WorldWideScience

Sample records for understanding stimulate productive

  1. The production of understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Bruce G

    2003-12-01

    While there is little doubt that sociological theory and research has had an important impact on the way people think about health and health care, mental health and medical sociologists are often confronted with challenges concerning the utility of the work that they do. Among the doubters are deans, funding agencies and family members. We are challenged by the ascendency of biological interpretations of human behaviors, by the incompatibility between the contextual view we prefer and the very strong individualistic orientation of our culture, and by the fact that we do not have an applied arm that trains the professionals who treat health and mental-health conditions. How do we respond to this challenge? The title of this paper gives a short answer: "The Production of Understanding." I propose that a powerful but under-recognized value of our work is the generation of explanations about health and mental health matters that help people understand the other side of an "us"/"them" divide. We produce understanding in a context in which misunderstanding is regularly constructed by powerful people who offer victim-blaming explanations for the circumstances experienced by people with less power. The production of understanding serves as an important counterbalance to this tendency. Our work shapes the way people think about problems related to health and mental health, limits the power of inaccurate victim-blaming accounts and provides understanding about why health and mental health are mal-distributed among people from different social circumstances.

  2. Understanding the True Stimulated Reservoir Volume in Shale Reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Maaruf

    2017-06-06

    Successful exploitation of shale reservoirs largely depends on the effectiveness of hydraulic fracturing stimulation program. Favorable results have been attributed to intersection and reactivation of pre-existing fractures by hydraulically-induced fractures that connect the wellbore to a larger fracture surface area within the reservoir rock volume. Thus, accurate estimation of the stimulated reservoir volume (SRV) becomes critical for the reservoir performance simulation and production analysis. Micro-seismic events (MS) have been commonly used as a proxy to map out the SRV geometry, which could be erroneous because not all MS events are related to hydraulic fracture propagation. The case studies discussed here utilized a fully 3-D simulation approach to estimate the SRV. The simulation approach presented in this paper takes into account the real-time changes in the reservoir\\'s geomechanics as a function of fluid pressures. It is consisted of four separate coupled modules: geomechanics, hydrodynamics, a geomechanical joint model for interfacial resolution, and an adaptive re-meshing. Reservoir stress condition, rock mechanical properties, and injected fluid pressure dictate how fracture elements could open or slide. Critical stress intensity factor was used as a fracture criterion governing the generation of new fractures or propagation of existing fractures and their directions. Our simulations were run on a Cray XC-40 HPC system. The studies outcomes proved the approach of using MS data as a proxy for SRV to be significantly flawed. Many of the observed stimulated natural fractures are stress related and very few that are closer to the injection field are connected. The situation is worsened in a highly laminated shale reservoir as the hydraulic fracture propagation is significantly hampered. High contrast in the in-situ stresses related strike-slip developed thereby shortens the extent of SRV. However, far field nature fractures that were not connected to

  3. Understanding liquids production from shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panja, Palash

    The growth of production from liquid shale plays has been phenomenal. However, the recoveries are low of the order of 10% and more efficient methods of producing liquids are necessary. This research is aimed at understanding production performances involving complex interaction between phase behavior and flow in unconventional reservoirs like shales. A new rapid semianalytical forecast tool for transient state linear flow in ultralow permeability (100 nD to 5000 nD) fractured reservoir was developed. The tool is useful for well inflow performance, condensate drop out and material balance calculations of condensate production in unconventional reservoirs. Effects of individual parameters such as reservoir properties (matrix permeability, heterogeneity, rock compressibility and reservoir pressure) on production oil were studied using reservoir simulations with an appropriate number of grid blocks. The matrix permeability, initial reservoir pressure, fracture spacing were the most influencing factors in recoveries from gas-condensate as well as from oil reservoirs. Operating the well at higher flowing bottom hole pressure (FBHP) is preferable for low permeability (100 nD) reservoir and low FBHP for higher permeability (1000 nD) reservoir to recover more liquid. Production data, including Gas Oil Ratios (GOR) are valuable in assessing reservoir performance. A single characteristic factor affecting the produced gas oil ratio was found to be (1--Rsw/Rsb) (1--P wf/Pb) /(1-Pwf/Pi) that predicts deviation of gas oil ratio from its initial value. Effect of the interaction of parameters on recovery was examined using experimental design and response surface methodology. This study resulted in surrogate reservoir models for a quick assessment of production performance from ultralow permeability black oil and condensate reservoirs. Risks of production performance and investment were quantified by preparing the probability density functions (PDF) of production outcomes and the

  4. Production monitoring system for understanding product robustness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boorla, Srinivasa Murthy; Howard, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    study is used to demonstrate how the monitoring system can be used to efficiently guide corrective action to improve product performance. It is claimed that the monitoring system can be used to dramatically cut the time taken to identify, planand execute corrective action related to typical quality...... to be seven days. Using the monitoring system for the PRECI‐IN case, similar corrective action would have been achieved almost immediately.......In the current quality paradigm, the performance of a product is kept within specification by ensuring that its parts are within specification. Product performance is then validated after final assembly. However, this does not control how robust the product performance is, i.e. how much...

  5. Understanding users in product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    , the guideline contain a step by step process to develop easy‐to‐open packaging. The guideline is constructed in a way that allows the enterprise to pick and choose in respect to the enterprise´s needs and competences. The main focus in the development of the guidelines has been to produce a tool that function...... observations is a tool for user understanding and that the first step towards better packaging, goes through consensus in the organization regarding the need for more easy‐opening packaging....

  6. Product samples stimulate choice of unfamiliar healthful food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schickenberg, B; van Assema, P; Brug, J; de Vries, N K

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether the availability of a product sample of an unfamiliar low-fat or fruit and vegetable products stimulates choice for this product among food neophobic young adults. The study had a 2 (experimental vs. control group) by 4 (low-fat bread spread, low-fat cheese, fruit juice, fruit and vegetable juice) between subjects design with a pre-and post-experiment questionnaire. The study was conducted in restaurant rooms of several educational institutions in the Netherlands among a convenience sample of 197 food neophobic young adults aged 17-25 years. A small bite or sip-sized sample of the target product was provided as an intervention. The effect measure was choice of either an unfamiliar healthful food product or a traditional food product. Offering a sample of an unfamiliar healthful food product resulted in 51% of the participants in the experimental group choosing this product vs. 36.4% in the control group. Providing food product samples seems to be a promising strategy in healthy diet promotion programs for food neophobic young adults to increase first-time trial of unfamiliar low-fat and fruit and vegetable products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Optimising the Effect of Stimulants on Citric Acid Production from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Additives such as low molecular weight alcohols, trace metals, phytate, lipids etc have been reported to stimulate citric acid production. Hence the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of stimulating the metabolic activity of Aspergillus niger for the purpose of improved citric acid production from cocoyam starch.

  8. Creating Shared Understanding in Product development Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Louise Møller; Tollestrup, Christian

    that this situation is part of many projects. Lack of shared understanding or frames is just one of the difficulties facing interdisciplinary design teams working in the early phases of innovation. Besides managing their different values, perspectives and interests that cause them to see different things as important...... and that nobody really understood each other. The situation described above could perhaps be taken out of several different contexts and scenarios. Most people, who have been working in teams, probably recognize it, and especially people with experi-ences from interdisciplinary teams can confirm...... of physical artifacts in a special setting and with a specific set of characteristics is. The objective of this book is to demonstrate how building these particular physical arti¬facts enable and stimulate the communication between team mem¬bers, users and stakeholders in interdisciplinary teams working...

  9. Understanding optically stimulated charge movement in quartz and feldspar using time-resolved measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ankjaergaard, C.

    2010-02-15

    Thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) from quartz and feldspar are widely used in accident dosimetry and luminescence dating. In order to improve already existing methods or to develop new methods towards extending the current limits of the technique, it is important to understand the charge movement within these materials. Earlier studies have primarily focussed on examination of the trap behaviour; however, this only tells half of the story as OSL is a combination of charge stimulation and recombination. By using time-resolved OSL (TR-OSL), one can directly examine the recombination route(s), and thus obtain insight into the other half of the process involved in luminescence emission. This thesis studies the TR-OSL and optically stimulated phosphorescence signals from quartz and feldspars spanning several orders of magnitude in time (few ns to the seconds time scale) in order to identify various charge transport mechanisms in the different time regimes. The techniques employed are time-resolved OSL, continuous-wave OSL, TL, optically stimulated exo-electron (OSE) emission and time-resolved OSE. These different techniques are used in combination with variable thermal or optical stimulation energy. The thesis first delves into three main methodological developments, namely (i) research and development of the equipment for TR-OSL measurements, (ii) finding the best method for multiple-exponential analysis of a TR-OSL curve, and (iii) optimisation of the pulsing configuration for the best separation of quartz OSL from a mixed quarts-feldspar sample. It then proceeds to study the different charge transport mechanisms subsequent to an optical stimulation pulse in quartz and feldspars. The results obtained for quartz conclude that the main lifetime component in quartz represents an excited state lifetime of the recombination centre, and the more slowly decaying components on the millisecond to seconds time scale arise from charge recycling

  10. Does Design Activity Stimulate Firm Productivity? (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    KAWAKAMI Atsushi; EDAMURA Kazuma

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of firms' design activity to total factor productivity using firm-level data from the Basic Survey of Japanese Business Structure and Activities and the Survey on Research Activities of Private Corporations. We adopt two approaches for calculating design activity. First, we regard registered design as a design activity. Second, we calculate design investment from the Survey on Research Activities of Private Corporations and estimate the relation between d...

  11. Early understanding and production of graphic symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, T C

    1999-01-01

    Young children's ability to understand and produce graphic symbols within an environment of social communication was investigated in two experiments. Children aged 2, 3, and 4 years produced graphic symbols of simple objects on their own, used them in a social communicative game, and responded to experimenter's symbols. In Experiment 1 (N = 48), 2-year-olds did not effectively produce symbols or use the experimenter's symbols in the choice task, whereas 3- and 4-year-olds improved their drawings following the game and performed above chance with the experimenter's symbols. Ability to produce an effective graphic symbol was correlated with success on a task that measured understanding of the experimenter's symbols, supporting the claim that children's ability to produce a graphic symbol rests on the understanding of the symbolic function of pictures. In Experiment 2, 32 children aged 3 and 4 years improved their third set of drawings when they received feedback that their drawings were not effective communications. The results suggest that production and understanding of graphic symbols can be facilitated by the same social factors that improve verbal symbolic abilities, thereby raising the question of domain specificity in symbolic development.

  12. Continuous Theta-Burst Stimulation Demonstrates a Causal Role of Premotor Homunculus in Action Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michael, John; Sandberg, Kristian; Skewes, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Although it is well established that regions of premotor cortex (PMC) are active during action observation, it remains controversial whether they play a causal role in action understanding. In the experiment reported here, we used offline continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS) to investigate t...... understanding by showing that somatotopically organized regions of PMC contribute causally to action understanding and, thus, that the mechanisms underpinning action understanding and action performance overlap....

  13. Understanding the biophysical effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation on brain tissue: the bridge between brain stimulation and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neggers, Sebastiaan F W; Petrov, Petar I; Mandija, Stefano; Sommer, Iris E C; van den Berg, Nico A T

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is rapidly being adopted in neuroscience, medicine, psychology, and biology, for basic research purposes, diagnosis, and therapy. However, a coherent picture of how TMS affects neuronal processing, and especially how this in turn influences behavior, is still largely unavailable despite several studies that investigated aspects of the underlying neurophysiological effects of TMS. Perhaps as a result from this "black box approach," TMS studies show a large interindividual variability in applied paradigms and TMS treatment outcome can be quite variable, hampering its general efficacy and introduction into the clinic. A better insight into the biophysical, neuronal, and cognitive mechanisms underlying TMS is crucial in order to apply it effectively in the clinic and to increase our understanding of brain-behavior relationship. Therefore, computational and experimental efforts have been started recently to understand and control the effect TMS has on neuronal functioning. Especially, how the brain shapes magnetic fields induced by a TMS coil, how currents are generated locally in the cortical surface, and how they interact with complex functional neuronal circuits within and between brain areas are crucial to understand the observed behavioral changes and potential therapeutic effects resulting from TMS. Here, we review the current knowledge about the biophysical underpinnings of single-pulse TMS and argue how to move forward to fully understand and exploit the powerful technique that TMS can be. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Inorganic carbon addition stimulates snow algae primary productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Trinity L; Havig, Jeff R

    2018-01-29

    Earth has experienced glacial/interglacial oscillations accompanied by changes in atmospheric CO 2 throughout much of its history. Today over 15 million square kilometers of Earth's land surface is covered in ice including glaciers, ice caps, and ice sheets. Glaciers are teeming with life and supraglacial snow and ice surfaces are often darkened by the presence of photoautotrophic snow algae, resulting in accelerated melt due to lowered albedo. Few studies report the productivity of snow algal communities and the parameters which constrain their growth on supraglacial surfaces-key factors for quantifying biologically induced albedo effects (bio-albedo). We demonstrate that snow algae primary productivity is stimulated by the addition of inorganic carbon. Our results indicate a positive feedback between increasing CO 2 and snow algal primary productivity, underscoring the need for robust climate models of past and present glacial/interglacial oscillations to include feedbacks between supraglacial primary productivity, albedo, and atmospheric CO 2 .

  15. Understanding customer need in the new product development context

    OpenAIRE

    Äärynen, Teemu

    2013-01-01

    This thesis project concentrates on how understanding customer need and customer orientation can be improved in new product development. Understanding customer need during new product development process is very important for product success. The case company has decided to undertake new product development using LEAN principles. This change creates a need to improve the new product development process. This thesis offers recommendations for the case company’s new product devel...

  16. Metabolic inhibitors as stimulating factors for citric acid production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adham, N.Z.; Ahmed, E.M.; Refai, H.A.E.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of some metabolic inhibitors on citric acid (CA) production by Aspergillus niger in cane molasses medium was investigated. Addition of 0.01-0.1 mM iodoacetic acid and sodium arsenate, 0.05-1.0 mM sodium malonate, 0.01 mM sodium azide, 0.01-0.05 mM sodium fluoride, 0.1-1.0 mM EDTA stimulated CA production (5-49%). Higher concentrations (10 mM) of iodoacetic acid, sodium malonate and 0.5 mM sodium azide caused a complete inhibition of fungal growth, Iodoacetic acid, sodium arsenate and sodium fluoride (0.2 mM) caused a remarkable inhibition of CA production. The implications of those preliminary functions was discussed. (author)

  17. Organizational Linkages: Understanding the Productivity Paradox,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Research Project, Austin, Tex. WILLIAM C. HOWELL, APA Science Directorate, Washington, D.C. ROBERTA L. KLATZKY, Department of Psychology, Carnegie...nature of their relationships, the Productivity Servosystem model de- veloped by Hershauer and Ruch (1978) attempts to present a norma - tive model that

  18. Comprehensive Proteomics Analysis of Laticifer Latex Reveals New Insights into Ethylene Stimulation of Natural Rubber Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuchu; Wang, Dan; Sun, Yong; Yang, Qian; Chang, Lili; Wang, Limin; Meng, Xueru; Huang, Qixing; Jin, Xiang; Tong, Zheng

    2015-09-08

    Ethylene is a stimulant to increase natural rubber latex. After ethylene application, both fresh yield and dry matter of latex are substantially improved. Moreover, we found that ethylene improves the generation of small rubber particles. However, most genes involved in rubber biosynthesis are inhibited by exogenous ethylene. Therefore, we conducted a proteomics analysis of ethylene-stimulated rubber latex, and identified 287 abundant proteins as well as 143 ethylene responsive latex proteins (ERLPs) with mass spectrometry from the 2-DE and DIGE gels, respectively. In addition, more than 1,600 proteins, including 404 ERLPs, were identified by iTRAQ. Functional classification of ERLPs revealed that enzymes involved in post-translational modification, carbohydrate metabolism, hydrolase activity, and kinase activity were overrepresented. Some enzymes for rubber particle aggregation were inhibited to prolong latex flow, and thus finally improved latex production. Phosphoproteomics analysis identified 59 differential phosphoproteins; notably, specific isoforms of rubber elongation factor and small rubber particle protein that were phosphorylated mainly at serine residues. This post-translational modification and isoform-specific phosphorylation might be important for ethylene-stimulated latex production. These results not only deepen our understanding of the rubber latex proteome but also provide new insights into the use of ethylene to stimulate rubber latex production.

  19. Product Stigmaticity : Understanding, Measuring and Managing Product-Related Stigma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaes, K.

    2014-01-01

    Stigma-free Product Design. Many of the products intended to relieve us from discomforting or unsafe situations and many medical and assistive devices are experienced as unpleasant and uncomfortable. On top of their discomfort, product users may also experience social unease from the people around

  20. Informed consent and stimulant medication: adolescents' and parents' ability to understand information about benefits and risks of stimulant medication for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter, Debbie; Tharmalingam, Sukirtha; Kleinman, Irwin

    2011-04-01

    This study of informed consent examines understanding of information needed to consent to stimulant treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The understanding of adolescents with ADHD, their parents, control adolescents, and their parents is compared. Fifty-eight ADHD and 64 control adolescents between the ages of 12 and 16 and their parents were studied. Baseline understanding of information was determined. Subjects received information relevant to informed consent for stimulation medication and afterward were evaluated on their recall understanding and their final understanding. Knowledge was increased after the information session for all subjects. There was no significant difference between unadjusted baseline, recall, and final knowledge of control adolescents and parents. Although unadjusted baseline, recall, and final knowledge of ADHD adolescents is significantly less than that of parents, 78% of ADHD adolescents had final understanding scores within 2 standard deviations of parents' scores. After controlling for baseline understanding and cognitive variables, there was no significant difference between understanding of ADHD adolescents and ADHD parents, whereas control adolescents understanding scores were higher than that of their parents. Understanding was highly associated with mathematics achievement in all groups. The majority of adolescents with ADHD, both with and without a history of stimulant medication treatment, have understanding that is similar to their parents and their inclusion in the informed consent process should be encouraged. Extra care should be afforded to those adolescents with low numeracy or literacy to ensure their understanding.

  1. Low glucose availability stimulates progesterone production by mouse ovaries in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsterman, Kathryn; Pepper, Aimee; Bentley, George E

    2017-12-15

    Steroid production by the ovary is primarily stimulated by gonadotropins but can also be affected by biological cues that provide information about energy status and environmental stress. To further understand which metabolic cues the ovary can respond to, we exposed gonadotropin-stimulated mouse ovaries in vitro to glucose metabolism inhibitors and measured steroid accumulation in media. Gonadotropin-stimulated ovaries exposed to 2-deoxy-d-glucose increased progesterone production and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein mRNA levels. However, oocytes and granulosa cells in antral follicles do not independently mediate this response because targeted treatment of these cell types with a different inhibitor of glucose metabolism (bromopyruvic acid) did not affect progesterone production. Elevated progesterone production is consistent with the homeostatic role of progesterone in glucose regulation in mammals. It also may regulate follicle growth and/or atresia within the ovary. These results suggest that ovaries can regulate glucose homeostasis in addition to their primary role in reproductive activity. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Inorganic carbon addition stimulates snow algae primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, T. L.; Havig, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    Earth has experienced glacial/interglacial oscillations throughout its history. Today over 15 million square kilometers (5.8 million square miles) of Earth's land surface is covered in ice including glaciers, ice caps, and the ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica, most of which are retreating as a consequence of increased atmospheric CO2. Glaciers are teeming with life and supraglacial snow and ice surfaces are often red due to blooms of photoautotrophic algae. Recent evidence suggests the red pigmentation, secondary carotenoids produced in part to thrive under high irradiation, lowers albedo and accelerates melt. However, there are relatively few studies that report the productivity of snow algae communities and the parameters that constrain their growth on snow and ice surfaces. Here, we demonstrate that snow algae primary productivity can be stimulated by the addition of inorganic carbon. We found an increase in light-dependent carbon assimilation in snow algae microcosms amended with increasing amounts of inorganic carbon. Our snow algae communities were dominated by typical cosmopolitan snow algae species recovered from Alpine and Arctic environments. The climate feedbacks necessary to enter and exit glacial/interglacial oscillations are poorly understood. Evidence and models agree that global Snowball events are accompanied by changes in atmospheric CO2 with increasing CO2 necessary for entering periods of interglacial time. Our results demonstrate a positive feedback between increased CO2 and snow algal productivity and presumably growth. With the recent call for bio-albedo effects to be considered in climate models, our results underscore the need for robust climate models to include feedbacks between supraglacial primary productivity, albedo, and atmospheric CO2.

  3. Consumer understanding of sugars claims on food and drink products

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, N J; Sadler, M J; Cooper, J M

    2012-01-01

    Consumer understanding of nutrition and health claims is a key aspect of current regulations in the European Union (EU). In view of this, qualitative and quantitative research techniques were used to investigate consumer awareness and understanding of product claims in the UK, focusing particularly on nutrition claims relating to sugars. Both research methods identified a good awareness of product claims. No added sugars claims were generally preferred to reduced sugars claims, and there was ...

  4. Understanding Project Based Production through Socio-technical Modularity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian Langhoff

    This paper develops an approach for understanding Project Based Production. This form of production is characterized by unique deliverables, high complexity, high value, high risk, profound uncertainty and many stakeholders and is increasingly important the postmodern society. Common...... with the starting point in system theory and a strong bias towards industrial production, the predominant understanding of modularity faces difficulty in explaining practices of Project Based Production in both social – technical and dynamic – stable aspects. Illustrated by a case the paper addresses this gap...... as an entanglement of product, process, organizational and institutional modularity. The paper concludes proposing central questions for the development of the concept of modularity for understanding, designing and managing of PBP....

  5. Butyrate increases IL-23 production by stimulated dendritic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Bradford E.; Zhang, Min; Owyang, Stephanie Y.; Cole, Tyler S.; Wang, Teresa W.; Luther, Jay; Veniaminova, Natalia A.; Merchant, Juanita L.; Chen, Chun-Chia; Huffnagle, Gary B.

    2012-01-01

    The gut microbiota is essential for the maintenance of intestinal immune homeostasis and is responsible for breaking down dietary fiber into short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Butyrate, the most abundant bioactive SCFA in the gut, is a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), a class of drug that has potent immunomodulatory properties. This characteristic of butyrate, along with our previous discovery that conventional dendritic cells (DCs) are required for the development of experimental colitis, led us to speculate that butyrate may modulate DC function to regulate gut mucosal homeostasis. We found that butyrate, in addition to suppressing LPS-induced bone marrow-derived DC maturation and inhibiting DC IL-12 production, significantly induced IL-23 expression. The upregulation of mRNA subunit IL-23p19 at the pretranslational level was consistent with the role of HDACi on the epigenetic modification of gene expression. Furthermore, the mechanism of IL-23p19 upregulation was independent of Stat3 and ZBP89. Coculture of splenocytes with LPS-stimulated DCs pretreated with or without butyrate was performed and showed a significant induction of IL-17 and IL-10. We demonstrated further the effect of butyrate in vivo using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis and found that the addition of butyrate in the drinking water of mice worsened DSS-colitis. This is in contrast to the daily intraperitoneal butyrate injection of DSS-treated mice, which mildly improved disease severity. Our study highlights a novel effect of butyrate in upregulating IL-23 production of activated DCs and demonstrates a difference in the host response to the oral vs. systemic route of butyrate administration. PMID:23086919

  6. New infrastructures for knowledge production understanding e-science

    CERN Document Server

    Hine, Christine

    2006-01-01

    New Infrastructures for Knowledge Production: Understanding E-Science offers a distinctive understanding of new infrastructures for knowledge production based in science and technology studies. This field offers a unique potential to assess systematically the prospects for new modes of science enabled by information and communication technologies. The authors use varied methodological approaches, reviewing the origins of initiatives to develop e-science infrastructures, exploring the diversity of the various solutions and the scientific cultures which use them, and assessing the prospects for wholesale change in scientific structures and practices. New Infrastructures for Knowledge Production: Understanding E-Science contains practical advice for the design of appropriate technological solutions, and long range assessments of the prospects for change useful both to policy makers and those implementing institutional infrastructures. Readers interested in understanding contemporary science will gain a rich pict...

  7. Understanding Craftsman’s Creativity in a Framework of Person, Process, Product and Press (4Ps)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Hui; Zhou, Chunfang; Tanggaard, Lene

    2016-01-01

    , Process, Product, and Press (4Ps) This research question drives to develop a theoretical study bridging two areas of creativity and craftsman’s work. This will further indicate craftsman’s working practice is full of complexity that stimulates creative behavior and that also requires a systematic view......The recent work has emphasized craftsmen are key actors in developing creative industries. However, little attention has been paid to the particular study on creativity of craftsmen. This paper aims to explore how can we understand craftsman’s creativity in a theoretical framework of Person...... to understand craftsman’s creativity as involving interaction between 4Ps....

  8. Questioning in Distributed Product Development Teams: Supporting Shared Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2015-01-01

    Distributed teams are an increasingly common feature of New Product Development (NPD). Key to the success of these teams is the development of both short and longerterm shared understanding. Lack of shared understanding has been recognized as a significant challenge, particularly in the context...... globally distributed NPD activities. Poor shared understanding can ultimately result in delays and rework. One major antecedent of shared understanding development is question asking. This work uses a quasiexperimental study to test the impact of questioning support on different types of distributed teams......, both homogeneous and heterogeneous. This extends theoretical insight into the development of shared understanding and contributes one of few empirical studies directly comparing the response characteristics of different team types. From a managerial perspective this work has implications for how...

  9. Contribution of transcranial magnetic stimulation to the understanding of cortical mechanisms involved in motor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Janine; Swayne, Orlando B; Vandermeeren, Yves; Camus, Mickael; Dimyan, Michael A; Harris-Love, Michelle; Perez, Monica A; Ragert, Patrick; Rothwell, John C; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2008-01-15

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was initially used to evaluate the integrity of the corticospinal tract in humans non-invasively. Since these early studies, the development of paired-pulse and repetitive TMS protocols allowed investigators to explore inhibitory and excitatory interactions of various motor and non-motor cortical regions within and across cerebral hemispheres. These applications have provided insight into the intracortical physiological processes underlying the functional role of different brain regions in various cognitive processes, motor control in health and disease and neuroplastic changes during recovery of function after brain lesions. Used in combination with neuroimaging tools, TMS provides valuable information on functional connectivity between different brain regions, and on the relationship between physiological processes and the anatomical configuration of specific brain areas and connected pathways. More recently, there has been increasing interest in the extent to which these physiological processes are modulated depending on the behavioural setting. The purpose of this paper is (a) to present an up-to-date review of the available electrophysiological data and the impact on our understanding of human motor behaviour and (b) to discuss some of the gaps in our present knowledge as well as future directions of research in a format accessible to new students and/or investigators. Finally, areas of uncertainty and limitations in the interpretation of TMS studies are discussed in some detail.

  10. Understanding the Implications of Online Learning for Educational Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakia, Marianne; Shear, Linda; Toyama, Yukie; Lasseter, Austin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to support educational administrators and policymakers in becoming informed consumers of information about online learning and its potential impact on educational productivity. The report provides foundational knowledge needed to examine and understand the potential contributions of online learning to educational…

  11. Bio imaging of intracellular NO production in single bone cells after mechanical stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vatsa, A.; Mizuno, D.; Smit, T.H.; Schmidt, C.; Mac Kintosh, F.C.; Klein-Nulend, J.

    2006-01-01

    We show the intracellular upregulation of NO production after mechanical stimulation, an essential chemical signal in bone remodeling. This is done in real time using the fluorescent chromophore DAR-4M AM. Differences in cellular response to mechanical stimulation of different regions of a single

  12. Lipopolysaccharide and silica-stimulated mononuclear cell prostaglandin production in ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punchard, N A; Cason, J; Mullins, J; Chander, C; Thompson, R P

    2000-01-01

    Basal, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and silica-stimulated prostaglandin (PG) production were compared between peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) from UC patients and healthy subjects (HS). Basal and LPS-stimulated PBMNC PGI2, but not PGE2, production was greater in UC. LPS stimulated both PGE2 and PGI2 by PBMNC from HS and UC patients. Silica stimulated production of both PGs by cells from HS but only PGE2 by cells from UC patients. The differences in responses to silica and LPS may result from differences in activation of NFkappaB or, alternatively, prior sensitisation to one of these agents. That PBMNC PGE2 production is not increased in UC, as it is in Crohn's disease, suggests that there are differences in PBMNC behaviour between these two diseases. PMID:11132777

  13. Lipopolysaccharide and silica-stimulated mononuclear cell prostaglandin production in ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neville A. Punchard

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal, lipopolysaccharide (LPS and silica-stimulated prostaglandin (PG production were compared between peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC from UC patients and healthy subjects (HS. Basal and LPS-stimulated PBMNC PGI2, but not PGE2, production was greater in UC. LPS stimulated both PGE2 and PGI2 by PBMNC from HS and UC patients. Silica stimulated production of both PGs by cells from HS but only PGE2 by cells from UC patients. The differences in responses to silica and LPS may result from differences in activation of NFκB or, alternatively, prior sensitisation to one of these agents. That PBMNC PGE2 production is not increased in UC, as it is in Crohn’s disease, suggests that there are differences in PBMNC behaviour between these two diseases.

  14. Understanding microwave-stimulated Romanowsky--Giemsa staining of plastic embedded bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horobin, R W; Boon, M E

    1988-01-01

    Bone marrow smears were made and fixed in methanol or formaldehyde. Marrow sections of various thicknesses were also prepared from formaldehyde fixed marrows embedded in paraffin or plastic (glycol methacrylate). The different smears and sections were then stained by a Romanowsky--Giemsa procedure. Some specimens were stained using a standard microwave-stimulated method previously used diagnostically. The effects of technical variations were studied, including degree of microwave irradiation and the staining time. Comparisons of the resulting staining outcomes showed that microwave stimulated Romanowsky--Giemsa staining of plastic sections is a rate controlled process. Unusual aspects of the staining pattern of plastic sections (namely the purple basophilic cytoplasms and nucleoli, and blue chromatin) are due to microwave stimulation and formaldehyde fixation respectively.

  15. Consumer understanding of sugars claims on food and drink products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, N J; Sadler, M J; Cooper, J M

    2012-06-01

    Consumer understanding of nutrition and health claims is a key aspect of current regulations in the European Union (EU). In view of this, qualitative and quantitative research techniques were used to investigate consumer awareness and understanding of product claims in the UK, focusing particularly on nutrition claims relating to sugars. Both research methods identified a good awareness of product claims. No added sugars claims were generally preferred to reduced sugars claims, and there was a general assumption that sweeteners and other ingredients would be added in place of sugars. However, there was little awareness of the level of sugar reduction and the associated calorie reduction in products when reduced sugars claims were made on pack. In focus groups, participants felt deceived if sugar reduction claims were being made without a significant reduction in calories. This was reinforced in the quantitative research which showed that respondents expected a similar and meaningful level of calorie reduction to the level of sugar reduction. The research also identified consumer confusion around the calorie content of different nutrients, including over-estimation of the calorie content of sugars. This is crucial to consumers' expectations as they clearly link sugar to calories and therefore expect a reduction in sugar content to deliver a reduction in calorie content.

  16. Towards an Understanding of How Protein Hydrolysates Stimulate More Efficient Biosynthesis in Cultured Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemensma, André; Babcock, James; Wilcox, Chris; Huttinga, Hans

    In the light of the growing demand for high quality plant-derived hydrolysates (i.e., HyPep™ and UltraPep™ series), Sheffield Bio-Science has developed a new hydrolysate platform that addresses the need for animal-free cell culture medium supplements while also minimizing variability concerns. The platform is based upon a novel approach to enzymatic digestion and more refined processing. At the heart of the platform is a rationally designed animal component-free (ACF) enzyme cocktail that includes both proteases and non-proteolytic enzymes (hydrolases) whose activities can also liberate primary components of the polymerized non-protein portion of the raw material. This enzyme system is added during a highly optimized process step that targets specific enzyme-substrate reactions to expand the range of beneficial nutritional factors made available to cells in culture. Such factors are fundamental to improving the bio-performance of the culture system, as they provide not merely growth-promoting peptides and amino acids, but also key carbohydrates, lipids, minerals, and vitamins that improve both rate and quality of protein expression, and serve to improve culture life due to osmo-protectant and anti-apoptotic properties. Also of significant note is that, compared to typical hydrolysates, the production process is greatly reduced and requires fewer steps, intrinsically yielding a better-controlled and therefore more reproducible product. Finally, the more sophisticated approach to enzymatic digestion renders hydrolysates more amenable to sterile filtration, allowing hydrolysate end users to experience streamlined media preparation and bioreactor supplementation activities. Current and future development activities will evolve from a better understanding of the complex interactions within a handful of key biochemical pathways that impact the growth and productivity of industrially relevant organisms. Presented in this chapter are some examples of the efforts that

  17. A Noninvasive Imaging Approach to Understanding Speech Changes following Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, Shalini; Jacks, Adam; Robin, Donald A.; Poizner, Howard; Zhang, Wei; Franklin, Crystal; Liotti, Mario; Vogel, Deanie; Fox, Peter T.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the use of noninvasive functional imaging and "virtual" lesion techniques to study the neural mechanisms underlying motor speech disorders in Parkinson's disease. Here, we report the use of positron emission tomography (PET) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to explain exacerbated speech impairment following…

  18. Understanding Productive Learning Through the Metaphorical Lens of Patchworking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The metaphor of patchworking is used throughout this case study to highlight how learning processes, and processes of knowledge creation, consist of the stitching and weaving together of various patches into something new. The patches can be old, new, borrowed and of a widely different fabric; yet......, which formed the basis of the author’s PhD thesis (Ryberg, 2007), the concept of understanding learning as a process of patchworking has emerged. The metaphor of patchworking is a perspective that emphasises the constructive, creative and productive aspects of learning. In this chapter the main aspects...... of this metaphorical perspective will be presented and discussed in relation to networked learning, indirect design and the notion of ‘productive learning’....

  19. Glucose-stimulated acrolein production from unsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Navarro, R; Duran-Reyes, G; Diaz-Flores, M; Hicks, J J; Kumate, J

    2004-02-01

    Glucose auto-oxidation may be a significant source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and also be important in the lipid peroxidation process, accompanied by the release of toxic reactive products. We wanted to demonstrate that acrolein can be formed directly and actively from free fatty acids in a hyperglycemic environment. A suspension of linoleic and arachidonic acids (2.5 mM) was exposed to different glucose concentrations (5, 10 and 15 mmol/L) in vitro. The samples were extracted with organic solvents, partitioned, followed at 255-267 nm, and analysed using capillary electrophoresis and mass spectroscopy. The total release of aldehydes significantly (P products, acrolein (5% of total) and its condensing product, 4-hydroxy-hexenal, were identified. From the results presented here, it was possible to demonstrate the production of acrolein, probably as a fatty acid product, due to free radicals generated from the glucose auto-oxidation process. The results led us to propose that acrolein, which is one of the most toxic aldehydes, is produced during hyperglycemic states, and may lead to tissue injury, as one of the initial problems to be linked to high levels of glucose in vivo.

  20. Effects of thalamic deep brain stimulation on spontaneous language production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlen, Felicitas; Vonberg, Isabelle; Kühn, Andrea A; Klostermann, Fabian

    2016-08-01

    The thalamus is thought to contribute to language-related processing, but specifications of this notion remain vague. An assessment of potential effects of thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) on spontaneous language may help to delineate respective functions. For this purpose, we analyzed spontaneous language samples from thirteen (six female / seven male) patients with essential tremor treated with DBS of the thalamic ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM) in their respective ON vs. OFF conditions. Samples were obtained from semi-structured interviews and examined on multidimensional linguistic levels. In the VIM-DBS ON condition, participants used a significantly higher proportion of paratactic as opposed to hypotactic sentence structures. This increase correlated negatively with the change in the more global cognitive score, which in itself did not change significantly. In conclusion, VIM-DBS appears to induce the use of a simplified syntactic structure. The findings are discussed in relation to concepts of thalamic roles in language-related cognitive behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria stimulates production in Baltic food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlson, Agnes M L; Duberg, Jon; Motwani, Nisha H; Hogfors, Hedvig; Klawonn, Isabell; Ploug, Helle; Barthel Svedén, Jennie; Garbaras, Andrius; Sundelin, Brita; Hajdu, Susanna; Larsson, Ulf; Elmgren, Ragnar; Gorokhova, Elena

    2015-06-01

    Filamentous, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria form extensive summer blooms in the Baltic Sea. Their ability to fix dissolved N2 allows cyanobacteria to circumvent the general summer nitrogen limitation, while also generating a supply of novel bioavailable nitrogen for the food web. However, the fate of the nitrogen fixed by cyanobacteria remains unresolved, as does its importance for secondary production in the Baltic Sea. Here, we synthesize recent experimental and field studies providing strong empirical evidence that cyanobacterial nitrogen is efficiently assimilated and transferred in Baltic food webs via two major pathways: directly by grazing on fresh or decaying cyanobacteria and indirectly through the uptake by other phytoplankton and microbes of bioavailable nitrogen exuded from cyanobacterial cells. This information is an essential step toward guiding nutrient management to minimize noxious blooms without overly reducing secondary production, and ultimately most probably fish production in the Baltic Sea.

  2. Raman spectroscopy as a tool to understand Kerogen production potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatibi, S.; Ostadhassan, M.; Mohammed, R. A.; Alexeyev, A.

    2017-12-01

    A lot attention has given to unconventional reservoirs specifically oil shale in North America during the last decades. Understanding Kerogen properties in terms of maturity and production potential are crucial for unconventional reservoir. Since, the amount of hydrocarbon generation is a function of kerogen type and content in the formation, and the magnitude and duration in which heat and pressure were applied. This study presents a non-destructive and fast method to determine Kerogen properties in terms of Rock-Eval parameters by means of Raman Spectroscopy. Samples were gathered from upper and lower Bakken formation, with different maturities at different depth. Raman spectroscopy as a powerful nondestructive analytical tool for molecular reconstruction was employed to find Raman spectra of different samples. In the next step, Rock-Eval was performed for each sample and different measurements were made. Then in an original approach, correlation between Rock-Eval parameters with Raman Spectroscopy results was established to fully understand how kerogen productivity potentials can be reflected on the Raman response. Results showed, maturity related parameters (RO, Tmax), S1 (already generated oil in the rock), S2 (potential hydrocarbon) and OSI (oil saturation index as indication of potential oil flow zones) can be correlated to band separation, D band intensity, G band intensity and G/D intensity, respectively. Proposed method provide a fast nondestructive method to evaluate Kerogen quality even at field without any special sample preparation.

  3. Merits of using mechanical treatments to stimulate cone production of slash and longleaf pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Barnett

    1993-01-01

    four mechanical treatments (untreated, partial girdling in the spring, partial girdling in summer, and banding in spring) stimulated cone production of pole-sized slash and longleaf pines. A 2- to 3-fold increase in slash pine seed production was limited to the first crop originating after the treatments were applied. However, the treatments killed half the longleaf...

  4. Understanding the ion beam in EUV mask blank production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Patrick; Jindal, Vibhu; Weaver, Alfred; Teora, Pat; Sporre, John; Ruzic, David; Goodwin, Frank

    2012-03-01

    One of the major technical hurdles to be overcome before EUV lithography can enter high volume manufacturing is the amount of defects in EUV mask blanks, many of which occur during the EUV reflector deposition process. The technology currently used to deposit this reflector is ion beam sputter deposition. Understanding the properties of the ion beam and the nature of the plasma in the deposition chamber is therefore critical to understanding defect production mechanisms and subsequently eliminating them. In this work, we have studied how the source parameters influence ion beam divergence, its footprint on the target, and the amount of beam that misses the target and hits the shielding. By optimizing the source parameters, we can modulate certain target- and shield-specific defect types. We have compared our data with models of source performance and found general agreement, enabling the theory to be fine-tuned based on the results of the measurements. Models are being developed to better describe actual source performance. We have also investigated the plasma conditions the ion beam creates in the tool, which is crucial to understanding the transport of defects from their source to the mask. A well characterized ion beam and plasma will lead to process and tool changes that will ultimately reduce defect levels in EUV mask blanks.

  5. Understanding optically stimulated charge movement in quartz and feldspar using time-resolved measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankjærgaard, Christina

    to identify various charge transport mechanisms in the different time regimes. The techniques employed are time-resolved OSL, continuous-wave OSL, TL, optically stimulated exo-electron (OSE) emission and time-resolved OSE. These different techniques are used in combination with variable thermal or optical...... stimulation energy. The thesis first delves into three main methodological developments, namely (i) research and development of the equipment for TR-OSL measurements, (ii) finding the best method for multiple-exponential analysis of a TR-OSL curve, and (iii) optimisation of the pulsing configuration...... an excited state lifetime of the recombination centre, and the more slowly decaying components on the millisecond to seconds time scale arise from charge recycling through the shallow traps. The results from feldspars show the relative roles of an IR excited state (IR resonance), band tails...

  6. A tetravalent dengue nanoparticle stimulates antibody production in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Elisângela F

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue is a major public health problem worldwide, especially in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Infection with a single Dengue virus (DENV serotype causes a mild, self-limiting febrile illness called dengue fever. However, a subset of patients experiencing secondary infection with a different serotype progresses to the severe form of the disease, dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome. Currently, there are no licensed vaccines or antiviral drugs to prevent or treat dengue infections. Biodegradable nanoparticles coated with proteins represent a promising method for in vivo delivery of vaccines. Findings Here, we used a murine model to evaluate the IgG production after administration of inactivated DENV corresponding to all four serotypes adsorbed to bovine serum albumin nanoparticles. This formulation induced a production of anti-DENV IgG antibodies (p Conclusions Our results show that while the nanoparticle system induces humoral responses against DENV, further investigation with different DENV antigens will be required to improve immunogenicity, epitope specicity, and functional activity to make this platform a viable option for DENV vaccines.

  7. Field modeling for transcranial magnetic stimulation: A useful tool to understand the physiological effects of TMS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielscher, Axel; Antunes, Andre; Saturnino, Guilherme B

    2015-01-01

    Electric field calculations based on numerical methods and increasingly realistic head models are more and more used in research on Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS). However, they are still far from being established as standard tools for the planning and analysis in practical applications of TMS. Here, we start by delineating three main challenges that need to be addressed to unravel their full potential. This comprises (i) identifying and dealing with the model uncertainties, (ii) establishing a clear link between the induced fields and the physiological stimulation effects, and (iii) improving the usability of the tools for field calculation to the level that they can be easily used by non-experts. We then introduce a new version of our pipeline for field calculations (www.simnibs.org) that substantially simplifies setting up and running TMS and tDCS simulations based on Finite-Element Methods (FEM). We conclude with a brief outlook on how the new version of SimNIBS can help to target the above identified challenges.

  8. Electrical stimulation in white oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida) production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshita, I.; Nurfazira, K. M. P.; Fern, C. Shi; Ain, M. S. Nur

    2017-09-01

    White oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida) is an edible mushroom that gained popularity due to its nutritional values, low production cost and ease of cultivation. There are several research reported on the mushroom fruiting bodies which were actively developed when applying electrical shock treatment. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of different electrical voltages on the growth and yield of white oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida). Five different electrical voltages had been applied during spawning period which were 6V, 9V, 12V, 15V and mushroom bags without any treatment served as control. Treatment at 6V showed the highest rate for mycelium growth while 15V took the shortest time for fruiting body formation. However, no significant different (P>0.05) among all the treatments was observed for the time taken for the mycelium to fill-up the bag and pinhead emergence. The total fresh weight and percentage of biological efficiency for treatment at 9V showed higher values compared to control. Treatment at 9V also showed the largest pileus diameter and the most firm in the pileus texture. Meanwhile, treatment at 6V showed the highest a* value (redness). In addition, different electrical voltage treatments applied did not show any significant effect on substrate utilization efficiency, colour L* and b* values. In conclusion, among all the electrical treatments applied, 9V could be considered as the best treatment to enhance the yield of white oyster mushroom.

  9. Systems biology approaches to understand natural products biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuauhtemoc eLicona-Cassani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycetes populate soils and aquatic sediments which impose biotic and abiotic challenges for their survival. As a result, actinomycetes metabolism and genomes have evolved to produce an overwhelming diversity of specialized molecules. Polyketides, non-ribosomal peptides, post-translationally modified peptides, lactams and terpenes are well known bioactive natural products with enormous industrial potential. Accessing such biological diversity has proven difficult due to the complex regulation of cellular metabolism in actinomycetes and to the sparse knowledge of their physiology. The past decade, however, has seen the development of omics technologies that have significantly contributed to our better understanding of their biology. Key observations have contributed towards a shift in the exploitation of actinomycetes biology, such as using their full genomic potential, activating entire pathways through key metabolic elicitors and pathway engineering to improve biosynthesis. Here, we review recent efforts devoted to achieving enhanced discovery, activation and manipulation of natural product biosynthetic pathways in model actinomycetes using genome-scale biological datasets.

  10. $\\eta_c$ production at LHC and indications on the understanding of $J/\\psi$ production

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Hao; Meng, Ce; Shao, Hua-Sheng; Chao, Kuang-Ta

    2015-01-01

    We present a complete evaluation for the prompt $\\eta_c$ production at the LHC at next-to-leading order in $\\alpha_s$ in nonrelativistic QCD. By assuming heavy quark spin symmetry, the study of $\\eta_c$ production results in a very strong constraint on the upper bound of the color-octet long distance matrix element $\\mopa$ of $J/\\psi$. We find this upper bound is consistent with our previous study of the $J/\\psi$ yield and polarization and can give good descriptions for the measurements, but in conflict with most other theoretical studies. This may provide important information for understanding the mechanism of charmonium production.

  11. Social role conflict predicts stimulated cytokine production among men, not women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Hannah M C; Hoffer, Lauren C; Chen, Edith

    2016-11-01

    To assess whether perceived role conflict is associated with stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokine production and glucocorticoid sensitivity, and whether these associations are moderated by sex. 153 healthy adults (aged 45.8±5.5years, 78% female) listed their 3 main social roles and indicated the amount of role conflict they perceived between each pair of social roles. Subsequently, participants underwent blood draws and leukocyte response to microbial challenge and glucocorticoid sensitivity were assessed by incubating whole blood with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence or absence of hydrocortisone. Stimulated levels of Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) were measured. Multiple regression analyses controlling for sociodemographics revealed significant sex×role conflict interactions for LPS-stimulated production of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNFα (all interaction psrole conflict was associated with greater pro-inflammatory cytokine production in response to microbial stimulation only among men, not women. There also were significant sex×role conflict interactions with respect to glucocorticoid sensitivity for IL-1β, IL-6, and TNFα production (all interaction psrole conflict was unrelated to glucocorticoid sensitivity among women, but associated with less sensitivity to glucocorticoid signaling among men. Perceived social role conflict, indicating greater perceived demand across multiple social roles, may take a greater toll on the regulation of inflammatory processes among men compared to women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Proceedings of the first Seattle workshop on incentives used to stimulate energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cone, B.W. (ed.)

    1979-02-01

    The introductory paper of this workshop was an overview of report PNL-2410, an Analysis of Federal Incentives Used to Stimulate Energy Production; the next four papers critiqued the report. The next 28 presentations were from individuals or various workshop discussion groups on either incentives for solar energy development or for energy source development in general. A separate abstract was prepared for each.

  13. Understanding metal–organic frameworks for photocatalytic solar fuel production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Santaclara, J.; Kapteijn, F.; Gascon Sabate, J.; van der Veen, M.A.

    The fascinating chemical and physical properties of MOFs have recently stimulated exploration of their application for photocatalysis. Despite the intense research effort, the efficiency of most photocatalytic MOFs for solar fuel generation is still very modest. In this highlight we analyse the

  14. Understanding metal-organic frameworks for solar fuel production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Santaclara, J.

    2017-01-01

    The fascinating chemical and physical properties of MOFs have recently stimulated exploration of their application for photocatalysis. Despite the intense research effort, the efficiencies of most photocatalytic MOFs for solar fuel generation are still very modest. In this introduction we analyse

  15. Yeast extract stimulates production of glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, by Pseudozyma hubeiensis SY62.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Masaaki; Nagahama, Takahiko; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Morita, Tomotake; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai; Hatada, Yuji

    2011-06-01

    We improved the culture conditions for a biosurfactant producing yeast, Pseudozyma hubeiensis SY62. We found that yeast extract greatly stimulates MEL production. Furthermore, we demonstrated a highly efficient production of MELs in the improved medium by fed-batch cultivation. The final concentration of MELs reached 129 ± 8.2g/l for one week. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in sleep fragmentation: a model to better understand sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalise, Anna; Pittaro-Cadore, Italo; Serafini, Anna; Simeoni, Sara; Fratticci, Lara; Ecoretti, Elisa; Gigli, Gian Luigi

    2014-11-01

    To investigate practice-dependent plasticity and cortical inhibition/excitability in good sleepers after a night of sleep fragmentation (SF), by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). In basal condition (BC), after a full night of spontaneous sleep, and in fragmented condition (FC), after a fragmented night of sleep, motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude, motor threshold (MT), silent period (SP), and intracortical inhibition were assessed. In both conditions subjects performed, also, a bimanual motor task: MEPs were recorded before and after exercise, and after rest. We evaluated the presence of post-exercise facilitation and delayed facilitation. Subjects reported their alertness level (Stanford Sleepiness Scale-SSS). MT and SSS were significantly increased in SF. Instead, no significant differences for MEP amplitude or SP or intracortical inhibition were found. In both conditions post-exercise facilitation and delayed facilitation were present. SF produces disruption of nocturnal sleep and increases daytime sleepiness. Confirmatory features of this clinical behaviour could be that in FC we observed a significant increase in SSS and in MT. SF was unable to modify cortical inhibition\\excitability and\\or to influence plasticity-related parameters. These results seem inconsistent with some of TMS alterations observed in sleep deprivation (SD) and restless legs syndrome (RLS). We suggest that SD and SF represent different phenomena that can depend on various networks acting on motor cortex. We speculate that alterations in cortical excitability found in RLS are intrinsically related to the underlying disease itself and are not instead directly associated with the SF present in RLS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Aloin Inhibits Interleukin (IL)-1β-Stimulated IL-8 Production in KB Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Hee Sam; Song, Yu Ri; Kim, Seyeon; Heo, Jun-Young; Chung, Hae-Young; Chung, Jin

    2016-06-01

    Interleukin (IL)-1β, which is elevated in oral diseases including gingivitis, stimulates epithelial cells to produce IL-8 and perpetuate inflammatory responses. This study investigates stimulatory effects of salivary IL-1β in IL-8 production and determines if aloin inhibits IL-1β-stimulated IL-8 production in epithelial cells. Saliva was collected from volunteers to determine IL-1β and IL-8 levels. Samples from volunteers were divided into two groups: those with low and those with high IL-1β levels. KB cells were stimulated with IL-1β or saliva with or without IL-1 receptor agonist or specific mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors. IL-8 production was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). MAPK protein expression involved in IL-1β-induced IL-8 secretion was detected by Western blot. KB cells were pretreated with aloin, and its effect on IL-1β-induced IL-8 production was examined by ELISA and Western blot analysis. Saliva with high IL-1β strongly stimulated IL-8 production in KB cells, and IL-1 receptor agonist significantly inhibited IL-8 production. Low IL-1β-containing saliva did not increase IL-8 production. IL-1β treatment of KB cells induced activation of MAPK signaling molecules as well as nuclear factor-kappa B. IL-1β-induced IL-8 production was decreased by p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor treatment. Aloin pretreatment inhibited IL-1β-induced IL-8 production in a dose-dependent manner and inhibited activation of the p38 and ERK signaling pathway. Finally, aloin pretreatment also inhibited saliva-induced IL-8 production. Results indicated that IL-1β in saliva stimulates epithelial cells to produce IL-8 and that aloin effectively inhibits salivary IL-1β-induced IL-8 production by mitigating the p38 and ERK pathway. Therefore, aloin may be a good candidate for modulating oral inflammatory diseases.

  18. Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Stimulates Extra-Cellular Matrix Production in Cellular Spheroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Casco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnologies have been integrated into drug delivery, and non-invasive imaging applications, into nanostructured scaffolds for the manipulation of cells. The objective of this work was to determine how the physico-chemical properties of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs and their spatial distribution into cellular spheroids stimulated cells to produce an extracellular matrix (ECM. The MNP concentration (0.03 mg/mL, 0.1 mg/mL and 0.3 mg/mL, type (magnetoferritin, shape (nanorod—85 nm × 425 nm and incorporation method were studied to determine each of their effects on the specific stimulation of four ECM proteins (collagen I, collagen IV, elastin and fibronectin in primary rat aortic smooth muscle cell. Results demonstrated that as MNP concentration increased there was up to a 6.32-fold increase in collagen production over no MNP samples. Semi-quantitative Immunohistochemistry (IHC results demonstrated that MNP type had the greatest influence on elastin production with a 56.28% positive area stain compared to controls and MNP shape favored elastin stimulation with a 50.19% positive area stain. Finally, there are no adverse effects of MNPs on cellular contractile ability. This study provides insight on the stimulation of ECM production in cells and tissues, which is important because it plays a critical role in regulating cellular functions.

  19. Optimal Method to Stimulate Cytokine Production and Its Use in Immunotoxicity Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiming Chen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Activation of lymphocytes can effectively produce a large amount of cytokines. The types of cytokines produced may depend on stimulating reagents and treatments. To find an optimal method to stimulate cytokine production and evaluate its effect on immunotoxicity assessments, the authors analyzed production of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, IFN-γ, TNF-α, GM-CSF, RANTES and TGF-β in undiluted rat whole blood culture (incubation for 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 or 10 h with different concentrations of PMA/ionomycin, PHA, Con A, LPS and PWM. We also evaluated the effects of cyclosporin A and azathioprine on cytokine production. The results revealed a rapid increase of IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α, RANTES and TGF-β secretion within 6 h after stimulation with 25 ng/mL PMA and 1 μg/mL ionomycin. The inhibition of these cytokine profiles reflected the effects of immunosuppressants on the immune system. Therefore, the results of this is study recommend the detection of cytokine profiles in undiluted whole blood stimulated 6 h with 25 ng/mL PMA and 1 μg/mL ionomycin as a powerful immunotoxicity assessment method.

  20. Ferulic Acid Suppresses Amyloid β Production in the Human Lens Epithelial Cell Stimulated with Hydrogen Peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Noriaki; Kotani, Sachiyo; Mano, Yu; Ueno, Akina; Ito, Yoshimasa; Kitaba, Toshio; Takata, Takumi

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that oxidative stresses induce the production of amyloid β (Aβ) in the brain, lens, and retina, leading to age-related diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effects of ferulic acid on the Aβ levels in H2O2-stimulated human lens epithelial (HLE) SRA 01/04 cells. Three types of Aβ peptides (Aβ1-40, Aβ1-42, and Aβ1-43) were measured by ELISA, and the levels of mRNA for the expressed proteins related to Aβ production (APP, BACE1, and PS proteins) and degradation (ADAM10, NEP, and ECE1 proteins) were determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. H2O2 stimulation augmented gene expression of the proteins related to Aβ production, resulting in the production of three types of Aβ peptides. Treatment with 0.1 μM ferulic acid attenuated the augmentations of gene expression and production of the proteins related to the secretion of three types of Aβ peptides in the H2O2-stimulated HLE cells. These results provided evidence of antioxidative functions of ferulic acid for lens epithelial cells. PMID:28409157

  1. Impaired production of proinflammatory cytokines in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation in elderly humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruunsgaard, H.; Pedersen, Agnes Nadelmann; Schroll, M.

    1999-01-01

    Ageing is associated with decreased resistance to bacterial infections and concomitant increased circulating levels of inflammatory cytokines. The purpose of the present study was to research age-related changes in levels of early mediators of the acute-phase response in whole blood supernatants...... following LPS stimulation, representing an ex vivo model of sepsis. Levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-1 beta and IL-6 in whole blood supernatants were measured after in vitro LPS stimulation for 24 h in 168 elderly humans aged 81 years from the 1914 cohort in Glostrup, Denmark and in 91...... of proinflammatory cytokines compared with young men, but this difference was blurred by ageing. No relation was found between circulating plasma levels of TNF-alpha and levels after in vitro LPS stimulation. In conclusion, decreased production of TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta after exposure to LPS may reflect impaired...

  2. Understanding And Developing Innovative Products And Services: The Essential Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Adrian; McAloone, Timothy Charles

    2006-01-01

    , not on the product itself, but on the activity and the effect on stakeholders. Innovative products are products that contain a difference, with appropriate, valuable and desirable effects induced on the company, consumer and society. The approach is exemplified through a case on the Sony Walkman. When designing...

  3. Recent advances in the understanding of how neuropeptide Y and α-melanocyte stimulating hormone function in adipose physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, Steven L.; Cline, Mark A.; Gilbert, Elizabeth R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Communication between the brain and the adipose tissue has been the focus of many studies in recent years, with the “brain-fat axis” identified as a system that orchestrates the assimilation and usage of energy to maintain body mass and adequate fat stores. It is now well-known that appetite-regulating peptides that were studied as neurotransmitters in the central nervous system can act both on the hypothalamus to regulate feeding behavior and also on the adipose tissue to modulate the storage of energy. Energy balance is thus partly controlled by factors that can alter both energy intake and storage/expenditure. Two such factors involved in these processes are neuropeptide Y (NPY) and α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH). NPY, an orexigenic factor, is associated with promoting adipogenesis in both mammals and chickens, while α-MSH, an anorexigenic factor, stimulates lipolysis in rodents. There is also evidence of interaction between the 2 peptides. This review aims to summarize recent advances in the study of NPY and α-MSH regarding their role in adipose tissue physiology, with an emphasis on the cellular and molecular mechanisms. A greater understanding of the brain-fat axis and regulation of adiposity by bioactive peptides may provide insights on strategies to prevent or treat obesity and also enhance nutrient utilization efficiency in agriculturally-important species. PMID:27994947

  4. Recent advances in the understanding of how neuropeptide Y andα-melanocyte stimulating hormone function in adipose physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, Steven L; Cline, Mark A; Gilbert, Elizabeth R

    2016-01-01

    Communication between the brain and the adipose tissue has been the focus of many studies in recent years, with the "brain-fat axis" identified as a system that orchestrates the assimilation and usage of energy to maintain body mass and adequate fat stores. It is now well-known that appetite-regulating peptides that were studied as neurotransmitters in the central nervous system can act both on the hypothalamus to regulate feeding behavior and also on the adipose tissue to modulate the storage of energy. Energy balance is thus partly controlled by factors that can alter both energy intake and storage/expenditure. Two such factors involved in these processes are neuropeptide Y (NPY) and α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH). NPY, an orexigenic factor, is associated with promoting adipogenesis in both mammals and chickens, while α-MSH, an anorexigenic factor, stimulates lipolysis in rodents. There is also evidence of interaction between the 2 peptides. This review aims to summarize recent advances in the study of NPY and α-MSH regarding their role in adipose tissue physiology, with an emphasis on the cellular and molecular mechanisms. A greater understanding of the brain-fat axis and regulation of adiposity by bioactive peptides may provide insights on strategies to prevent or treat obesity and also enhance nutrient utilization efficiency in agriculturally-important species.

  5. Pregnancy Augments VEGF-Stimulated In Vitro Angiogenesis and Vasodilator (NO and H2S) Production in Human Uterine Artery Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Hai; Chen, Jennifer C; Sheibani, Lili; Lechuga, Thomas J; Chen, Dong-Bao

    2017-07-01

    Augmented uterine artery (UA) production of vasodilators, including nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), has been implicated in pregnancy-associated and agonist-stimulated rise in uterine blood flow that is rate-limiting to pregnancy health. Developing a human UA endothelial cell (hUAEC) culture model from main UAs of nonpregnant (NP) and pregnant (P) women for testing a hypothesis that pregnancy augments endothelial NO and H2S production and endothelial reactivity to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Main UAs from NP and P women were used for developing hUAEC culture models. Comparisons were made between NP- and P-hUAECs in in vitro angiogenesis, activation of cell signaling, expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and H2S-producing enzymes cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine γ-lyase, and NO/H2S production upon VEGF stimulation. NP- and P-hUAECs displayed a typical cobblestone-like shape in culture and acetylated low-density lipoprotein uptake, stained positively for endothelial and negatively for smooth muscle markers, maintained key signaling proteins during passage, and had statistically significant greater eNOS and CBS proteins in P- vs NP-hUAECs. Treatment with VEGF stimulated in vitro angiogenesis and eNOS protein and NO production only in P-hUEACs and more robust cell signaling in P- vs NP-hUAECs. VEGF stimulated CBS protein expression, accounting for VEGF-stimulated H2S production in hUAECs. Comparisons between NP- and P-hUAECs reveal that pregnancy augments VEGF-stimulated in vitro angiogenesis and NO/H2S production in hUAECs, showing that the newly established hUAEC model provides a critical in vitro tool for understanding human uterine hemodynamics. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  6. Understanding new product project performance : A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Commandeur, H.R.; Pattikawa, L.H.; Verwaal, E.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to summarize the accumulated body of knowledge on the performance of new product projects and provide directions for further research. Design/methodology/approach: Using a refined classification of antecedents of new product project performance the research

  7. Understanding the Modularity of Socio-technical Production Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian Langhoff

    , material and process aspects, the modularity of a socio-technical system can be understood as an entanglement of product, process, organizational and institutional modularity dimension. The developed theoretical framework is used for analyzing the modularity of three different production systems the pre-modern......, modern and post-modern construction practices....

  8. Interleukin-2 stimulates osteoclastic activity: Increased acid production and radioactive calcium release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ries, W.L.; Seeds, M.C.; Key, L.L.

    1989-01-01

    Recombinant human interleukin-2 (IL-2) was studied to determine effects on acid production by individual osteoclasts in situ on mouse calvarial bones. This analysis was performed using a microspectrofluorimetric technique to quantify acid production in individual cells. Radioactive calcium release was determined using calvarial bones in a standard tissue culture system. This allowed us to correlate changes in acid production with a measure of bone resorption. IL-2 stimulated acid production and bone resorbing activity. Both effects were inhibited by calcitonin. No stimulation of bone resorption occurred when IL-2-containing test media was incubated with a specific anti-IL-2 antibody and ultrafiltered. Our data demonstrated a correlation between acid production and bone resorbing activity in mouse calvaria exposed to parathyroid hormone (PTH). The data obtained from cultured mouse calvaria exposed to IL-2 demonstrated similar stimulatory effects to those seen during PTH exposure. These data suggest that calvaria exposed to IL-2 in vitro have increased osteoclastic acid production corresponding with increased bone resorption. (author)

  9. Stimulation Of The Methane Production With The Use Of Changing Of The Rock Massif Physical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baev Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The commercial coalbed methane production success is majorly defined by the effectiveness of the use of special gas inflow stimulation methods. The necessity of using of such methods issubject to the aspects of searching and displacement of methane within the coal compound. Theanalysis of the ways of methane production stimulation from virgin coal formations is given. The description of the process of hydraulic fracturing (fracturing as the most common stimulation method during the commercial coalbed methane production as well as its major advantages are presented. The present work provides data about the initiated laboratory research of sands collected from Kemerovo region deposits for the purpose of finding of the most prospective samples by means of anchoring of fractures. The prospectivity and ability to implement the hydraulic fracturing with the use of locally available sands acting as proppants are shown. The influence of the strain-stress state of the rock massif on the alteration of permeability and the necessity of its extension study with respect to different technological features of hydraulic fracturing is shown

  10. Excretory-secretory product of Paragonimus westermani newly excysted metacercariae inhibits superoxide production of granulocytes stimulated with IgG

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    It is well known that the cysteine proteases in excretory-secretory product (ESP) of Paragonimus westermani newly excysted metacercariae (PwNEM) are capable of degrading IgG in vitro. Recent evidence suggests that the IgG-coated surface, such as found on parasites, is one of the most effective physiologic stimuli for granulocyte activation. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effect of excretory-secretory product (ESP) of PwNEM on superoxide production of granulocytes stimulated with IgG. The 96-well plates were coated with human IgG (0, 10, 30, 100 µg/ml) in the absence or presence of ESP. When granulocytes were incubated in the wells coated with human IgG in the presence of ESP, the level of superoxide production of granulocytes was reduced to about 90% when compared to the cells incubated in the wells coated with IgG alone. This inhibitory effect of the ESP on IgG-induced superoxide production of granulocytes was concentration-dependent. These results suggest that ESP secreted by PwNEM may be important in the control of effector functions of granulocytes stimulated with IgG in human paragonimiasis. PMID:10905073

  11. Tactile stimulation of dairy heifers: effects on behavior and milk production after calving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. M. Néri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The positive management of primiparous heifers before calving through tactile stimulation may have beneficial effects on behavior during routine milking. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of tactile stimulation in dairy heifers and its effects on behavior and milk production after calving. Ten primiparous Holstein heifers were used. Half the group received training with tactile stimulation of all body regions, while the other group did not receive stimulation (control group. The training period was divided into three phases: early, days 1 to 6 of training; intermediate: days 7 to 12, and final, days 13 to 23. During training, movement and displacement scores were obtained over a period of 5 minutes. Physiological parameters were also recorded [respiratory rate (FR and minimum eye temperature (ETmin measured with a thermal imaging camera]. After calving, the heifers were submitted to first milking when the evaluations were started for the first 10 days of milking (20 consecutive milkings. The behavior of the animals was evaluated by attributing a reactivity score of 1 (desirable behaviors or 2 (undesirable behaviors: entry into the pen, teat disinfection, milking one or two jets of milk for mastitis testing, attachment of teat cups, and removal of milk, as well as the amount of milk produced. Mean ETmin and FR decreased over the training period. A significant difference was observed for displacement score (P=0.019, with a reduction in displacement from the early to the final period (from 60.0% to 25.7%. During the attachment of teat cups, stimulated heifers were less reactive (P=0.002, characterized by a lower frequency of undesirable behaviors (12.0%, than unstimulated heifers (30.2%. The average milk yield during the first 60 days of lactation was higher for the group of stimulated heifers (Ln y=2.20–0.0102t+0.331lnt, R2=0.76 compared to unstimulated heifers (Ln y=1.54–0.0191x+0.578lnx, R2=0.79, with this difference being

  12. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Stimulate Aldosterone Production in a Subset of Aldosterone-Producing Adenoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Rui; Oki, Kenji; Yoneda, Masayasu; Gomez-Sanchez, Celso E.; Ohno, Haruya; Kobuke, Kazuhiro; Itcho, Kiyotaka; Kohno, Nobuoki

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We aimed to detect novel genes associated with G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) and elucidate the mechanisms underlying aldosterone production. Microarray analysis targeting GPCR-associated genes was conducted using APA without known mutations (APA-WT) samples (n = 3) and APA with the KCNJ5 mutation (APA-KCNJ5; n = 3). Since gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GNRHR) was the highest expression in APA-WT by microarray analysis, we investigated the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation on aldosterone production. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay results revealed higher GNRHR expression levels in APA-WT samples those in APA-KCNJ5 samples (P APA-WT samples, and there was a significant and positive correlation between GNRHR and LHCGR expression in all APA samples (r = 0.476, P APA-WT (n = 9), which showed higher GNRHR and LHCGR levels, had significantly higher GnRH-stimulated aldosterone response than those with APA-KCNJ5 (n = 13) (P APA-WT, and the molecular analysis including the receptor expression associated with clinical findings of GnRH stimulation. PMID:27196470

  13. Quercetin improves postpartum hypogalactia in milk-deficient mice via stimulating prolactin production in pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Man; Wang, Na; Yao, Bei; Zhong, Yao; Lin, Yan; You, Tianhui

    2018-04-19

    Postpartum dysgalactia is a common clinical problem for lactating women. Seeking out the safe and efficient phytoestrogens will be a promising strategy for postpartum dysgalactia therapy. In this study, the postpartum mice within four groups, including control group, the model group, and the treatment groups intragastrically administrated with normal saline, bromocriptine, bromocriptine plus 17α-ethinyl estradiol, and bromocriptine plus quercetin, respectively, were used. The results showed that quercetin, a kind of natural phytoestrogen, could efficiently promote lactation yield and mammary gland development in the agalactosis mice produced by bromocriptine administration. Mechanically, quercetin, such as 17α-ethinyl estradiol, significantly stimulated prolactin (PRL) production and deposition in the mammary gland in the agalactosis mice determined by western blotting, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Furthermore, quercetin could increase the expression of β-casein, stearoyl-CoA desaturase, fatty acid synthase, and α-lactalbumin in the breast tissues that are responsible for the production of fatty acid, lactose, and galactose in the milk at the transcriptional level determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Specifically, quercetin promoted primary mammary epithelial cell proliferation and stimulated prolactin receptor (PRLR) expression probably via AKT activation in vitro. In conclusion, this study indicates that estrogen-like quercetin promotes mammary gland development and lactation yield in milk-deficient mice, probably via stimulating PRL expression and release from the pituitary gland, as well as induces PRLR expression in primary mammary epithelial cells. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Understanding the productivity of cassava in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezui, K.S.

