WorldWideScience

Sample records for understanding state standards

  1. Metaphors We Do Math By: A Comparative Case Study of Public and Catholic School Teachers’ Understanding of the Common Core State Standards in Mathematics

    OpenAIRE

    Branch, Jennifer Danielle

    2016-01-01

    The United States has undergone multiple mathematics reforms since the 1980s with each reform setting out to increase national test scores and improve mathematics education in the nation’s schools. The current reform, the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM), seeks to create mathematically proficient students through a more active and rigorous curriculum. The goal of this yearlong study was to examine the understanding that intermediate and middle school math teachers make of t...

  2. State Air Quality Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollution Engineering, 1978

    1978-01-01

    This article presents in tabular form the air quality standards for sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, photochemicals, non-methane hydrocarbons and particulates for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. (CS)

  3. State Skill Standards: Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointer, Mike; Naylor, Randy; Warden, John; Senek, Gene; Shirley, Charles; Lefcourt, Lew; Munson, Justin; Johnson, Art

    2005-01-01

    The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide occupational skill standards. The standards in this document are for welding programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school program. The writing team determined that any statewide…

  4. State Skill Standards: Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Frederick; Reed, Loretta; Jensen, Capra; Robison, Gary; Taylor, Susan; Pavesich, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide skill standards for all content areas in career and technical education. The standards in this document are for photography programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school program.…

  5. Understanding solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Holgate, Sharon Ann

    2009-01-01

    Where Sharon Ann Holgate has succeeded in this book is in packing it with examples of the application of solid state physics to technology. … All the basic elements of solid state physics are covered … . The range of materials is good, including as it does polymers and glasses as well as crystalline solids. In general, the style makes for easy reading. … Overall this book succeeds in showing the relevance of solid state physics to the modern world … .-Contemporary Physics, Vol. 52, No. 2, 2011I was indeed amused and inspired by the wonderful images throughout the book, carefully selected by th

  6. Understanding the pointer states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandre Brasil, Carlos; Andreta de Castro, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    In quantum mechanics, pointer states are eigenstates of the observable of the measurement apparatus that represent the possible positions of the display pointer of the equipment. The origin of this concept lies in attempts to fill the blanks in Everett’s relative-state interpretation, and to make it a fully valid description of physical reality. To achieve this, it was necessary to consider not only the main system interacting with the measurement apparatus (like von Neumann and Everett did) but also the role of the environment in eliminating correlations between different possible measurements when interacting with the measurement apparatus. The interaction of the environment with the main system (and the measurement apparatus) is the core of the decoherence theory, which followed Everett’s thesis. In this article, we review the measurement process according to von Neumann, Everett’s relative state interpretation, the purpose of decoherence and some of its follow-up until Wojciech Zurek’s primordial paper that consolidated the concept of pointer states, previously presented by Heinz Dieter Zeh. Employing a simple physical model consisting of a pair of two-level systems—one representing the main system, the other the measurement apparatus—and a thermal bath—representing the environment—we show how pointer states emerge, explaining its contributions to the question of measurement in quantum mechanics, as well as its limitations. Finally, we briefly show some of its consequences. This paper is accessible to readers with elementary knowledge about quantum mechanics, on the level of graduate courses. (paper)

  7. Understanding standard drinks and drinking guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, William C; Stockwell, Tim

    2012-03-01

    For consumers to follow drinking guidelines and limit their risk of negative consequences they need to track their ethanol consumption. This paper reviews published research on the ability of consumers to utilise information about the alcohol content of beverages when expressed in different forms, for example in standard drinks or units versus percentage alcohol content. A review of the literature on standard drink definitions and consumer understanding of these, actual drink pouring, use of standard drinks in guidelines and consumer understanding and use of these. Standard drink definitions vary across countries and typically contain less alcohol than actual drinks. Drinkers have difficulty defining and pouring standard drinks with over-pouring being the norm such that intake volume is typically underestimated. Drinkers have difficulty using percentage alcohol by volume and pour size information in calculating intake but can effectively utilise standard drink labelling to track intake. Standard drink labelling is an effective but little used strategy for enabling drinkers to track their alcohol intake and potentially conform to safe or low-risk drinking guidelines. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  8. Renewable Portfolio Standards: Understanding Costs and Benefits | Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    considering the highest cost and lowest benefit outcomes. More Information: Fact Sheet Image of a report cover | Presentation Image of a report cover for A Survey of State-Level Cost and Benefit Estimates of Renewable Portfolio Standards: Understanding Costs and Benefits State policymakers, public utilities commissions, and

  9. Sizing up State Standards, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Federation of Teachers (NJ), 2008

    2008-01-01

    The members at the American Federation of Teachers examined each state's and Washington, D.C.'s content standards documents to determine whether or not they contain enough information about what students should learn to provide the basis for coherent curricula and assessments. There is no perfect formula for this; they made a series of judgment…

  10. State Standard-Setting Processes in Brief. State Academic Standards: Standard-Setting Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Concerns about academic standards, whether created by states from scratch or adopted by states under the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) banner, have drawn widespread media attention and are at the top of many state policymakers' priority lists. Recently, a number of legislatures have required additional steps, such as waiting periods for…

  11. Understanding the National Domestic Waste Collection Standards

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available on 1 February 2011, also provide for the implementation of the waste management hierarchy that requires waste avoidance, reduction, reuse, recycling, recovery and waste treatment, and disposal as a last resort. The standards address aspects of waste...

  12. Voter Perceptions: Common Core State Standards & Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achieve, Inc., 2014

    2014-01-01

    Since June 2010, 46 states and Washington DC have adopted the Common Core State Standards (CCSS)--K-12 standards in mathematics and English language arts/literacy developed through a multi-state initiative led by the National Governors Association and the Council of Chief State School Officers. Implementation of the standards is underway in all of…

  13. Survey Helps Class to See, Understand Local Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternack, Steve

    1986-01-01

    Presents an exercise in which students interview various groups of citizens--church leaders, school officials, government and business leaders--in order to give students a broader understanding of the definitions of obscenity and community standards. (HTH)

  14. Evolution: Its Treatment in K-12 State Science Curriculum Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, L. S.

    2001-12-01

    State standards are the basis upon which states and local schools build curricula. Usually taking the form of lists of what students are expected to learn at specified grades or clusters of grades, they influence statewide examinations, textbooks, teacher education and credentialing, and other areas in which states typically exercise control over local curriculum development. State science standards vary very widely in overall quality.1,2 This is especially true in their treatment of evolution, both in the life sciences and to a somewhat lesser extent in geology and astronomy. Not surprisingly, a detailed evaluation of the treatment of evolution in state science standards3 has evoked considerably more public interest than the preceding studies of overall quality. We here consider the following questions: What constitutes a good treatment of evolution in science standards and how does one evaluate the standards? Which states have done well, and which less well? What nonscientific influences have been brought to bear on standards, for what reasons, and by whom? What strategies have been used to obscure or distort the role of evolution as the central organizing principle of the historical sciences? What are the effects of such distortions on students' overall understanding of science? What can the scientific community do to assure the publication of good science standards and to counteract attacks on good science teaching? 1. Lerner, L. S., State Science Standards: An Appraisal of Science Standards in 36 States, The Thomas B. Fordham Foundation, Washington, D.C., March 1998. 2. Lerner, L. S. et al ., The State of State Standards 2000, ibid., January 2000. 3. Lerner, L. S., Good Science, Bad Science: Teaching Evolution In the States, ibid., September 2000.

