover, in many locations, such as the Democratic Republic of the Congo—the epicenter of the conflict mineral trade—major human rights violations are associated with the extraction and production of these minerals. Because conflict minerals represent a relatively new issue, students in geology classes are frequently unfamiliar with the topic and commonly have little understanding of the concerns. In some cases they are completely unaware of the issues. In an introductory mineralogy class at the University of California, San Diego I have introduced a content module into my otherwise traditional curriculum that introduces students to conflict minerals, explains the issues, and delineates the problems our society will face with the continued uses of these natural resources. Most significantly, an assignment has been created and implemented in class that is paired with the content module and is designed to enhance and reinforce student learning. Its goal is to increase awareness of the societal and environmental issues surrounding conflict minerals. Initial results suggest (based on pre and post-tests) that our students have learned significantly from the combination of content, exercise, and assessment and that they are much better informed on the issues of conflict minerals. This model, including the exercise, can be modified and adapted for other introductory classes and learning settings.

  4. Bridging Knowledge Gaps to Understand How Zika Virus Exposure and Infection Affect Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapogiannis, Bill G; Chakhtoura, Nahida; Hazra, Rohan; Spong, Catherine Y

    2017-05-01

    increasing basic understanding of the neuropathogenesis of congenital ZIKV disease and of the spectrum of clinical presentations of ZIKV infection so that agents to prevent and treat this devastating disease can be rapidly developed and studied.

  5. A Temporal Fuzzy Logic Formalism for Knowledge Based Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile MAZILESCU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that the influence of knowledge on new forms of work organisation can be described as mutual relationships. Different changes in work organisation also have a strong influence on the increasing importance of knowledge of different individual and collective actors in working situations. After that, we characterize a piece of basic formal system, an Extended Fuzzy Logic System (EFLS with temporal attributes, to conceptualize future DKMSs based on human imprecise for distributed just in time decisions. The approximate reasoning is perceived as a derivation of new formulas with the corresponding temporal attributes, within a fuzzy theory defined by the fuzzy set of special axioms. In a management application, the reasoning is evolutionary because of unexpected events which may change the state of the DKMS. In this kind of situations it is necessary to elaborate certain mechanisms in order to maintain the coherence of the obtained conclusions, to figure out their degree of reliability and the time domain for which these are true. These last aspects stand as possible further directions of development at a basic logic level for future technologies that must automate knowledge organizational processes.

  6. Knowledge systems and the colonial legacies in African science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, John R.; Lehner, Edward

    2017-10-01

    This review surveys Femi Otulaja and Meshach Ogunniyi's, Handbook of research in science education in sub-Saharan Africa, Sense, Rotterdam, 2017, noting the significance of the theoretically rich content and how this book contributes to the field of education as well as to the humanities more broadly. The volume usefully outlines the ways in which science education and scholarship in sub-Saharan Africa continue to be impacted by the region's colonial history. Several of the chapters also enumerate proposals for teaching and learning science and strengthening academic exchange. Concerns that recur across many of the chapters include inadequate implementation of reforms; a lack of resources, such as for classroom materials and teacher training; and the continued and detrimental linguistic, financial, and ideological domination of African science education by the West. After a brief overview of the work and its central issues, this review closely examines two salient chapters that focus on scholarly communications and culturally responsive pedagogy. The scholarly communication section addresses the ways in which African science education research may in fact be too closely mirroring Western knowledge constructions without fully integrating indigenous knowledge systems in the research process. The chapter on pedagogy makes a similar argument for integrating Western and indigenous knowledge systems into teaching approaches.

  7. Intelligent Flowcharting Developmental Approach to Legal Knowledge Based System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Balaji Bilgi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The basic aim of this research, described in this paper is to develop a hybrid legal expert system/ knowledge based system, with specific reference to the transfer of property act, within the Indian legal system which is often in demand. In this paper the authors discuss an traditional approach to combining two types of reasoning methodologies, Rule Based Reasoning (RBR and Case Based Reasoning (CBR. In RBR module we have interpreted and implemented rules that occur in legal statutes of the Transfer of property act. In the CBR module we have an implementation to find the related cases. The VisiRule software made available by Logic Programming Associates is used in the development of RBR part this expert system. The authors have used java Net Beans for development of CBR. VisiRule is a decision charting tool, in which the rules are defined by a combination of graphical shapes and pieces of text, and produces rules.

  8. Analisis Knowledge Management System Pada STMIK Mitra Lampung

    OpenAIRE

    Winarko, Triyugo

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge is information that is contextual, relevant and actionable. Knowledge differs from data or information because knowledge is only found in one's thinking. For that we need the knowledge that knowledge management can be an "intangible assets" that can be managed and utilized by many people. STMIK Mitra Lampung is a college with a wealth of knowledge on each personal well yet manageable, so that the knowledge management is expected to be "intangible assets" that can play its role optim...

  9. An Architecture for Context-Aware Knowledge Flow Management Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jarrahi, Ali; Kangavari, Mohammad Reza

    2012-01-01

    The organizational knowledge is one of the most important and valuable assets of organizations. In such environment, organizations with broad, specialized and up-to-date knowledge, adequately using knowledge resources, will be more successful than their competitors. For effective use of knowledge, dynamic knowledge flow from the sources to destinations is essential. In this regard, a novel complex concept in knowledge management is the analysis, design and implementation of knowledge flow man...

  10. Applied information system-based in enhancing students' understanding towards higher order thinking (HOTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Ang Kean; Ping, Owi Wei

    2017-05-01

    The application of information and communications technology (ICT) had become more important in our daily life, especially in educational field. Teachers are encouraged to use information system-based in teaching Mathematical courses. Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) approach is unable to explain using chalk and talk methods. It needs students to analyze, evaluate, and create by their own natural abilities. The aim of this research study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the application information system-based in enhance the students understanding about HOTS question. Mixed-methods or quantitative and qualitative approach was applied in collecting data, which involve only the standard five students and the teachers in Sabak Bernam, Selangor. Pra-postests was held before and after using information system-based in teaching to evaluate the students' understanding. The result from post-test indicates significant improvement which proves that the use of information system based able to enhance students' understanding about HOTS question and solve it. There were several factor influenced the students such as students' attitude, teachers attraction, school facilities, and computer approach. Teachers play an important role in attracting students to learn. Therefore, the school should provide a conducive learning environment and good facilities for students to learn so that they are able to access more information and always exposed to new knowledge. As conclusion, information system-based are able to enhance students understanding the need of HOTS questions and solve it.

  11. A survey of noninteractive zero knowledge proof system and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huixin; Wang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Zero knowledge proof system which has received extensive attention since it was proposed is an important branch of cryptography and computational complexity theory. Thereinto, noninteractive zero knowledge proof system contains only one message sent by the prover to the verifier. It is widely used in the construction of various types of cryptographic protocols and cryptographic algorithms because of its good privacy, authentication, and lower interactive complexity. This paper reviews and analyzes the basic principles of noninteractive zero knowledge proof system, and summarizes the research progress achieved by noninteractive zero knowledge proof system on the following aspects: the definition and related models of noninteractive zero knowledge proof system, noninteractive zero knowledge proof system of NP problems, noninteractive statistical and perfect zero knowledge, the connection between noninteractive zero knowledge proof system, interactive zero knowledge proof system, and zap, and the specific applications of noninteractive zero knowledge proof system. This paper also points out the future research directions.