    2017-01-01

    Drought stress and sub-optimal soil fertility management are major constraints to crop production in general and to cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in particular in the rain-fed cropping systems in West Africa. Cassava is an important source of calories for millions of smallholder households in

  15. Understanding Financial Innovation: An Introduction to Derivative Financial Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J. N.

    1992-01-01

    Explains the use of forwards, futures, swaps, and options in international currency trading. Argues that pricing options are based on the same basic principles as pricing other financial instruments. Concludes that, although financial markets have developed several new products, hedging and speculation involve similar processes. (CFR)

  16. A study of scattering, production, and stimulated emission of sound by vortex flows. [Bernouli enthalpy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    The basic theory of aeroacoustics of homentropic fluid media is applied to the problems of sound scattering, production, and stimulated emission. A general theory of scattering from low speed three-dimensional vortex flows is presented. Specific results are given for the horseshoe vortex and vortex ring. The noise of an elementary corotating vortex pair in various flows is calculated. It is shown that a potential flow and shear flow can substantially increase the basic pair noise. Small reverse shears can annihilate vortex pairs and eliminate the pair noise mechanism. The pair results are used to explain qualitatively the operation of noise suppression devices. The stimulated emission of a single vortex pair and four and six vortex arrays is demonstrated. The results for six vortices illustrate how external pure tones can amplify the broadband noise of a jet in agreement with recent experimental evidence.

  17. Information about the taste stimulates choice of unfamiliar healthful food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schickenberg, B; van Assema, P; Brug, J; de Vries, N K

    2011-12-01

    The present study aimed to assess whether taste information about unfamiliar low-fat and fruit and vegetable products leads to more positive taste expectations and stimulates choice for these products. The impact of level of food neophobia on such effects was studied. The present study had a two (taste information: yes/no) by four (food products: low-fat cheese/very low-fat margarine spread/fruit juice/fruit and vegetable juice) between subjects design among a convenience sample of 396 university students. Taste information was delivered by means of a poster providing information on the taste of the offered food product. Primary outcome measurements were taste expectations and product choice. Level of food neophobia, appetite level, mood states, usual intake of fruit, vegetables and fat, and demographics were taken into account as potential confounders. Taste information had no effect on taste expectations, although it had a positive effect on choosing unfamiliar healthful products. These effects were not moderated by level of food neophobia. Offering taste information on unfamiliar healthful products appears to be a promising strategy for increasing the first-time trial of such products, independent of the participants' level of food neophobia. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2011 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  18. Nitrogenous compounds stimulate glucose-derived acid production by oral Streptococcus and Actinomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norimatsu, Yuka; Kawashima, Junko; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2015-09-01

    Both Streptococcus and Actinomyces can produce acids from dietary sugars and are frequently found in caries lesions. In the oral cavity, nitrogenous compounds, such as peptides and amino acids, are provided continuously by saliva and crevicular gingival fluid. Given that these bacteria can also utilize nitrogen compounds for their growth, it was hypothesized that nitrogenous compounds may influence their acid production; however, no previous studies have examined this topic. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the effects of nitrogenous compounds (tryptone and glutamate) on glucose-derived acid production by Streptococcus and Actinomyces. Acid production was evaluated using a pH-stat method under anaerobic conditions, whereas the amounts of metabolic end-products were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. Tryptone enhanced glucose-derived acid production by up to 2.68-fold, whereas glutamate enhanced Streptococcus species only. However, neither tryptone nor glutamate altered the end-product profiles, indicating that the nitrogenous compounds stimulate the whole metabolic pathways involving in acid production from glucose, but are not actively metabolized, nor do they alter metabolic pathways. These results suggest that nitrogenous compounds in the oral cavity promote acid production by Streptococcus and Actinomyces in vivo. © 2015 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Increasing Goat Productivity Through the Improvement of Endogenous Secretion of Pregnant Hormones Using Follicle Stimulating Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriyanto Andriyanto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Previous studies reported that the improvement of endogenous estrogen and progesterone secretions during gestation improved fetal prenatal growth, birth weight, mammary gland growth and development, milk production, litter size, pre- and post-weaning growths. An experiment was conducted to apply the improvement of endogenous secretion of pregnant hormones during pregnancy to increase goat productivity. Thirty-six female ettawah-cross does were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 (control: 18 does included does without improvement of endogenous secretion of pregnant hormones and Group 2 (treatment: 18 does included does with improvement of endogenous secretion of pregnant hormones using follicle stimulating hormones to stimulate super ovulation. The application of this technology increased total offspring born (control: 25 offspring; treatment: 42 offspring, average litter size (control: 1.88; treatment: 2.33, offspring birth weight (control: 2.85±0.50 kg; treatment: 3.82±0.40 kg, and does milk production (control: 1.36±0.34 L/does/day; treatment: 2.10±0.21 L/does/day. Offspring born to does with improved endogenous secretion of pregnant hormones had better weaning weight (control: 11.17±1.99 kg/offspring; treatment: 14.5±1.11 kg/offspring. At weaning period, does with improved endogenous secretion of pregnant hormones produced offspring with total weaning weight twice as heavy as control does (control: 189.9 kg; treatment: 403.6 kg. By a simple calculation of economic analysis, this technology application could increase gross revenue per does until weaning by Rp. 432.888,89. It was concluded that this technology is economically feasible to be applied in small-scale farm. Key Words: follicle stimulating hormone, pregnant hormones, endogenous secretion, super ovulation, ettawah-cross does

  20. Increasing Production from Low-Permeability Gas Reservoirs by Optimizing Zone Isolation for Successful Stimulation Treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred Sabins

    2005-03-31

    Maximizing production from wells drilled in low-permeability reservoirs, such as the Barnett Shale, is determined by cementing, stimulation, and production techniques employed. Studies show that cementing can be effective in terms of improving fracture effectiveness by 'focusing' the frac in the desired zone and improving penetration. Additionally, a method is presented for determining the required properties of the set cement at various places in the well, with the surprising result that uphole cement properties in wells destined for multiple-zone fracturing is more critical than those applied to downhole zones. Stimulation studies show that measuring pressure profiles and response during Pre-Frac Injection Test procedures prior to the frac job are critical in determining if a frac is indicated at all, as well as the type and size of the frac job. This result is contrary to current industry practice, in which frac jobs are designed well before the execution, and carried out as designed on location. Finally, studies show that most wells in the Barnett Shale are production limited by liquid invasion into the wellbore, and determinants are presented for when rod or downhole pumps are indicated.

  1. Sirtuin inhibition attenuates the production of inflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Claudia A. [Universite catholique de Louvain, Louvain Drug Research Institute (LDRI), Pharmaceutics and Drug Delivery Research Group, Brussels B-1200 (Belgium); Fievez, Laurence [University of Liege, GIGA-Research, Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Liege B-4000 (Belgium); Neyrinck, Audrey M.; Delzenne, Nathalie M. [Universite catholique de Louvain, LDRI, Metabolism and Nutrition Research Group, Brussels B-1200 (Belgium); Bureau, Fabrice [University of Liege, GIGA-Research, Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Liege B-4000 (Belgium); Vanbever, Rita, E-mail: rita.vanbever@uclouvain.be [Universite catholique de Louvain, Louvain Drug Research Institute (LDRI), Pharmaceutics and Drug Delivery Research Group, Brussels B-1200 (Belgium)

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages were treated with cambinol and sirtinol. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cambinol and sirtinol decreased lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cambinol decreased NF-{kappa}B activity but had no impact on p38 MAPK activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sirtuins are an interesting target for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. -- Abstract: In several inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis or sepsis, the regulatory mechanisms of inflammation are inefficient and the excessive inflammatory response leads to damage to the host. Sirtuins are class III histone deacetylases that modulate the activity of several transcription factors that are implicated in immune responses. In this study, we evaluated the impact of sirtuin inhibition on the activation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated J774 macrophages by assessing the production of inflammatory cytokines. The pharmacologic inhibition of sirtuins decreased the production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha}) interleukin 6 (IL-6) and Rantes. The reduction of cytokine production was associated with decreased nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) activity and inhibitor kappa B alpha (I{kappa}B{alpha}) phosphorylation while no impact was observed on the phosphorylation status of p38 mitogen-activated kinase (p38 MAPK). This work shows that sirtuin pharmacologic inhibitors are a promising tool for the treatment of inflammatory conditions.

  2. On the understanding and development of modern physical neurorehabilitation methods: robotics and non-invasive brain stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwards Dylan J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The incidence of physical disability in the community resulting from neurological dysfunction is predicted to increase in the coming years. The impetus for immediate and critical evaluation of physical neurorehabilitation strategies stems from the largely incomplete recovery following neurological damage, questionable efficacy of individual rehabilitation techniques, and the progressive acceptance of evidence-based medicine. The emergent technologies of non-invasive brain stimulation (NBS and rehabilitation robotics enable a better understanding of the recovery process, as well as the mechanisms and effectiveness of intervention. With a more precise grasp of the relationship between dysfunctional and treatment-related plasticity, we can anticipate a move toward highly controlled and individualised prescription of rehabilitation. Both robotics and NBS can also be used to enhance motor control and learning in patients with neurological dysfunction. The merit of these contemporary methods as investigative and rehabilitation tools requires clarification and discussion. In this thematic series, five cohesive and eloquent papers address this issue from leading clinicians and scientists in the fields of robotics, NBS, plasticity and motor learning.

  3. Stimulation of AIDS lymphocytes with calcium ionophore (A23187) and phorbol ester (PMA): studies of cytoplasmic free Ca, IL-2 receptor expression, IL-2 production, and proliferation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, B; Moller, J; Langhoff, E

    1989-01-01

    . The production of IL-2 in normal lymphocytes stimulated with A23187/PMA was 33 times higher than that after stimulation with PHA. In AIDS lymphocytes the production of IL-2 induced by all activators was severely decreased compared to control subjects, although the production of IL-2 after stimulation with A23187...

  4. Impact of shed blood products on stimulated cytokine release in an in vitro model of transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, S O; Biedler, A E; Behmenburg, F; Volk, T; Rensing, H

    2012-07-01

    Blood transfusion is reported to suppress the recipient's immune system. To avoid allogenic transfusion, post-operative shed blood retransfusion is a commonly used method. The aim of this study was to investigate the dose-related impact of post-operatively collected shed blood products on the stimulated cytokine release in an in vitro model of transfusion. Venous blood samples obtained from 20 patients undergoing hip arthroplasty were mixed with post-operatively collected unprocessed, processed, and irradiated shed blood as well as normal saline as a control. Shed blood was processed by centrifugation and separating the cellular fraction from the soluble fraction and washing the cellular fraction with phosphate buffered saline to eliminate any cell fragments and other substances. Mixing ratios were 1:3, 1:1, and 3:1. Endotoxin-stimulated release of Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) was measured after 24 h of culture by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Unprocessed, irradiated shed blood and the soluble fraction caused a significant suppression of stimulated TNF-α release compared to control. The addition of the cellular shed blood fraction had no significant influence on the TNF-α release compared to control. Shed blood and its components caused a dose-independent immunomodulation as indicated by a suppressed stimulated TNF-α release. Leukocytes seem to play a minor role, as we observed a sustained suppression after transfusion of γ-irradiated shed blood. Only the elimination of soluble factors by centrifugation and followed by an additional washing step prevented the observed suppression of TNF-α. Thus, we assume that washing of shed blood can prevent potential detrimental effects. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica © 2012 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  5. Interleukin-4 and interferon-¿ production by Leishmania stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from nonexposed individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtzhals, J A; Kemp, M; Poulsen, L K

    1995-01-01

    Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) production by Leishmania reactive peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from non-exposed individuals was investigated. IFN-gamma was measured in culture supernatants after antigen stimulation. For the measurement of IL-4, antigen stimulated...... Leishmania reactive CD4+ T cells could be demonstrated. The cells from different individuals showed different patterns of IFN-gamma and/or IL-4 production upon antigenic stimulation. In experimental leishmaniasis the early balance between IFN-gamma and IL-4 is important for the clinical outcome. Our findings...

  6. The SCFA butyrate stimulates the epithelial production of retinoic acid via inhibition of epithelial HDAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilderink, Ronald; Verseijden, Caroline; Seppen, Jurgen; Muncan, Vanesa; van den Brink, Gijs R; Lambers, Tim T; van Tol, Eric A; de Jonge, Wouter J

    2016-06-01

    In the intestinal mucosa, retinoic acid (RA) is a critical signaling molecule. RA is derived from dietary vitamin A (retinol) through conversion by aldehyde dehydrogenases (aldh). Reduced levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are associated with pathological microbial dysbiosis, inflammatory disease, and allergy. We hypothesized that SCFAs contribute to mucosal homeostasis by enhancing RA production in intestinal epithelia. With the use of human and mouse epithelial cell lines and primary enteroids, we studied the effect of SCFAs on the production of RA. Functional RA conversion was analyzed by Adlefluor activity assays. Butyrate (0-20 mM), in contrast to other SCFAs, dose dependently induced aldh1a1 or aldh1a3 transcript expression and increased RA conversion in human and mouse epithelial cells. Epithelial cell line data were replicated in intestinal organoids. In these organoids, butyrate (2-5 mM) upregulated aldh1a3 expression (36-fold over control), whereas aldh1a1 was not significantly affected. Butyrate enhanced maturation markers (Mucin-2 and villin) but did not consistently affect stemness markers or other Wnt target genes (lgr5, olfm4, ascl2, cdkn1). In enteroids, the stimulation of RA production by SCFA was mimicked by inhibitors of histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) but not by HDAC1/2 inhibitors nor by agonists of butyrate receptors G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR)43 or GPR109A, indicating that butyrate stimulates RA production via HDAC3 inhibition. We conclude that the SCFA butyrate inhibits HDAC3 and thereby supports epithelial RA production. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Understanding and engineering enzymes for enhanced biofuel production.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Blake Alexander; Volponi, Joanne V.; Sapra, Rajat; Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel; Buffleben, George M.; Roe, Diana C.

    2009-01-01

    Today, carbon-rich fossil fuels, primarily oil, coal and natural gas, provide 85% of the energy consumed in the United States. The release of greenhouse gases from these fuels has spurred research into alternative, non-fossil energy sources. Lignocellulosic biomass is renewable resource that is carbon-neutral, and can provide a raw material for alternative transportation fuels. Plant-derived biomass contains cellulose, which is difficult to convert to monomeric sugars for production of fuels. The development of cost-effective and energy-efficient processes to transform the cellulosic content of biomass into fuels is hampered by significant roadblocks, including the lack of specifically developed energy crops, the difficulty in separating biomass components, the high costs of enzymatic deconstruction of biomass, and the inhibitory effect of fuels and processing byproducts on organisms responsible for producing fuels from biomass monomers. One of the main impediments to more widespread utilization of this important resource is the recalcitrance of cellulosic biomass and techniques that can be utilized to deconstruct cellulosic biomass.

  8. Statins stimulate the production of a soluble form of the receptor for advanced glycation end products

    OpenAIRE

    Quade-Lyssy, Patricia; Kanarek, Anna Maria; Baiersdörfer, Markus; Postina, Rolf; Kojro, Elzbieta

    2013-01-01

    The beneficial effects of statin therapy in the reduction of cardiovascular pathogenesis, atherosclerosis, and diabetic complications are well known. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) plays an important role in the progression of these diseases. In contrast, soluble forms of RAGE act as decoys for RAGE ligands and may prevent the development of RAGE-mediated disorders. Soluble forms of RAGE are either produced by alternative splicing [endogenous secretory RAGE (esRAGE)] ...

  9. Phenotypic and functional characteristics of active suppressor cells against IFN-gamma production in PHA-stimulated cord blood lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, H.; Taga, K.; Matsuda, A.; Uwadana, N.; Hasui, M.; Miyawaki, T.; Taniguchi, N.

    1986-11-15

    Cord blood mononuclear cells (MNC) were defective in their ability to produce interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) on stimulation with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or recombinant interleukin 2, whereas cord MNC could induce comparable amounts of IFN-gamma with adult controls on stimulation with a streptococcal preparation, OK-432. Moreover, irradiation of cord MNC with 1500 rad before PHA stimulation could restore the IFN-gamma production. Kinetic studies indicated that such augmentation of IFN-gamma production by irradiation was evident when cord MNC were irradiated before or by 12 hr of PHA-stimulated culture. But irradiation after 18 hr or more of PHA stimulation did not exert any significant augmentation on IFN-gamma production by cord MNC. It seemed most likely that the ability of IFN-gamma production is already mature at birth, but radiosensitive suppressor effectors on IFN-gamma production are activated within cord MNC at an early stage of PHA stimulation, resulting in poor IFN-gamma production by cord MNC. PHA-induced IFN-gamma production by OKT3+, OKT4+, and OKT8- cord cells were markedly enhanced by irradiation with 1,500 rad before the culture. Coculture experiments disclosed that cord OKT4+ cells, but not OKT4- cells, when prestimulated with PHA for 24 hr, exerted active suppression on PHA-induced IFN-gamma production by adult MNC in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggested that radiosensitive suppressor effectors on IFN-gamma production were induced within the OKT4+ T cell subset of cord MNC on PHA stimulation.

  10. Creating Socionas : Building creative understanding of people's experiences in the early stages of new product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, C.E.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the research into Creating Socionas, a step-by-step approach to building creative understanding of user experience in the early stages of new product development (NPD). Creative understanding is the combination of a rich, cognitive and affective understanding of the other, and the

  11. Mediating Relationship of Differential Products in Understanding Integration in Introductory Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Nathaniel; Heckler, Andrew F.

    2018-01-01

    In the context of introductory physics, we study student conceptual understanding of differentials, differential products, and integrals and possible pathways to understanding these quantities. We developed a multiple choice conceptual assessment employing a variety of physical contexts probing physical understanding of these three quantities and…

  12. Cultured rat and purified human Pneumocystis carinii stimulate intra- but not extracellular free radical production in human neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T; Aliouat, E M; Lundgren, B

    1998-01-01

    The production of free radicals in human neutrophils was studied in both Pneumocystis carinii derived from cultures of L2 rat lung epithelial-like cells and Pneumocystis carinii purified from human lung. Using the cytochrome C technique, which selectively measured extracellular superoxide...... generation, hardly any free radical production was observed after stimulation with cultured rat-derived P. carinii. A chemiluminescence technique, which separately measured intra- and extracellular free radical production, was subsequently employed to differentiate the free radical generation....... It was established that 1) P. carinii stimulated intra- but not extracellular free radical production in human neutrophils, 2) opsonized cultured rat-derived P. carinii stimulated human neutrophils to a strong intracellular response of superoxide production, and 3) opsonized P. carinii, purified from human lung also...

  13. Stimulation of the hydrolytic stage for biogas production from cattle manure in an electrochemical bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samani, Saeed; Abdoli, Mohammad Ali; Karbassi, Abdolreza; Amin, Mohammad Mehdi

    Electrical current in the hydrolytic phase of the biogas process might affect biogas yield. In this study, four 1,150 mL single membrane-less chamber electrochemical bioreactors, containing two parallel titanium plates were connected to the electrical source with voltages of 0, -0.5, -1 and -1.5 V, respectively. Reactor 1 with 0 V was considered as a control reactor. The trend of biogas production was precisely checked against pH, oxidation reduction potential and electrical power at a temperature of 37 ± 0.5°C amid cattle manure as substrate for 120 days. Biogas production increased by voltage applied to Reactors 2 and 3 when compared with the control reactor. In addition, the electricity in Reactors 2 and 3 caused more biogas production than Reactor 4. Acetogenic phase occurred more quickly in Reactor 3 than in the other reactors. The obtained results from Reactor 4 were indicative of acidogenic domination and its continuous behavior under electrical stimulation. The results of the present investigation clearly revealed that phasic electrical current could enhance the efficiency of biogas production.

  14. Involvement of purinergic signaling on nitric oxide production by neutrophils stimulated with Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasson, Amanda Piccoli; De Carli, Geraldo Attilio; Bonan, Carla Denise; Tasca, Tiana

    2012-03-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasite from the human urogenital tract that causes trichomonosis, the most prevalent non-viral sexually transmitted disease. The neutrophil infiltration has been considered to be primarily responsible for cytological changes observed at infection site, and the chemoattractants can play an important role in this leukocytic recruitment. Nitric oxide (NO) is one of the most widespread mediator compounds, and it is implicated in modulation of immunological mechanisms. Extracellular nucleotides and nucleosides are signaling molecules involved in several processes, including immune responses and control of leukocyte trafficking. Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase members, ecto-5'-nucleotidase, and adenosine deaminase (ectoADA) have been characterized in T. vaginalis. Herein, we investigated the effects of purinergic system on NO production by neutrophils stimulated with T. vaginalis. The trophozoites were able to induce a high NO synthesis by neutrophils through iNOS pathway. The extracellular nucleotides ATP, ADP, and ATPγS (a non-hydrolyzable ATP analog) showed no significant change in NO secretion. In contrast, adenosine and its degradation product, inosine, promoted a low production of the compound. The immunosuppressive effect of adenosine upon NO release by neutrophils occurred due to adenosine A(2A) receptor activation. The ecto-5'-nucleotidase activity displayed by T. vaginalis was shown to be important in adenosine generation, indicating the efficiency of purinergic cascade. Our data suggest the influence of purinergic signaling, specifically adenosinergic system, on NO production by neutrophils in T. vaginalis infection, contributing to the immunological aspects of disease.

  15. Increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production after lipopolysaccharide stimulation in patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Serrano, María Edith; Estrada-García, Iris; Mogica-Martínez, Dolores; González-Garay, Alejandro; López-Herrera, Gabriela; Berrón-Ruiz, Laura; Espinosa-Padilla, Sara Elva; Yamazaki-Nakashimada, Marco Antonio; Vargas-Hernández, Alexander; Santos-Argumedo, Leopoldo; Estrada-Parra, Sergio Antonio; Espinosa-Rosales, Francisco J

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine response by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from XLA patients. Thirteen patients with XLA were included in the study. LPS-induced TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 production was determined in PBMCs from patients and matched healthy controls by ELISA. Cytokine production was correlated with the severity of mutation, affected domain and clinical characteristics. In response to LPS, PBMCs from XLA patients produced significantly higher amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines and IL-10 compared to controls, and this production was influenced neither by the severity of the mutation nor the affected domain. PBMCs from patients with a history of more hospital admissions before their diagnosis produced higher levels of TNF-α. PBMCs from patients with lower serum IgA levels showed a higher production of TNF-α and IL-1β. Less severe (punctual) mutations in the Btk gene were associated with higher serum IgG levels at diagnosis. Our results demonstrate a predominantly inflammatory response in XLA patients after LPS stimulation and suggest a deregulation of TLR signaling in the absence of Btk. This response may be influenced by environmental factors.

  16. Effect of Bacillus thuringiensis parasporal toxin on stimulating of IL-2 and IL-5 cytokines production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Soleimany

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Bacillus thuringiensis, is a Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium that produces crystalline parasporal protein (Cry during sporulation. Some of these Cry toxins do not show cytotoxicity against insects but they are capable to kill some human and animal cancer cells. The aim of this study was to verify whether cytocidal parasporal of B thuringiensis strains have immunostimulatory activity on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC and to evaluate the ability of IL-2 and IL-5 production. Materials and methods: B. thuringiensis toxin with cytocidal activity was isolated and treated with proteinase K. PBMNC was cultured and treated with activated crystal proteins. We evaluated the ability of different cytokines production with Flow Cytometry. Results: In this study, immune stimulatory toxins Cry1 were distinguished. This toxin can stimulate production of cytokines IL-2 and stop production of IL-5. Discussion and conclusion: According to anti-cancer effect of B. thuringiensis toxins and also immune stimulatory effect, with more research these toxins can be introduced as immunotherapy drug in cancer treatment.

  17. NAD+-dependent HDAC inhibitor stimulates Monascus pigment production but inhibit citrinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yan; Zhou, Youxiang; Mao, Zejing; Li, Huihui; Chen, Fusheng; Shao, Yanchun

    2017-08-23

    Monascus species are edible fungi due to the production of food colorant and other beneficial compounds. Hence, it has been an attractive thesis to improve their productivities. Increasing numbers of investigations revealed that regulating the activities of histone deacetylases can significantly perturb secondary metabolites (SM) production at a global level. In this study, dihydrocoumarin (DHC, an inhibitor of the Sirtuin family of NAD + -dependent deacetylases) was used to treat Monascus ruber for evaluating its effects on organism growth and SM production. The results revealed that the variation trends of colonial sizes, biomass and mycotoxin were in a dose-dependent manner. Generally, they decreased with the increased DHC concentrations in the designed range. But the variation trend of pigment was different. Comparison of SM profile, three new peaks occurred to the mycelia extractions from DHC-treated strain corresponding to molecular weights 402, 416 and 444, respectively. These three compounds were identified as Monasfluol B, Monascus azaphilone C and acetyl-monasfluol B (a new Monascus chemical pigment structure). In short, DHC can stimulate M. ruber strain to produce more pigment-like polyketides but inhibition of mycotoxin (citrinin).

  18. Pulsed electromagnetic fields stimulation affects BMD and local factor production of rats with disuse osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei-Wei; Zhao, Jian-Hua

    2010-02-01

    Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) have been used widely to treat nonunion fractures and related problems in bone healing, as a biological and physical method. With the use of Helmholtz coils and PEMF stimulators to generate uniform time-varying electromagnetic fields, the effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on bone mineral density (BMD) and local factor production in disuse osteoporosis (DOP) rats were investigated. Eighty 4-month-old female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into intact (INT) group, DOP group, calcitonin-treated (CT) group, and PEMF stimulation group. The right hindlimbs of all the rats were immobilized by tibia-tail fixation except for those rats in the INT group. Rats in the CT group were injected with calcitonin (2 IU/kg, i.p., once a day) and rats in the PEMF group were irradiated with PEMF immediately postoperative. The BMD, serum transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta1), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentration of the proximal femur were measured 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after treatment. Compared with the CT and DOP groups, the BMD and serum TGF-beta1 concentration in the PEMF group increased significantly after 8 weeks. The IL-6 concentration in the DOP group was elevated significantly after operation. The PEMF group showed significantly lower IL-6 level than the DOP group. The results found demonstrate that PEMF stimulation can efficiently suppress bone mass loss. We, therefore, conclude that PEMF may affect bone remodeling process through promoting TGF-beta1 secretion and inhibiting IL-6 expression. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Macrophage secretory products selectively stimulate dermatan sulfate proteoglycan production in cultured arterial smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, I.J.; Wagner, W.D.; Owens, R.T.

    1990-01-01

    Arterial dermatan sulfate proteoglycan has been shown to increase with atherosclerosis progression, but factors responsible for this increase are unknown. To test the hypothesis that smooth muscle cell proteoglycan synthesis may be modified by macrophage products, pigeon arterial smooth muscle cells were exposed to the media of either cholesteryl ester-loaded pigeon peritoneal macrophages or a macrophage cell line P388D1. Proteoglycans radiolabeled with [35S]sulfate and [3H]serine were isolated from culture media and smooth muscle cells and purified following precipitation with 1-hexadecylpyridinium chloride and chromatography. Increasing concentrations of macrophage-conditioned media were associated with a dose-response increase in [35S]sulfate incorporation into secreted proteoglycans, but there was no change in cell-associated proteoglycans. Incorporation of [3H]serine into total proteoglycan core proteins was not significantly different (5.2 X 10(5) dpm and 5.5 X 10(5) disintegrations per minute (dpm) in control and conditioned media-treated cultures, respectively), but selective effects were observed on individual proteoglycan types. Twofold increases in dermatan sulfate proteoglycan and limited degradation of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan were apparent based on core proteins separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Immunoinhibition studies indicated that interleukin-1 was involved in the modulation of proteoglycan synthesis by macrophage-conditioned media. These data provide support for the role of macrophages in alteration of the matrix proteoglycans synthesized by smooth muscle cells and provide a mechanism to account for the reported increased dermatan sulfate/chondroitin sulfate ratios in the developing atherosclerotic lesion

  20. Understanding the NPD - Production interface : Advanced industrialisation and growth in the composite industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatzimichali, A.P.; Potter, K.D.; Smulders, F.E.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an initial attempt to theoretically describe and understand how the composite product supply chain could reach advanced levels of industrialisation. At the heart of this work rest the interface between NPD (New Product Development) and Production as the central point where

  1. Testosterone alters iron metabolism and stimulates red blood cell production independently of dihydrotestosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beggs, Luke A; Yarrow, Joshua F; Conover, Christine F; Meuleman, John R; Beck, Darren T; Morrow, Matthew; Zou, Baiming; Shuster, Jonathan J; Borst, Stephen E

    2014-09-01

    Testosterone (T) stimulates erythropoiesis and regulates iron homeostasis. However, it remains unknown whether the (type II) 5α-reduction of T to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) mediates these androgenic effects, as it does in some other tissues. Our purpose was to determine whether inhibition of type II 5α-reductase (via finasteride) alters red blood cell (RBC) production and serum markers of iron homeostasis subsequent to testosterone-enanthate (TE) administration in older hypogonadal men. Sixty men aged ≥60 yr with serum T <300 ng/dl or bioavailable T <70 ng/dl received treatment with TE (125 mg/wk) vs. vehicle paired with finasteride (5 mg/day) vs. placebo using a 2 × 2 factorial design. Over the course of 12 mo, TE increased RBC count 9%, hematocrit 4%, and hemoglobin 8% while suppressing serum hepcidin 57% (P < 0.001 for all measurements). Most of the aforementioned changes occurred in the first 3 mo of treatment, and finasteride coadministration did not significantly alter any of these effects. TE also reduced serum ferritin 32% (P = 0.002) within 3 mo of treatment initiation without altering iron, transferrin, or transferrin saturation. We conclude that TE stimulates erythropoiesis and alters iron homeostasis independently of the type II 5α-reductase enzyme. These results demonstrate that elevated DHT is not required for androgen-mediated erythropoiesis or for alterations in iron homeostasis that would appear to support iron incorporation into RBCs.

  2. Stimulation of Egg Production in Japanese Quails by Enriching Feed with Residual Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letitia Oprean

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Quail eggs are more and more approved for consumers because they bring many benefits to the human body. Therefore, quails breeding for eggs production have become a very profitable business. Residual yeast may be a nutritional supplement, especially rich in vitamins and proteins. This article studies the influence of residual beer yeast on egg laying in Japanese quails. In order to be integrated into the diet of quails the yeast has undergone a process of autolysis; its influence has been examined on separate groups. The results were reported as a percentage compared with the control group, where the feed does not contain this supplement. Due to its content rich in vitamins and proteins, the residual beer yeast used in feeding the quails bred for eggs stimulates egg laying.

  3. OPTIMIZATION OF SALARY CALCULATIONS AND EMPLOYEES’ LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY STIMULATION AT THE ENTERPRISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olha Odnoshevna

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of the paper are: the detailed analysis of salary calculations, the evaluation of the effectiveness of employees’ work, the development of optimizing mechanisms of salary calculations by increasing productivity and implementation of the methods of employees’ labour stimulation. Methodology. The study is based on an analysis of different groups of enterprises, including agricultural ones. It is analysed that for today the efficiency of labour at some enterprises drops due to low wages and the lack of employees’ motivation mechanism. Results. The study found that the process of salary calculations has a lot of problematic aspects, such as a deficient work organization, insufficient stimulation of workers, poorly composed documents, etc. To improve such a situation, it is suggested an introduction of automation in order to reduce the wasting of working time for data processing of an accounting department and to improve significantly the quality and speed of information transfer to the head of an enterprise and external users. It is offered to use a labour ball to improve employees’ motivation, which is a form of accounting for the work varying on quality and quantity that was contributed to production. According to the scoring results, a mechanism of bonuses for employees is suggested. Practical implications. We suggested entering new documents to control the number of issued orders – “Registration Book of Issued Orders”. To provide a high level of quality control of executed works, it is suggested to display data in a special primary document “Record Sheet of Performance Quality”. It is offered to use partial salary payment for unprofitable enterprises through payment in kind. Value/originality. At first, the results will allow increasing the firm’s performance quality without losing employees, and subsequently – allow increasing the profitability of the enterprise.

  4. Analysis of the results of Federal incentives used to stimulate energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cone, B.W.; Emery, J.C.; Fassbender, A.G.

    1980-06-01

    The research program analyzed the Federal incentives used to stimulate nuclear, hydro, coal, gas, oil, and electricity production in order to supply what was learned to the selection of an incentives strategy to induce new energy production from renewable resources. Following the introductory chapter, Chapter 2 examines the problem of estimating effects from a theoretical perspective. Methods of quantifying and identifying the many interactive effects of government actions are discussed. Chapter 3 presents a generic analysis of the result of Federal incentives. Chapters 4 through 9 deal with incentives to energy forms - nuclear, hydro, coal, oil, gas, and electricity. Chapter 10 summarizes the estimated results of the incentives, which are presented in terms of their quantity and price impacts. The incentive costs per million Btu of induced energy production is also discussed. Chapter 11 discusses the parity issue, that is an equivalence between Federal incentives to renewable resources and to traditional energy resources. Any analysis of incentives for solar needs will profit from an analysis of the costs of solar incentives per million Btu compared with those for traditional energy forms. Chapter 12 concludes the analysis, discussing the history of traditional energy incentives as a guide to solar-energy incentives. 216 references, 38 figures, 91 tables.

  5. The effects of propolis on cytokine production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Özbilge

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Propolis, a bee-product, has attracted researchers’ interest in recent years because of several biological and pharmacological properties. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS is a component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and has an important role in the pathogenesis of septic shock and several inflammatory diseases by causing excessive release of inflammatory cytokines. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ethanol extract of propolis collected in Kayseri and its surroundings on production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in LPS-stimulated macrophages.Materials and methods: In vitro, U937 human macrophage cells were grown in RPMI-1640 medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum (10% and penicillin-streptomycin (2% and divided into: control, LPS treated, and propolis+LPS treated cell groups. After incubation in an atmosphere of 5% CO2 and at 37°C of cells, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α levels were measured in cell-free supernatants by ELISA.Results: IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α levels increased in LPS treated cell group according to control, statistically significant. Each cytokine levels significantly decreased in LPS and propolis treated cell group according to only LPS treated cell group (p<0.05.Conclusion: Propolis is a natural product to be examined for usage when needed the suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. J Clin Exp Invest 2011; 2 (4: 366-370

  6. Immunoglobulin production induced in vitro by glucocorticoid hormones: T cell-dependent stimulation of immunoglobulin production without B cell proliferation in cultures of human peripheral blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grayson, J.; Dooley, N.J.; Koski, I.R.; Blaese, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    The direct effects of steroid hormones on the production of immunoglobulins and DNA synthesis by human T and B lymphocytes was evaluated in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. As detected by a reverse hemolytic plaque assay, the addition of 0.1 mM to 10 nM hydrocortisone to lymphocytes in culture in the absence of other stimulants or mitogens, resulted in the dramatic induction of immunoglobulin production with responses comparable to those seen in similar cultures stimulated with pokeweed mitogen. Steroid-stimulated immunoglobulin production was first seen after 48 h and peaked at 8-10 d of culture. The production of IgG, IgA, and IgM was induced following incubation with steroid. Glucocorticoids, but not estrogens or androgens, were capable of mediating this effect, and only compounds with affinity for the glucocorticoid receptor were active. The induction of immunoglobulin production was dependent on both T cells and monocytes; cultures depleted of either cell type did not produce immunoglobulin when stimulated with glucocorticoid hormones. Proliferation of B cells or T cells could not be detected by [/sup 3/H]thymidine incorporation or total cell recovery from steroid-stimulated cultures, even though such cultures demonstrated marked increases in immunoglobulin production. The mechanism responsible for this functional maturation of B cells to become high rate immunoglobulin producing cells is as yet undefined, although it appears to involve more than merely steroid mediated inactivation of suppressor T cells

  7. Bradykinin stimulation of nitric oxide production is not sufficient for gamma-globin induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čokić Vladan P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hydroxycarbamide, used in therapy of hemoglobinopathies, enhances nitric oxide (NO production both in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs and human bone marrow endothelial cell line (TrHBMEC. Moreover, NO increases γ-globin and fetal hemoglobin levels in human erythroid progenitors. Objective. In order to find out whether simple physiologic stimulation of NO production by components of hematopoietic microenvironment can increase γ-globin gene expression, the effects of NO-inducer bradykinin were examined in endothelial cells. Methods. The study was performed in co-cultures of human erythroid progenitors, TrHBMEC and HUVECs by ozone-based chemiluminescent determination of NO and real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Results. In accordance with previous reports, the endogenous factor bradykinin increased endothelial cell production of NO in a dose- and time-dependent manner (0.1-0.6 μM up to 30 minutes. This induction of NO in HUVECs and TrHBMEC by bradykinin was blocked by competitive inhibitors of NO synthase (NOS, demonstrating NOS-dependence. It has been shown that bradykinin significantly reduced endothelial NOS (eNOS mRNA level and eNOS/Я-actin ratio in HUVEC (by twofold. In addition, bradykinin failed to increase γ-globin mRNA expression in erythroid progenitors only, as well as in co-culture studies of erythroid progenitors with TrHBMEC and HUVEC after 24 hours of treatment. Furthermore, bradykinin did not induce γ/β globin ratio in erythroid progenitors in co-cultures with HUVEC. Conclusion. Bradykinin mediated eNOS activation leads to short time and low NO production in endothelial cells, insufficient to induce γ-globin gene expression. These results emphasized the significance of elevated and extended NO production in augmentation of γ-globin gene expression. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175053

  8. IL-4 Modulates CCL11 and CCL20 Productions from IL-1β-Stimulated Human Periodontal Ligament Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitaka Hosokawa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: IL-4 is a multifunctional cytokine that is related with the pathological conditions of periodontal disease. However, it is uncertain whether IL-4 could control T cells migration in periodontal lesions. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of IL-4 on CCL11, which is a Th2-type chemokine, and CCL20, which is related with Th17 cells migration, productions from human periodontal ligament cells (HPDLCs. Methods: CCL20 and CCL11 productions from HPDLCs were monitored by ELISA. Western blot analysis was performed to detect phosphorylations of signal transduction molecules in HPDLCs. Results: IL-1β could induce both CCL11 and CCL20 productions in HPDLCs. IL-4 enhanced CCL11 productions from IL-1β-stimulated HPDLCs, though IL-4 inhibited CCL20 production. Western blot analysis showed that protein kinase B (Akt and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT6 pathways were highly activated in IL-4/IL-1β-stimulated HPDLCs. Akt and STAT6 inhibitors decreased CCL11 production, but enhanced CCL20 production in HPDLCs stimulated with IL-4 and IL-1β. Conclusions: These results mean that IL-4 enhanced Th2 cells migration in periodontal lesion to induce CCL11 production from HPDLCs. On the other hand, IL-4 inhibits Th17 cells accumulation in periodontally diseased tissues to inhibit CCL20 production. Therefore, IL-4 is positively related with the pathogenesis of periodontal disease to control chemokine productions in periodontal lesions.

  9. Understanding investors' decisions to purchase innovative products : Drivers of adoption timing and range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, A.O.I.; Broekhuizen, T.L.J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper integrates findings from marketing and finance literature to increase our understanding of consumers' decisions to purchase innovative investment products. Two different surveys administered to individual investors examine the psychological and sociological drivers of dispositional

  10. Pro-inflammatory stimulation of meniscus cells increases production of matrix metalloproteinases and additional catabolic factors involved in osteoarthritis pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Austin V.; Loeser, Richard F.; Vanderman, Kadie S.; Long, David L.; Clark, Stephanie C.; Ferguson, Cristin M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Meniscus injury increases the risk of osteoarthritis; however, the biologic mechanism remains unknown. We hypothesized that pro-inflammatory stimulation of meniscus would increase production of matrix-degrading enzymes, cytokines and chemokines which cause joint tissue destruction and could contribute to osteoarthritis development. Design Meniscus and cartilage tissue from healthy tissue donors and total knee arthroplasties was cultured. Primary cell cultures were stimulated with pro-inflammatory factors [IL-1β, IL-6, or fibronectin fragments (FnF)] and cellular responses were analyzed by real-time PCR, protein arrays and immunoblots. To determine if NF-κB was required for MMP production, meniscus cultures were treated with inflammatory factors with and without the NF-κB inhibitor, hypoestoxide. Results Normal and osteoarthritic meniscus cells increased their MMP secretion in response to stimulation, but specific patterns emerged that were unique to each stimulus with the greatest number of MMPs expressed in response to FnF. Meniscus collagen and connective tissue growth factor gene expression was reduced. Expression of cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6), chemokines (IL-8, CXCL1, CXCL2, CSF1) and components of the NF-κB and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family were significantly increased. Cytokine and chemokine protein production was also increased by stimulation. When primary cell cultures were treated with hypoestoxide in conjunction with pro-inflammatory stimulation, p65 activation was reduced as were MMP-1 and MMP-3 production. Conclusions Pro-inflammatory stimulation of meniscus cells increased matrix metalloproteinase production and catabolic gene expression. The meniscus could have an active biologic role in osteoarthritis development following joint injury through increased production of cytokines, chemokines, and matrix-degrading enzymes. PMID:24315792

  11. Engineering soil organic matter quality: Biodiesel Co-Product (BCP) stimulates exudation of nitrogenous microbial biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmile-Gordon, Marc A; Evershed, Richard P; Kuhl, Alison; Armenise, Elena; White, Rodger P; Hirsch, Penny R; Goulding, Keith W T; Brookes, Philip C

    2015-12-01

    Biodiesel Co-Product (BCP) is a complex organic material formed during the transesterification of lipids. We investigated the effect of BCP on the extracellular microbial matrix or 'extracellular polymeric substance' (EPS) in soil which is suspected to be a highly influential fraction of soil organic matter (SOM). It was hypothesised that more N would be transferred to EPS in soil given BCP compared to soil given glycerol. An arable soil was amended with BCP produced from either 1) waste vegetable oils or 2) pure oilseed rape oil, and compared with soil amended with 99% pure glycerol; all were provided with 15 N labelled KNO 3 . We compared transfer of microbially assimilated 15 N into the extracellular amino acid pool, and measured concomitant production of exopolysaccharide. Following incubation, the 15 N enrichment of total hydrolysable amino acids (THAAs) indicated that intracellular anabolic products had incorporated the labelled N primarily as glutamine and glutamate. A greater proportion of the amino acids in EPS were found to contain 15 N than those in the THAA pool, indicating that the increase in EPS was comprised of bioproducts synthesised de novo. Moreover, BCP had increased the EPS production efficiency of the soil microbial community (μg EPS per unit ATP) up to approximately double that of glycerol, and caused transfer of 21% more 15 N from soil solution into EPS-amino acids. Given the suspected value of EPS in agricultural soils, the use of BCP to stimulate exudation is an interesting tool to consider in the theme of delivering sustainable intensification.

  12. T4 phage and its head surface proteins do not stimulate inflammatory mediator production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Miernikiewicz

    Full Text Available Viruses are potent activators of the signal pathways leading to increased cytokine or ROS production. The effects exerted on the immune system are usually mediated by viral proteins. Complementary to the progress in phage therapy practice, advancement of knowledge about the influence of bacteriophages on mammalian immunity is necessary. Particularly, the potential ability of phage proteins to act like other viral stimulators of the immune system may have strong practical implications for the safety and efficacy of bacteriophage therapy. Here we present studies on the effect of T4 phage and its head proteins on production of inflammatory mediators and inflammation-related factors: IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 p40/p70, IFN-γ, TNF-α, MCP-1, MIG, RANTES, GCSF, GM-CSF and reactive oxygen species (ROS. Plasma cytokine profiles in an in vivo mouse model and in human blood cells treated with gp23*, gp24*, Hoc and Soc were evaluated by cytokine antibody arrays. Cytokine production and expression of CD40, CD80, CD86 and MHC class II molecules were also investigated in mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells treated with whole T4 phage particle or the same capsid proteins. The influence of T4 and gp23*, gp24*, Hoc and Soc on reactive oxygen species generation was examined in blood cells using luminol-dependent chemiluminescence assay. In all performed assays, the T4 bacteriophage and its capsid proteins gp23*, gp24*, Hoc and Soc did not affect production of inflammatory-related cytokines or ROS. These observations are of importance for any medical or veterinary application of bacteriophages.

  13. Inhibitory Effect of Gallic acid on Production of Interleukins in Mouse Macrophage Stimulated by Lipopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wansu Park

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Gallic acid (GA is the major component of tannin which could be easily founded in various natural materials such as green tea, red tea, grape juice, and Corni Fructus. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of Gallic acid (GA on production of interleukin (IL in mouse macrophage Raw 264.7 cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Methods: Productions of interleukins were measured by High-throughput Multiplex Bead based Assay with Bio-plex Suspension Array System based on xMAP (multi-analyte profiling beads technology. Firstly, cell culture supernatant was obtained after treatment with LPS and GA for 24 hour. Then, it was incubated with the antibody-conjugated beads for 30 minutes. And detection antibody was added and incubated for 30 minutes. And Strepavidin-conjugated Phycoerythrin (SAPE was added. After incubation for 30 minutes, the level of SAPE fluorescence was analyzed on Bio-plex Suspension Array System and concentration of interleukin was determined. Results: The results of the experiment are as follows. 1. GA significantly inhibited the production of IL-3, IL-10, IL-12p40, and IL-17 in LPS-induced mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cells at the concentration of 25, 50, 100, 200 uM (p<0.05. 2. GA significantly inhibited the production of IL-6 in LPS-induced mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cells at the concentration of 50, 100, 200 uM (p<0.05. 3. GA diminished the production of some cytokine such as IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 in LPS-induced mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. 4. GA did not show the inhibitory effect on the production of IL-1αand IL-9 in LPS-induced mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. Conclusions: These results suggest that GA has anti-inflammatory activity related with its inhibitory effects on the production of interleukins such as IL-3, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-17, and IL-6 in LPS-induced macrophages.

  14. How to reduce synthetic oxytocin administration and stimulate the production of endogenous oxytocin in childbirth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ragusa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to examine synthetic and natural oxytocin use in pregnancy and post-partum. We distinguished synthetic oxytocin (Syntocinon® use in labor as a uterine contraction stimulant in two parts: the first is for induction or augmentation of labor; the second for prevention of post-partum hemorrhage (PPH.Oxytocin, key hormone in the process of childbirth and lactation, is a strong smooth muscle stimulant. For this reason it is widely used to induce/augment labor and to prevent and cure PPH.However, Syntocinon® can penetrate the placenta and reach fetal circulation, thus causing various systemic effects on mother and fetus. Oxytocin plays an important role as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, affecting numerous neuro-behavioral functions and it is involved in many types of parental behavior in humans and animals. It is, in fact, involved in a wide variety of physiological and pathological functions such as sexual activity, penile erection, ejaculation, pregnancy, uterus contractions, milk ejection, maternal behavior, social bonding, and stress. Oxytocin has a decisive role in the process of “bonding” between mother and child and in that of social affiliation.We therefore explored the opportunity to reduce the use of Syntocinon® in labor ward as a precautionary measure.Finally, we place the emphasis on some techniques that will probably increase the production of endogenous oxytocin. Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology and Satellite Meetings · Cagliari (Italy · October 26th-31st, 2015 · From the womb to the adultGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos (Cagliari, Italy, Michele Mussap (Genoa, Italy, Antonio Del Vecchio (Bari, Italy, Bo Sun (Shanghai, China, Dorret I. Boomsma (Amsterdam, the Netherlands, Gavino Faa (Cagliari, Italy, Antonio Giordano (Philadelphia, USA

  15. Understanding the Role of Neuroscience in Brain Based Products: A Guide for Educators and Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvan, Lesley J.; Christodoulou, Joanna A.

    2010-01-01

    The term "brain" based is often used to describe learning theories, principles, and products. Although there have been calls urging educators to be cautious in interpreting and using such material, consumers may find it challenging to understand the role of the brain and to discriminate among brain based products to determine which would be…

  16. New chlorinated amphetamine-type-stimulants disinfection-by-products formed during drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta-Fontela, Maria; Pineda, Oriol; Ventura, Francesc; Galceran, Maria Teresa

    2012-06-15

    Previous studies have demonstrated high removal rates of amphetamine-type-stimulants (ATSs) through conventional drinking water treatments; however the behaviour of these compounds through disinfection steps and their transformation into disinfection-by-products (DBPs) is still unknown. In this work, for the first time, the reactivity of some ATSs such as amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) with chlorine has been investigated under simulated and real drinking water treatment conditions in order to evaluate their ability to give rise to transformation products. Two new DBPs from these illicit drugs have been found. A common chlorinated-by-product (3-chlorobenzo)-1,3-dioxole, was identified for both MDA and MDEA while for MDMA, 3-chlorocatechol was found. The presence of these DBPs in water samples collected through drinking water treatment was studied in order to evaluate their formation under real conditions. Both compounds were generated through treatment from raw river water samples containing ATSs at concentration levels ranging from 1 to 15 ng/L for MDA and from 2.3 to 78 ng/L for MDMA. One of them, (3-chlorobenzo)-1,3-dioxole, found after the first chlorination step, was eliminated after ozone and GAC treatment while the MDMA DBP mainly generated after the postchlorination step, showed to be recalcitrant and it was found in final treated waters at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 5.8 ng/L. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Enhanced Glucosamine Production with Actinomucor elegans Based on Stimulating Factor of Methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Li, Piwu; Su, Jing; Liang, Rongrong; Wu, Xiangkun

    2014-12-01

    Glucosamine (GlcN) is a major and valuable component in the cell wall of fungi. In this study, the cell wall was treated via a two-stage alkali and acid process, and chitin and chitosan were fully deacetylated, partially depolymerized, and converted to GlcN oligosaccharides. Then, the oligosaccharides were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. The influences of Actinomucor elegans on GlcN production in a flask culture were investigated to achieve an optimum yield of GlcN. The experimental result showed that cultivation in condition of pH 6.0, 100 mL working volume (500 mL flask), 10 % (v/v) inoculum concentration, at 28 °C and 200 rpm for 6 days yielded highest dry cell weight (DCW) which was 23.43 g L(-1), with a GlcN concentration of 5.12 g L(-1). Methanol as stimulating factor was found to exert the best effect in concentration of 1.5 % (v/v). With addition of methanol into medium, the DCW increased from 23.69 to 32.42 g L(-1), leading to maximum GlcN concentration of 6.85 g L(-1) obtained. Here, the methanol addition may be useful for industrial production of GlcN, and may also be meaningful for the production of other fine chemicals by filamentous fungi.

  18. Production of humoral factors that stimulate spleen colony-forming units in mice irradiated with moderate doses of X rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grande, T.; Gonzalez, J.; Tejero, C.; Maganto, G.; Bueren, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    The production of humoral factors that stimulate spleen colony-forming units (CFU-S) has been studied in irradiated mice using an in vivo diffusion chamber assay. The experiments show that a significant release of factors that stimulate CFU-S takes place in the first few days after irradiation with moderate doses of 1.5 or 5 Gy. In contrast, the release of significant amounts of these humoral factors was not seen in animals irradiated with either low (0.75 Gy) or high (10 Gy) doses of X rays. The correlation observed between the production of factors that stimulate the CFU-S and the hemopoietic regeneration kinetics of the irradiated mice suggests that these factors represent part of the physiological regulators controlling the proliferation of CFU-S

  19. Inhibition of interleukin-17-stimulated interleukin-6 and -8 production by cranberry components in human gingival fibroblasts and epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, D A; Cho, S; Zacharia, N; Dabbous, M K

    2013-10-01

    Gingival epithelial cells and fibroblasts participate in periodontal inflammation and destruction, producing interleukin (IL)-6, a regulator of osteoclastic bone resorption, and the neutrophil chemoattractant IL-8. IL-17, a product of T-helper 17 cells, may play a role in periodontitis by stimulating cytokine production by gingival cells. The cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) is rich in polyphenols, particularly proanthocyanidins, which have antioxidant and other beneficial properties. Cranberry components inhibit pro-inflammatory activities of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human macrophages, gingival fibroblasts, and epithelial cells, but little is known of its effects on IL-17-stimulated cytokine production. The objectives were to determine the effects of IL-17 ± cranberry components on IL-6 and IL-8 production by human gingival epithelial cells and fibroblasts. Cranberry high molecular weight non-dialyzable material (NDM), which is rich in proanthocyanidins, was derived from cranberry juice. Human gingival epithelial cells and normal human gingival fibroblasts were incubated with NDM (5-50 μg/mL), IL-17 (0.5-100 ng/mL), or NDM + IL-17 in serum-free medium for 6 d. IL-6 and IL-8 in culture supernatants were measured by ELISA. Membrane damage and viability were assessed by lactate dehydrogenase activity released into cell supernatants and activity of a mitochondrial enzyme, respectively. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Scheffe's F procedure for post hoc comparisons. In both cell lines, IL-17 (≥ ~5-10 ng/mL) significantly stimulated production of IL-6 (p Cranberry NDM inhibition of constitutive and IL-17-stimulated IL-6 and IL-8 production by gingival fibroblasts and epithelial cells suggests that cranberry components could be useful as a host modulatory therapeutic agent to prevent or treat periodontitis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. DNA structures decorated with cathepsin G/secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor stimulate IFNI production by plasmacytoid dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrzeczynska-Moncznik, Joanna; Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka; Banas, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    psoriasis. Here, we demonstrate that IFNI production in pDCs is stimulated by DNA structures containing the neutrophil serine protease cathepsin G (CatG) and the secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), which is a controlling inhibitor of serine proteases. We also demonstrate the presence...

  1. Interleukin-4 and interferon-¿ production by Leishmania stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from nonexposed individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtzhals, J A; Kemp, M; Poulsen, L K

    1995-01-01

    Leishmania reactive CD4+ T cells could be demonstrated. The cells from different individuals showed different patterns of IFN-gamma and/or IL-4 production upon antigenic stimulation. In experimental leishmaniasis the early balance between IFN-gamma and IL-4 is important for the clinical outcome. Our findings...

  2. Glucose increases interleukin-12 gene expression and production in stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells of type 2 diabetes patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Ming Chu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of type 2 diabetes patients produce more interleukin (IL-12 under glucose treatment. The aim of this study was to determine whether increased IL-12 response in hyperglycemic LPS-stimulated PBMCs is due to increased gene expression or osmolarity. Methods: LPS-stimulated PBMCs of 13 type 2 diabetes patients and 8 healthy controls were used for culture in the presence or absence of glucose or mannitol for 24 h. The IL-12 gene expressions of PBMCs and IL-12 protein levels in supernatants were evaluated. Results: After 24 h, the stimulated PBMCs of diabetes patients expressed more IL-12 mRNA and produced more IL-12 protein following glucose treatment than those without glucose treatment and with mannitol treatment. Stimulated PBMCs of controls did not express more IL-12 mRNA and produce more IL-12 protein following glucose treatment than those without glucose treatment and with mannitol treatment. Conclusions: Glucose increases the IL-12 production in stimulated PBMCs of diabetes patients through increased IL-12 gene expression.

  3. Modulating brain mechanisms resolving lexico-semantic Interference during word production: A transcranial direct current stimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henseler, Ilona; Mädebach, Andreas; Kotz, Sonja A; Jescheniak, Jörg D

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the current study was to shed further light on control processes that shape semantic access and selection during speech production. These processes have been linked to differential cortical activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the left middle temporal gyrus (MTG); however, the particular function of these regions is not yet completely elucidated. We applied transcranial direct current stimulation to the left IFG and the left MTG (or sham stimulation) while participants named pictures in the presence of associatively related, categorically related, or unrelated distractor words. This direct modulation of target regions can help to better delineate the functional role of these regions in lexico-semantic selection. Independent of stimulation, the data show interference (i.e., longer naming latencies) with categorically related distractors and facilitation (i.e., shorter naming latencies) with associatively related distractors. Importantly, stimulation location interacted with the associative effect. Whereas the semantic interference effect did not differ between IFG, MTG, and sham stimulations, the associative facilitation effect was diminished under MTG stimulation. Analyses of latency distributions suggest this pattern to result from a response reversal. Associative facilitation occurred for faster responses, whereas associative interference resulted in slower responses under MTG stimulation. This reduction of the associative facilitation effect under transcranial direct current stimulation may be caused by an unspecific overactivation in the lexicon or by promoting competition among associatively related representations. Taken together, the results suggest that the MTG is especially involved in the processes underlying associative facilitation and that semantic interference and associative facilitation are linked to differential activation in the brain.

  4. Stimulating Effects of Sucrose and Inulin on Growth, Lactate, and Bacteriocin Productions by Pediococcus pentosaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza de Azevedo, Pamela Oliveira; Converti, Attilio; Domínguez, José Manuel; de Souza Oliveira, Ricardo Pinheiro

    2017-12-01

    Sucrose and inulin, when combined with glucose, behaved as stimulating agents of bacteriocin production by Pediococcus pentosaceus ATCC 43200. When such microbial strain was grown in glucose-based Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe (MRS) medium, without any additional supplement, it showed higher maximum cell concentration (2.68 ± 1.10 g/L) and longer generation time (2.17 ± 0.02 h), but lower specific growth rate (0.32 ± 0.01 h -1 ) than in the same medium supplemented with 1.0% of both ingredients (2.53 ± 1.10 g/L, 1.60 ± 0.05 h and 0.43 ± 0.02 h -1 , respectively). Glucose replacement by sucrose or inulin almost completely suppressed growth, hence confirming that it is the preferred carbon source for this strain. Qualitatively, similar results were observed for lactate production, which was 59.8% higher in glucose-based medium. Enterococcus and Listeria strains were sensitive to bacteriocin, whose antimicrobial effect after 8 h increased from 120.25 ± 0.35 to 144.00 ± 1.41 or 171.00 ± 1.41 AU/mL when sucrose or inulin was added to the glucose-based MRS medium. Sucrose and inulin were also able to speed up P. pentosaceus growth in the exponential phase.

  5. Interleukin-8 production by human mesothelial cells after direct stimulation with staphylococci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, C. E.; Steenbergen, J. J.; Betjes, M. G.; Meijer, S.; Arisz, L.; Hoefsmit, E. C.; Krediet, R. T.; Beelen, R. H.

    1995-01-01

    Mesothelial cells (MC) are able to produce interleukin-8 (IL-8) after stimulation with IL-1 beta or tumor necrosis factor alpha. The aim of our study was to investigate whether MC are able to produce IL-8 after direct stimulation with clinically relevant bacteria. We observed a significant IL-8

  6. Positive affective style covaries with stimulated IL-6 and IL-10 production in a middle-aged community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Aric A; Marsland, Anna L; Muldoon, Matthew F; Manuck, Stephen B

    2007-11-01

    An emerging literature indicates that dispositional positive affect (PA) may play a protective role in health and render individuals less susceptible to inflammatory diseases. In this regard, it has been suggested that PA is associated with diminished activation of innate immune pathways. To explore this possibility, we examined relationships between trait positive emotional style, as assessed by the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, and monocyte-derived lipopolysaccharide-induced production of the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IL-10, among 146 healthy adults aged 30-54. After controlling for demographic factors and other covariates (age, gender, race, body mass index and white blood cell count), hierarchical regression analyses revealed an inverse association between trait PA and stimulated production of IL-6 (DeltaR(2)=.03, b=-.18, p stimulated IL-1beta or TNF-alpha. Additionally, trait negative affect was unrelated to any of the stimulated cytokine levels. These initial findings suggest that individuals higher in trait positive emotional style show decreased in vitro production of the early inflammatory mediators IL-6 and IL-10 in response to stimulation with endotoxin which may confer protection against the emergence and progression of inflammatory diseases. Further exploration of this potential psychophysiological pathway is warranted.

  7. Prostaglandin D2 production in FM55 melanoma cells is regulated by α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and is not related to melanin production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoodi, Mojgan; Nicolaou, Anna; Gledhill, Karl; Rhodes, Lesley E; Tobin, Desmond J; Thody, Anthony J

    2010-01-01

    This study shows that prostaglandins in human FM55 melanoma cells and epidermal melanocytes are produced by COX-1. Prostaglandin production in FM55 melanoma cells was unrelated to that of melanin suggesting that the two processes can occur independently. α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone, which had no effect on melanin production in FM55 cells, stimulated PGD2 production in these cells without affecting PGE2. While cAMP pathways may be involved in regulating PGD2 production, our results suggest that α-MSH acts independently of cAMP, possibly by regulating the activity of lipocalin-type PGD synthase. This α-MSH-mediated effect may be associated with its role as an immune modulator. PMID:20482620

  8. From product centered design to value centered design: understanding the value-system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randmaa, Merili; Howard, Thomas J.; Otto, T.

    Product design has focused on different parameters through history- design for usability, design for manufacturing, design for assembly etc. Today, as the products get bundled with service, it is important to interconnect product, service and business model design to create synergy effect and off...... value is usually a co-creation process, where customers, suppliers and manufacturers all have their part. This paper describes a paradigm shift towards value-based thinking and proposes a new methodology for understanding and analysing the value system....... more value for the customer for less eford. Value and understanding the value-system needs to be in the focus of business strategy. Value can be created, exchanged and perceived. It can be tangible (physical products, money) or intangible (information, experience, relationships, service). Creating...

  9. mt1 Melatonin receptor in the primate adrenal gland: inhibition of adrenocorticotropin-stimulated cortisol production by melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Farfan, Claudia; Richter, Hans G; Rojas-García, Pedro; Vergara, Marcela; Forcelledo, María L; Valladares, Luis E; Torrealba, Fernando; Valenzuela, Guillermo J; Serón-Ferré, María

    2003-01-01

    The pineal hormone melatonin participates in circadian, seasonal, and reproductive physiology. The presence of melatonin binding sites in human brain and peripheral tissues is well documented. However, in the mammalian adrenal gland, low-affinity melatonin binding sites have been detected only in the rat by some but not all authors. Conflicting evidence for a regulatory role of melatonin on adrenal cortisol production, prompted us to investigate this possibility in a New World primate, the capuchin monkey. Expression of melatonin receptors in the adrenal cortex was demonstrated through pharmacological characterization and autoradiographic localization of 2-[125I]iodomelatonin binding sites (dissociation constant = 96.9 +/- 15 pM; maximal binding capacity = 3.8 +/- 0.4 fmol/mg protein). The mt1 identity of these receptors was established by cDNA sequencing. Melatonin treatment of dispersed cells and explants from adrenal gland did not affect basal cortisol production. However, cortisol production stimulated by 100 nM ACTH was significantly inhibited by low melatonin concentrations (0.1-100 nM); this inhibitory effect was reversed by the mt1/MT2 melatonin antagonist luzindole. Melatonin also inhibited dibutyril-cAMP-stimulated cortisol production, suggesting that melatonin acts through a cAMP-independent signaling pathway. The present data demonstrate that the primate adrenal gland cortex expresses functional mt1 melatonin receptors and shows that melatonin inhibits ACTH-stimulated cortisol production.

  10. Pursuing Pleasures of Productivity: University Students' Use of Prescription Stimulants for Enhancement and the Moral Uncertainty of Making Work Fun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Margit Anne; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Traulsen, Janine M

    2015-12-01

    This article presents ethnographic data on the use of prescription stimulants for enhancement purposes by university students in New York City. The study shows that students find stimulants a helpful tool in preventing procrastination, particularly in relation to feeling disinterested, overloaded, or insecure. Using stimulants, students seek pleasure in the study situation, for example, to get rid of unpleasant states of mind or intensify an already existing excitement. The article illustrates the notion that enhancement strategies do not only concern productivity in the quantitative sense of bettering results, performances, and opportunities. Students also measure their own success in terms of the qualitative experience of working hard. The article further argues that taking an ethnographic approach facilitates the study of norms in the making, as students experience moral uncertainty-not because they improve study skills and results-but because they enhance the study experience, making work fun. The article thereby seeks to nuance simplistic neoliberal ideas of personhood.

  11. Understanding Customer Product Choices: A Case Study Using the Analytical Hierarchy Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Smith; Robert J. Bush; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1996-01-01

    The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to characterize the bridge material selection decisions of highway officials across the United States. Understanding product choices by utilizing the AHP allowed us to develop strategies for increasing the use of timber in bridge construction. State Department of Transportation engineers, private consulting engineers, and...

  12. Do Estimates of Water Productivity Enhance Understanding of Farm-Level Water Management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Wichelns

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Estimates of water productivity are appearing with increasing frequency in the literature pertaining to agronomy, water management, and water policy. Some authors report such estimates as one of the outcome variables of experiment station studies, while others calculate water productivities when comparing regional crop production information. Many authors suggest or imply that higher values of water productivity are needed to ensure that future food production goals are achieved. Yet maximizing water productivity might not be consistent with farm-level goals or with societal objectives regarding water allocation and management. Farmers in both rainfed and irrigated settings must address a complex set of issues pertaining to risk, uncertainty, prices, and opportunity costs, when selecting activities and determining optimal strategies. It is not clear that farmers in either setting will or should choose to maximize water productivity. Upon examining water productivity, both conceptually and empirically, using published versions of crop production functions, I conclude that estimates of water productivity contain too little information to enhance understanding of farm-level water management.

  13. Effects of acetylcholine and electrical stimulation on glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor production in skeletal muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianney, John-Mary; Miller, Damon A; Spitsbergen, John M

    2014-11-07

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a neurotrophic factor required for survival of neurons in the central and peripheral nervous system. Specifically, GDNF has been characterized as a survival factor for spinal motor neurons. GDNF is synthesized and secreted by neuronal target tissues, including skeletal muscle in the peripheral nervous system; however, the mechanisms by which GDNF is synthesized and released by skeletal muscle are not fully understood. Previous results suggested that cholinergic neurons regulate secretion of GDNF by skeletal muscle. In the current study, GDNF production by skeletal muscle myotubes following treatment with acetylcholine was examined. Acetylcholine receptors on myotubes were identified with labeled alpha-bungarotoxin and were blocked using unlabeled alpha-bungarotoxin. The question of whether electrical stimulation has a similar effect to that of acetylcholine was also investigated. Cells were stimulated with voltage pulses; at 1 and 5 Hz frequencies for times ranging from 30 min to 48 h. GDNF content in myotubes and GDNF in conditioned culture medium were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. Results suggest that acetylcholine and short-term electrical stimulation reduce GDNF secretion, while treatment with carbachol or long-term electrical stimulation enhances GDNF production by skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Understanding Product Attachment and Expected Product Lifetime by Extending Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) with Product Personalization and Innovation Diffusion Theory (IDT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Younghwa

    2013-01-01

    Identifying and understanding consumers is fundamental, especially for quickly spreading new products. In recent years, the popularity of digital gadgets has sky rocketed; however, there has also been a growing tendency of relative obsolescence--replacement of a product regardless of the demise of its perfect functioning. Therefore, a question is…

  15. Study Protocol: Using Deep-Brain Stimulation, Multimodal Neuroimaging and Neuroethics to Understand and Treat Severe Enduring Anorexia Nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca J. Park

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundResearch suggests that altered eating and the pursuit of thinness in anorexia nervosa (AN are, in part, a consequence of aberrant reward circuitry. The neural circuits involved in reward processing and compulsivity overlap significantly, and this has been suggested as a transdiagnostic factor underpinning obsessive compulsive disorder, addictions and eating disorders. The nucleus accumbens (NAcc is central to both reward processing and compulsivity. In previous studies, deep-brain stimulation (DBS to the NAcc has been shown to result in neural and symptomatic improvement in both obsessive compulsive disorder and addictions. Moreover, in rats, DBS to the NAcc medial shell increases food intake. We hypothesise that this treatment may be of benefit in severe and enduring anorexia nervosa (SE-AN, but first, feasibility and ethical standards need to be established. The aims of this study are as follows: (1 to provide feasibility and preliminary efficacy data on DBS to the NAcc as a treatment for SE-AN; (2 to assess any subsequent neural changes and (3 to develop a neuroethical gold standard to guide applications of this treatment.MethodThis is a longitudinal study of six individuals with SE-AN of >7 years. It includes an integrated neuroethical sub-study. DBS will be applied to the NAcc and we will track the mechanisms underpinning AN using magnetoelectroencephalography, neuropsychological and behavioural measures. Serial measures will be taken on each intensively studied patient, pre- and post-DBS system insertion. This will allow elucidation of the processes involved in symptomatic change over a 15-month period, which includes a double-blind crossover phase of stimulator on/off.DiscussionNovel, empirical treatments for SE-AN are urgently required due to high morbidity and mortality costs. If feasible and effective, DBS to the NAcc could be game-changing in the management of this condition. A neuroethical gold standard is crucial to

  16. Scale-up laccase production from Trametes versicolor stimulated by vanillic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke-Feng; Hu, Jian-Hua; Guo, Chen; Liu, Chun-Zhao

    2016-07-01

    An efficient strategy for laccase production in Trametes versicolor cultures was developed using vanillic acid as the inducer. The optimized vanillic acid treatment strategy consisted of exposing 2-day-old mycelia cultures to 80 mg/L vanillic acid. After 4 days, laccase activity of 588.84 U/L was achieved in flasks which represented a 1.79-fold increase compared to the control. In 200-L airlift bioreactor, the maximal laccase activity reached up to 785.12 U/L using the optimized vanillic acid treatment strategy. The zymograms of culture supernatants revealed three bands with laccase activity, among which Lac1 and Lac2 were abundant laccase isoforms constitutively expressed, and Lac3 was an inducible isozyme by vanillic acid. The results of real-time quantitative PCR showed that the transcription level of lcc in T. versicolor cultures grown with vanillic acid for 7 days was about 5.64-fold greater than that without vanillic acid in flasks. In 200-L airlift bioreactor cultures of T. versicolor with addition of vanillic acid, the transcript level of lcc at day 7 was 2.62-fold higher than that in flasks with vanillic acid due to the good mass transfer and oxygen supply in the bioreactor system. This study provides a basis for understanding the induction mechanism of vanillic acid for laccase production and has good potential for industrial applications.