  15. Modeling in the Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Kai Chung

    2011-01-01

    The inclusion of modeling and applications into the mathematics curriculum has proven to be a challenging task over the last fifty years. The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) has made mathematical modeling both one of its Standards for Mathematical Practice and one of its Conceptual Categories. This article discusses the need for mathematical…

  16. Translating the Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Orlich, Donald C.

    2013-01-01

    As the authors describe in Chapter 7 of their new book, "The School Reform Landscape: Fraud, Myth, and Lies," the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) initiative continues to ramble on, without evidence to support its efficacy. That is because education reform in the United States is being driven largely by ideology, rhetoric, and dogma instead of…

  17. State Standards and State Assessment Systems: A Guide to Alignment. Series on Standards and Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marca, Paul M.; Redfield, Doris; Winter, Phoebe C.

    Alignment of content standards, performance standards, and assessments is crucial. This guide contains information to assist states and districts in aligning their assessment systems to their content and performance standards. It includes a review of current literature, both published and fugitive. The research is woven together with a few basic…

  18. Understanding information retrieval systems management, types, and standards

    CERN Document Server

    Bates, Marcia J

    2011-01-01

    In order to be effective for their users, information retrieval (IR) systems should be adapted to the specific needs of particular environments. The huge and growing array of types of information retrieval systems in use today is on display in Understanding Information Retrieval Systems: Management, Types, and Standards, which addresses over 20 types of IR systems. These various system types, in turn, present both technical and management challenges, which are also addressed in this volume. In order to be interoperable in a networked environment, IR systems must be able to use various types of

  19. Radiation protection standards in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.A.; Arsenault, F.J.; Conti, E.F.

    1988-01-01

    Standards to protect workers and members of the general public against any harmful effects of ionizing radiation are numerous and complex in the United States. Many Federal agencies have protection responsibilities, our Congress limits the discretionary authority given to these agencies in providing for this protection, and our court system appears at times to render judgments that are illogical to our sense of the degree of radiological protection required. To many our standards appear to be overprotective in that they have, at best, marginal health benefits and without question are costly to implement. Government agencies, the Congress, industry, professional organizations, and others have expressed their concerns and interests regarding standards in a variety of ways

  20. Page | 155 UNDERSTANDING STATE'S APPLICATION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    because of this origin they are fundamental and inalienable. .... In other words, derogation measures must be limited to what is really needed to address the situation of crisis ... Armed conflicts often involve operations outside a State's territorial.

  1. Understanding human trafficking in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, T K; Walker, Robert; Hunt, Gretchen

    2009-01-01

    The topic of modern-day slavery or human trafficking has received increased media and national attention. However, to date there has been limited research on the nature and scope of human trafficking in the United States. This article describes and synthesizes nine reports that assess the U.S. service organizations' legal representative knowledge of, and experience with, human trafficking cases, as well as information from actual cases and media reports. This article has five main goals: (a) to define what human trafficking is, and is not; (b) to describe factors identified as contributing to vulnerability to being trafficked and keeping a person entrapped in the situation; (c) to examine how the crime of human trafficking differs from other kinds of crimes in the United States; (d) to explore how human trafficking victims are identified; and, (e) to provide recommendations to better address human trafficking in the United States.

  2. A Cross-State Analysis of Renewable Portfolio Standard Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Mariel

    As of December 2016, thirty-seven states have a renewable portfolio standard (RPS). RPS require that utilities provide a certain percentage of electricity generated using renewable sources by a certain date. This thesis builds on diffusion of innovation literature to understand how factors within a state, such as its political climate and the strength of interest groups, appear to influence the adoption process and structure of the RPS in five states--Connecticut, New Jersey, Michigan, Colorado, and Washington. Each of these states has a strong RPS as measured by its renewable energy goal over its current renewable energy production, the time frame in which this goal must be met, and the percentage of the electric load that is included in the regulation. This thesis uses both within-case and cross-case analysis to understand which combinations of internal state factors potentially lead to the adoption of a strong RPS. It finds that there are a number of combinations of factors that appear to contribute to strong RPS, depending on the internal circumstances of each state. However, more important is that without the opportunity to tailor the policy to meet the needs of the state, it is likely that states with unfavorable internal factors may not choose to adopt a RPS at all, let alone a strong RPS. While the innovation factors identified through the RPS diffusion research often contribute to states adopting a strong RPS, this thesis finds that the influence of these factors depends on a combination of the internal state factors with the RPS adoption process in shaping the structure of the RPS.

  3. 78 FR 27857 - United States Standards for Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... RIN 0580-AB12 United States Standards for Wheat AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards... (GIPSA) is revising the United States Standards for Wheat under the United States Grain Standards Act (USGSA) to change the definition of Contrasting classes (CCL) in the class Hard White wheat. This change...

  4. Supplemental Information for New York State Standardized Interconnection Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingram, Michael [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Narang, David J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mather, Barry A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kroposki, Benjamin D. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-24

    This document is intended to aid in the understanding and application of the New York State Standardized Interconnection Requirements (SIR) and Application Process for New Distributed Generators 5 MW or Less Connected in Parallel with Utility Distribution Systems, and it aims to provide supplemental information and discussion on selected topics relevant to the SIR. This guide focuses on technical issues that have to date resulted in the majority of utility findings within the context of interconnecting photovoltaic (PV) inverters. This guide provides background on the overall issue and related mitigation measures for selected topics, including substation backfeeding, anti-islanding and considerations for monitoring and controlling distributed energy resources (DER).

  5. Understanding Grades and Standards: and how to apply them

    OpenAIRE

    Giovannucci, Daniele; Reardon, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    With the expanding globalization of trade, grades and standards help to set the ‘rules of the game’ and their implications for developing countries are becoming increasingly relevant. While they are clearly important to trade, their formation and utilization is also undergoing a shift from being neutral market lubricants to also being tools of product differentiation. This implies a fundamental shift in the role of standards from just reducing transaction costs of commodity market particip...

  6. United States Shipbuilding Standards Master Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Horsmon, Jr, Albert W

    1992-01-01

    This Shipbuilding Standards Master Plan was developed using extensive surveys, interviews, and an iterative editing process to include the views and opinions of key persons and organizations involved...

  7. Standard epidemiological methods to understand and improve Apis mellifera health

    OpenAIRE

    Lengerich, Eugene; Spleen, Angela; Dainat, Benjamin; Cresswell, James; Baylis , Kathy; Nguyen, Bach Kim; Soroker, Victoria; Underwood, Robyn; Human, Hannelie; Le Conte, Yves; Saegerman, Claude

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the use of epidemiological methods to understand and reduce honey bee morbidity and mortality. Essential terms are presented and defined and we also give examples for their use. Defining such terms as disease, population, sensitivity, and specificity, provides a framework for epidemiological comparisons. The term population, in particular, is quite complex for an organism like the honey bee because one can view “epidemiological unit” as individual bees, colonies, ap...