  12. A Survey of Noninteractive Zero Knowledge Proof System and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixin Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Zero knowledge proof system which has received extensive attention since it was proposed is an important branch of cryptography and computational complexity theory. Thereinto, noninteractive zero knowledge proof system contains only one message sent by the prover to the verifier. It is widely used in the construction of various types of cryptographic protocols and cryptographic algorithms because of its good privacy, authentication, and lower interactive complexity. This paper reviews and analyzes the basic principles of noninteractive zero knowledge proof system, and summarizes the research progress achieved by noninteractive zero knowledge proof system on the following aspects: the definition and related models of noninteractive zero knowledge proof system, noninteractive zero knowledge proof system of NP problems, noninteractive statistical and perfect zero knowledge, the connection between noninteractive zero knowledge proof system, interactive zero knowledge proof system, and zap, and the specific applications of noninteractive zero knowledge proof system. This paper also points out the future research directions.

  13. Using Geographic Information Systems in Knowledge Management Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Filiz Gürder

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, organizations are required to develop quick and accurate responses to internal and external changes that gain momentum. In this context, knowledge management activities become more important to all organizations. On the other hand, Geographic Information Systems (GIS become common more and more. GIS which address a broad spectrum of users such as public agencies, local communities, civil society organizations, the private sector, academic environment, and personal users have been aiming to solve problems which occurred in location-based areas. GIS are important to get, combine, analyze and transfer the spatial data. Common use of PCs for personal needs, digital geography and improvements of software technologies, also the need to make socially acceptable business decisions facilitated development and widespread use of GIS applications. The main purpose of this paper is to discuss using areas and contribution potentials of GIS in enterprise-wide knowledge management processes.

  14. Seventh International Conference on Intelligent Systems and Knowledge Engineering - Foundations and Applications of Intelligent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Tianrui; Li, Hongbo

    2014-01-01

    These proceedings present technical papers selected from the 2012 International Conference on Intelligent Systems and Knowledge Engineering (ISKE 2012), held on December 15-17 in Beijing. The aim of this conference is to bring together experts from different fields of expertise to discuss the state-of-the-art in Intelligent Systems and Knowledge Engineering, and to present new findings and perspectives on future developments. The proceedings introduce current scientific and technical advances in the fields of artificial intelligence, machine learning, pattern recognition, data mining, knowledge engineering, information retrieval, information theory, knowledge-based systems, knowledge representation and reasoning, multi-agent systems, and natural-language processing, etc. Furthermore they include papers on new intelligent computing paradigms, which combine new computing methodologies, e.g., cloud computing, service computing and pervasive computing with traditional intelligent methods. By presenting new method...

  15. System Behaviour Charts Inform an Understanding of Biodiversity Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon A. Black

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Practitioners working with species and ecosystem recovery typically deal with the complexity of, on one hand, lack of data or data uncertainties and, on the other hand, demand for critical decision-making and intervention. The control chart methods of commercial and industrial and environmental monitoring can complement an ecological understanding of wildlife systems including those situations which incorporate human activities and land use. Systems Behaviour Charts are based upon well-established control chart methods to provide conservation managers with an approach to using existing data and enable insight to aid timely planning of conservation interventions and also complement and stimulate research into wider scientific and ecological questions. When the approach is applied to existing data sets in well-known wildlife conservation cases, the subsequent Systems Behaviour Charts and associated analytical criteria demonstrate insights which would be helpful in averting problems associated with each case example.

  16. Systemic thinking fundamentals for understanding problems and messes

    CERN Document Server

    Hester, Patrick T

    2014-01-01

    Whether you’re an academic or a practitioner, a sociologist, a manager, or an engineer, one can benefit from learning to think systemically.  Problems (and messes) are everywhere and they’re getting more complicated every day.  How we think about these problems determines whether or not we’ll be successful in understanding and addressing them.  This book presents a novel way to think about problems (and messes) necessary to attack these always-present concerns.  The approach draws from disciplines as diverse as mathematics, biology, and psychology to provide a holistic method for dealing with problems that can be applied to any discipline. This book develops the systemic thinking paradigm, and introduces practical guidelines for the deployment of a systemic thinking approach.

  17. A Knowledge Based Recommender System with Multigranular Linguistic Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Martinez

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Recommender systems are applications that have emerged in the e-commerce area in order to assist users in their searches in electronic shops. These shops usually offer a wide range of items that cover the necessities of a great variety of users. Nevertheless, searching in such a wide range of items could be a very difficult and time-consuming task. Recommender systems assist users to find out suitable items by means of recommendations based on information provided by different sources such as: other users, experts, item features, etc. Most of the recommender systems force users to provide their preferences or necessities using an unique numerical scale of information fixed in advance. In spite of this information is usually related to opinions, tastes and perceptions, therefore, it seems that is usually better expressed in a qualitative way, with linguistic terms, than in a quantitative way, with precise numbers. We propose a Knowledge Based Recommender System that uses the fuzzy linguistic approach to define a flexible framework to capture the uncertainty of the user's preferences. Thus, this framework will allow users to express their necessities in scales closer to their own knowledge, and different from the scale utilized to describe the items.

  18. Integrating Local Experiential and Hydrometeorological Data to Understand Knowledge Uncertainties and to Build Resilience to Flooding in Two Puerto Rican Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, M.; Nytch, C. J.; Branoff, B.

    2016-12-01

    Socio-hydrological studies that explore feedbacks between social and biophysical processes related to flood risk can help managers identify strategies that increase a community's freshwater security. However, knowledge uncertainty due to coarse spatio-temporal coverage of hydrological monitoring data, missing riverine discharge and precipitation records, assumptions of flood risk models, and effects of urbanization, can limit the ability of these studies to isolate hydrological responses to social drivers of flooding and a changing climate. Local experiential knowledge can provide much needed information about 1) actual flood spatio-temporal patterns, 2) human impacts and perceptions of flood events, and 3) mechanisms to validate flood risk studies and understand key social elements of the system. We addressed these knowledge gaps by comparing the location and timing of flood events described in resident interviews and resident drawn maps (total = 97) from two San Juan communities with NOAA and USGS precipitation and riverine discharge data archives, and FEMA flood maps. Analyses of five focal flood events revealed 1) riverine monitoring data failed to record a major flood event caused by localized blockage of the river, 2) residents did not mention multiple extreme riverine discharge events, 3) resident and FEMA flood maps matched closely but resident maps provided finer spatial information about frequency of flooding, and 4) only a small percentage of residents remembered the dates of flood events. Local knowledge provided valuable social data about flood impacts on human economic and physical/psychological wellbeing, perceptions about factors causing flooding, and what residents use as sources of flood information. A simple mechanism or tool for residents to record their flood experiences in real-time will address the uncertainties in local knowledge and improve social memory. The integration of local experiential knowledge with simulated and empirical hydro

  19. Conference | The Big Bang and the interfaces of knowledge: towards a common understanding of Truth? | 25 June

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    You are cordially invited to attend the concluding open session of the conference The Big Bang and the interfaces of knowledge: towards a common understanding of Truth?    Wednesday 25 June at 14.30 in the Main Auditorium Please register by Tuesday 24 June at: https://indico.cern.ch/event/325739/ In 2012, CERN and Wilton Park hosted the pioneering international conference “The Big Bank and the interfaces of knowledge: towards a common language?” The purpose of this conference was to enable scientists from a range of disciplines to dialogue with philosophers and theologians from the world religions about the nature of the Big Bang. What understandings might scientists and theologians share in common? How are their paradigms shaped and developed? Is it possible to develop a common framework or language. The conference gained global attention. A follow-up conference will be held on 23-25 June 2014 with the purpose of widening the spectrum of...