  17. Understanding the motivational perspectives of sustainability: A case of biogas production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pereira Querol

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of the expectations and visions of the actors involved in sustainable innovations, only the societal, motivational perspective is usually considered. The fact that local actors may have different multi-motivations is typically overlooked. The aim of this study is to examine and understand the multi-motivational perspectives in a sustainable production project. First, we introduce the concept of the object and analyze the case of a biogas production project as a mediating activity for making swine production more sustainable. We argue that the object of the activity, as manifested in motivational perspectives, shapes the way in which biogas production (BP systems are implemented. The article concludes by discussing how the concept of object can be used to explore the actual and future possibilities of using artifacts for increasing the sustainability of production.

  18. The researcher as experimental subject: using self-experimentation to access experiences, understand social phenomena, and stimulate reflexivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, Kevin; Reddy, Geetha; Choi, Ellen; Gillespie, Alex

    2015-06-01

    The current article argues that researcher-as-subject self-experimentation can provide valuable insight and systematic knowledge to social psychologists. This approach, the modus operandi of experimental psychology when the field was in its infancy, has been largely eclipsed by an almost exclusive focus on participant-as-subject other-experimentation. Drawing from the non-experimental first-person traditions of autoethnography, participant observation, and phenomenology, we argue that participating as both observer and subject within one's own social psychological experiment affords researchers at least three potential benefits: (1) access to "social qualia," that is, the subjective experience of social phenomena; (2) improved mental models of social phenomena, potentially stimulating new research questions; and (3) an enhanced ability to be reflexive about the given experiment. To support our position, we provide first-person self-reflections from researchers who have self-experimented with transformed social interactions involving Milgram's cyranoid method. We close by offering guidelines on how one might approach self-experimentation, and discuss a variety of first-person perspective ethnographic technologies that can be incorporated into the practice.

  19. Using structural equation modeling to understand prescription stimulant misuse: a test of the Theory of Triadic Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavarian, Niloofar; Flay, Brian R; Ketcham, Patricia L; Smit, Ellen; Kodama, Cathy; Martin, Melissa; Saltz, Robert F

    2014-05-01

    To test a theory-driven model of health behavior to predict the illicit use of prescription stimulants (IUPS) among college students. A probability sample of 554 students from one university located in California (response rate=90.52%). Students completed a paper-based survey developed with guidance from the Theory of Triadic Influence. We first assessed normality of measures and checked for multicollinearity. A single structural equation model of frequency of IUPS in college was then tested using constructs from the theory's three streams of influence (i.e., intrapersonal, social situation/context, and sociocultural environment) and four levels of causation (i.e., ultimate causes, distal influences, proximal predictors, and immediate precursors). Approximately 18% of students reported engaging in IUPS during college, with frequency of use ranging from never to 40 or more times per academic term. The model tested had strong fit and the majority of paths specified within and across streams were significant at the p<0.01 level. Additionally, 46% of the variance in IUPS frequency was explained by the tested model. Results suggest the utility of the TTI as an integrative model of health behavior, specifically in predicting IUPS, and provide insight on the need for multifaceted prevention and intervention efforts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Increase in production of matrix metalloproteinase 13 by human articular chondrocytes due to stimulation with S100A4: Role of the receptor for advanced glycation end products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yammani, Raghunatha R; Carlson, Cathy S; Bresnick, Anne R; Loeser, Richard F

    2006-09-01

    S100 proteins have been implicated in various inflammatory conditions, including arthritis. The aims of this study were to determine whether chondrocytes produce S100A4 and whether S100A4 can stimulate the production of matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13) by articular chondrocytes via receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE)-mediated signaling. The expression of chondrocyte S100A4 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry using normal and osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage and by immunoblotting of chondrocyte cell lysates. RAGE signaling was examined by stimulating chondrocytes with S100A4 and monitoring for the activation of MAP kinases and NF-kappaB. Production of MMP-13 was determined in the conditioned medium. A pulldown assay using biotin-labeled S100A4 was used to demonstrate binding to RAGE. S100A4 expression was detected in human articular chondrocytes by immunoblotting and appeared to increase in the cell lysates from OA tissue. Marked positive immunostaining for S100A4 was also noted in sections of human cartilage with changes due to OA. Stimulation of chondrocytes with S100A4 increased the phosphorylation of Pyk-2, MAP kinases, and activated NF-kappaB, followed by increased production of MMP-13 in the conditioned medium. This signaling was inhibited in cells pretreated with soluble RAGE, advanced glycation end product-bovine serum albumin, or the antioxidant Mn(III)tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin, or by overexpression of a dominant-negative RAGE construct. A pulldown assay showed that S100A4 binds to RAGE in chondrocytes. This is the first study to demonstrate that S100A4 binds to RAGE and stimulates a RAGE-mediated signaling cascade, leading to increased production of MMP-13. Since both S100A4 and RAGE are up-regulated in OA cartilage, this signaling pathway could contribute to cartilage degradation in OA.

  1. Cytokine production from stimulated whole blood cultures in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with various TNF blocking agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Calin; Barrera, Pilar; Joosten, Leo A B; van Riel, Piet L C M; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; van der Meer, Jos W M; Netea, Mihai G

    2009-06-01

    Infectious complications are not rare in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and the susceptibility to infections is increased during treatment with TNF blocking agents. As a possible mechanism contributing to that, we assessed the modulation of cytokine production induced by TNF neutralization. Whole blood cultures from six healthy volunteers and 13 RA patients starting therapy with either adalimumab (n = 7) or etanercept (n = 6) were stimulated with heat-killed Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus or with S. typhimurium lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The production of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL10, IL-17, TNF, IL-8 and IFN-gamma was measured by specific immunoassays. Stimulation with Salmonella LPS resulted in a significantly lower production of IL-1beta, TNF and a trend towards lower IL-6 and IFN-gamma production in RA patients compared to healthy volunteers. Therapy with either of the agents did not significantly alter cytokine production capacity, with the exception of a lower IFN-gamma and IL-8 production in patients treated with adalimumab and stimulated with heat-killed S. aureus. The results of our study suggest that the detrimental effects of anti-TNF agents on the immune response can vary quite widely, from very serious to limited effects, as reported here for etanercept and adalimumab. Because anti-TNF therapy can affect the cellular integrity of tuberculous granuloma, recruitment of new cells at the granuloma site becomes crucial. In line with this, an impaired chemokine production induced by anti-TNF agents may ultimately result in the reactivation of tuberculosis, as previously reported. Therefore, caution should be constantly exercised in order to prevent the development of severe infections and reactivation of tuberculosis whenever therapy with anti-TNF is initiated.

  2. Development of an Advanced Stimulation / Production Predictive Simulator for Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritchett, John W. [Leidos, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2015-04-15

    projects, not just software designers. It is hoped that, as a result, HeatEx will prove useful during the early stages of the development of EGS technology. The basic objective was to design a tool that could use field data that are likely to become available during the early phases of an EGS project (that is, during initial reconnaissance and fracture stimulation operations) to guide forecasts of the longer-term behavior of the system during production and heat-mining.

  3. A General and Intuitive Approach to Understand and Compare the Torque Production Capability of AC Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Dong; Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2014-01-01

    -frame, through complicated mathematical manipulations. This is a more mathematical approach rather than explaining the physics behind torque production, which even brings a lot of difficulties to specialist. This paper introduces a general and intuitive approach to obtain the dq-frame torque equation of various...... AC machines. In this method, torque equation can be obtained based on the intuitive physical understanding of the mechanism behind torque production. It is then approved to be applicable for general case, including rotor saliency and various types of magnetomotive force sources. As an application...

  4. Overview of thermal-stimulation production-test results for the JAPEX/JNOC/GSC et al. Mallik 5L-38 gas hydrate production research well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancock, S.; Weatherill, B. [APA Petroleum Engineering Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Collett, T. [United States Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Dallimore, S. [Geological Survey of Canada, Sidney, BC (Canada); Satoh, T. [Japan Petroleum Exploration Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Inoue, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Chiba (Japan); Huenges, E.; Henninges, J. [GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Potsdam (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The production data obtained during a thermal stimulation test program at the Mallik 5L-38 research test well was presented. The test was used to observe the dissociation of a well-defined and constrained hydrate interval at temperatures above the hydrate stability point and at constant pressure. Tests results were used to calibrate numerical simulation models to determine the in-situ kinetic and thermodynamic properties of the hydrate. The JAPEX/JNOC/GSC et al. Mallik 5L-38 gas hydrate production research well study involved the collection of surface and downhole data as well as the use of several advanced monitoring and investigation tools. The thermal stimulation test resulted in increased bottom hole temperature which remained constant above 50 degrees C. Dissociated gas was produced, sampled, and flared at surface. In addition, large amounts of real-time downhole temperature and pressure data was obtained.

  5. Global Warming Can Negate the Expected CO2 Stimulation in Photosynthesis and Productivity for Soybean Grown in the Midwestern United States1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Vera, Ursula M.; Siebers, Matthew; Gray, Sharon B.; Drag, David W.; Rosenthal, David M.; Kimball, Bruce A.; Ort, Donald R.; Bernacchi, Carl J.

    2013-01-01

    Extensive evidence shows that increasing carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) stimulates, and increasing temperature decreases, both net photosynthetic carbon assimilation (A) and biomass production for C3 plants. However the [CO2]-induced stimulation in A is projected to increase further with warmer temperature. While the influence of increasing temperature and [CO2], independent of each other, on A and biomass production have been widely investigated, the interaction between these two major global changes has not been tested on field-grown crops. Here, the interactive effect of both elevated [CO2] (approximately 585 μmol mol−1) and temperature (+3.5°C) on soybean (Glycine max) A, biomass, and yield were tested over two growing seasons in the Temperature by Free-Air CO2 Enrichment experiment at the Soybean Free Air CO2 Enrichment facility. Measurements of A, stomatal conductance, and intercellular [CO2] were collected along with meteorological, water potential, and growth data. Elevated temperatures caused lower A, which was largely attributed to declines in stomatal conductance and intercellular [CO2] and led in turn to lower yields. Increasing both [CO2] and temperature stimulated A relative to elevated [CO2] alone on only two sampling days during 2009 and on no days in 2011. In 2011, the warmer of the two years, there were no observed increases in yield in the elevated temperature plots regardless of whether [CO2] was elevated. All treatments lowered the harvest index for soybean, although the effect of elevated [CO2] in 2011 was not statistically significant. These results provide a better understanding of the physiological responses of soybean to future climate change conditions and suggest that the potential is limited for elevated [CO2] to mitigate the influence of rising temperatures on photosynthesis, growth, and yields of C3 crops. PMID:23512883

  6. North American water availability under stress and duress: building understanding from simulations, observations and data products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, R. M.; Condon, L. E.; Atchley, A. L.; Hector, B.

    2017-12-01

    Quantifying the available freshwater for human use and ecological function depends on fluxes and stores that are hard to observe. Evapotranspiration (ET) is the largest terrestrial flux of water behind precipitation but is observed with low spatial density. Likewise, groundwater is the largest freshwater store, yet is equally uncertain. The ability to upscale observations of these variables is an additional complication; point measurements are made at scales orders of magnitude smaller than remote sensing data products. Integrated hydrologic models that simulate continental extents at fine spatial resolution are now becoming an additional tool to constrain fluxes and address interconnections. For example, recent work has shown connections between water table depth and transpiration partitioning, and demonstrated the ability to reconcile point observations and large-scale inferences. Here we explore the dynamics of large hydrologic systems experiencing change and stress across continental North America using integrated model simulations, observations and data products. Simulations of aquifer depletion due to pervasive groundwater pumping diagnose both stream depletion and changes in ET. Simulations of systematic increases in temperature are used to understand the relationship between snowpack dynamics, surface and groundwater flow, ET and a changing climate. Remotely sensed products including the GRACE estimates of total storage change are downscaled using model simulations to better understand human impacts to the hydrologic cycle. These example applications motivate a path forward to better use simulations to understand water availability.

  7. High temperature stimulates acetic acid accumulation and enhances the growth inhibition and ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae under fermenting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Ji-Min; Yang, Kyung-Mi; Kim, Sae-Um; Blank, Lars M; Park, Jin-Byung

    2014-07-01

    Cellular responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to high temperatures of up to 42 °C during ethanol fermentation at a high glucose concentration (i.e., 100 g/L) were investigated. Increased temperature correlated with stimulated glucose uptake to produce not only the thermal protectant glycerol but also ethanol and acetic acid. Carbon flux into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle correlated positively with cultivation temperature. These results indicate that the increased demand for energy (in the form of ATP), most likely caused by multiple stressors, including heat, acetic acid, and ethanol, was matched by both the fermentation and respiration pathways. Notably, acetic acid production was substantially stimulated compared to that of other metabolites during growth at increased temperature. The acetic acid produced in addition to ethanol seemed to subsequently result in adverse effects, leading to increased production of reactive oxygen species. This, in turn, appeared to cause the specific growth rate, and glucose uptake rate reduced leading to a decrease of the specific ethanol production rate far before glucose depletion. These results suggest that adverse effects from heat, acetic acid, ethanol, and oxidative stressors are synergistic, resulting in a decrease of the specific growth rate and ethanol production rate and, hence, are major determinants of cell stability and ethanol fermentation performance of S. cerevisiae at high temperatures. The results are discussed in the context of possible applications.

  8. IMOCUR stimulates production of immunoglobulins; preliminary results concerning a correlation between in vitro and in vivo experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutartre, P; Annat, J; Derrepas, P; Guerrin, F; Reboul, A; Tripier, M

    1992-01-01

    The bacterial extract IMOCUR is described as an in vivo stimulant of antibody production during animal testing and human clinical trials. Using a slightly modified procedure (13) dealing with in vitro immunoglobulin production by C57B1/6 mouse spleen cells, we have shown that IMOCUR potentiates spontaneous IgM production. In order to explore the putative relation between this in vitro activity and the current in vivo control test (stimulation of plaque-forming cell production after sheep red blood cell injection to Balb/c mouse), we have assayed 10 lyophilisates in vitro and in vivo before and after heat inactivation (80 degrees C, 7 days in a saturated water atmosphere). Results have shown that this treatment inhibits, respectively, totally and partially in vivo and in vitro activities. Thus the in vitro technique seems to be appropriate for the control of activity of the various batches of IMOCUR. Experiments are under way to clarify the mathematical correlation which may exist between the in vitro and in vivo experiments.

  9. Understanding the mechanisms of thermal disintegrating treatment in the reduction of sludge production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, P; Ginestet, P; Audic, J-M

    2005-01-01

    Among the technologies aimed at reducing sludge production, the combination of thermal treatment at 95 degrees C of sludge and the activated sludge process is a promising route. The feasibility of such a combined process is demonstrated (up to 60% sludge reduction) and the impacts of operating conditions on its efficiency are presented. Major emphasis was put on understanding the complex phenomena occurring within the thermal treatment: release and biodegradability of sludge organic matter, impact on the biological activity (decay, maintenance requirements, etc.). These effects were taken into account for the development of an ASM1-based model. Comparison between the modeling approach and experimental data (continuous and batch) showed that thermal treatment had three major issues partly explaining the reduction of sludge production: (i) a low release of organics; (ii) an immediate and reversible biological inactivation associated with additional maintenance energy requirements; and (iii) a potential inert production.

  10. Pharmaceutical quality by design: product and process development, understanding, and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lawrence X

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the pharmaceutical Quality by Design (QbD) and describe how it can be used to ensure pharmaceutical quality. The QbD was described and some of its elements identified. Process parameters and quality attributes were identified for each unit operation during manufacture of solid oral dosage forms. The use of QbD was contrasted with the evaluation of product quality by testing alone. The QbD is a systemic approach to pharmaceutical development. It means designing and developing formulations and manufacturing processes to ensure predefined product quality. Some of the QbD elements include: Defining target product quality profile; Designing product and manufacturing processes; Identifying critical quality attributes, process parameters, and sources of variability; Controlling manufacturing processes to produce consistent quality over time. Using QbD, pharmaceutical quality is assured by understanding and controlling formulation and manufacturing variables. Product testing confirms the product quality. Implementation of QbD will enable transformation of the chemistry, manufacturing, and controls (CMC) review of abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) into a science-based pharmaceutical quality assessment.

  11. Front-of-pack nutrition label stimulates healthier product development: a quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyth, Ellis L; Steenhuis, Ingrid Hm; Roodenburg, Annet Jc; Brug, Johannes; Seidell, Jacob C

    2010-09-08

    In addition to helping consumers make healthier food choices, front-of-pack nutrition labels could encourage companies to reformulate existing products and develop new ones with a healthier product composition. This is the largest study to date to investigate the effect of a nutrition logo on the development of healthier products by food manufacturers. A total of 47 food manufacturers joining the Choices Foundation in the Netherlands (response: 39.5%) indicated whether their Choices products were newly developed, reformulated or already complied with the Choices criteria and provided nutrient composition data for their products (n = 821; 23.5% of the available Choices products in August 2009). Most products carrying the logo as a result of reformulation and new product development were soups and snacks. Sodium reduction was the most common change found in processed meats, sandwiches, soups and sandwich fillings. Dietary fiber was significantly increased in most newly developed Choices product groups; for example, in fruit juices, processed meats, dairy products, sandwiches and soups. Saturated fatty acids (SAFA) and added sugar were significantly decreased both in reformulated and newly developed dairy products. Caloric content was significantly decreased only in reformulated dairy products, sandwich fillings and in some newly developed snacks. The results indicate that the Choices logo has motivated food manufacturers to reformulate existing products and develop new products with a healthier product composition, especially where sodium and dietary fiber are concerned.

  12. Front-of-pack nutrition label stimulates healthier product development: a quantitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyth Ellis L

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In addition to helping consumers make healthier food choices, front-of-pack nutrition labels could encourage companies to reformulate existing products and develop new ones with a healthier product composition. This is the largest study to date to investigate the effect of a nutrition logo on the development of healthier products by food manufacturers. Methods A total of 47 food manufacturers joining the Choices Foundation in the Netherlands (response: 39.5% indicated whether their Choices products were newly developed, reformulated or already complied with the Choices criteria and provided nutrient composition data for their products (n = 821; 23.5% of the available Choices products in August 2009. Results Most products carrying the logo as a result of reformulation and new product development were soups and snacks. Sodium reduction was the most common change found in processed meats, sandwiches, soups and sandwich fillings. Dietary fiber was significantly increased in most newly developed Choices product groups; for example, in fruit juices, processed meats, dairy products, sandwiches and soups. Saturated fatty acids (SAFA and added sugar were significantly decreased both in reformulated and newly developed dairy products. Caloric content was significantly decreased only in reformulated dairy products, sandwich fillings and in some newly developed snacks. Conclusions The results indicate that the Choices logo has motivated food manufacturers to reformulate existing products and develop new products with a healthier product composition, especially where sodium and dietary fiber are concerned.

  13. Activation of epidermal growth factor receptor mediates mucin production stimulated by p40, a Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-derived protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lihong; Cao, Hailong; Liu, Liping; Wang, Bangmao; Walker, W Allan; Acra, Sari A; Yan, Fang

    2014-07-18

    The mucus layer coating the gastrointestinal tract serves as the first line of intestinal defense against infection and injury. Probiotics promote mucin production by goblet cells in the intestine. p40, a Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG-derived soluble protein, has been shown to transactivate the EGF receptor (EGFR) in intestinal epithelial cells, which is required for inhibition of apoptosis and preservation of barrier function in the colon, thereby ameliorating intestinal injury and colitis. Because activation of EGFR has been shown to up-regulate mucin production in goblet cells, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of p40 regulation of mucin production. p40 activated EGFR and its downstream target, Akt, in a concentration-dependent manner in LS174T cells. p40 stimulated Muc2 gene expression and mucin production in LS174T cells, which were abolished by inhibition of EGFR kinase activity, down-regulation of EGFR expression by EGFR siRNA transfection, or suppression of Akt activation. Treatment with p40 increased mucin production in the colonic epithelium, thus thickening the mucus layer in the colon of wild type, but not of Egfr(wa5) mice, which have a dominant negative mutation in the EGFR kinase domain. Furthermore, inhibition of mucin-type O-linked glycosylation suppressed the effect of p40 on increasing mucin production and protecting intestinal epithelial cells from TNF-induced apoptosis in colon organ culture. Thus, these results suggest that p40-stimulated activation of EGFR mediates up-regulation of mucin production, which may contribute to the mechanisms by which p40 protects the intestinal epithelium from injury. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Alkaline conditions stimulate the production of 1,3-propanediol in Lactobacillus panis PM1 through shifting metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahame, Douglas A S; Kang, Tae Sun; Khan, Nurul H; Tanaka, Takuji

    2013-07-01

    A novel Lactobacillus panis PM1 isolate was found to be capable of converting glycerol to 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO), an increasingly valuable commodity chemical. In this study the effects of various process parameters, including glucose and glycerol concentrations, inoculum size, temperature, aeration, pH, and carbon source were examined to determine the optimal conditions for the production of 1,3-PDO using a culture method simulating late log to early stationary phases. Inoculum size did not influence the production of 1,3-PDO, and temperature variance showed similar 1,3-PDO production between 25 and 37 °C under the examined conditions. Glycerol concentration and pH played a primary role in the final concentration of 1,3-PDO. The highest production occurred at 150-250 mM glycerol when 50 mM glucose was available. Alkaline initial conditions (pH 9-10) stimulated the production of 1,3-PDO which concurrently occurred with increased acetic acid production. Under these conditions, 213.6 mM of 1,3-PDO were produced from 300 mM glycerol (conversion efficiency was 71 %). These observations indicated that the production of 1,3-PDO was associated with the shift of the metabolic end-product ethanol to acetic acid, and that this shift resulted in an excess concentration of NADH available for the processing of glycerol to 1,3-PDO.

  15. USING SCIENTIFIC PAPERS TO STIMULATE THE STUDY OF BIOCHEMISTRY AND THE UNDERSTANDING OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE CONSTRUCTION: THE RESEARCH ON ADRENOLEUKODYSTROPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Gagianone

    2015-08-01

    understanding of mechanisms completely unknown by the time of LO development and also the comprehension of scientific knowledge construction through a playful and participative activity.AcknowledgementsWe thank Prograd-UFF for scholarship supply.Key wordsAdrenoleukodystrophy; Biochemistry teaching; scientific knowledge

  16. The effect of lipid peroxidation products on reactive oxygen species formation and nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrozova, Gabriela; Pekarova, Michaela; Lojek, Antonin

    2011-02-01

    Lipid peroxidation induced by oxidants leads to the formation of highly reactive metabolites. These can affect various immune functions, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of lipid peroxidation products (LPPs) - acrolein, 4-hydroxynonenal, and malondialdehyde - on ROS and NO production in RAW 264.7 macrophages and to compare these effects with the cytotoxic properties of LPPs. Macrophages were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (0.1 μg/ml) and treated with selected LPPs (concentration range: 0.1-100 μM). ATP test, luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence, Griess reaction, Western blotting analysis, amperometric and total peroxyl radical-trapping antioxidant parameter assay were used for determining the LPPs cytotoxicity, ROS and NO production, inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, NO scavenging, and antioxidant properties of LPPs, respectively. Our study shows that the cytotoxic action of acrolein and 4-hydroxynonenal works in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Further, our results imply that acrolein, 4-hydroxynonenal, and malondialdehyde can inhibit, to a different degree, ROS and NO production in stimulated macrophages, partially independently of their toxic effect. Also, changes in enzymatic pathways (especially NADPH-oxidase and nitric oxide synthase inhibition) and NO scavenging properties are included in the downregulation of reactive species formation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Stimulation with Concanavalin-A Induces IL-17 Production by Canine Peripheral T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle G. Ritt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of canine IL-17-producing cells are incompletely understood. Expression of mRNA encoding orthologs of IL-17 and the IL-17 receptor has been documented in tissues from dogs with arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and lymphoma; however, no associations have been found between IL-17 gene expression and disease phenotype in these conditions. Robust assessment of the role of IL-17-producing cells in dogs will require measuring the frequency of these cells in health and disease in balance with other lymphocyte subsets. The aim of this study was to confirm that the T-cell IL-17 response in dogs is evolutionarily conserved. Canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with Concanavalin A with or without polarizing cytokines. We used a canine specific IL-17 ELISA and flow cytometry to identify IL-17-producing T cells. Accumulation of intracellular IL-17 was observed in stimulated CD4 and CD8 T cells. The addition of pro-inflammatory cytokines appeared to enhance polarization of canine CD4 T cells to the Th17 phenotype. Conversely, the addition of IL-2 in the presence of TGF-β resulted in expansion of Treg cells. We conclude that canine IL-17-producing cells behave similarly to those from humans and mice when stimulated with mitogens and polarized with pro-inflammatory or immune regulatory cytokines.

  18. Motor Cortex and Motor Cortical Interhemispheric Communication in Walking After Stroke: The Roles of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and Animal Models in Our Current and Future Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalambous, Charalambos C; Bowden, Mark G; Adkins, DeAnna L

    2016-01-01

    Despite the plethora of human neurophysiological research, the bilateral involvement of the leg motor cortical areas and their interhemispheric interaction during both normal and impaired human walking is poorly understood. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), we have expanded our understanding of the role upper-extremity motor cortical areas play in normal movements and how stroke alters this role, and probed the efficacy of interventions to improve post-stroke arm function. However, similar investigations of the legs have lagged behind, in part, due to the anatomical difficulty in using TMS to stimulate the leg motor cortical areas. Additionally, leg movements are predominately bilaterally controlled and require interlimb coordination that may involve both hemispheres. The sensitive, but invasive, tools used in animal models of locomotion hold great potential for increasing our understanding of the bihemispheric motor cortical control of walking. In this review, we discuss 3 themes associated with the bihemispheric motor cortical control of walking after stroke: (a) what is known about the role of the bihemispheric motor cortical control in healthy and poststroke leg movements, (b) how the neural remodeling of the contralesional hemisphere can affect walking recovery after a stroke, and (c) what is the effect of behavioral rehabilitation training of walking on the neural remodeling of the motor cortical areas bilaterally. For each theme, we discuss how rodent models can enhance the present knowledge on human walking by testing hypotheses that cannot be investigated in humans, and how these findings can then be back-translated into the neurorehabilitation of poststroke walking. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Direct evidence from intraoperative electrocortical stimulation indicates shared and distinct speech production center between Chinese and English languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinsong; Lu, Junfeng; Zhang, Han; Zhang, Jie; Yao, Chengjun; Zhuang, Dongxiao; Qiu, Tianming; Guo, Qihao; Hu, Xiaobing; Mao, Ying; Zhou, Liangfu

    2015-12-01

    Chinese processing has been suggested involving distinct brain areas from English. However, current functional localization studies on Chinese speech processing use mostly "indirect" techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography, lacking direct evidence by means of electrocortical recording. In this study, awake craniotomies in 66 Chinese-speaking glioma patients provide a unique opportunity to directly map eloquent language areas. Intraoperative electrocortical stimulation was conducted and the positive sites for speech arrest, anomia, and alexia were identified separately. With help of stereotaxic neuronavigation system and computational modeling, all positive sites elicited by stimulation were integrated and a series of two- and three-dimension Chinese language probability maps were built. We performed statistical comparisons between the Chinese maps and previously derived English maps. While most Chinese speech arrest areas located at typical language production sites (i.e., 50% positive sites in ventral precentral gyrus, 28% in pars opercularis and pars triangularis), which also serve English production, an additional brain area, the left middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann's areas 6/9), was found to be unique in Chinese production (P neurolinguistics differences in human beings. The Chinese language atlas will also helpful in brain surgery planning for Chinese-speakers. Copyright © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. CO2 fertilization stimulates vegetation productivity but has little impact on hydrology in tropical rainforests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuting; Donohue, Randall; McVicar, Tim; Roderick, Michael; Beck, Hylke

    2016-04-01

    Tropical rainforests contribute to ~52% of the terrestrial biomass carbon and more than one-third of global terrestrial net primary production. Thus, understanding how tropical rainforests respond to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration (eCO2) is essential for predicting Earth's carbon, water and energy budgets under future climate change. While the Free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) technique has greatly advanced our understanding of how boreal and temperate ecosystems respond to eCO2, there are currently no FACE sites available in tropical rainforest ecosystems. Here we firstly examine the trend in long-term (1982-2010) satellite-observed leaf area index and fraction of vegetation light absorption and find only minor changes in these variables in tropical rainforests over years, suggesting that eCO2 has not increased vegetation leaf area in tropical rainforests and therefore any plant response to eCO2 occurs at the leaf-level. Following that, we investigate the long-term physiological response (i.e., leaf-level) of tropical rainforests to eCO2 from three different perspectives by: (1) analyzing long-term runoff and precipitation records in 18 unimpaired tropical rainforest catchments to provide observational evidence on the eCO2 effect from an eco-hydrological perspective; (2) developing an analytical model using gas-exchange theory to predict the effect of eCO2 from a top-down perspective; and (3) interpreting outputs from 10 process-oriented ecosystem models to examine the effect of eCO2 from a bottom-up perspective. Our results show that the observed runoff coefficient (the ratio of runoff over precipitation) and ecosystem evapotranspiration (calculated from catchment water balance) remain relatively constant in 18 unimpaired tropical catchments over 1982-2010, implying an unchanged hydrological partitioning and thus conserved transpiration under eCO2. For the same period, using 'top-down' model based on gas-exchange theory, we predict an increase in plant

  1. Eugenol stimulates lactate accumulation yet inhibits volatile fatty acid production and eliminates coliform bacteria in cattle and swine waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varel, V H; Miller, D L

    2004-01-01

    To determine how eugenol affects fermentation parameters and faecal coliforms in cattle and swine waste slurries stored anaerobically. Waste slurries (faeces:urine:water, 50:35:15) were blended with and without additives and aliquoted to triplicate 1-l flasks. Faecal coliforms were eliminated in cattle and swine waste slurries within 1 or 2 days with additions of eugenol at 10.05 mm (0.15%) and 16.75 mm (0.25%). At these concentrations volatile fatty acids (VFA) were reduced ca 70 and 50% in cattle and swine waste, respectively, over 6-8 weeks. Additionally, in cattle waste, eugenol stimulated the accumulation of lactate (>180 mm) when compared with thymol treatment (20 mm lactate). In swine waste, lactate accumulation did not occur without additives; eugenol and thymol stimulated lactate accumulation to concentrations of 22 and 32 mm, respectively. Eugenol added to cattle waste may be more beneficial than thymol because not only does it effectively control faecal coliforms and odour (VFA production), it also stimulates lactate accumulation. This in turn, causes the pH to drop more rapidly, further inhibiting microbial activity and nutrient emissions. Plant essential oils have the potential to solve some of the environmental problems associated with consolidated animal feeding operations. Thymol and eugenol reduce fermentative activity, thus, have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and odour, and curtail transmission of pathogens in cattle and swine wastes.

  2. Effects of sphingosine and sphingosine analogues on the free radical production by stimulated neutrophils: ESR and chemiluminescence studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mouithys-Mickalad

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Sphingolipids inhibit the activation of the neutrophil (PMN NADPH oxidase by protein kinase C pathway. By electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR and chemiluminescence (CL, we studied the effects of sphingosine (SPN and ceramide analogues on phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, 5 × 10-7M stimulated PMN (6 × 106 cells. By ESR with spin trapping (100 mM DMPO: 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-Noxide, we showed that SPN (5 to 8 × 10-6M, C2-ceramide (N-acetyl SPN and C6-ceramide (N-hexanoyl SPN at the final concentration of 2 × 10-5 and 2 × 10-4M inhibit the production of free radicals by stimulated PMN. The ESR spectrum of stimulated PMN was that of DMPO-superoxide anion spin adduct. Inhibition by 5 × 10-6M SPN was equivalent to that of 30 U/ml SOD. SPN (5 to 8 × 10-6M has no effect on in vitro systems generating superoxide anion (xanthine 50 mM/xanthine oxidase 110 mU/ml or hydroxyl radical (Fenton reaction: 88 mM H2O2, 0.01 mM Fe2+ and 0.01 mM EDTA. SPN and N-acetyl SPN also inhibited the CL of PMA stimulated PMN in a dose dependent manner (from 2 × 10-6 to 10-5M, but N-hexanoyl SPN was less active (from 2 × 10-5 to 2 × 10-4M. These effects were compared with those of known PMN inhibitors, superoxide dismutase, catalase and azide. SPN was a better inhibitor compared with these agents. The complete inhibition by SPN of ESR signal and CL of stimulated PMN confirms that this compound or one of its metabolites act at the level of NADPH-oxidase, the key enzyme responsible for production of oxygen-derived free radicals.

  3. Understanding molecular interactions between scavenger receptor A and its natural product inhibitors through molecular modeling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagare, Piyusha P; Zaidi, Saheem A; Zhang, Xiaomei; Li, Xia; Yu, Xiaofei; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Zhang, Yan

    2017-10-01

    Scavenger receptor A (SRA), as an immune regulator, has been shown to play important roles in lipid metabolism, cardiovascular diseases, and pathogen recognition. Several natural product inhibitors of SRA have been studied for their potential application in modulating SRA functions. To understand the binding mode of these inhibitors on SRA, we conducted systematic molecular modeling studies in order to identify putative binding domain(s) that may be responsible for their recognition to the receptor as well as their inhibitory activity. Treatment of SRA with one of the natural product inhibitors, rhein, led to significant dissociation of SRA oligomers to its trimer and dimer forms, which further supported our hypothesis on their putative mechanism of action. Such information is believed to shed light on design of more potent inhibitors for the receptor in order to develop potential therapeutics through immune system modulation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Understanding and Supporting Dynamic Capabilities of Design Teams in Production of Technology-Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Kjeldal

    current environment. This study explores the practices of engineering designers that are executing disruptive innovation projects for DONG Energy, a Danish energy utilities company. The aim of the study was to understand the role of the designer in disruptive innovation and to create a tool for supporting...... multidisciplinary design teams, while creating disruptive innovations. The results from this study are presented in five research Papers that address the following themes: 1) the willingness of engineers to follow formal procedures, 2) critical knowledge domains in front-end technology decisions, 3) knowledge...... associated with product development, such as market design; 3) the diversity of these domains was found to increase the barrier for effective transition from the front-end phase to the product development phase; 4) the transition gate was found to be a separate phase, with its own knowledge...

  5. Efficient process development of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rh-GCSF) production in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaeipour, Valiollah; Khanchezar, Sirwan; Mofid, Mohammad Reza; Pesaran Hagi Abbas, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    The protein hormone granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) stimulates the production of white blood cells and plays an important role in medical treatment of cancer patients. An efficient process was developed for heterologous expression of the human GCSF in E. coli BL21 (DE3). The feeding rate was adjusted to achieve the maximum attainable specific growth rate under critical value. In this method, specific growth rate was maintained at the maximum value of 0.55 h⁻¹ at the beginning of feeding to 0.4 h-1 at the induction time. Recombinant human GCSF (rh-GCSF) was produced as inclusion body. At first, inclusion bodies were released by cell disruption and then washed, solubilized and refolded. Finally, the rh-GCSF was purified by cation exchange chromatography. Obviouly, higher specific growth rate decreases process time and consequently increases productivity. The final concentration of biomass and GCSF was achieved 126 g DCW.l⁻¹ and 32.1 g.l⁻¹. Also, the final specific yield (YP/X) and total productivity of rh-GCSF were obtained 254 mg.g⁻¹ DCW and 1.83 g.l⁻¹.h⁻¹, respectively. According to the available data, this is one of the highest YP/X and productivity that has been reported for any human protein which is expressed in E. coli. Recovery yield of purification process was %40 and purity of recombinant protein was over than 99%. The circular dichroism spectra of purified rh-GCSF, Neupogen and PD-Grastim showed that all proteins have a similar secondary structure. Modified exponential feeding strategy for fed-batch cultivation of recombinant E. coli, results in minimum fed-batch duration and maximum productivity.

  6. T-cell activation is enhanced by targeting IL-10 cytokine production in toll-like receptor- stimulated macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walk RM

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ryan M Walk,1,2 Steven T Elliott,2 Felix C Blanco,2 Jason A Snyder,2 Ashley M Jacobi,3 Scott D Rose,3 Mark A Behlke,3 Aliasger K Salem,4 Stanislav Vukmanovic,2 Anthony D Sandler21Department of Surgery, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA; 2Sheikh Zayed Institute for Pediatric Surgical Innovation, Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA; 3Integrated DNA Technologies, Coralville, IA, USA; 4Division of Pharmaceutics, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USAAbstract: Toll-like receptor (TLR agonists represent potentially useful cancer vaccine adjuvants in their ability to stimulate antigen-presenting cells (APCs and subsequently amplify the cytotoxic T-cell response. The purpose of this study was to characterize APC responses to TLR activation and to determine the subsequent effect on lymphocyte activation. We exposed murine primary bone marrow-derived macrophages to increasing concentrations of agonists to TLRs 2, 3, 4, and 9. This resulted in a dose-dependent increase in production of not only tumor necrosis factor–alpha (TNF-α, a surrogate marker of the proinflammatory response, but also interleukin 10 (IL-10, a well-described inhibitory cytokine. Importantly, IL-10 secretion was not induced by low concentrations of TLR agonists that readily produced TNF-α. We subsequently stimulated lymphocytes with anti-CD3 antibody in the presence of media from macrophages activated with higher doses of TLR agonists and observed suppression of interferon gamma release. Use of both IL-10 knockout macrophages and IL-10 small-interfering RNA (siRNA ablated this suppressive effect. Finally, IL-10 siRNA was successfully used to suppress CpG-induced IL-10 production in vivo. We conclude that TLR-mediated APC stimulation can induce a paradoxical inhibitory effect on T-cell activation mediated by IL-10.Keywords: toll-like receptors, innate immunity, IL-10

  7. Inhibitory effects on the production of inflammatory mediators and reactive oxygen species by Mori folium in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages and zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA HYE KWON

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Mori folium, the leaf of Morus alba L. (Moraceae, has been traditionally used for various medicinal purposes from ancient times to the present. In this study, we examined the effects of water extract of Mori folium (WEMF on the production of inflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, and reactive oxygen species (ROS in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. Our data indicated that WEMF significantly suppressed the secretion of NO and PGE2 in RAW 264.7 macrophages without any significant cytotoxicity. The protective effects were accompanied by a marked reduction in their regulatory gene expression at the transcription level. WEMF attenuated LPS-induced intracellular ROS production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. It inhibited the nuclear translocation of the nuclear factor-kappa B p65 subunit and the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in LPS-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, WEMF reduced LPS-induced NO production and ROS accumulation in zebrafish. Although more efforts are needed to fully understand the critical role of WEMF in the inhibition of inflammation, the findings of the present study may provide insights into the approaches for Mori folium as a potential therapeutic agent for inflammatory and antioxidant disorders.

  8. Stimulating diffusion of green products - Co-evolution between firms and consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, MA; Jager, W

    This paper presents a model-based analysis of the introduction of green products, which are products with low environmental impacts. Both consumers and firms are simulated as populations of agents who differ in their behavioural characteristics. Model experiments illustrate the influence of

  9. Stimulation of acetoin production in metabolically engineered Lactococcus lactis by increasing ATP demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jianming; Kandasamy, Vijayalakshmi; Würtz, Anders

    2016-01-01

    into a Lactococcus lactis strain engineered into producing acetoin, we show that production titer and yield both can be increased. At high F1-ATPase expression level, the acetoin production yield could be increased by 10 %; however, because of the negative effect that the F1-ATPase had on biomass yield and growth...

  10. Continuous theta-burst stimulation to primary motor cortex reveals asymmetric compensation for sensory attenuation in bimanual repetitive force production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therrien, Amanda S; Lyons, James; Balasubramaniam, Ramesh

    2013-08-01

    Studies of fingertip force production have shown that self-produced forces are perceived as weaker than externally generated forces. This is due to mechanisms of sensory reafference where the comparison between predicted and actual sensory feedback results in attenuated perceptions of self-generated forces. Without an external reference to calibrate attenuated performance judgments, a compensatory overproduction of force is exhibited. It remains unclear whether the force overproduction seen in the absence of visual reference stimuli differs when forces are produced bimanually. We studied performance of two versions of a bimanual sequential force production task compared with each hand performing the task unimanually. When the task goal was shared, force series produced by each hand in bimanual conditions were found to be uncorrelated. When the bimanual task required each hand to reach a target force level, we found asymmetries in the degree of force overproduction between the hands following visual feedback removal. Unilateral continuous theta-burst stimulation of the left primary motor cortex yielded a selective reduction of force overproduction in the hand contralateral to stimulation by disrupting sensory reafference processes. While variability was lower in bimanual trials when the task goal was shared, this influence of hand condition disappeared when the target force level was to be reached by each hand simultaneously. Our findings strengthen the notion that force control in bimanual action is less tightly coupled than other mechanisms of bimanual motor control and show that this effector specificity may be extended to the processing and compensation for mechanisms of sensory reafference.

  11. Garlic (Allium sativum) stimulates lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha production from J774A.1 murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jessica; Harfouche, Youssef; De La Cruz, Melissa; Zamora, Martha P; Liu, Yan; Rego, James A; Buckley, Nancy E

    2015-02-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is known to have many beneficial attributes such as antimicrobial, antiatherosclerotic, antitumorigenetic, and immunomodulatory properties. In the present study, we investigated the effects of an aqueous garlic extract on macrophage cytokine production by challenging the macrophage J774A.1 cell line with the garlic extract in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) under different conditions. The effect of allicin, the major component of crushed garlic, was also investigated. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, it was found that garlic and synthetic allicin greatly stimulated tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) production in macrophages treated with LPS. The TNF-α secretion levels peaked earlier and were sustained for a longer time in cells treated with garlic and LPS compared with cells treated with LPS alone. Garlic acted in a time-dependent manner. We suggest that garlic, at least partially via its allicin component, acts downstream from LPS to stimulate macrophage TNF-α secretion. © 2014 The Authors. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Impact of growth hormone (GH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) on in vitro canine preantral follicle development and estradiol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafim, M K B; Duarte, A B G; Silva, G M; Souza, C E A; Magalhães-Padilha, D M; Moura, A A A; Silva, L D M; Campello, C C; Figueiredo, J R

    2015-04-01

    Evaluate the effect of different concentrations of growth hormone (GH) on the in vitro development of domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) preantral follicles in the presence or absence of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). Secondary preantral follicles, isolated by microdissection, were cultured in a medium composed of αMEM with bovine serum albumin (BSA), glutamine, hypoxanthine, insulin, transferrin, selenium and ascorbic acid (αMEM(+)-control) added at different concentrations of GH (GH10 ng/ml or GH50 ng/ml) and FSH (GH10+FSH, GH50+FSH). Follicle development was evaluated based on the percentage of intact follicles, antrum formation, follicular diameter, follicular viability using fluorescent markers and estradiol production. GH50 was the only treatment that maintained the same percentage of normal morphologically follicles from day 0 to day 18 of culture (PGH50 supplemented with FSH (GH50+FSH) resulted in the highest average follicular diameter (PGH50+FSH treatment groups actively and increasingly secreted estradiol from day 6 to 18 of culture (PGH benefits the maintenance of follicular morphology in a dose-dependent manner and, in association with FSH, stimulates in vitro follicular growth and estradiol production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Staphylococcal enterotoxin-A directly stimulates signal transduction and interferon-gamma production in psoriatic T-cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M B; Odum, N; Gerwien, J

    1998-01-01

    class II. Here we address the question of whether SEA can directly activate psoriatic T cells in the absence of professional antigen-presenting cells. We show that SEA induces i) tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins, ii) downregulation of the T-cell receptor (TCR), and iii) production...... of SEA. Mutations in only one of the two MHC class II binding sites of SEA has different effects on T-cell activation. Thus, SEA molecules with a mutation in the MHC class II beta-binding site induce protein tyrosine phosphorylation, but not IFN-gamma production or co-stimulation of cytokine......-mediated proliferation. In contrast, SEA with a mutation in the MHC class II alpha-binding site induces IFN-gamma and a qualitatively changed tyrosine phosphorylation profile. Both mutations delete the co-stimulatory effect on cytokine-mediated proliferation. This suggests that both MHC class II binding sites...

  14. Inhibition of acrolein-stimulated MUC5AC production by fucoidan in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, Yuba Raj; Yoon, Se Young; Kim, Sang Kyum; Li, Jian-Dong; Kang, Keon Wook

    2008-10-01

    Fucoidan, a marine sulfated polysaccharide has both antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory effects. We determined the effect of fucoidan on MUC5AC expression in a human bronchial epithelial cell line, NCI-H292. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that fucoidan inhibited MUC5AC expression and protein secretion in cells stimulated with acrolein, a toxic aldehyde present in tobacco smoke. The activation of both nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) are key steps in the transcriptional activation of MUC5AC. We found that the acrolein-mediated transactivation of MUC5AC was selectively dependent on AP-1 activation and was suppressed by fucoidan. Fucoidan-induced AP-1 inhibition and MUC5AC repression might be associated with fucoidan's protective effects against respiratory diseases.

  15. Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Production and Tissue Eosinophilia in Chronic Rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peric, Aleksandar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF is a strong proinflammatory cytokine that takes part in allergic nasal inflammation as an eosinophil colony-stimulating factor. However, the role of GM-CSF in non-allergic rhinitis has not been fully explored. Objectives The aim of this investigation was to assess the concentration of GM-CSF in nasal secretions of patients with non-allergic rhinitis with eosinophilia syndrome (NARES in comparison to patients with perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR and healthy subjects, as well as to assess the relationship with the degree of eosinophilic inflammation and clinical characteristics of the patients. Methods Fourteen patients with diagnosis of NARES, 14 PAR patients, and 14 healthy subjects were included in this cross-sectional study. All patients underwent symptom score assessment, nasal endoscopy, allergy testing, and cytological evaluation. The concentration of GM-CSF in nasal secretions of all participants was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results We found significantly higher levels of GM-CSF in patients with NARES than in the control group (p = 0.035. The percent of eosinophils in nasal mucosa was higher in NARES patients in comparison to patients with PAR (p < 0.001 and control patients (p < 0.0001. We found positive correlations between GM-CSF levels and eosinophil counts only in NARES patients. Conclusion The concentrations of GM-CSF in nasal secretions correlate well with eosinophil counts in the nasal mucosa of NARES patients. These facts indicate a possible role of GM-CSF as a favorable marker for assessment of nasal disease severity and the degree of chronic eosinophilic inflammation in the nasal mucosa.

  16. DETERMINANTS OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN STIMULATING PRODUCT AND PROCESS INNOVATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Urban

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Research highlights Quality Management System (QMS has now become a recognizable guarantee of trust in certified business systems. A critical review of the literature reveals that empirical studies conducted to date have yielded conflicting findings on the relationship between quality management practices and innovation. This study empirically investigates how quality management principles may act as determinants of product and process innovations. The results show that customer focus and leadership explain a significant amount of product innovation, but not process innovation. Empirical support also finds that people management explains a significant amount of variance in both product innovation and process innovation. The findings highlight the importance of developing formal organisational mechanisms to measure levels of such quality determinants as they are easily overlooked or taken for granted. Moreover, firms need to recognise that innovation is a multi-faceted concept that can be controlled from a process or a product perspective, a distinction which is sometimes blurred.

  17. Effect of antimalarial drugs on stimulation and interleukin 2 production of human lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, I C; Svenson, M; Theander, T G

    1987-01-01

    Effect of pyrimethamine, an antimalarial antifolate, and of mefloquine, chloroquine, and quinine, which belong to the quinoline group of antimalarials, on proliferation and interleukin 2 (IL-2) production of human lymphocytes was studied in vitro. Pyrimethamine at concentrations above therapeutic...

  18. Understanding effect of formulation and manufacturing variables on the critical quality attributes of warfarin sodium product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ziyaur; Korang-Yeboah, Maxwell; Siddiqui, Akhtar; Mohammad, Adil; Khan, Mansoor A

    2015-11-10

    Warfarin sodium (WS) is a narrow therapeutic index drug and its product quality should be thoroughly understood and monitored in order to avoid clinical performance issues. This study was focused on understanding the effect of manufacturing and formulation variables on WS product critical quality attributes (CQAs). Eight formulations were developed with lactose monohydrate (LM) or lactose anhydrous (LA), and were either wet granulated or directly compressed. Formulations were granulated either with ethanol, isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and IPA-water mixture (50:50). Formulations were characterized for IPA, water content, hardness, disintegration time (DT), assay, dissolution and drug physical forms (scanning electron microscopy (SEM), near infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR)), and performed accelerated stability studies at 40°C/75% RH for three days. The DT and dissolution of directly compressed formulations were faster than wet granulated formulations. This was due to phase transformation of crystalline drug into its amorphous form as indicated by SEM, NIR-CI, XRPD and ssNMR data which itself act as a binder. Similarly, LM showed faster disintegration and dissolution than LA containing formulations. Stability results indicated an increase in hardness and DT, and a decrease in dissolution rate and extent. This was due to phase transformation of the drug and consolidation with particles' bonding. In conclusion, the CQAs of WS product were significantly affected by manufacturing and formulation variables. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Sub-Inhibitory Concentrations of Rifampicin Strongly Stimulated Biofilm Production inS. aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-E-Silva, Agostinho Alves; Silva-Filho, Renato Geraldo; Fernandes, Henry Marcel Zalona; Saramago, Carmen Soares Meirelles; Viana, Alice Slotfeldt; Souza, Maria José; Nogueira, Eduardo Matos

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen and a frequent cause of infections associated with biofilm production in implantable medical devices. Biofilm production can be induced by sub-inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of certain antibiotics, but few studies have researched this occurrence in S. aureus . In this study, we investigated the effect of sub-MICs of rifampicin and minocycline on biofilm production by five clinical and five non-clinical S. aureus isolates. Microtiter Plate assay and Congo Red Agar Test were used to analyze the biofilm production. The biofilm composition was evaluated by the detachment assay with sodium metaperiodate and proteinase K. Rifampicin sub-MICs induced very high biofilm formation in seven isolates that were non-producers in Tryptic Soy Broth. In one producer isolate, the biofilm formation level was not affected by sub-MICs of this drug. Sub-MICs of minocycline did not induce biofilm production in all isolates tested and in two producer isolates, instead, MIC/2 and MIC/4 inhibited biofilm production. The results of the drugs in combination were similar to those with rifampicin alone. The biofilm matrix was identified as polysaccharide, except for one producer isolate, classified as proteinaceous. Polysaccharide biofilm producer isolates, when grown on Congo Red Agar without sucrose, but with sub-MICs of rifampicin, showed results in agreement with those obtained in Microtiter Plate Test. The high biofilm production induced by sub-MICs of rifampicin has potential clinical relevance, because this is one of the drugs commonly used in the impregnation of catheters. In addition, it is used adjunctively to treat certain S. aureus infections.

  20. Animal models to assess the abuse liability of tobacco products: effects of smokeless tobacco extracts on intracranial self-stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Andrew C; Tally, Laura; Schmidt, Clare E; Muelken, Peter; Stepanov, Irina; Saha, Subhrakanti; Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; LeSage, Mark G

    2015-02-01

    Preclinical models are needed to inform regulation of tobacco products by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Typically, animal models of tobacco addiction involve exposure to nicotine alone or nicotine combined with isolated tobacco constituents (e.g. minor alkaloids). The goal of this study was to develop a model using extracts derived from tobacco products that contain a range of tobacco constituents to more closely model product exposure in humans. This study compared the addiction-related effects of nicotine alone and nicotine dose-equivalent concentrations of aqueous smokeless tobacco extracts on intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) in rats. Extracts were prepared from Kodiak Wintergreen, a conventional product, or Camel Snus, a potential "modified risk tobacco product". Binding affinities of nicotine alone and extracts at various nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes were also compared. Kodiak and Camel Snus extracts contained levels of minor alkaloids within the range of those shown to enhance nicotine's behavioral effects when studied in isolation. Nonetheless, acute injection of both extracts produced reinforcement-enhancing (ICSS threshold-decreasing) effects similar to those of nicotine alone at low to moderate nicotine doses, as well as similar reinforcement-attenuating/aversive (ICSS threshold-increasing) effects at high nicotine doses. Extracts and nicotine alone also had similar binding affinity at all nAChRs studied. Relative nicotine content is the primary pharmacological determinant of the abuse liability of Kodiak and Camel Snus as measured using ICSS. These models may be useful to compare the relative abuse liability of other tobacco products and to model FDA-mandated changes in product performance standards. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Next-Generation Satellite Precipitation Products for Understanding Global and Regional Water Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Arthur Y.

    2011-01-01

    A major challenge in understanding the space-time variability of continental water fluxes is the lack of accurate precipitation estimates over complex terrains. While satellite precipitation observations can be used to complement ground-based data to obtain improved estimates, space-based and ground-based estimates come with their own sets of uncertainties, which must be understood and characterized. Quantitative estimation of uncertainties in these products also provides a necessary foundation for merging satellite and ground-based precipitation measurements within a rigorous statistical framework. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) is an international satellite mission that will provide next-generation global precipitation data products for research and applications. It consists of a constellation of microwave sensors provided by NASA, JAXA, CNES, ISRO, EUMETSAT, DOD, NOAA, NPP, and JPSS. At the heart of the mission is the GPM Core Observatory provided by NASA and JAXA to be launched in 2013. The GPM Core, which will carry the first space-borne dual-frequency radar and a state-of-the-art multi-frequency radiometer, is designed to set new reference standards for precipitation measurements from space, which can then be used to unify and refine precipitation retrievals from all constellation sensors. The next-generation constellation-based satellite precipitation estimates will be characterized by intercalibrated radiometric measurements and physical-based retrievals using a common observation-derived hydrometeor database. For pre-launch algorithm development and post-launch product evaluation, NASA supports an extensive ground validation (GV) program in cooperation with domestic and international partners to improve (1) physics of remote-sensing algorithms through a series of focused field campaigns, (2) characterization of uncertainties in satellite and ground-based precipitation products over selected GV testbeds, and (3) modeling of atmospheric processes and

  2. Lauric Acid Stimulates Ketone Body Production in the KT-5 Astrocyte Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Yudai; Takagi, Tetsuo; Inai, Makoto; Nishimura, Shuhei; Urashima, Shogo; Honda, Kazumitsu; Aoyama, Toshiaki; Terada, Shin

    2016-08-01

    Coconut oil has recently attracted considerable attention as a potential Alzheimer's disease therapy because it contains large amounts of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) and its consumption is thought to stimulate hepatic ketogenesis, supplying an alternative energy source for brains with impaired glucose metabolism. In this study, we first reevaluated the responses of plasma ketone bodies to oral administration of coconut oil to rats. We found that the coconut oil-induced increase in plasma ketone body concentration was negligible and did not significantly differ from that observed after high-oleic sunflower oil administration. In contrast, the administration of coconut oil substantially increased the plasma free fatty acid concentration and lauric acid content, which is the major MCFA in coconut oil. Next, to elucidate whether lauric acid can activate ketogenesis in astrocytes with the capacity to generate ketone bodies from fatty acids, we treated the KT-5 astrocyte cell line with 50 and 100 μM lauric acid for 4 h. The lauric acid treatments increased the total ketone body concentration in the cell culture supernatant to a greater extent than oleic acid, suggesting that lauric acid can directly and potently activate ketogenesis in KT-5 astrocytes. These results suggest that coconut oil intake may improve brain health by directly activating ketogenesis in astrocytes and thereby by providing fuel to neighboring neurons.

  3. Effect of antimalarial drugs on stimulation and interleukin 2 production of human lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, I C; Svenson, M; Theander, T G

    1987-01-01

    Effect of pyrimethamine, an antimalarial antifolate, and of mefloquine, chloroquine, and quinine, which belong to the quinoline group of antimalarials, on proliferation and interleukin 2 (IL-2) production of human lymphocytes was studied in vitro. Pyrimethamine at concentrations above therapeutic...... levels suppressed the lymphocytes' proliferation, but not their IL-2 production. All three quinolines suppressed the proliferation of lymphocytes, but not equally, with mefloquine having the strongest effect. Quinine suppressed the growth at therapeutic concentrations. The IL-2 production was suppressed...... at concentrations twice as high as those required to suppress lymphocyte proliferation. Addition of exogenous IL-2 only partially reversed the suppressive effect on lymphocyte proliferation. Delayed addition of the quinolines decreased their suppressive effect, but not completely. The mechanisms of action on human...

  4. 5-HT1C receptor-mediated stimulation of inositol phosphate production in pig choroid plexus. A pharmacological characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, D; Waeber, C; Schoeffter, P; Palacios, J M; Dravid, A

    1989-03-01

    1) 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin) induces inositol phosphate production in a pig choroid plexus preparation. This effect has been pharmacologically characterized and the data compared to those obtained from radioligand binding studies performed with [3H]mesulergine to 5-HT1C sites in pig choroid plexus membranes. 2) The rank order of potency of agonists stimulating inositol phosphate production was: alpha-methyl-5-HT greater than 1-methyl-5-HT greater than DOI greater than bufotenine = SKF 83566 = 5-HT greater than 5-MeO-DMT greater than 5-MeOT = RU 24969 greater than SCH 23390 greater than 5-CT. 8-OH-DPAT was virtually devoid of activity at 100 mumol/l. 3) The increase in inositol phosphate production induced by 5-HT and other agonists was surmountably antagonised by mesulergine, ketanserin and spiperone with pKB values of 8.7, 6.7 and 5.3, respectively. 4) The rank order of potency of antagonists was: metergoline greater than mesulergine greater than LY 53857 greater than ritanserin greater than methiothepin greater than mianserin greater than cyproheptadine greater than pirenperone greater than cinanserin greater than ketanserin greater than spiperone. The following antagonists were virtually devoid of activity at 100 mumol/l; pindolol, 21-009 and yohimbine. 5) The results obtained both with agonists and antagonists strongly support the view that 5-HT1C receptors mediate agonist induced production of inositol phosphates in pig choroid plexus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. The Effects of Stimulant Medications on the Art Products of ADHD Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epperson, Julie; Valum, J. Lane

    1992-01-01

    Investigated effects of varying doses of psychostimulant medications on expressive qualities evident in children's art products. Findings from eight children affected by attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder indicated that specific areas assessed were influenced by varying doses of medications. Data from art corresponded in positive manner to…

  6. 16alpha-Bromoepiandrosterone (HE2000) limits non-productive inflammation and stimulates immunity in lungs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicoletti, F.; Conrad, D.; Wang, A.; Pieters, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/35112148X; Mangano, K.; van Heeckeren, A.; White, S.K.; Frincke, J.; Reading, C.L.; Auci, D.L.; Stickney, D.

    2009-01-01

    16alpha-Bromoepiandrosterone (HE2000) is a synthetic steroid that limits non-productive inflammation, enhances protective immunity and improves survival in clinical studies of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), malaria and tuberculosis infections. We now show that HE2000 decreased

  7. Chemically modified tetracyclines stimulate matrix metalloproteinase-s production by periodontal ligament cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bildt, M.M.; Snoek-van Beurden, A.M.P.; Groot, J. de; El, B. van; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Hoff, J.W. van den

    2006-01-01

    Background and Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of chemically modified tetracyclines (CMTs) on the production of gelatinases [matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9] by human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells, and on the activity of recombinant gelatinases.

  8. Job satisfaction or production? How staff and leadership understand operating room efficiency: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakelian, E; Gunningberg, L; Larsson, J

    2008-11-01

    How to increase efficiency in operating departments has been widely studied. However, there is no overall definition of efficiency. Supervisors urging staff to work efficiently may meet strong reactions due to staff believing that demands for efficiency means just stress at work. Differences in how efficiency is understood may constitute an obstacle to supervisors' efforts to promote it. This study aimed to explore how staff and leadership understand operating room efficiency. Twenty-one members of staff and supervisors in an operating department in a Swedish county hospital were interviewed. The analysis was performed with a phenomenographic approach that aims to discover the variations in how a phenomenon is understood by a group of people. Six categories were found in the understanding of operation room efficiency: (A) having the right qualifications; (B) enjoying work; (C) planning and having good control and overview; (D) each professional performing the correct tasks; (E) completing a work assignment; and (F) producing as much as possible per time unit. The most significant finding was that most of the nurses and assistant nurses understood efficiency as individual knowledge and experience emphasizing the importance of the work process, whereas the supervisors and physicians understood efficiency in terms of production per time unit or completing an assignment. The concept 'operating room efficiency' is understood in different ways by leadership and staff members. Supervisors who are aware of this variation will have better prerequisites for defining the concept and for creating a common platform towards becoming efficient.

  9. Comparison of the incentives used to stimulate energy production in Japan, France, West Germany, and the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, R.J.; Sommers, P.; Eschbach, C.; Sheppard, W.J.; Lenerz, D.E.; Huelshoff, M.; Marcus, A.A.

    1981-09-01

    This volume represents the culmination of a five-year research effort examining the incentives used to stimulate energy production in four countries, and the incentives used to stimulate energy consumption in one country. Following the theoretical approach developed for studying US energy incentives, the researchers in each country classified incentives into the following six categories: (1) Taxation, including exemption from or reduction of existing taxes; (2) Disbursements, in which the national government distributes money without requiring anything in return; (3) Requirements, including demands made by the government, backed by civil or criminal sanctions; (4) Traditional Services, including those almost always provided exclusively by a governmental entity; (5) Nontraditional Services, including those sometimes performed by non-governmental entities, as well as governmental entities (e.g., research and development); and (6) Market Activities, including government involvement in the market under conditions similar to those faced by non-governmental producers or consumers. A complete list of research reports prepared in the Federal Incentives series is provided in the Appendix.

  10. Taurine ameliorates cholesterol metabolism by stimulating bile acid production in high-cholesterol-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Shigeru; Fujita, Michiko; Nakamura, Masakazu; Sakono, Masanobu; Nishizono, Shoko; Sato, Masao; Imaizumi, Katsumi; Mori, Mari; Fukuda, Nobuhiro

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of dietary taurine on cholesterol metabolism in high-cholesterol-fed rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two dietary groups (n = 6 in each group): a high-cholesterol diet containing 0.5% cholesterol and 0.15% sodium cholate, and a high-cholesterol diet with 5% (w/w) taurine. The experimental diets were given for 2 weeks. Taurine supplementation reduced the serum and hepatic cholesterol levels by 37% and 32%, respectively. Faecal excretion of bile acids was significantly increased in taurine-treated rats, compared with untreated rats. Biliary bile acid concentrations were also increased by taurine. Taurine supplementation increased taurine-conjugated bile acids by 61% and decreased glycine-conjugated bile acids by 53%, resulting in a significant decrease in the glycine/taurine (G/T) ratio. Among the taurine-conjugated bile acids, cholic acid and deoxycholic acid were significantly increased. In the liver, taurine supplementation increased the mRNA expression and enzymatic activity of hepatic cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the rate-limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis, by three- and two-fold, respectively. Taurine also decreased the enzymatic activity of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP). These observations suggest that taurine supplementation increases the synthesis and excretion of taurine-conjugated bile acids and stimulates the catabolism of cholesterol to bile acid by elevating the expression and activity of CYP7A1. This may reduce cholesterol esterification and lipoprotein assembly for very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion, leading to reductions in the serum and hepatic cholesterol levels. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Phosphatidylserine-stimulated production of N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamines by Ca2+-dependent N-acyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Zahir; Uyama, Toru; Kawai, Katsuhisa; Binte Mustafiz, Smriti Sultana; Tsuboi, Kazuhito; Araki, Nobukazu; Ueda, Natsuo

    2018-05-01

    N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE) is known to be a precursor for various bioactive N-acylethanolamines including the endocannabinoid anandamide. NAPE is produced in mammals through the transfer of an acyl chain from certain glycerophospholipids to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) by Ca 2+ -dependent or -independent N-acyltransferases. The ε isoform of mouse cytosolic phospholipase A 2 (cPLA 2 ε) was recently identified as a Ca 2+ -dependent N-acyltransferase (Ca-NAT). In the present study, we first showed that two isoforms of human cPLA 2 ε function as Ca-NAT. We next purified both mouse recombinant cPLA 2 ε and its two human orthologues to examine their catalytic properties. The enzyme absolutely required Ca 2+ for its activity and the activity was enhanced by phosphatidylserine (PS). PS enhanced the activity 25-fold in the presence of 1 mM CaCl 2 and lowered the EC 50 value of Ca 2+ >8-fold. Using a PS probe, we showed that cPLA 2 ε largely co-localizes with PS in plasma membrane and organelles involved in the endocytic pathway, further supporting the interaction of cPLA 2 ε with PS in living cells. Finally, we found that the Ca 2+ -ionophore ionomycin increased [ 14 C]NAPE levels >10-fold in [ 14 C]ethanolamine-labeled cPLA 2 ε-expressing cells while phospholipase A/acyltransferase-1, acting as a Ca 2+ -independent N-acyltransferase, was insensitive to ionomycin for full activity. In conclusion, PS potently stimulated the Ca 2+ -dependent activity and human cPLA 2 ε isoforms also functioned as Ca-NAT. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Plasmacytoid dendritic cell interferon-α production to R-848 stimulation is decreased in male infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jennifer P

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sex differences in response to microbial infections, especially viral ones, may be associated with Toll-like receptor (TLR-mediated responses by plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs. Results In this study, we identified sex differences in human infant pDC interferon-α production following challenge with the TLR7/8 agonist R-848. Male pDC responses were significantly lower than those of females during early infancy. This difference may be attributed to the androgen surge experienced by males during the early infancy period. Pretreatment of human pDCs with dihydrotestosterone produced a significant reduction in interferon-α production following R-848 challenge. Conclusions Androgen-mediated regulation of pDC TLR7-driven innate immune responses may contribute to the observed sex differences in response to infections during early infancy.

  13. CFD stimulation of gluconic acid production in a stirred gas-liquid fermenter

    OpenAIRE

    Elqotbi, Mohammed; Montastruc, Ludovic; Vlaev, S.D.; Nikov, Iordan

    2006-01-01

    Designing large-scale stirred bioreactors with performance closely matching the one achieved in lab-scale fermenters presents continuous challenge. In this contribution, dynamic modelling of the aerobic biocatalytic conversion process in viscous batch stirred tank reactor is developed. Its operation is illustrated by simulation of the interaction of fluid flow, mass transfer and reaction relevant to gluconic acid production by a strictly aerophilic Aspergiluc niger based on a “two...