  8. Advocacy: Emphasizing the Uncommon about the Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Sandra N.

    2014-01-01

    The author describes key issues and uncommon concerns about the Common Core State Standards that fit within two categories: philosophical and pedagogical. Philosophically, Common Core State K-12 Standards should not be expected to be mastered at a specific grade level but based on developmental readiness. Pedagogically, Common Core State Standards…

  9. Slope across the Curriculum: Principles and Standards for School Mathematics and Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Courtney; Moore-Russo, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an initial comparison of the Principles and Standards for School Mathematics and the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics by examining the fundamental notion of slope. Each set of standards is analyzed using eleven previously identified conceptualizations of slope. Both sets of standards emphasize Functional Property,…

  10. State Skill Standards: Housing and Interior Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevada Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Meeting the Housing and Interior Design Standards will provide students with skills for personal family life and towards becoming a professional in the interior design field. The mission of Housing and Interior Design education is to prepare students for family life, work life, and careers in the fashion industry by creating opportunities to…

  11. Common Core State Standards for Students with Gifts and Talents

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanTassel-Baska, Joyce

    2015-01-01

    As many states have adopted the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), teachers can look to these standards as a framework for supporting students with gifts and talents. Differentiation of curriculum and instruction to address the CCSS will be necessary to meet the unique learning needs of learners with high ability and those with gifts and talents.…

  12. Mathematical Communication in State Standards before the Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosko, Karl Wesley; Gao, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Mathematical communication has been an important feature of standards documents since National Council of Teachers of Mathematics' (NCTM) (1989) "Curriculum and Evaluation Standards." Such an emphasis has influenced content standards of states from then to present. This study examined how effective the prevalence of various forms of…

  13. 77 FR 23420 - United States Standards for Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... and Stockyards Administration 7 CFR Part 810 RIN 0580-AB12 United States Standards for Wheat AGENCY..., 2012, regarding a proposal to revise the U.S. Standards for Wheat under the U.S. Grain Standards Act. The proposed rule would change the definition of Contrasting classes in Hard White wheat and change...

  14. Implications of Common Core State Standards on the Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenna, Joshua L.; Russell, William B., III.

    2014-01-01

    Social studies teachers have often been on the outside looking in during much of the era billed as the standards-based educational reform (SBER), but with the adoption and implementation of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), social studies teachers seem to have been invited back inside. Yet, how will the standards impact social studies…

  15. 77 FR 6772 - United States Standards for Grades of Cauliflower

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... Service [Doc. AMS-FV-10-0047] United States Standards for Grades of Cauliflower AGENCY: Agricultural... Standards for Grades of Cauliflower. AMS is reviewing all fresh fruit and vegetable grade standards for... provisions for grading purple, orange or green cauliflower. The proposed revision will amend the color...

  16. Public Conceptions of Algorithms and Representations in the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanna, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Algorithms and representations have been an important aspect of the work of mathematics, especially for understanding concepts and communicating ideas about concepts and mathematical relationships. They have played a key role in various mathematics standards documents, including the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics. However, there have…

  17. Accountability. State Implementation of Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kimberly; Mira, Mary Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    All of the 15 states in this study have recently been involved in school accountability system reform. Since 2011, the states have taken advantage of a federal program to give them flexibility around certain accountability requirements of the "No Child Left Behind Act" of 2001 (NCLB), the most recent reauthorization of the Elementary and…

  18. The CORE Community: Career and Technical Education Teachers' Perceptions of the Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stair, Kristin S.; Warner, Wendy J; Hock, Gaea; Conrad, Michelle; Levy, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) have been adopted in 43 states within the U.S. However, Career and Technical Education (CTE) teachers are often unsure how their programs can successfully integrate CCSS. The purpose of this study was to understand how participants in a CCSS professional development project perceive the CCSS and how they are…

  19. Professional Learning: Trends in State Efforts. Benchmarking State Implementation of College- and Career-Readiness Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kimberly; Mire, Mary Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This report presents a multi-year study of how states are implementing their state college- and career-readiness standards. In this report, the Southern Regional Education Board's (SREB's) Benchmarking State Implementation of College- and Career-Readiness Standards project studied state efforts in 2014-15 and 2015-16 to foster effective…

  20. State enforcement of federal standards: Implications for interstate pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, Emma; Kennedy, Peter W. [Department of Economics, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8W 2Y2 (Canada)

    2008-08-15

    This paper explores the relationship between interstate air pollution and the division of power between federal and state agencies in setting and enforcing standards. In the context of the US Clean Air Act we argue that the EPA is able to monitor the adoption of technology-based standards more closely than it can monitor state-level enforcement, and that this causes an effective division of control between federal and state agencies. Our analysis offers three main insights into the interstate pollution problem in this setting. First, states have an incentive to enforce standards less stringently on firms located close to downwind borders, and this leads to excessive interstate pollution in equilibrium. Second, there can arise an inherent substitutability in the regulatory problem between strict standards and compliance effort, and this creates a strategic linkage between the federal policy on standards and state policies on enforcement. In particular, a tighter federal standard can induce less selective enforcement but can also lead to less enforcement overall. Third, states will attempt to neutralize the impact of location-based federal standards (that specifically target interstate pollution) in a way that actually exacerbates the underlying enforcement problem. (author)

  1. 15 CFR Notes Applicable to State... - Notes applicable to State of Understanding related to Medical Equipment:

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notes applicable to State of Understanding related to Medical Equipment: applicable Notes applicable to State of Understanding related to Medical Equipment: Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY,...

  2. Distribution of standard deviation of an observable among superposed states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Chang-shui; Shao, Ting-ting; Li, Dong-mo

    2016-01-01

    The standard deviation (SD) quantifies the spread of the observed values on a measurement of an observable. In this paper, we study the distribution of SD among the different components of a superposition state. It is found that the SD of an observable on a superposition state can be well bounded by the SDs of the superposed states. We also show that the bounds also serve as good bounds on coherence of a superposition state. As a further generalization, we give an alternative definition of incompatibility of two observables subject to a given state and show how the incompatibility subject to a superposition state is distributed.

  3. Distribution of standard deviation of an observable among superposed states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chang-shui; Shao, Ting-ting; Li, Dong-mo

    2016-10-01

    The standard deviation (SD) quantifies the spread of the observed values on a measurement of an observable. In this paper, we study the distribution of SD among the different components of a superposition state. It is found that the SD of an observable on a superposition state can be well bounded by the SDs of the superposed states. We also show that the bounds also serve as good bounds on coherence of a superposition state. As a further generalization, we give an alternative definition of incompatibility of two observables subject to a given state and show how the incompatibility subject to a superposition state is distributed.

  4. World-Class Ambitions, Weak Standards: An Excerpt from "The State of State Science Standards 2012"

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Educator, 2012

    2012-01-01

    A solid science education program begins by clearly establishing what well-educated youngsters need to learn about this multifaceted domain of human knowledge. The first crucial step is setting clear academic standards for the schools--standards that not only articulate the critical science content students need to learn, but that also properly…

  5. Educators Questioning Timing of State Tests Reflecting Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    New York is ahead of most states in its work to design detailed curricula and professional development for the common core and to build brand-new tests to reflect them. What's unfolding in the Empire State as a result of that work illustrates the way the common standards can pressure changes in the education landscape, and torque the tensions…

  6. Understanding squeezing of quantum states with the Wigner function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Antoine

    1994-01-01

    The Wigner function is argued to be the only natural phase space function evolving classically under quadratic Hamiltonians with time-dependent bilinear part. This is used to understand graphically how certain quadratic time-dependent Hamiltonians induce squeezing of quantum states. The Wigner representation is also used to generalize Ehrenfest's theorem to the quantum uncertainties. This makes it possible to deduce features of the quantum evolution, such as squeezing, from the classical evolution, whatever the Hamiltonian.