  20. Creating a Context for Learning: Activating Children’s Whole Number Knowledge Prepares Them to Understand Fraction Division

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Gupta Sidney

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available When children learn about fractions, their prior knowledge of whole numbers often interferes, resulting in a whole number bias. However, many fraction concepts are generalizations of analogous whole number concepts; for example, fraction division and whole number division share a similar conceptual structure. Drawing on past studies of analogical transfer, we hypothesize that children’s whole number division knowledge will support their understanding of fraction division when their relevant prior knowledge is activated immediately before engaging with fraction division. Children in 5th and 6th grade modeled fraction division with physical objects after modeling a series of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division problems with whole number operands and fraction operands. In one condition, problems were blocked by operation, such that children modeled fraction problems immediately after analogous whole number problems (e.g., fraction division problems followed whole number division problems. In another condition, problems were blocked by number type, such that children modeled all four arithmetic operations with whole numbers in the first block, and then operations with fractions in the second block. Children who solved whole number division problems immediately before fraction division problems were significantly better at modeling the conceptual structure of fraction division than those who solved all of the fraction problems together. Thus, implicit analogies across shared concepts can affect children’s mathematical thinking. Moreover, specific analogies between whole number and fraction concepts can yield a positive, rather than a negative, whole number bias.

  1. Understanding Healthcare Workers Self-Reported Practices, Knowledge and Attitude about Hand Hygiene in a Medical Setting in Rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Vishal; Gustafsson, Charlotte; Rosales Klintz, Senia; Joshi, Sudhir Chandra; Joshi, Rita; Sharma, Megha; Shah, Harshada; Pathak, Ashish; Tamhankar, Ashok J; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    To describe self-reported practices and assess knowledge and attitudes regarding hand hygiene among healthcare workers in a rural Indian teaching hospital. A rural teaching hospital and its associated medical and nursing colleges in the district of Ujjain, India. The study population consisted of physicians, nurses, teaching staff, clinical instructors and nursing students. Self-administered questionnaires based on the World Health Organization Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Healthcare were used. Out of 489 healthcare workers, 259 participated in the study (response rate = 53%). The proportion of healthcare workers that reported to 'always' practice hand hygiene in the selected situations varied from 40-96% amongst categories. Reported barriers to maintaining good hand hygiene were mainly related to high workload, scarcity of resources, lack of scientific information and the perception that priority is not given to hand hygiene, either on an individual or institutional level. Previous training on the topic had a statistically significant association with self-reported practice (p = 0.001). Ninety three per cent of the respondents were willing to attend training on hand hygiene in the near future. Self-reported knowledge and adherence varied between situations, but hand hygiene practices have the potential to improve if the identified constraints could be reduced. Future training should focus on enhancing healthcare workers' knowledge and understanding regarding the importance of persistent practice in all situations.

  2. End user interface and knowledge base editing system of CSPAR: a knowledge-based consultation system for preventive maintenance in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinohara, Yasusi; Terano, Takao; Nishiyama, Takuya

    1988-01-01

    Consultation System for Prevention of Abnormal-event Recurrence (CSPAR) is a knowledge-based system to analyze the same kind of events to a given fault reported on a nuclear power plant and to give users some informations for effective measures preventing them. This report discusses the interfaces of CSPAR for both end-users and knowledge-base editors. The interfaces are highly interactive and multi-window oriented. The features are as follows: (1) The end-user interfaces has Japanese language processing facility, which enables the users to consult CSPAR with various synonims and related terms for knowledge-base handling; (2) The knowledge-base editing system is used by knowledge-base editors for maintaining the knowledge on both plants' equipments and abnormal events sequences. It has facilities for easy maintenance of knowledge-bases, which includes a graphic oriented browser, a knowledge-base retriever, and a knowledge-base checker. (author)

  3. On the different "worlds" of intra-organizational knowledge management: Understanding idiosyncratic variation in MNC cross-site knowledge-sharing practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Helmut; Lehrer, Mark; Mühlbacher, Jürgen; Müller, Barbara

    2013-02-01

    This qualitative field study investigated cross-site knowledge sharing in a small sample of multinational corporations in three different MNC business contexts (global, multidomestic, transnational). The results disclose heterogeneous "worlds" of MNC knowledge sharing, ultimately raising the question as to whether the whole concept of MNC knowledge sharing covers a sufficiently unitary phenomenon to be meaningful. We derive a non-exhaustive typology of MNC knowledge-sharing practices: self-organizing knowledge sharing, technocratic knowledge sharing, and best practice knowledge sharing. Despite its limitations, this typology helps to elucidate a number of issues, including the latent conflict between two disparate theories of MNC knowledge sharing, namely "sender-receiver" and "social learning" theories (Noorderhaven & Harzing, 2009). More generally, we develop the term "knowledge contextualization" to highlight the way that firm-specific organizational features pre-define which knowledge is considered to be of special relevance for intra-organizational sharing.

  4. Understanding Organizational Memory from the Integrated Management Systems (ERP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Perez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available With this research, in the form of a theoretical essay addressing the theme of Organizational Memory and Integrated Management Systems (ERP, we tried to present some evidence of how this type of system can contribute to the consolidation of certain features of Organizational Memory. From a theoretical review of the concepts of Human Memory, extending to the Organizational Memory and Information Systems, with emphasis on Integrated Management Systems (ERP we tried to draw a parallel between the functions and structures of Organizational Memory and features and characteristics of ERPs. The choice of the ERP system for this study was made due to the complexity and broad scope of this system. It was verified that the ERPs adequately support many functions of the Organizational Memory, highlighting the implementation of logical processes, practices and rules in business. It is hoped that the dialogue presented here can contribute to the advancement of the understanding of organizational memory, since the similarity of Human Memory is a fertile field and there is still much to be researched.