  14. Co-cultivation of Streptomyces californicus and Stachybotrys chartarum stimulates the production of cytostatic compound(s) with immunotoxic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penttinen, Piia; Pelkonen, Jukka; Huttunen, Kati; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

    2006-01-01

    We have recently shown that the actinobacterium Streptomyces californicus and the fungus Stachybotrys chartarum originating from moisture damaged buildings possess both immunotoxic and immunostimulatory characteristics, which are synergistically potentiated by microbial interaction. In the search for the causative agent(s) behind the immunotoxicity, the cytostatic effects of the co-cultivated spores of S. californicus and S. chartarum were compared to those caused by widely used cytostatic agents produced by streptomycetes. The RAW264.7 macrophages were exposed to four doses of doxorubicin (DOX), actinomycin D (AMD), mitomycin C (MMC) or phleomycin (PHLEO) for 24 h. Kinetics of the spores of the co-cultivated and the separately cultivated microbes (1 x 10 6 spores/ml) was compared to DOX (0.15 μM). Apoptotic responses were analyzed by measuring DNA content and mitochondria membrane depolarization with flow cytometer, and by the fluorometric caspase-3 assay. The present data indicate that interactions during co-cultivation of S. californicus and S. chartarum stimulate the production of an unidentified cytostatic compound(s) capable of inducing mitochondria mediated apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at S-G 2 /M. The spores of co-cultivated microbes caused a 4-fold collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential and an almost 6-fold caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation when compared to control. Similar responses were induced by DNA cleaving compounds, especially DOX and AMD, at the relatively low concentrations, but not the spores of the same microbes when they were grown separately. These data suggest that when growing in the same habitat, interactions between S. californicus and S. chartarum stimulates the production of an unknown cytostatic compound(s) which evoke immunotoxic effects similar to those by chemotherapeutic drugs

  15. Prostaglandin E2 Stimulates EP2, Adenylate Cyclase, Phospholipase C, and Intracellular Calcium Release to Mediate Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Production in Dental Pulp Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mei-Chi; Lin, Szu-I; Lin, Li-Deh; Chan, Chiu-Po; Lee, Ming-Shu; Wang, Tong-Mei; Jeng, Po-Yuan; Yeung, Sin-Yuet; Jeng, Jiiang-Huei

    2016-04-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) plays a crucial role in pulpal inflammation and repair. However, its induction of signal transduction pathways is not clear but is crucial for future control of pulpal inflammation. Primary dental pulp cells were exposed to PGE2 and 19R-OH PGE2 (EP2 agonist) or sulprostone (EP1/EP3 agonist) for 5 to 40 minutes. Cellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In some experiments, cells were pretreated with SQ22536 (adenylate cyclase inhibitor), H89 (protein kinase A inhibitor), dorsomorphin (adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase inhibitor), U73122 (phospholipase C inhibitor), thapsigargin (inhibitor of intracellular calcium release), W7 (calmodulin antagonist), verapamil (L-type calcium channel blocker), and EGTA (extracellular calcium chelator) for 20 minutes before the addition of PGE2. PGE2 and 19R-OH PGE2 (EP2 agonist) stimulated cAMP production, whereas sulprostone (EP1/EP3 agonist) shows little effect. PGE2-induced cAMP production was attenuated by SQ22536 and U73122 but not H89 and dorsomorphin. Intriguingly, thapsigargin and W7 prevented PGE2-induced cAMP production, but verapamil and EGTA showed little effect. These results indicate that PGE2-induced cAMP production is associated with EP2 receptor and adenylate cyclase activation. These events are mediated by phospholipase C, intracellular calcium release, and calcium-calmodulin signaling. These results are helpful for understanding the role of PGE2 in pulpal inflammation and repair and possible future drug intervention. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Stimulation of 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) production by actinomycetes after cyclic chlorination in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaszadegan, Morteza; Yi, Min; Alum, Absar

    2015-01-01

    The impact of fluctuation in chlorine residual on actinomycetes and the production of 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) were studied in cast-iron and PVC model distribution systems. Actinomycetes were spiked in each system and continued operation for a 12-day non-chlorine experiment, resulting in no changes in actinomycetes and MIB concentrations. Three cyclic chlorination events were performed and chlorine residuals were maintained as follows: 1.0 mg L(-1) for 24 h, 0 mg L(-1) for 48 h, 0.5 mg L(-1) for 48 h, 0 mg L(-1) for 48 h and 2 mg L(-1) for 24 h. After each chlorination event, 2 -3 log decrease in actinomycetes was noted in both systems. However, within 48 h at 0 mg L(-1) chlorine, the actinomycetes recovered to the pre-chlorination levels. On the contrary, MIB concentration in both systems remained un-impacted after the first cycle and increased by fourfold ( 20 mg L(-1)) after the second cycle, which lasted through the third cycle despite the fact that actinomycetes numbers fluctuated 2-3 logs during this time period. For obtaining biofilm samples from field, water meters were collected from municipality drinking water distribution systems located in central Arizona. The actinomycetes concentration in asbestos cement pipe and cast iron pipe averaged 3.1 × 10(3) and 1.9 × 10(4) CFU cm(-2), respectively. The study shows that production of MIB is associated with changes in chlorine residual in the systems. This is the first report of cyclic chlorine shock as a stimulus for MIB production by actinomycetes in drinking water distribution system's ecology.

  17. Electrolysis within anaerobic bioreactors stimulates breakdown of toxic products from azo dye treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavazza, Sávia; Guzman, Juan J L; Angenent, Largus T

    2015-04-01

    Azo dyes are the most widely used coloring agents in the textile industry, but are difficult to treat. When textile effluents are discharged into waterways, azo dyes and their degradation products are known to be environmentally toxic. An electrochemical system consisting of a graphite-plate anode and a stainless-steel mesh cathode was placed into a lab-scale anaerobic bioreactor to evaluate the removal of an azo dye (Direct Black 22) from synthetic textile wastewater. At applied potentials of 2.5 and 3.0 V when water electrolysis occurs, no improvement in azo dye removal efficiency was observed compared to the control reactor (an integrated system with electrodes but without an applied potential). However, applying such electric potentials produces oxygen via electrolysis and promoted the aerobic degradation of aromatic amines, which are toxic, intermediate products of anaerobic azo dye degradation. The removal of these amines indicates a decrease in overall toxicity of the effluent from a single-stage anaerobic bioreactor, which warrants further optimization in anaerobic digestion.

  18. Lutetium-177 - Broad Production Capabilities are Expected to Stimulate Clinical Applications of this Important Therapeutic Radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Lutetium-177 (Lu-177) is of broad interest for therapeutic applications where the deposition of localized radiation can benefit from the limited soft tissue penetration of the 0.497 MeV beta particle (max. = 2.76 mm). Examples of Lu-177 therapeutic strategies include treatment of small SS2/SS5-expressing tumors with targeted peptides and radiosynovectomy. Emission of a 208 keV gamma photon (11 %) allows imaging for evaluation of localization and biokinetics, and for targeting applications, correlation of uptake with therapeutic response. A broad spectrum of research reactors with even modest thermal neutron flux (e.g. > 1 x 10 14 ) can produce carrier-added Lu-177 with sufficient specific activity (SA) > 10 Ci/mg Lu by the 'direct' approach by irradiation of Lu-176. For low SA applications, thermal flux of > 10 13 in low-medium flux reactors provides sufficient SA (> 0.5 mCi Lu-177/mg) for preparation of Lu-EDTMP for synovectomy. Although relative Lu-177m/Lu-177 activity levels from 'direct' production can be very low (> 10 -5 ), the Lu-177m impurity levels can present an issue with radioactive waste storage requirements at some institutions. The alternative 'indirect' approach using decay of reactor produced ytterbium-177 available from by neutron irradiation of enriched Yb-176 targets provides no-carrier-added (nca) Lu-177 (theoretical SA = 109 Ci/mg Lu). Purification of the microscopic levels of nca Lu-177 from macroscopic Yb levels at the high multi Curie production level is a more challenging approach, since production yields are relatively low even at high thermal flux (e.g. 2 x 10 15 neutrons/cm 2 /sec). In addition, high mass Lu/Yb separation is especially time consuming, can generate significant waste, and the relatively expensive Yb-176 target material (> 97%, ∼ $ 20/mg) must be recovered, re-purified and used for subsequent target preparation. However, a number of effective methods for the Lu/Yb separation and Yb recovery have been reported, and even

  19. Optimization of stimulation and cleaning works with coiled tubing equipments in low productivity wells of the Zuata Field, Junin Block Orinoco oil belt, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, H.; Amaya, R.; Bernard, J. St. [PDVSA (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    The Zuata Field in the Orinoco oil belt, Venezuela, has important recoverable reserves but faces sand production and low reservoir pressures in many cases. Thus solid removal and cleaning are necessary and increase stimulation time and cost. The aim of this paper is to present a new technique for minimizing the rig time/cost. This new scheme of completion uses a cleaning technology with CCTU WellVac SandVac to clean the filling and remove formation damage from low pressure wells. Field tests were conducted in the Zuata Field on two wells operated by PDVSA. The new methodology proved successful in stimulating low pressure reservoirs and results showed that sediments were removed without significant loss of fluids, the CAPEX/OPEX per well was reduced and profitability in low and medium production wells increased. The methodology proposed herein was shown to be a good alternative for stimulating and cleaning low productivity wells.

  20. Chitin stimulates production of the antibiotic andrimid in a Vibrio corallilyticus strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wietz, Matthias; Månsson, Maria; Gram, Lone

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio coralliilyticus is a putative coral pathogen in tropical oceans, but also possesses antagonistic traits. We previously reported antibacterial activity in Vibrio coralliilyticus strain S2052 based upon the antibiotic andrimid. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether V....... coralliilyticus S2052 produces the antibiotic under conditions mimicking natural habitats of vibrios. S2052 synthesized andrimid with both chitin and macroalgal extracts as sole nutrient source. With chitin, the biosynthesis of metabolites other than andrimid was largely abolished, and the yield of the antibiotic...... per cell was twofold higher. In cultures with Artemia as live chitin model system, S2052 reached up to 108 cells ml-1, produced andrimid and showed attachment to the exoskeleton and chitinous exuviae. The metabolic focus on andrimid production with chitin indicates that the antibiotic could serve...

  1. Human host defense peptide LL-37 stimulates virulence factor production and adaptive resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Strempel

    Full Text Available A multitude of different virulence factors as well as the ability to rapidly adapt to adverse environmental conditions are important features for the high pathogenicity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Both virulence and adaptive resistance are tightly controlled by a complex regulatory network and respond to external stimuli, such as host signals or antibiotic stress, in a highly specific manner. Here, we demonstrate that physiological concentrations of the human host defense peptide LL-37 promote virulence factor production as well as an adaptive resistance against fluoroquinolone and aminoglycoside antibiotics in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Microarray analyses of P. aeruginosa cells exposed to LL-37 revealed an upregulation of gene clusters involved in the production of quorum sensing molecules and secreted virulence factors (PQS, phenazine, hydrogen cyanide (HCN, elastase and rhamnolipids and in lipopolysaccharide (LPS modification as well as an induction of genes encoding multidrug efflux pumps MexCD-OprJ and MexGHI-OpmD. Accordingly, we detected significantly elevated levels of toxic metabolites and proteases in bacterial supernatants after LL-37 treatment. Pre-incubation of bacteria with LL-37 for 2 h led to a decreased susceptibility towards gentamicin and ciprofloxacin. Quantitative Realtime PCR results using a PAO1-pqsE mutant strain present evidence that the quinolone response protein and virulence regulator PqsE may be implicated in the regulation of the observed phenotype in response to LL-37. Further experiments with synthetic cationic antimicrobial peptides IDR-1018, 1037 and HHC-36 showed no induction of pqsE expression, suggesting a new role of PqsE as highly specific host stress sensor.

  2. Identification of lipases involved in PBAN stimulated pheromone production in Bombyx mori using the DGE and RNAi approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengfang Du

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN is a neurohormone that regulates sex pheromone synthesis in female moths. Bombyx mori is a model organism that has been used to explore the signal transduction pattern of PBAN, which is mediated by a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR. Although significant progress has been made in elucidating PBAN-regulated lipolysis that releases the precursor of the sex pheromone, little is known about the molecular components involved in this step. To better elucidate the molecular mechanisms of PBAN-stimulated lipolysis of cytoplasmic lipid droplets (LDs, the associated lipase genes involved in PBAN- regulated sex pheromone biosynthesis were identified using digital gene expression (DGE and subsequent RNA interference (RNAi. RESULTS: Three DGE libraries were constructed from pheromone glands (PGs at different developed stages, namely, 72 hours before eclosion (-72 h, new emergence (0 h and 72 h after eclosion (72 h, to investigate the gene expression profiles during PG development. The DGE evaluated over 5.6 million clean tags in each PG sample and revealed numerous genes that were differentially expressed at these stages. Most importantly, seven lipases were found to be richly expressed during the key stage of sex pheromone synthesis and release (new emergence. RNAi-mediated knockdown confirmed for the first time that four of these seven lipases play important roles in sex pheromone synthesis. CONCLUSION: This study has identified four lipases directly involved in PBAN-stimulated sex pheromone biosynthesis, which improve our understanding of the lipases involved in releasing bombykol precursors from triacylglycerols (TAGs within the cytoplasmic LDs.

  3. Utilizing Satellite Precipitation Products to Understand the Link Between Climate Variability and Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggioni, V.; Mousam, A.; Delamater, P. L.; Cash, B. A.; Quispe, A.

    2015-12-01

    Malaria is a public health threat to people globally leading to 198 million cases and 584,000 deaths annually. Outbreaks of vector borne diseases such as malaria can be significantly impacted by climate variables such as precipitation. For example, an increase in rainfall has the potential to create pools of water that can serve as breeding locations for mosquitos. Peru is a country that is currently controlling malaria, but has not been able to completely eliminate the disease. Despite the various initiatives in order to control malaria - including regional efforts to improve surveillance, early detection, prompt treatment, and vector management - malaria cases in Peru have risen between 2011 and 2014. The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that climate variability plays a fundamental role in malaria occurrence over a 12-year period (2003-2014) in Peru. When analyzing climate variability, it is important to obtain high-quality, high-resolution data for a time series long enough to draw conclusion about how climate variables have been and are changing. Remote sensing is a powerful tool for measuring and monitoring climate variables continuously in time and space. A widely used satellite-based precipitation product, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), available globally since 1998, was used to obtain 3-hourly data with a spatial resolution of 0.25° x 0.25°. The precipitation data was linked to weekly (2003-2014) malaria cases collected by health centers and available at a district level all over Peru to investigate the relationship between precipitation and the seasonal and annual variations in malaria incidence. Further studies will incorporate additional climate variables such as temperature, humidity, soil moisture, and surface pressure from remote sensing data products and climate models. Ultimately, this research will help us to understand if climate variability impacts malaria incidence

  4. Rosiglitazone decreases postprandial production of acylation stimulating protein in type 2 diabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Garry D

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We evaluated plasma ASP and its precursor C3 in type 2 diabetic men with/without rosiglitazone (ROSI treatment compared to healthy non-obese men. We tested (1 whether plasma ASP or C3 are altered postprandially in subcutaneous adipose tissue or forearm muscle effluent assessed by arteriovenous (A-V differences in healthy lean men and older obese diabetic men and (2 whether treatment with ROSI changes the arteriovenous gradient of ASP and/or C3. Methods In this ongoing placebo-controlled, crossover, double-blinded study, AV differences following a mixed meal were measured in diabetic men (n = 6 as compared to healthy men (n = 9. Results Postprandial arterial and adipose venous TG and venous NEFA were increased in diabetics vs. controls (p Conclusion Increased postprandial venous production of ASP is specific for adipose tissue (absent in forearm muscle. Increased postprandial C3 and ASP in diabetic subjects is consistent with an ASP resistant state, this state is partially normalized by treatment with ROSI.

  5. Understanding product cost vs. performance through an in-depth system Monte Carlo analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanson, Mark C.

    2017-08-01

    The manner in which an optical system is toleranced and compensated greatly affects the cost to build it. By having a detailed understanding of different tolerance and compensation methods, the end user can decide on the balance of cost and performance. A detailed phased approach Monte Carlo analysis can be used to demonstrate the tradeoffs between cost and performance. In complex high performance optical systems, performance is fine-tuned by making adjustments to the optical systems after they are initially built. This process enables the overall best system performance, without the need for fabricating components to stringent tolerance levels that often can be outside of a fabricator's manufacturing capabilities. A good performance simulation of as built performance can interrogate different steps of the fabrication and build process. Such a simulation may aid the evaluation of whether the measured parameters are within the acceptable range of system performance at that stage of the build process. Finding errors before an optical system progresses further into the build process saves both time and money. Having the appropriate tolerances and compensation strategy tied to a specific performance level will optimize the overall product cost.

  6. Understanding Disorder Within Variation: Production of English Grammatical Forms by English Language Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedore, Lisa M; Peña, Elizabeth D; Anaya, Jissel B; Nieto, Ricardo; Lugo-Neris, Mirza J; Baron, Alisa

    2018-04-05

    This study examines English performance on a set of 11 grammatical forms in Spanish-English bilingual, school-age children in order to understand how item difficulty of grammatical constructions helps correctly classify language impairment (LI) from expected variability in second language acquisition when taking into account linguistic experience and exposure. Three hundred seventy-eight children's scores on the Bilingual English-Spanish Assessment-Middle Extension (Peña, Bedore, Gutiérrez-Clellen, Iglesias, & Goldstein, 2008) morphosyntax cloze task were analyzed by bilingual experience groups (high Spanish experience, balanced English-Spanish experience, high English experience, ability (typically developing [TD] vs. LI), and grammatical form. Classification accuracy was calculated for the forms that best differentiated TD and LI groups. Children with LI scored lower than TD children across all bilingual experience groups. There were differences by grammatical form across bilingual experience and ability groups. Children from high English experience and balanced English-Spanish experience groups could be accurately classified on the basis of all the English grammatical forms tested except for prepositions. For bilinguals with high Spanish experience, it was possible to rule out LI on the basis of grammatical production but not rule in LI. It is possible to accurately identify LI in English language learners once they use English 40% of the time or more. However, for children with high Spanish experience, more information about development and patterns of impairment is needed to positively identify LI.

  7. Impacts of Macronutrients on Gene Expression: Recent Evidence to Understand Productive and Reproductive Performance of Livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mahmodul Hasan Sohel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify the effects of nutrients on gene expression and to assess the interactions between genes and nutrition by means of various cutting-edge technologies, the interdisciplinary branch ‘Nutrigenomics’ was created. Therefore, nutrigenomics corresponds to the use of knowledge and techniques of nutrition, genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, epigenomics, and metabolomics to seek and explain the cross-talk between nutrition and genes in molecular level. Macronutrients are important dietary signals that control metabolic programming of cells and have important roles in maintaining cellular homeostasis by influencing specific gene expression. Recent advancements in molecular genetics studies, for instance, use of next-generation sequencing, microarray and qPCR array to investigate the expression of transcripts, genes, and miRNAs, has a crucial impact on understanding and quantitative measurement of the impact of dietary macronutrients on gene function. This review will shade a light on the interactions and mechanisms how the dietary source of macronutrients changes the expression of specific mRNA and miRNA. Furthermore, it will highlight the exciting recent findings in relation to animal performance characteristics which eventually help us to identify a dietary target to improve animal production.

  8. Phenotypic features of first-generation transgenic goats for human granulocyte-colony stimulation factor production in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Ribrio I T P; Melo, Carlos H S; Souza-Fabjan, Joanna M G; Teixeira, Dárcio I A; Melo, Luciana M; Freitas, Vicente J F

    2014-11-01

    Human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (hG-CSF) is a hematopoietic growth factor used in neutropenic patients. It is produced in transgenic bacteria or cultured mammalian cells. As an alternative, we now show that hG-CSF can be expressed in the mammary gland of first-generation (F1) transgenic goats during induced lactation. Despite lower milk production, transgenic females presented a similar milk composition (fat, protein and lactose) when compared to non-transgenic (p > 0.05) ones. The mean concentration (±SD) of recombinant hG-CSF in milk during lactation was 360 ± 178 µg ml(-1). All clinical parameters, as well as kidney and liver function, indicated that F1 transgenic goats were healthy. Additionally, no ectopic hG-CSF expression was detected in studied tissues of F1 transgenic males. Thus, F1 hG-CSF-transgenic goats can express the recombinant protein in milk at quantities compatible with their use as bioreactors in a commercial-scale protein-production program.

  9. Cadmium effects on ros production and DNA damage via adrenergic receptors stimulation: role of Na+/H+ exchanger and PKC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailianis, Stefanos; Piperakis, Styllianos M; Kaloyianni, Martha

    2005-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate the events that are involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and DNA damage after adrenergic receptors stimulation by cadmium, in relation to cAMP, protein kinase C (PKC) and Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE). Cadmium (50 microM) caused increased levels of ROS with a concomitant increase in DNA damage in digestive gland of Mytilus galloprovincialis. Either the use of EIPA, a NHE blocker, or calphostin C, the inhibitor of PKC, reduced cadmium effects. Cells treated with alpha1-, alpha2-, beta- and beta1- adrenergic antagonists together with cadmium reversed cadmium alone effects, while the respective adrenergic agonists, phenylephrine and isoprenaline, mimic cadmium effects. Moreover, cadmium caused an increase in the levels of cAMP in digestive gland cells that were reversed after NHE and PKC inhibition as well as in the presence of each type of adrenergic antagonist. The different sensitivity of alpha1-, alpha2-, beta-, beta1- adrenergic receptors on ROS, cAMP production and DNA damage possibly leads to the induction of two signaling pathways that may be interacting or to the presence of a compensatory pathway that acts in concert with the alpha- and beta- adrenergic receptors. In these signaling pathways PKC and NHE play significant role.

  10. World Biofuels Production Potential Understanding the Challenges to Meeting the U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sastri, B.; Lee, A.

    2008-09-15

    This study by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates the worldwide potential to produce biofuels including biofuels for export. It was undertaken to improve our understanding of the potential for imported biofuels to satisfy the requirements of Title II of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) in the coming decades. Many other countries biofuels production and policies are expanding as rapidly as ours. Therefore, we modeled a detailed and up-to-date representation of the amount of biofuel feedstocks that are being and can be grown, current and future biofuels production capacity, and other factors relevant to the economic competitiveness of worldwide biofuels production, use, and trade. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) identified and prepared feedstock data for countries that were likely to be significant exporters of biofuels to the U.S. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) calculated conversion costs by conducting material flow analyses and technology assessments on biofuels technologies. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) integrated the country specific feedstock estimates and conversion costs into the global Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) model. The model uses least-cost optimization to project the future state of the global energy system in five year increments. World biofuels production was assessed over the 2010 to 2030 timeframe using scenarios covering a range U.S. policies (tax credits, tariffs, and regulations), as well as oil prices, feedstock availability, and a global CO{sub 2} price. All scenarios include the full implementation of existing U.S. and selected other countries biofuels policies (Table 4). For the U.S., the most important policy is the EISA Title II Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). It progressively increases the required volumes of renewable fuel used in motor vehicles (Appendix B). The RFS requires 36 billion (B) gallons (gal) per year of renewable fuels by 2022

  11. Understanding key issues of sustainable wood production in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Deal; Seth M. White

    2005-01-01

    Researchers involved with the Pacific Northwest (PNW) Research Station Sustainable Wood Production Initiative have outlined some of the barriers and opportunities for sustainable wood production in the region. Sustainable wood production is defined as the capacity of forests to produce wood, products, and services on a long-term basis and in the context of human...

  12. Histamine Stimulates Hydrogen Peroxide Production by Bronchial Epithelial Cells via Histamine H1 Receptor and Dual Oxidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada, Balázs; Boudreau, Howard E.; Park, Jonathan J.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. Besides granulocytes, the airway epithelium can produce large amounts of reactive oxygen species and can contribute to asthma-related oxidative stress. Histamine is a major inflammatory mediator present in large quantities in asthmatic airways. Whether histamine triggers epithelium-derived oxidative stress is unknown. We therefore aimed at characterizing human airway epithelial H2O2 production stimulated by histamine. We found that air–liquid interface cultures of primary human bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) and an immortalized BEC model (Cdk4/hTERT HBEC) produce H2O2 in response to histamine. The main source of airway epithelial H2O2 is an NADPH dual oxidase, Duox1. Out of the four histamine receptors (H1R–H4R), H1R has the highest expression in BECs and mediates the H2O2–producing effects of histamine. IL-4 induces Duox1 gene and protein expression levels and enhances histamine-induced H2O2 production by epithelial cells. Using HEK-293 cells expressing Duox1 or Duox2 and endogenous H1R, histamine triggers an immediate intracellular calcium signal and H2O2 release. Overexpression of H1R further increases the oxidative output of Duox-expressing HEK-293 cells. Our observations show that BECs respond to histamine with Duox-mediated H2O2 production. These findings reveal a mechanism that could be an important contributor to oxidative stress characteristic of asthmatic airways, suggesting novel therapeutic targets for treating asthmatic airway disease. PMID:23962049

  13. American Ginseng Stimulates Insulin Production and Prevents Apoptosis through Regulation of Uncoupling Protein-2 in Cultured β Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Zeqi Luo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available American ginseng root displays the ability to achieve glucose homeostasis both experimentally and clinically but the unknown mechanism used by ginseng to achieve its therapeutic effects on diabetes limits its application. Disruption in the insulin secretion of pancreatic β cells is considered the major cause of diabetes. A mitochondrial protein, uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2 has been found to play a critical role in insulin synthesis and β cell survival. Our preliminary studies found that the extracts of American ginseng inhibit UCP-2 expression which may contribute to the ability of ginseng protecting β cell death and improving insulin synthesis. Therefore, we hypothesized that ginseng extracts suppress UCP-2 in the mitochondria of pancreatic β cells, promoting insulin synthesis and anti-apoptosis (a programmed cell-death mechanism. To test the hypothesis, the serum-deprived quiescent β cells were cultured with or without interleukin-1β (IL-1β, (200 pg ml−1, a cytokine to induce β cell apoptosis and water extracts of American ginseng (25 μg per 5 μl administered to wells of 0.5 ml culture for 24 h. We evaluated effects of ginseng on UCP-2 expression, insulin production, anti-/pro-apoptotic factors Bcl-2/caspase-9 expression and cellular ATP levels. We found that ginseng suppresses UCP-2, down-regulates caspase-9 while increasing ATP and insulin production/secretion and up-regulates Bcl-2, reducing apoptosis. These findings suggest that stimulation of insulin production and prevention of β cell loss by American ginseng extracts can occur via the inhibition of mitochondrial UCP-2, resulting in increase in the ATP level and the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2, while down-regulation of pro-apoptotic factor caspase-9 occurs, lowering the occurrence of apoptosis, which support the hypothesis.

  14. Interferon-alpha suppressed granulocyte colony stimulating factor production is reversed by CL097, a TLR7/8 agonist.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tajuddin, Tariq

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Neutropenia, a major side-effect of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) therapy can be effectively treated by the recombinant form of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), an important growth factor for neutrophils. We hypothesized that IFN-alpha might suppress G-CSF production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), contributing to the development of neutropenia, and that a toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist might overcome this suppression. METHODS: Fifty-five patients who were receiving IFN-alpha\\/ribavirin combination therapy for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection were recruited. Absolute neutrophil counts (ANC), monocyte counts and treatment outcome data were recorded. G-CSF levels in the supernatants of PBMCs isolated from the patients and healthy controls were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay following 18 h of culture in the absence or presence of IFN- alpha or the TLR7\\/8 agonist, CL097. RESULTS: Therapeutic IFN-alpha caused a significant reduction in neutrophil counts in all patients, with 15 patients requiring therapeutic G-CSF. The reduction in ANC over the course of IFN-alpha treatment was paralleled by a decrease in the ability of PBMCs to produce G-CSF. In vitro G-CSF production by PBMCs was suppressed in the presence of IFN-alpha; however, co-incubation with a TLR7\\/8 agonist significantly enhanced G-CSF secretion by cells obtained both from HCV patients and healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: Suppressed G-CSF production in the presence of IFN-alpha may contribute to IFN-alpha-induced neutropenia. However, a TLR7\\/8 agonist elicits G-CSF secretion even in the presence of IFN-alpha, suggesting a possible therapeutic role for TLR agonists in treatment of IFN-alpha-induced neutropenia.

  15. Understanding the Impact of Extreme Temperature on Crop Production in Karnataka in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahato, S.; Murari, K. K.; Jayaraman, T.

    2017-12-01

    The impact of extreme temperature on crop yield is seldom explored in work around climate change impact on agriculture. Further, these studies are restricted mainly to crops such as wheat and maize. Since different agro-climatic zones bear different crops and cropping patterns, it is important to explore the nature of the impact of changes in climate variables in agricultural systems under differential conditions. The study explores the effects of temperature rise on the major crops paddy, jowar, ragi and tur in the state of Karnataka of southern India. The choice of the unit of study to understand impact of climate variability on crop yields is largely restricted to availability of data for the unit. While, previous studies have dealt with this issue by replacing yield with NDVI at finer resolution, the use of an index in place of yield data has its limitations and may not reflect the true estimates. For this study, the unit considered is taluk, i.e. sub-district level. The crop yield for taluk is obtained between the year the 1995 to 2011 by aggregating point yield data from crop cutting experiments for each year across the taluks. The long term temperature data shows significantly increasing trend that ranges between 0.6 to 0.75 C across Karnataka. Further, the analysis suggests a warming trend in seasonal average temperature for Kharif and Rabi seasons across districts. The study also found that many districts exhibit the tendency of occurrence of extreme temperature days, which is of particular concern in terms of crop yield, since exposure of crops to extreme temperature has negative consequences for crop production and productivity. Using growing degree days GDD, extreme degree days EDD and total season rainfall as predictor variables, the fixed effect model shows that EDD is a more influential parameter as compared to GDD and rainfall. Also it has a statistically significant negative effect in most cases. Further, quantile regression was used to evaluate

  16. Stimulation of prostanoids and IL-8 production in human gingival fibroblasts by Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS is associated with MEK/ERK signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ling Tsai

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Our data indicate that P. gingivalis LPS stimulates gene expression of differential inflammatory mediators (COX-2 and IL-8 as well as prostanoids and IL-8 production in GFs. These events are associated with MEK/ERK signaling and crucial in the pathogenesis of inflammatory periodontal diseases.

  17. Chirality-Controlled Growth of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes Using Vapor Phase Epitaxy: Mechanistic Understanding and Scalable Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-15

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0319 Chirality-Controlled Growth of Single -Wall Carbon Nanotubes Using Vapor Phase Epitaxy: Mechanistic Understanding and...controlled growth of single -wall carbon nanotubes using vapor phase epitaxy: mechanistic understanding and scalable production FA9550-14-1-0115 Zhou...controlled synthesis of single -wall carbon nanotubes. Firstly, we have successfully demonstrated a vapor-phase-epitaxy-analogous general strategy for

  18. Scale translation from shaken to diffused bubble aerated systems for lycopene production by Blakeslea trispora under stimulated conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantzouridou, Fani Th; Naziri, Eleni

    2017-03-01

    This study deals with the scale up of Blakeslea trispora culture from the successful surface-aerated shake flasks to dispersed-bubble aerated column reactor for lycopene production in the presence of lycopene cyclase inhibitor 2-methyl imidazole. Controlling the initial volumetric oxygen mass transfer coefficient (k L a) via airflow rate contributes to increasing cell mass and lycopene accumulation. Inhibitor effectiveness seems to decrease in conditions of high cell mass. Optimization of crude soybean oil (CSO), airflow rate, and 2-methyl imidazole was arranged according to central composite statistical design. The optimized levels of factors were 110.5 g/L, 2.3 vvm, and 29.5 mg/L, respectively. At this optimum setting, maximum lycopene yield (256 mg/L) was comparable or even higher to those reported in shake flasks and stirred tank reactor. 2-Methyl imidazole use at levels significantly lower than those reported for other inhibitors in the literature was successful in terms of process selectivity. CSO provides economic benefits to the process through its ability to stimulate lycopene synthesis, as an inexpensive carbon source and oxygen vector at the same time.

  19. Suppression of pokeweed mitogen-stimulated immunoglobulin production in patients with rheumatoid arthritis after treatment with total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotzin, B.L.; Strober, S.; Kansas, G.S.; Terrell, C.P.; Engleman, E.G.

    1984-01-01

    Patients with intractable rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were treated with total lymphoid irradiation (TLI, 200 rad). The authors previously reported long-lasting clinical improvement in this group associated with a persistent decrease in circulating Leu-3 (helper subset) T cells and marked impairment of in vitro lymphocyte function. In the present experiments, they studied the mechanisms underlying the decrease in pokeweed mitogen stimulated immunoglobulin (Ig) secretion observed after TLI. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBL) from TLI-treated patients produced 10-fold less Ig (both IgM and IgG) in response to pokeweed mitogen than before radiotherapy. This decrease in Ig production was associated with the presence of suppressor cells in co-culture studies. By using responder cells obtained from normal individuals (allogeneic system), PBL from eight of 12 patients after TLI suppressed Ig synthesis by more than 50%. In contrast, PBL from the same patients before TLI failed to suppress Ig synthesis. PBL with suppressive activity contained suppressor T cells, and the latter cells bore the Leu-2 surface antigen. In 50% of the patients studied suppressor cells were also found in the non-T fraction and were adherent to plastic. Interestingly, the Leu-2 + cells from TLI-treated patients were no more potent on a cell per cell basis than purified Leu-2 + cells obtained before TLI. Additional experiments suggested that the suppression mediated by T cells after TLI is related to the increased ratio of Leu-2 to Leu-3 cells observed after radiotherapy

  20. Early sepsis does not stimulate reactive oxygen species production and does not reduce cardiac function despite an increased inflammation status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léger, Thibault; Charrier, Alice; Moreau, Clarisse; Hininger-Favier, Isabelle; Mourmoura, Evangelia; Rigaudière, Jean-Paul; Pitois, Elodie; Bouvier, Damien; Sapin, Vincent; Pereira, Bruno; Azarnoush, Kasra; Demaison, Luc

    2017-07-01

    If it is sustained for several days, sepsis can trigger severe abnormalities of cardiac function which leads to death in 50% of cases. This probably occurs through activation of toll-like receptor-9 by bacterial lipopolysaccharides and overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF- α and IL-1 β In contrast, early sepsis is characterized by the development of tachycardia. This study aimed at determining the early changes in the cardiac function during sepsis and at finding the mechanism responsible for the observed changes. Sixty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to two groups, the first one being made septic by cecal ligation and puncture (sepsis group) and the second one being subjected to the same surgery without cecal ligation and puncture (sham-operated group). The cardiac function was assessed in vivo and ex vivo in standard conditions. Several parameters involved in the oxidative stress and inflammation were determined in the plasma and heart. As evidenced by the plasma level of TNF- α and gene expression of IL-1 β and TNF- α in the heart, inflammation was developed in the sepsis group. The cardiac function was also slightly stimulated by sepsis in the in vivo and ex vivo situations. This was associated with unchanged levels of oxidative stress, but several parameters indicated a lower cardiac production of reactive oxygen species in the septic group. In conclusion, despite the development of inflammation, early sepsis did not increase reactive oxygen species production and did not reduce myocardial function. The depressant effect of TNF- α and IL-1 β on the cardiac function is known to occur at very high concentrations. The influence of low- to moderate-grade inflammation on the myocardial mechanical behavior must thus be revisited. © 2017 French National Institute of Agronomical Research (INRA). Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  1. Role of Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Production by T Cells duringMycobacterium tuberculosisInfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothchild, Alissa C; Stowell, Britni; Goyal, Girija; Nunes-Alves, Cláudio; Yang, Qianting; Papavinasasundaram, Kadamba; Sassetti, Christopher M; Dranoff, Glenn; Chen, Xinchun; Lee, Jinhee; Behar, Samuel M

    2017-10-24

    Mice deficient for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF -/- ) are highly susceptible to infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis , and clinical data have shown that anti-GM-CSF neutralizing antibodies can lead to increased susceptibility to tuberculosis in otherwise healthy people. GM-CSF activates human and murine macrophages to inhibit intracellular M. tuberculosis growth. We have previously shown that GM-CSF produced by iNKT cells inhibits growth of M. tuberculosis However, the more general role of T cell-derived GM-CSF during infection has not been defined and how GM-CSF activates macrophages to inhibit bacterial growth is unknown. Here we demonstrate that, in addition to nonconventional T cells, conventional T cells also produce GM-CSF during M. tuberculosis infection. Early during infection, nonconventional iNKT cells and γδ T cells are the main source of GM-CSF, a role subsequently assumed by conventional CD4 + T cells as the infection progresses. M. tuberculosis -specific T cells producing GM-CSF are also detected in the peripheral blood of infected people. Under conditions where nonhematopoietic production of GM-CSF is deficient, T cell production of GM-CSF is protective and required for control of M. tuberculosis infection. However, GM-CSF is not required for T cell-mediated protection in settings where GM-CSF is produced by other cell types. Finally, using an in vitro macrophage infection model, we demonstrate that GM-CSF inhibition of M. tuberculosis growth requires the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). Thus, we identified GM-CSF production as a novel T cell effector function. These findings suggest that a strategy augmenting T cell production of GM-CSF could enhance host resistance against M. tuberculosis IMPORTANCE Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the bacterium that causes tuberculosis, the leading cause of death by any infection worldwide. T cells are critical components of the immune

  2. Stimulation of interleukin-1 and -6 production in alveolar macrophages by the neotropical liana, Uncaria tomentosa (uña de gato)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, I; Assinewe, V; Cano, P; Awang, D V; Arnason, J T

    1999-02-01

    Two extracts of different collections of the traditional medicine uña de gato (Uncaria tomentosa) from Peru were characterized by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography as containing approximately 6 mg/g total oxindole content prior to studies with alveolar macrophages. The plant preparations greatly stimulated IL-1 and IL-6 production by rat macrophages in a dose dependent manner in the range of 0.025-0.1 mg/ml. They were also able to enhance IL-1 and -6 in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. The results suggest a strong immunostimulant action of this plant.

  3. Effects of cranberry components on IL-1β-stimulated production of IL-6, IL-8 and VEGF by human TMJ synovial fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, David A; Christian, James; Blumer, Adam

    2016-08-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) in the TMJ is characterized by deterioration of articular cartilage and secondary inflammatory changes. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) stimulates IL-6, IL-8, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in synovial fluid of TMJ with internal derangement and bony changes. The cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) contains polyphenolic compounds that inhibit production of pro-inflammatory molecules by gingival cells in response to several stimulators. This study examined effects of cranberry components on IL-1β-stimulated IL-6, IL-8, and VEGF production by human TMJ synovial fibroblast-like cells. Cranberry high molecular weight non-dialyzable material (NDM) was derived from cranberry juice. Human TMJ synovial fibroblast-like cells from joints with degenerative OA and an ankylosed TMJ without degeneration were incubated with IL-1β (0.001-1nM)±NDM (25-250μg/ml) (2h preincubation). Viability was assessed via activity of a mitochondrial enzyme. IL-6, IL-8, and VEGF in culture supernatants were measured by ELISA; NF-κB and AP-1 transcription factors were measured in nuclear extracts via binding to specific oligonucleotides. ANOVA and Scheffe's F procedure for post hoc comparisons. NDM did not affect cell viability but inhibited IL-1β stimulated IL-6, IL-8, and VEGF production in all cell lines (pCranberry NDM inhibition of IL-1β-stimulated IL- 6, IL-8, and VEGF production by TMJ synovial fibroblast-like cells suggests that cranberry components may be useful as a host modulatory therapeutic agent to prevent or treat inflammatory arthropathies of the TMJ. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Arginase inhibition reduces interleukin-1β-stimulated vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by increasing nitric oxide synthase-dependent nitric oxide production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jeongyeon; Ryoo, Sungwoo, E-mail: ryoosw08@kangwon.ac.kr

    2013-06-07

    Highlights: •Arginase inhibition suppressed proliferation of IL-1β-stimulated VSMCs in dose-dependent manner. •NO production from IL-1β-induced iNOS expression was augmented by arginase inhibition, reducing VSMC proliferation. •Incubation with cGMP analogues abolished IL-1β-dependent proliferation of VSMCs. -- Abstract: We investigated whether arginase inhibition suppressed interleukin (IL)-1β-stimulated proliferation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and the possible mechanisms involved. IL-1β stimulation increased VSMC proliferation, while the arginase inhibitor BEC and transfection of the antisense (AS) oligonucleotide against arginase I decreased VSMC proliferation and was associated with increased protein content of the cell cycle regulator p21Waf1/Cip1. IL-1β incubation induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression and protein levels in a dose-dependent manner, but did not affect arginase I and II expression. Consistent with this data, IL-1β stimulation resulted in increase in NO production that was significantly augmented by arginase inhibition. The specific iNOS inhibitor 1400W abolished IL-1β-mediated NO production and further accentuated IL-1β-stimulated cell proliferation. Incubation with NO donors GSNO and DETA/NO in the presence of IL-1β abolished VSMCs proliferation and increased p21Waf1/Cip1 protein content. Furthermore, incubation with the cGMP analogue 8-Br-cGMP prevented IL-1β-induced VSMCs proliferation. In conclusion, arginase inhibition augmented iNOS-dependent NO production that resulted in suppression of IL-1β-induced VSMCs proliferation in a cGMP-dependent manner.

  5. Arginase inhibition reduces interleukin-1β-stimulated vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by increasing nitric oxide synthase-dependent nitric oxide production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Jeongyeon; Ryoo, Sungwoo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Arginase inhibition suppressed proliferation of IL-1β-stimulated VSMCs in dose-dependent manner. •NO production from IL-1β-induced iNOS expression was augmented by arginase inhibition, reducing VSMC proliferation. •Incubation with cGMP analogues abolished IL-1β-dependent proliferation of VSMCs. -- Abstract: We investigated whether arginase inhibition suppressed interleukin (IL)-1β-stimulated proliferation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and the possible mechanisms involved. IL-1β stimulation increased VSMC proliferation, while the arginase inhibitor BEC and transfection of the antisense (AS) oligonucleotide against arginase I decreased VSMC proliferation and was associated with increased protein content of the cell cycle regulator p21Waf1/Cip1. IL-1β incubation induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression and protein levels in a dose-dependent manner, but did not affect arginase I and II expression. Consistent with this data, IL-1β stimulation resulted in increase in NO production that was significantly augmented by arginase inhibition. The specific iNOS inhibitor 1400W abolished IL-1β-mediated NO production and further accentuated IL-1β-stimulated cell proliferation. Incubation with NO donors GSNO and DETA/NO in the presence of IL-1β abolished VSMCs proliferation and increased p21Waf1/Cip1 protein content. Furthermore, incubation with the cGMP analogue 8-Br-cGMP prevented IL-1β-induced VSMCs proliferation. In conclusion, arginase inhibition augmented iNOS-dependent NO production that resulted in suppression of IL-1β-induced VSMCs proliferation in a cGMP-dependent manner

  6. Effect of soluble factors derived from oral cancer cells on the production of interferon-γ from peripheral blood mononuclear cells following stimulation with OK-432.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohe, Go; Sasai, Akiko; Uchida, Daisuke; Tamatani, Tetsuya; Nagai, Hirokazu; Miyamoto, Youji

    2013-08-01

    The streptococcal antitumor agent OK-432 is commonly used as an immunopotentiator for immunotherapy in various types of malignant tumors including oral cancer. It has been demonstrated that OK-432 elicits an antitumor effect by stimulating immunocompetent cells, thereby inducing multiple cytokines including interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-12. Serum concentrations of IFN-γ in patients with oral cancer were examined 24 h after administration of OK-432. Serum concentrations of IFN-γ in patients with advanced cancer were significantly lower than those in patients with early cancer. These results suggested that some soluble factors produced by cancer cells may inhibit IFN-γ production with OK-432. Thus, in the present study, an in vitro simulation model was established for the immune status of patients with oral cancer by adding conditioned medium (CM) derived from oral cancer cell lines into a culture of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) derived from a healthy volunteer. We investigated whether soluble factors derived from oral cancer cells affected IFN-γ production from PBMCs following stimulation with OK-432. PBMCs stimulated with OK-432 produced a large amount of IFN-γ; however, both IFN-γ production and cytotoxic activity from PBMCs induced by OK-432 were inhibited by the addition of CM in a dose-dependent manner. In order to examine these inhibitory effects against IFN-γ production, the contribution of inhibitory cytokines such as IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, transforming growth factor-β and vascular endothelial growth factor was investigated. However, neutralization of these inhibitory cytokines did not recover IFN-γ production inhibited by CM. These results indicated that unknown molecules may inhibit IFN-γ production from PBMCs following stimulation with OK-432.

  7. Identification of individuals' value and norms: One missing link to understanding new product success factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Hanne; Bove, Karsten

    and product and market characteristics to include aspects like individual and organisational skills, knowledge, values, and norms. We also argue that the focus on the mentioned aspects have limited the possibility of implementing the normative advice. Combining new product development literature with recent...

  8. Different roles of β-arrestin and the PKA pathway in mitochondrial ROS production induced by acute β-adrenergic receptor stimulation in neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianshu; Xiao, Han; Shen, Jing; Wang, Nanping; Zhang, Youyi

    2017-08-05

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a crucial role in various physiological and pathological processes mediated by β-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs) in cardiomyocytes. However, the sources and signaling pathways involved in ROS production induced by acute β-AR activation have not yet been fully defined. In primary neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes (NMCMs), the β-AR agonist isoproterenol (ISO) induced a rapid increase in mitochondrial ROS and total ROS production. Both the expression and activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase 2/4 (NOX 2/4) remained unchanged after 2 h of ISO treatment, suggesting that acute ISO stimulation mainly induces mitochondrial ROS production in NMCMs. Knockdown of β-arrestin1, but not β-arrestin2, inhibited ISO-induced mitochondrial ROS production within 1-2 h after ISO treatment. Moreover, forskolin, an adenylyl cyclase (AC) activator, rapidly increased mitochondrial ROS as early as 15 min after ISO treatment. Inhibition of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway abolished the mitochondrial ROS production within 15-60 min after ISO treatment. In conclusion, mitochondria are the major source of ROS production upon acute ISO stimulation. β-arrestin1, but not β-arrestin2, is involved in ISO-induced mitochondrial ROS production. Upon acute β-AR stimulation in NMCMs, the classical cAMP/PKA pathway is responsible for faster mitochondrial ROS production, whereas β-arrestin1 signaling is responsible for slower mitochondrial ROS production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Drivers and Consequences of Narrative Transportation : Understanding the Role of Stories and Domain-Specific Skills in Improving Radically New Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweitzer, F; van den Hende, E.A.

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates the role of transportation in concept tests (i.e., a vivid mental image of a new product concept and the way of using it) for radically new products. Based on transportation literature, the article proposes that concept descriptions in a story format can stimulate

  10. Acute Responses of Functional Electrical Stimulation Cycling on the Ventilation-to-CO2 Production Ratio and Substrate Utilization After Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgey, Ashraf S; Lawrence, Justin

    2016-03-01

    Ventilation-to-carbon dioxide ratio is comparable with peak oxygen uptake in the prognosis of cardiovascular disorders. Currently, there are no established indices to determine the submaximal effects of functional electrical stimulation on cardiovascular performance in persons with spinal cord injury. To determine the effects of an acute bout of functional electrical stimulation-lower extremity cycling on ventilation, carbon dioxide production, ventilation-to-carbon dioxide ratio, and substrate utilization in people with motor complete spinal cord injury. Observational cross-sectional design. Clinical laboratory setting. Ten individuals with motor complete spinal cord injury. Participants were allowed to cycle until fatigue. The effects of functional electrical stimulation on ventilation, carbon dioxide production, ventilation-to-carbon dioxide ratio, and substrate utilization were measured with a portable metabolic cart (COSMED K4b2). Body composition was determined with bioelectrical impedance. Resting and warm-up ventilation were 8.15 ± 3.5 L/min and 8.15 ± 2.8 L/min, respectively. Functional electrical stimulation increased ventilation significantly (14.5 ± 6.4 L/min), which remained significantly elevated (13.3 ± 4.3 L/min) during the recovery period. During resting and warm-up phases, the ventilation-to-carbon dioxide ratios were 41 ± 4.8 and 38 ± 5.4, respectively. Functional electrical stimulation decreased the ventilation-to-carbon dioxide ratio significantly to 31.5 ± 4, which remained significantly reduced during the recovery period (34.4 ± 3). Functional electrical stimulation relied primarily on carbohydrate utilization (188 ± 160 g/day to 574 ± 324 g/day; P = .001) with no changes in fat utilization (77.5 ± 28 g/day to 93.5 ± 133.6 g/day; P = .7) from resting to exercise periods. Significant relationships were noted between carbohydrate utilization during functional electrical stimulation and carbon dioxide (r = 0.98; P = .00010

  11. Effects of clonal variation on growth, metabolism, and productivity in response to trophic factor stimulation: a study of Chinese hamster ovary cells producing a recombinant monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahodwala, Hussain; Nowey, Mark; Mitina, Tatyana; Sharfstein, Susan T

    2012-01-01

    The growth, metabolism, and productivity of five Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) clones were explored in response to stimulation with insulin (5 mg/L) and LONG(®)R(3)IGF-I (20 μg/L or 100 μg/L). All five clones were derived from the same parental CHO cell line (DG44) and produced the same recombinant monoclonal antibody, with varying specific productivities. There was no uniform response among the clones to stimulation with the different trophic factors. One of the high productivity clones (clone D) exhibited significantly better growth in response to LONG(®)R(3)IGF-I; whereas the other clones showed equivalent or slightly better growth in the presence of insulin. Three out of the five clones had higher specific productivities in the presence of insulin (although not statistically significant); one was invariant, and the final clone exhibited slightly higher specific productivity in the presence of LONG(®)R(3)IGF-I. Total product titers exhibited moderate variation between culture conditions, again with neither trophic factor being clearly superior. Overall product titers were affected by variations in both integrated viable cell density and specific productivity. Nutrient uptake and metabolite generation patterns varied strongly between clones and much less with culture conditions. These results point to the need for careful clonal analysis when selecting clones, particularly for platform processes where media and culture conditions are predetermined.

  12. Is experience on a farm an effective approach to understanding animal products and the management of dairy farming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Mariko; Osada, Masahiro; Ishioka, Katsumi; Matsubara, Takako; Momota, Yutaka; Yumoto, Norio; Sako, Toshinori; Kamiya, Shinji; Yoshimura, Itaru

    2014-03-01

    The understanding of animal products and dairy farming is important for the promotion of dairy farming. Thus, to examine the effects of farm experience on the understanding of animal products and the management of dairy farming, the interaction between students and dairy cows was investigated in groups of first-year veterinary nursing students in 2011 and 2012 (n = 201). These students included 181 women and 20 men. Nine items about dairy cows were presented in a questionnaire. The survey was performed before and after praxis on the educational farm attached to the authors' university. After praxis on the farm, increases occurred in the number of positive responses to the items involving the price of milk, dairy farming and the taste of milk. For these items, a significant difference (P animal products and dairy farming. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. Inhibitory effect of diazepam on muscarinic receptor-stimulated inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production in rat parotid acinar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujirai, Masao; Sawaki, Kohei; Kawaguchi, Mitsuru

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the effect of diazepam (DZP) on phosphoinositide turnover, which plays an important role in the regulation of salivary secretion, in rat parotid acinar cells. DZP (10−9 M to 10−5 M), a potent agonist of both central- and peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors, dose-dependently decreased inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) production stimulated by carbachol, a muscarinic receptor agonist, in the cells. DZP produced a maximum inhibitory response at a concentration of 10−5 M, with IP3 production decreased to 63% of maximal levels. The concentration inducing half maximal inhibition of IP3 production was approximately 3.5×10−8 M. An inhibitory response to DZP was produced by a short-term pretreatment (benzodiazepine receptors, flumazenil and PK 11195, respectively. DZP showed a non-competitive inhibition of carbachol-stimulated IP3 production. It did not directly inhibit the activities of GTP-binding regulatory proteins and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate-specific phospholipase C (PLC) in the parotid gland membranes, though choline chloride inhibited PLC activity. DZP (10−5 M) attenuated the increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in the cells following stimulation of the muscarinic and α1-adrenoceptors. These results suggest that in the parotid acinar cells, DZP inhibits muscarinic receptor-stimulated IP3 production through benzodiazepine receptors and that PLC activity which produces IP3 is inhibited by chloride. The decreases in IP3 and [Ca2+]i in the cells may be connected with the suppression of salivary secretion induced by DZP. PMID:12429566

  14. In-vivo biological activity and glycosylation analysis of a biosimilar recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone product (Bemfola compared with its reference medicinal product (GONAL-f.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Mastrangeli

    Full Text Available Recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone (r-hFSH is widely used in fertility treatment. Although biosimilar versions of r-hFSH (follitropin alfa are currently on the market, given their structural complexity and manufacturing process, it is important to thoroughly evaluate them in comparison with the reference product. This evaluation should focus on how they differ (e.g., active component molecular characteristics, impurities and potency, as this could be associated with clinical outcome. This study compared the site-specific glycosylation profile and batch-to-batch variability of the in-vivo bioactivity of Bemfola, a biosimilar follitropin alfa, with its reference medicinal product GONAL-f. The focus of this analysis was the site-specific glycosylation at asparagine (Asn 52 of the α-subunit of FSH, owing to the pivotal role of Asn52 glycosylation in FSH receptor (FSHR activation/signalling. Overall, Bemfola had bulkier glycan structures and greater sialylation than GONAL-f. The nominal specific activity for both Bemfola and GONAL-f is 13,636 IU/mg. Taking into account both the determined potency and the nominal amount the average specific activity of Bemfola was 14,522 IU/mg (105.6% of the nominal value, which was greater than the average specific activity observed for GONAL-f (13,159 IU/mg; 97.3% of the nominal value; p = 0.0048, although this was within the range stated in the product label. A higher batch-to-batch variability was also observed for Bemfola versus GONAL-f (coefficient of variation: 8.3% vs 5.8%. A different glycan profile was observed at Asn52 in Bemfola compared with GONAL-f (a lower proportion of bi-antennary structures [~53% vs ~77%], and a higher proportion of tri-antennary [~41% vs ~23%] and tetra-antennary structures [~5% vs <1%]. These differences in the Asn52 glycan profile might potentially lead to differences in FSHR activation. This, together with the greater bioactivity and higher batch-to-batch variability

  15. The Assembling of Schooling: Discussing Concepts and Models for Understanding the Historical Production of Modern Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussel, Ines

    2013-01-01

    Several notions have been proposed to understand the specificity of schooling and its persistence across time and space, despite several attempts to reform it. In this article, the author analyses more closely the notions of the "grammar of schooling", "forme scolaire", and "school organisational culture". These…

  16. Understanding researchers’ strategic behaviour in knowledge production: a case of social science and nanotechnology researchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zalewska-Kurek, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This paper seeks to understand the strategic behaviour of researchers when producing knowledge in two scientific fields – nanotechnology and social sciences. Design/methodology/approach The author conducted semi-structured interviews with 43 researchers to analyse the needs for strategic

  17. Phosphorylation and activation of p42 and p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase are required for the P2 purinoceptor stimulation of endothelial prostacyclin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, V; Brown, C; Goodwin, A; Wilkie, N; Boarder, M R

    1996-11-15

    Extracellular ATP and ADP, released from platelets and other sites stimulate the endothelial production of prostacyclin (PGI2) by acting on G-protein-coupled P2Y2 and P2Y2 purinoceptors, contributing to the maintenance of a non-thrombogenic surface. The mechanism, widely described as being dependent on elevated cytosolic [Ca2+], also requires protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Here we show that activation of both these P2 receptor types leads to the tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of both the p42 and p44 forms of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). 2-Methylthio-ATP and UTP, selectively activating P2Y1 and P2Y2 purinoceptors respectively, and ATP, a non-selective agonist at these two receptors, stimulate the tyrosine phosphorylation of both p42mapk and p44mapk, as revealed by Western blots with an antiserum specific for the tyrosine-phosphorylated forms of the enzymes. By using separation on Resource Q columns, peptide kinase activity associated with the phosphorylated MAPK enzymes distributes into two peaks, one mainly p42mapk and one mainly p44mapk, both of which are stimulated by ATP with respect to kinase activity and phospho-MAPK immunoreactivity. Stimulation of P2Y1 or P2Y2 purinoceptors leads to a severalfold increase in PGI2 efflux; this was blocked in a dose-dependent manner by the selective MAPK kinase inhibitor PD98059. This drug also blocked the agonist-stimulated increase in phospho-MAPK immunoreactivity for both p42mapk and p44mapk but left the phospholipase C response to P2 agonists essentially unchanged. Olomoucine has been reported to inhibit p44mapk activity. Here we show that in the same concentration range olomoucine inhibits activity in both peaks from the Resource Q column and also the agonist stimulation of 6-keto-PGF1, but has no effect on agonist-stimulated phospho-MAPK immunoreactivity. These results provide direct evidence for the involvement of p42 and p44 MAPK in the PGI2 response of intact endothelial cells: we have shown

  18. Maximum Entropy Production As a Framework for Understanding How Living Systems Evolve, Organize and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallino, J. J.; Algar, C. K.; Huber, J. A.; Fernandez-Gonzalez, N.

    2014-12-01

    The maximum entropy production (MEP) principle holds that non equilibrium systems with sufficient degrees of freedom will likely be found in a state that maximizes entropy production or, analogously, maximizes potential energy destruction rate. The theory does not distinguish between abiotic or biotic systems; however, we will show that systems that can coordinate function over time and/or space can potentially dissipate more free energy than purely Markovian processes (such as fire or a rock rolling down a hill) that only maximize instantaneous entropy production. Biological systems have the ability to store useful information acquired via evolution and curated by natural selection in genomic sequences that allow them to execute temporal strategies and coordinate function over space. For example, circadian rhythms allow phototrophs to "predict" that sun light will return and can orchestrate metabolic machinery appropriately before sunrise, which not only gives them a competitive advantage, but also increases the total entropy production rate compared to systems that lack such anticipatory control. Similarly, coordination over space, such a quorum sensing in microbial biofilms, can increase acquisition of spatially distributed resources and free energy and thereby enhance entropy production. In this talk we will develop a modeling framework to describe microbial biogeochemistry based on the MEP conjecture constrained by information and resource availability. Results from model simulations will be compared to laboratory experiments to demonstrate the usefulness of the MEP approach.

  19. Understanding the intentional acoustic behavior of humpback whales: a production-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazau, Dorian; Adam, Olivier; Laitman, Jeffrey T; Reidenberg, Joy S

    2013-09-01

    Following a production-based approach, this paper deals with the acoustic behavior of humpback whales. This approach investigates various physical factors, which are either internal (e.g., physiological mechanisms) or external (e.g., environmental constraints) to the respiratory tractus of the whale, for their implications in sound production. This paper aims to describe a functional scenario of this tractus for the generation of vocal sounds. To do so, a division of this tractus into three different configurations is proposed, based on the air recirculation process which determines air sources and laryngeal valves. Then, assuming a vocal function (in sound generation or modification) for several specific anatomical components, an acoustic characterization of each of these configurations is proposed to link different spectral features, namely, fundamental frequencies and formant structures, to specific vocal production mechanisms. A discussion around the question of whether the whale is able to fully exploit the acoustic potential of its respiratory tractus is eventually provided.

  20. Effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharide and X-irradiation on the production of colony-stimulating factor and the maintenance of granulopoiesis in bone marrow culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumi, H.; Miyanomae, T.; Tsurusawa, M.; Fujita, J.; Mori, K.

    1984-01-01

    Effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and X-irradiation on CSF production and granulopoiesis in long-term bone marrow cultures were studied. Levels of colony-stimulating factor (CSF) increased soon after the refeeding of the culture, but the activity was undetectable at day 7. Addition of LPS induced a significant increase in CSF levels in the culture, followed by an elevated granulopoiesis. The increase in CSF levels was suppressed when culture medium that had been harvested at refeeding on day 7 was added. Although irradiation did not increase CSF production, granulopoiesis was markedly stimulated shortly after irradiation. Thus granulopoiesis in long-term bone marrow culture may also be regulated by humoral factors such as CSF, and the culture system may represent the in vivo response to haemopoietic stimuli. (author)

  1. Relationship between size and surface modification of silica particles and enhancement and suppression of inflammatory cytokine production by lipopolysaccharide- or peptidoglycan-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uemura, Eiichiro; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Hirai, Toshiro; Handa, Takayuki; Nagano, Kazuya; Higashisaka, Kazuma; Tsutsumi, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    Although nanomaterials are used in an increasing number of commodities, the relationships between their immunotoxicity and physicochemical properties such as size or surface characteristics are not fully understood. Here we demonstrated that pretreatment with amorphous silica particles (SPs) of various sizes (diameters of 10–1000 nm), with or without amine surface modification, significantly decreased interleukin 6 production by RAW264.7 macrophages following lipopolysaccharide or peptidoglycan stimulation. Furthermore, nanosized, but not microsized, SPs significantly enhanced tumor necrosis factor-α production in macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. This altered cytokine response was distinct from the inflammatory responses induced by treatment with the SPs alone. Additionally, the uptake of SPs into macrophages by phagocytosis was found to be crucial for the suppression of macrophage immune response to occur, irrespective of particle size or surface modification. Together, these results suggest that SPs may not only increase susceptibility to microbial infection, but that they may also be potentially effective immunosuppressants.

  2. Relationship between size and surface modification of silica particles and enhancement and suppression of inflammatory cytokine production by lipopolysaccharide- or peptidoglycan-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uemura, Eiichiro, E-mail: uemura-e@phs.osaka-u.ac.jp; Yoshioka, Yasuo, E-mail: y-yoshioka@biken.osaka-u.ac.jp; Hirai, Toshiro, E-mail: toshiro.hirai@pitt.edu; Handa, Takayuki, E-mail: handa-t@phs.osaka-u.ac.jp; Nagano, Kazuya, E-mail: knagano@phs.osaka-u.ac.jp; Higashisaka, Kazuma, E-mail: higashisaka@phs.osaka-u.ac.jp; Tsutsumi, Yasuo, E-mail: ytsutsumi@phs.osaka-u.ac.jp [Osaka University, Laboratory of Toxicology and Safety Science, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Although nanomaterials are used in an increasing number of commodities, the relationships between their immunotoxicity and physicochemical properties such as size or surface characteristics are not fully understood. Here we demonstrated that pretreatment with amorphous silica particles (SPs) of various sizes (diameters of 10–1000 nm), with or without amine surface modification, significantly decreased interleukin 6 production by RAW264.7 macrophages following lipopolysaccharide or peptidoglycan stimulation. Furthermore, nanosized, but not microsized, SPs significantly enhanced tumor necrosis factor-α production in macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. This altered cytokine response was distinct from the inflammatory responses induced by treatment with the SPs alone. Additionally, the uptake of SPs into macrophages by phagocytosis was found to be crucial for the suppression of macrophage immune response to occur, irrespective of particle size or surface modification. Together, these results suggest that SPs may not only increase susceptibility to microbial infection, but that they may also be potentially effective immunosuppressants.

  3. The usefulness of Schwartz's 'Values Theory' in understanding consumer behaviour towards differentiated products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios; Vassallo, M.; Chryssochoidis, G.

    2012-01-01

    The Values Theory adopts a generic framework whereby a set of values is employed across consumer decision-making contexts in a manner that makes no distinction among various product categories. The present study advances this theory by exhibiting the adaptation capability of the generic values...... instrument (the Portrait Value Questionnaire, PVQ), demonstrating that tailor-made PVQ versions can reflect consumers’ motives towards differentiated products (i.e. organic foods). A questionnaire was completed by approximately 1000 households in each of eight EU countries (N = 8171). The organic food...

  4. Public Understanding and Attitudes towards Meat Chicken Production and Relations to Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erian, Ihab; Phillips, Clive J C

    2017-03-09

    Little is known about public knowledge of meat chicken production and how it influences attitudes to birds' welfare and consumer behaviour. We interviewed 506 members of the public in SE Queensland; Australia; to determine how knowledge of meat chicken production and slaughter links to attitudes and consumption. Knowledge was assessed from 15 questions and low scores were supported by respondents' self-assessed report of low knowledge levels and agreement that their knowledge was insufficient to form an opinion about which chicken products to purchase. Older respondents and single people without children were most knowledgeable. There was uncertainty about whether chicken welfare was adequate, particularly in those with little knowledge. There was also evidence that a lack of empathy towards chickens related to lack of knowledge, since those that thought it acceptable that some birds are inadequately stunned at slaughter had low knowledge scores. More knowledgeable respondents ate chicken more frequently and were less likely to buy products with accredited labelling. Approximately half of the respondents thought the welfare of the chicken was more important than the cost. It is concluded that the public's knowledge has an important connection to their attitudes and consumption of chicken.

  5. Towards a Further Understanding of the Antecedents of Retailer New Product Adoption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Everdingen, Yvonne M.; Sloot, Laurens M.; van Nierop, Erjen; Verhoef, Peter C.

    2011-01-01

    In addition to the traditionally investigated profit-drivers of retail adoption, such as gross margin, trade support, consumer marketing support. and product uniqueness, the authors investigate to what extent relatively under-investigated variables, such as relationship variables and category

  6. Understanding the 2.5th dimension: modelling the graphic language of products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder-Nijkamp, Maaike; Eggink, Wouter; Kovacevic, Ahmed; Ion, William; McMahon, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Recognizing a product of a specific brand without seeing the logo is difficult. But for companies it is important to distinguish themselves from competitors with a consistent portfolio, which will be easily recognized by their target consumers. The recognition of brands and their associated brand

  7. Climate and Food Production: Understanding Vulnerability from Past Trends in Africa’s Sudan-Sahel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genesis T. Yengoh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Just how influential is rainfall on agricultural production in the Sudan-Sahel of Africa? And, is there evidence that support for small-scale farming can reduce the vulnerability of crop yields to rainfall in these sensitive agro-ecological zones? These questions are explored based on a case study from Cameroon’s Sudan-Sahel region. Climate data for 20 years and crop production data for six major food crops for the same years are used to find patterns of correlation over this time period. Results show a distinction of three periods of climatic influence of agriculture: one period before 1989, another between 1990 and 1999 and the last from 2000 to 2004. The analysis reveals that, while important in setting the enabling biophysical environment for food crop cultivation, the influence of rainfall in agriculture can be diluted by proactive policies that support food production. Proactive policies also reduce the impact of agriculturally relevant climatic shocks, such as droughts on food crop yields over the time-series. These findings emphasize the extent of vulnerability of food crop production to rainfall variations among small-holder farmers in these agro-ecological zones and reinforce the call for the proactive engagement of relevant institutions and support services in assisting the efforts of small-scale food producers in Africa’s Sudan-Sahel. The implications of climate variability on agriculture are discussed within the context of food security with particular reference to Africa’s Sudan-Sahel.

  8. Understanding the implication of investing in biodiesel production in South Africa: a system dynamics approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musango, JK

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available -economic development through, for example, job-creation, which, in turn, would lead to the further economic growth of the Province. The development of biodiesel production value chains is influenced by a number of factors such as producer/supplier profitability...

  9. Understanding the reductions in US corn ethanol production costs: an experience curve approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hettinga, W.; Junginger, H.M.; Dekker, S.C.; Hoogwijk, M.; McAloon, A.; Hicks, K.

    2009-01-01

    The US is currently the world's largest ethanol producer. An increasing percentage is used as transportation fuel, but debates continue on its costs competitiveness and energy balance. In this study, technological development of ethanol production and resulting cost reductions are investigated by

  10. Towards an understanding of feedbacks between plant productivity, acidity and dissolved organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Ed; Tipping, Ed; Davies, Jessica; Monteith, Don; Evans, Chris

    2014-05-01

    The recent origin of much dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (Tipping et al., 2010) implies that plant productivity is a major control on DOC fluxes. However, the flocculation, sorption and release of potentially-dissolved organic matter are governed by pH, and widespread increases in DOC concentrations observed in northern temperate freshwater systems seem to be primarily related to recovery from acidification (Monteith et al., 2007). We explore the relative importance of changes in productivity and pH using a model, MADOC, that incorporates both these effects (Rowe et al., 2014). The feedback whereby DOC affects pH is included. The model uses an annual timestep and relatively simple flow-routing, yet reproduces observed changes in DOC flux and pH in experimental (Evans et al., 2012) and survey data. However, the first version of the model probably over-estimated responses of plant productivity to nitrogen (N) deposition in upland semi-natural ecosystems. There is a strong case that plant productivity is an important regulator of DOC fluxes, and theoretical reasons for suspecting widespread productivity increases in recent years due not only to N deposition but to temperature and increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, evidence that productivity has increased in upland semi-natural ecosystems is sparse, and few studies have assessed the major limitations to productivity in these habitats. In systems where phosphorus (P) limitation prevails, or which are co-limited, productivity responses to anthropogenic drivers will be limited. We present a revised version of the model that incorporates P cycling and appears to represent productivity responses to atmospheric N pollution more realistically. Over the long term, relatively small fluxes of nutrient elements into and out of ecosystems can profoundly affect productivity and the accumulation of organic matter. Dissolved organic N (DON) is less easily intercepted by plants and microbes than mineral N, and DON

  11. Toward an understanding of the impact of production pressure on safety performance in construction operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sanguk; Saba, Farzaneh; Lee, Sanghyun; Mohamed, Yasser; Peña-Mora, Feniosky

    2014-07-01

    It is not unusual to observe that actual schedule and quality performances are different from planned performances (e.g., schedule delay and rework) during a construction project. Such differences often result in production pressure (e.g., being pressed to work faster). Previous studies demonstrated that such production pressure negatively affects safety performance. However, the process by which production pressure influences safety performance, and to what extent, has not been fully investigated. As a result, the impact of production pressure has not been incorporated much into safety management in practice. In an effort to address this issue, this paper examines how production pressure relates to safety performance over time by identifying their feedback processes. A conceptual causal loop diagram is created to identify the relationship between schedule and quality performances (e.g., schedule delays and rework) and the components related to a safety program (e.g., workers' perceptions of safety, safety training, safety supervision, and crew size). A case study is then experimentally undertaken to investigate this relationship with accident occurrence with the use of data collected from a construction site; the case study is used to build a System Dynamics (SD) model. The SD model, then, is validated through inequality statistics analysis. Sensitivity analysis and statistical screening techniques further permit an evaluation of the impact of the managerial components on accident occurrence. The results of the case study indicate that schedule delays and rework are the critical factors affecting accident occurrence for the monitored project. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Path to Savings: Understanding the Federal Purchase of Energy-Consuming Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Margaret [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fujita, K. Sydny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-09-17

    Energy efficiency has been a federal procurement policy objective since at least 1992, with the origin of the Energy Efficient Product Procurement (EEPP) program within the larger Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). Today, the EEPP program’s mandate is based on requirements that 95% of new contract actions, task orders, and delivery orders for products and services be energy and water efficient, as laid out in Executive Order 13514 in 2009. Facilitating full compliance with EO 13514 presents a significant strategic planning challenge to the FEMP EEPP program, given the size of the federal government, the range of missions of its many agencies, the mix of management approaches for its buildings, and the diverse set of roughly 80 energy efficient products which has been established through preceding legislation and executive orders. The goal of this report is to aid the program in prioritizing its resources by providing an overview of how the purchase of energy-consuming products occurs in today’s evolving federal procurement system, as well as identify likely intervention points and compliance review mechanisms. Through a synthesis of the literature on U.S. federal sector procurement and two dozen primary interviews, the report particularly focuses on the importance of price in determining the actor(s) responsible for any given purchase of an energy-consuming product. This identification is important, as the relevant actors are trained and reviewed in different ways that the FEMP EEPP program can prioritize for targeting, based on the decision criteria such as the potential energy savings associated with the actor’s purchases or the administrative ease of the intervention.