  7. The State of State Standards--and the Common Core--in 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Sheila Byrd; Martino, Gabrielle; Porter-Magee, Kathleen; Wilson, W. Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This review of state English language arts (ELA) and mathematics standards is the latest in a series of Fordham evaluations dating back to 1997. It comes at a critical juncture, as states across the land consider adoption of the Common Core State Standards. These are the authors' major findings: (1) Based on their criteria, the Common Core…

  8. Weaving a Fabric of World History? An Analysis of U.S. State High School World History Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Michael; Bolgatz, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Understanding world history is critical for our development as citizens in our interconnected society. Yet it is not clear that the standards for world history courses in the U.S. foster understanding of the whole world or of its history. The authors argue that the high school world history standards mapped out by various states promulgate a…

  9. Understanding the Perception of Very Small Software Companies towards the Adoption of Process Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basri, Shuib; O'Connor, Rory V.

    This paper is concerned with understanding the issues that affect the adoption of software process standards by Very Small Entities (VSEs), their needs from process standards and their willingness to engage with the new ISO/IEC 29110 standard in particular. In order to achieve this goal, a series of industry data collection studies were undertaken with a collection of VSEs. A twin track approach of a qualitative data collection (interviews and focus groups) and quantitative data collection (questionnaire) were undertaken. Data analysis was being completed separately and the final results were merged, using the coding mechanisms of grounded theory. This paper serves as a roadmap for both researchers wishing to understand the issues of process standards adoption by very small companies and also for the software process standards community.

  10. Understanding Financial Market States Using an Artificial Double Auction Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Kyubin; Oh, Gabjin; Kim, Seunghwan

    2016-01-01

    The ultimate value of theories describing the fundamental mechanisms behind asset prices in financial systems is reflected in the capacity of such theories to understand these systems. Although the models that explain the various states of financial markets offer substantial evidence from the fields of finance, mathematics, and even physics, previous theories that attempt to address the complexities of financial markets in full have been inadequate. We propose an artificial double auction market as an agent-based model to study the origin of complex states in financial markets by characterizing important parameters with an investment strategy that can cover the dynamics of the financial market. The investment strategies of chartist traders in response to new market information should reduce market stability based on the price fluctuations of risky assets. However, fundamentalist traders strategically submit orders based on fundamental value and, thereby stabilize the market. We construct a continuous double auction market and find that the market is controlled by the proportion of chartists, Pc. We show that mimicking the real state of financial markets, which emerges in real financial systems, is given within the range Pc = 0.40 to Pc = 0.85; however, we show that mimicking the efficient market hypothesis state can be generated with values less than Pc = 0.40. In particular, we observe that mimicking a market collapse state is created with values greater than Pc = 0.85, at which point a liquidity shortage occurs, and the phase transition behavior is described at Pc = 0.85.

  11. Distribution of Standard deviation of an observable among superposed states

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Chang-shui; Shao, Ting-ting; Li, Dong-mo

    2016-01-01

    The standard deviation (SD) quantifies the spread of the observed values on a measurement of an observable. In this paper, we study the distribution of SD among the different components of a superposition state. It is found that the SD of an observable on a superposition state can be well bounded by the SDs of the superposed states. We also show that the bounds also serve as good bounds on coherence of a superposition state. As a further generalization, we give an alternative definition of in...

  12. 77 FR 25375 - United States Standards for Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... and Stockyards Administration 7 CFR Part 810 RIN 0580-AB12 United States Standards for Wheat... 20.0 Wheat of other classes: \\2\\ Contrasting classes 1.0 2.0 3.0 10.0 10.0 Total \\3\\ 3.0 5.0 10.0 10...

  13. 77 FR 6774 - United States Standards for Grades of Eggplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... that mixing colors and/or types of eggplant in a specialty pack is a current marketing practice. The U... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service [Doc. AMS-FV-11-0052] United States Standards for Grades of Eggplant AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The...

  14. 78 FR 283 - United States Standards for Grades of Eggplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-03

    ... that permitting mixed colors and/or type packs will facilitate the marketing of eggplant by providing... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service [Doc. Number FV-11-0052] United States Standards for Grades of Eggplant AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final notice. SUMMARY...

  15. Standards for Elementary Teacher Certification: A Fifty State Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Wayne; Weible, Thomas

    A study of the minimum program standards established by 50 state education agencies for preparation and certification of elementary school teachers focused on the status of general education requirements, professional education requirements, and requirements for areas of concentration. Two reference points were employed in analysis of the…

  16. Conceptualizations of Slope: A Review of State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Michael; Moore-Russo, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Since slope is a fundamental topic that is embedded throughout the U.S. secondary school curriculum, this study examined standards documents for all 50 states to determine how they address the concept of slope. The study used eleven conceptualizations of slope as categories to classify the material in the documents. The findings indicate that all…

  17. Examining the Common Core State Standards in Agricultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, Aaron J.; Lambert, Misty D.; Sorensen, Tyson J.; Velez, Jonathan J.

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) represent a shift in the American education system. Included in the CCSS are opportunities for agriculture teachers to integrate math and English language arts content into their curriculum. Using the theory of planned behavior, we sought to identify Oregon agriculture teachers' attitudes, familiarity with,…

  18. 77 FR 6772 - United States Standards for Grades of Okra

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service [Document No. AMS-FV-11-0054] United States Standards for Grades of Okra AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), prior to undertaking research and other work associated with...

  19. Implementation of California State School Competitive Food and Beverage Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Sarah E.; Hutchinson, Krista S.; Craypo, Lisa; Barry, Jason; Bullock, Sally L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Competitive foods and beverages are available on most US school campuses. States and school districts are adopting nutrition standards to regulate these products, but few studies have reported on the extent to which schools are able to adhere to competitive regulations. The purpose of this study was to describe the extent to which…

  20. Understanding Financial Market States Using an Artificial Double Auction Market.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyubin Yim

    Full Text Available The ultimate value of theories describing the fundamental mechanisms behind asset prices in financial systems is reflected in the capacity of such theories to understand these systems. Although the models that explain the various states of financial markets offer substantial evidence from the fields of finance, mathematics, and even physics, previous theories that attempt to address the complexities of financial markets in full have been inadequate. We propose an artificial double auction market as an agent-based model to study the origin of complex states in financial markets by characterizing important parameters with an investment strategy that can cover the dynamics of the financial market. The investment strategies of chartist traders in response to new market information should reduce market stability based on the price fluctuations of risky assets. However, fundamentalist traders strategically submit orders based on fundamental value and, thereby stabilize the market. We construct a continuous double auction market and find that the market is controlled by the proportion of chartists, Pc. We show that mimicking the real state of financial markets, which emerges in real financial systems, is given within the range Pc = 0.40 to Pc = 0.85; however, we show that mimicking the efficient market hypothesis state can be generated with values less than Pc = 0.40. In particular, we observe that mimicking a market collapse state is created with values greater than Pc = 0.85, at which point a liquidity shortage occurs, and the phase transition behavior is described at Pc = 0.85.