  5. Spoken Language Understanding Systems for Extracting Semantic Information from Speech

    CERN Document Server

    Tur, Gokhan

    2011-01-01

    Spoken language understanding (SLU) is an emerging field in between speech and language processing, investigating human/ machine and human/ human communication by leveraging technologies from signal processing, pattern recognition, machine learning and artificial intelligence. SLU systems are designed to extract the meaning from speech utterances and its applications are vast, from voice search in mobile devices to meeting summarization, attracting interest from both commercial and academic sectors. Both human/machine and human/human communications can benefit from the application of SLU, usin

  6. Next Generation Agricultural System Data, Models and Knowledge Products: Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antle, John M.; Jones, James W.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia E.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural system models have become important tools to provide predictive and assessment capability to a growing array of decision-makers in the private and public sectors. Despite ongoing research and model improvements, many of the agricultural models today are direct descendants of research investments initially made 30-40 years ago, and many of the major advances in data, information and communication technology (ICT) of the past decade have not been fully exploited. The purpose of this Special Issue of Agricultural Systems is to lay the foundation for the next generation of agricultural systems data, models and knowledge products. The Special Issue is based on a 'NextGen' study led by the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) with support from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

  7. Knowledge-Based Systems in Biomedicine and Computational Life Science

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi

    2013-01-01

    This book presents a sample of research on knowledge-based systems in biomedicine and computational life science. The contributions include: ·         personalized stress diagnosis system ·         image analysis system for breast cancer diagnosis ·         analysis of neuronal cell images ·         structure prediction of protein ·         relationship between two mental disorders ·         detection of cardiac abnormalities ·         holistic medicine based treatment ·         analysis of life-science data  

  8. Synthesizing International Understanding of Changes in the Arctic Hydrological System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pundsack, J. W.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Hinzman, L. D.

    2009-12-01

    There are several notable gaps in our current level of understanding of Arctic hydrological systems. At the same time, rapidly emerging data sets, technologies, and modeling resources provide us with an unprecedented opportunity to move substantially forward. The Arctic Community-Wide Hydrological Analysis and Monitoring Program (Arctic-CHAMP), funded by NSF/ARCSS, was established to initiate a major effort to improve our current monitoring of water cycle variables, and to foster collaboration with the many relevant U.S. and international arctic research initiatives. These projects, funded under ARCSS through the ‘Freshwater Integration (FWI) study’, links CHAMP, the Arctic/Subarctic Ocean Fluxes (ASOF) Programme, and SEARCH. As part of the overall synthesis and integration efforts of the NSF-ARCSS Freshwater Integration (FWI) study, the program carried-out a major International Synthesis Capstone Workshop in Fall 2009 as an International Polar Year (IPY) affiliated meeting. The workshop, "Synthesizing International Understanding of Changes in the Arctic Hydrological System,” was held 30 September to 4 October 2009 in Stockholm at the Beijer Auditorium of the Royal Swedish Academy. The workshop was sponsored by the NSF-ARCSS Arctic-CHAMP Science Management Office (City College of New York / Univ. of New Hampshire), the International Study of Arctic Change (ISAC), and the International Arctic Research Center (IARC; Univ. of Alaska Fairbanks). The overarching goals of the meeting were to stage a post-IPY lessons-learned workshop with co-equal numbers of FWI, IPY, and ICARP-II researchers, using insights from recent scientific findings, data, and strategies to afford synthesis. The workshop aimed to: (1) take stock of recent advances in our understanding of changes in the Arctic hydrological system; (2) identify key remaining research gaps / unanswered questions; and (3) gather insight on where to focus future research efforts/initiatives (nationally and

  9. Implementing An Image Understanding System Architecture Using Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Randall L.

    1988-03-01

    This paper will describe PIPE and how it can be used to implement an image understanding system. Image understanding is the process of developing a description of an image in order to make decisions about its contents. The tasks of image understanding are generally split into low level vision and high level vision. Low level vision is performed by PIPE -a high performance parallel processor with an architecture specifically designed for processing video images at up to 60 fields per second. High level vision is performed by one of several types of serial or parallel computers - depending on the application. An additional processor called ISMAP performs the conversion from iconic image space to symbolic feature space. ISMAP plugs into one of PIPE's slots and is memory mapped into the high level processor. Thus it forms the high speed link between the low and high level vision processors. The mechanisms for bottom-up, data driven processing and top-down, model driven processing are discussed.

  10. Design of customer knowledge management system for Aglaonema Nursery in South Tangerang, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiarto, D.; Mardianto, I.; Dewayana, TS; Khadafi, M.

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the design of customer knowledge management system to support customer relationship management activities for an aglaonema nursery in South Tangerang, Indonesia. System. The steps were knowledge identification (knowledge about customer, knowledge from customer, knowledge for customer), knowledge capture, codification, analysis of system requirement and create use case and activity diagram. The result showed that some key knowledge were about supporting customer in plant care (know how) and types of aglaonema including with the prices (know what). That knowledge for customer then codified and shared in knowledge portal website integrated with social media. Knowledge about customer were about customers and their behaviour in purchasing aglaonema. Knowledge from customer were about feedback, favorite and customer experience. Codified knowledge were placed and shared using content management system based on wordpress.

  11. Framework for managing shared knowledge in an information systems outsourcing context

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smuts, H

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Both information systems (IS) outsourcing and knowledge management are well-established business phenomena. The integration of shared knowledge in an IS outsourcing arrangement, represents the blending of organisational knowledge with external...

  12. Knowledge-based support system for requirement elaboration in design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Kazuo; Kondo, Shunsuke

    1994-01-01

    Design requirements are the seeds of every design activity, but elicitation and formalization of them are not easy tasks. This paper proposes a method to support designers in such requirement elaboration process with a computer. In this method the cognitive work space of designers is modeled by abstraction and structural hierarchies, and supporting functions of knowledge-based requirement elaboration, requirement classification and assessment of contentment status of requirements are provided on this framework. A prototype system was developed and tested using fast breeder reactor design. (author)

  13. USING SCIENTIFIC PAPERS TO STIMULATE THE STUDY OF BIOCHEMISTRY AND THE UNDERSTANDING OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE CONSTRUCTION: THE RESEARCH ON ADRENOLEUKODYSTROPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Gagianone

    2015-08-01

    understanding of mechanisms completely unknown by the time of LO development and also the comprehension of scientific knowledge construction through a playful and participative activity.AcknowledgementsWe thank Prograd-UFF for scholarship supply.Key wordsAdrenoleukodystrophy; Biochemistry teaching; scientific knowledge

  14. An integrated system for interactive continuous learning of categorical knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skočaj, Danijel; Vrečko, Alen; Mahnič, Marko; Janíček, Miroslav; Kruijff, Geert-Jan M.; Hanheide, Marc; Hawes, Nick; Wyatt, Jeremy L.; Keller, Thomas; Zhou, Kai; Zillich, Michael; Kristan, Matej

    2016-09-01

    This article presents an integrated robot system capable of interactive learning in dialogue with a human. Such a system needs to have several competencies and must be able to process different types of representations. In this article, we describe a collection of mechanisms that enable integration of heterogeneous competencies in a principled way. Central to our design is the creation of beliefs from visual and linguistic information, and the use of these beliefs for planning system behaviour to satisfy internal drives. The system is able to detect gaps in its knowledge and to plan and execute actions that provide information needed to fill these gaps. We propose a hierarchy of mechanisms which are capable of engaging in different kinds of learning interactions, e.g. those initiated by a tutor or by the system itself. We present the theory these mechanisms are build upon and an instantiation of this theory in the form of an integrated robot system. We demonstrate the operation of the system in the case of learning conceptual models of objects and their visual properties.

  15. Knowledge-based operation and management of communications systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggestad, Harold M.