  13. The short chain fatty acid, butyrate, stimulates MUC2 mucin production in the human colon cancer cell line, LS174T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatayama, Hajime; Iwashita, Jun; Kuwajima, Akiko; Abe, Tatsuya

    2007-01-01

    The short fatty acid, butyrate, which is produced by intestinal anaerobic bacteria in the colon, has inhibitory activity on histone deacetylases (HDACs). Treatment of the human colon cancer cell line, LS174T, with 1-2 mM sodium butyrate stimulated MUC2 mucin production, as determined by histological PAS staining of carbohydrate chains of mucin, and confirmed at the protein and mRNA levels by immunoblotting with anti-MUC2 antibody and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. Increases in acetylated histone H3 in the LS174T cells treated with butyrate suggest inhibition of HDACs in these cells. Butyrate-stimulated MUC2 production in the LS174T cells was inhibited by the MEK inhibitor, U0126, implicating the involvement of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascades in this process. Proliferation of the LS174T cells was inhibited by butyrate treatment. Although apoptotic nuclear DNA fragmentation could not be detected, cell-cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase in the butyrate-treated cells was demonstrated by flow cytometry. Thus butyrate, an HDAC inhibitor, inhibits proliferation of LS174T cells but stimulates MUC2 production in individual cells

  14. DC-SIGN, but not sDC-SIGN, can modulate IL-2 production from PMA- and anti-CD3-stimulated primary human CD4 T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Osvaldo; Brackenridge, Scott; El-Idrissi, Mohammed El-Azami; Prabhakar, Bellur S

    2005-06-01

    Dendritic cell (DC)-specific intercellular cell adhesion molecule-3 (ICAM-3)-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) is expressed on the surface of DCs and specialized macrophages and can support T cell proliferation. Antibody-mediated co-ligation of CD3 and ICAM-3, the ligand for both DC-SIGN and leukocyte function-associated antigen-1, leads to T cell activation. Therefore, we tested to see whether DC-SIGN or a splice variant of dendritic cell-specific intercellular cell adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (sDC-SIGN) can co-stimulate primary human T cells. The sDC-SIGN lacking the transmembrane domain encoded by exon 3 localizes to the cytoplasm of cells and is not secreted. Both B7 and DC-SIGN co-stimulated phorbol myristate acetate-stimulated CD4+ cells as compared with controls. However, unlike B7, both DC-SIGN and sDC-SIGN failed to co-stimulate CD4+ T cells treated with sub-optimal amounts of anti-CD3 (2 microg ml(-1)) as defined by a lack of CD69 and CD25 up-regulation, cell division and cytokine secretion. Instead, DC-SIGN, and not sDC-SIGN, induced a small but consistent down-regulation of IL-2 production by these CD4+ T cells. In contrast, DC-SIGN in the presence of 30 mug ml(-1) of anti-CD3 modestly up-regulated cytokine production as compared with control. These results suggest that DC-SIGN can differentially modulate T cell stimulation.

  15. High temperature corrosion during biomass firing: improved understanding by depth resolved characterisation of corrosion products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okoro, Sunday Chukwudi; Montgomery, Melanie; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    The high temperature corrosion of an austenitic stainless steel (TP 347H FG), widely utilised as a superheater tube material in Danish power stations, was investigated to verify the corrosion mechanisms related to biomass firing. KCl coated samples were exposed isothermally to 560 degrees C...... changes within the near surface region (covering both the deposit and the steel surface). Such cross-section analysis was further complemented by plan view investigations (additionally involving X-ray diffraction) combined with removal of the corrosion products. Improved insights into the nature...... of the corrosion products as a function of distance from the deposit surface were revealed through this comprehensive characterisation. Corrosion attack during simulated straw-firing conditions was observed to occur through both active oxidation and sulphidation mechanisms....

  16. Understanding the Influence from Web-shop Design on Consumers’ Visual Attention and Product Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clement, Jesper; Kokkoli, Maria

    Buying behaviour theory goes back to the start of the 50’s and over the years different models have been developed influenced by different sociological views and trends. In the age of digitalization and e-commerce these theories seem to be less useful and need revision. In the early days of the Web...... in studying relations between human visual attention and intention to purchase (Clement, 2013). Several companies have found an additional market place on-line, whereas the appearance of the products is often very similar to the physical shop. This goes especially for pharmaceutical products, where pictures...... across culture and national borders it also challenges marketer to make the right set-up for a web-shop. In this paper customers’ visual attention during search for drugs on-line is investigated, relating visual attention and evaluation to a particular web-design....

  17. Understanding the Influence from Web-shop Design on Consumers’ Visual Attention and Product Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clement, Jesper; Kokkoli, Maria

    in studying relations between human visual attention and intention to purchase (Clement, 2013). Several companies have found an additional market place on-line, whereas the appearance of the products is often very similar to the physical shop. This goes especially for pharmaceutical products, where pictures...... across culture and national borders it also challenges marketer to make the right set-up for a web-shop. In this paper customers’ visual attention during search for drugs on-line is investigated, relating visual attention and evaluation to a particular web-design......., research argues for a broader view on the complex decision process (Bettman et al., 1998; Hansen, 2005) and regards consumers having constructive decision processes. In the light of on-line sale additional perspectives on decision-models are still needed and recent research emphasizes the important...

  18. Towards a multidisciplinary understanding of product innovation: the Synopsis network project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Timothy Charles

    2002-01-01

    The product development research area has evolved from the area of engineering design, based upon the recognition that important aspects such as need, market, business, innovation of the company, technology management, etc. fuse together to form a field of competencies, containing its own......, psychology, anthropology, social science and operations management. The group of researchers is formally organised as a research network project, supported and part-funded by the Centre for Industrial Production at Aalborg University. The project, called "Synopsis", has a number of aims and foci...... a set of "images of innovation" which describe the subject from each our viewpoints. The ultimate goals of the network project are to produce: 1. A framework/reference system describing companies´ innovation activities, based upon national and international research findings 2. A vocabulary with which...

  19. Monitoring tobacco brand websites to understand marketing strategies aimed at tobacco product users and potential users.

    OpenAIRE

    Escobedo, P; Cruz, TB; Tsai, K-Y; Allem, J-P; Soto, DW; Kirkpatrick, MG; Pattarroyo, M; Unger, JB

    2017-01-01

    Limited information exists about strategies and methods used on brand marketing websites to transmit pro-tobacco messages to tobacco users and potential users. This study compared age verification methods, themes, interactive activities and links to social media across tobacco brand websites.This study examined 12 tobacco brand websites representing four tobacco product categories: cigarettes, cigar/cigarillos, smokeless tobacco, and e-cigarettes. Website content was analyzed by tobacco produ...

  20. Understanding transformations in agriculture in south India through the quantification of productivity, equity, and resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penny, G.; Srinivasan, V.; Thompson, S. E.

    2017-12-01

    Rapid acceleration of human-water interactions have been identified in many regions of the world, often resulting in reduced water security. In the Arkavathy watershed adjacent to Bangalore, India, environmental and human systems have collectively experienced major transformations since the initiation of sustainable agriculture near the beginning of the Holocene. We reconstruct a narrative history of water security in the Arkavathy, focusing on quantitative metrics of productivity, equity, and resilience. Over this time period, the system can be separated into multiple distinct eras characterized by the dominant practices of agriculture and water management, including the unmanaged (natural) plant ecology of the region, followed by subsistence farming, tank irrigation, construction of large reservoirs, groundwater depletion, and decentralized adaptation. Each of these eras was initiated by a combination of external drivers (e.g., climate, technology) and internal drivers (e.g., demand for food and water). The last fifty years have been characterized by rapid increase in productivity largely sustained by expansion of groundwater irrigation and increasing demand from the rapidly urbanizing Bangalore. Equity initially increased with the introduction of groundwater irrigation and the increased access to irrigation supply. As the water table declined and groundwater irrigation became less affordable, resilience of the system decreased and was followed by a decrease in equity and productivity, with wealthier farmers reaping the benefits and poorer farmers unable to afford access to groundwater. Absent meaningful changes to water rights policy, the system appears to be trending towards a new, undesirable equilibrium characterized by high inequality, moderate productivity (concentrated among the wealthiest farmers), and low resilience.

  1. From ozone depletion to agriculture: understanding the role of UV radiation in sustainable crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargent, Jason J; Jordan, Brian R

    2013-03-01

    Largely because of concerns regarding global climate change, there is a burgeoning interest in the application of fundamental scientific knowledge in order to better exploit environmental cues in the achievement of desirable endpoints in crop production. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an energetic driver of a diverse range of plant responses and, despite historical concerns regarding the damaging consequences of UV-B radiation for global plant productivity as related to stratospheric ozone depletion, current developments representative of a range of organizational scales suggest that key plant responses to UV-B radiation may be exploitable in the context of a sustainable contribution towards the strengthening of global crop production, including alterations in secondary metabolism, enhanced photoprotection, up-regulation of the antioxidative response and modified resistance to pest and disease attack. Here, we discuss the prospect of this paradigm shift in photobiology, and consider the linkages between fundamental plant biology and crop-level outcomes that can be applied to the plant UV-B response, in addition to the consequences for related biota and many other facets of agro-ecosystem processes. © 2013 The Author. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. THE IMPACT OF FERTILIZATION AND FOLIAR STIMULATION PRODUCTS BOTH ON INCREASING THE RESISTANCE TO MAJOR PHYTOPATHOGENS ATTACKS, AND ON INCREASING THE QUANTITY AND QUALITY OF WINE GRAPES HARVEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina BUNESCU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to demonstrate the impact of fertilization and foliar stimulation products both on increasing the resistance to major phytopathogens attacks, and on increasing the quantity and quality of wine grapes harvest. Applying the foliar fertilizer products Plonvit Kali (c1, Tytanit (c2 and Optysil (c3 to vines, for a period of three years (2011/2013, in phenophases of intensive growth of shoots and grapes at approved dosages, simultaneously with pesticide treatment, not only a reduction of pathogenic fungi attack was obtained, but also and an increase of harvest without diminishing the quality of the grapes.

  3. Monitoring tobacco brand websites to understand marketing strategies aimed at tobacco product users and potential users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, Patricia; Cruz, Tess Boley; Tsai, Kai-Ya; Allem, Jon-Patrick; Soto, Daniel W; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Pattarroyo, Monica; Unger, Jennifer B

    2017-09-11

    Limited information exists about strategies and methods used on brand marketing websites to transmit pro-tobacco messages to tobacco users and potential users. This study compared age verification methods, themes, interactive activities and links to social media across tobacco brand websites. This study examined 12 tobacco brand websites representing four tobacco product categories: cigarettes, cigar/cigarillos, smokeless tobacco, and e-cigarettes. Website content was analyzed by tobacco product category and data from all website visits (n = 699) were analyzed. Adult smokers (n=32) coded websites during a one-year period, indicating whether or not they observed any of 53 marketing themes, seven interactive activities, or five external links to social media sites. Most (58%) websites required online registration before entering, however e-cigarette websites used click-through age verification. Compared to cigarette sites, cigar/cigarillo sites were more likely to feature themes related to "party" lifestyle, and e-cigarette websites were much more likely to feature themes related to harm reduction. Cigarette sites featured greater levels of interactive content compared to other tobacco products. Compared to cigarette sites, cigar/cigarillo sites were more likely to feature activities related to events and music. Compared to cigarette sites, both cigar and e-cigarette sites were more likely to direct visitors to external social media sites. Marketing methods and strategies normalize tobacco use by providing website visitors with positive themes combined with interactive content, and is an area of future research. Moreover, all tobacco products under federal regulatory authority should be required to use more stringent age verification gates. Findings indicate the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) should require brand websites of all tobacco products under its regulatory authority use more stringent age verification gates by requiring all visitors be at least 18 years

  4. Understanding and Controlling Lignocellulosic Pyrolysis for the Production of Renewable Fuel and Chemical Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecha, Michael Brennan

    Pyrolysis is a technology for producing fuels, chemicals, and engineered carbons from renewable feedstocks like lignocellulosic biomass. This work aims to address some of the scientific and technical hurdles that need to be overcome to control the products of pyrolysis. The first section aims to address knowledge gaps regarding primary pyrolysis reactions; in this study, pine wood was acid washed and small amounts of acid were impregnated into the biomass prior to pyrolysis. Results showed that the acid mitigated fragmentation reactions caused by residual metals and had further effect on production of sugars and oligomeric lignin products. The next section aims to address knowledge gaps regarding what reactions occur in the liquid intermediate phase in biomass pyrolysis; in these studies, a novel reactor system was built which could perform thin film fast pyrolysis studies at different pressures from 4 mbar to 1 atm with cellulose, milled wood lignin, and hybrid poplar wood. The reactor was carefully characterized to achieve comparable data between the different pressures. The use of vacuum allowed for control of the residence time of cellobiosan (one of cellulose oligomeric products) in the liquid intermediate. In the vacuum cellulose pyrolysis studies, a high resolution FT-ICR-MS was used for the first time to explore reaction chemistry for this system. The Van-Krevelen diagram of the resulting oligomeric products proved to be a powerful tool to study secondary reactions in the liquid intermediate. Our results show that the secondary reactions in the liquid intermediate are dominated by dehydration, fragmentation, and cross-linking reactions. The final section aims to address single particle external heat transfer problems; in this study, 500 microm long particles of pine and aspen poplar with realistic pore and surface morphologies were modeled in COMSOL to determine how microstructure effects the external heat transfer coefficients in the laminar flow regime

  5. Short communication: Probiotic induction of interleukin-10 and interleukin-12 production by macrophages is modulated by co-stimulation with microbial components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaji, Rumi; Kiyoshima-Shibata, Junko; Tsujibe, Satoshi; Nanno, Masanobu; Shida, Kan

    2018-04-01

    Probiotic lactobacilli stimulate macrophages and dendritic cells to secrete cytokines and thereby regulate the immune responses of the host. The balance of the IL-10 and IL-12 production induced by a probiotic is crucial for determining the direction of the immune response. In the present study, we examined the ability of microbial components to modify IL-10 and IL-12 production induced by a popular probiotic strain, Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS), which itself predominantly induces IL-12 production. Microbial ligands for toll-like receptor (TLR)3 and TLR5 further enhanced the IL-12 induction by LcS, whereas ligands for TLR2, TLR4, TLR7, and TLR9 converted the cytokine production pattern from IL-12 predominant to IL-10 predominant. These results indicate that the probiotic induction of IL-10 and IL-12 production can be flexibly modified by co-stimulation with microbial components. This could explain the variety of immunomodulatory functions (immunoactivation or anti-inflammation) exerted by this probiotic strain. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of histamine H1 receptor antagonists on TARC/CCL17 and MDC/CCL22 production from CD14+ cells induced by antigenic stimulation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Naruo; Asano, Kazuhito; Furuta, Atsuko; Hirano, Kojiro; Suzaki, Harumi

    2011-01-01

    Thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) and macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) are accepted to be important molecules in the development and maintenance of allergic diseases. Although several types of histamine H(1) receptor antagonist (antihistamine) have been developed and used for the treatment of allergic diseases, the influence of antihistamines on TARC and MDC production is not well understood. The present study was undertaken to examine the influence of antihistamines on TARC and MDC production from CD14+ cells after antigenic stimulation in vitro. CD14+ cells prepared from patients with pollinosis to Japanese cedar pollen were stimulated with specific allergen extracted from Japanese cedar pollen (Cry j 1) in the presence of azelastine (AZE), ketotifen (KET), fexofenadine (FEX) and oxatomide (OXA) for 6 days. TARC and MDC levels in culture supernatants were examined by ELISA. We also examined the influence of FEX on TARC and MDC mRNA expression, phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and transcription factor activation in CD14+ cells after Cry j 1 stimulation. FEX at 250 ng/ml, which is almost equal to therapeutic blood levels, caused a significant inhibition of TARC and MDC production.However, AZE, OXA and KET required higher concentrations than their therapeutic blood levels to suppress production of these factors. FEX at 250 ng/ml also suppressed NF-κB activation, phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 and expression of mRNA for TARC and MDC. These results suggest that antihistamines, especially FEX, suppress CC chemokine production from CD14+ cells through interference with antigen-mediated signaling and result in favorable modification of allergic disease states or conditions. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Neuroimaging studies towards understanding the central effects of pharmacological cannabis products on patients with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allendorfer, Jane B; Szaflarski, Jerzy P

    2017-05-01

    Recent interest for the use of cannabis-derived products as therapeutic agents in the treatment of epilepsies has necessitated a reevaluation of their effects on brain and behavior. Overall, prolonged cannabis use is thought to result in functional and structural brain alterations. These effects may be dependent on a number of factors: e.g., which phytocannabinoid is used (e.g., cannabidiol (CBD) vs. tetrahyrocannabinol (THC)), the frequency of use (occasional vs. heavy), and at what age (prenatal, childhood, adulthood) the use began. However, due to the fact that there are over seven hundred constituents that make up the Cannabis sativa plant, it is difficult to determine which compound or combination of compounds is responsible for specific effects when studying recreational users. Therefore, this review focuses only on the functional MRI studies investigating the effects of specific pharmacological preparations of cannabis compounds, specifically THC, tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), and CBD, on brain function in healthy individuals and persons with epilepsy with references to non-epilepsy studies only to underline the gaps in research that need to be filled before cannabis-derived products are considered for a wide use in the treatment of epilepsy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Cannabinoids and Epilepsy". Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Recent Advances in Improvement of Forecast Skill and Understanding Climate Processes Using AIRS Version-5 Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susskind, Joel; Molnar, Gyula; Iredell, Lena; Rosenberg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    AIRS/AMSU is the state of the art infrared and microwave atmospheric sounding system flying aboard EOS Aqua. These observations, covering the period September 2002 until the present, have been analyzed using the AIRS Science Team Version-5 retrieval algorithm. AIRS is a high spectral resolution infrared grating spectrometer with spect,ral coverage from 650 per centimeter extending to 2660 per centimeter, with low noise and a spectral resolving power of 2400. A brief overview of the AIRS Version-5 retrieval procedure will be presented, including the AIRS channels used in different steps in the retrieval process. Many researchers have used these products to make significant advances in both climate and weather applications. Recent significant results of these experiments will be presented, including results showing that 1) assimilation of AIRS Quality Controlled temperature profiles into a General Circulation Model (GCM) significantly improves the ability to predict storm tracks of intense precipitation events; and 2) anomaly time-series of Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) computed using AIRS sounding products closely match those determined from the CERES instrument, and furthermore explain that the phenomenon that global and especially tropical mean OLR have been decreasing since September 2002 is a result of El Nino/La Nina oscillations during this period.

  9. Understanding the causes of changing grassland use and productivity in Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Gao, L.; Qiao, G.; Chen, J.

    2012-12-01

    Some dramatic changes of grassland use and productivity have been taking place in Inner Mongolia in the past half century. While the changes are apparently driven by both socio-economic factors and climate, their contribution and interaction are largely unknown. We hypothesize that population growth is an important driving force behind the loss and degradation of the grassland, the market forces and institutional factors such as de-collectivization are become more important factors as the economy is moving from planned economy to market economy. This paper assesses the effects of socio-economic, demographic, institutional and climate factors on grassland use and productivity using a panel data set. The panel data compose the years from 1970s to 2000s and all prefectures in Inner Mongolia. A generalized least squares estimation method, allowing individual effects for prefecture level are applied to the examination. The effect of climate change is tested as well and the coupled socio-economic system and the natural system are investigated.

  10. Diammonium phosphate stimulates transcription of L-lactate dehydrogenase leading to increased L-lactate production in the thermotolerant Bacillus coagulans strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lifan; Li, Yanfeng; Wang, Limin; Wang, Yanping; Yu, Bo

    2016-08-01

    Exploration of cost-effective fermentation substrates for efficient lactate production is an important economic objective. Although some organic nitrogen sources are also cheaper, inorganic nitrogen salts for lactate fermentation have additional advantages in facilitating downstream procedures and significantly improving the commercial competitiveness of lactate production. In this study, we first established an application of diammonium phosphate to replace yeast extract with a reduced 90 % nitrogen cost for a thermotolerant Bacillus coagulans strain. In vivo enzymatic and transcriptional analyses demonstrated that diammonium phosphate stimulates the gene expression of L-lactate dehydrogenase, thus providing higher specific enzyme activity in vivo and increasing L-lactic acid production. This new information provides a foundation for establishing a cost-effective process for polymer-grade L-lactic acid production in an industrial setting.

  11. Understanding Passive Layer Formation for Further Corrosion Management in Gas Production Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoso, R. K.; Rahmawati, S. D.; Gadesa, A.; Wahyuningrum, D.

    2017-07-01

    Corrosion is a critical issue during the development of a gas field, especially wet gas or retrograde gas field. Corrosion affects the management system of a field and further impacts the amount of investment. Therefore, accurate prediction of corrosion rate is needed to plan an effective preventive action before going further to the development phase. One of the important parameters that should be noticed to create an accurate prediction is the formation of the passive layer. In CO2-H2S environment, there will be three possibilities of passive layer: FeS, FeCO3 or no passive layer. In this study, we create mathematical models to determine the formed passive layer in each segment of the gas production tubing and pipeline. The model is built using Faraday’s Law and Thermodynamic approach to account the passive layer formation at different temperature, pH, corrosion rate and partial pressure of CO2 and H2S. From the simulation, it was found that there were three boundary conditions: no scale-FeS boundary, no scale-FeCO3 boundary and FeS-FeCO3 boundary. The first two boundaries evolved over a time as the concentration of Fe2+ ions was increasing. However, FeS-FeCO3 boundary remained steady as it was not affected by the addition of Fe2+ ions. Using sample case study, few variations were noticed at production pipeline and tubing. It was caused by the gas composition, which contained high CO2 and very low H2S. Boundary conditions only changed slightly over two days period.

  12. Ovine thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) heterologously stimulates production of thyroid hormones from Chinese soft-shell turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis) and bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana and Rana rugulosa) thyroids in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Tung; Chien, Jung-Tsun; Weng, Ching-Feng; Jeng, Yung-Yue; Lu, Li-Chia; Yu, John Yuh-Lin

    2009-06-01

    Thyroid hormones are important for regulating a variety of developmental processes in vertebrates, including growth, differentiation, metamorphosis, and oxidative metabolism. In particular, this study focused on the in vitro production of thyroxine (T(4)) and triiodothyronine (T(3)) from thyroids in American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana), Chinese bullfrogs (Rana rugulosa Wiegmann), and Chinese soft-shell turtles (Pelodiscus sinensis) treated with ovine thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) at different culture intervals (2, 4, 8, and 12 h) and dosages (1, 10, 50 or 100 ng). The levels of T(4) and T(3) in the tested animals were elevated upon stimulation in a time- and dose-dependent manner, indicating de novo synthesis of T(4) and T(3). Significantly higher hormone levels were observed in the Chinese bullfrog compared to the other two species, for both the time-course and dose-response experiments. Although the bullfrog secreted significantly higher levels of T(4) and T(3), a higher T(4)-conversion capacity was found in the Chinese soft-shell turtle. The highest ratios of T(3) to T(4) were observed in the American bullfrog and Chinese soft-shell turtle for the time-course and dose-response experiments, respectively. These findings suggest that the Chinese soft-shell turtle and bullfrog thyroids can accept ovine TSH for T(4)- and T(3)-formation in a time- and dose-dependent manner, supporting the hypothesis that the binding interactions between TSHs and thyroidal receptors are conserved in vertebrates.

  13. Areca nut components stimulate ADAM17, IL-1α, PGE2 and 8-isoprostane production in oral keratinocyte: role of reactive oxygen species, EGF and JAK signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mei-Chi; Chan, Chiu-Po; Chen, Yi-Jane; Hsien, Hsiang-Chi; Chang, Ya-Ching; Yeung, Sin-Yuet; Jeng, Po-Yuan; Cheng, Ru-Hsiu; Hahn, Liang-Jiunn; Jeng, Jiiang-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Betel quid (BQ) chewing is an etiologic factor of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) and oral cancer. There are 600 million BQ chewers worldwide. The mechanisms for the toxic and inflammatory responses of BQ are unclear. In this study, both areca nut (AN) extract (ANE) and arecoline stimulated epidermal growth factor (EGF) and interleukin-1α (IL-1α) production of gingival keratinocytes (GKs), whereas only ANE can stimulate a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and 8-isoprostane production. ANE-induced EGF production was inhibited by catalase. Addition of anti-EGF neutralizing antibody attenuated ANE-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), mature ADAM9 expression and PGE2 and 8-isoprostane production. ANE-induced IL-1α production was inhibited by catalase, anti-EGF antibody, PD153035 (EGF receptor antagonist) and U0126 (MEK inhibitor) but not by α-naphthoflavone (cytochrome p450-1A1 inhibitor). ANE-induced ADAM17 production was inhibited by pp2 (Src inhibitor), U0126, α-naphthoflavone and aspirin. AG490 (JAK inhibitor) prevented ANE-stimulated ADAM17, IL-1α, PGE2 production, COX-2 expression, ADAM9 maturation, and the ANE-induced decline in keratin 5 and 14, but showed little effect on cdc2 expression and EGF production. Moreover, ANE-induced 8-isoprostane production by GKs was inhibited by catalase, anti-EGF antibody, AG490, pp2, U0126, α-naphthoflavone, Zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) and aspirin. These results indicate that AN components may involve in BQ-induced oral cancer by induction of reactive oxygen species, EGF/EGFR, IL-1α, ADAMs, JAK, Src, MEK/ERK, CYP1A1, and COX signaling pathways, and the aberration of cell cycle and differentiation. Various blockers against ROS, EGF, IL-1α, ADAM, JAK, Src, MEK, CYP1A1, and COX can be used for prevention or treatment of BQ chewing-related diseases. PMID:26919242

  14. A survey of patients with haemophilia to understand how they track product used at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholapur, N S; Barty, R; Wang, G; Almonte, T; Heddle, N M

    2013-09-01

    Record keeping among individuals who manage haemophilia at home is an essential tool of communication between patient and Haemophilia Treatment Center (HTC). Complete records help HTCs monitor patients, their use of factor and ensure treatment is optimal. HTCs provide patients with a number of methods to track infusion practices. The study objectives were to: [1] determine the current methods of record keeping; [2] identify previous methods of record keeping; [3] understand the strengths and weaknesses associated with each method; and [4] gather suggestions for improvement. Survey methods were used to address the research objectives. Of the 83 patients in the Hamilton-Niagara region who received the survey distributed through the local HTC, 51 returned surveys were included into the analysis. Descriptive statistics were used. Results indicate individuals with haemophilia record infusion practices using: paper diaries, excel spreadsheets, hand-held PDAs and/or the online EZ-Log Web Client. The most popular method of record keeping was EZ-Log (45.1%) followed by paper diaries (35.2%). Advantages to using paper methods include the visual tracking of information and retaining hardcopies. The disadvantage was the inconvenience of physically submitting the records monthly. Advantages to using the online EZ-Log Web Client included ease of use and improved accuracy. The primary disadvantage was technical errors that were difficult to troubleshoot. Record keeping practices among individuals with haemophilia seem to vary according to personal preference and convenience. Respondents suggested that saving infusion history, incorporating barcode scanners or a copy and paste function could improve electronic methods. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Understanding the benefits of product-service system for involved parties in remanufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjar Priyono

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aims to analyse the benefit provided by interested parties in remanufacturing including manufacturing companies, original equipment manufacturers and customers. Existing studies examining Produc-Service System (PSS focus on relationship between two parties, either between OEMs and customers or between remanufacturers with customers. This study attempts to fill the gap by investigating how the PSS offers benefit to OEMs, remanufacturers and customers. Methodology: This research used case study method to examine the practice of PSS in remanufacturing companies. Qualitative approach was employed to analyse emerging problems in the case companies and the researcher collaborate with the involved parties to create new knowledge. Thus, this process can offer theoretical insights as well as practical insights. Findings: All parties involved in PSS consistently gain benefit from adopting the practice. From the perspective of remanufacturers, the major benefit of remanufacturers adopting PSS is that it can help reduce the uncertainties regarding time, quantity and quality of returned cores. Due to reduced uncertainties, remanufacturers gain benefit from higher profitability and more environmental friendly products. These benefits provide multiplier effects to both customers and OEMs. Practical implications: This study offers benefits to managers in the sense that it provides guidance for managers of remanufacturers to better manage remanufacturing operation so that it becomes more environmentally friendly and economically profitable. Originality/value: It is the first time that the benefits of PSS to support remanufacturing are viewed from integrative perspective – i.e. manufacturers, remanufacturers, and customers.

  16. Understanding the benefits of product-service system for involved parties in remanufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priyono, A.

    2017-07-01

    This study aims to analyse the benefit provided by interested parties in remanufacturing including manufacturing companies, original equipment manufacturers and customers. Existing studies examining Produc-Service System (PSS) focus on relationship between two parties, either between OEMs and customers or between remanufacturers with customers. This study attempts to fill the gap by investigating how the PSS offers benefit to OEMs, remanufacturers and customers. Methodology: This research used case study method to examine the practice of PSS in remanufacturing companies. Qualitative approach was employed to analyse emerging problems in the case companies and the researcher collaborate with the involved parties to create new knowledge. Thus, this process can offer theoretical insights as well as practical insights. Findings: All parties involved in PSS consistently gain benefit from adopting the practice. From the perspective of remanufacturers, the major benefit of remanufacturers adopting PSS is that it can help reduce the uncertainties regarding time, quantity and quality of returned cores. Due to reduced uncertainties, remanufacturers gain benefit from higher profitability and more environmental friendly products. These benefits provide multiplier effects to both customers and OEMs. Practical implications: This study offers benefits to managers in the sense that it provides guidance for managers of remanufacturers to better manage remanufacturing operation so that it becomes more environmentally friendly and economically profitable. Originality/value: It is the first time that the benefits of PSS to support remanufacturing are viewed from integrative perspective – i.e. manufacturers, remanufacturers, and customers.

  17. Understanding the benefits of product-service system for involved parties in remanufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priyono, A.

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to analyse the benefit provided by interested parties in remanufacturing including manufacturing companies, original equipment manufacturers and customers. Existing studies examining Produc-Service System (PSS) focus on relationship between two parties, either between OEMs and customers or between remanufacturers with customers. This study attempts to fill the gap by investigating how the PSS offers benefit to OEMs, remanufacturers and customers. Methodology: This research used case study method to examine the practice of PSS in remanufacturing companies. Qualitative approach was employed to analyse emerging problems in the case companies and the researcher collaborate with the involved parties to create new knowledge. Thus, this process can offer theoretical insights as well as practical insights. Findings: All parties involved in PSS consistently gain benefit from adopting the practice. From the perspective of remanufacturers, the major benefit of remanufacturers adopting PSS is that it can help reduce the uncertainties regarding time, quantity and quality of returned cores. Due to reduced uncertainties, remanufacturers gain benefit from higher profitability and more environmental friendly products. These benefits provide multiplier effects to both customers and OEMs. Practical implications: This study offers benefits to managers in the sense that it provides guidance for managers of remanufacturers to better manage remanufacturing operation so that it becomes more environmentally friendly and economically profitable. Originality/value: It is the first time that the benefits of PSS to support remanufacturing are viewed from integrative perspective – i.e. manufacturers, remanufacturers, and customers.

  18. Carp head kidney leukocytes display different patterns of oxygen radical production after stimulation with PAMPs and DAMPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiménez, Natalia Ivonne Vera; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    2013-01-01

    . Using an in vitro model of scratch-wounded CCB fibroblast cell cultures and a novel PhotoID proliferation assay, stimulation with low and continuous levels of hydrogen peroxide (5μM) led to a slight increase in the percentage of wound recovery and thus promoted wound closure. In contrast, high doses...... of hydrogen peroxide (300μM) impaired fibroblast scratch-wound recovery and caused cell death. These results elucidate the capacity of hydrogen peroxide to influence the fate of tissue regeneration through the establishment of environments suitable for promoting either tissue regeneration or oxidative stress...... and thereby potential tissue damage. Direct in vitro stimulation with β-glucans did not impact fibroblast scratch-wound recovery, which further suggests that interaction with tissue-resident leukocytes or other components of the fish immune system are required to induce fibroblast proliferation and thus...

  19. Unsaturated fatty acids suppress interleukin-2 production and transferrin receptor expression by concanavalin A-stimulated rat Iymphocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Calder, Philip C.; Newsholme, Eric A.

    1992-01-01

    The proliferation of T-lymphocytes is dependent upon their ability to synthesize and secrete the cytokine, interleukin-2, and to express cell surface receptors for interleukin-2 and transferrin. We have previously reported that certain fatty acids inhibit mitogen-stimulated T-lymphocyte proliferation. We now report that unsaturated fatty acids decrease the concentration of interleukin-2 in the culture medium of such cells by up to 45%. This suggests that unsaturated fatty acids inhibit lympho...

  20. Low pH Environmental Stress Inhibits LPS and LTA-Stimulated Proinflammatory Cytokine Production in Rat Alveolar Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley F. Fernandez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric aspiration increases the risks for developing secondary bacterial pneumonia. Cytokine elaboration through pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs is an important mechanism in initiating innate immune host response. Effects of low pH stress, a critical component of aspiration pathogenesis, on the PRR pathways were examined, specifically toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2 and TLR4, using isolated rat alveolar macrophages (aMØs. We assessed the ability of aMØs after brief exposure to acidified saline to elaborate proinflammatory cytokines in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS and lipoteichoic acid (LTA stimulation, known ligands of TLR4 and TLR2, respectively. Low pH stress reduced LPS- and LTA-mediated cytokine release (CINC-1, MIP-2, TNF-, MCP-1, and IFN-. LPS and LTA increased intracellular Ca2+ concentrations while Ca2+ chelation by BAPTA decreased LPS- and LTA-mediated cytokine responses. BAPTA blocked the effects of low pH stress on most of LPS-stimulated cytokines but not of LTA-stimulated responses. In vivo mouse model demonstrates suppressed E. coli and S. pneumoniae clearance following acid aspiration. In conclusion, low pH stress inhibits antibacterial cytokine response of aMØs due to impaired TLR2 (MyD88 pathway and TLR4 signaling (MyD88 and TRIF pathways. The role of Ca2+ in low pH stress-induced signaling is complex but appears to be distinct between LPS- and LTA-mediated responses.

  1. Understanding the Long Run Determinants of Land Use in Global Crop Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldos, U. C.; Hertel, T. W.

    2011-12-01

    growth (+1.6%), biofuels (+0.2%) and urbanization (-0.3%). Technological change in crop, livestock and processed food production also have a modest impact on global cropland use over this historical period (+0.8%, -0.3% and +0.1%, respectively). We then turn our attention to projections of global land use over the coming decade. Here we project continued expansion in global cropland (13.7%). We then decompose the drivers of this projected change in land use. For example, if population grows at projected rates and yields grow at recent historical rates, then projected cropland use rises by just 1.7%. If we add urbanization, then global cropland use is slightly reduced (+1.5%). Because of the magnitude of the projected production targets, adding biofuels boosts global cropland use strongly (+4.2%) when added to the preceding factors. Adding technological change in the livestock and food processing sectors, as well as growth in per capita incomes boosts projected cropland use to 13.7%. In short, income growth is likely to be the critical driver of global cropland change in the future.

  2. Effect of tendon vibration during wide-pulse neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on muscle force production in people with spinal cord injury (SCI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochkezanian, Vanesa; Newton, Robert U; Trajano, Gabriel S; Vieira, Amilton; Pulverenti, Timothy S; Blazevich, Anthony J

    2018-02-13

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is commonly used in skeletal muscles in people with spinal cord injury (SCI) with the aim of increasing muscle recruitment and thus muscle force production. NMES has been conventionally used in clinical practice as functional electrical stimulation (FES), using low levels of evoked force that cannot optimally stimulate muscular strength and mass improvements, and thus trigger musculoskeletal changes in paralysed muscles. The use of high intensity intermittent NMES training using wide-pulse width and moderate-intensity as a strength training tool could be a promising method to increase muscle force production in people with SCI. However, this type of protocol has not been clinically adopted because it may generate rapid muscle fatigue and thus prevent the performance of repeated high-intensity muscular contractions in paralysed muscles. Moreover, superimposing patellar tendon vibration onto the wide-pulse width NMES has been shown to elicit further increases in impulse or, at least, reduce the rate of fatigue in repeated contractions in able-bodied populations, but there is a lack of evidence to support this argument in people with SCI. Nine people with SCI received two NMES protocols with and without superimposing patellar tendon vibration on different days (i.e. STIM and STIM+vib), which consisted of repeated 30 Hz trains of 58 wide-pulse width (1000 μs) symmetric biphasic pulses (0.033-s inter-pulse interval; 2 s stimulation train; 2-s inter-train interval) being delivered to the dominant quadriceps femoris. Starting torque was 20% of maximal doublet-twitch torque and stimulations continued until torque declined to 50% of the starting torque. Total knee extensor impulse was calculated as the primary outcome variable. Total knee extensor impulse increased in four subjects when patellar tendon vibration was imposed (59.2 ± 15.8%) but decreased in five subjects (- 31.3 ± 25.7%). However, there were no

  3. Expression levels of novel cytokine IL-32 in periodontitis and its role in the suppression of IL-8 production by human gingival fibroblasts stimulated with Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhisa Ouhara

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:IL-32 was recently found to be elevated in the tissue of rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by polymicrobial infections that result in soft tissue destruction and alveolar bone loss. Although IL-32 is also thought to be associated with periodontal disease, its expression and possible role in periodontal tissue remain unclear. Therefore, this study investigated the expression patterns of IL-32 in healthy and periodontally diseased gingival tissue. The expression of IL-32 in cultured human gingival fibroblasts (HGF as well as effects of autocrine IL-32 on IL-8 production from HGF were also examined.Methods:Periodontal tissue was collected from both healthy volunteers and periodontitis patients, and immunofluorescent staining was performed in order to determine the production of IL-32. Using real-time PCR and ELISA, mRNA expression and protein production of IL-32 in HGF, stimulated by Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg, were also investigated.Results:Contrary to our expectation, the production of IL-32 in the periodontitis patients was significantly lower than in the healthy volunteers. According to immunofluorescent microscopy, positive staining for IL-32 was detected in prickle and basal cell layers in the epithelium as well as fibroblastic cells in connective tissue. Addition of fixed Pg in vitro was found to suppress the otherwise constitutive expression of IL-32 mRNA and protein in HGF. However, recombinant IL-32 in vitro inhibited the expression of IL-8 mRNA by HGF stimulated with Pg. Interestingly, anti-IL-32 neutralizing antibody upregulated the IL-8 mRNA expression in non-stimulated HGF, indicating that constitutive expression of IL-32 in HGF suppressed IL-8 mRNA expression in the absence of bacterial stimulation.Conclusion:These results indicate that IL-32 is constitutively produced by HGF which can be suppressed by Pg and may play a role in the downregulation

  4. A Sesquiterpene Quinone, 5-Epi-smenospongine, Promotes TNF-α Production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masataka Mochizuki

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Eight sesquiterpene quinones: ilimaquinone (1, smenospongidine (3,smenospongiarine (5, smenospongine (7, and their corresponding 5-epimers 2, 4, 6, and 8,isolated from the Palauan marine sponge Hippospongia sp., were examined regarding theireffects on TNF-α production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. 5-Epi-smenospongine(8 promoted the production of TNF-α to a level three times greater than the control at10 μM, but compounds 1-7 did not show apparent activity. The results suggest that thecis-decaline ring and a primary amine in the benzoquinone ring are necessary for activity.This is the first study to report the modulation of TNF-α production by a sesquiterpenequinone.

  5. New ent-kauranes from the fruits of Annona glabra and their inhibitory nitric oxide production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhiem, Nguyen Xuan; Hien, Nguyen Thi Thu; Tai, Bui Huu; Anh, Hoang Le Tuan; Hang, Dan Thi Thuy; Quang, Tran Hong; Kiem, Phan Van; Minh, Chau Van; Ko, Wonmin; Lee, Seungjun; Oh, Hyuncheol; Kim, Seung Hyun; Kim, Young Ho

    2015-01-15

    Three new ent-kaurane diterpenoids, 7β,16α,17-trihydroxy-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (1), 7β,17-dihydroxy-16α-ent-kauran-19-oic acid 19-O-β-d-glucopyranoside ester (2), 7β,17-dihydroxy-ent-kaur-15-en-19-oic acid 19-O-β-d-glucopyranoside ester (3) along with five known compounds, paniculoside IV (4), 16α,17-dihydroxy-ent-kaurane (5), 16β,17-dihydroxy-ent-kaurane (6), 16β,17-dihydroxy-ent-kauran-19-al (7), and 16β,17-dihydroxy-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (8) were isolated from the fruits of Annona glabra. Their chemical structures were elucidated by physical and chemical methods. All compounds were evaluated for inhibitory activity against nitric oxide (NO) production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. As the results, compound 3 showed potent inhibitory LPS-stimulated NO production in RAW 264.7 macrophages with the IC50 value of 0.01±0.01μM; compounds 1 and 7 showed significant inhibitory NO production with the IC50 values of 0.39±0.12μM and 0.32±0.04μM, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Azithromycin reduces tumor necrosis factor-alpha production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated THP-1 monocytic cells by modification of stress response and p38 MAPK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegaya, S; Inai, K; Iwasaki, H; Naiki, H; Ueda, T

    2009-08-01

    Macrolide antibiotics are known to have a variety of immunomodulatory effects in addition to antimicrobial activity, but the mechanisms of immunomodulation are still unclear. We investigated in vitro the effect of azithromycin on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated THP-1 cells, a human monocytic cell line, and compared the results with those for other macrolides, minocycline and ofloxacin. In the presence of LPS, treatment with azithromycin (AZM) resulted in a significant decrease in LPS-induced TNF-alpha production compared to that with other antimicrobial agents. the results of phosphorylation of three MAPKs, ERK, JNK and p38, indicated that the phospho-p38 level was reduced by AZM. Ikappab-alpha, an inhibitor of NFkappab, was not disrupted by the antibiotics. LPS-induced TNF-alpha release from THP-1 cells was inhibited in the presence of KNK437, a potent 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP-70) inhibitor. Interestingly, the induction of HSP-70 by LPS was attenuated with the concurrent addition of AZM in the cells. AZM was found to restrain TNF-alpha production by monocytes at least in part by modifying the HSp-70 and p38 related signaling pathways to LPS stimulation.

  7. Overview of thermal stimulation production test results for the Japex/JNOC/GSC Mallik 5L-38 gas hydrate research well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancock, S. [APA Petroleum Engineering Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Collett, T. [United States Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Dallimore, S. [Geological Survey of Canada, Sidney, BC (Canada); Satoh, T. [Japan Petroleum Exploration Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Inoue, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Chiba (Japan); Huenges, E.; Henninges, J. [GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Potsdam (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The production data obtained during a thermal stimulation test program at the Mallik 5L-38 research test well was presented. The test was used to observe the dissociation of a well-defined and constrained hydrate interval at temperatures above the hydrate stability point and at constant pressure. Tests results were used to calibrate numerical simulation models to determine the in-situ kinetic and thermodynamic properties of the hydrate. The Mallik 5L-38 program involved the collection of surface and downhole data as well as the use of several advanced monitoring and investigation tools and services such as mass flow meters to measure low and unsteady-state gas production volumes; a fibre-optic distributed temperature sensing system installed on the outside of the production casing to measure temperature from the surface to below the hydrate thermal test interval; a chemical tracer in the thermal circulation fluid to detect dilution; continuous on-line gas chromatograph readings; a gas sampling program for conventional and isotope analyses; cross-hole tomography and other seismic surveys; and a post-test cased hole logging program with Schlumberger's Reservoir Saturation Tool and Cased Hole Formation Resistivity tools to determine the radius of hydrate dissociation. The thermal stimulation test resulted in increased bottom hole temperature which remained constant above 50 degrees C. Dissociated gas was produced, sampled, and flared at surface. In addition, large amounts of real-time downhole temperature and pressure data was obtained. 1 fig.

  8. Unopposed Production of Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor by Tumors Inhibits CD8+ T Cell Responses by Dysregulating Antigen-Presenting Cell Maturation1

    OpenAIRE

    Bronte, Vincenzo; Chappell, Dale B.; Apolloni, Elisa; Cabrelle, Anna; Wang, Michael; Hwu, Patrick; Restifo, Nicholas P.

    1999-01-01

    Tumor cells gene-modified to produce GM-CSF potently stimulate antitumor immune responses, in part, by causing the growth and differentiation of dendritic cells (DC). However, GM-CSF-modified tumor cells must be γ-irradiated or they will grow progressively, killing the host. We observed that 23 of 75 (31%) human tumor lines and two commonly used mouse tumor lines spontaneously produced GM-CSF. In mice, chronic GM-CSF production by tumors suppressed Ag-specific CD8+ T cell responses. Interesti...

  9. 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 stimulates activin A production to fine-tune osteoblast-induced mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woeckel, V J; van der Eerden, B C J; Schreuders-Koedam, M; Eijken, M; Van Leeuwen, J P T M

    2013-11-01

    In healthy bones, mineralization has to be tightly controlled to avoid pathological phenotypes. In this study, we investigated interactions between 1α,25(OH)2 D3 (1,25D3) and activin A in the regulation of osteoblast induced mineralization. In human osteoblast cultures, we demonstrated that besides stimulation of mineralization, 1,25D3 also induced activin A, a strong inhibitor of mineralization. Simultaneously, follistatin (FST), the natural antagonist of activin A, was down-regulated by1,25D3. This resulted in an increase in activin A activity during 1,25D3 treatment. We also showed that in 1,25D3-treated osteoblasts, mineralization can be further increased when activin A activity was abrogated by adding exogenous FST. This observation implies that, besides stimulation of mineralization, 1,25D3 also controls activin A-mediated inhibition of mineralization. Besides activin A, 1,25D3 also induces osteocalcin (BGLAP), another inhibitor of mineralization. Warfarin, which has been shown to inactivate osteocalcin, increased 1,25D3-induced mineralization. Interaction between these two systems became evident from the synergistic increase in BGLAP expression upon blocking activin activity in 1,25D3-treated cultures. In conclusion, we demonstrate that 1,25D3 stimulation of mineralization by human osteoblasts is suppressed by concomitant induction of inhibitors of mineralization. Mineralization induction by 1,25D3 may actually be controlled via interplay with activin A and osteocalcin. Finally, this complex regulation of mineralization substantiates the significance of tight control of mineralization to prevent excessive mineralization and consequently reduction in bone quality and strength. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Aqueous extracts of Cimicifuga racemosa and phenolcarboxylic constituents inhibit production of proinflammatory cytokines in LPS-stimulated human whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Diethart; Woehs, Florian; Svoboda, Martin; Thalhammer, Theresia; Chiba, Peter; Moeslinger, Thomas

    2009-11-01

    Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh) is commonly used in traditional medicines as treatment for menopausal symptoms and as an antiinflammatory remedy. To clarify the mechanism of action and active principle for the antiinflammatory action, the effects of aqueous C. racemosa root extracts (CRE) and its major constituents on the release of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, and the chemokine IL-8 were investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated whole blood of healthy volunteers. CRE (3 microg/microL and 6 microg/microL) reduced LPS-induced release of IL-6 and TNF-alpha in a concentration- and time-dependent manner and almost completely blocked release of IFN-gamma into the plasma supernatant. Except for IFN-gamma, these effects were attenuated at longer incubation periods. IL-8 secretion was stimulated by CRE. As shown by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, effects on cytokines were based on preceding changes in mRNA levels except for IL-8. According to their content in CRE, the phenolcarboxylic compounds caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and isoferulic acid, as well as the triterpene glycosides 23-epi-26-deoxyactein and cimigenol-3-O-xyloside, were tested at representative concentrations. Among these, isoferulic acid was the prominent active principle in CRE, responsible for the observed inhibition of IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma, but not for IL-8 stimulation. The effect of this compound may explain the antiinflammatory activities of CRE and its beneficial actions in rheumatism and other inflammatory diseases.

  11. Melaleuca quinquenervia essential oil inhibits α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone-induced melanin production and oxidative stress in B16 melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Wen-Wan; Su, Chia-Chi; Peng, Hsin-Yi; Chou, Su-Tze

    2017-10-15

    Essential oils are odorous, volatile products of plant secondary metabolism, which are found in many leaves and stems. They show important biological activities, which account for the development of aromatherapy used in complementary and alternative medicine. The essential oil extracted from Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S.T. Blake (paperbark) (MQ-EO) has various functional properties. The aim of this study is to investigate the chemical composition of MQ-EO by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and evaluate its tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolomics was used to identify 18 components in MQ-EO. The main components identified were 1,8-cineole (21.60%), α-pinene (15.93%), viridiflorol (14.55%), and α-terpineol (13.73%). B16 melanoma cells were treated with α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) in the presence of various concentrations of MQ-EO or its major compounds. Cell viability was accessed by MTT assay and cellular tyrosinase activity and melanin content were determined by using spectrophotographic methods. The antioxidant mechanism of MQ-EO in α-MSH stimulated B16 cells was also investigated. In α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-stimulated murine B16 melanoma cells, MQ-EO, 1,8-cineole, α-pinene, and α-terpineol significantly reduced melanin content and tyrosinase activity. Moreover, MQ-EO, 1,8-cineole, α-pinene, and α-terpineol decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. In addition, restored glutathione (GSH) levels, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase activities were increased in α-MSH-stimulated B16 cells. MQ-EO not only decreased apoptosis but also reduced DNA damage in α-MSH stimulated B16 cells. These results showed that MQ-EO and its main components, 1,8-cineole, α-pinene, and α-terpineol, possessed potent anti-tyrosinase and anti-melanogenic activities besides the antioxidant properties. The active functional components of MQ

  12. Neutralization of Bothrops asper venom by antibodies, natural products and synthetic drugs: contributions to understanding snakebite envenomings and their treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomonte, Bruno; León, Guillermo; Angulo, Yamileth; Rucavado, Alexandra; Núñez, Vitelbina

    2009-12-01

    Interest in studies on the neutralization of snake venoms and toxins by diverse types of inhibitors is two-fold. From an applied perspective, results enclose the potential to be translated into useful therapeutic products or procedures, to benefit patients suffering from envenomings. From a basic point of view, on the other hand, neutralizing agents may be used as powerful dissecting tools to determine the relative role of toxins within the context of the overall pathology induced by a venom, or to increase our understanding on the molecular mechanisms by which toxins exert their harmful actions upon particular targets. The venom of the snake Bothrops asper has been the subject of a number of experimental studies addressing its neutralization by antibodies, as well as by non-immunologic inhibitors, including natural products derived from plants or animals, or synthetic drugs. As summarized in the present review, neutralization studies on this venom and some of its isolated toxins have contributed to a better understanding of envenomings by this species, and their treatment. In addition, such studies have provided valuable knowledge on the mechanisms of action and the relative functional importance of particular toxins of this venom, especially in the case of its myotoxic phospholipases A(2) and hemorrhagic metalloproteinases.

  13. Towards a better understanding of flood generation and surface water inundation mechanisms using NASA remote sensing data products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucey, J.; Reager, J. T., II; Lopez, S. R.

    2017-12-01

    Floods annually cause several weather-related fatalities and financial losses. According to NOAA and FEMA, there were 43 deaths and 18 billion dollars paid out in flood insurance policies during 2005. The goal of this work is to improve flood prediction and flood risk assessment by creating a general model of predictability of extreme runoff generation using various NASA products. Using satellite-based flood inundation observations, we can relate surface water formation processes to changes in other hydrological variables, such as precipitation, storage and soil moisture, and understand how runoff generation response to these forcings is modulated by local topography and land cover. Since it is known that a flood event would cause an abnormal increase in surface water, we examine these underlying physical relationships in comparison with the Dartmouth Flood Observatory archive of historic flood events globally. Using ground water storage observations (GRACE), precipitation (TRMM or GPCP), land use (MODIS), elevation (SRTM) and surface inundation levels (SWAMPS), an assessment of geological and climate conditions can be performed for any location around the world. This project utilizes multiple linear regression analysis evaluating the relationship between surface water inundation, total water storage anomalies and precipitation values, grouped by average slope or land use, to determine their statistical relationships and influences on inundation data. This research demonstrates the potential benefits of using global data products for early flood prediction and will improve our understanding of runoff generation processes.

  14. Effect of tricyclic antidepressants on transmitter-stimulated inositol phosphate production in rat brain cortex in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, S.; Enna, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) have anticholinergic and α-adrenergic blocking properties. The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of amitriptyline, imipramine, and desipramine on inositol phosphate accumulation, a brain second messenger system associated with cholinergic and adrenergic receptors. Whereas the TCAs were 28 to 400-fold weaker than atropine as inhibitors of 3 H-QNB binding to brain cholinergic receptors, they were 600 to 2000-fold less active than atropine as inhibitors of carbachol-stimulated IP accumulation in brain. In contrast, the relative potencies of the TCAs and prazosin to inhibit norepinephrine-stimulated IP accumulation and 3 H-prazosin binding appeared to be similar in the two assays. The results suggest pharmacological differences between the cholinergic receptors labeled in the ONB binding assay and those mediating the IP response, whereas the α 1 -adrenergic receptors appear to be similar in the two systems. Since atropine is considered a nonselective muscarinic antagonist, it is possible that the TCAs may differentiate between cholinergic receptor subtypes, which may be an important component of their clinical response

  15. SU-A-BRA-03: Creative Stimulation: A Flexible Hands-On Approach to Building a Deeper Understanding of Critical Concepts in Radiation Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, S.

    2016-01-01

    Vic Montemayor - No one has been more passionate about improving the quality and effectiveness of the teaching of Medical Physics than Bill Hendee. It was in August of 2008 that the first AAPM Workshop on Becoming a Better Teacher of Medical Physics was held, organized and run by Bill Hendee. This was followed up in July of 2010 with a summer school on the same topic, again organized by Bill. There has been continued interest in alternate approaches to teaching medical physics since those initial gatherings. The momentum established by these workshops is made clear each year in the annual Innovation in Medical Physics Education session, which highlights work being done in all forms of medical physics education, from one-on-one residencies or classroom presentations to large-scale program revisions and on-line resources for international audiences. This symposium, presented on behalf of the Education Council, highlights the work of three finalists from past Innovation in Education sessions. Each will be presenting their approaches to and innovations in teaching medical physics. It is hoped that audience members interested in trying something new in their teaching of medical physics will find some of these ideas and approaches readily applicable to their own classrooms. Rebecca Howell - The presentation will discuss ways to maximize classroom learning, i.e., increasing the amount of material covered while also enhancing students’ understanding of the broader implications of the course topics. Specifically, the presentation will focus on two teaching methodologies, project based learning and flip learning. These teaching methods will be illustrated using an example of graduate medical physics course where both are used in conjunction with traditional lectures. Additionally, the presentation will focus on our experience implementing these methods including challenges that were overcome. Jay Burmeister - My presentation will discuss the incorporation of active

  16. SU-A-BRA-03: Creative Stimulation: A Flexible Hands-On Approach to Building a Deeper Understanding of Critical Concepts in Radiation Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, S. [Saint Agnes Cancer Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Vic Montemayor - No one has been more passionate about improving the quality and effectiveness of the teaching of Medical Physics than Bill Hendee. It was in August of 2008 that the first AAPM Workshop on Becoming a Better Teacher of Medical Physics was held, organized and run by Bill Hendee. This was followed up in July of 2010 with a summer school on the same topic, again organized by Bill. There has been continued interest in alternate approaches to teaching medical physics since those initial gatherings. The momentum established by these workshops is made clear each year in the annual Innovation in Medical Physics Education session, which highlights work being done in all forms of medical physics education, from one-on-one residencies or classroom presentations to large-scale program revisions and on-line resources for international audiences. This symposium, presented on behalf of the Education Council, highlights the work of three finalists from past Innovation in Education sessions. Each will be presenting their approaches to and innovations in teaching medical physics. It is hoped that audience members interested in trying something new in their teaching of medical physics will find some of these ideas and approaches readily applicable to their own classrooms. Rebecca Howell - The presentation will discuss ways to maximize classroom learning, i.e., increasing the amount of material covered while also enhancing students’ understanding of the broader implications of the course topics. Specifically, the presentation will focus on two teaching methodologies, project based learning and flip learning. These teaching methods will be illustrated using an example of graduate medical physics course where both are used in conjunction with traditional lectures. Additionally, the presentation will focus on our experience implementing these methods including challenges that were overcome. Jay Burmeister - My presentation will discuss the incorporation of active

  17. The effect of UV-C stimulation of potato tubers and soaking of potato strips in water on density differences of intermediates for French-fry production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobol Zygmunt

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the effect of UV-C stimulation of potato tubers and immersing of potato strips in water on differences in density of intermediate products for French-fry production. The density difference used for description of the experiment was defined as a relationship between the post-treatment density and pre-treatment density. The study was conducted on tubers of the Innovator variety. The studies of density changes induced by absorption of water involved measurements of the mass of potato strips in air and in water. Potato strips measured 10 × 10 mm and 60 mm in length. The strips were cut lengthwise along the longest tuber axis set between the proximal and distal tuber end. Water absorption was investigated by immersing strips in water (1 at a temperature of 20°C for 15 min and (2 at 40°C for 20 min. In addition, the study included the group (3 where strips were blanched at a temperature of 90°C for 2 min and a control group (0 which was not immersed in water. Potato tubers were irradiated by UV-C in the following ways: (1 irradiation on one side for 30 min, (2 irradiation on both sides for 15 min each, (0 control group (no irradiation. The studies were conducted at two dates: (0 after harvest and (1 after 3-month storage. Laboratory and storage experiments were conducted in 2016-2017. The density difference was statistically significantly influenced by storage time, UV-C stimulation and immersion conditions of potato strips. The density difference increased with the increase in storage duration of tubers, immersion duration of strips, water temperature (up to starch gelification temperature and UV-C stimulation.

  18. Design thinking in positive psychology : The development of a product-service combination that stimulates happiness-enhancing activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruitenberg, H.P.; Desmet, P.M.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an exploration of how knowledge drawn from the positive psychology domain can be used to design products and services that contribute to the happiness of the users. Two distinctions are proposed to structure initiatives in well-being driven design: activity- versus product-focus,

  19. Fibroblast growth factor-2 is expressed by the bovine uterus and stimulates interferon-tau production in bovine trophectoderm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Donna D; Alvarez, Idania M; Ocón, Olga M; Powell, Anne M; Talbot, Neil C; Johnson, Sally E; Ealy, Alan D

    2006-07-01

    Uterine-derived factors are essential for conceptus development and secretion of the maternal recognition-of-pregnancy factor, interferon-tau (IFNT), in ruminant species. The objectives of this study were to determine whether fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) is expressed in the bovine uterus during early pregnancy in cattle and to determine whether FGF-2 supplementation affects IFNT mRNA and protein abundance in bovine trophectoderm. FGF-2 mRNA was present in endometrium throughout the estrous cycle and was localized to the luminal and glandular endometrial epithelium at d 17-18 after estrus in pregnant and nonpregnant cows. Immunoreactive FGF-2 protein was detected within the endometrium and in the uterine lumen at d 17-18 after estrus, and concentrations did not differ based on pregnancy status. In a bovine trophectoderm cell line, CT-1, supplementation of medium with at least 1 ng/ml FGF-2 increased the incorporation of [(3)H]thymidine into DNA. Similarly, IFNT secretion from CT-1 cells increased after FGF-2 supplementation (1-100 ng/ml) for 72 h. Abundance of IFNT mRNA in CT-1 cells increased after 24 h exposure to 1, 10, or 100 ng/ml FGF-2. In bovine blastocysts, FGF-2 supplementation did not affect cell number after 72 h of culture but did stimulate IFNT protein concentrations in conditioned medium. In summary, FGF-2 is present in the uterine lumen during early pregnancy and increases IFNT mRNA and protein abundance in trophectoderm. The magnitude by which FGF-2 stimulates IFNT expression suggests that this uterine-derived factor plays an active role in regulating the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in ruminants.

  20. Gonadotropin treatment restores in vitro interleukin-1β and tumour necrosis factor-α production by stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism

    Science.gov (United States)

    MUSABAK, U; BOLU, E; OZATA, M; OKTENLI, C; SENGUL, A; INAL, A; YESILOVA, Z; KILCILER, G; OZDEMIR, I C; KOCAR, I H

    2003-01-01

    In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of testosterone deficiency and gonadotropin therapy on the in vitro production of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) in order to elucidate the modulatory role of androgen in cytokine production. Fifteen male patients with untreated IHH and 15 age-matched healthy male subjects were enrolled in the study. Serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), free testosterone (FT), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), prolactin, and IL-2 and IL-4 levels were also measured. In unstimulated cultures, IL-1β and TNF-α secretion were not significantly different between patient and control groups. However, after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), secretion of IL-1β and TNF-α was significantly higher in cultures from untreated patients with IHH than in control subjects. Mean FSH, LH and FT levels were significantly lower, whereas SHBG, IL-2 and IL-4 levels were significantly higher in patients with IHH compared than in controls. In patients with IHH, FT negatively affected the serum levels of IL-4 and in vitro secretion of IL-1β and TNF-α. In addition, IL-2 and IL-4 affected the in vitro secretion of IL-1β in a positive manner. Gonadotropin therapy decreased both TNF-α and IL-1β in PBMCs from patients with IHH. The levels of serum IL-2 and IL-4 were also decreased by therapy. In conclusion, in the present study, gonadotropin treatment restored the in vitro production of IL-1β and TNF-α by PBMCs from patients with IHH, suggesting that androgen modulates proinflammatory cytokine production, at least directly through its effects on PBMCs. It seems probable that this effect plays an important role in the immunosuppressive action of androgens. PMID:12699415

  1. Inhibition of nitric oxide production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells by stem bark of Ulmus pumila L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Taewoo; Sowndhararajan, Kandhasamy; Hong, Sunghyun; Lee, Jaehak; Park, Sun-Young; Kim, Songmun; Jhoo, Jin-Woo

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to isolate and identify a potent inhibitory compound against nitric oxide (NO) production from the stem bark of Ulmus pumila L. Ethyl acetate fraction of hot water extract registered a higher level of total phenolics (756.93 mg GAE/g) and also showed strong DPPH (IC50 at 5.6 μg/mL) and ABTS (TEAC value 0.9703) radical scavenging activities than other fractions. Crude extract and its fractions significantly decreased nitrite accumulation in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells indicating that they potentially inhibited the NO production in a concentration dependent manner. Based on higher inhibitory activity, the ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and yielded seven fractions and all these fractions registered appreciable levels of inhibitory activity on NO production. The most effective fraction F1 was further purified and subjected to 1H, 13C-NMR and mass spectrometry analysis and the compound was identified as icariside E4. The results suggest that the U. pumila extract and the isolated compound icariside E4 effectively inhibited the NO production and may be useful in preventing inflammatory diseases mediated by excessive production of NO. PMID:25313277

  2. A descriptive pilot study of cytokine production following stimulation of ex-vivo whole blood with commercial therapeutic feline hydrolyzed diets in individual healthy immunotolerant cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathrani, Aarti; Larsen, Jennifer A; Cortopassi, Gino; Datta, Sandipan; Fascetti, Andrea J

    2017-10-06

    Hydrolyzed diets are used in companion animals for the diagnosis and treatment of adverse food reaction. Similarly, hydrolyzed formulas are used in human infants with severe inflammatory bowel disease or milk allergy, and these must meet the standard of hypoallergenicity through rigorous testing. Unfortunately, no standards are currently applied to hydrolyzed veterinary therapeutic diets, and data for the immunogenicity of feline diets is also not available. Therefore, the main aim of this pilot study was to determine if ex-vivo whole blood stimulation assays could be used to characterize the cytokine response to hydrolyzed commercial diets in a small number of individual healthy immunotolerant cats. This approach has also been used to investigate cytokine production in response to cow milk protein in humans and currently similar studies do not exist in companion animals. Nine healthy cats previously eating the same basal diet were divided into groups and fed one of three hydrolyzed diets exclusively for 6 weeks. Heparinized whole blood was collected from each cat before and after the feeding trial. Ex-vivo whole blood stimulation assays were performed using crude extracts of the basal diet as a positive control, as this diet contained the same proteins present in the hydrolyzed diet but were intact, saline as a negative control, and each cat's respective hydrolyzed diet. Supernatants were collected and analyzed for tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-10 (IL-10), and interleukin-4 using enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. Seven cats produced detectable amounts of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 upon stimulation with the basal diet. Two cats produced detectable amounts of IL-10 upon stimulation with a hydrolyzed soy-based diet and one cat produced a detectable amount of IL-10 upon stimulation with a hydrolyzed chicken-based diet (>125 pg/mL). Results from this pilot study suggest that in some healthy immunotolerant cats, some hydrolyzed diets may elicit a

  3. T cell Ig domain and mucin domain 1 engagement on invariant NKT cells in the presence of TCR stimulation enhances IL-4 production but inhibits IFN-gamma production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Sung; Kim, Hyun Soo; Lee, Chang Woo; Chung, Doo Hyun

    2010-04-15

    The T cell Ig domain and mucin domain (TIM)1 protein expressed on the surface of Th2 cells regulates the immune response by modulating cytokine production. However, the functional roles of TIM1 have not been examined in NKT cells. Therefore, we investigated the immunologic effects of TIM1 on NKT cells. We found that mouse NK1.1(+)TCR-beta(+), alpha-galactosyl ceramide/CD1d dimer(+) NKT, and NKT hybridoma (DN32.D3) cells constitutively express TIM1 and TIM4 on their surface. Engagement of TIM1 on NKT cells by any of several anti-TIM1 mAbs suppressed the production of IFN-gamma in the presence of TCR stimulation in vitro and in vivo, whereas the effects of such engagement on Th2 cytokine production by the NKT cells varied with the particular anti-TIM1 Ab clone. Moreover, in DN32.D3 TIM4-knockdown NKT hybridoma cells, TIM1 engagement by rTIM1 or TIM4 enhanced IL-4 production while inhibiting IFN-gamma production in the presence of alpha-galactosyl ceramide stimulation. TIM1 engagement increased GATA-3 expression but reduced T-bet expression in NKT cells in the presence of TCR engagement. The adoptive transfer of NKT cells preincubated with anti-TIM1 mAbs into Jalpha18(-/-) mice aggravated bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis by suppressing IFN-gamma production. Taken together, these results suggest that TIM1 costimulation on NKT cells enhances the cellular production of IL-4 while inhibiting the production of IFN-gamma. Thus, as a differential regulator of the immune response, TIM1 on NKT cells may be a useful therapeutic target for immune diseases.

  4. Intravenous infusion of erythromycin inhibits CXC chemokine production, but augments neutrophil degranulation in whole blood stimulated with Streptococcus pneumoniae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultz, M. J.; Speelman, P.; Hack, C. E.; Buurman, W. A.; van Deventer, S. J.; van der Poll, T.

    2000-01-01

    Macrolides may influence the inflammatory response to an infection by mechanisms that are unrelated to their antimicrobial effect. Indeed, erythromycin and other macrolides inhibit cytokine production and induce degranulation of neutrophils in vitro. CXC chemokines are small chemotactic cytokines

  5. Unlocking the Barite Paleoproductivity Proxy: Using a New Barite Extraction Method to Understand Productivity Trends During the Eocene Greenhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, B. M.; Norris, R. D.

    2017-12-01

    periods of extreme warmth, and understanding the interplay between temperature, atmospheric CO2 levels, and export productivity during the EECO will help clarify how the marine biologic system functions as a whole.