  1. PCI compliance understand and implement effective PCI data security standard compliance

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Branden R

    2012-01-01

    The credit card industry established the PCI Data Security Standards to provide a minimum standard for how vendors should protect data to ensure it is not stolen by fraudsters. PCI Compliance, 3e, provides the information readers need to understand the current PCI Data Security standards, which have recently been updated to version 2.0, and how to effectively implement security within your company to be compliant with the credit card industry guidelines and protect sensitive and personally identifiable information. Security breaches continue to occur on a regular basis, affecting millions of

  2. Understanding void fraction in steady state and dynamic environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chexal, B.; Maulbetsch, J.; Harrison, J.; Petersen, C.; Jensen, P.; Horowitz, J.

    1997-01-01

    Understanding void fraction behavior in steady-state and dynamic environments is important to accurately predict the thermal-hydraulic behavior of two-phase or two-component systems. The Chexal-Lellouche (C-L) void fraction mode described herein covers the full range of pressures, flows, void fractions, and fluid types (steam-water, air-water, and refrigerants). A drift flux model formulation is used which covers the complete range of concurrent and countercurrent flows. The (1996) model revises the earlier C-L void fraction correlation, improves the capability of the model in countercurrent flow based on the incorporation of additional data, and improves the characteristics of the correlation that are important in transient programs. The model has been qualified with data from a number of steady state two-phase and two-component tests, and has been incorporated into the transient analysis code RELAP5 and RETRAN-3D and evaluated with a variety of transient and steady state tests. A 'plug-in' module for the void fraction correlation has been developed and implemented in RELAP5 and RETRAN-3D. The module is available as source code for inclusion into other thermal-hydraulic programs and can be used in any program that utilizes the same interface variables

  3. Examining the Native Speakers' Understanding of Communicative Purposes of a Written Genre in Modern Standard Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunxia, Zhu

    1997-01-01

    Examines the different attitudes of native speakers in understanding a written genre of Modern Standard Chinese--sales letters. The study focuses on the use of formulaic components appearing in real Chinese sales letters and compares these components with the advice given in textbooks. Findings reveal a gap between business teaching and business…

  4. The effect of state renewable portfolio standards on consumer participation in green pricing programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltese, James L.

    In the last several years, two mechanisms for increasing the supply of renewable electricity have become increasingly popular: renewable portfolio standards, a state policy of mandating increased production of green power; and green pricing programs, which allow customers to purchase green power through their utilities. These mechanisms have been effective in increasing the adoption of renewable energy; however, it is unclear whether they interact in a way that is mutually beneficial or counterproductive. It is important to understand the effect of renewable portfolio standards on the voluntary market for green energy, especially as Congress considers a nationwide portfolio standard. The effectiveness of a renewable portfolio standard may be undercut if it leads customers to purchase less green power. This study analyzes the relationship between the passage and implementation of a renewable portfolio standard and two measures of enrollment in utility green pricing programs. Using eight years of data for all fifty states, the study utilizes multiple regression analysis with fixed-effects estimation. The results indicate that the passage of a renewable portfolio standard has a positive and statistically significant effect on green pricing enrollment within the state. At the same time, the rate at which states increase the stringency of the renewable portfolio standard is found to have no effect on enrollment. Although further study is needed to determine if additional factors are responsible for the observed increase in green pricing enrollment, this study provides evidence that such programs do not harm, and may in fact encourage, voluntary purchases of green power.

  5. State Energy Efficiency Resource Standards: Design, Status, and Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, D.; Zinaman, O.

    2014-05-01

    An energy efficiency resource standard (EERS) is a policy that requires utilities or other entities to achieve a specified amount of energy savings through customer energy efficiency programs within a specified timeframe. EERSs may apply to electricity usage, natural gas usage, or both. This paper provides an overview of the key design features of EERSs for electricity, reviews the variation in design of EERSs across states, and provides an estimate of the amount of savings required by currently specified EERSs in each state. As of December, 2013, 23 states have active and binding EERSs for electricity. We estimate that state EERSs will require annual electricity savings of approximately 8-11% of total projected demand by 2020 in states with EERSs, however the level of savings targeted by the policies varies significantly across states. In addition to the variation in targeted savings, the design of EERSs varies significantly across states leading to differences in the suite of incentives created by the policy, the flexibility of compliance with the policy, the balance of benefits and costs of the policy between producers and consumers, and the certainty with which the policy will drive long-term savings.

  6. Teachers' Understanding of and Concerns about Mathematical Modeling in the Common Core Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Nancy Butler

    2013-01-01

    Educational reform is most likely to be successful when teachers are knowledgeable about the intended reform, and when their concerns about the reform are understood and addressed. The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) is an effort to establish a set of nationwide expectations for students and teachers. This study examined teacher understanding…

  7. The United States Board on Geographic Names: Standardization or regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    The United States Board on Geographic Names was created in 1890 to standardize the use of geographic names on federal maps and documents, and was established in its present form in 1947 by public law. The Board is responsible for geographic name usage and application throughout the federal government and its members must approve a name change or new name before it can be applied to federal maps and publications. To accomplish its mission, the Board has developed principles, policies, and procedures for use in the standardization process. The Board is also responsible legally for the promulgation of standardized names, whether or not these names have ever been controversial, and today this is accomplished by the universal availability of electronic databases for domestic and foreign names. This paper examines the development of Board policies and the implementation of these policies to achieve standardization with a view to relating these policies and activities to questions of standardization or regulation. ?? 2000 by The American Name Society.

  8. The gold standard: gold nanoparticle libraries to understand the nano-bio interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkilany, Alaaldin M; Lohse, Samuel E; Murphy, Catherine J

    2013-03-19

    Since the late 1980s, researchers have prepared inorganic nanoparticles of many types--including elemental metals, metal oxides, metal sulfides, metal selenides, and metal tellurides--with excellent control over size and shape. Originally many researchers were primarily interested in exploring the quantum size effects predicted for such materials. Applications of inorganic nanomaterials initially centered on physics, optics, and engineering but have expanded to include biology. Many current nanomaterials can serve as biochemical sensors, contrast agents in cellular or tissue imaging, drug delivery vehicles, or even as therapeutics. In this Account we emphasize that the understanding of how nanomaterials will function in a biological system relies on the knowledge of the interface between biological systems and nanomaterials, the nano-bio interface. Gold nanoparticles can serve as excellent standards to understand more general features of the nano-bio interface because of its many advantages over other inorganic materials. The bulk material is chemically inert, and well-established synthetic methods allow researchers to control its size, shape, and surface chemistry. Gold's background concentration in biological systems is low, which makes it relatively easy to measure it at the part-per-billion level or lower in water. In addition, the large electron density of gold enables relatively simple electron microscopic experiments to localize it within thin sections of cells or tissue. Finally, gold's brilliant optical properties at the nanoscale are tunable with size, shape, and aggregation state and enable many of the promising chemical sensing, imaging, and therapeutic applications. Basic experiments with gold nanoparticles and cells include measuring the toxicity of the particles to cells in in vitro experiments. The species other than gold in the nanoparticle solution can be responsible for the apparent toxicity at a particular dose. Once the identity of the toxic

  9. New standard on safety for hydrogen systems in spanish. Keys for understanding and use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luis Aprea, Jose [CNEA, Argentine Atomic Energy Commission - AAH - IRAM - Comahue University, CC 805 - Neuquen (Argentina)

    2008-07-15

    The present paper approaches all the preliminary, normative and additional elements observed during the work carried out by the Argentine standardization board to count in the country with a normative document that covers the expectations of the local community of users and other Spanish-speaking user, about the integral safety for the hydrogen systems. The antecedents and the process of adoption of an international standard and its adaptation to the local media are analyzed. The result has been the Standard IRAM/ISO 15916 that intends to offer, to all the users and especially to those who are not familiar with the technology, a base to understand the subject of safety, thus enhancing the education of the general public in hydrogen safety matters. (author)

  10. 40 CFR 131.20 - State review and revision of water quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY STANDARDS Procedures for Review and Revision of Water Quality Standards § 131.20 State review and revision of water quality standards. (a) State review. The State shall... reviewing applicable water quality standards and, as appropriate, modifying and adopting standards. Any...