    1988-01-01

    Expert systems techniques are being applied in operation and control of the Defense Communications System (DCS), which has the mission of providing reliable worldwide voice, data and message services for U.S. forces and commands. Thousands of personnel operate DCS facilities, and many of their functions match the classical expert system scenario: complex, skill-intensive environments with a full spectrum of problems in training and retention, cost containment, modernization, and so on. Two of these functions are: (1) fault isolation and restoral of dedicated circuits at Tech Control Centers, and (2) network management for the Defense Switched Network (the modernized dial-up voice system currently replacing AUTOVON). An expert system for the first of these is deployed for evaluation purposes at Andrews Air Force Base, and plans are being made for procurement of operational systems. In the second area, knowledge obtained with a sophisticated simulator is being embedded in an expert system. The background, design and status of both projects are described.

  16. Fast reactor knowledge preservation system: Taxonomy and basic requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The IAEA has taken the initiative to coordinate efforts of Member States in the preservation of knowledge in the area of fast reactors. In the framework of this initiative, the IAEA intends to create an international database compiling information from different Member States on fast reactors through a web portal. Other activities related to this initiative are being designed to accumulate and exchange information on the fast reactor area, to facilitate access to this information by users in different countries and to assist Member States in preserving the experience gained in their countries. The purpose of this publication is to develop a taxonomy of the Fast Reactor Knowledge Preservation System (FRKPS) that will facilitate the preservation of the world's fast reactor knowledge base, to identify basic requirements of this taxonomy on the basis of the experience gained in the fast reactor area, as well as results of previous IAEA activities on fast reactor knowledge preservation. The need for such taxonomy arises from the fact that during the past 15 years there has been stagnation in the development of fast reactors in the industrialized countries that were involved, earlier, in intensive development of this area. All studies on fast reactors have been stopped in countries such as Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom and the United States of America and the only work being carried out is related to the decommissioning of fast reactors. Many specialists who were involved in the studies and development work in this area in these countries have already retired or are close to retirement. In countries such as France, Japan and the Russian Federation that are still actively pursuing the evolution of fast reactor technology, the situation is aggravated by the lack of young scientists and engineers moving into this branch of nuclear power

  17. Will smart surveillance systems listen, understand and speak Slovene?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Dobrišek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the spoken language technologies that could enable the so-called smart (intelligent surveillance systems to listen, understand and speak Slovenian in the near future. Advanced computational methods of artificial perception and pattern recognition enable such systems to be at least to some extent aware of the environment, the presence of people and other phenomena that could be subject to surveillance. Speech is one such phenomenon that has the potential to be a key source of information in certain security situations. Technologies that enable automatic speech and speaker recognition as well as their psychophysical state by computer analysis of acoustic speech signals provide an entirely new dimension to the development of smart surveillance systems. Automatic recognition of spoken threats, screaming and crying for help, as well as a suspicious psycho-physical state of a speaker provide such systems to some extent with intelligent behaviour. The paper investigates the current state of development of these technologies and the requirements and possibilities of these systems to be used for the Slovenian spoken language, as well as different possible security application scenarios. It also addresses the broader legal and ethical issues raised by the development and use of such technologies, especially as audio surveillance is one of the most sensitive issues of privacy protection.

  18. A Framework for Understanding Post-Merger Information Systems Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alaranta, Maria; Kautz, Karlheinz

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a theoretical framework for the integration of information systems (IS) after a merger or an acquisition. The framework integrates three perspectives: a structuralist, an individualist, and an interactive process perspective to analyze and understand such integrations....... The framework is applied to a longitudinal case study of a manufacturing company that grew through an acquisition. The management decided to integrate the production control IS via tailoring a new system that blends together features of existing IS. The application of the framework in the case study confirms...... several known impediments to IS integrations. It also identifies a number of new inhibitors, as well as known and new facilitators that can bring post-merger IS integration to a success. Our findings provide relevant insights to researching and managing post-merger IS integrations. They emphasize...

  19. Creativity Understandings, Evolution: from Genius to Creative Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jūratė Černevičiūtė

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of creativity in the social sciencies became more complex with the course of time. The concepts of creative individual, creative process and environment are discussed. Looking at the environment, distinction was made on three levels: macro, meso and micro. The impact of environments on creativity is analyzed, focusing attention on the collective creativity as the positive micro-environmental factor for innovations. Insights are gained about the tendency to move from an exclusive, elite, narrow concept of creativity, measured by the creation of products and their abundance, towards a broader, democratic concept of everyday creativity of the most people. The conclusion is that the creative industries of the exceptional creativity of genius or talent and mysticism are gradually transformed to broader creativity as the governed system, emphasizing creativity links with internal elements of the system and with the social context.

  20. The Power of a Question: A Case Study of Two Organizational Knowledge Capture Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Lynn P.

    2003-01-01

    This document represents a presentation regarding organizational knowledge capture systems which was delivered at the HICSS-36 conference held from January 6-9, 2003. An exploratory case study of two knowledge resources is offered. Then, two organizational knowledge capture systems are briefly described: knowledge transfer from practitioner and the use of questions to represent knowledge. Finally, the creation of a database of peer review questions is suggested as a method of promoting organizational discussions and knowledge representation and exchange.

  1. A System for Managing Critical Knowledge for Accelerator Subsystems: Pansophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Reece; V. Bookwalter; B. Madre

    2001-01-01

    Accelerator development and construction projects often intentionally push the envelope of well-established technical performance and manageable complexity. In addition, the desire for efficient retention and exploitation of accumulated experience across the multi-decade life cycles of major installations calls for a robust, yet user-friendly knowledge management system. To meet these needs, we are presently deploying a new web-based system at Jefferson Lab: Pansophy. This system is a custom integration of several commercial software utilities, DocushareTM, ColdFusionTM, MatlabTM, IngresTM, and common desktop programs. Users of the system range from process managers, shop-floor technicians, test engineers, to after-the-fact data miners and operations staff. The system integrates important QA elements of procedural control, automated data accumulation into a secured central database, prompt and reliable data query and retrieval, and online analysis tools, all accessed by the user via their platform-independent web browser. A system overview, completed pilot project, and implementation experience to date will be presented

  2. Scientific Knowledge Discovery in Complex Semantic Networks of Geophysical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, P.

    2012-04-01

    The vast majority of explorations of the Earth's systems are limited in their ability to effectively explore the most important (often most difficult) problems because they are forced to interconnect at the data-element, or syntactic, level rather than at a higher scientific, or semantic, level. Recent successes in the application of complex network theory and algorithms to climate data, raise expectations that more general graph-based approaches offer the opportunity for new discoveries. In the past ~ 5 years in the natural sciences there has substantial progress in providing both specialists and non-specialists the ability to describe in machine readable form, geophysical quantities and relations among them in meaningful and natural ways, effectively breaking the prior syntax barrier. The corresponding open-world semantics and reasoning provide higher-level interconnections. That is, semantics provided around the data structures, using semantically-equipped tools, and semantically aware interfaces between science application components allowing for discovery at the knowledge level. More recently, formal semantic approaches to continuous and aggregate physical processes are beginning to show promise and are soon likely to be ready to apply to geoscientific systems. To illustrate these opportunities, this presentation presents two application examples featuring domain vocabulary (ontology) and property relations (named and typed edges in the graphs). First, a climate knowledge discovery pilot encoding and exploration of CMIP5 catalog information with the eventual goal to encode and explore CMIP5 data. Second, a multi-stakeholder knowledge network for integrated assessments in marine ecosystems, where the data is highly inter-disciplinary.