  6. The Electrical Stimulation Modifies the Cerebral Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Luisa Lilia; López-Meraz, María Leonor; Cuéllar-Herrera, Manola; Neri-Bazán., Leticia

    2002-08-01

    Electrical stimulation has been used for therapeuthic purposes. In this review, we present the clinical and scientific bases for using electrical stimulation as a treatment for pharmacological refractory epilepsy. We also describe results in receptors of inhibitory neurotransmitters obtained in rat brain with or without epilepsy, undergoing brain stimulation. Brain electrical stimulation may improve our understanding of brain function and neuroplasticity.

  7. Comparative genomic analysis of Clostridium acetobutylicum for understanding the mutations contributing to enhanced butanol tolerance and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mengmeng; Zhao, Jingbo; Yu, Le; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2017-12-10

    Clostridium acetobutylicum JB200 is a hyper butanol tolerant and producing strain obtained from asporogenic C. acetobutylicum ATCC 55025 through mutagenesis and adaptation in a fibrous bed bioreactor. The complete genomes of both strains were sequenced by the Illumina Hiseq2000 technology and assembled using SOAPdenovo approach. Compared to the genomic sequence of the type strain ATCC 824, 143 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 17 insertion/deletion variations (InDels) were identified in the genome of ATCC 55025. Twenty-nine mutations were in genes involved in sporulation, solventogenesis and stress response. Compared to ATCC 55025, there were seven additional point mutations in the chromosome of JB200. Among them, a single-base deletion in cac3319 encoding an orphan histidine kinase caused protein C-terminal truncation. Disruption of this gene in ATCC 55025 and ATCC 824 resulted in significantly elevated butanol tolerance and production. This study provides genome-level information for the better understanding of solventogenic C. acetobutylicum in several key aspects of cell physiology and metabolism, which could help further metabolic engineering of Clostridium for butanol production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. ATP production and TCA activity are stimulated by propionyl-L-carnitine in the diabetic rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Tom L

    2008-01-01

    The beneficial effect of propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC) on cardiac function in diabetes mellitus is well documented. This study was designed to determine whether the improvement in cardiac function mediated by PLC in the diabetic rat heart is associated with an increase in ATP production and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle activity. Diabetes was induced by an intravenous injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). Following diagnosis of diabetes, treatment was initiated by supplementing the drinking water with PLC at a concentration of 1 g/L for a period of 6 weeks. ATP production and TCA cycle activity were determined from oxidative rates of glucose and palmitate measured in isolated working hearts from control and diabetic animals. The effect of diabetes was associated with a decrease in heart function, expressed as rate-pressure product (RPP), and in rates of myocardial glucose oxidation. Rates of palmitate oxidation in diabetic hearts were similar to those of control hearts. In PLC-treated diabetic hearts, rates of both glucose and palmitate oxidation were increased and a significant improvement in RPP was observed. As a result, overall ATP production and TCA cycle activity from glucose and palmitate oxidation were increased in diabetic hearts. Our results indicate that the depression in RPP in the diabetic rat heart can be prevented with chronic PLC treatment. Increases in glucose and palmitate utilization with resultant increases in ATP production and TCA cycle activity may explain the benefit of PLC on diabetic rat heart function.

  9. Human invariant NKT cell subsets differentially promote differentiation, antibody production, and T cell stimulation by B cells in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    O'REILLY, VINCENT

    2013-01-01

    PUBLISHED Invariant NK T (iNKT) cells can provide help for B cell activation and Ab production. Because B cells are also capable of cytokine production, Ag presentation, and T cell activation, we hypothesized that iNKT cells will also influence these activities. Furthermore, subsets of iNKT cells based on CD4 and CD8 expression that have distinct functional activities may differentially affect B cell functions. We investigated the effects of coculturing expanded human CD4(+), CD8α(+), and ...

  10. Rate of Production of Inflammatory Cytokines TNF and IL- by Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Stimulated with Mycolactone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Mohajeri

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mycobacterium ulcerans is the etiological agent of Buruli ulcer (BU the third most common mycobacterial infection in humans after tuberculosis and leprosy. BU is now considered by the WHO to be an emerging infection of major concern. M. ulcerans produces mycolactone toxin, which is required for the organism’s virulence. Mycolactone destroys tissue and suppresses host immune responses. Methods: In this descriptive analytical study, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from three volunteers with no history of buruli ulcer were used. IL-6 and TNF produced by these cells at different preincubation times with LPS and mycolactone were measured by using ELISA kits. Results: This study showed hyper inhibition of IL-6 and TNF production by mycolactone. TNF levels in the control tubes (containing LPS in 4hours reached its maximum value and then decreased. While the production of IL-6 in the tube with fresh cells (zero time had the highest value, after 16hours, it reached its minimum. Conclusion: Since TNF and IL-6 are important immunity inflammatory cytokines, it can be well imagined that decrease of TNF production by this bacterium plays a role in weakening of inflammatory response. So Mycobacterium ulcerans destroys macrophages and at the same time prevents TNF production by important cells in innate immune mechanism.

  11. REDUCED NITRIC OXIDE PRODUCTION AND INOS MRNA EXPRESSION IN IFN-G STIMULATED CHICKEN MACROPHAGES TRANSFECTED WITH INOS SIRNAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utilizing RNA interference technology with siRNA in the HD-11 macrophage cell line, we determined how the inhibition or knock-down of the iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) gene affected IFN-y' induced macrophage production of nitric oxide (NO) and mRNA expression of genes involved in this biolo...

  12. The camp analogue, dbcAMP can stimulate rabbit reproductive functions: I. Effect on ovarian folliculogenesis, ovulation and embryo production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrenek P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to examine the influence of administration of N6,2’-dibutyryladenosine 3’5’-cyclic monophosphate (dbcAMP, a cAMP agonist, on ovarian folliculogenesis and atresia, as well as on reproductive efficiency in rabbits, whose ovarian cycle and ovulation was induced by gonadotropins. Ovarian cycle and ovulation of control rabbits were induced by 20 IU/kg PMSG followed by 35 IU/kg hCG administration. Experimental animals received PMSG and hCG together with dbcAMP (at 5, 25 or 50 μg/animal. After ovulation and insemination, the animals were sacrificed. Ovaries were weighted, histological sections of ovaries were prepared, and the presence of ovulated and not ovulated follicles and different stages of atresia was evaluated by light microscopy. The eggs were flushed from the oviducts after insemination and cultured up to blastocyst cell stage. Numbers of ovarian Corpora lutea, ovulated oocytes and oocyte-derived zygotes and embryos reaching hatched blastocyst stage were determined. Administration of dbcAMP (at doses 25 or 50 μg/animal, but not at 5 μg/animal was able to increase the proportion of follicles with cystic and luteinization-related atresia. Furthermore, dbcAMP (50 μg/animal, but not lower doses increased the ovarian mass, number of Corpora lutea, number of harvested oocytes, zygotes and embryos at blastocyst stage derived from these zygotes after culture. These data demonstrate that dbcAMP can stimulate rabbit ovarian follicle atresia, ovulation, oocyte, zygote and embryo yield and development. Furthermore, they confirm in the involvement of cyclic nucleotide-dependent intracellular mechanisms in the control of rabbit reproductive functions and potential practical usefulness of dbcAMP in improving animal reproduction and fertility.

  13. Effect of quercetin on the production of nitric oxide in murine macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide from Prevotella intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yun-Jung; Kim, Sung-Jo

    2013-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a short-lived bioactive molecule that is known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. In the current study, we investigated the effect of the flavonoid quercetin on the production of NO in murine macrophages activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Prevotella intermedia, a pathogen related to inflammatory periodontal disease, and tried to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of action. LPS was isolated from P. intermedia ATCC 25611 cells by the standard hot phenol-water method. The concentration of NO in cell culture supernatants was determined by measuring the accumulation of nitrite. Inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein expression, phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38, inhibitory κB (IκB)-α degradation, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) phosphorylation were analyzed via immunoblotting. Quercetin significantly attenuated iNOS-derived NO production in RAW246.7 cells activated by P. intermedia LPS. In addition, quercetin induced HO-1 protein expression in cells activated with P. intermedia LPS. Tin protoporphyrin IX (SnPP), a competitive inhibitor of HO-1, abolished the inhibitory effect of quercetin on LPS-induced NO production. Quercetin did not affect the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 induced by P. intermedia LPS. The degradation of IκB-α induced by P. intermedia LPS was inhibited when the cells were treated with quercetin. Quercetin also inhibited LPS-induced STAT1 signaling. Quercetin significantly inhibits iNOS-derived NO production in murine macrophages activated by P. intermedia LPS via anti-inflammatory HO-1 induction and inhibition of the nuclear factor-κB and STAT1 signaling pathways. Our study suggests that quercetin may contribute to the modulation of host-destructive responses mediated by NO and appears to have potential as a novel therapeutic agent for treating inflammatory periodontal disease.

  14. FcγRIIIa expression on monocytes in rheumatoid arthritis: role in immune-complex stimulated TNF production and non-response to methotrexate therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn L Cooper

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The expression of FcγRIIIa/CD16 may render monocytes targets for activation by IgG-containing immune complexes (IC. We investigated whether FcγRIIIa/CD16 was upregulated in rheumatoid arthritis (RA, associated with TNF production in response to IC-stimulation, and if this predicted response to methotrexate therapy. METHODS: FcγRIIIa/CD16 expression on CD14(low and CD14++ monocytes was measured by flow cytometry in healthy controls and RA patients (early and long-standing disease. Intracellular TNF-staining was carried out after in vitro LPS or heat-aggregated immunoglobulin (HAG activation. FcγRIIIa/CD16 expression pre- and post-steroid/methotrexate treatment was examined. RESULTS: Increased FcγRIIIa/CD16 expression on CD14++ monocytes in long-standing RA patients compared to controls was demonstrated (p = 0.002 with intermediate levels in early-RA patients. HAG-induced TNF-production in RA patients was correlated with the percentage of CD14++ monocytes expressing FcγRIIIa/CD16 (p<0.001. The percentage of CD14++ monocytes expressing FcγRIIIa/CD16 at baseline in early DMARD-naïve RA patients was negatively correlated with DAS28-ESR improvement 14-weeks post-methotrexate therapy (p = 0.003 and was significantly increased in EULAR non-responders compared to moderate (p = 0.01 or good responders (p = 0.003. FcγRIIIa/CD16 expression was not correlated with age, presence of systemic inflammation or autoantibody titers. CONCLUSION: Increased FcγRIIIa/CD16 expression on CD14++ monocytes in RA may result in a cell that has increased responsiveness to IC-stimulation. This monocyte subset may contribute to non-response to methotrexate therapy.

  15. Chitosan nanofiber scaffold improves bone healing via stimulating trabecular bone production due to upregulation of the Runx2/osteocalcin/alkaline phosphatase signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ming-Hua; Yao, Chih-Jung; Liao, Mei-Hsiu; Lin, Pei-I; Liu, Shing-Hwa; Chen, Ruei-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Osteoblasts play critical roles in bone formation. Our previous study showed that chitosan nanofibers can stimulate osteoblast proliferation and maturation. This translational study used an animal model of bone defects to evaluate the effects of chitosan nanofiber scaffolds on bone healing and the possible mechanisms. In this study, we produced uniform chitosan nanofibers with fiber diameters of approximately 200 nm. A bone defect was surgically created in the proximal femurs of male C57LB/6 mice, and then the left femur was implanted with chitosan nanofiber scaffolds for 21 days and compared with the right femur, which served as a control. Histological analyses revealed that implantation of chitosan nanofiber scaffolds did not lead to hepatotoxicity or nephrotoxicity. Instead, imaging analyses by X-ray transmission and microcomputed tomography showed that implantation of chitosan nanofiber scaffolds improved bone healing compared with the control group. In parallel, microcomputed tomography and bone histomorphometric assays further demonstrated augmentation of the production of new trabecular bone in the chitosan nanofiber-treated group. Furthermore, implantation of chitosan nanofiber scaffolds led to a significant increase in the trabecular bone thickness but a reduction in the trabecular parameter factor. As to the mechanisms, analysis by confocal microscopy showed that implantation of chitosan nanofiber scaffolds increased levels of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), a key transcription factor that regulates osteogenesis, in the bone defect sites. Successively, amounts of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin, two typical biomarkers that can simulate bone maturation, were augmented following implantation of chitosan nanofiber scaffolds. Taken together, this translational study showed a beneficial effect of chitosan nanofiber scaffolds on bone healing through stimulating trabecular bone production due to upregulation of Runx2-mediated alkaline

  16. Hippocampal Temporal-Parietal Junction Interaction in the Production of Psychotic Symptoms: A Framework for Understanding the Schizophrenic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Gayle Wible

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A framework is described for understanding the schizophrenic syndrome at the brain systems level. It is hypothesized that over-activation of dynamic gesture and social perceptual processes in the temporal-parietal occipital junction (TPJ, posterior superior temporal sulcus (PSTS and surrounding regions produce the syndrome (including positive and negative symptoms, their prevalence, prodromal signs and cognitive deficits. Hippocampal system hyper-activity and atrophy have been consistently found in schizophrenia. Hippocampal activity is highly related to activity in the TPJ and may be a source of over-excitation of the TPJ and surrounding regions. Strong evidence for this comes from in-vivo recordings in humans during psychotic episodes. The TPJ and PSTS play a key role in the perception (and production of dynamic social, emotional and attentional gestures for the self and others (e.g., body/face/eye gestures, audiovisual speech, prosody. The single cell representation of dynamic gestures is multimodal (auditory, visual, tactile, matching the predominant hallucinatory categories in schizophrenia. Inherent in the single cell perceptual signal of dynamic gesture representations is a computation of intention, agency, and anticipation or expectancy (for the self and others. The neurons are also tuned or biased to detect threat related emotions. Abnormal over-activation in this system could produce the conscious hallucination of a voice (audiovisual speech, person or a touch. Over-activation could interfere with attentional/emotional gesture perception and production (negative symptoms. It could produce the unconscious feeling of being watched, followed or of a social situation unfolding along with accompanying perception of intent and agency inherent in those representations (delusions. Cognitive disturbances in attention, predictive social processing, agency, working memory, and a bias toward the perception of threat would also be predicted.

  17. Hypothalamic and Striatal Insulin Action Suppresses Endogenous Glucose Production and May Stimulate Glucose Uptake During Hyperinsulinemia in Lean but Not in Overweight Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heni, Martin; Wagner, Robert; Kullmann, Stephanie; Gancheva, Sofiya; Roden, Michael; Peter, Andreas; Stefan, Norbert; Preissl, Hubert; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Fritsche, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    Intranasal spray application facilitates insulin delivery to the human brain. Although brain insulin modulates peripheral metabolism, the mechanisms involved remain elusive. Twenty-one men underwent two hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps with d-[6,6- 2 H 2 ]glucose infusion to measure endogenous glucose production and glucose disappearance. On two separate days, participants received intranasal insulin or placebo. Insulin spillover into circulation after intranasal insulin application was mimicked by an intravenous insulin bolus on placebo day. On a different day, brain insulin sensitivity was assessed by functional MRI. Glucose infusion rates (GIRs) had to be increased more after nasal insulin than after placebo to maintain euglycemia in lean but not in overweight people. The increase in GIRs was associated with regional brain insulin action in hypothalamus and striatum. Suppression of endogenous glucose production by circulating insulin was more pronounced after administration of nasal insulin than after placebo. Furthermore, glucose uptake into tissue tended to be higher after nasal insulin application. No such effects were detected in overweight participants. By increasing insulin-mediated suppression of endogenous glucose production and stimulating peripheral glucose uptake, brain insulin may improve glucose metabolism during systemic hyperinsulinemia. Obese people appear to lack these mechanisms. Therefore, brain insulin resistance in obesity may have unfavorable consequences for whole-body glucose homeostasis. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  18. MODELING OF FLOW AND TRANSPORT INDUCED BY PRODUCTION OF HYDROFRACTURE-STIMULATED GAS WELLS NEAR THE RULISON NUCLEAR TEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodges, Rex A. [Navarro Research and Engineering; Cooper, Clay [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Reno, NV (United States); Falta, Ronald [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    2012-09-17

    The Piceance Basin in western Colorado contains significant reserves of natural gas in poorly connected, low-permeability (tight) sandstone lenses of the Mesaverde Group. The ability to enhance the production of natural gas in this area has long been a goal of the oil and gas industry. The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, a predecessor agency to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, participated in three tests using nuclear detonations to fracture tight formations in an effort to enhance gas production. The tests were conducted under Project Plowshare, a program designed to identify peaceful, beneficial uses for nuclear devices. The first, Project Gasbuggy, was conducted in 1967 in the San Juan Basin of New Mexico. The two subsequent tests, Project Rulison in 1969 and Project Rio Blanco in 1973, were in the Piceance Basin. The ability to enhance natural gas production from tight sands has become practical through advances in hydraulic fracturing technology (hydrofracturing). This technology has led to an increase in drilling activity near the Rulison site, raising concerns that contamination currently contained in the subsurface could be released through a gas well drilled too close to the site. As wells are drilled nearer the site, the DOE Office of Legacy Management has taken the approach outlined in the June 2010 Rulison Path Forward document (DOE 2010), which recommends a conservative, staged approach to gas development. Drillers are encouraged to drill wells in areas with a low likelihood of encountering contamination (both distance and direction from the detonation zone are factors) and to collect data from these wells prior to drilling nearer the site’s 40 acre institutional control boundary (Lot 11). Previous modeling results indicate that contamination has been contained within Lot 11 (Figure 1). The Path Forward document couples the model predictions with the monitoring of gas and produced water from the gas wells

  19. Production of extracellular bifidogenic growth stimulator (BGS) from Propionibacterium shermanii using a bioreactor system with a microfiltration module and an on-line controller for lactic acid concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouya, Tomoaki; Tobita, Kazuhiro; Horiuchi, Masahito; Nakayama, Eri; Deguchi, Hiroyoshi; Tanaka, Takaaki; Taniguchi, Masayuki

    2008-03-01

    Production of a bifidogenic growth stimulator (BGS) by Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii (Propionibacterium shermanii) using lactic acid as a carbon source was investigated using different cultivation methods. When a continuous bioreactor system with a filtration device was used at a dilution rate of 0.075 h(-1), the average BGS concentration was 2.4 mg/l, which corresponds to a BGS productivity per cultivation time of 1.8 x 10(-1) mg x l(-1) x h(-1). The BGS productivity per cultivation time in continuous cultivation with filtration was 1.9-fold that (9.4 x 10(-2) mg x l(-1).h(-1)) in a conventional batch cultivation. In fed-batch cultivation with feed-back control using an on-line lactic acid controller with a lactic acid biosensor, it was possible to prevent substrate inhibition by maintaining the lactic acid concentration in culture broth low at 3.3 g/l, and an enhanced BGS production (31 mg/l) was successfully attained. The BGS productivity per cultivation time (2.1x10(-1) mg x l(-1) x h(-1)) in the fed-batch cultivation with feed-back control was 2.2-fold that in the conventional batch cultivation. A new bioreactor system was developed by coupling a continuous bioreactor system with a filtration device to an on-line lactic acid controller. Using the new bioreactor system, we produced BGS continuously at a high level of 47 mg/l. The BGS productivities per cultivation time (3.5 mg.l(-1) x h(-1)) and the total volume of medium used (1.7 x 10(-1) mg x l(-1) x h(-1)) obtained in the new bioreactor system were 37-fold and 2.1-fold those in the conventional batch cultivation, respectively. These results described above clearly demonstrate the positive effects of both the continuous filtration for removal of metabolites (propionic and acetic acids) inhibitory to cell growth and feed-back control of lactic acid concentration in the culture broth on BGS production by P. shermanii. This paper is the first report on BGS production by the propionic acid

  20. Does regulation stimulate productivity? The effect of air quality policies on the efficiency of US power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleishman, Rachel; Alexander, Rob; Bretschneider, Stuart; Popp, David

    2009-01-01

    This research examines the effect of air quality regulations on the productivity of US power plants based on both economic and environmental outputs. Using data envelopment analysis (DEA) to estimate an efficiency measure incorporating both economic and environmental outcomes, we look at changes in efficiency in US power plants over an eleven-year time period (1994-2004) during which several different regulations were implemented for the control of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ). The paper then models how estimated efficiency behaves over time as a function of regulatory changes. Findings suggest mixed effects of regulations on power plant efficiency when pollution abatement and electricity generation are both included as outputs.

  1. Cytokine and immunoglobulin production by PWM-stimulated peripheral and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes of undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouzouita Kamel

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Undifferentiated Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC patients show a characteristic pattern of antibody responses to the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV which is regularly associated with this tumor. However, no EBV-specific cytotoxic activity is detectable by the standard chromium-release assay at both peripheral and intratumoral levels. The mechanisms underlying this discrepancy between the humoral and cellular immune responses in NPC are still unknown, but might be related to an imbalance in immunoregulatory interleukin production. In this report, we investigated the ability of peripheral (PBL and tumor- infiltrating (TIL lymphocytes of undifferentiated NPC patients to produce in vitro three interleukins (IL-2, IL-6, IL-10 and three immunoglobulin isotypes (IgM, IgG, IgA. Methods Lymphocytes from 17 patients and 17 controls were cultured in the presence of Pokeweed mitogen (PWM for 12 days and their culture supernatants were tested for interleukins and immunoglobulins by specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA. Data were analysed using Student's t-test and probability values below 5% were considered significant. Results The data obtained indicated that TIL of NPC patients produced significantly more IL-2 (p = 0,0002, IL-10 (p = 0,020, IgM (p= 0,0003 and IgG (p Conclusion Taken together, our data reinforce the possibility of an imbalance in immunoregulatory interleukin production in NPC patients. An increased ability to produce cytokines such as IL-10 may underlie the discrepancy between humoral and cellular immune responses characteristic of NPC.

  2. The effect of lipid peroxidation products on reactive oxygen species formation and nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ambrožová, Gabriela; Pekarová, Michaela; Lojek, Antonín

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2011), s. 145-152 ISSN 0887-2333 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC08058; GA ČR(CZ) GA524/08/1753 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : lipid peroxidation products * reactive oxygen species * nitric oxide Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.775, year: 2011

  3. Activated factor X signaling via protease-activated receptor 2 suppresses pro-inflammatory cytokine production from LPS-stimulated myeloid cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gleeson, Eimear M

    2013-07-19

    Vitamin K-dependent proteases generated in response to vascular injury and infection enable fibrin clot formation, but also trigger distinct immuno-regulatory signaling pathways on myeloid cells. Factor Xa, a protease crucial for blood coagulation, also induces protease-activated receptor-dependent cell signaling. Factor Xa can bind both monocytes and macrophages, but whether factor Xa-dependent signaling stimulates or suppresses myeloid cell cytokine production in response to Toll-like receptor activation is not known. In this study, exposure to factor Xa significantly impaired pro-inflammatory cytokine production from lipopolysaccharide-treated peripheral blood mononuclear cells, THP-1 monocytic cells and murine macrophages. Furthermore, factor Xa inhibited nuclear factor-kappa B activation in THP-1 reporter cells, requiring phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase activity for its anti-inflammatory effect. Active-site blockade, γ-carboxyglutamic acid domain truncation and a peptide mimic of the factor Xa inter-epidermal growth factor-like region prevented factor Xa inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced tumour necrosis factor-α release. In addition, factor Xa anti-inflammatory activity was markedly attenuated by the presence of an antagonist of protease-activated receptor 2, but not protease-activated receptor 1. The key role of protease-activated receptor 2 in eliciting factor Xa-dependent anti-inflammatory signaling on macrophages was further underscored by the inability of factor Xa to mediate inhibition of tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 release from murine bone marrow-derived protease-activated receptor 2-deficient macrophages. We also show for the first time that, in addition to protease-activated receptor 2, factor Xa requires a receptor-associated protein-sensitive low-density lipoprotein receptor to inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine production. Collectively, this study supports a novel function for factor Xa as an endogenous, receptor

  4. Production of a potential liquid plant bio-stimulant by immobilized Piriformospora indica in repeated-batch fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilev, Nikolay; Eichler-Löbermann, Bettina; Flor-Peregrin, Elena; Martos, Vanessa; Reyes, Antonia; Vassileva, Maria

    2017-12-01

    Piriformospora indica, a mycorrhizal-like fungus able to establish associations with roots of a wide range of plants, supporting plant nutrition and increasing plant resistance and tolerance to stress, was shown to solubilise phosphate applied in the form of animal bone char (HABO) in fermentation systems. The process of P solubilisation was caused most likely by proton extrusion and medium pH lowering. The fungal mycelium was successfully immobilized/retained in a polyurethane foam carrier. Further employment of the immobilized mycelium in repeated-batch fermentation process resulted in at least 5 cycles of P solubilization. The concentration of soluble P increased during the experiment with 1.0 and 3.0 g HABO l -1 and at the end of the 5th batch cycle reached 40.8 and 120 mg l -1 , respectively. The resulting final liquid product, without or with solubilized phosphate, was found to significantly increase plant growth and P plant uptake. It can be used as a biostimulant containing microbial plant growth-promoting substances and soluble P derived from renewable sources (HABO) thus supporting the development of sustainable agro-ecosystems.

  5. Aspergillus fumigatus stimulates the NLRP3 inflammasome through a pathway requiring ROS production and the Syk tyrosine kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najwane Saïd-Sadier

    Full Text Available Invasive aspergillosis (IA is a life-threatening disease that occurs in immunodepressed patients when infected with Aspergillus fumigatus. This fungus is the second most-common causative agent of fungal disease after Candida albicans. Nevertheless, much remains to be learned about the mechanisms by which A. fulmigatus activates the innate immune system. We investigated the inflammatory response to conidia and hyphae of A. fumigatus and specifically, their capacity to trigger activation of an inflammasome. Our results show that in contrast to conidia, hyphal fragments induce NLRP3 inflammasome assembly, caspase-1 activation and IL-1beta release from a human monocyte cell line. The ability of Aspergillus hyphae to activate the NLRP3 inflammasome in the monocytes requires K(+ efflux and ROS production. In addition, our data show that NLRP3 inflammasome activation as well as pro-IL-1beta expression relies on the Syk tyrosine kinase, which is downstream from the pathogen recognition receptor Dectin-1, reinforcing the importance of Dectin-1 in the innate immune response against fungal infection. Furthermore, we show that treatment of monocytes with corticosteroids inhibits transcription of the gene encoding IL-1beta. Thus, our data demonstrate that the innate immune response against A. fumigatus infection involves a two step activation process, with a first signal promoting expression and synthesis of pro-IL-1beta; and a second signal, involving Syk-induced activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and caspase-1, allowing processing and secretion of the mature cytokine.

  6. Effect of HI-6 on cytokines production after immunity stimulation by keyhole limpet hemocyanin in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohanka, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    HI-6 or asoxime in some sources is an antidotum for nerve agents. In recent experiments, implication of HI-6 in immunity response was proved; however, the issue was not studied in details. In this experiment, role of cytokines in HI-6 impact on immunity was searched. DESIG N: BALB/c mice were exposed to saline, HI-6 in a dose 1-100 mg/kg and/or 1 keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) 1 mg/kg. Mice were sacrificed 21 days after experiment beginning and interleukins (IL) 1, 2, 4, 6 were determined by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The animals had no pathological manifestation. From the tested cytokines, no significant alteration was found for the IL-1, IL-4 and IL-6. IL-2 was significantly increased in a dose response manner. The experimental data well correlates with the previous work where HI-6 caused increase of antibodies production. HI-6 is suitable to be used as an adjuvant whenever immunity should be pharmacologically altered.

  7. Yeast Extract Stimulates Ginsenoside Production in Hairy Root Cultures of American Ginseng Cultivated in Shake Flasks and Nutrient Sprinkle Bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochan, Ewa; Szymczyk, Piotr; Kuźma, Łukasz; Lipert, Anna; Szymańska, Grażyna

    2017-05-26

    One of the most effective strategies to enhance metabolite biosynthesis and accumulation in biotechnological systems is the use of elicitation processes. This study assesses the influence of different concentrations of yeast extract (YE) on ginsenoside biosynthesis in Panax quinquefolium (American ginseng) hairy roots cultivated in shake flasks and in a nutrient sprinkle bioreactor after 3 and 7 days of elicitation. The saponin content was determined using HPLC. The maximum yield (20 mg g -1 d.w.) of the sum of six examined ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re and Rg1) in hairy roots cultivated in shake flasks was achieved after application of YE at 50 mg L -1 concentration and 3 day exposure time. The ginsenoside level was 1.57 times higher than that attained in control medium. The same conditions of elicitation (3 day time of exposure and 50 mg L -1 of YE) also favourably influenced the biosynthesis of studied saponins in bioreactor cultures. The total ginsenoside content was 32.25 mg g -1 d.w. and was higher than that achieved in control medium and in shake flasks cultures. Obtained results indicated that yeast extract can be used to increase ginsenoside production in hairy root cultures of P. quinquefolium .

  8. The Effect of Artemisia fragrans Willd: Essential Oil on Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene Expression and Nitric Oxide Production in Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated Murine Macrophage Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farghadan, Maryam; Ghafoori, Hosein; Vakhshiteh, Faezeh; Shahzadeh Fazeli, Seyed Abolhassan; Farzaneh, Parvaneh; Kokhaei, Parviz

    2016-12-01

    The genus Artemisia is estimated to comprise over 800 species with anti-cancer, anti-fungal, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Artemisia fragrans (A. fragrans), a species that belongs to genus Artemisia, is rich in monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes derivatives. Due to anti-inflammatory properties of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, we aimed to investigate the effect of A. fragrans essential oil on mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene and nitric oxide (NO) production in Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -stimulated RAW264.7 cell line. NO, which is synthesized by iNOS, is the main macrophage-derived inflammatory mediator. The oil obtained from the A. fragrans was prepared from aerial parts of the plant. Chemical composition of essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS).The cytotoxicity of various concentrations of essential oil was evaluated by mitochondrial reduction of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) test assay. The effect of different doses (1.75-7 mg/mL) of A. fragrans oil on mRNA expression of iNOS gene and NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells was assessed by real-time PCR method and Griess reagent, respectively. In GC/MS analyses of A. fragrans oil, 32 compounds were identified. The main components of the oil were camphor and 1, 8-cineole. The results demonstrated that the essential oil of A. fragrans (1.75- 7 mg/mL), in a dose-dependent manner, inhibits mRNA expression of iNOS induced by LPS in the RAW264.7 cells without cytotoxic effect even at higher doses. The results of iNOS were consistent with the results of NO production. Our preliminary results suggest the possible anti-inflammatory effect of A. fragrans. Further studies are needed to determine the full pharmacokinetics of A. fragrans activity in vivo.

  9. PIVET rFSH dosing algorithms for individualized controlled ovarian stimulation enables optimized pregnancy productivity rates and avoidance of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yovich, John L; Alsbjerg, Birgit; Conceicao, Jason L; Hinchliffe, Peter M; Keane, Kevin N

    2016-01-01

    The first PIVET algorithm for individualized recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (rFSH) dosing in in vitro fertilization, reported in 2012, was based on age and antral follicle count grading with adjustments for anti-Müllerian hormone level, body mass index, day-2 FSH, and smoking history. In 2007, it was enabled by the introduction of a metered rFSH pen allowing small dosage increments of ~8.3 IU per click. In 2011, a second rFSH pen was introduced allowing more precise dosages of 12.5 IU per click, and both pens with their individual algorithms have been applied continuously at our clinic. The objective of this observational study was to validate the PIVET algorithms pertaining to the two rFSH pens with the aim of collecting ≤15 oocytes and minimizing the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. The data set included 2,822 in vitro fertilization stimulations over a 6-year period until April 2014 applying either of the two individualized dosing algorithms and corresponding pens. The main outcome measures were mean oocytes retrieved and resultant embryos designated for transfer or cryopreservation permitted calculation of oocyte and embryo utilization rates. Ensuing pregnancies were tracked until live births, and live birth productivity rates embracing fresh and frozen transfers were calculated. Overall, the results showed that mean oocyte numbers were 10.0 for all women algorithms in our clinic meant that the starting dose was not altered for 79.1% of patients and for 30.1% of those receiving the very lowest rFSH dosages (≤75 IU). Only 0.3% patients were diagnosed with severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, all deemed avoidable due to definable breaches from the protocols. The live birth productivity rates exceeded 50% for women algorithms led to only 11.6% of women generating >15 oocytes, significantly lower than recently published data applying conventional dosages (38.2%; Palgorithms to each other, the outcomes were mainly comparable for

  10. Effects of Melophlins on Colony Formation of Chinese Hamster V79 Cells and IL-8 Production in PMA-stimulated HL-60 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michio Namikoshi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We have recently isolated four new melophlins P (1, Q (2, R (3, and S (4 together with seven known melophlins A (5, D (6, E (7, G (8, H (9, I (10, and O (11 from two marine sponges of the genus Melophlus collected in Palau. In this study, the influence of these compounds on the colony formation of Chinese hamster V79 cells and the production of IL-8 in PMA-stimulated HL-60 cells were examined. These 11 compounds did not show any effect on IL-8 production. The EC50 values of compounds 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, and 11 against V79 cells were 44.0, 13.3, 16.7, 27.2, 19.8, 8.5, 23.1, and 9.6 μM, respectively. The linear-chain-type compounds (1, 6, and 8 were not active against V79 cells at 50 μM. Although the growth inhibitory activity of these melophlins was not remarkable, some structure-activity relationships of these compounds against V79 and murine leukemia L1210 cells were observed.

  11. Cytokines and Growth Factors Stimulate Hyaluronan Production: Role of Hyaluronan in Epithelial to Mesenchymal-Like Transition in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine Chow

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the role of hyaluronan (HA in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC since close association between HA level and malignancy has been reported. HA is an abundant extracellular matrix component and its synthesis is regulated by growth factors and cytokines that include epidermal growth factor (EGF and interleukin-1β (IL-1β. We showed that treatment with recombinant EGF and IL-1β, alone or in combination with TGF-β, was able to stimulate HA production in lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549. TGF-β/IL-1β treatment induced epithelial to mesenchymal-like phenotype transition (EMT, changing cell morphology and expression of vimentin and E-cadherin. We also overexpressed hyaluronan synthase-3 (HAS3 in epithelial lung adenocarcinoma cell line H358, resulting in induced HA expression, EMT phenotype, enhanced MMP9 and MMP2 activities and increased invasion. Furthermore, adding exogenous HA to A549 cells and inducing HA H358 cells resulted in increased resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR inhibitor, Iressa. Together, these results suggest that elevated HA production is able to induce EMT and increase resistance to Iressa in NSCLC. Therefore, regulation of HA level in NSCLC may be a new target for therapeutic intervention.

  12. Consumption of selenium-enriched broccoli increases cytokine production in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated ex vivo, a preliminary human intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley-Hewitt, Kerry L; Chen, Ronan K-Y; Lill, Ross E; Hedderley, Duncan I; Herath, Thanuja D; Matich, Adam J; McKenzie, Marian J

    2014-12-01

    Selenium (Se) is a micronutrient essential for human health, including immune function. Previous research indicates that Se supplementation may cause a shift from T helper (Th)1- to Th2-type immune responses. We aim to test the potential health promoting effects of Se-enriched broccoli. In a human trial, 18 participants consumed control broccoli daily for 3 days. After a 3-day wash-out period, the participants were provided with Se-enriched broccoli containing 200 μg of Se per serving for 3 days. Plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples were collected at the start and end of each broccoli feeding period for analysis of total Se and measurement of cytokine production from PBMC stimulated with antigens ex vivo. Plasma Se content remained consistent throughout the control broccoli feeding period and the baseline of the Se-enriched broccoli period (1.22 μmol/L) and then significantly increased following 3 days of Se-enriched broccoli feeding. Interleukin (IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and IL-22) production from PBMC significantly increased after 3 days of Se-enriched broccoli feeding compared with baseline. This study indicates that consumption of Se-enriched broccoli may increase immune responses toward a range of immune challenges. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Citrus Polyphenol Hesperidin Stimulates Production of Nitric Oxide in Endothelial Cells while Improving Endothelial Function and Reducing Inflammatory Markers in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizza, Stefano; Muniyappa, Ranganath; Iantorno, Micaela; Kim, Jeong-a; Chen, Hui; Pullikotil, Philomena; Senese, Nicoletta; Tesauro, Manfredi; Lauro, Davide; Cardillo, Carmine

    2011-01-01

    Context: Hesperidin, a citrus flavonoid, and its metabolite hesperetin may have vascular actions relevant to their health benefits. Molecular and physiological mechanisms of hesperetin actions are unknown. Objective: We tested whether hesperetin stimulates production of nitric oxide (NO) from vascular endothelium and evaluated endothelial function in subjects with metabolic syndrome on oral hesperidin therapy. Design, Setting, and Interventions: Cellular mechanisms of action of hesperetin were evaluated in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) in primary culture. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial examined whether oral hesperidin administration (500 mg once daily for 3 wk) improves endothelial function in individuals with metabolic syndrome (n = 24). Main Outcome Measure: We measured the difference in brachial artery flow-mediated dilation between placebo and hesperidin treatment periods. Results: Treatment of BAEC with hesperetin acutely stimulated phosphorylation of Src, Akt, AMP kinase, and endothelial NO synthase to produce NO; this required generation of H2O2. Increased adhesion of monocytes to BAEC and expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in response to TNF-α treatment was reduced by pretreatment with hesperetin. In the clinical study, when compared with placebo, hesperidin treatment increased flow-mediated dilation (10.26 ± 1.19 vs. 7.78 ± 0.76%; P = 0.02) and reduced concentrations of circulating inflammatory biomarkers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A protein, soluble E-selectin). Conclusions: Novel mechanisms for hesperetin action in endothelial cells inform effects of oral hesperidin treatment to improve endothelial dysfunction and reduce circulating markers of inflammation in our exploratory clinical trial. Hesperetin has vasculoprotective actions that may explain beneficial cardiovascular effects of citrus consumption. PMID:21346065

  14. S100A14 stimulates cell proliferation and induces cell apoptosis at different concentrations via receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing'e Jin

    Full Text Available S100A14 is an EF-hand containing calcium-binding protein of the S100 protein family that exerts its biological effects on different types of cells. However, exact extracellular roles of S100A14 have not been clarified yet. Here we investigated the effects of S100A14 on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC cell lines. Results demonstrated that low doses of extracellular S100A14 stimulate cell proliferation and promote survival in KYSE180 cells through activating ERK1/2 MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways. Immunoprecipitation assay showed that S100A14 binds to receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE in KYSE180 cells. Inhibition of RAGE signaling by different approaches including siRNA for RAGE, overexpression of a dominant-negative RAGE construct or a RAGE antagonist peptide (AmphP significantly blocked S100A14-induced effects, suggesting that S100A14 acts via RAGE ligation. Furthermore, mutation of the N-EF hand of S100A14 (E39A, E45A virtually reduced 10 µg/ml S100A14-induced cell proliferation and ERK1/2 activation. However, high dose (80 µg/ml of S100A14 causes apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway with activation of caspase-3, caspase-9, and poly(ADP-ribose polymerase. High dose S100A14 induces cell apoptosis is partially in a RAGE-dependent manner. This is the first study to demonstrate that S100A14 binds to RAGE and stimulates RAGE-dependent signaling cascades, promoting cell proliferation or triggering cell apoptosis at different doses.

  15. Pichia pastoris versus Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a case study on the recombinant production of human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Anh-Minh; Nguyen, Thanh-Thao; Nguyen, Cong-Thuan; Huynh-Thi, Xuan-Mai; Nguyen, Cao-Tri; Trinh, Minh-Thuong; Tran, Linh-Thuoc; Cartwright, Stephanie P; Bill, Roslyn M; Tran-Van, Hieu

    2017-04-04

    Recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF) is a glycoprotein that has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of neutropenia and leukemia in combination with chemotherapies. Recombinant hGM-CSF is produced industrially using the baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, by large-scale fermentation. The methylotrophic yeast, Pichia pastoris, has emerged as an alternative host cell system due to its shorter and less immunogenic glycosylation pattern together with higher cell density growth and higher secreted protein yield than S. cerevisiae. In this study, we compared the pipeline from gene to recombinant protein in these two yeasts. Codon optimization in silico for both yeast species showed no difference in frequent codon usage. However, rhGM-CSF expressed from S. cerevisiae BY4742 showed a significant discrepancy in molecular weight from those of P. pastoris X33. Analysis showed purified rhGM-CSF species with molecular weights ranging from 30 to more than 60 kDa. Fed-batch fermentation over 72 h showed that rhGM-CSF was more highly secreted from P. pastoris than S. cerevisiae (285 and 64 mg total secreted protein/L, respectively). Ion exchange chromatography gave higher purity and recovery than hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Purified rhGM-CSF from P. pastoris was 327 times more potent than rhGM-CSF from S. cerevisiae in terms of proliferative stimulating capacity on the hGM-CSF-dependent cell line, TF-1. Our data support a view that the methylotrophic yeast P. pastoris is an effective recombinant host for heterologous rhGM-CSF production.

  16. Effects of plant-based Korean food extracts on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated production of inflammatory mediators in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Young; Kim, Yoo-Sun; Lim, Ji Ye; Chang, Namsoo; Kang, Myung-Hee; Oh, Se-Young; Lee, He-Jin; Kim, Hyesook; Kim, Yuri

    2014-06-01

    The traditional Korean diet is plant-based and rich in antioxidants. Previous studies have investigated the potential health benefits of individual nutrients of Korean foods. However, the cumulative effects of a Korean diet on inflammation remain poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of a plant-based Korean diet. Using data from the Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 75 individual plant food items were selected which represent over 1% of the total diet intake of the Korean diet. These items were classified into ten different food groups, and the vegetable (Veg) and fruit (Fruit) groups were studied based on their high antioxidant capacity. For comparison, a mixture of all ten groups (Mix) was prepared. To produce a model of inflammation with which to test these Veg, Fruit, and Mix plant-based Korean food extracts (PKE), RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Levels of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), as well as protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were found to be lower following PKE treatment. Furthermore, PKE treatment was found to suppress tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) via the nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB) signaling pathway. Overall, the Mix group exhibited the greatest anti-inflammatory effects compared with Veg and Fruit PKE group. Inhibition of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators by the PKE tested was found to involve an inhibition of NF-kB activation. Moreover, PKE tested have the potential to ameliorate various inflammation-related diseases by limiting the excessive production of pro-inflammatory mediators.

  17. Heat shock proteins 70 and 90 from Clonorchis sinensis induce Th1 response and stimulate antibody production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eun Joo; Jeong, Young-Il; Lee, Myoung-Ro; Kim, Yu Jung; Lee, Sang-Eun; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Won-Ja; Park, Mi-Yeoun; Ju, Jung-Won

    2017-03-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are found in all prokaryotes and most compartments of eukaryotic cells. Members of the HSP family mediate immune responses to tissue damage or cellular stress. However, little is known about the immune response induced by the oriental liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis, even though this organism is carcinogenic to humans. We address this issue in the present study in mouse bone marrow dendritic cells (mBMDCs), using recombinant HSP70 and 90 from C. sinensis (rCsHSP70 and rCsHSP90). rCsHSP70 and rCsHSP90 were produced in an E. coli system. Purified recombinant proteins were treated in BMDCs isolated from C57BL/6 mice. T cells were isolated from Balb/c mice and co-cultured with activated mBMDCs. Expression of surface molecules was measured by flow cytometry and cytokine secretion was quantified using ELISA. C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups, including peptide alone, peptide/Freund's adjuvant, peptide/CsHSP70, peptide/CsHSP90, and were immunized intraperitoneally three times. Two weeks after final immunization, antibodies against peptide were measured using ELISA. Both proteins induced a dose-dependent upregulation in major histocompatibility complex and co-stimulatory molecule expression and increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1β, -6, and -12p70 and tumor necrosis factor-α in mBMDCs. Furthermore, when allogenic T cells were incubated with mBMDCs activated by rCsHSP70 and rCsHSP90, the helper T cell (Th)1 cytokine interferon-γ was up-regulated whereas the level of the Th2 cytokine IL-4 was unchanged. These results indicate that rCsHSPs predominantly induce a Th1 response. Over and above these results, we also demonstrated that the production of peptide-specific antibodies can be activated after immunization via in vitro peptide binding with rCsHSP70 or rCsHSP90. This study showed for the first time that the HSP or HSP/peptide complexes of C. sinensis could be considered as a more effective

  18. Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    "Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding" is a 19-minute award-winning short-film about teaching at university and higher-level educational institutions. It is based on the "Constructive Alignment" theory developed by Prof. John Biggs. The film delivers a foundation for understanding what...

  19. ResolvinD1 stimulates epithelial wound repair and inhibits TGF-β-induced EMT whilst reducing fibroproliferation and collagen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shengxing; Wang, Qian; D'Souza, Vijay; Bartis, Dom; Dancer, Rachel; Parekh, Dhruv; Gao, Fang; Lian, Qingquan; Jin, Shengwei; Thickett, David R

    2018-01-01

    Acute and chronic inflammatory lung diseases are often associated with epithelial cell injury/loss and fibroproliferative responses. ResolvinD1 (RvD1) is biosynthesized during the resolution phase of inflammatory response and exerts potent anti-inflammatory and promotes resolution of inflammatory lung diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate whether RvD1 exerts protective effects on alveolar epithelial cell function/differentiation and protects against fibroproliferative stimuli. Primary human alveolar type II cells were used to model the effects of RvD1 in vitro upon wound repair, proliferation, apoptosis, transdifferentiation, and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT). Effects of RvD1 upon primary human lung fibroblast proliferation, collagen production, and myofibroblast differentiation were also examined. RvD1 promoted alveolar type II (ATII) cell wound repair and proliferation. RvD1 protected ATII cells against sFas-ligand/TNF-α-induced apoptosis and inhibition on cell proliferation and viability. RvD1 promoted ATII cells transdifferentiation. Moreover, we demonstrate that RvD1 inhibited EMT in response to TGF-β. Furthermore RvD1 inhibited human lung fibroblast proliferation, collagen production, and myofibroblast differentiation induced by both TGF-β and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients. The effects of RvD1 were PI3-kinase dependent and mediated via the resolvin receptor. RvD1 seems to promote alveolar epithelial repair by stimulating ATII cells wound repair, proliferation, reducing apoptosis, and inhibiting TGF-β-induced EMT. While RvD1 reduced fibroproliferation, collagen production, and myofibroblast differentiation. Together, these results suggest a potential new therapeutic strategy for preventing and treating chronic diseases (such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis) as well as the fibroproliferative phase of ARDS by targeting RvD1 actions that emphasizes natural resolution signaling

  20. Aging stimulates cyclooxygenase-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 production in human periodontal ligament cells after the application of compressive force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayahara, Kotoe; Kobayashi, Yasuko; Takimoto, Kiyomi; Suzuki, Naoto; Mitsui, Narihiro; Shimizu, Noriyoshi

    2007-02-01

    Some clinical studies show that alveolar crestal bone loss is higher in adults than in young patients during orthodontic treatment, but the causes of such a phenomenon have not been elucidated. It is known that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a proinflammatory agent and one of the potent osteoclast-inducing factors, and is produced by human periodontal ligament cells in response to orthodontic force. The aim of this study was to investigate age-related change in the biosynthetic capacity of PGE2 and its regulatory gene, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) from periodontal ligament cells in response to mechanical stress. Compressive force of 2 g/cm2 was applied for 3-48 h to periodontal ligament cells obtained from human donors aged 9-50 years, and COX-2 mRNA expression in and PGE2 production by the periodontal ligament cells in response to the compressive force were examined. Application of a compressive force of 2 g/cm2 for 3-48 h significantly stimulated these factors in both time- and age-dependent manners. Furthermore, these increases were dramatically larger in periodontal ligament cells obtained from donors over the age of 35. Periodontal ligament cells obtained from old donors have significantly greater COX-2 expression and PGE2 production in response to compressive force than those from younger donors. The turning point of aging, where significantly larger amounts of theses factors begin production, appears to be around the age of 35. These results may be positively related to the acceleration of alveolar crestal bone loss during orthodontic treatment in adult patients.

  1. Structural Correlates of Cytoplasmic and Chloroplast Lipid Body Synthesis in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Stimulation of Lipid Body Production with Acetate Boost ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, Carrie; Roth, Robyn; Wang, Zi Teng; Goodenough, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    Light microscopy and deep-etch electron microscopy were used to visualize triacylglyceride (TAG)-filled lipid bodies (LBs) of the green eukaryotic soil alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a model organism for biodiesel production. Cells growing in nitrogen-replete media contain small cytoplasmic lipid bodies (α-cyto-LBs) and small chloroplast plastoglobules. When starved for N, β-cyto-LB formation is massively stimulated. β-Cyto-LBs are intimately associated with both the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and the outer membrane of the chloroplast envelope, suggesting a model for the active participation of both organelles in β-cyto-LB biosynthesis and packaging. When sta6 mutant cells, blocked in starch biosynthesis, are N starved, they produce β-cyto-LBs and also chloroplast LBs (cpst-LBs) that are at least 10 times larger than plastoglobules and eventually engorge the chloroplast stroma. Production of β-cyto-LBs and cpst-LBs under the conditions we used is dependent on exogenous 20 mM acetate. We propose that the greater TAG yields reported for N-starved sta6 cells can be attributed to the strain's ability to produce cpst-LBs, a capacity that is lost when the mutant is complemented by a STA6 transgene. Provision of a 20 mM acetate “boost” during N starvation generates sta6 cells that become so engorged with LBs—at the expense of cytoplasm and most organelles—that they float on water even when centrifuged. This property could be a desirable feature for algal harvesting during biodiesel production. PMID:22037181

  2. Stimulating Language: Insights from TMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Joseph T.; Watkins, Kate E.

    2007-01-01

    Fifteen years ago, Pascual-Leone and colleagues used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate speech production in pre-surgical epilepsy patients and in doing so, introduced a novel tool into language research. TMS can be used to non-invasively stimulate a specific cortical region and transiently disrupt information processing. These…

  3. Biochemical and Structural Insights into the Preference of Nairoviral DeISGylases for Interferon-Stimulated Gene Product 15 Originating from Certain Species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deaton, M. K.; Dzimianski, J. V.; Daczkowski, C. M.; Whitney, G. K.; Mank, N. J.; Parham, M. M.; Bergeron, E.; Pegan, S. D.; Perlman, S.

    2016-07-13

    ABSTRACT

    The regulation of the interferon type I (IFN-I) response has been shown to rely on posttranslational modification by ubiquitin (Ub) and Ub-like interferon-stimulated gene product 15 (ISG15) to stabilize, or activate, a variety of IFN-I signaling and downstream effector proteins. Unlike Ub, which is almost perfectly conserved among eukaryotes, ISG15 is highly divergent, even among mammals. Since zoonotic viruses rely on viral proteins to recognize, or cleave, ISG15 conjugates in order to evade, or suppress, innate immunity, the impact of ISG15 biodiversity on deISGylating proteases of the ovarian tumor family (vOTU) from nairoviruses was evaluated. The enzymatic activities of vOTUs originating from the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Erve virus, and Nairobi sheep disease virus were tested against ISG15s from humans, mice, shrews, sheep, bats, and camels, which are mammalian species known to be infected by nairoviruses. This along with investigation of binding by isothermal titration calorimetry illustrated significant differences in the abilities of nairovirus deISGylases to accommodate certain species of ISG15. To investigate the molecular underpinnings of species preferences of these vOTUs, a structure was determined to 2.5 Å for a complex of Erve virus vOTU protease and a mouse ISG15 domain. This structure revealed the molecular basis of Erve virus vOTU's preference for ISG15 over Ub and the first structural insight into a nonhuman ISG15. This structure also revealed key interactions, or lack thereof, surrounding three amino acids that may drive a viral deISgylase to prefer an ISG15 from one species over that of another.

    IMPORTANCEViral ovarian tumor domain proteases (vOTUs) are one of the two principal classes of viral proteases observed to reverse posttranslational modification of host proteins by ubiquitin and interferon-stimulated gene product 15 (ISG15), subsequently facilitating downregulation of

  4. Increasing palmitic acid intake enhances milk production and prevents glucose-stimulated fatty acid disappearance without modifying systemic glucose tolerance in mid-lactation dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, A T; Rico, J E; Sprenkle, N T; Lock, A L; McFadden, J W

    2016-11-01

    Feeding saturated fatty acids may enhance milk yield in part by decreasing insulin sensitivity and shifting glucose utilization toward the mammary gland. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of palmitic acid (C16:0) on milk production and insulin sensitivity in cows. Twenty multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows were enrolled in a study consisting of a 5-d covariate, 49-d treatment, and 14-d posttreatment period. All cows received a common sorghum silage-based diet and were randomly assigned to a diet containing no supplemental fat (control; n=10; 138±45d in milk) or C16:0 at 4% of ration DM (PALM; 98% C16:0; n=10; 136±44d in milk). Blood and milk were collected at routine intervals. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (300mg/kg of body weight) were performed at d -1, 24, and 49 relative to start of treatment. Data were analyzed as repeated measures using a mixed model with fixed effects of treatment and time, and milk yield served as a covariate. The PALM treatment increased milk yield by wk 7. Furthermore, PALM increased milk fat yield and energy-corrected milk at wk 3 and 7. Changes in milk production occurred in parallel with enhanced energy intake. Increased milk fat yield during PALM treatment was due to increased C16:0 and C16:1 incorporation; PALM had no effect on concentration of milk components, BW, or body condition score. Two weeks posttreatment, energy-corrected milk and milk fat yield remained elevated in PALM-fed cows whereas yields of milk were similar between treatments. Increased milk fat yield after PALM treatment was due to increased de novo lipogenesis and uptake of preformed fatty acids. The basal concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) in plasma increased by d 4, 6, and 8 of PALM treatment, a response not observed thereafter. Although PALM supplementation did not modify insulin, glucose, or triacylglycerol levels in plasma, total cholesterol in plasma was elevated by wk 3. Estimated insulin sensitivity was lower during the

  5. Human mast cell line-1 (HMC-1) cells transfected with FcεRIα are sensitive to IgE/antigen-mediated stimulation demonstrating selectivity towards cytokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, YuXiu C; Sun, ShanShan; Kuek, Li Eon; Lopata, Andreas L; Hulett, Mark D; Mackay, Graham A

    2011-08-01

    Mast cells play important roles in allergic and inflammatory diseases. Efforts to better understand human mast cell activation and develop novel inhibitory agents have been hampered by the lack of suitable human mast cell lines. The HMC-1 mast cell line has been extensively used, but lacks native expression of the human high-affinity IgE receptor FcεRI limiting its applications. We have stably transfected HMC-1 cells with the IgE-binding α-subunit of FcεRI to generate HMCα cells that are antigen-responsive. We have used flow cytometry, cell signaling assays, pharmacological pathway inhibitors and cell functional assays to characterize the properties of HMCα cells. IgE/antigen responses were compared with those of the adenosine receptor agonist NECA. Surface expression of FcεRI in HMCα cells was demonstrated and was enhanced by prior sensitization with IgE. Activation of HMCα cells with IgE/antigen did not produce degranulation, but did lead to release of numerous cytokines. Whilst there was no measurable increase of intracellular Ca(2+) or marked general changes in protein tyrosine phosphorylation, IgE/antigen stimulation of HMCα cells enhanced phosphorylation of p38(MAPK) and Erk. Inhibitors of these pathways, as well as the src kinase inhibitor PP2, attenuated IgE/antigen-induced cytokine release. In summary, we have generated and characterized HMCα cells and show that they are a useful and relevant human mast cell model to examine FcεRI stabilization, signaling and mediator release. We envisage that HMCα cells will have utility in understanding the importance of mast cells in human allergic disease and in assessing the activity of novel anti-allergic compounds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Brain Stimulation Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Magnetic Seizure Therapy Deep Brain Stimulation Additional Resources Brain Stimulation Therapies Overview Brain stimulation therapies can play ... for a shorter recovery time than ECT Deep Brain Stimulation Deep brain stimulation (DBS) was first developed ...

  7. Understanding determinants of government and consumer behavior relative to product safety : an application of the theory of planned behavior to China and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Domke, Laura

    2008-01-01

    The following thesis applies Icek Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior to explain consumer and government response to safety of Chinese-made products sold in China and the United States. The thesis relies on secondary data as it considers the responses and actions relative to product safety by four different groups: Chinese government, U.S. government, Chinese consumers and U.S. consumers. Increased globalization has heightened the need for a better understanding and agreement...

  8. Dexamethasone prevents granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-induced nuclear factor-κB activation, inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and nitric oxide production in a skin dendritic cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luísa Vital

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Nitric oxide (NO has been increasingly implicated in inflammatory skin diseases, namely in allergic contact dermatitis. In this work, we investigated the effect of dexamethasone on NO production induced by the epidermal cytokine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF in a mouse fetal skin dendritic cell line.

  9. Extracellular protease derived from lactic acid bacteria stimulates the fermentative lactic acid production from the by-products of rice as a biomass refinery function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masanori; Techapun, Charin; Kuntiya, Ampin; Leksawasdi, Noppol; Seesuriyachan, Phisit; Chaiyaso, Thanongsak; Takenaka, Shinji; Maeda, Isamu; Koyama, Masahiro; Nakamura, Kozo

    2017-02-01

    A lactic acid producing bacterium, Lactobacillus rhamnosus M-23, newly isolated from a rice washing drainage storage tank was found to produce l-(+)-lactic acid from a non-sterilized mixture of rice washing drainage and rice bran without any additions of nutrients under the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process. This strain has the ability to utilize the non-sterilized rice washing drainage and rice bran as a source of carbohydrate, saccharifying enzymes and nutrients for lactic acid production. Observation of extracellular protease activity in SSF culture broth showed that a higher protease activity was present in strain M-23 than in other isolated lactic acid producing bacteria (LABs). To investigate the structural changes of solid particles of rice washing drainage throughout LAB cultivation, scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observation and Fourier transform infrared-spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis were performed. The results of the SEM observation showed that the surface material could be removed from solid particles of rice washing drainage treated by culture broth (supernatant) of strain M-23, thus exposing the crystal structure of the starch particle surface. The results of the FT-IR analysis revealed that the specific transmittance decrease of the CC and CO stretching and OH group of the solid particles of the rice washing drainage were highly correlated with the produced lactic acid concentration and extracellular protease activity, respectively. These results demonstrate the high lactic acid producing ability of strain M-23 from a non-sterilized mixture of rice washing drainage and rice bran under the SSF condition due to the removal of proteinaceous material and exposure of the starch particle surface by extracellular protease. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hyperoside Downregulates the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE and Promotes Proliferation in ECV304 Cells via the c-Jun N-Terminal Kinases (JNK Pathway Following Stimulation by Advanced Glycation End-Products In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyu Zhang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hyperoside is a major active constituent in many medicinal plants which are traditionally used in Chinese medicines for their neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects. The molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown. In this study, quiescent ECV304 cells were treated in vitro with advanced glycation end products (AGEs in the presence or absence of hyperoside. The results demonstrated that AGEs induced c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK activation and apoptosis in ECV304 cells. Hyperoside inhibited these effects and promoted ECV304 cell proliferation. Furthermore, hyperoside significantly inhibited RAGE expression in AGE-stimulated ECV304 cells, whereas knockdown of RAGE inhibited AGE-induced JNK activation. These results suggested that AGEs may promote JNK activation, leading to viability inhibition of ECV304 cells via the RAGE signaling pathway. These effects could be inhibited by hyperoside. Our findings suggest a novel role for hyperoside in the treatment and prevention of diabetes.

  11. Hyperoside Downregulates the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) and Promotes Proliferation in ECV304 Cells via the c-Jun N-Terminal Kinases (JNK) Pathway Following Stimulation by Advanced Glycation End-Products In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengyu; Sethiel, Mosha Silas; Shen, Weizhi; Liao, Sentai; Zou, Yuxiao

    2013-01-01

    Hyperoside is a major active constituent in many medicinal plants which are traditionally used in Chinese medicines for their neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects. The molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown. In this study, quiescent ECV304 cells were treated in vitro with advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the presence or absence of hyperoside. The results demonstrated that AGEs induced c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) activation and apoptosis in ECV304 cells. Hyperoside inhibited these effects and promoted ECV304 cell proliferation. Furthermore, hyperoside significantly inhibited RAGE expression in AGE-stimulated ECV304 cells, whereas knockdown of RAGE inhibited AGE-induced JNK activation. These results suggested that AGEs may promote JNK activation, leading to viability inhibition of ECV304 cells via the RAGE signaling pathway. These effects could be inhibited by hyperoside. Our findings suggest a novel role for hyperoside in the treatment and prevention of diabetes. PMID:24252909

  12. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF1) controls monocyte production and maturation and the steady-state size of the liver in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, Kristin A; Waddell, Lindsey A; Lisowski, Zofia M; Young, Rachel; Lefevre, Lucas; Davis, Gemma M; Clohisey, Sara M; McCulloch, Mary; Magowan, Elizabeth; Mabbott, Neil A; Summers, Kim M; Hume, David A

    2016-09-01

    Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF1) is an essential growth and differentiation factor for cells of the macrophage lineage. To explore the role of CSF1 in steady-state control of monocyte production and differentiation and tissue repair, we previously developed a bioactive protein with a longer half-life in circulation by fusing pig CSF1 with the Fc region of pig IgG1a. CSF1-Fc administration to pigs expanded progenitor pools in the marrow and selectively increased monocyte numbers and their expression of the maturation marker CD163. There was a rapid increase in the size of the liver, and extensive proliferation of hepatocytes associated with increased macrophage infiltration. Despite the large influx of macrophages, there was no evidence of liver injury and no increase in circulating liver enzymes. Microarray expression profiling of livers identified increased expression of macrophage markers, i.e., cytokines such as TNF, IL1, and IL6 known to influence hepatocyte proliferation, alongside cell cycle genes. The analysis also revealed selective enrichment of genes associated with portal, as opposed to centrilobular regions, as seen in hepatic regeneration. Combined with earlier data from the mouse, this study supports the existence of a CSF1-dependent feedback loop, linking macrophages of the liver with bone marrow and blood monocytes, to mediate homeostatic control of the size of the liver. The results also provide evidence of safety and efficacy for possible clinical applications of CSF1-Fc. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Inhibition of in vitro human chorionic gonadotropin-stimulated testosterone production in testis and of ovulation in the rat by charcoal-treated rat testicular extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Bellabarba, G.A.; Bishop, W.; Rojas, F.J.

    1984-01-01

    Previously, the authors described the presence of a factor obtained from rat testis that was found to inhibit human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) binding to gonadal receptors. In the present study, similarly prepared testicular extract was tested for its effects on in vitro hCG-stimulated testosterone production by isolated testis interstitial cells and for its effect on spontaneous ovulation in the rat. Incubation of interstitial cells with charcoal-treated extract significantly inhibited the steroidogenic response to hCG in a dose-related manner. This inhibition was also apparent after heating the extract for 10 min at 100 0 C. A single i.p. injection of testicular extract inhibited spontaneous ovulation in the rat. This effect was also observed after heating the extract for 10 min at 100 0 C. It is concluded that the aqueous testicular extract contains a factor able to antagonize the physiological events mediated by luteinizing hormone (LH)/hCG, and that this factor is consistent with the presence of an LH/hCG-binding inhibitory activity in rat testis

  14. New sesquiterpene dimers from Inula britannica inhibit NF-kappaB activation and NO and TNF-alpha production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hui Zi; Lee, Dongho; Lee, Jeong Hyung; Lee, Kyeong; Hong, Young-Soo; Choung, Dong-Ho; Kim, Young Ho; Lee, Jung Joon

    2006-01-01

    A bioassay-guided isolation of an ethyl acetate-soluble extract of the aerial parts of Inula britannica var. chinensis (Rupr.) Regel, using an in vitro NF-kappaB reporter gene assay, led to the isolation of four new sesquiterpene dimers bearing a norbornene moiety, inulanolides A-D, and three known sesquiterpenes, 1,6alpha-dihydroxyeriolanolide, 1-acetoxy-6alpha-hydroxyeriolanolide, and eupatolide. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Among these compounds, inulanolides B and D and eupatolide, exhibited potent inhibitory activity on the LPS-induced NF-kappaB activation with IC50 values of 0.49 microM, 0.48 microM, and 1.54 microM, respectively. Consistent with their inhibitory effect on NF-kappaB activation, compounds and also strongly inhibited the production of NO and TNF-alpha in the LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells with IC50 values in the range of 2 microM.

  15. miR-146a regulates inflammatory cytokine production in Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide-stimulated B cells by targeting IRAK1 but not TRAF6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shaoyun; Hu, Yang; Deng, Shu; Deng, Jiayin; Yu, Xinbo; Huang, Grace; Kawai, Toshihisa; Han, Xiaozhe

    2018-03-01

    It has been suggested that microRNAs (miRs) are involved in the immune regulation of periodontitis. However, it is unclear whether and how miRs regulate the function of B cells in the context of periodontitis. This study is to explore the role of miR-146a on the inflammatory cytokine production of B cells challenged by Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Primary B cells were harvested from mouse spleen. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to detect the expression of inflammatory cytokines in B cells in the presence or absence of P. gingivalis LPS and/or miR-146a. Bioinformatics, luciferase reporter assay and overexpression assay were used to explore the binding target of miR-146a. Our results showed that miR-146a level in B cells was elevated by P. gingivalis LPS stimulation, and the mRNA expressions of interleukin (IL)-1β, 6 and 10, and IL-1 receptor associated kinase-1 (IRAK1), but not TNF receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6), were also upregulated. The expression levels of IL-1β, 6, 10 and IRAK1 were reduced in the presence of miR-146a mimic, but were elevated by the addition of miR-146a inhibitor. MiR-146a could bind with IRAK1 3' untranslated region (UTR) but not TRAF6 3'-UTR. Overexpression of IRAK1 reversed the inhibitory effects of miR-146a on IL-1β, 6 and 10. In summary, miR-146a inhibits inflammatory cytokine production in B cells through directly targeting IRAK1, suggesting a regulatory role of miR-146a in B cell-mediated periodontal inflammation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Production of recombinant human granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor in rice cell suspension culture with a human-like N-glycan structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yun-Ji; Chong, Yun-Jo; Yang, Moon-Sik; Kwon, Tae-Ho

    2011-12-01

    The rice α-amylase 3D promoter system, which is activated under sucrose-starved conditions, has emerged as a useful system for producing recombinant proteins. However, using rice as the production system for therapeutic proteins requires modifications of the N-glycosylation pattern because of the potential immunogenicity of plant-specific sugar residues. In this study, glyco-engineered rice were generated as a production host for therapeutic glycoproteins, using RNA interference (RNAi) technology to down-regulate the endogenous α-1,3-fucosyltransferase (α-1,3-FucT) and β-1,2-xylosyltransferase (β-1,2-XylT) genes. N-linked glycans from the RNAi lines were identified, and their structures were compared with those isolated from a wild-type cell suspension. The inverted-repeat chimeric RNA silencing construct of α-1,3-fucosyltransferase and β-1,2-xylosyltransferase (Δ3FT/XT)-9 glyco-engineered line with significantly reduced core α-1,3-fucosylated and/or β-1,2-xylosylated glycan structures was established. Moreover, levels of plant-specific α-1,3-fucose and/or β-1,2-xylose residues incorporated into recombinant human granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) produced from the N44 + Δ3FT/XT-4 glyco-engineered line co-expressing ihpRNA of Δ3FT/XT and hGM-CSF were significantly decreased compared with those in the previously reported N44-08 transgenic line expressing hGM-CSF. None of the glyco-engineered lines differed from the wild type with respect to cell division, proliferation or ability to secrete proteins into the culture medium. © 2011 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2011 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Effects of pelargonidin-3-O-glucoside and its metabolites on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cytokine production by THP-1 monocytes and macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Anna M; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Yaqoob, Parveen

    2018-03-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests cardioprotective effects of anthocyanin consumption. This study examined the predominant strawberry anthocyanin, pelargonidin-3-O-glucoside (Pg-3-glc), and three of its plasma metabolites (protocatechuic acid [PCA], 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, and phloroglucinaldehyde [PGA]) for effects on the production of selected cytokines by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated THP-1 monocytes and macrophages. Concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 were determined using a cytometric bead array kit. PCA at 0.31, 1.25 and 20 μM and PGA at 5 and 20 μM decreased the concentration of IL-6 in the monocyte cultures, but there were no effects on TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8 and IL-10 and there were no effects of the other compounds. In the macrophage cultures, PGA at 20 μM decreased the concentrations of IL-6 and IL-10, but there was no effect on TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-8 and there were no effects of the other compounds. In conclusion, while the effects of PGA were only observed at the higher, supraphysiological concentration and are thus considered of limited physiological relevance overall, the anti-inflammatory properties of PCA were observed at both the lower, physiologically relevant, and the higher concentrations; however, effects were modest and limited to IL-6 and monocytes. These preliminary data suggest potential for physiologically attainable PCA concentrations to modulate IL-6 production by monocytes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Zinc protoporphyrin inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-, lipoteichoic acid-, and peptidoglycan-induced nitric oxide production through stimulating iNOS protein ubiquitination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Jyh-Ming; Lin, Hui-Yi; Shen, Shing-Chuan; Wu, Ming-Shun; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Chiu, Wen-Ta; Lin, Chien-Huang; Chen, Yen-Chou

    2009-06-15

    In the present study, zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), but not ferric protoporphyrin (FePP), tin protoporphyrin (SnPP), or zinc chloride (ZnCl(2)), at the doses of 0.5, 1, and 2 microM, dose-dependently inhibited lipopolysaccharide- (LPS), lipoteichoic acid (LTA), and peptidoglycan (PGN)-induced inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) production with an increase in heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) protein in RAW264.7 macrophages in a serum-free condition. NO inhibition and HO-1 induction by ZnPP were blocked by the separate addition of fetal bovine serum (FBS) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). A decrease in the iNOS/NO ratio and an increase in HO-1 protein by ZnPP were identified in three different conditions including ZnPP pretreatment, ZnPP co-treatment, and ZnPP post-treatment with LPS and LTA. Activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) and extracellular regulated kinases (ERKs) were detected in LPS-, LTA-, and PGN-treated RAW264.7 cells, and iNOS/NO production was blocked by adding the JNK inhibitor, SP600125, but not the ERK inhibitor, PD98059. However, ZnPP addition potentiated ERK and JNK protein phosphorylation stimulated by LPS, LTA, and PGN. Increases in total protein ubiquitination and ubiquitinated iNOS proteins were detected in ZnPP-treated macrophages elicited by LPS according to Western and immunoprecipitation/Western blotting assays, respectively. The decrease in LPS-induced iNOS protein by ZnPP was reversed by adding the proteasome inhibitors MG132 and lactacystin. The reduction in HO-1 protein induced by ZnPP via transfection of HO-1 small interfering RNA did not affect the inhibitory effect of ZnPP against LPS-induced iNOS/NO production and protein ubiquitination induced by ZnPP in macrophages. Data of the present study provide the first evidence to support ZnPP effectively inhibiting inflammatory iNOS/NO production through activation of protein ubiquitination in a HO-1-independent manner in macrophages.