  11. Quantitative Literacy and the Common Core State Standards in Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard L. Madison

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available How supportive of quantitative literacy (QL are the Common Core State Standards in Mathematics (CCSSM? The answer is tentative and conditional. There are some QL-supportive features including a strong probability and statistics strand in grade 6 through high school; a measurements and data strand in K-5; ratio and proportional reasoning standards in grades 6 and 7; and a comprehensive and coherent approach to algebraic reasoning and logical argument. However, the standards are weak in supporting reasoning and interpretation, and there are indications that the applications in CCSSM – mostly unspecified – will not include many QL contextual situations. Early indicators of assessment items follow a similar path. Except for statistics, most of the high school standards are aimed at development of algebra and precalculus topics, and there will likely be little room for more sophisticated applications of the QL-friendly mathematics of grades 6-8. The experience with CCSSM is limited at this point, leaving several crucial results uncertain, including assessments, emphases on statistics, and kinds of modeling and other applications.

  12. Positive animal welfare states and reference standards for welfare assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, D J

    2015-01-01

    Developments in affective neuroscience and behavioural science during the last 10-15 years have together made it increasingly apparent that sentient animals are potentially much more sensitive to their environmental and social circumstances than was previously thought to be the case. It therefore seems likely that both the range and magnitude of welfare trade-offs that occur when animals are managed for human purposes have been underestimated even when minimalistic but arguably well-intentioned attempts have been made to maintain high levels of welfare. In light of these neuroscience-supported behaviour-based insights, the present review considers the extent to which the use of currently available reference standards might draw attention to these previously neglected areas of concern. It is concluded that the natural living orientation cannot provide an all-embracing or definitive welfare benchmark because of its primary focus on behavioural freedom. However assessments of this type, supported by neuroscience insights into behavioural motivation, may now carry greater weight when used to identify management practices that should be avoided, discontinued or substantially modified. Using currently accepted baseline standards as welfare reference points may result in small changes being accorded greater significance than would be the case if they were compared with higher standards, and this could slow the progress towards better levels of welfare. On the other hand, using "what animals want" as a reference standard has the appeal of focusing on the specific resources or conditions the animals would choose themselves and can potentially improve their welfare more quickly than the approach of making small increments above baseline standards. It is concluded that the cautious use of these approaches in different combinations could lead to recommendations that would more effectively promote positive welfare states in hitherto neglected areas of concern.

  13. Trendy solutions: Why do states adopt Sustainable Energy Portfolio Standards?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, Jess [Georgia Institute of Technology, 685 Cherry Street, Atlanta, GA 30332-0345 (United States)], E-mail: jess.chandler@gatech.edu

    2009-08-15

    Thirty-four states had adopted Sustainable Energy Portfolio Standards (SEPS) or similar goals by the end of 2008, with 14 adoptions since 2006. There appears to be something trendy about SEPS and states may adopt SEPS when internal variables would indicate otherwise. This analysis extends the current discussion of SEPS adoption beyond internal variables, relying on innovation and diffusion theory. Logistic regression with SEPS adoption as the dependent variable is used to test internal determinants and diffusion measures for the years 1997-2008. Of the internal determinants variables, affluence and government ideology were found to be positive and significant. The results show that regional and neighbor diffusion variables are significant in SEPS adoption decisions-even when accounting for ideological distance from previous adopters.

  14. Trendy solutions. Why do states adopt Sustainable Energy Portfolio Standards?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, Jess [Georgia Institute of Technology, 685 Cherry Street, Atlanta, GA 30332-0345 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    Thirty-four states had adopted Sustainable Energy Portfolio Standards (SEPS) or similar goals by the end of 2008, with 14 adoptions since 2006. There appears to be something trendy about SEPS and states may adopt SEPS when internal variables would indicate otherwise. This analysis extends the current discussion of SEPS adoption beyond internal variables, relying on innovation and diffusion theory. Logistic regression with SEPS adoption as the dependent variable is used to test internal determinants and diffusion measures for the years 1997-2008. Of the internal determinants variables, affluence and government ideology were found to be positive and significant. The results show that regional and neighbor diffusion variables are significant in SEPS adoption decisions - even when accounting for ideological distance from previous adopters. (author)

  15. Trendy solutions: Why do states adopt Sustainable Energy Portfolio Standards?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, Jess

    2009-01-01

    Thirty-four states had adopted Sustainable Energy Portfolio Standards (SEPS) or similar goals by the end of 2008, with 14 adoptions since 2006. There appears to be something trendy about SEPS and states may adopt SEPS when internal variables would indicate otherwise. This analysis extends the current discussion of SEPS adoption beyond internal variables, relying on innovation and diffusion theory. Logistic regression with SEPS adoption as the dependent variable is used to test internal determinants and diffusion measures for the years 1997-2008. Of the internal determinants variables, affluence and government ideology were found to be positive and significant. The results show that regional and neighbor diffusion variables are significant in SEPS adoption decisions-even when accounting for ideological distance from previous adopters.

  16. Handwriting and Common Core State Standards: Teacher, Occupational Therapist, and Administrator Perceptions From New York State Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collette, Debra; Anson, Kylie; Halabi, Nora; Schlierman, April; Suriner, Allison

    Handwriting is the cornerstone of written performance and communication for school-age children. This mixed-methods study explored the impact of Common Core State Standards on handwriting instruction and its effects on perceptions regarding children's written responses in elementary school. Using surveys and interviews of elementary teachers, occupational therapists, and administrators in New York State public schools, we sought to understand current trends in handwriting instruction, changes in time spent on handwriting instruction in the classroom, supports offered to students who did not meet expectations for handwriting, and the impact of Common Core on children's written expression. Themes emerged revealing decreased handwriting instruction time and inconsistent use of handwriting instructional programs in the classroom after implementation of Common Core. Handwriting should be considered as a greater component in the foundational standards in Common Core. Occupational therapy services can support handwriting instruction implementation. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  17. PCI Compliance Understand and Implement Effective PCI Data Security Standard Compliance

    CERN Document Server

    Chuvakin, Anton

    2010-01-01

    Identity theft and other confidential information theft have now topped the charts as the #1 cybercrime. In particular, credit card data is preferred by cybercriminals. Is your payment processing secure and compliant?. Now in its second edition, PCI Compliance has been revised to follow the new PCI DSS standard 1.2.1. Also new to this edition: Each chapter has how-to guidance to walk you through implementing concepts, and real-world scenarios to help you relate to the information and better grasp how it impacts your data. This book provides the information that you need to understand the curre