  3. Engagement with indigenous peoples and honoring traditional knowledge systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Julie; Bennett, Bull; Chief, Karletta; Cochran, Patricia; Cozetto, Karen; Gough, Bob; Hiza-Redsteer, Margaret M.; Lynn, Kathy; Maynard, Nancy; Voggesser, Garrit

    2016-01-01

    The organizers of the 2014 US National Climate Assessment (NCA) made a concerted effort to reach out to and collaborate with Indigenous peoples, resulting in the most comprehensive information to date on climate change impacts to Indigenous peoples in a US national assessment. Yet, there is still much room for improvement in assessment processes to ensure adequate recognition of Indigenous perspectives and Indigenous knowledge systems. This article discusses the process used in creating the Indigenous Peoples, Land, and Resources NCA chapter by a team comprised of tribal members, agencies, academics, and non-governmental organizations, who worked together to solicit, collect, and synthesize traditional knowledges and data from a diverse array of Indigenous communities across the US. It also discusses the synergy and discord between traditional knowledge systems and science and the emergence of cross-cutting issues and vulnerabilities for Indigenous peoples. The challenges of coalescing information about climate change and its impacts on Indigenous communities are outlined along with recommendations on the types of information to include in future assessment outputs. We recommend that future assessments – not only NCA, but other relevant local, regional, national, and international efforts aimed at the translation of climate information and assessments into meaningful actions – should support integration of Indigenous perspectives in a sustained way that builds respectful relationships and effectively engages Indigenous communities. Given the large number of tribes in the US and the current challenges and unique vulnerabilities of Indigenous communities, a special report focusing solely on climate change and Indigenous peoples is warranted.This article is part of a special issue on “The National Climate Assessment: Innovations in Science and Engagement” edited by Katharine Jacobs, Susanne Moser, and James Buizer.

  4. Natuculture Systems: Addressing Students' STEM and Agriculture Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Alexander Augusto

    The purpose of this study was to assess the inclusion of a Natuculture systems learning experience into selected high school STEM courses to determine high school students' interests in majoring in STEM and for pursuing careers in agricultural sciences. Natuculture is defined as "any human-made system that mimics nature in human-disturbed landscapes". The research occurred at an urban area high school located in the Piedmont region of North Carolina. Fifty-three students in grades 9-12 participated during an academic semester learning experience which included planting, maintenance, & harvesting for an oasissofa. Data was collected using a questionnaire and reflective journals to gather students' attitudes towards agriculture and science and knowledge towards agriculture. Results showed that while the experiences did not improve students' interest in pursuing careers in agricultural sciences, overall, they did increase their knowledge of concepts related to agriculture. It was concluded that students benefit from experiential learning experiences. Based on the study, it is recommended that future research follow up with students to learn of their educational and career choices in agriculture and future learning experiences include curricula that integrates agricultural topics with STEM courses.

  5. Understanding Resilient Urban Futures: A Systemic Modelling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Chapman

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The resilience of cities in response to natural disasters and long-term climate change has emerged as a focus of academic and policy attention. In particular, how to understand the interconnectedness of urban and natural systems is a key issue. This paper introduces an urban model that can be used to evaluate city resilience outcomes under different policy scenarios. The model is the Wellington Integrated Land Use-Transport-Environment Model (WILUTE. It considers the city (i.e., Wellington as a complex system characterized by interactions between a variety of internal urban processes (social, economic and physical and the natural environment. It is focused on exploring the dynamic relations between human activities (the geographic distribution of housing and employment, infrastructure layout, traffic flows and energy consumption, environmental effects (carbon emissions, influences on local natural and ecological systems and potential natural disasters (e.g., inundation due to sea level rise and storm events faced under different policy scenarios. The model gives insights that are potentially useful for policy to enhance the city’s resilience, by modelling outcomes, such as the potential for reduction in transportation energy use, and changes in the vulnerability of the city’s housing stock and transport system to sea level rise.

  6. Knowledge acquisition and interface design for learning on demand systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Wayne A.

    1993-01-01

    The rapid changes in our world precipitated by technology have created new problems and new challenges for education and training. A knowledge 'explosion' is occurring as our society moves toward a service oriented economy that relies on information as the major resource. Complex computer systems are beginning to dominate the workplace, causing alarming growth and change in many fields. The rapidly changing nature of the workplace, especially in fields related to information technology, requires that our knowledge be updated constantly. This characteristic of modern society poses seemingly unsolvable instructional problems involving coverage and obsolescence. The sheer amount of information to be learned is rapidly increasing, while at the same time some information becomes obsolete in light of new information. Education, therefore, must become a lifelong process that features learning of new material and skills as needed in relation to the job to be done. Because of the problems cited above, the current model of learning in advance may no longer be feasible in our high-technology world. In many cases, learning in advance is impossible because there are simply too many things to learn. In addition, learning in advance can be time consuming, and often results in decontextualized knowledge that does not readily transfer to the work environment. The large and growing discrepancy between the amount of potentially relevant knowledge available and the amount a person can know and remember makes learning on demand an important alternative to current instructional practices. Learning on demand takes place whenever an individual must learn something new in order to perform a task or make a decision. Learning on demand is a promising approach for addressing the problems of coverage and obsolescence because learning is contextualized and integrated into the task environment rather than being relegated to a separate phase that precedes work. Learning on demand allows learners

  7. Understanding knowledge networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangaladevi, Krishna; Beek, Wouter; Kuhn, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of Linked Open Data (LOD) enables data on the Web to have a well defined structure and thereby to represent and in? terlink information from different sources and application areas. This web of data is a complex socially created network, where concepts and rela? tions are connected in

  8. Foundations of Intelligent Systems : Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Intelligent Systems and Knowledge Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Tianrui

    2012-01-01

    Proceedings of The Sixth International Conference on Intelligent System and Knowledge Engineering presents selected papers from the conference ISKE 2011, held December 15-17 in Shanghai, China. This proceedings doesn’t only examine original research and approaches in the broad areas of intelligent systems and knowledge engineering, but also present new methodologies and practices in intelligent computing paradigms. The book introduces the current scientific and technical advances in the fields of artificial intelligence, machine learning, pattern recognition, data mining, information retrieval, knowledge-based systems, knowledge representation and reasoning, multi-agent systems, natural-language processing, etc. Furthermore, new computing methodologies are presented, including cloud computing, service computing and pervasive computing with traditional intelligent methods. The proceedings will be beneficial for both researchers and practitioners who want to utilize intelligent methods in their specific resea...