  19. Infrared rays stimulate silkworm productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolov, A.

    1977-01-01

    The tests involving the hybrids 48-I x 157-K and J-124 x C-122 were conducted at the experimental base of the Sericulture Experiment Station in Vratza. Silkworm seed was irradiated once daily from the first day of incubation to whitening of the seed at 60 and 80 min exposure. The combined quartz lamp, type ''MLKK-5'' (500 W, 220 V) was used. Seed was irradiated at a distance of 100 cm from the burner after its preliminary heating in the course of at least 10 min. Silkworm infrared irradiation exerts a stimulatory effect on embryonal and larval development, silkworm viability, and row cocoon yield. Sixty minutes irradiation exposure proved to be more effective for the native hybrid 48-I x 157-K, silkworm viability increasing by 3.75% and row cocoon yield per g silkworm seed - by 0.37 kg. On the contrary, 80 min irradiation exposure proved more effective in the case of the Japanese hybrid J-124 x C-122. (B.Ch.)

  20. Oral enclomiphene citrate stimulates the endogenous production of testosterone and sperm counts in men with low testosterone: comparison with testosterone gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminetsky, Jed; Werner, Michael; Fontenot, Greg; Wiehle, Ronald D

    2013-06-01

    Clomiphene citrate is employed off-label in men who have low testosterone and for the restoration of sperm counts in men who have used exogenous testosterone. Clomiphene is a mixture of two diastereoisomers: zuclomiphene and enclomiphene. We evaluated enclomiphene citrate in men with secondary hypogonadism. Our aim was to compare oral enclomiphene citrate as an alternative to topical testosterone. Blood levels of total testosterone (TT), estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), sex hormone binding globulin, thyroid stimulation hormone, prolactin, and insulin-like growth factor 1 IGF-1 were measured at certain times after treatment with each agent. Sperm parameters were determined at the same visits. Free testosterone (FT) was calculated. This was a proof-of-principle, randomized, open-label, fixed dose, active-control, two-center phase IIB study in 12 men with secondary hypogonadism treated previously with topical testosterone. After discontinuation of topical testosterone, morning TT values averaged 165 ± 66 pg/dL. After 3 months, there was a significant rise in men receiving enclomiphene citrate and gel that was sustained for 3 months. At 6 months, TT levels were 545 ± 268 and 525 ± 256 pg/dL for groups receiving the gel and enclomiphene citrate, respectively. Only men in the enclomiphene citrate group demonstrated increased LH and FSH. TT decreased one month posttreatment to pretreatment values. Enclomiphene citrate elevated sperm counts in seven out of seven men at 3 months and six out of six men at 6 months with sperm concentrations in the 75-334 × 10(6) /mL range. The gel was ineffective in raising sperm counts above 20 × 10(6) /mL for all five men at 3 months and raised counts in only two or five men at 6 months. At follow-up, only enclomiphene citrate treatment was associated with elevated sperm counts. Enclomiphene citrate increased testosterone and sperm counts. Concomitant changes in LH and FSH suggest normalization

  1. Understanding the purchase intention towards remanufactured product in closed-loop supply chains : An empirical study in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Y.; Wiegerinck, V.J.J.; Krikke, H.R.; Zhang, H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The paper aims to explore the reasons underlying the key assumption in the closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) literature that consumers' purchase intention is lower for remanufactured products than for new products. It aims to complement the predominantly operation-focused CLSC research by

  2. PIVET rFSH dosing algorithms for individualized controlled ovarian stimulation enables optimized pregnancy productivity rates and avoidance of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yovich JL

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available John L Yovich,1,2,* Birgit Alsbjerg,3,4,* Jason L Conceicao,1 Peter M Hinchliffe,1 Kevin N Keane1,2,* 1PIVET Medical Centre, Perth, 2School of Biomedical Science, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute Bioscience, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia; 3The Fertility Clinic, Skive Regional Hospital, Skive, 4Faculty of Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The first PIVET algorithm for individualized recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (rFSH dosing in in vitro fertilization, reported in 2012, was based on age and antral follicle count grading with adjustments for anti-Müllerian hormone level, body mass index, day-2 FSH, and smoking history. In 2007, it was enabled by the introduction of a metered rFSH pen allowing small dosage increments of ~8.3 IU per click. In 2011, a second rFSH pen was introduced allowing more precise dosages of 12.5 IU per click, and both pens with their individual algorithms have been applied continuously at our clinic. The objective of this observational study was to validate the PIVET algorithms pertaining to the two rFSH pens with the aim of collecting ≤15 oocytes and minimizing the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. The data set included 2,822 in vitro fertilization stimulations over a 6-year period until April 2014 applying either of the two individualized dosing algorithms and corresponding pens. The main outcome measures were mean oocytes retrieved and resultant embryos designated for transfer or cryopreservation permitted calculation of oocyte and embryo utilization rates. Ensuing pregnancies were tracked until live births, and live birth productivity rates embracing fresh and frozen transfers were calculated. Overall, the results showed that mean oocyte numbers were 10.0 for all women <40 years with 24% requiring rFSH dosages <150 IU. Applying both specific algorithms in our clinic meant that the starting dose was not altered for

  3. Now You See It… Now You Don’t: Understanding Airborne Mapping LiDAR Collection and Data Product Generation for Archaeological Research in Mesoamerica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Fernandez-Diaz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we provide a description of airborne mapping LiDAR, also known as airborne laser scanning (ALS, technology and its workflow from mission planning to final data product generation, with a specific emphasis on archaeological research. ALS observations are highly customizable, and can be tailored to meet specific research needs. Thus it is important for an archaeologist to fully understand the options available during planning, collection and data product generation before commissioning an ALS survey, to ensure the intended research questions can be answered with the resultant data products. Also this knowledge is of great use for the researcher trying to understand the quality and limitations of existing datasets collected for other purposes. Throughout the paper we use examples from archeological ALS projects to illustrate the key concepts of importance for the archaeology researcher.

  4. The added value of sustainability motivations in understanding sustainable food choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verain, M.C.D.; Onwezen, M.C.; Sijtsema, S.J.; Dagevos, H.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding consumer food choices is crucial to stimulate sustainable food consumption. Food choice motives are shown to be relevant in understanding consumer food choices. However, there is a focus on product motives, such as price and taste, whereas process motives (i.e. environmental welfare)

  5. Understanding the provision and processing of information for information-intensive products as a basis for market segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Daniel Edward

    2016-01-01

    This thesis helps to address the gap in literature relating to the study of the provision of information to consumers, consumer information search behaviour and consumer information processing and choice behaviour relating to information-intensive products. Throughout the thesis, wine is taken as an example of an information-intensive product. Through a series of four published papers in peer reviewed journals, the thesis examines how firms can control and manipulate the provision of informat...

  6. Talk about a YouTube Video in Preschool: The Mutual Production of Shared Understanding for Learning with Digital Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Christina; Given, Lisa M.; Danby, Susan; Thorpe, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Much of what is written about digital technologies in preschool contexts focuses on young children's acquisition of skills rather than their meaning-making during use of technologies. In this paper, we consider how the viewing of a YouTube video was used by a teacher and children to produce shared understandings about it. Conversation analysis of…

  7. Stimulant ADHD Medications -- Methylphenidate and Amphetamines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prescription stimulants? dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine ® ) dextroamphetamine/amphetamine combination product (Adderall ® ) methylphenidate (Ritalin ® , Concerta ® ). Popular slang terms for prescription ...

  8. Unopposed production of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor by tumors inhibits CD8+ T cell responses by dysregulating antigen-presenting cell maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronte, V; Chappell, D B; Apolloni, E; Cabrelle, A; Wang, M; Hwu, P; Restifo, N P

    1999-05-15

    Tumor cells gene-modified to produce GM-CSF potently stimulate antitumor immune responses, in part, by causing the growth and differentiation of dendritic cells (DC). However, GM-CSF-modified tumor cells must be gamma-irradiated or they will grow progressively, killing the host. We observed that 23 of 75 (31%) human tumor lines and two commonly used mouse tumor lines spontaneously produced GM-CSF. In mice, chronic GM-CSF production by tumors suppressed Ag-specific CD8+ T cell responses. Interestingly, an inhibitory population of adherent CD11b(Mac-1)/Gr-1 double-positive cells caused the observed impairment of CD8+ T cell function upon direct cell-to-cell contact. The inhibitory cells were positive for some markers associated with Ag presenting cells, like F4/80, but were negative for markers associated with fully mature DC like DEC205, B7. 2, and MHC class II. We have previously reported that a similar or identical population of inhibitory "immature" APC was elicited after immunization with powerful recombinant immunogens. We show here that these inhibitory cells can be elicited by the administration of recombinant GM-CSF alone, and, furthermore, that they can be differentiated ex vivo into "mature" APC by the addition of IL-4 and GM-CSF. Thus, tumors may be able to escape from immune detection by producing "unopposed" GM-CSF, thereby disrupting the balance of cytokines needed for the maturation of fully functional DC. Further, CD11b/Gr-1 double-positive cells may function as "inhibitory" APC under the influence of GM-CSF alone.

  9. Unopposed Production of Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor by Tumors Inhibits CD8+ T Cell Responses by Dysregulating Antigen-Presenting Cell Maturation1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronte, Vincenzo; Chappell, Dale B.; Apolloni, Elisa; Cabrelle, Anna; Wang, Michael; Hwu, Patrick; Restifo, Nicholas P.

    2008-01-01

    Tumor cells gene-modified to produce GM-CSF potently stimulate antitumor immune responses, in part, by causing the growth and differentiation of dendritic cells (DC). However, GM-CSF-modified tumor cells must be γ-irradiated or they will grow progressively, killing the host. We observed that 23 of 75 (31%) human tumor lines and two commonly used mouse tumor lines spontaneously produced GM-CSF. In mice, chronic GM-CSF production by tumors suppressed Ag-specific CD8+ T cell responses. Interestingly, an inhibitory population of adherent CD11b(Mac-1)/Gr-1 double-positive cells caused the observed impairment of CD8+ T cell function upon direct cell-to-cell contact. The inhibitory cells were positive for some markers associated with Ag presenting cells, like F4/80, but were negative for markers associated with fully mature DC like DEC205, B7.2, and MHC class II. We have previously reported that a similar or identical population of inhibitory “immature” APC was elicited after immunization with powerful recombinant immunogens. We show here that these inhibitory cells can be elicited by the administration of recombinant GM-CSF alone, and, furthermore, that they can be differentiated ex vivo into “mature” APC by the addition of IL-4 and GM-CSF. Thus, tumors may be able to escape from immune detection by producing “unopposed” GM-CSF, thereby disrupting the balance of cytokines needed for the maturation of fully functional DC. Further, CD11b/Gr-1 double-positive cells may function as “inhibitory” APC under the influence of GM-CSF alone. PMID:10229805

  10. Neuron-Derived ADAM10 Production Stimulates Peripheral Nerve Injury-Induced Neuropathic Pain by Cleavage of E-Cadherin in Satellite Glial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Ouyang, Qing; Chen, Cheng-Wen; Chen, Qian-Bo; Li, Xiang-Nan; Xiang, Zheng-Hua; Yuan, Hong-Bin

    2017-09-01

    Increasing evidence suggests the potential involvement of metalloproteinase family proteins in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain, although the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Using the spinal nerve ligation model, we investigated whether ADAM10 proteins participate in pain regulation. By implementing invitro methods, we produced a purified culture of satellite glial cells to study the underlying mechanisms of ADAM10 in regulating neuropathic pain. Results showed that the ADAM10 protein was expressed in calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-containing neurons of the dorsal root ganglia, and expression was upregulated following spinal nerve ligation surgery invivo. Intrathecal administration of GI254023X, an ADAM10 selective inhibitor, to the rats one to three days after spinal nerve ligation surgery attenuated the spinal nerve ligation-induced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. Intrathecal injection of ADAM10 recombinant protein simulated pain behavior in normal rats to a similar extent as those treated by spinal nerve ligation surgery. These results raised a question about the relative contribution of ADAM10 in pain regulation. Further results showed that ADAM10 might act by cleaving E-cadherin, which is mainly expressed in satellite glial cells. GI254023X reversed spinal nerve ligation-induced downregulation of E-cadherin and activation of cyclooxygenase 2 after spinal nerve ligation. β-catenin, which creates a complex with E-cadherin in the membranes of satellite glial cells, was also downregulated by spinal nerve ligation surgery in satellite glial cells. Finally, knockdown expression of β-catenin by lentiviral infection in purified satellite glial cells increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2. Our findings indicate that neuron-derived ADAM10 production stimulates peripheral nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain by cleaving E-cadherin in satellite glial cells. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine

  11. Coal and Oil: The Dark Monarchs of Global Energy : Understanding Supply and Extraction Patterns and their Importance for Future Production

    OpenAIRE

    Höök, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    The formation of modern society has been dominated by coal and oil, and together these two fossil fuels account for nearly two thirds of all primary energy used by mankind.  This makes future production a key question for future social development and this thesis attempts to answer whether it is possible to rely on an assumption of ever increasing production of coal and oil. Both coal and oil are finite resources, created over long time scales by geological processes. It is thus impossible to...

  12. The Importance of the Ionic Product for Water to Understand the Physiology of the Acid-Base Balance in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Adeva-Andany, María M.; Carneiro-Freire, Natalia; Donapetry-García, Cristóbal; Rañal-Muíño, Eva; López-Pereiro, Yosua

    2014-01-01

    Human plasma is an aqueous solution that has to abide by chemical rules such as the principle of electrical neutrality and the constancy of the ionic product for water. These rules define the acid-base balance in the human body. According to the electroneutrality principle, plasma has to be electrically neutral and the sum of its cations equals the sum of its anions. In addition, the ionic product for water has to be constant. Therefore, the plasma concentration of hydrogen ions depends on th...

  13. Eclosion hormone stimulates cyclic GMP levels in Manduca sexta nervous tissue via arachidonic acid metabolism with little or no contribution from the production of nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, D B; Giunta, M A

    1992-10-01

    The neuropeptide eclosion hormone acts directly on the nervous system of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, to trigger ecdysis behavior at the end of each molt. Previous studies have shown that the action of eclosion hormone is mediated via the intracellular messenger cyclic GMP. In the present study we have investigated the mechanisms involved in the eclosion hormone-stimulated increases in cyclic GMP. No stimulation of guanylate cyclase was seen in homogenized nervous tissue, suggesting that eclosion hormone does not directly stimulate a membrane-bound form of guanylate cyclase. Nitric oxide synthase inhibitors, N-methylarginine and nitroarginine, had no effect on eclosion hormone-stimulated cyclic GMP levels. By contrast, 4-bromophenacyl bromide, an inhibitor of arachidonic acid release, and nordihydroguaiaretic acid, an inhibitor of arachidonic acid metabolism, almost completely abolished the eclosion hormone-stimulated cyclic GMP increase. We hypothesize that eclosion hormone receptors are coupled to a lipase, activation of which causes the release of arachidonic acid. Either the arachidonic acid directly stimulates the soluble guanylate cyclase or further metabolism of arachidonic acid yields compounds that activate guanylate cyclase.

  14. Teorizando acerca del Conocimiento Productivo para Entender la Educacion Teorico Profesional (Theorizing about Productive Knowledge To Understand Professional Technical Education).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Abelardo Castro; Carrasco, Decler Martinez

    2000-01-01

    States that, internationally, Professional Technical Education emerges as a method of providing educational solutions for poor sectors of the population. Cites University of Chalmer (Sweden) and University of Bio-Bio (Chile) as institutions transformed into technological universities. Discusses what is productive knowledge and conditions under…

  15. Determining a Solubility Product Constant by Potentiometric Titration to Increase Students' Conceptual Understanding of Potentiometry and Titrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Lauren E.; Goode, Scott R.

    2017-01-01

    Potentiometric titrations are widely taught in first-year undergraduate courses to connect electrochemistry, stoichiometry, and equilibria and to reinforce acid-base titrations. Students perform a potentiometric titration that is then analyzed to determine analyte concentrations and the solubility product constant of the solid species.

  16. Economics of nuclear gas stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, G.W.; Coffer, H.F.; Luetkehans, G.R.

    1970-01-01

    Nuclear stimulation of the Mesaverde Formation in the Piceance Basin appears to be the only available method that can release the contained gas economically. In the Rulison Field alone estimates show six to eight trillion cubic feet of gas may be made available by nuclear means, and possibly one hundred trillion cubic feet could be released in the Piceance Basin. Several problems remain to be solved before this tremendous gas reserve can be tapped. Among these are (1) rates of production following nuclear stimulation; (2) costs of nuclear stimulation; (3) radioactivity of the chimney gas; and (4) development of the ideal type of device to carry out the stimulations. Each of these problems is discussed in detail with possible solutions suggested. First and foremost is the rate at which gas can be delivered following nuclear stimulation. Calculations have been made for expected production behavior following a 5-kiloton device and a 40-kiloton device with different permeabilities. These are shown, along with conventional production history. The calculations show that rates of production will be sufficient if costs can be controlled. Costs of nuclear stimulation must be drastically reduced for a commercial process. Project Rulison will cost approximately $3.7 million, excluding lease costs, preliminary tests, and well costs. At such prices, nothing can possibly be commercial; however, these costs can come down in a logical step-wise fashion. Radiation contamination of the gas remains a problem. Three possible solutions to this problem are included. (author)

  17. Is all co-production created equal? Understanding drivers and outcomes across different users and forms of engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, K.; Lemos, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    Despite a growing recognition of the importance of coproduced information in networks of decision-makers facing climate change, relatively little attention has been paid to how different types of users and forms of engagement (e.g. brokering and bridging of climate information) may yield different coproduction outcomes. In this study, we compare drivers and outcomes of co-production of a large network (twenty-five cases) of users within the scope of the Great Lakes Integrated Sciences and Assessments (GLISA), a boundary organization whose mission is to disseminate climate information in the Great Lakes Region. We focus especially on drivers of co-production within boundary organizations (e.g. embeddness, complementarity, financial and human resources and trust building and legitimacy) to explore different forms of engagement and models of brokering and bridging information. Our case studies span a wide range of users, including cities, businesses, academic and professional organizations and governmental agencies. We find that different kinds of resources and engagement matter in terms of desirable outcomes. In addition, while the supply of resources by boundary organizations is necessary to foster co-production, effective use and stable networks are often not achieved in the absence of sustained engagement and support.

  18. The importance of the ionic product for water to understand the physiology of the acid-base balance in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeva-Andany, María M; Carneiro-Freire, Natalia; Donapetry-García, Cristóbal; Rañal-Muíño, Eva; López-Pereiro, Yosua

    2014-01-01

    Human plasma is an aqueous solution that has to abide by chemical rules such as the principle of electrical neutrality and the constancy of the ionic product for water. These rules define the acid-base balance in the human body. According to the electroneutrality principle, plasma has to be electrically neutral and the sum of its cations equals the sum of its anions. In addition, the ionic product for water has to be constant. Therefore, the plasma concentration of hydrogen ions depends on the plasma ionic composition. Variations in the concentration of plasma ions that alter the relative proportion of anions and cations predictably lead to a change in the plasma concentration of hydrogen ions by driving adaptive adjustments in water ionization that allow plasma electroneutrality while maintaining constant the ionic product for water. The accumulation of plasma anions out of proportion of cations induces an electrical imbalance compensated by a fall of hydroxide ions that brings about a rise in hydrogen ions (acidosis). By contrast, the deficiency of chloride relative to sodium generates plasma alkalosis by increasing hydroxide ions. The adjustment of plasma bicarbonate concentration to these changes is an important compensatory mechanism that protects plasma pH from severe deviations.

  19. Understanding of polyhydroxybutyrate production under carbon and phosphorus-limited growth conditions in non-axenic continuous culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaillé, Laëtitia; Albuquerque, Maria; Grousseau, Estelle; Lepeuple, Anne-Sophie; Uribelarrea, Jean-Louis; Hernandez-Raquet, Guillermina; Paul, Etienne

    2016-02-01

    In a waste into resource strategy, a selection of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)-accumulating organisms from activated sludge was achieved in an open continuous culture under acetic acid and phosphorus limitation. Once the microbial population was selected at a dilution rate (D), an increase in phosphorus limitation degree was applied in order to study the intracellular phosphorus plasticity of selected bacteria and the resulting capacity to produce PHB. Whatever D, all selected populations were able to produce PHB. At a D, the phosphorus availability determined the phosphorus-cell content which in turn fixed the amount of cell. All the remaining carbon was thus directed toward PHB. By decreasing D, microorganisms adapted more easily to higher phosphorus limitation leading to higher PHB content. A one-stage continuous reactor operated at D=0.023h(-)(1) gave reliable high PHB productivity with PHB content up to 80%. A two-stage reactor could ensure better productivity while allowing tuning product quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Importance of the Ionic Product for Water to Understand the Physiology of the Acid-Base Balance in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María M. Adeva-Andany

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human plasma is an aqueous solution that has to abide by chemical rules such as the principle of electrical neutrality and the constancy of the ionic product for water. These rules define the acid-base balance in the human body. According to the electroneutrality principle, plasma has to be electrically neutral and the sum of its cations equals the sum of its anions. In addition, the ionic product for water has to be constant. Therefore, the plasma concentration of hydrogen ions depends on the plasma ionic composition. Variations in the concentration of plasma ions that alter the relative proportion of anions and cations predictably lead to a change in the plasma concentration of hydrogen ions by driving adaptive adjustments in water ionization that allow plasma electroneutrality while maintaining constant the ionic product for water. The accumulation of plasma anions out of proportion of cations induces an electrical imbalance compensated by a fall of hydroxide ions that brings about a rise in hydrogen ions (acidosis. By contrast, the deficiency of chloride relative to sodium generates plasma alkalosis by increasing hydroxide ions. The adjustment of plasma bicarbonate concentration to these changes is an important compensatory mechanism that protects plasma pH from severe deviations.

  1. Understanding polysaccharide production and properties using seed coat mutants: future perspectives for the exploitation of natural variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Helen M; Berger, Adeline; Saez-Aguayo, Susana; Ralet, Marie-Christine

    2014-10-01

    The epidermal cells of the seed coat of certain species accumulate polysaccharides during seed development for cell wall reinforcement or release on imbibition to form mucilage. Seed-coat epidermal cells show natural variation in their structure and mucilage production, which could explain the diverse ecophysiological roles proposed for the latter. Arabidopsis mucilage mutants have proved to be an important tool for the identification of genes involved in the production of seed-coat polysaccharides. This review documents genes that have been characterized as playing a role in the differentiation of the epidermal cells of the arabidopsis seed coat, the natural variability in polysaccharide features of these cells and the physiological roles attributed to seed mucilage. Seed-coat epidermal cells are an excellent model for the study of polysaccharide metabolism and properties. Intra- and interspecies natural variation in the differentiation of these epidermal cells is an under-exploited resource for such studies and promises to play an important part in improving our knowledge of polysaccharide production and ecophysiological function. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Understanding the Reduction Kinetics of Aqueous Vanadium(V) and Transformation Products Using Rotating Ring-Disk Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gongde; Liu, Haizhou

    2017-10-17

    Vanadium(V) is an emerging contaminant in the most recent Environmental Protection Agency's candidate contaminant list (CCL4). The redox chemistry of vanadium controls its occurrence in the aquatic environment, but the impact of vanadium(V) speciation on the redox properties remains largely unknown. This study utilized the rotating ring-disk electrode technique to examine the reduction kinetics of four pH- and concentration-dependent vanadium(V) species in the presence and the absence of phosphate. Results showed that the reduction of VO 2 + , H x V 4 O 12+x (4+x)- (V 4 ), and HVO 4 2- proceeded via a one-electron transfer, while that of Na x H y V 10 O 28 (6-x-y)- (V 10 ) underwent a two-electron transfer. Koutecky-Levich and Tafel analyses showed that the intrinsic reduction rate constants followed the order of V 10 > VO 2 + > V 4 > HVO 4 2- . Ring-electrode collection efficiency indicated that the reduction product of V 10 was stable, while those of VO 2 + , HVO 4 2- , and V 4 had short half-lives that ranged from milliseconds to seconds. With molar ratios of phosphate to vanadium(V) varying from 0 to 1, phosphate accelerated the reduction kinetics of V 10 and V 4 and enhanced the stability of the reduction products of VO 2 + , V 4 , and HVO 4 2- . This study suggests that phosphate complexation could enhance the reductive removal of vanadium(V) and inhibit the reoxidation of its reduction product in water treatment.

  3. A low concentration of ethanol reduces the chemiluminescence of human granulocytes and monocytes but not the tumor necrosis factor alpha production by monocytes after endotoxin stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Diedrich, J. P.; Schäfer, Christian

    1998-01-01

    necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) from Mphi. Further, the efficiency of ethanol to inactivate chemically generated ROS was tested. Significant stimulation of ROS release occurred at endotoxin concentrations of 1 ng/ml or higher in both PMNs and Mphi. Ethanol significantly suppressed the formation of ROS...... identical (6 to 8 ng/ml) in both PMNs and Mphi, independent of the presence of ethanol. In contrast to ROS formation, ethanol had no effect on the amount of TNF-alpha produced by endotoxin-stimulated Mphi. Ethanol was shown to be unable to decrease the levels of chemically generated ROS under physiological......The ability of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and monocytes (Mphi) to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been related closely to their potential in the killing of microorganisms. Ethanol has been shown to impair the generation of ROS in these phagocytes after stimulation with some...

  4. Toward an understanding of the effects of agitation and aeration on growth and laccases production by Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinoco-Valencia, Raunel; Gómez-Cruz, Cristina; Galindo, Enrique; Serrano-Carreón, Leobardo

    2014-05-10

    Mycelial growth and laccase production by Pleurotus ostreatus CP50 cultured in a 10-L mechanically agitated bioreactor were assessed through a 2(3) factorial experimental design. The main effects and interactions of three factors (agitation, aeration and copper induction) over five responses (μ, αLacc, βLacc, maximal volumetric laccase activity and maximal biomass concentration) were analyzed. P. ostreatus growth was significantly improved when culturing was conducted with high agitation (5.9kW/m(3)s) and aeration flow (0.5vvm) rates. Under the experimental conditions evaluated, no evidence of hydrodynamic stress affecting fungal growth was observed. However, the high agitation and aeration conditions were detrimental for the growth-associated laccase production constant (αLacc), leading to a very complex optimization of the process. The maximal laccase volumetric activity (1.2 and 3.8U/ml for non-induced and copper-induced cultures, respectively) was observed when the culturing was performed at a low agitation rate (0.9kW/m(3)s) and a high aeration flow rate (0.5vvm). Laccase proteolysis may explain the complex interactions observed between agitation and aeration and the effects of these factors on the laccase volumetric activity observed in the cultures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Acanthamoeba castellanii Genotype T4 Stimulates the Production of Interleukin-10 as Well as Proinflammatory Cytokines in THP-1 Cells, Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells, and Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattana, Antonella; Sanna, Manuela; Cano, Antonella; Delogu, Giuseppe; Erre, Giuseppe; Roberts, Craig W; Henriquez, Fiona L; Fiori, Pier Luigi; Cappuccinelli, Piero

    2016-10-01

    Free-living amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba can cause severe and chronic infections in humans, mainly localized in immune privileged sites, such as the brain and the eye. Monocytes/macrophages are thought to be involved in Acanthamoeba infections, but little is known about how these facultative parasites influence their functions. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of Acanthamoeba on human monocytes/macrophages during the early phase of infection. Here, THP-1 cells, primary human monocytes isolated from peripheral blood, and human monocyte-derived macrophages were either coincubated with trophozoites of a clinical isolate of Acanthamoeba (genotype T4) or stimulated with amoeba-derived cell-free conditioned medium. Production of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], interleukin-6 [IL-6], and IL-12), anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10), and chemokine (IL-8) was evaluated at specific hours poststimulation (ranging from 1.5 h to 23 h). We showed that both Acanthamoeba trophozoites and soluble amoebic products induce an early anti-inflammatory monocyte-macrophage phenotype, characterized by significant production of IL-10; furthermore, challenge with either trophozoites or their soluble metabolites stimulate both proinflammatory cytokines and chemokine production, suggesting that this protozoan infection results from the early induction of coexisting, opposed immune responses. Results reported in this paper confirm that the production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines by monocytes and macrophages can play a role in the development of the inflammatory response during Acanthamoeba infections. Furthermore, we demonstrate for the first time that Acanthamoeba stimulates IL-10 production in human innate immune cells, which might both promote the immune evasion of Acanthamoeba and limit the induced inflammatory response. Copyright © 2016 Mattana et al.

  6. Acanthamoeba castellanii Genotype T4 Stimulates the Production of Interleukin-10 as Well as Proinflammatory Cytokines in THP-1 Cells, Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells, and Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Manuela; Cano, Antonella; Delogu, Giuseppe; Erre, Giuseppe; Roberts, Craig W.; Henriquez, Fiona L.; Fiori, Pier Luigi; Cappuccinelli, Piero

    2016-01-01

    Free-living amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba can cause severe and chronic infections in humans, mainly localized in immune privileged sites, such as the brain and the eye. Monocytes/macrophages are thought to be involved in Acanthamoeba infections, but little is known about how these facultative parasites influence their functions. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of Acanthamoeba on human monocytes/macrophages during the early phase of infection. Here, THP-1 cells, primary human monocytes isolated from peripheral blood, and human monocyte-derived macrophages were either coincubated with trophozoites of a clinical isolate of Acanthamoeba (genotype T4) or stimulated with amoeba-derived cell-free conditioned medium. Production of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], interleukin-6 [IL-6], and IL-12), anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10), and chemokine (IL-8) was evaluated at specific hours poststimulation (ranging from 1.5 h to 23 h). We showed that both Acanthamoeba trophozoites and soluble amoebic products induce an early anti-inflammatory monocyte-macrophage phenotype, characterized by significant production of IL-10; furthermore, challenge with either trophozoites or their soluble metabolites stimulate both proinflammatory cytokines and chemokine production, suggesting that this protozoan infection results from the early induction of coexisting, opposed immune responses. Results reported in this paper confirm that the production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines by monocytes and macrophages can play a role in the development of the inflammatory response during Acanthamoeba infections. Furthermore, we demonstrate for the first time that Acanthamoeba stimulates IL-10 production in human innate immune cells, which might both promote the immune evasion of Acanthamoeba and limit the induced inflammatory response. PMID:27481240

  7. Understanding regional variations in TWS in Eurasia using GRACE time variable gravity data and CLM 4.5 output products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, M.; Velicogna, I.; Swenson, S. C.; Kimball, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    The latest Community Land Model (CLM) 4.5 extends terrestrial hydrological modeling into approximately 50 meters below ground and has potentials to be applied to partition water cycle. Uncertainties in CLM 4.5 hydrological outputs are however not well evaluated, which in turn impacts the interpretability of the data. Here, we employ time series of time-variable gravity from the NASA/DLR GRACE mission to calculate total water storage in Eurasia during 2003-2014. We compare TWS from GRACE with CLM 4.5 outputs at the regional and basin scale. At the basin scale we find a good agreement in the amplitude and phase of the seasonal variability, with smaller amplitude in CLM 4.5 derived TWS in the Lena basin. In terms of trends at the basin scale, we find a reasonable agreement for the Ob and Yenisei basins and more significant differences for the Lena basin. When examining the spatial pattern in TWS across Eurasia, the areas of significant decrease or increase in TWS are captured correctly but the amplitude and the spatial extent of the trends do not always agree. To interpret these differences, we compare the CLM 4.5 products to independent observations of precipitation from GPCP, ERA-Interim, MERRA and NCEP CFSR, evapotranspiration from MODIS, and surface hydrology components including snow water equivalent and soil moisture from AMSR-E and SSMI/S satellite products. We evaluate the agreement between these components in terms of seasonal and long-term variability and also determine the dominant control on TWS in each basin.

  8. Understanding the economic burden of nonsevere nocturnal hypoglycemic events: impact on work productivity, disease management, and resource utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brod, Meryl; Wolden, Michael; Christensen, Torsten; Bushnell, Donald M

    2013-12-01

    Nonsevere hypoglycemic events are common and may occur in one-third of persons with diabetes as often as several times a week. This study's objective was to examine the economic burden of nonsevere nocturnal hypoglycemic events (NSNHEs). A 20-minute Web-based survey, with items derived from the literature, expert input, and patient interviews, assessing the impact of NSNHEs was administered in nine countries to 18 years and older patients with self-reported diabetes having an NSNHE in the past month. A total of 20,212 persons were screened, with 2,108 respondents meeting criteria and included in the analysis sample. The cost of lost work productivity per NSNHE was estimated to be between $10.21 (Germany) and $28.13 (the United Kingdom), representing 3.3 to 7.5 hours of lost work time per event. A reduction in work productivity (presenteeism) was also reported. Compared with respondents' usual blood sugar monitoring practice, on average, 3.6 ± 6.6 extra tests were conducted in the week following the event at a cost of approximately $87.1 per year. Additional costs were also incurred for doctor visits as well as medical care required because of falls or injuries incurred during the NSNHE for an annual cost of $2,111.3 per person per year. When taking into consideration the multiple impacts of NSNHEs for the total sample and the frequency that these events occur, the resulting total annual economic burden was $288,000 or $127 per person per event. NSNHEs have serious consequences for patients. Greater attention to treatments that reduce NSNHEs can have a major impact on reducing the economic burden of diabetes. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Common Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Receptor (FSHR) Promoter Polymorphism FSHR -29G > A Affects Androgen Production in Normal Human Small Antral Follicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgbo, Tanni; Klučková, Hana; Macek, Milan

    2017-01-01

    Follicle-stimulating hormone receptors (FSHRs) are almost exclusively expressed on granulosa cells, and FSH action is probably most clearly reflected in intrafollicular hormone milieu of antral follicles. Little is known about the possible effects of the common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP...

  10. The stimulatory effect of albumin on luteinizing hormone-stimulated Leydig cell steroid production depends on its fatty acid content and correlates with conformational changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Melsert (R.); O.J.M. Bos (O. J M); R.F. van der Linden (R.); M.J.E. Fischer (M. J E); S.M. Wilting (Saskia); L.H.M. Janssen (Lambert); J.W. Hoogerbrugge (Jos); F.F.G. Rommerts (Focko)

    1991-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The effects of purified albumin species and albumin fragments (0.2–1% w/v) on short-term (4 h) steroid secretion by immature rat Leydig cells, in the presence of a maximally stimulating dose of luteinizing hormone (LH), were investigated. Human albumin and the peptic

  11. Pivotal Advance: Arginase-1-independent polyamine production stimulates the expression of IL-4-induced alternatively activated macrophage markers while inhibiting LPS-induced expression of inflammatory genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bossche, Jan; Lamers, Wouter H.; Koehler, Eleonore S.; Geuns, Jan M. C.; Alhonen, Leena; Uimari, Anne; Pirnes-Karhu, Sini; van Overmeire, Eva; Morias, Yannick; Brys, Lea; Vereecke, Lars; de Baetselier, Patrick; van Ginderachter, Jo A.

    2012-01-01

    In macrophages, basal polyamine (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) levels are relatively low but are increased upon IL-4 stimulation. This Th2 cytokine induces Arg1 activity, which converts arginine into ornithine, and ornithine can be decarboxylated by ODC to produce putrescine, which is

  12. Steps towards understanding the phonological output buffer and its role in the production of numbers, morphemes, and function words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotan, Dror; Friedmann, Naama

    2015-02-01

    The Stimulus Type Effect on Phonological and Semantic errors (STEPS) describes the phenomenon in which a person, following brain damage, produces words with phonological errors (fine → fige), but number words with semantic errors (five → eight). To track the origins of this phenomenon and find out whether it is limited to numbers, we assessed the speech production of six individuals with conduction aphasia following a damage in the left hemisphere, who made phonological errors in words. STEPS was found in all six participants, and was not limited to number words - several other word categories were also produced with semantic rather than phonological errors: function words, English letter names, and morphological affixes were substituted with other words within their category. This supports the building blocks hypothesis: when phonological sequences serve as building blocks in a productive process, they end up having pre-assembled phonological representations, ready for articulation. STEPS reflects a deficit that causes substitutions of one phonological unit with another. In the case of plain content words, this causes substitutions of one phoneme with another, but in the case of pre-assembled phonological units, this causes substitutions of number words with other number words, function words with function words, and morphological affixes with other affixes. An analysis of the participants' functional locus of deficit revealed that they all had a deficit in the phonological output buffer, and this was their only common deficit. We therefore concluded that the pre-assembled phonological units are stored in dedicated mini-stores in the phonological output buffer, which processes not only phonemes but also whole number words, function words, and morphemes. We also found that STEPS depends on the word's role: number words were produced with semantic errors only when they appeared in numeric context, and function words triggered semantic errors only in

  13. Understanding the role of speech production in reading: Evidence for a print-to-speech neural network using graphical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummine, Jacqueline; Cribben, Ivor; Luu, Connie; Kim, Esther; Bahktiari, Reyhaneh; Georgiou, George; Boliek, Carol A

    2016-05-01

    The neural circuitry associated with language processing is complex and dynamic. Graphical models are useful for studying complex neural networks as this method provides information about unique connectivity between regions within the context of the entire network of interest. Here, the authors explored the neural networks during covert reading to determine the role of feedforward and feedback loops in covert speech production. Brain activity of skilled adult readers was assessed in real word and pseudoword reading tasks with functional MRI (fMRI). The authors provide evidence for activity coherence in the feedforward system (inferior frontal gyrus-supplementary motor area) during real word reading and in the feedback system (supramarginal gyrus-precentral gyrus) during pseudoword reading. Graphical models provided evidence of an extensive, highly connected, neural network when individuals read real words that relied on coordination of the feedforward system. In contrast, when individuals read pseudowords the authors found a limited/restricted network that relied on coordination of the feedback system. Together, these results underscore the importance of considering multiple pathways and articulatory loops during language tasks and provide evidence for a print-to-speech neural network. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Soil biotransformation of thiodiglycol, the hydrolysis product of mustard gas: understanding the factors governing remediation of mustard gas contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Muir, Robert; McFarlane, Neil R; Soilleux, Richard J; Yu, Xiaohong; Thompson, Ian P; Jackman, Simon A

    2013-02-01

    Thiodiglycol (TDG) is both the precursor for chemical synthesis of mustard gas and the product of mustard gas hydrolysis. TDG can also react with intermediates of mustard gas degradation to form more toxic and/or persistent aggregates, or reverse the pathway of mustard gas degradation. The persistence of TDG have been observed in soils and in the groundwater at sites contaminated by mustard gas 60 years ago. The biotransformation of TDG has been demonstrated in three soils not previously exposed to the chemical. TDG biotransformation occurred via the oxidative pathway with an optimum rate at pH 8.25. In contrast with bacteria isolated from historically contaminated soil, which could degrade TDG individually, a consortium of three bacterial strains isolated from the soil never contaminated by mustard gas was able to grow on TDG in minimal medium and in hydrolysate derived from an historical mustard gas bomb. Exposure to TDG had little impacts on the soil microbial physiology or on community structure. Therefore, the persistency of TDG in soils historically contaminated by mustard gas might be attributed to the toxicity of mustard gas to microorganisms and the impact to soil chemistry during the hydrolysis. TDG biodegradation may form part of a remediation strategy for mustard gas contaminated sites, and may be enhanced by pH adjustment and aeration.

  15. Understanding Uncertainties in the Economic Feasibility of Transportation Fuel Production using Biomass Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou, Longwen [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames IA 50010 USA; Li, Boyan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames IA 50010 USA; Dang, Qi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames IA 50010 USA; Bioeconomy Institute, Iowa State University, Ames IA 50012 USA; Jones, Susanne [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA; Brown, Robert [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames IA 50010 USA; Bioeconomy Institute, Iowa State University, Ames IA 50012 USA; Wright, Mark M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames IA 50010 USA; Bioeconomy Institute, Iowa State University, Ames IA 50012 USA

    2016-01-29

    This analysis evaluates uncertainties of previously conducted techno-economic analysis of transportation fuel production via biomass gasification and mixed alcohol synthesis. Two scenarios are considered: a state-of-technology scenario utilizing existing technologies and a target scenario representing future advancements in related technologies. Uncertainties of more than ten parameters are investigated, including feedstock price, internal rate of return (IRR), etc. Historical price data of these parameters are fitted with the most appropriate distribution and datasets are generated for each parameter accordingly. These data sets are then utilized to run a Monte-Carlo simulation. The results yield minimum fuel selling prices of $7.02/gal with a standard deviation of 0.49 for the state-of-technology scenario and $4.33/gal with a standard deviation of 0.42 for the target scenario respectively. Feedstock price and IRR have significant impact on the minimum fuel selling price in both scenarios. These findings are indicative of the reduction in biofuel cost and uncertainty achievable with increasing technology maturity.

  16. Unawareness to Production, Dropout to Innovator—Primary teachers' understanding and use of a science, technology and society approach to science teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollnick, Marissa; Dlamini, Betty T.; Bradley, John

    2015-05-01

    This paper investigates the process of teacher change in a group of 8 primary school teachers during their exposure to a science, technology and society (STS) approach to teaching Science in Swaziland. The research aimed to establish the effect of support given to teachers in using the approach through a series of workshops, followed by a 5-week supported implementation of the unit 'matter and energy'. An analysis of the way in which the STS approach impacted on the classroom practice of the teachers yielded 2 outcomes that were hierarchical. First, teacher understanding of the approach was observed to go through levels of unawareness, recognition of differences in approach, utilisation, personalisation and production. Second, the teachers' level of use of the STS approach was observed to have been affected by their levels of understanding, characterised by the following typologies: dropouts, strugglers, domesticators, succeeders and innovators. Some relationship between levels of understanding and typology of use was found, however, the level of understanding was not the exclusive determinant of typology of use. Only teachers reaching the utilisation level were able to use the innovation in a sustainable way, while those at the level of unawareness were able to become domesticators, adapting the innovation to their usual teaching approach.

  17. Integration of Remote Sensing Products with Ground-Based Measurements to Understand the Dynamics of Nepal's Forests and Plantation Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, H.; Jain, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    This study assembles information from three sources - remote sensing, terrestrial photography and ground-based inventory data, to understand the dynamics of Nepal's tropical and sub-tropical forests and plantation sites for the period 1990-2015. Our study focuses on following three specific district areas, which have conserved forests through social and agroforestry management practices: 1. Dolakha district: This site has been selected to study the impact of community-based forest management on land cover change using repeat photography and satellite imagery, in combination with interviews with community members. The study time period is during the period 1990-2010. We determined that satellite data with ground photographs can provide transparency for long term monitoring. The initial results also suggests that community-based forest management program in the mid-hills of Nepal was successful. 2. Chitwan district: Here we use high resolution remote sensing data and optimized community field inventories to evaluate potential application and operational feasibility of community level REDD+ measuring, reporting and verification (MRV) systems. The study uses temporal dynamics of land cover transitions, tree canopy size classes and biomass over a Kayar khola watershed REDD+ study area with community forest to evaluate satellite Image segmentation for land cover, linear regression model for above ground biomass (AGB), and estimation and monitoring field data for tree crowns and AGB. We study three specific years 2002, 2009, 2012. Using integration of WorldView-2 and airborne LiDAR data for tree species level. 3. Nuwakot district: This district was selected to study the impact of establishment of tree plantation on total barren/fallow. Over the last 40 year, this area has went through a drastic changes, from barren land to forest area with tree species consisting of Dalbergia sissoo, Leucaena leucocephala, Michelia champaca, etc. In 1994, this district area was registered

  18. Addressing unknown constants and metabolic network behaviors through petascale computing: understanding H2 production in green algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Christopher; Alber, David; Graf, Peter; Kim, Kwiseon; Seibert, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The Genomics Revolution has resulted in a massive and growing quantity of whole-genome DNA sequences, which encode the metabolic catalysts necessary for life. However, gene annotations can rarely be complete, and measurement of the kinetic constants associated with the encoded enzymes can not possibly keep pace, necessitating the use of careful modeling to explore plausible network behaviors. Key challenges are (1) quantitatively formulating kinetic laws governing each transformation in a fixed model network; (2) characterizing the stable solution (if any) of the associated ordinary differential equations (ODEs); (3) fitting the latter to metabolomics data as it becomes available; and (4) optimizing a model output against the possible space of kinetic parameters, with respect to properties such as robustness of network response, or maximum consumption/production. This SciDAC-2 project addresses this large-scale uncertainty in the genome-scale metabolic network of the water-splitting, H 2 -producing green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Each metabolic transformation is formulated as an irreversible steady-state process, such that the vast literature on known enzyme mechanisms may be incorporated directly. To start, glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and basic fermentation pathways have been encoded in Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) with careful annotation and consistency with the KEGG database, yielding a model with 3 compartments, 95 species, 38 reactions, and 109 kinetic constants. To study and optimize such models with a view toward larger models, we have developed a system which takes as input an SBML model, and automatically produces C code that when compiled and executed optimizes the model's kinetic parameters according to test criteria. We describe the system and present numerical results. Further development, including overlaying of a parallel multistart algorithm, will allow optimization of thousands of parameters on high-performance systems

  19. Comparison of thyroid stimulating activities measured by cyclic AMP production, those by radioiodine uptake in FRTL-5 cells and TSH-binding inhibitory activities in patients with hyperthyroid and euthyroid Graves' diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasagi, Kanji; Hatabu, Hiroto; Tokuda, Yasutaka; Arai, Keisuke; Iida, Yasuhiro; Konishi, Junji

    1988-01-01

    By using an assay measuring cAMP production in FRTL-5 thyroid cells, thyroid stimulating antibodies (TSab) were detected in all of 15 patients with euthyroid Graves' disease (EG) and of 26 patients with hyperthyroid Graves' disease (HG). There was no signicant difference between TSab activities in Eg and in HG. In an effort to elucidate why EG patients remain euthyroid in spite of having TSab, we investigated the effect of the patient's crude immunoglobulin fractions 125 I uptake in FRTL-5 thyroid cells, one of the indices of stimulation subsequent to cAMP production. The 125 Iuptake stimulation (IUS) activity was positive in 46,7% (7/15) of EG patients and 88.5% (23/26) of HG patients, being significantly lower in the former than in the latter (P 99m Tc thyroid uptake (r = 0.401, P 99m Tc thyroid uptake in comparison to 19 HG patients with a similar range of IUS activities. There was a good correlation between thyroid weight and 99m Tc thyroid uptake (r = 8.827, P 99m Tc and presumably radioiodine in vivo, might be a factor responsible for keeping EG patients euthyroid despite the presence of TSab. (author)

  20. Augmentation of antitumor immunity by fusions of ethanol-treated tumor cells and dendritic cells stimulated via dual TLRs through TGF-β1 blockade and IL-12p70 production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeo Koido

    Full Text Available The therapeutic efficacy of fusion cell (FC-based cancer vaccine generated with whole tumor cells and dendritic cells (DCs requires the improved immunogenicity of both cells. Treatment of whole tumor cells with ethanol resulted in blockade of immune-suppressive soluble factors such as transforming growth factor (TGF-β1, vascular endothelial growth factor, and IL-10 without decreased expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC class I and the MUC1 tumor-associated antigen. Moreover, the ethanol-treated tumor cells expressed "eat-me" signals such as calreticulin (CRT on the cell surface and released immunostimulatory factors such as heat shock protein (HSP90α and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1. A dual stimulation of protein-bound polysaccharides isolated from Coriolus versicolor (TLR2 agonist and penicillin-inactivated Streptococcus pyogenes (TLR4 agonist led human monocyte-derived DCs to produce HSP90α and multiple cytokines such as IL-12p70 and IL-10. Interestingly, incorporating ethanol-treated tumor cells and TLRs-stimulated DCs during the fusion process promoted fusion efficiency and up-regulated MHC class II molecules on a per fusion basis. Moreover, fusions of ethanol-treated tumor cells and dual TLRs-stimulated DCs (E-tumor/FCs inhibited the production of multiple immune-suppressive soluble factors including TGF-β1 and up-regulated the production of IL-12p70 and HSP90α. Most importantly, E-tumor/FCs activated T cells capable of producing high levels of IFN-γ, resulting in augmented MUC1-specific CTL induction. Collectively, our results illustrate the synergy between ethanol-treated whole tumor cells and dual TLRs-stimulated DCs in inducing augmented CTL responses in vitro by FC preparations. The alternative system is simple and may provide a platform for adoptive immunotherapy.

  1. Reduced response of splenocytes after mitogen-stimulation in the prion protein (PrP) gene-deficient mouse: PrPLP/Doppel production and cerebral degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chi-Kyeong; Hirose, Yuko; Sakudo, Akikazu; Takeyama, Natsumi; Kang, Chung-Boo; Taniuchi, Yojiro; Matsumoto, Yoshitsugu; Itohara, Shigeyoshi; Sakaguchi, Suehiro; Onodera, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    Splenocytes of wild-type (Prnp +/+ ) and prion protein gene-deficient (Prnp -/- ) mice were treated with various activation stimuli such as T cell mitogen concanavalin A (ConA), phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) + ionomycin (Io), or B cell mitogen lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Cellular prion protein (PrP C ) expression was enhanced following ConA stimulation, but not PMA + Io or LPS in Prnp +/+ splenocytes. Rikn Prnp -/- splenocytes elicited lower cell proliferations than Prnp +/+ or Zrch I Prnp -/- splenocytes after LPS stimulation and showed sporadic nerve cells in the cerebral cortex and deeper structure. Around the degenerated nerve cells, mild vacuolation in the neuropil was observed. This neural alteration correlated well to the suppressed response of B cells in the spleen. The finding that discrete lesions within the central nervous systems induced marked modulation of immune function probably indicates the existence of a delicately balanced neural-endocrine network by PrP C and PrPLP/Doppel

  2. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 stimulates the production of insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins-2, -3 and -4 in human bone marrow stromal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kveiborg, Marie; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Eriksen, E F

    2001-01-01

    1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol) inhibits proliferation and stimulates differentiation of multiple cell types, including osteoblasts. Human (h) bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) are a homogenous non-hematopoietic population of cells present in the bone marrow and exhibit a less differentiated...... osteoblastic phenotype. The IGF system, including IGFs-I, and -II and IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs), plays an important role in osteoblast cell proliferation and differentiation....

  3. Diagnoses of Cardiovascular Disease or Substance Addiction/Abuse in US Adults Treated for ADHD with Stimulants or Atomoxetine: Is Use Consistent with Product Labeling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairman, Kathleen A; Davis, Lindsay E; Peckham, Alyssa M; Sclar, David A

    2018-03-01

    Among US adults, utilization of pharmacotherapy for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has increased more than ninefold since 1995-1996. Potential contraindications to ADHD pharmacotherapy include serious cardiovascular disease (CVD) and, for stimulants, addictions and bipolar disorder (BPD). To assess the prevalence of potential contraindications among adults treated with ADHD pharmacotherapy. A retrospective cohort analysis was performed using the Truven Health MarketScan ® database. Subjects filled ≥ 1 prescription for atomoxetine or ≥ 1 stimulant in 2014-2015, were aged 18-64 years, commercially insured throughout observation, and diagnosed with ADHD on two or more medical claims. Diagnoses and medical procedures were measured in the 12 months prior to pharmacotherapy initiation. Metrics included serious CVD (cardiomegaly, cardiomyopathy, cerebrovascular occlusion, congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, pacemaker, or valvular disorder) and any CVD (serious CVD, other atherosclerotic CVD, arrhythmia, congenital heart anomaly, or hypertensive heart disease). Rates of substance addiction or abuse were measured in a range to address nonspecific diagnostic coding. Only 2.0% of treated adults (n = 91,588) had one or more diagnosis indicating serious CVD. CVD prevalence increased monotonically with age. Of patients aged 55-64 years (n = 5,237), 7.2% had serious CVD; 15.9% had any CVD; and 1.9% had been hospitalized with one or more CVD. Of patients treated with stimulants (n = 87,167), 11.3-18.5% were diagnosed with addiction/abuse and 4.1% with BPD. CVD prevalence is generally low among adults using ADHD medication but increases with age. Although difficult to estimate precisely, the rate of addiction/abuse among stimulant-treated patients appears unexpectedly high. Further research should assess cardiovascular events and other potential harms associated with contraindicated use in high-risk adults.

  4. What Do Teachers Do to Stimulate the Understanding of the Other in Interreligious Classroom Communication? Empirical Research into Dialogical Communication in Religiously Pluriform Learning Situations in Catholic Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eersel, San; Hermans, Chris; Sleegers, Peter

    2010-01-01

    How do pupils in dialogical classroom communication understand the otherness of peers who belong to religions different from their own? We distinguish between three aspects of dialogical communication that are conducive to understanding pupils' otherness: orientation, appropriation, and evaluation. To what extent do teachers apply these three…

  5. Is There a Link Between Mineralogy, Petrophysics, and the Hydraulic and Seismic Behaviors of the Soultz-sous-Forêts Granite During Stimulation? A Review and Reinterpretation of Petro-Hydromechanical Data Toward a Better Understanding of Induced Seismicity and Fluid Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meller, Carola; Ledésert, Béatrice

    2017-12-01

    In the framework of the European Soultz-sous-Forêts enhanced geothermal system (EGS) in Alsace, France, 20 years of scientific and preindustrial tests had to be performed before the site began production of electricity in 2008. Stimulation tests were designed to enhance the permeability because most of the numerous natural fractures that crosscut the granite body were sealed by secondary minerals that crystallized as an effect of the circulation of local hot brines. The deep-seated granitic reservoir is located between 4,500 and 5,000 m depths. Hydraulic stimulations were conducted in the four deep wells (GPK1, GPK2, GPK3, and GPK4) inducing different microseismic event patterns, which cannot be explained by tectonic structures alone. In the present work, we provide a review of the hydraulic tests and reinterpret them in the light of mineralogical data obtained along the boreholes. A clear relationship appears between mineralogy (mainly clay and calcite content) and the petrophysical, mechanical, and hydraulic behaviors of the rock mass. High calcite contents are correlated with an abundance of clay minerals, low Young's modulus, low magnetic susceptibility, and variation in spectral gamma ray. Microearthquakes are generated in the fresh granite zones, while clay and calcite-rich zones, linked with hydrothermal alteration, might behave aseismically during hydraulic stimulations. These findings highlight the importance of a detailed knowledge of the petrography of a reservoir to conduct an effective stimulation while keeping the seismic hazard at a minimum.

  6. An Independent Scientific Assessment of Well Stimulation in California Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Jane C.S. [California Council on Science and Technology, Sacramento, CA (United States); Feinstein, Laura C. [California Council on Science and Technology, Sacramento, CA (United States); Birkholzer, Jens [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jordan, Preston [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Houseworth, James [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dobson, Patrick F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Heberger, Matthew [Pacific Inst., Oakland, CA (United States); Gautier, Donald L. [Dr. Donald Dautier, LLC., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, the California Legislature passed Senate Bill 4 (SB 4), setting the framework for regulation of well stimulation technologies in California, including hydraulic fracturing. SB 4 also requires the California Natural Resources Agency to conduct an independent scientific study of well stimulation technologies in California to assess current and potential future practices, including the likelihood that well stimulation technologies could enable extensive new petroleum production in the state, evaluate the impacts of well stimulation technologies and the gaps in data that preclude this understanding, identify risks associated with current practices, and identify alternative practices which might limit these risks. The study is issued in three volumes. This document, Volume I, provides the factual basis describing well stimulation technologies, how and where operators deploy these technologies for oil and gas production in California, and where they might enable production in the future. Volume II discusses how well stimulation affects water, the atmosphere, seismic activity, wildlife and vegetation, traffic, light and noise levels; it will also explore human health hazards, and identify data gaps and alternative practices. Volume III presents case studies to assess environmental issues and qualitative

  7. Understanding users in product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: The consumers expect the packaging to be functional and to fulfil their specific needs in every way. A Danish survey showed that at least 40 per cent experience difficulties, when handling and opening packaging at least once a month, and as a consequence, 16 per cent of the consumers......, the guideline contain a step by step process to develop easy‐to‐open packaging. The guideline is constructed in a way that allows the enterprise to pick and choose in respect to the enterprise´s needs and competences. The main focus in the development of the guidelines has been to produce a tool that function...

  8. College Students Understanding of Production Management and Master Production Schedule through Using a Real World Tool, Complimented with Company Tours and In- Class Visits, Provides an Excellent Learning Experience at Farmingdale State College

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Anne O'Sullivan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing is playing a significant role in its re-shoring into America. Companies are grappling with ways to obtain that competitive advantage by distinguishing themselves through their intellectual capabilities, process improvements, technology, people, shop floor management and information flows. The purpose of this paper is to describe the effort at Farmingdale State College to educate our students in understanding Production Management and Master Production Schedule (MPS. We are trying to prepare students for entry into the workforce. By using a Real world ERP tool in the classroom while complimenting this learning with touring local manufacturers who use this tool and having production control experts in our classrooms. [1] The opportunity presents itself for these students to visit real world manufacturers using the same tool these students use in the classroom, the Infor Visual ERP. Each semester students go to a local manufacturer to see how the product is made and the ERP system is used to make it. Each semester a subject matter expert, SME, in manufacturing comes into the class and talks about how they use their ERP to perform their functional responsibilities. Students go into these companies and sit down with these Production Manufacturing and IT SME's to see how they use the modules in their ERP system from estimating, Production Management, MPS to delivery and payment. From the manufacturing window to the Master Schedule Window students learn from these companies SME's just how they perform their functions, how they use this tool. Then that is replicated this in the classroom lab assignments for students to better understand Production Management, scheduling and work order integrity. They identify the desired schedule (forecast and populate a Master Production Schedule. They create a BOM with work orders adding operations and material. The Production Management/Control is the function of directing or regulating the movement of

  9. Telmisartan, a possible PPAR-δ agonist, reduces TNF-α-stimulated VEGF-C production by inhibiting the p38MAPK/HSP27 pathway in human proximal renal tubular cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Hideki, E-mail: hkimura@u-fukui.ac.jp [Division of Nephrology, Department of General Medicine, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Fukui (Japan); Department of Clinical Laboratories and Nephrology, University of Fukui Hospital, Fukui (Japan); Mikami, Daisuke; Kamiyama, Kazuko [Division of Nephrology, Department of General Medicine, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Fukui (Japan); Sugimoto, Hidehiro [Department of Clinical Laboratories and Nephrology, University of Fukui Hospital, Fukui (Japan); Kasuno, Kenji; Takahashi, Naoki [Division of Nephrology, Department of General Medicine, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Fukui (Japan); Yoshida, Haruyoshi [Division of Nephrology, Department of General Medicine, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Fukui (Japan); Division of Nephrology, Obama Municipal Hospital, Obama, Fukui (Japan); Iwano, Masayuki [Division of Nephrology, Department of General Medicine, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Fukui (Japan)

    2014-11-14

    Highlights: • TNF-α increased VEGF-C expression by enhancing phosphorylation of p38MAPK and HSP27. • Telmisartan decreased TNF-α-stimulated expression of VEGF-C. • Telmisartan suppressed TNF-α-induced phosphorylation of p38MAPK and HSP27. • Telmisartan activated endogenous PPAR-δ protein. • Telmisartan suppressed p38MAPK phosphorylation in a PPAR-δ-dependent manner. - Abstract: Vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) is a main inducer of inflammation-associated lymphangiogenesis in various inflammatory disorders including chronic progressive kidney diseases, for which angiotensin II receptor type 1 blockers (ARBs) are widely used as the main treatment. Although proximal renal tubular cells may affect the formation of lymphatic vessels in the interstitial area by producing VEGF-C, the molecular mechanisms of VEGF-C production and its manipulation by ARB have not yet been examined in human proximal renal tubular epithelial cells (HPTECs). In the present study, TNF-α dose-dependently induced the production of VEGF-C in HPTECs. The TNF-α-induced production of VEGF-C was mediated by the phosphorylation of p38MAPK and HSP27, but not by that of ERK or NFkB. Telmisartan, an ARB that can activate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), served as a PPAR-δ activator and reduced the TNF-α-stimulated production of VEGF-C. This reduction was partially attributed to a PPAR-δ-dependent decrease in p38MAPK phosphorylation. Our results indicate that TNF-α induced the production of VEGF-C in HPTECs by activating p38MAPK/HSP27, and this was partially inhibited by telmisartan in a PPAR-δ dependent manner. These results provide a novel insight into inflammation-associated lymphangiogenesis.

  10. Stimulation of artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua hairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , the OGA-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) were involved in stimulating the artemisinin biosynthesis in the hairy roots. This is the first report on the stimulation of artemisinin production in hairy roots by an oligogalacturonide elicitor.

  11. Biomarkers and Stimulation Algorithms for Adaptive Brain Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly B. Hoang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this review is to describe in what ways feedback or adaptive stimulation may be delivered and adjusted based on relevant biomarkers. Specific treatment mechanisms underlying therapeutic brain stimulation remain unclear, in spite of the demonstrated efficacy in a number of nervous system diseases. Brain stimulation appears to exert widespread influence over specific neural networks that are relevant to specific disease entities. In awake patients, activation or suppression of these neural networks can be assessed by either symptom alleviation (i.e., tremor, rigidity, seizures or physiological criteria, which may be predictive of expected symptomatic treatment. Secondary verification of network activation through specific biomarkers that are linked to symptomatic disease improvement may be useful for several reasons. For example, these biomarkers could aid optimal intraoperative localization, possibly improve efficacy or efficiency (i.e., reduced power needs, and provide long-term adaptive automatic adjustment of stimulation parameters. Possible biomarkers for use in portable or implanted devices span from ongoing physiological brain activity, evoked local field potentials (LFPs, and intermittent pathological activity, to wearable devices, biochemical, blood flow, optical, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI changes, temperature changes, or optogenetic signals. First, however, potential biomarkers must be correlated directly with symptom or disease treatment and network activation. Although numerous biomarkers are under consideration for a variety of stimulation indications the feasibility of these approaches has yet to be fully determined. Particularly, there are critical questions whether the use of adaptive systems can improve efficacy over continuous stimulation, facilitate adjustment of stimulation interventions and improve our understanding of the role of abnormal network function in disease mechanisms.

  12. Mechanisms of deep brain stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jennifer J.; Eskandar, Emad N.

    2015-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is widely used for the treatment of movement disorders including Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, and dystonia and, to a lesser extent, certain treatment-resistant neuropsychiatric disorders including obsessive-compulsive disorder. Rather than a single unifying mechanism, DBS likely acts via several, nonexclusive mechanisms including local and network-wide electrical and neurochemical effects of stimulation, modulation of oscillatory activity, synaptic plasticity, and, potentially, neuroprotection and neurogenesis. These different mechanisms vary in importance depending on the condition being treated and the target being stimulated. Here we review each of these in turn and illustrate how an understanding of these mechanisms is inspiring next-generation approaches to DBS. PMID:26510756

  13. Inhibition of Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Neuro- Inflammatory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the in vitro antioxidant and anti-neuroinflammatory effects of Tetragonia tetragonoides (Pall.) Kuntze extract (TKE) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells. Methods: To evaluate the effects of TKE, LPS-stimulated BV microglia were used and the expression and production of ...

  14. Pro-oxidant activity of indicaxanthin from Opuntia ficus indica modulates arachidonate metabolism and prostaglandin synthesis through lipid peroxide production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Allegra

    2014-01-01

    A kinetic study investigating the redox status of LPS-stimulated macrophages between 0.5 and 12 h, either in the absence or in the presence of 50–100 µM indicaxanthin, revealed a differential control of ROS production, with early (0.5–3 h modest inhibition, followed by a progressive (3–12 h concentration-dependent enhancement over the level induced by LPS alone. In addition, indicaxanthin caused early (0.5–3 h concentration-dependent elevation of conjugated diene lipid hydroperoxides, and production of hydroxynonenal-protein adducts, over the amount induced by LPS. In LPS-stimulated macrophages indicaxanthin did not affect PG metabolism when co-incubated with either an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase or vitamin E. It is concluded that LPS-induced pro-oxidant activity of indicaxanthin at the membrane level allows formation of signaling intermediates whose accumulation modulates PG biosynthetic pathway in inflamed macrophages.

  15. Understanding the productive author who published papers in medicine using National Health Insurance Database: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Tsair-Wei; Chang, Yu; Wang, Hsien-Yi

    2018-02-01

    Many researchers used National Health Insurance database to publish medical papers which are often retrospective, population-based, and cohort studies. However, the author's research domain and academic characteristics are still unclear.By searching the PubMed database (Pubmed.com), we used the keyword of [Taiwan] and [National Health Insurance Research Database], then downloaded 2913 articles published from 1995 to 2017. Social network analysis (SNA), Gini coefficient, and Google Maps were applied to gather these data for visualizing: the most productive author; the pattern of coauthor collaboration teams; and the author's research domain denoted by abstract keywords and Pubmed MESH (medical subject heading) terms.Utilizing the 2913 papers from Taiwan's National Health Insurance database, we chose the top 10 research teams shown on Google Maps and analyzed one author (Dr. Kao) who published 149 papers in the database in 2015. In the past 15 years, we found Dr. Kao had 2987 connections with other coauthors from 13 research teams. The cooccurrence abstract keywords with the highest frequency are cohort study and National Health Insurance Research Database. The most coexistent MESH terms are tomography, X-ray computed, and positron-emission tomography. The strength of the author research distinct domain is very low (Gini < 0.40).SNA incorporated with Google Maps and Gini coefficient provides insight into the relationships between entities. The results obtained in this study can be applied for a comprehensive understanding of other productive authors in the field of academics.

  16. Understanding API-polymer proximities in amorphous stabilized composite drug products using fluorine-carbon 2D HETCOR solid-state NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Anuji; Crull, George

    2014-10-06

    A simple and robust method for obtaining fluorine-carbon proximities was established using a (19)F-(13)C heteronuclear correlation (HETCOR) two-dimensional (2D) solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) experiment under magic-angle spinning (MAS). The method was applied to study a crystalline active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), avagacestat, containing two types of fluorine atoms and its API-polymer composite drug product. These results provide insight into the molecular structure, aid with assigning the carbon resonances, and probe API-polymer proximities in amorphous spray dried dispersions (SDD). This method has an advantage over the commonly used (1)H-(13)C HETCOR because of the large chemical shift dispersion in the fluorine dimension. In the present study, fluorine-carbon distances up to 8 Å were probed, giving insight into the API structure, crystal packing, and assignments. Most importantly, the study demonstrates a method for probing an intimate molecular level contact between an amorphous API and a polymer in an SDD, giving insights into molecular association and understanding of the role of the polymer in API stability (such as recrystallization, degradation, etc.) in such novel composite drug products.