  18. Emissions reductions from expanding state-level renewable portfolio standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeremiah X; Novacheck, Joshua

    2015-05-05

    In the United States, state-level Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) have served as key drivers for the development of new renewable energy. This research presents a method to evaluate emissions reductions and costs attributable to new or expanded RPS programs by integrating a comprehensive economic dispatch model and a renewable project selection model. The latter model minimizes incremental RPS costs, accounting for renewable power purchase agreements (PPAs), displaced generation and capacity costs, and net changes to a state's imports and exports. We test this method on potential expansions to Michigan's RPS, evaluating target renewable penetrations of 10% (business as usual or BAU), 20%, 25%, and 40%, with varying times to completion. Relative to the BAU case, these expanded RPS policies reduce the CO2 intensity of generation by 13%, 18%, and 33% by 2035, respectively. SO2 emissions intensity decreased by 13%, 20%, and 34% for each of the three scenarios, while NOx reductions totaled 12%, 17%, and 31%, relative to the BAU case. For CO2 and NOx, absolute reductions in emissions intensity were not as large due to an increasing trend in emissions intensity in the BAU case driven by load growth. Over the study period (2015 to 2035), the absolute CO2 emissions intensity increased by 1% in the 20% RPS case and decreased by 6% and 22% for the 25% and 40% cases, respectively. Between 26% and 31% of the CO2, SO2, and NOx emissions reductions attributable to the expanded RPS occur in neighboring states, underscoring the challenges quantifying local emissions reductions from state-level energy policies with an interconnected grid. Without federal subsidies, the cost of CO2 mitigation using an RPS in Michigan is between $28 and $34/t CO2 when RPS targets are met. The optimal renewable build plan is sensitive to the capacity credit for solar but insensitive to the value for wind power.

  19. Understanding the managerial state: a few theoretical tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iana Gomes de Lima

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article offers theoretical tools to the analysis of the state and contemporary public policies, with special attention to educational policies. Utilizing mainly the contribution of John Clarke and Janet Newman and adding the concepts used by Michael Apple and Stephen Ball, this article offer theoretical lenses to theexamination of the managerial nature of the contemporary state. Through the dispersal of power, the blurring of the borders between public and private and assessment policies that control the action of public institutions, the managerial state fi ghts the Welfare State and creates the conditions to public policies that reshape the relationship between civil society and the state. The article ends with some implications to the study of educational policies, emphasizing the fact that the managerial logic does not transfer, unmediated, to all state actions.

  20. A baseline understanding of state laws governing e-cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourdet, C K; Chriqui, J F; Chaloupka, F J

    2014-07-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have been available for purchase in the USA since 2007, and have grown rapidly in popularity. Currently, there are no federal restrictions on e-cigarettes; therefore, any regulations are under the purview of state and/or local governments. This study examines state laws governing e-cigarettes through youth access restrictions, smoke-free air requirements and/or excise taxation. Codified statutory and administrative laws, attorney general opinions, executive orders, and revenue notices and rulings effective as of 15 November 2013 for all 50 states and the District of Columbia, were compiled using Boolean searches in Lexis-Nexis and Westlaw. All laws were analysed by two study authors to determine the presence and components of relevant provisions. Two categories of laws were identified; (1) explicit e-cigarette laws and (2) laws focused on tobacco-derived and/or nicotine-containing products. Thirty-four states' laws address e-cigarettes either explicitly or as part of language applying to tobacco-derived or nicotine-containing products. Laws explicitly addressing e-cigarettes primarily focus on youth access (22 states) or smoke-free air (12 states); only Minnesota imposes an excise tax on e-cigarettes. Similarly, tobacco-derived or nicotine-containing products are primarily regulated through youth access restrictions (6 states), smoke-free air laws (5 states), or excise taxation (2 states). In the current absence of federal law governing e-cigarettes, more than one-half of the states have taken the initiative to regulate these products. The opportunity exists for the remaining states to incorporate e-cigarette-related restrictions into their pre-existing tobacco control laws. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Standardized Testing Program for Solid-State Hydrogen Storage Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Michael A. [Southwest Research Institute; Page, Richard A. [Southwest Research Institute

    2012-07-30

    In the US and abroad, major research and development initiatives toward establishing a hydrogen-based transportation infrastructure have been undertaken, encompassing key technological challenges in hydrogen production and delivery, fuel cells, and hydrogen storage. However, the principal obstacle to the implementation of a safe, low-pressure hydrogen fueling system for fuel-cell powered vehicles remains storage under conditions of near-ambient temperature and moderate pressure. The choices for viable hydrogen storage systems at the present time are limited to compressed gas storage tanks, cryogenic liquid hydrogen storage tanks, chemical hydrogen storage, and hydrogen absorbed or adsorbed in a solid-state material (a.k.a. solid-state storage). Solid-state hydrogen storage may offer overriding benefits in terms of storage capacity, kinetics and, most importantly, safety.The fervor among the research community to develop novel storage materials had, in many instances, the unfortunate consequence of making erroneous, if not wild, claims on the reported storage capacities achievable in such materials, to the extent that the potential viability of emerging materials was difficult to assess. This problem led to a widespread need to establish a capability to accurately and independently assess the storage behavior of a wide array of different classes of solid-state storage materials, employing qualified methods, thus allowing development efforts to focus on those materials that showed the most promise. However, standard guidelines, dedicated facilities, or certification programs specifically aimed at testing and assessing the performance, safety, and life cycle of these emergent materials had not been established. To address the stated need, the Testing Laboratory for Solid-State Hydrogen Storage Technologies was commissioned as a national-level focal point for evaluating new materials emerging from the designated Materials Centers of Excellence (MCoE) according to

  2. Survey of State-Level Cost and Benefit Estimates of Renewable Portfolio Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Barbose, G.; Bird, L.; Weaver, S.; Flores-Espino, F.; Kuskova-Burns, K.; Wiser, R.

    2014-05-01

    Most renewable portfolio standards (RPS) have five or more years of implementation experience, enabling an assessment of their costs and benefits. Understanding RPS costs and benefits is essential for policymakers evaluating existing RPS policies, assessing the need for modifications, and considering new policies. This study provides an overview of methods used to estimate RPS compliance costs and benefits, based on available data and estimates issued by utilities and regulators. Over the 2010-2012 period, average incremental RPS compliance costs in the United States were equivalent to 0.8% of retail electricity rates, although substantial variation exists around this average, both from year-to-year and across states. The methods used by utilities and regulators to estimate incremental compliance costs vary considerably from state to state and a number of states are currently engaged in processes to refine and standardize their approaches to RPS cost calculation. The report finds that state assessments of RPS benefits have most commonly attempted to quantitatively assess avoided emissions and human health benefits, economic development impacts, and wholesale electricity price savings. Compared to the summary of RPS costs, the summary of RPS benefits is more limited, as relatively few states have undertaken detailed benefits estimates, and then only for a few types of potential policy impacts. In some cases, the same impacts may be captured in the assessment of incremental costs. For these reasons, and because methodologies and level of rigor vary widely, direct comparisons between the estimates of benefits and costs are challenging.