  9. Applying social network analysis to understand the knowledge sharing behaviour of practitioners in a clinical online discussion forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Samuel Alan; Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

    2012-12-04

    Knowledge Translation (KT) plays a vital role in the modern health care community, facilitating the incorporation of new evidence into practice. Web 2.0 tools provide a useful mechanism for establishing an online KT environment in which health practitioners share their practice-related knowledge and experiences with an online community of practice. We have implemented a Web 2.0 based KT environment--an online discussion forum--for pediatric pain practitioners across seven different hospitals in Thailand. The online discussion forum enabled the pediatric pain practitioners to share and translate their experiential knowledge to help improve the management of pediatric pain in hospitals. The goal of this research is to investigate the knowledge sharing dynamics of a community of practice through an online discussion forum. We evaluated the communication patterns of the community members using statistical and social network analysis methods in order to better understand how the online community engages to share experiential knowledge. Statistical analyses and visualizations provide a broad overview of the communication patterns within the discussion forum. Social network analysis provides the tools to delve deeper into the social network, identifying the most active members of the community, reporting the overall health of the social network, isolating the potential core members of the social network, and exploring the inter-group relationships that exist across institutions and professions. The statistical analyses revealed a network dominated by a single institution and a single profession, and found a varied relationship between reading and posting content to the discussion forum. The social network analysis discovered a healthy network with strong communication patterns, while identifying which users are at the center of the community in terms of facilitating communication. The group-level analysis suggests that there is strong interprofessional and interregional

  10. Competency development information system - Knowledge management based competency development management tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aminuddin, R.; Zainuddin, Z.; Taib, Z.; Hamid, A.H.Ab.; Hamdan, S.N.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Knowledge identification, acquisition, sharing, preservation and measurement are some of the desired habits and processes necessary for knowledge management to be effective and contributes to increased innovation, organizational value, competitiveness and sustainability. The knowledge workers in the K-economic era are expected to be an innovative knowledge professional who are capable of managing their own work as well as their own competency development. Organizations however need to provide an environment, tools and policies to support and encourage learning and knowledge acquisition in all forms, methods and approaches beyond what is traditionally done. For an ordinary knowledge professional, he is only interested in developing the necessary competency to complete his assigned tasks and progress in his career. He would not be interested to learn and be lectured on knowledge management or learning principles and concepts. But for the organization it is not only important that its staff members understand and able to go through the process of acquiring the necessary skills to carry out their current and future tasks at the right time, but it has to ensure that what they learn or their individual knowledge is converted into organizational knowledge, utilised, shared and preserved. Hence it is important that tools are provided and policies are set in place to ensure that staff identify, acquire, utilise, share and preserve knowledge necessary for organizational sustainability and growth. A Competency Development Information System was recently developed to address the issue of inculcating the habit of identifying, acquiring, utilising, sharing, preserving and measuring knowledge among staff members hands-on by doing and repeating without having to learn the theory first. Besides that it helps organization manage competency development processes from analysis to planning, implementing and right through to evaluation. The process starts from capturing

  11. The Amsterdam region - A home for creative knowledge workers and graduates? Understanding the attractiveness of the metropolitan region for creative knowledge workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bontje, M.A.; Pethe, H.A.A.; Rühmann, P.

    2008-01-01

    The report brings together the results of a survey of creative knowledge workers in the Amsterdam region. How do creative knowledge workers judge the living situation and what activities do they pursue in the different parts of the region? How satisfied are creative knowledge workers with their

  12. Knowledge systems of societies for adaptation and mitigation of impacts of climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nautiyal, Sunil; Raju, K.V. [Institute for Social and Economic Change, Bangalore (India). Centre for Ecological Economics and Natural Resources; Rao, K.S. [Delhi Univ. (India). Dept. of Botany; Kaechele, Harald [Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research, Muencheberg (Germany). Inst. of Socioeconomics; Schaldach, Ruediger (ed.) [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Centre for Environmental System Research

    2013-07-01

    Climate change is broadly recognized as a key environmental issue affecting social and ecological systems worldwide. At the Cancun summit of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change's 16th Conference, the parties jointly agreed that the vulnerable groups particularly in developing countries and whose livelihood is based on land use practices are the most common victims as in most cases their activities are shaped by the climate. Therefore, solving the climate dilemma through mitigation processes and scientific research is an ethical concern. Thus combining the knowledge systems of the societies and scientific evidences can greatly assist in the creation of coping mechanisms for sustainable development in a situation of changing climate. International Humboldt Kolleg focusing on ''knowledge systems of societies and Climate Change'' was organized at ISEC. This event was of unique importance, as the year 2011-12 was celebrated as the 60th Anniversary of Diplomatic Relations between India and Germany with the motto ''Germany and India - Infinite Opportunities.'' This volume is the outcome of the papers presented during the IHK 2011 at ISEC, India. It reports on the present knowledge systems in a third world country which has always practiced a live and let live philosophy. Furthermore it provides valuable information for understanding the complexity of socio-ecological systems in relation to the projected impacts of climate change.

  13. Knowledge systems of societies for adaptation and mitigation of impacts of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nautiyal, Sunil; Raju, K.V.; Rao, K.S.; Kaechele, Harald; Schaldach, Ruediger

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is broadly recognized as a key environmental issue affecting social and ecological systems worldwide. At the Cancun summit of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change's 16th Conference, the parties jointly agreed that the vulnerable groups particularly in developing countries and whose livelihood is based on land use practices are the most common victims as in most cases their activities are shaped by the climate. Therefore, solving the climate dilemma through mitigation processes and scientific research is an ethical concern. Thus combining the knowledge systems of the societies and scientific evidences can greatly assist in the creation of coping mechanisms for sustainable development in a situation of changing climate. International Humboldt Kolleg focusing on ''knowledge systems of societies and Climate Change'' was organized at ISEC. This event was of unique importance, as the year 2011-12 was celebrated as the 60th Anniversary of Diplomatic Relations between India and Germany with the motto ''Germany and India - Infinite Opportunities.'' This volume is the outcome of the papers presented during the IHK 2011 at ISEC, India. It reports on the present knowledge systems in a third world country which has always practiced a live and let live philosophy. Furthermore it provides valuable information for understanding the complexity of socio-ecological systems in relation to the projected impacts of climate change.

  14. What is health systems responsiveness? Review of existing knowledge and proposed conceptual framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzoev, Tolib; Kane, Sumit

    2017-01-01

    Responsiveness is a key objective of national health systems. Responsive health systems anticipate and adapt to existing and future health needs, thus contributing to better health outcomes. Of all the health systems objectives, responsiveness is the least studied, which perhaps reflects lack of comprehensive frameworks that go beyond the normative characteristics of responsive services. This paper contributes to a growing, yet limited, knowledge on this topic. Herewith, we review the current frameworks for understanding health systems responsiveness and drawing on these, as well as key frameworks from the wider public services literature, propose a comprehensive conceptual framework for health systems responsiveness. This paper should be of interest to different stakeholders who are engaged in analysing and improving health systems responsiveness. Our review shows that existing knowledge on health systems responsiveness can be extended along the three areas. First, responsiveness entails an actual experience of people’s interaction with their health system, which confirms or disconfirms their initial expectations of the system. Second, the experience of interaction is shaped by both the people and the health systems sides of this interaction. Third, different influences shape people’s interaction with their health system, ultimately affecting their resultant experiences. Therefore, recognition of both people and health systems sides of interaction and their key determinants would enhance the conceptualisations of responsiveness. Our proposed framework builds on, and advances, the core frameworks in the health systems literature. It positions the experience of interaction between people and health system as the centrepiece and recognises the determinants of responsiveness experience both from the health systems (eg, actors, processes) and the people (eg, initial expectations) sides. While we hope to trigger further thinking on the conceptualisation of health