  17. 8,8'-Bieckol, isolated from edible brown algae, exerts its anti-inflammatory effects through inhibition of NF-κB signaling and ROS production in LPS-stimulated macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yeong-In; Jung, Seung-Hyun; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Choi, Jung-Hye

    2014-12-01

    Ecklonia cava (E. cava) is an abundant brown alga that contains high levels of phlorotannins, which are unique marine polyphenolic compounds. It has been suggested that E. cava phlorotannins exert anti-inflammatory effects. However, the anti-inflammatory effects and underlying molecular mechanism exerted by 8,8'-bieckol isolated from E. cava have not been reported. Thus, in this study, we examined the anti-inflammatory effects of 8,8'-bieckol on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated primary macrophages and RAW 264.7 macrophages. We found that 8,8'-bieckol suppressed key inflammatory mediator [i.e., nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)] production in both primary and RAW 264.7 macrophages. 8,8'-Bieckol inhibited NO by suppressing LPS-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) at the mRNA and protein levels in primary macrophages and RAW 264.7 cells. In addition, 8,8'-bieckol decreased the production and mRNA expression of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6), but not tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, in RAW 264.7 cells. Moreover, 8,8'-bieckol treatment diminished transactivation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and nuclear translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunit and suppressed LPS-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in macrophages. Furthermore, 8,8'-bieckol markedly reduced mortality in LPS-induced septic mice. Taken together, these data indicate that the anti-inflammatory properties of 8,8'-bieckol are associated with the suppression of NO, PGE2, and IL-6 via negative regulation of the NF-κB pathway and ROS production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Moreover, 8,8'-bieckol protects mice from endotoxin shock. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Malarial pigment haemozoin, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and LPS do not stimulate expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and production of nitric oxide in immuno-purified human monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceretto Monica

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enhanced production of nitric oxide (NO following upmodulation of the inducible isoform of NO synthase (iNOS by haemozoin (HZ, inflammatory cytokines and LPS may provide protection against Plasmodium falciparum malaria by killing hepatic and blood forms of parasites and inhibiting the cytoadherence of parasitized erythrocytes (RBC to endothelial cells. Monocytes and macrophages are considered to contribute importantly to protective upregulation of iNOS and production of NO. Data obtained with murine phagocytes fed with human HZ and synthetic HZ (sHZ indicate that supplemental treatment of those cells with IFN-gamma elicited significant increases in protein and mRNA expression of iNOS and NO production, providing a potential mechanism linking HZ phagocytosis and increased production of NO. Purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of P. falciparum HZ and sHZ supplemental to treatment with IFN-gamma and/or a stimulatory cytokine-LPS mix on iNOS protein and mRNA expression in immuno-purified human monocytes. Methods Adherent immunopurified human monocytes (purity >85%, and murine phagocytic cell lines RAW 264.7, N11 and ANA1 were fed or not with P. falciparum HZ or sHZ and treated or not with IFN-gamma or a stimulatory cytokine-LPS mix. Production of NO was quantified in supernatants, iNOS protein and mRNA expression were measured after immunoprecipitation and Western blotting and quantitative RT-PCT, respectively. Results Phagocytosis of HZ/sHZ by human monocytes did not increase iNOS protein and mRNA expression and NO production either after stimulation by IFN-gamma or the cytokine-LPS mix. By contrast, in HZ/sHZ-laden murine macrophages, identical treatment with IFN-gamma and the cytokine-LPS mix elicited significant increases in protein and mRNA expression of iNOS and NOS metabolites production, in agreement with literature data. Conclusion Results indicate that human monocytes fed or not with HZ/sHZ were constantly

  19. Understanding the regioselective hydrolysis of ginkgolide B under physiological environment based on generation, detection, identification, and semi-quantification of the hydrolyzed products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue-Jing; Yang, Kui; Du, Gang; Xu, Liang; Lan, Ke

    2015-10-01

    A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method coupled with specialized sample-preparation strategies was developed to investigate the hydrolysis of ginkgolide B (GB) in physiological environments in comparison with that of ginkgolide A (GA). The rapid hydrolysis processes were captured by the direct injection of samples prepared in the volatile buffers. The LC-MS behavior of the hydrolyzed products, including three monocarboxylates and three dicarboxylates, was acquired. The monocarboxylates were identified by fragmentation analysis, and the dicarboxylates were accordingly tentatively identified by reaction sequences. The base-catalyzed hydrolysis of GB and GA was characterized at 4 °C within pH 7.0-10.7. The regioselective reactions on the lactone-C and lactone-F were revealed by thermodynamic studies at pH 6.8 and 7.4. It was revealed that the 1-hydroxyl group on the skeleton of GB blocks the reactivity of the lactone-E. On the basis of these results, a distinctive hydrolysis phenomenon of GB was confirmed in plasma of humans, rats, and dogs as a rapid degradation of the trilactone along with the only production of the lactone-F-hydrolyzed product. This phenomenon is also closely associated with the 1-hydroxyl group, because it was not observed in GA. More interestingly, the underlying mechanism was revealed not to be associated with any typical enzyme-catalyzed process, but to be potentially involved with a selective reaction of the intact or broken lactone-C moiety with endogenous small-molecule reactants in plasma. This in-depth knowledge of the hydrolysis of GB versus GA not only facilitated understanding of their pharmacological mechanisms but also provided potential routes to study the structure-activity relationships of ginkgolides. Graphical Abstract Regioselective hydrolysis of ginkgolide B in pH 7.4 buffers and plasma.

  20. Consumer use and understanding of labelling information on edible marijuana products sold for recreational use in the states of Colorado and Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosa, Katherine M; Giombi, Kristen C; Rains, Caroline B; Cates, Sheryl C

    2017-05-01

    In 2014, the states of Colorado and Washington began allowing retail sales of marijuana for recreational use. The regulatory agencies in these states have implemented specific labelling requirements for edible marijuana products sold for recreational use to help address concerns such as delayed activation time, accidental ingestion, and proper dosing. We conducted 12 focus groups with 94 adult consumers and nonconsumers of edibles in Denver and Seattle to collect information on their use and understanding of labelling information on edible marijuana products sold for recreational use. Specifically, we asked participants about the usefulness, attractiveness, ease of comprehension, relevancy, and acceptability of the label information. Some focus group participants look for and read specific information, such as the potency profile and serving size statement, but do not read or were unfamiliar with other labelling features. The focus groups revealed that participants have some concerns about the current labelling of edibles. In particular, participants were concerned that there is too much information on the labels so consumers may not read the label, there is no obvious indication that the product contains marijuana (e.g., a Universal Symbol), and the information on consumption advice is not clear. Participants in both locations suggested that education in a variety of formats, such as web- and video-based education, would be useful in informing consumers about the possible risks of edibles. The focus group findings suggest that improvements are needed in the labelling of edibles to prevent unintentional ingestion among adult nonusers and help ensure proper dosing and safe consumption among adult users. These findings, along with lessons learned from Colorado and Washington, can help inform the labelling of edibles as additional states allow the sale of edibles for recreational use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Stimulation of d- and l-lactate dehydrogenases transcriptional levels in presence of diammonium hydrogen phosphate resulting to enhanced lactic acid production by Lactobacillus strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhvi, Mamata; Zendo, Takeshi; Iida, Hiroshi; Gokhale, Digambar; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2017-12-01

    The present study revealed the effect of nitrogen sources on lactic acid production and stimulation of d- and l-lactate dehydrogenases (LDH) of parent Lactobacillus lactis NCIM 2368 and its mutant RM2-24 generated after UV mutagenesis. Both the parent and mutant strains were evaluated for d-lactic acid production in control and modified media. The modified media did not show remarkable effect on lactic acid production in case of parent whereas mutant exhibited significant enhancement in d-lactic acid production along with the appearance of l-lactic acid in the broth. Both LDH activities and specific activities were found to be higher in mutant than the parent strain. These results suggested that the diammonium hydrogen phosphate in modified media triggered the expression of LDH genes leading to enhanced lactic acid production. This observation has been proved by studying the expression levels of d- and l-LDH genes of parent and mutant in control and modified media using quantitative RT-PCR technique. In case of mutant, the transcriptional levels of d-LDH and l-LDH increased ∼17 fold and ∼1.38 fold respectively in modified medium compared to the values obtained with control medium. In case of parent, no significant change in transcriptional levels of d- and l-LDH was found when the cells were grown in either control medium or modified medium. This study suggested that the mutant, RM2-24 has l-LDH gene which is expressed in presence of (NH 4 ) 2 HPO 4 resulting in l-lactic acid production. Co-production of l-lactic acid in d-lactic acid fermentation may be detrimental in the PLA production. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Imbibition well stimulation via neural network design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, William

    2007-08-14

    A method for stimulation of hydrocarbon production via imbibition by utilization of surfactants. The method includes use of fuzzy logic and neural network architecture constructs to determine surfactant use.

  3. Understanding Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Understanding Carbohydrates How much and what type of carbohydrate foods ... glucose levels in your target range. Explore: Understanding Carbohydrates Glycemic Index and Diabetes Learn about the glycemic ...

  4. Using program impact pathways to understand and improve program delivery, utilization, and potential for impact of Helen Keller International's homestead food production program in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olney, Deanna K; Vicheka, Sao; Kro, Meng; Chakriya, Chhom; Kroeun, Hou; Hoing, Ly Sok; Talukder, Aminzzaman; Quinn, Victoria; Iannotti, Lora; Becker, Elisabeth; Roopnaraine, Terry

    2013-06-01

    Evidence of the impact of homestead food production programs on nutrition outcomes such as anemia and growth is scant. In the absence of information on program impact pathways, it is difficult to understand why these programs, which have been successful in increasing intake of micronutrient-rich foods, have had such limited documented impact on nutrition outcomes. To conduct a process evaluation of Helen Keller International's (HKI's) homestead food production program in Cambodia to assess whether the program was operating as planned (in terms of design, delivery, and utilization) and to identify ways in which the program might need to be strengthened in order to increase its potential for impact. A program theory framework, which laid out the primary components along the hypothesized program impact pathways, was developed in collaboration with HKI and used to design the research. Semistructured interviews and focus group discussions with program beneficiaries (n = 36 and 12, respectively), nonbeneficiaries (n = 12), and program implementers (n = 17 and 2, respectively) and observations of key program delivery points, including health and nutrition training sessions (n = 6), village model farms (n = 6), and household gardens of beneficiaries (n = 36) and nonbeneficiaries (n = 12), were conducted to assess the delivery and utilization of the primary program components along the impact pathways. The majority of program components were being delivered and utilized as planned. However, challenges with some of the key components posited to improve outcomes such as anemia and growth were noted. Among these were a gap in the expected pathway from poultry production to increased intake of eggs and poultry meat, and some weaknesses in the delivery of the health and nutrition training sessions and related improvements in knowledge among the village health volunteers and beneficiaries. Although the program has been successful in delivering the majority of the program

  5. Serum from postmenopausal women treated with a by-product of olive-oil extraction process stimulates osteoblastogenesis and inhibits adipogenesis in human mesenchymal stem-cells (MSC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado-Díaz, Antonio; Túnez-Fiñana, Isaac; Mata-Granados, José María; Ruiz-Méndez, María Victoria; Dorado, Gabriel; Romero-Sánchez, María Concepción; Navarro-Valverde, Cristina; Quesada-Gómez, José Manuel

    2017-04-01

    Aging may enhance both oxidative stress and bone-marrow mesenchymal stem-cell (MSC) differentiation into adipocytes. That reduces osteoblastogenesis, thus favoring bone-mass loss and fracture, representing an important worldwide health-issue, mainly in countries with aging populations. Intake of antioxidant products may help to retain bone-mass density. Interestingly, a novel olive-pomace physical treatment to generate olive oil also yields by-products rich in functional antioxidants. Thus, diet of postmenopausal women was supplemented for two months with one of such by-products (distillate 6; D6), being rich in squalene. After treatment, serum from such women showed reduced both lipidic peroxidation and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Besides, vitamin E and coenzyme Q10 levels increased. Furthermore, culture medium containing 10% of such serum both increased osteoblastogenesis and reduced adipogenesis in human MSC from bone marrow. Therefore, highly antioxidant by-products like D6 may represent a relevant source for development of functional products, for both prevention and treatment of degenerative pathologies associated with aging, like osteoporosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Stimulation of jasmonic acid production in Zea mays L. infected by the maize rough dwarf virus-Río Cuarto. Reversion of symptoms by salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigliocco, A; Bonamico, B; Alemano, S; Miersch, O; Abdala, G

    2002-12-01

    In the present paper we study the possible biological relevance of endogenous jasmonic acid (JA) and exogenous salicylic acid (SA) in a plant-microbial system maize-virus. The virus disease "Mal de Río Cuarto" is caused by the maize rough dwarf virus-Río Cuarto. The characteristic symptoms are the appearance of galls or "enations" in leaves, shortening of the stem internodes, poor radical system and general stunting. Changes in JA and protein pattern in maize control and infected plants of a virus-tolerant cultivar were investigated. Healthy and infected-leaf discs were collected for JA measurement at different post-infection times (20, 40, 60 and 68 days). JA was also measured in roots on day 60 after infection. For SDS-PAGE protein analysis, leaf discs were also harvested on day 60 after infection. Infected leaves showed higher levels of JA than healthy leaves, and the rise in endogenous JA coincided with the enation formation. The soluble protein amount did not show differences between infected and healthy leaves; moreover, no difference in the expression of soluble protein was revealed by SDS-PAGE. Our results show that the octadecanoid pathway was stimulated in leaves and roots of the tolerant maize cultivar when infected by this virus. This finding, together with fewer plants with the disease symptoms, suggest that higher foliar and roots JA content may be related to disease tolerance. SA exogenous treatment caused the reversion of the dwarfism symptom.

  7. Experimental production of illusory (false) memories in reconstructions of narratives: effect size and potential mediation by right hemispheric stimulation from complex, weak magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, F; Persinger, M A

    2001-01-01

    This experiment was designed to discern the proportion of false, inferential and verbatim memories that would be included in the reconstruction, one week later, of a 5 min narrative containing ambiguous but emotional content about a little boy. After 48 subjects were administered Spiegel's Hypnosis Induction Profile, they listened to the narrative, were exposed to one of four applications of transcerebral weak, complex magnetic fields for 30 min and then given either an accurate or inaccurate short summary of the story. One week later the group who received the erroneous summary reported more false memories about the original story than did the reference group; this treatment accommodated about 40% of the variance in numbers of false memories. Only an indicator of electrical lability within the temporal lobes (but not hypnotizability) was strongly associated with the numbers of inferential memories but not the numbers of false memories. The group that received transcerebral stimulation over the right hemisphere by a complex magnetic field and the erroneous summary reported three times the numbers of false memories compared to the other groups. Whereas verbatim memories showed a strong primacy effect inferential memories exhibited a strong recency effect (eta(2) =.66).

  8. Whey proteins have beneficial effects on intestinal enteroendocrine cells stimulating cell growth and increasing the production and secretion of incretin hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Anna L; Calderwood, Danielle; Hobson, Laura; Green, Brian D

    2015-12-15

    Whey protein has been indicated to curb diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance and delay the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Here the effects of intact crude whey, intact individual whey proteins and beta-lactoglobulin hydrolysates on an enteroendocrine (EE) cell model were examined. STC-1 pGIP/neo cells were incubated with several concentrations of yogurt whey (YW), cheese whey (CW), beta-lactoglobulin (BLG), alpha-lactalbumin (ALA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The findings demonstrate that BLG stimulates EE cell proliferation, and also GLP-1 secretion (an effect which is lost following hydrolysis with chymotrypsin or trypsin). ALA is a highly potent GLP-1 secretagogue which also increases the intracellular levels of GLP-1. Conversely, whey proteins and hydrolysates had little impact on GIP secretion. This appears to be the first investigation of the effects of the three major proteins of YW and CW on EE cells. The anti-diabetic potential of whey proteins should be further investigated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Common Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Receptor (FSHR Promoter Polymorphism FSHR −29G > A Affects Androgen Production in Normal Human Small Antral Follicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanni Borgbo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Follicle-stimulating hormone receptors (FSHRs are almost exclusively expressed on granulosa cells, and FSH action is probably most clearly reflected in intrafollicular hormone milieu of antral follicles. Little is known about the possible effects of the common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP FSHR −29G > A (rs1394205 on hormonal conditions in humsan small antral follicles (hSAFs obtained from women in the natural menstrual cycle. This study investigated the follicle fluid (FF concentrations of anti-Müllerian hormone, estradiol, progesterone, androstenedione, and testosterone in hSAF in relation to the different genotypes of FSHR −29G > A. FF from 362 follicles was collected in 95 women undergoing fertility preservation, who did not suffer from a disease that directly affected ovarian function. The testosterone levels of the minor A/A genotype were significantly increased compared to the A/G and the G/G genotype. Furthermore, significantly reduced androstenedione levels were observed for the G/G genotype, as compared to the A/G genotype, while the other hormones did not show statistical significant differences. In conclusion, the androgen levels of hSAF were significantly elevated in the minor SNP genotype in the FSHR promoter polymorphism FSHR −29G > A.

  10. Feldspar, Infrared Stimulated Luminescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Mayank

    2014-01-01

    This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars.......This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars....

  11. Growth hormone stimulation test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003377.htm Growth hormone stimulation test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone (GH) stimulation test measures the ability of the ...

  12. Spinal cord stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007560.htm Spinal cord stimulation To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Spinal cord stimulation is a treatment for pain that uses ...

  13. Effort-reward-imbalance in healthy teachers is associated with higher LPS-stimulated production and lower glucocorticoid sensitivity of interleukin-6 in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellingrath, Silja; Rohleder, Nicolas; Kudielka, Brigitte M

    2013-02-01

    According to the effort-reward-imbalance (ERI) model, a lack of reciprocity between costs and gains at work increases the risk for adverse health outcomes. Inflammation has been shown to play a crucial role in a variety of stress-related diseases and alterations in immune system glucocorticoid sensitivity may help to explain the increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and depression related to chronic work stress. Changes in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced interleukin (IL)-6 production and inhibition of IL-6 production by dexamethasone in reaction to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) were assessed in forty-six healthy school teachers to test whether chronic work stress is accompanied by alterations in inflammatory activity and glucocorticoid sensitivity of the innate immune system. High ERI was associated with an increase in pro-inflammatory potential, reflected in elevated IL-6 production before and after stress and with a lower capacity of dexamethasone to suppress IL-6 production in vitro over all measurement time points. ERI was not associated with stress-related changes in GC sensitivity. The present findings suggest a less effective anti-inflammatory regulation by glucocorticoids in teachers suffering from chronic work stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Human Mast Cells (HMC-1 5C6 Enhance Interleukin-6 Production by Quiescent and Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damandeep S. Walia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effect of intact human mast cells (HMC-1 5C6 and their selected mediators on interleukin-6 (IL-6 production and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 expression in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC in the presence and absence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Scanning electron microscopy showed that HMC-1 5C6 cells adhere to HCAEC in cocultures. Addition of HMC-1 5C6 cells markedly enhanced the IL-6 production by quiescent and LPS-activated HCAEC even at the maximal concentration of LPS. Furthermore, mast cell-derived histamine and proteases accounted for the direct and synergistic effect of mast cells on IL-6 production that was completely blocked by the combination of histamine receptor-1 antagonist and protease inhibitors. Another novel finding is that histamine was able to induce BMP-2 expression in HCAEC. Collectively, our results suggest that endotoxin and mast cell products synergistically amplify vascular inflammation and that histamine participates in the early events of vascular calcification.

  15. Human mast cells (HMC-1 5C6) enhance interleukin-6 production by quiescent and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human coronary artery endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walia, Damandeep S; Sharma, Mukut; Raveendran, Vineesh V; Zhou, Jianping; Sharma, Ram; Stechschulte, Daniel J; Dileepan, Kottarappat N

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effect of intact human mast cells (HMC-1 5C6) and their selected mediators on interleukin-6 (IL-6) production and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) expression in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) in the presence and absence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Scanning electron microscopy showed that HMC-1 5C6 cells adhere to HCAEC in cocultures. Addition of HMC-1 5C6 cells markedly enhanced the IL-6 production by quiescent and LPS-activated HCAEC even at the maximal concentration of LPS. Furthermore, mast cell-derived histamine and proteases accounted for the direct and synergistic effect of mast cells on IL-6 production that was completely blocked by the combination of histamine receptor-1 antagonist and protease inhibitors. Another novel finding is that histamine was able to induce BMP-2 expression in HCAEC. Collectively, our results suggest that endotoxin and mast cell products synergistically amplify vascular inflammation and that histamine participates in the early events of vascular calcification.

  16. NITRIC OXIDE PRODUCTION AND iNOS mRNA EXPRESSION IN IFN-8-STIMULATED CHICKEN MACROPHAGES TRANSFECTED WITH iNOS siRNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utilizing RNA interference technology with siRNA in the HD-11 macrophage cell line, we determined how the knock-down of the iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) gene affected IFN-' induced macrophage production of nitric oxide (NO) and mRNA expression of genes involved in this biological pathway i...

  17. Participative Work Design in Lean Production: A Strategy for Dissolving the Paradox between Standardized Work and Team Proactivity by Stimulating Team Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Annika; Hansen, Niklas; Antoni, Conny

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore job design mechanisms that enhance team proactivity within a lean production system where autonomy is uttermost restricted. We propose and test a model where the team learning process of building shared meaning of work mediates the relationship between team participative decision-making, inter team…

  18. Inhibitor of Tec kinase, LFM-A13, decreases pro-inflammatory mediators production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages via NF-κB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Chao; Fang, Xu; Cheng, Hao; Liu, Sheng; Chen, Xu-Lin

    2017-05-23

    Tec kinase, a prototypical member of the Tec tyrosine kinases family, was shown to mainly govern lymphocyte proliferation. In the present study, we investigated the role of Tec kinase in acute inflammatory response in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. First, we demonstrate that Tec kinase activity was observed in RAW264.7 macrophages exposed to LPS. Tec and phosphorylated Tec expression were upregulated in a dose- and time-dependent manner after LPS stimulation. LPS increased monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 secretion and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 expression, and increasing mRNA expression was consistently observed. LPS also induced IκBα phoshporylaytion and its degradation, increased NF-κB p65 phoshporylaytion and translocation to nuclei in RAW264.7 cells. Pretreatment with LFM-A13 decreased LPS-induced cytokines and chemokines production and mRNA levels, blocked NF-κB transactivation. These effects of LPS were also prevented by Tec-siRNA. Additionally, LFM-A13 or Tec-siRNA obviously inhibited LPS-induced TGFβ-activated kinase 1(TAK1) phosphorylation. Taken together, our results suggest that Tec kinase involves in acute inflammation process in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, at least mediated by activating TAK1/ NF-κB signal pathway.

  19. Hydrogen Production from Water by Photosynthesis System I for Use as Fuel in Energy Conversion Devices (a.k.a. Understanding Photosystem I as a Biomolecular Reactor for Energy Conversion)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Hydrogen Production from Water by Photosynthesis System I for Use as Fuel in Energy Conversion Devices (a.k.a. Understanding Photosystem I as...Laboratory Adelphi, MD 20783-1197 ARL-TR-6904 April 2014 Hydrogen Production from Water by Photosynthesis System I for Use as Fuel in Energy...Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 10/1/2010–10/1/2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Hydrogen Production from Water by Photosynthesis System I for Use as Fuel

  20. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of light intensity on flavonoid production by RNA-seq analysis in Epimedium pseudowushanense B.L.Guo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqian Pan

    Full Text Available Epimedium pseudowushanense B.L.Guo, a light-demanding shade herb, is used in traditional medicine to increase libido and strengthen muscles and bones. The recognition of the health benefits of Epimedium has increased its market demand. However, its resource recycling rate is low and environmentally dependent. Furthermore, its natural sources are endangered, further increasing prices. Commercial culture can address resource constraints of it.Understanding the effects of environmental factors on the production of its active components would improve the technology for cultivation and germplasm conservation. Here, we studied the effects of light intensities on the flavonoid production and revealed the molecular mechanism using RNA-seq analysis. Plants were exposed to five levels of light intensity through the periods of germination to flowering, the flavonoid contents were measured using HPLC. Quantification of epimedin A, epimedin B, epimedin C, and icariin showed that the flavonoid contents varied with different light intensity levels. And the largest amount of epimedin C was produced at light intensity level 4 (I4. Next, the leaves under the treatment of three light intensity levels ("L", "M" and "H" with the largest differences in the flavonoid content, were subjected to RNA-seq analysis. Transcriptome reconstruction identified 43,657 unigenes. All unigene sequences were annotated by searching against the Nr, Gene Ontology, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG databases. In total, 4008, 5260, and 3591 significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified between the groups L vs. M, M vs. H and L vs. H. Particularly, twenty-one full-length genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis were identified. The expression levels of the flavonol synthase, chalcone synthase genes were strongly associated with light-induced flavonoid abundance with the highest expression levels found in the H group. Furthermore, 65 transcription factors

  1. Identifying overarching excipient properties towards an in-depth understanding of process and product performance for continuous twin-screw wet granulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willecke, N; Szepes, A; Wunderlich, M; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C; De Beer, T

    2017-04-30

    The overall objective of this work is to understand how excipient characteristics influence the process and product performance for a continuous twin-screw wet granulation process. The knowledge gained through this study is intended to be used for a Quality by Design (QbD)-based formulation design approach and formulation optimization. A total of 9 preferred fillers and 9 preferred binders were selected for this study. The selected fillers and binders were extensively characterized regarding their physico-chemical and solid state properties using 21 material characterization techniques. Subsequently, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the data sets of filler and binder characteristics in order to reduce the variety of single characteristics to a limited number of overarching properties. Four principal components (PC) explained 98.4% of the overall variability in the fillers data set, while three principal components explained 93.4% of the overall variability in the data set of binders. Both PCA models allowed in-depth evaluation of similarities and differences in the excipient properties. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. A method for the production of large volumes of WAF and CEWAF for dosing mesocosms to understand marine oil snow formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Terry L; Morales-McDevitt, Maya; Bera, Gopal; Shi, Dawai; Sweet, Stephen; Wang, Binbin; Gold-Bouchot, Gerado; Quigg, Antonietta; Knap, Anthony H

    2017-10-01

    Marine oil snow (MOS) formation is a mechanism to transport oil from the ocean surface to sediments. We describe here the use of 110L mesocosms designed to mimic oceanic parameters during an oil spill including the use of chemical dispersants in order to understand the processes controlling MOS formation. These experiments were not designed to be toxicity tests but rather to illustrate mechanisms. This paper focuses on the development of protocols needed to conduct experiments under environmentally relevant conditions to examine marine snow and MOS. The experiments required the production of over 500 liters of water accommodated fraction (WAF), chemically enhanced water accommodated fraction of oil (CEWAF) as well as diluted CEWAF (DCEWAF). A redesigned baffled (170 L) recirculating tank (BRT) system was used. Two mesocosm experiments (M1 and M2) were run for several days each. In both M1 and M2, marine snow and MOS was formed in controls and all treatments respectively. Estimated oil equivalent (EOE) concentrations of CEWAF were in the high range of concentrations reported during spills and field tests, while WAF and DCEWAF concentrations were within the range of concentrations reported during oil spills. EOE decreased rapidly within days in agreement with historic data and experiments.

  3. On the understanding of history in Marx. The prospects of Ernesto Laclau and Jürgen Habermas on the development of the productive forces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Cristobo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The crisis and the subsequent collapse of the so called ‘actually existing’ socialism produced a return to Marx. This return meant the revival of a set of threads running through the fields of epistemology of the social sciences, philosophy and political science. Within this framework, our job is to analyze and compare two different interpretations on understanding the course of history in Marx from the perspectives of Ernesto Laclau and Jürgen Habermas. First, we analyze Laclau’s objections to the explanation that Marx develops social change as an engine of history. According to Laclau, Marx holds two mutually exclusive concepts: the pair ‘productive forces / relations of production’ and ‘class struggle’. Second, as a critique of this position, we will address the relationship between the two concepts identified from an epistemological theory radically different perspective: made by Jürgen Habermas in his book Knowledge and Human Interests. Finally, we conclude with a summary of both positions.

  4. Supercritical fluid extraction of grape seeds: extract chemical composition, antioxidant activity and inhibition of nitrite production in LPS-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Concepción; Ruiz del Castillo, María Luisa; Gil, Carmen; Blanch, Gracia Patricia; Flores, Gema

    2015-08-01

    Grape by-products are a rich source of bioactive compounds having broad medicinal properties, but are usually wasted from juice/wine processing industries. The present study investigates the use of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) for obtaining an extract rich in bioactive compounds. First, some variables involved in the extraction were applied. SFE conditions were selected based on the oil mass yield, fatty acid profile and total phenolic composition. As a result, 40 °C and 300 bar were selected as operational conditions. The phenolic composition of the grape seed oil was determined using LC-DAD. The antioxidant activity was determined by ABTS and DPPH assays. For the anti-inflammatory activity the inhibition of nitrite production was assessed. The grape seed oil extracted was rich in phenolic compounds and fatty acids with significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. From these results, added economic value to this agroindustrial residue is proposed using environmentally friendly techniques.

  5. Loci controlling lymphocyte production of interferon gamma after alloantigen stimulation in vitro and their co-localization with genes controlling lymphocyte infiltration of tumors and tumor susceptibility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lipoldová, Marie; Havelková, Helena; Badalová, Jana; Vojtíšková, Jarmila; Quan, L.; Krulová, Magdalena; Sohrabi, Yahya; Stassen, A. P. M.; Demant, P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 2 (2010), s. 203-213 ISSN 0340-7004 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA AV ČR IAA500520606; GA ČR GD310/08/H077 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : Tumor susceptibility * Genetic control of interferon gamma production * Lymphocyte infiltration of tumors Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.293, year: 2010

  6. Effects of Thyme Extract Oils (from Thymus vulgaris, Thymus zygis, and Thymus hyemalis on Cytokine Production and Gene Expression of oxLDL-Stimulated THP-1-Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ocaña

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Properties of thyme extracts from three different species (Thymus vulgaris, Thymus zygis, and Thymus hyemalis were examined. Two oil fractions from each species were obtained by CO2 supercritical fluid extraction. Main compounds presented in the supercritical extracts of the three thyme varieties were 1,8 cineole, thymol, camphor, borneol, and carvacrol. As a cellular model of inflammation/atherogenesis, we use human macrophages derived from THP-1 monocytes and activated by oxidized LDLs. These cells were incubated with the thyme fraction oils, and the productions and gene expressions of the inflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-1B, IL-6, and IL-10 were determined. Thyme extracts significantly reduced production and gene expression of the proinflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-1B, and IL-6 and highly increased these parameters on the anti-inflammatory IL-10 cytokine. Changes on production and gene expressions were dose dependent and according to the thyme content of each species. Taken together, these results may suggest that thyme extracts could have anti-inflammatory effects.

  7. Analytical filtration model for nonlinear viscoplastic oil in the theory of oil production stimulation and heating of oil reservoir in a dual-well system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanovich Astafev, Vladimir; Igorevich Gubanov, Sergey; Alexandrovna Olkhovskaya, Valeria; Mikhailovna Sylantyeva, Anastasia; Mikhailovich Zinovyev, Alexey

    2018-02-01

    Production of high-viscosity oil and design of field development systems for such oil is one of the most promising directions in the development of world oil industry. The ability of high-viscosity oil to show in filtration process properties typical for non-Newtonian systems is proven by experimental studies. Nonlinear relationship between the pressure gradient and the rate of oil flow is due to interaction of high-molecular substances, in particular, asphaltenes and tars that form a plastic structure in it. The authors of this article have used the analytical model of stationary influx of nonlinear viscoplastic oil to the well bottom in order to provide rationale for the intensifying impact on a reservoir. They also have analyzed the method of periodic heating of productive reservoir by means of dual-wells. The high-temperature source is placed at the bottom of the vertical well, very close to the reservoir; at the same time the side well, located outside the zone of expected rock damage, is used for production. Suggested method of systemic treatment of reservoirs with dual wells can be useful for small fields of high-viscosity oil. The effect is based on the opportunity to control the structural and mechanical properties of high-viscosity oil and to increase depletion of reserves.

  8. Effects of Thyme Extract Oils (from Thymus vulgaris, Thymus zygis, and Thymus hyemalis) on Cytokine Production and Gene Expression of oxLDL-Stimulated THP-1-Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaña, A.; Reglero, G.

    2012-01-01

    Properties of thyme extracts from three different species (Thymus vulgaris, Thymus zygis, and Thymus hyemalis) were examined. Two oil fractions from each species were obtained by CO2 supercritical fluid extraction. Main compounds presented in the supercritical extracts of the three thyme varieties were 1,8 cineole, thymol, camphor, borneol, and carvacrol. As a cellular model of inflammation/atherogenesis, we use human macrophages derived from THP-1 monocytes and activated by oxidized LDLs. These cells were incubated with the thyme fraction oils, and the productions and gene expressions of the inflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-1B, IL-6, and IL-10 were determined. Thyme extracts significantly reduced production and gene expression of the proinflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-1B, and IL-6 and highly increased these parameters on the anti-inflammatory IL-10 cytokine. Changes on production and gene expressions were dose dependent and according to the thyme content of each species. Taken together, these results may suggest that thyme extracts could have anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:22577523

  9. Modulation of human time processing by subthalamic deep brain stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Wojtecki

    Full Text Available Timing in the range of seconds referred to as interval timing is crucial for cognitive operations and conscious time processing. According to recent models of interval timing basal ganglia (BG oscillatory loops are involved in time interval recognition. Parkinsońs disease (PD is a typical disease of the basal ganglia that shows distortions in interval timing. Deep brain stimulation (DBS of the subthalamic nucleus (STN is a powerful treatment of PD which modulates motor and cognitive functions depending on stimulation frequency by affecting subcortical-cortical oscillatory loops. Thus, for the understanding of BG-involvement in interval timing it is of interest whether STN-DBS can modulate timing in a frequency dependent manner by interference with oscillatory time recognition processes. We examined production and reproduction of 5 and 15 second intervals and millisecond timing in a double blind, randomised, within-subject repeated-measures design of 12 PD-patients applying no, 10-Hz- and ≥ 130-Hz-STN-DBS compared to healthy controls. We found under(re-production of the 15-second interval and a significant enhancement of this under(re-production by 10-Hz-stimulation compared to no stimulation, ≥ 130-Hz-STN-DBS and controls. Milliseconds timing was not affected. We provide first evidence for a frequency-specific modulatory effect of STN-DBS on interval timing. Our results corroborate the involvement of BG in general and of the STN in particular in the cognitive representation of time intervals in the range of multiple seconds.

  10. Effects of Perioperative Supplementation with Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Leukotriene B4 and Leukotriene B5 Production by Stimulated Neutrophils in Patients with Colorectal Cancer: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Intervention Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lone S. Sorensen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA may have beneficial clinical and immune-modulating effects in surgical patients. In a randomized, double-blind, prospective, placebo-controlled trial, 148 patients referred for elective colorectal cancer surgery received an n-3 FA-enriched oral nutritional supplement (ONS providing 2.0 g of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and 1.0 g of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA per day or a standard ONS for seven days before surgery. On the day of operation, there was a significant increase in the production of leukotriene B5 (LTB5 (p < 0.01 and 5-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (5-HEPE (p < 0.01, a significant decrease in the production of leukotriene B4 (LTB4 (p < 0.01 and a trend for a decrease in the production of 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE (p < 0.1 from stimulated neutrophils in the active group compared with controls. There was no association between LTB4 values and postoperative complications. In conclusion, oral n-3 FA exerts anti-inflammatory effects in surgical patients, without reducing the risk of postoperative complications.

  11. Understanding classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subianto, M.

    2009-01-01

    In practical data analysis, the understandability of models plays an important role in their acceptance. In the data mining literature, however, understandability plays is hardly ever mentioned. If it is mentioned, it is interpreted as meaning that the models have to be simple. In this thesis we

  12. Transforming growth factor beta 1 increases collagen content, and stimulates procollagen I and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 production of dental pulp cells: Role of MEK/ERK and activin receptor-like kinase-5/Smad signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Po-Shuen; Chang, Hsiao-Hua; Yeh, Chien-Yang; Chang, Mei-Chi; Chan, Chiu-Po; Kuo, Han-Yueh; Liu, Hsin-Cheng; Liao, Wan-Chuen; Jeng, Po-Yuan; Yeung, Sin-Yuet; Jeng, Jiiang-Huei

    2017-05-01

    In order to clarify the role of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) in pulp repair/regeneration responses, we investigated the differential signaling pathways responsible for the effects of TGF-β1 on collagen turnover, matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) production in human dental pulp cells. Pulp cells were exposed to TGF-β1 with/without pretreatment and coincubation by 1,4-diamino-2,3-dicyano-1,4-bis(o-aminophenyl mercapto)butadiene (U0126; a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase [MEK]/extracellular signal-regulated kinase [ERK] inhibitor) and 4-(5-benzol[1,3]dioxol-5-yl-4-pyrldin-2-yl-1H- imidazol-2-yl)-benzamide hydrate (SB431542; an activin receptor-like kinase-5/Smad signaling inhibitor). Sircol collagen assay was used to measure cellular collagen content. Culture medium procollagen I, TIMP-1, and MMP-3 levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. TGF-β1 increased the collagen content, procollagen I, and TIMP-1 production, but slightly decreased MMP-3 production of pulp cells. SB431542 and U0126 prevented the TGF-β1-induced increase of collagen content and TIMP-1 production of dental pulp cells. These results indicate that TGF-β1 may be involved in the healing/regeneration processes of dental pulp in response to injury by stimulation of collagen and TIMP-1 production. These events are associated with activin receptor-like kinase-5/Smad2/3 and MEK/ERK signaling. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Pleurotus giganteus (Berk. Karun & Hyde), the giant oyster mushroom inhibits NO production in LPS/H2O2 stimulated RAW 264.7 cells via STAT 3 and COX-2 pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Asweni; Chua, Kek Heng; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Ravishankar Ram, Mani; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani

    2017-01-13

    Pleurotus giganteus (Berk. Karunarathna and K.D. Hyde), has been used as a culinary mushroom and is known to have medicinal properties but its potential as an anti-inflammatory agent to mitigate inflammation triggered diseases is untapped. In this study, the molecular mechanism underlying the protective effect of ethanol extract of P. giganteus (EPG) against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and combination of LPS and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 )-induced inflammation on RAW 264.7 macrophages was investigated. The effect of EPG on nitric oxide (NO) production as an indicator of inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophages was estimated based on Griess reaction that measures nitrite level. The expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), NF-kB activating protein (NKAP), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 protein (STAT 3) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) genes were assessed using real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) approach. EPG (10 μg/ml) showed the highest reduction in the LPS-induced NO production in RAW 264.7 macrophages and significantly suppressed (p < 0.05) the expression iNOS, STAT 3 and COX-2. There was a significant increase (p < 0.05) in combination of LPS and H 2 O 2 - induced iNOS production when compared to the LPS-induced iNOS production in RAW 264.7 macrophages and this concurred with the NO production which was attenuated by EPG at 10 μg/ml. A significant (p < 0.05) down regulation was observed in the combination of LPS and H 2 O 2 -induced iNOS and GPx expression by EPG. Our data suggest that the anti-inflammatory activity of EPG is mediated via the suppression of the STAT 3 and COX-2 pathways and can serve as potential endogenous antioxidant stimulant.

  14. Embodied understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Western culture has inherited a view of understanding as an intellectual cognitive operation of grasping of concepts and their relations. However, cognitive science research has shown that this received intellectualist conception is substantially out of touch with how humans actually make and experience meaning. The view emerging from the mind sciences recognizes that understanding is profoundly embodied, insofar as our conceptualization and reasoning recruit sensory, motor, and affective patterns and processes to structure our understanding of, and engagement with, our world. A psychologically realistic account of understanding must begin with the patterns of ongoing interaction between an organism and its physical and cultural environments and must include both our emotional responses to changes in our body and environment, and also the actions by which we continuously transform our experience. Consequently, embodied understanding is not merely a conceptual/propositional activity of thought, but rather constitutes our most basic way of being in, and engaging with, our surroundings in a deep visceral manner.

  15. Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spring, Martin; Johnes, Geraint; Hald, Kim Sundtoft

    Productivity is increasingly critical for developed economies. It has always been important: as Paul Krugman puts it, “Productivity isn’t everything, but in the long run it is almost everything. A country’s ability to improve its standard of living over time depends almost entirely on its ability...... to raise its output per worker”(Krugman, 1994). Analyses of productivity have, by and large, been the preserve of economists. Operations Management (OM) is rooted in a similar concern for the efficient use of scarce resources; Management Accounting (MA) is concerned with the institutionalised measurement...... and management of productivity. Yet the three perspectives are rarely connected. This paper is a sketch of a literature review seeking to identify, contrast and reconcile these three perspectives. In so doing, it aims to strengthen the connections between policy and managerial analyses of productivity....

  16. Innovations in deep brain stimulation methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Andrea A; Volkmann, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation is a powerful clinical method for movement disorders that no longer respond satisfactorily to pharmacological management, but its progress has been hampered by stagnation in technological procedure solutions and device development. Recently, the combined research efforts of bioengineers, neuroscientists, and clinicians have helped to better understand the mechanisms of deep brain stimulation, and solutions for the translational roadblock are emerging. Here, we define the needs for methodological advances in deep brain stimulation from a neurophysiological perspective and describe technological solutions that are currently evaluated for near-term clinical application. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  17. Primary Radiation Damage in Materials. Review of Current Understanding and Proposed New Standard Displacement Damage Model to Incorporate in Cascade Defect Production Efficiency and Mixing Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordlund, Kai; Sand, Andrea E.; Granberg, Fredric; Zinkle, Steven J.; Stoller, Roger; Averback, Robert S.; Suzudo, Tomoaki; Malerba, Lorenzo; Banhart, Florian; Weber, William J.; Willaime, Francois; Dudarev, Sergei; Simeone, David

    2015-01-01

    Under the auspices of the NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC), the Working Party on Multi-scale Modelling of Fuels and Structural Materials for Nuclear Systems (WPMM) was established in 2008 to assess the scientific and engineering aspects of fuels and structural materials, aiming at evaluating multi-scale models and simulations as validated predictive tools for the design of nuclear systems, fuel fabrication and performance. The WPMM's objective is to promote the exchange of information on models and simulations of nuclear materials, theoretical and computational methods, experimental validation, and related topics. It also provides member countries with up-to-date information, shared data, models and expertise. The WPMM Expert Group on Primary Radiation Damage (PRD) was established in 2009 to determine the limitations of the NRT-dpa standard, in the light of both atomistic simulations and known experimental discrepancies, to revisit the NRT-dpa standard and to examine the possibility of proposing a new improved standard of primary damage characteristics. This report reviews the current understanding of primary radiation damage from neutrons, ions and electrons (excluding photons, atomic clusters and more exotic particles), with emphasis on the range of validity of the 'displacement per atom' (dpa) concept in all major classes of materials with the exception of organics. The report also introduces an 'athermal recombination-corrected dpa' (arc-dpa) relation that uses a relatively simple functional to address the well-known issue that 'displacement per atom' (dpa) overestimates damage production in metals under energetic displacement cascade conditions, as well as a 'replacements-per-atom' (rpa) equation, also using a relatively simple functional, that accounts for the fact that dpa is understood to severely underestimate actual atom relocation (ion beam mixing) in metals. (authors)

  18. Ascorbic acid pre-treated quartz stimulates TNF-α release in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages through ROS production and membrane lipid peroxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benvenuto Federica

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inhalation of crystalline silica induces a pulmonary fibrotic degeneration called silicosis caused by the inability of alveolar macrophages to dissolve the crystalline structure of phagocytosed quartz particles. Ascorbic acid is capable of partially dissolving quartz crystals, leading to an increase of soluble silica concentration and to the generation of new radical sites on the quartz surface. The reaction is specific for the crystalline forms of silica. It has been already demonstrated an increased cytotoxicity and stronger induction of pro-inflammatory cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 by ascorbic acid pre-treated quartz (QA compared to untreated quartz (Q in the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Methods Taking advantage of the enhanced macrophage response to QA as compared to Q particles, we investigated the first steps of cell activation and the contribution of early signals generated directly from the plasma membrane to the production of TNF-α, a cytokine that activates both inflammatory and fibrogenic pathways. Results Here we demonstrate that TNF-α mRNA synthesis and protein secretion are significantly increased in RAW 264.7 macrophages challenged with QA as compared to Q particles, and that the enhanced response is due to an increase of intracellular ROS. Plasma membrane-particle contact, in the absence of phagocytosis, is sufficient to trigger TNF-α production through a mechanism involving membrane lipid peroxidation and this appears to be even more detrimental to macrophage survival than particle phagocytosis itself. Conclusion Taken together these data suggest that an impairment of pulmonary macrophage phagocytosis, i.e. in the case of alcoholic subjects, could potentiate lung disease in silica-exposed individuals.

  19. Ascorbic acid pre-treated quartz stimulates TNF-alpha release in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages through ROS production and membrane lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarfì, Sonia; Magnone, Mirko; Ferraris, Chiara; Pozzolini, Marina; Benvenuto, Federica; Benatti, Umberto; Giovine, Marco

    2009-03-19

    Inhalation of crystalline silica induces a pulmonary fibrotic degeneration called silicosis caused by the inability of alveolar macrophages to dissolve the crystalline structure of phagocytosed quartz particles. Ascorbic acid is capable of partially dissolving quartz crystals, leading to an increase of soluble silica concentration and to the generation of new radical sites on the quartz surface. The reaction is specific for the crystalline forms of silica. It has been already demonstrated an increased cytotoxicity and stronger induction of pro-inflammatory cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) by ascorbic acid pre-treated quartz (QA) compared to untreated quartz (Q) in the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Taking advantage of the enhanced macrophage response to QA as compared to Q particles, we investigated the first steps of cell activation and the contribution of early signals generated directly from the plasma membrane to the production of TNF-alpha, a cytokine that activates both inflammatory and fibrogenic pathways. Here we demonstrate that TNF-alpha mRNA synthesis and protein secretion are significantly increased in RAW 264.7 macrophages challenged with QA as compared to Q particles, and that the enhanced response is due to an increase of intracellular ROS. Plasma membrane-particle contact, in the absence of phagocytosis, is sufficient to trigger TNF-alpha production through a mechanism involving membrane lipid peroxidation and this appears to be even more detrimental to macrophage survival than particle phagocytosis itself. Taken together these data suggest that an impairment of pulmonary macrophage phagocytosis, i.e. in the case of alcoholic subjects, could potentiate lung disease in silica-exposed individuals.

  20. Ascorbic acid pre-treated quartz stimulates TNF-α release in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages through ROS production and membrane lipid peroxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarfì, Sonia; Magnone, Mirko; Ferraris, Chiara; Pozzolini, Marina; Benvenuto, Federica; Benatti, Umberto; Giovine, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Background Inhalation of crystalline silica induces a pulmonary fibrotic degeneration called silicosis caused by the inability of alveolar macrophages to dissolve the crystalline structure of phagocytosed quartz particles. Ascorbic acid is capable of partially dissolving quartz crystals, leading to an increase of soluble silica concentration and to the generation of new radical sites on the quartz surface. The reaction is specific for the crystalline forms of silica. It has been already demonstrated an increased cytotoxicity and stronger induction of pro-inflammatory cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) by ascorbic acid pre-treated quartz (QA) compared to untreated quartz (Q) in the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Methods Taking advantage of the enhanced macrophage response to QA as compared to Q particles, we investigated the first steps of cell activation and the contribution of early signals generated directly from the plasma membrane to the production of TNF-α, a cytokine that activates both inflammatory and fibrogenic pathways. Results Here we demonstrate that TNF-α mRNA synthesis and protein secretion are significantly increased in RAW 264.7 macrophages challenged with QA as compared to Q particles, and that the enhanced response is due to an increase of intracellular ROS. Plasma membrane-particle contact, in the absence of phagocytosis, is sufficient to trigger TNF-α production through a mechanism involving membrane lipid peroxidation and this appears to be even more detrimental to macrophage survival than particle phagocytosis itself. Conclusion Taken together these data suggest that an impairment of pulmonary macrophage phagocytosis, i.e. in the case of alcoholic subjects, could potentiate lung disease in silica-exposed individuals. PMID:19298665

  1. Protein kinase regulated by dsRNA downregulates the interferon production in dengue virus- and dsRNA-stimulated human lung epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuye Li

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV is found in the tropical and subtropical regions and affects millions of people annually. Currently, no specific vaccine or antiviral treatment against dengue virus is available. Innate immunity has been shown to be important for host resistance to DENV infection. Although protein kinase regulated by double-stranded RNA (PKR has been found to promote the innate signaling in response to infection by several viruses, its role in the innate response to DENV infection is still unclear. Our study aimed to investigate the role of PKR in DENV-induced innate immune responses.By RNAi, silencing of PKR significantly enhanced the expression of interferon (IFN-β in DENV infected human lung epithelial A549 cells. Western blot and immunofluorescence microscopy data showed that PKR knockdown upregulated the activation of innate signaling cascades including p38 and JNK mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs, interferon regulatory factor-3 and NF-κB, following DENV2 infection. Likewise, a negative regulatory effect of PKR on the IFN production was also observed in poly(IC challenged cells. Moreover, the PKR knockdown-mediated IFN induction was attenuated by RIG-I or IPS-1 silencing. Finally, overexpression of a catalytically inactive PKR mutant (K296R, but not of a mutant lacking dsRNA binding activity (K64E or the double mutant (K64EK296R, reversed the IFN induction mediated by PKR knockdown, suggesting that the dsRNA binding activity is required for PKR to downregulate IFN production.PKR acts as a negative regulator of IFN induction triggered by DENVs and poly(IC, and this regulation relies on its dsRNA binding activity. These findings reveal a novel regulatory role for PKR in innate immunity, suggesting that PKR might be a promising target for anti-DENV treatments.

  2. Understanding semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Torben

    1997-01-01

    Understanding natural language is a cognitive, information-driven process. Discussing some of the consequences of this fact, the paper offers a novel look at the semantic effect of lexical nouns and the identification of reference types....

  3. Understanding Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Alzheimer's Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents For ... and brain scans. No treatment so far stops Alzheimer's. However, for some in the disease's early and ...

  4. Design of efficient and safe neural stimulators a multidisciplinary approach

    CERN Document Server

    van Dongen, Marijn

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses the design of neural stimulator systems which are used for the treatment of a wide variety of brain disorders such as Parkinson’s, depression and tinnitus. Whereas many existing books treating neural stimulation focus on one particular design aspect, such as the electrical design of the stimulator, this book uses a multidisciplinary approach: by combining the fields of neuroscience, electrophysiology and electrical engineering a thorough understanding of the complete neural stimulation chain is created (from the stimulation IC down to the neural cell). This multidisciplinary approach enables readers to gain new insights into stimulator design, while context is provided by presenting innovative design examples. Provides a single-source, multidisciplinary reference to the field of neural stimulation, bridging an important knowledge gap among the fields of bioelectricity, neuroscience, neuroengineering and microelectronics;Uses a top-down approach to understanding the neural activation proc...

  5. Understanding homelessness

    OpenAIRE

    Somerville, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on understanding homelessness. It criticizes approaches that ignore, distort or diminish the humanity of homeless people, or else, add little to our understanding of that humanity. In particular, it rejects what it calls “epidemiological” approaches, which deny the possibility of agency for homeless people, insofar as those approaches view the situation of those people largely as a “social fact”, to be explained in terms of causal variables or “risk factors” ...

  6. Stimulation of phagocytosis by sulforaphane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suganuma, Hiroyuki, E-mail: hsuganu1@jhmi.edu [Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Fahey, Jed W., E-mail: jfahey@jhmi.edu [Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Bryan, Kelley E., E-mail: kbryanm1@jhmi.edu [Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Healy, Zachary R., E-mail: zhealy1@jhmi.edu [Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Talalay, Paul, E-mail: ptalalay@jhmi.edu [Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)

    2011-02-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Sulforaphane stimulates the phagocytosis of RAW 264.7 macrophages under conditions of serum deprivation. {yields} This effect does not require Nrf2-dependent induction of phase 2 genes. {yields} Inactivation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) by sulforaphane may be involved in stimulation of phagocytosis by sulforaphane. -- Abstract: Sulforaphane, a major isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables, protects living systems against electrophile toxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, and radiation. A major protective mechanism is the induction of a network of endogenous cytoprotective (phase 2) genes that are regulated by transcription factor Nrf2. To obtain a more detailed understanding of the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of sulforaphane, we evaluated its effect on the phagocytosis activity of RAW 264.7 murine macrophage-like cells by measuring the uptake of 2-{mu}m diameter polystyrene beads. Sulforaphane raised the phagocytosis activity of RAW 264.7 cells but only in the absence or presence of low concentrations (1%) of fetal bovine serum. Higher serum concentrations depressed phagocytosis and abolished its stimulation by sulforaphane. This stimulation did not depend on the induction of Nrf2-regulated genes since it occurred in peritoneal macrophages of nrf2{sup -/-} mice. Moreover, a potent triterpenoid inducer of Nrf2-dependent genes did not stimulate phagocytosis, whereas sulforaphane and another isothiocyanate (benzyl isothiocyanate) had comparable inducer potencies. It has been shown recently that sulforaphane is a potent and direct inactivator of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), an inflammatory cytokine. Moreover, the addition of recombinant MIF to RAW 264.7 cells attenuated phagocytosis, but sulforaphane-inactivated MIF did not affect phagocytosis. The inactivation of MIF may therefore be involved in the phagocytosis-enhancing activity of sulforaphane.

  7. Long-term administration of advanced glycation end-product stimulates the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome and sparking the development of renal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Wan-Ju; Yang, Hsin-Yi; Pai, Man-Hui; Wu, Chi-Hao; Chen, Jiun-Rong

    2017-01-01

    The accumulation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and the enhanced interaction of AGE with their cellular receptor (RAGE) have been implicated in the progression of chronic kidney disease. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the AGE/RAGE-induced nephrotoxic effects are associated with inflammasome activation and endothelial dysfunction. Chronic renal injury was examined in BALB/c mice by the long-term administration of carbonyl-AGE for 16 weeks. Endothelial dysfunction was detected by measuring the number of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and the levels of nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) in kidneys. Results showed that administration of methylglyoxal-bovine serum albumin (MG-BSA) AGE accelerated renal MG, carboxyethyl lysine, carboxymethyl lysine and malondialdehyde formation and, in parallel, the levels of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were significantly increased. Expression of RAGE and NLRP3 inflammasome-related proteins (TXNIP, NLRP3, procaspase-1 and caspase-1) and IL (interleukin)-1β secretion were upregulated, whereas the levels of EPCs, eNOS and NO were lower in MG-BSA-treated mice. This induction by MG-BSA was significantly inhibited by RAGE antagonist. Our results firstly reveal a possible mechanism of AGE-mediated renal dysfunction upon NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Therapeutic blockade of RAGE may ameliorate renal and endothelial functions in subjects under high AGE burden. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Inside 'Inside View': reflections on stimulating debate and engagement through a multimedia live theatre production on the dilemmas and issues of pre-natal screening policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundt, Gillian Lewando; Bryanston, Claudette; Lowe, Pam; Cross, Saul; Sandall, Jane; Spencer, Kevin

    2011-03-01

    The role of applied theatre in engaging both lay and professional publics with debate on health policy and practice is an emergent field. This paper discusses the development, production performance and discussion of 'Inside View'. The objectives were to produce applied theatre from research findings of a completed study on genetic prenatal screening, exploring the dilemmas for women and health professionals of prenatal genetic screening, and to engage audiences in debate and reflection on the dilemmas of prenatal genetic screening. 'Inside View' was developed from a multidisciplinary research study through identification of emergent themes from qualitative interviews, and development of these by the writer, theatre producer and media technologist with input from the researchers. Inside View was performed in London and the Midlands to varied audiences with a panel discussion and evaluation post performance. The audiences were engaged in debate that was relevant to them professionally and personally. Knowledge translation through applied theatre is an effective tool for engaging the public but the impact subsequently is unclear. There are ethical issues of unexpected disclosure during discussion post performance and the process of transforming research findings into applied theatre requires time and trust within the multidisciplinary team as well as adequate resourcing. © 2010 The Authors. Health Expectations © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Phospholipase D from Loxosceles laeta Spider Venom Induces IL-6, IL-8, CXCL1/GRO-α, and CCL2/MCP-1 Production in Human Skin Fibroblasts and Stimulates Monocytes Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Rojas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous loxoscelism envenomation by Loxosceles spiders is characterized by the development of a dermonecrotic lesion, strong inflammatory response, the production of pro-inflammatory mediators, and leukocyte migration to the bite site. The role of phospholipase D (PLD from Loxosceles in the recruitment and migration of monocytes to the envenomation site has not yet been described. This study reports on the expression and production profiles of cytokines and chemokines in human skin fibroblasts treated with catalytically active and inactive recombinant PLDs from Loxosceles laeta (rLlPLD and lipid inflammatory mediators ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA, and the evaluation of their roles in monocyte migration. Recombinant rLlPLD1 (active and rLlPLD2 (inactive isoforms induce interleukin (IL-6, IL-8, CXCL1/GRO-α, and CCL2/monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 expression and secretion in fibroblasts. Meanwhile, C1P and LPA only exhibited a minor effect on the expression and secretion of these cytokines and chemokines. Moreover, neutralization of both enzymes with anti-rLlPLD1 antibodies completely inhibited the secretion of these cytokines and chemokines. Importantly, conditioned media from fibroblasts, treated with rLlPLDs, stimulated the transmigration of THP-1 monocytes. Our data demonstrate the direct role of PLDs in chemotactic mediator synthesis for monocytes in human skin fibroblasts and indicate that inflammatory processes play an important role during loxoscelism.

  10. Phospholipase D from Loxosceles laeta Spider Venom Induces IL-6, IL-8, CXCL1/GRO-α, and CCL2/MCP-1 Production in Human Skin Fibroblasts and Stimulates Monocytes Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, José M; Arán-Sekul, Tomás; Cortés, Emmanuel; Jaldín, Romina; Ordenes, Kely; Orrego, Patricio R; González, Jorge; Araya, Jorge E; Catalán, Alejandro

    2017-04-05

    Cutaneous loxoscelism envenomation by Loxosceles spiders is characterized by the development of a dermonecrotic lesion, strong inflammatory response, the production of pro-inflammatory mediators, and leukocyte migration to the bite site. The role of phospholipase D (PLD) from Loxosceles in the recruitment and migration of monocytes to the envenomation site has not yet been described. This study reports on the expression and production profiles of cytokines and chemokines in human skin fibroblasts treated with catalytically active and inactive recombinant PLDs from Loxosceles laeta (rLlPLD) and lipid inflammatory mediators ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P) and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), and the evaluation of their roles in monocyte migration. Recombinant rLlPLD1 (active) and rLlPLD2 (inactive) isoforms induce interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, CXCL1/GRO-α, and CCL2/monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression and secretion in fibroblasts. Meanwhile, C1P and LPA only exhibited a minor effect on the expression and secretion of these cytokines and chemokines. Moreover, neutralization of both enzymes with anti-rLlPLD1 antibodies completely inhibited the secretion of these cytokines and chemokines. Importantly, conditioned media from fibroblasts, treated with rLlPLDs, stimulated the transmigration of THP-1 monocytes. Our data demonstrate the direct role of PLDs in chemotactic mediator synthesis for monocytes in human skin fibroblasts and indicate that inflammatory processes play an important role during loxoscelism.

  11. Atomic oxygen stimulated outgassing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Roger C.; Reynolds, John M.

    1991-01-01

    The passive Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Experiment A0034, Atomic Oxygen Simulated Outgassing, consisted of two identical one-sixth tray modules, exposing selected thermal control coatings to atomic oxygen and the combined space environment on the leading edge and, for reference, to the relative wake environment on the trailing edge. Optical mirrors were included adjacent to the thermal coatings for deposition of outgassing products. Ultraviolet grade windows and metal covers were provided for additional assessment of the effects of the various environmental factors. Preliminary results indicate that orbital atomic oxygen is both a degrading and a optically restorative factor in the thermo-optical properties of selected thermal coatings. There is evidence of more severe optical degradation on collector mirrors adjacent to coatings that were exposed to the RAM-impinging atomic oxygen. This evidence of atomic oxygen stimulated outgassing is discussed in relation to alternative factors that could affect degradation. The general effects of the space environment on the experiment hardware as well as the specimens are discussed.

  12. HGF is released from buccal fibroblasts after smokeless tobacco stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, S; Christensen, S; Gron, B

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the effect of smokeless tobacco (ST) on (1) HGF, KGF and GM-CSF expression by buccal fibroblasts and (2) on keratinocyte and fibroblast proliferation. Buccal fibroblasts were stimulated with different concentrations of ST extracts in a double dilution from 0.50% w/v to 0.03% w...... on exposure time and on concentration of the tobacco extract. High concentration increased production of HGF 4-fold. KGF production was doubled when high concentration of tobacco was used, low concentration did not stimulate cells. GM-CSF production was low in both stimulated and non-stimulated cells...

  13. Understanding Maple

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Maple is a powerful symbolic computation system that is widely used in universities around the world. This short introduction gives readers an insight into the rules that control how the system works, and how to understand, fix, and avoid common problems. Topics covered include algebra, calculus, linear algebra, graphics, programming, and procedures. Each chapter contains numerous illustrative examples, using mathematics that does not extend beyond first-year undergraduate material. Maple worksheets containing these examples are available for download from the author's personal website. The book is suitable for new users, but where advanced topics are central to understanding Maple they are tackled head-on. Many concepts which are absent from introductory books and manuals are described in detail. With this book, students, teachers and researchers will gain a solid understanding of Maple and how to use it to solve complex mathematical problems in a simple and efficient way.

  14. Understanding physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Understanding Physics - Second edition is a comprehensive, yet compact, introductory physics textbook aimed at physics undergraduates and also at engineers and other scientists taking a general physics course. Written with today's students in mind, this text covers the core material required by an introductory course in a clear and refreshing way. A second colour is used throughout to enhance learning and understanding. Each topic is introduced from first principles so that the text is suitable for students without a prior background in physics. At the same time the book is designed to enable

  15. Understanding competitiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Rauner, Felix

    1996-01-01

    Conclusion of the book: Industrial cultures and production. Summary of the main positions presented in the different chapters of the bookand a suggestion how to interprete different stages of development in industrial cultures....

  16. production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    answered satisfactorily. An additional important factor in discouraging collaborative work in animal and grassland production is, without doubt, the complexity of work in this field compared with much of that in the individual discipline and, in particular, the com- plexity of work on forage as a source of nutrients for live- stock.

  17. Optically stimulated luminesence dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qiujiang; Zhu Lei; Zhu Lei; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Chen Zhaoyang; Fan Yanwei; Ba Weizhen; Cong Xiuyun; Tang Xinqiang; Guo Qi; Lu Wu

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the principle and makeup of optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter is described, and a measurement for radiation is carried, some actual problem is discussed. The dosimeter has high sensitive and can be reseted in-flight by stimulated light. (authors)

  18. Understanding Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Deepika; Shelby, Blake; Mattingly, Christine

    2016-01-01

    "Energy" is a term often used in everyday language. Even young children associate energy with the food they eat, feeling tired after playing soccer, or when asked to turn the lights off to save light energy. However, they may not have the scientific conceptual understanding of energy at this age. Teaching energy and matter could be…

  19. [Transcranial magnetic stimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormos, J M; Catalá, M D; Pascual-Leone, A

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) permits stimulation of the cerebral cortex in humans without requiring open access to the brain and is one of the newest tools available in neuroscience. There are two main types of application: single-pulse TMS and repetitive TMS. The magnetic stimulator is composed of a series of capacitors that store the voltage necessary to generate a stimulus of the sufficient intensity of generate an electric field in the stimulation coil. The safety of TMS is supported by the considerable experience derived from studies involving electrical stimulation of the cortex in animals and humans, and also specific studies on the safety of TMS in humans. In this article we review historical and technical aspects of TMS, describe its adverse effects and how to avoid them, summarize the applications of TMS in the investigation of different cerebral functions, and discuss the possibility of using TMS for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  20. Deep brain stimulation in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Pavel

    2008-11-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a reversible surgical procedure that involves stereotactic implantation of electrodes into the targeted brain regions, with a subcutaneously placed pulse generator powering the electrodes via one or two leads. The mechanism of action can be explained by the stimulation-induced modulation of impaired network activity. So far, the main use of DBS has been for neurological conditions, such as essential tremor, motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease, dystonia, epilepsy, and chronic pain. In psychiatry, case series and open studies indicate treatment efficacy of DBS in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder, and refractory major depression. Neuroimaging studies have confirmed the effects of DBS on the brain regions implicated in specific neuropsychiatric disorders. It is a well-tolerated method with relatively few serious side effects. Additional well-designed and appropriately powered controlled clinical trials are needed to conclusively establish the efficacy and safety of DBS and to identify the patient population(s) who may benefit most. Ongoing research with stimulation techniques may also significantly contribute to our understanding of major neuropsychiatric disorders.

  1. Cytotoxic Effects of Re-Activated Lunar Dust Stimulant on Human Lung Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, Krishna

    2009-01-01

    Lunar dust has been of significant concern due to various problems observed on the Apollo missions. Reports from astronauts have shown that the dust may have caused eye and nasal irritation as well as possible hay fever like symptoms. As NASA hopes to go to the Moon within the next few years, we hope to understand the possible toxic effects the dust might have. In these studies, we are looking at the effect of "re-activated" lunar dust stimulant on human bronchial cells. A simple grinding analog as a method of simulating micrometeorite crushing on the moon is used to "activate" the dust stimulant, i.e. capable of producing hydroxyl radicals. These radicals could then interact with human cells and may lead to a loss in membrane integrity and cell death. (Castranova, 1994) Cells are exposed to the dust for 6 and 24 hour intervals to assess cytotoxicity. Cytotoxicity is measured by looking at the production of inflammatory cytokines. Cells are exposed to ground and unground stimulant and compared to cytokine production from cells exposed to quartz which have a known toxicity. Here we look at the cytotoxicity of the lunar dust stimulant relative to quartz by measuring the production of inflammatory cytokines.

  2. The BioSCWG Project: Understanding the Trade-Offs in the Process and Thermal Design of Hydrogen and Synthetic Natural Gas Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Magdeldin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a summary of the main findings from a collaborative research project between Aalto University in Finland and partner universities. A comparative process synthesis, modelling and thermal assessment was conducted for the production of Bio-synthetic natural gas (SNG and hydrogen from supercritical water refining of a lipid extracted algae feedstock integrated with onsite heat and power generation. The developed reactor models for product gas composition, yield and thermal demand were validated and showed conformity with reported experimental results, and the balance of plant units were designed based on established technologies or state-of-the-art pilot operations. The poly-generative cases illustrated the thermo-chemical constraints and design trade-offs presented by key process parameters such as plant organic throughput, supercritical water refining temperature, nature of desirable coproducts, downstream indirect production and heat recovery scenarios. The evaluated cases favoring hydrogen production at 5 wt. % solid content and 600 °C conversion temperature allowed higher gross syngas and CHP production. However, mainly due to the higher utility demands the net syngas production remained lower compared to the cases favoring BioSNG production. The latter case, at 450 °C reactor temperature, 18 wt. % solid content and presence of downstream indirect production recorded 66.5%, 66.2% and 57.2% energetic, fuel-equivalent and exergetic efficiencies respectively.

  3. Understanding Emissions from Control-Related Equipment used in Oil and Gas Production Operations to Support EPA’s Air Quality Modeling of Ozone Non-attainment Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil and gas production has increased significantly in the United States over the past ten years. Improperly maintained and controlled oil and gas extraction and production (E&P) processes have the potential to emit significant amounts of pollutants that can impact human health an...

  4. The Abilities of Understanding Spatial Relations, Spatial Orientation, and Spatial Visualization Affect 3D Product Design Performance: Using Carton Box Design as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Kun-Hsi

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) product design is an essential ability that students of subjects related to product design must acquire. The factors that affect designers' performance in 3D design are numerous, one of which is spatial abilities. Studies have reported that spatial abilities can be used to effectively predict people's performance in…

  5. Understanding factors affecting technology adoption in smallholder livestock production systems in Ethiopia : the role of farm resources and the enabling environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kebebe, E.G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In response to population growth, rising income and urbanisation, the demand for livestock products, such as milk, meat and eggs is growing in Ethiopia. The growing demand for milk products offers opportunities for smallholders to realize better livelihoods. Whereas the

  6. Towards an Understanding of the Social Aspects of Sustainability in Product Design: Teaching HE Students in the UK and Ireland through Reflection and Peer Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a doctoral study, which investigated effective methods for teaching social sustainability within product design courses in British and Irish universities. This paper explores approaches for encouraging students to explore the social aspects of sustainable product design through workshops specifically designed to…

  7. Understanding translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Gottlieb, Henrik; Klitgård, Ida

    Understanding Translation is designed as a textbook for courses on the theory and practice of translation in general and of particular types of translation - such as interpreting, screen translation and literary translation. The aim of the book is to help you gain an in-depth understanding...... of the phenomenon of translation and to provide you with a conceptual framework for the analysis of various aspects of professional translation. Intended readers are students of translation and languages, but the book will also be relevant for others who are interested in the theory and practice of translation...... - translators, language teachers, translation users and literary, TV and film critics, for instance. Discussions focus on translation between Danish and English....

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