  15. What is health systems responsiveness? Review of existing knowledge and proposed conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzoev, Tolib; Kane, Sumit

    2017-01-01

    Responsiveness is a key objective of national health systems. Responsive health systems anticipate and adapt to existing and future health needs, thus contributing to better health outcomes. Of all the health systems objectives, responsiveness is the least studied, which perhaps reflects lack of comprehensive frameworks that go beyond the normative characteristics of responsive services. This paper contributes to a growing, yet limited, knowledge on this topic. Herewith, we review the current frameworks for understanding health systems responsiveness and drawing on these, as well as key frameworks from the wider public services literature, propose a comprehensive conceptual framework for health systems responsiveness. This paper should be of interest to different stakeholders who are engaged in analysing and improving health systems responsiveness. Our review shows that existing knowledge on health systems responsiveness can be extended along the three areas. First, responsiveness entails an actual experience of people's interaction with their health system, which confirms or disconfirms their initial expectations of the system. Second, the experience of interaction is shaped by both the people and the health systems sides of this interaction. Third, different influences shape people's interaction with their health system, ultimately affecting their resultant experiences. Therefore, recognition of both people and health systems sides of interaction and their key determinants would enhance the conceptualisations of responsiveness. Our proposed framework builds on, and advances, the core frameworks in the health systems literature. It positions the experience of interaction between people and health system as the centrepiece and recognises the determinants of responsiveness experience both from the health systems (eg, actors, processes) and the people (eg, initial expectations) sides. While we hope to trigger further thinking on the conceptualisation of health system

  16. Practice of knowledge management for institutes--take the construction of experience feedback system as the example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Kaiping

    2014-01-01

    The construction of experience feedback system is an important part and breakthrough point of institutes' knowledge management. It is significant for institutes' design, management, development and innovation. This article introduces the concept of experience feedback for institutes. It also goes details of the content of experience feedback system construction for institutes, including the founding of experience feedback organizational mechanism, the development of experience feedback system, construction of knowledge database system, the construction of knowledge resources, and the appraisal of experience feedback's performance. Furthermore, the recognition and support of leaders, understanding and cooperation of relative departments, and corporation's culture of encouraging knowledge sharing, also are the important guarantees for the good effects of institutes' experience feedback work. (author)

  17. The Value of Sustainable Knowledge Transfer Methods for SMEs, Utilizing Socio-Technical Networks and Complex Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susu Nousala

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will examine the development of sustainable SME methods for tracking tacit (informal knowledge transfer as a series of networks of larger complex system. Understanding sustainable systems begins with valuing tacit knowledge networks and their ability to produce connections on multiple levels. The behaviour of the social or socio aspects of a system in relation to the explicit formal/physical structures need to be understood and actively considered when utilizing methodologies for interacting within complex systems structures. This paper utilizes theory from several previous studies to underpin the key case study discussed. This approach involved examining the behavioural phenomena of an SME knowledge network. The knowledge network elements were highlighted to identify their value within an SME structure. To understand the value of these emergent elements from between tacit and explicit knowledge networks, is to actively, simultaneously and continuous support sustainable development for SME organizations. The simultaneous links within and between groups of organizations is crucial for understanding sustainable networking structures of complex systems.

  18. Level of knowledge and understanding of informed consent amongst the training grade group orthodontists in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pratik K; Chate, Robert A

    2011-06-01

    To assess the level of knowledge and understanding of informed consent in UK orthodontic trainees. A cross-sectional, written questionnaire-based study. Hospital orthodontic departments in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. A one page questionnaire which covered a range of legal issues pertinent to informed consent was circulated to 207 members of the Training Grades Group (TGG) of the British Orthodontic Society (BOS). The questionnaire consisted of four open questions with 11 responses, which the investigators considered to be ideal, seven closed questions requiring yes/no responses and one question requiring a yes/no response followed by two open responses. Following the initial circulation, a second posting to non-responders was conducted. The response rate was 61% (N=126). The mean number of complete answers to the 21 questions was 13 (62%; median 13; mode 14). There were a low number of complete responses to specific questions in the following areas - explanations patients need from clinicians prior to obtaining consent; how to fully judge if a patient is capable of consenting; how to manage a patient incapable of giving consent; the legal status of fathers consenting on behalf of their children; whether consent forms have to be re-signed if the start of treatment is delayed by six months or more and responsibility for obtaining consent for dental treatment under general anaesthesia. There was a disappointingly high proportion of incomplete answers to questions testing the knowledge and understanding of the law as it pertains to informed consent exists amongst members of the TGG of BOS.

  19. Representing clinical communication knowledge through database management system integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairat, Saif; Craven, Catherine; Gong, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Clinical communication failures are considered the leading cause of medical errors [1]. The complexity of the clinical culture and the significant variance in training and education levels form a challenge to enhancing communication within the clinical team. In order to improve communication, a comprehensive understanding of the overall communication process in health care is required. In an attempt to further understand clinical communication, we conducted a thorough methodology literature review to identify strengths and limitations of previous approaches [2]. Our research proposes a new data collection method to study the clinical communication activities among Intensive Care Unit (ICU) clinical teams with a primary focus on the attending physician. In this paper, we present the first ICU communication instrument, and, we introduce the use of database management system to aid in discovering patterns and associations within our ICU communications data repository.

  20. Neither Knowledge Deficit nor NIMBY: Understanding Opposition to Hydraulic Fracturing as a Nuanced Coalition in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Danielle M; Cutts, Bethany B

    2018-05-08

    The expansion of unconventional sources of natural gas across the world has generated public controversy surrounding fracking drilling methods. Public debates continue to reverberate through policy domains despite very inconclusive biophysical evidence of net harm. As a consequence, there is a need to test the hypothesis that resistance to fracking is due to the way it redistributes economic and environmental risks. As in many other communities, opposition to fracking is common in central Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, (USA) but the rationale underpinning opposition is poorly understood. We test the prevailing assumption in the environmental management literature that fracking opposition is motivated by knowledge deficits and/or not-in-my-backyard (NIMBY) politics. This study uses Q methodology to examine emergent perspectives and sub-discourses within the fracking opposition debate in central Westmoreland County, PA. Q methodology offers a systematic and iterative use of both quantitative and qualitative research techniques to explore frequently overlooked marginal viewpoints that are critical to understanding the fracking problem. The analysis reveals four different narratives of factors amongst people actively involved in locally opposing fracking, labeled (1) Future Fears; (2) NIMBY (3) Community Concerns; and (4) Distrust Stakeholders. The conflicts that emerge across these four factors are indicative of deeper discourse within the fracking debate that signifies diversity in motivations, values, and convictions, and suggests the inadequacy of relying on knowledge deficit and/or NIMBY explanations to fracking politics.