  3. Enduring Understandings, Artistic Processes, and the New Visual Arts Standards: A Close-up Consideration for Curriculum Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Marilyn G.

    2014-01-01

    National Coalition for Core Arts Standards (NCCAS) Writing Team member Marilyn G. Stewart discusses what to expect from the new "next generation" Visual Arts Standards, detailing the 4 Artistic Processes and 15 Enduring Understandings. This invited essay addresses the instructional aspects of the standards, and looks at how they can help…

  4. From Agamben State of Emergency to Colombian State of Emergency: A Possibility of Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos López

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The following article seeks to open the possibility of thinking the reality of the Colombian conflict from new conceptual categories, specifically those put forth by Giorgio Agamben, not necessarily to force the facts into the theory, but to open new possibilities of understanding the human tragedy that Colombia has lived (and continues to live in terms of human loss (death policies, of lack of conditions to live a dignified life and of an existence that is zoé (barely existence, stripped from dignity rather than bios (life in political community. The text further proposes the question of whether the Colombian State has become an everlasting State of Emergency that employs it as a normal mode of establishing social and political hegemony

  5. The current state of public understanding of nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldron, Anna M; Spencer, Douglas; Batt, Carl A

    2006-01-01

    The growing importance of nanotechnology in industry and society has not been accompanied by a widespread understanding of the subject among the general public. Simple questions to initially probe the smallest thing that people can see and can think of reveals a divide in the understanding of the general public. A survey of 1500 individuals ranging in age from 6 to 74 has revealed a lack of knowledge of nanotechnology and especially a lack of understanding of the context of nanotechnology in the world that is too small to see. Survey findings are corroborated by in-depth interviews with 400 adults in studies of nanoscience literacy commisioned by University of California, Berkeley and Cornell in 2002 and 2004, respectively. In general, with the exception of 14-28 year olds, over 60% of respondents say they have never heard of nano or nanotechnology. The results suggest that the general public, especially middle-school children, has no firm foundation to understand nanotechnology and likely will continue to be equally impressed by credible scientific information as well as pure fictional accounts of nanotechnology

  6. Public Understanding of Climate Change in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Elke U.; Stern, Paul C.

    2011-01-01

    This article considers scientific and public understandings of climate change and addresses the following question: Why is it that while scientific evidence has accumulated to document global climate change and scientific opinion has solidified about its existence and causes, U.S. public opinion has not and has instead become more polarized? Our…

  7. The current state of public understanding of nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldron, Anna M [Cornell University, Nanobiotechnology Center (United States)], E-mail: amw37@cornell.edu; Spencer, Douglas [Edu, Inc. (United States); Batt, Carl A [Cornell University (United States)

    2006-10-15

    The growing importance of nanotechnology in industry and society has not been accompanied by a widespread understanding of the subject among the general public. Simple questions to initially probe the smallest thing that people can see and can think of reveals a divide in the understanding of the general public. A survey of 1500 individuals ranging in age from 6 to 74 has revealed a lack of knowledge of nanotechnology and especially a lack of understanding of the context of nanotechnology in the world that is too small to see. Survey findings are corroborated by in-depth interviews with 400 adults in studies of nanoscience literacy commisioned by University of California, Berkeley and Cornell in 2002 and 2004, respectively. In general, with the exception of 14-28 year olds, over 60% of respondents say they have never heard of nano or nanotechnology. The results suggest that the general public, especially middle-school children, has no firm foundation to understand nanotechnology and likely will continue to be equally impressed by credible scientific information as well as pure fictional accounts of nanotechnology.

  8. Middle school students' understanding of time: Implications for the National Science Education Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinemann, Deborah Jean

    2000-10-01

    Measures of time are essential to human life, especially in the Western world. Human understanding of time develops from the preschool stages of using "before" and "after" to an adult understanding and appreciation of time. Previous researchers (for example, Piaget, Friedman) have investigated and described stages of time development. Time, as it was investigated here, can be classified as conventional, logical or experiential. Conventional time is the ordered representation of time; the days of the week, the months of the year, or clock time: seconds and hours. Logical time is the deduction of duration based on regular events; for example, calculating the passage of time based on two separate events. Experiential time involves the duration of events and estimating intervals. With the recent production of the National Science Education Standards (NSES), many schools are aligning their science curriculum with the NSES. Time appears both implicitly and explicitly in the NSES. Do Middle School students possess the understanding of time necessary to meet the recommendations of the NSES? An interview protocol of four sessions was developed to investigate middle school students understanding of time. The four sessions included: building and testing water clocks; an interview about water clocks and time intervals; a laserdisc presentation about relative time spans; and a mind mapping session. Students were also given the GALT test of Logical Thinking. The subjects of the study were interviewed; eleven eighth grade students and thirteen sixth grade students. The data was transcribed and coded, and a rubric was developed to evaluate students based on their responses to the four sessions. The Time Analysis Rubric is a grid of the types of time: conventional, logical and experiential time versus the degree of understanding of time. Student results were assigned to levels of understanding based on the Time Analysis Rubric. There was a relationship (although not significant

  9. The Relationship Between State and District Content Standards:Issues of Alignment, Influence and Utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Dutro

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available At the core of standards-based reform are content standards--statements about what students should know and be able to do. Although it is state standards that are the focus of much public attention and consume substantial resources, many local school districts have developed their own content standards in the major subject areas. However, we know very little about the role state standards have played in local standards efforts. In this article we report on a study of the relationship between state and local content standards in reading in four states and districts. Through interviews with key personnel in each state, and district and analyses of state and local content standards in reading, we explored the alignment between state and district content standards, the path of influence between the two, and the role of high-stakes tests in state and districts reform efforts. Our findings suggest that alignment had multiple meanings and that state standards had differential utility to districts, ranging from helpful to benign to nuisance. This wide variability was influenced by the nature of the standards themselves, the state vision of alignment and local control, districts’ own engagement and commitment to professional development, and student performance on high-stakes tests. We explore implications for the future of content standards as the cornerstone of standards-based reform and argue that states must promote district ownership and expand accountability if state content standards are to have any relevance for local efforts to reform teaching and learning.

  10. World Biofuels Production Potential Understanding the Challenges to Meeting the U.S. Renewable Fuel Standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sastri, B.; Lee, A.

    2008-09-15

    This study by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates the worldwide potential to produce biofuels including biofuels for export. It was undertaken to improve our understanding of the potential for imported biofuels to satisfy the requirements of Title II of the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) in the coming decades. Many other countries biofuels production and policies are expanding as rapidly as ours. Therefore, we modeled a detailed and up-to-date representation of the amount of biofuel feedstocks that are being and can be grown, current and future biofuels production capacity, and other factors relevant to the economic competitiveness of worldwide biofuels production, use, and trade. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) identified and prepared feedstock data for countries that were likely to be significant exporters of biofuels to the U.S. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) calculated conversion costs by conducting material flow analyses and technology assessments on biofuels technologies. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) integrated the country specific feedstock estimates and conversion costs into the global Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) model. The model uses least-cost optimization to project the future state of the global energy system in five year increments. World biofuels production was assessed over the 2010 to 2030 timeframe using scenarios covering a range U.S. policies (tax credits, tariffs, and regulations), as well as oil prices, feedstock availability, and a global CO{sub 2} price. All scenarios include the full implementation of existing U.S. and selected other countries biofuels policies (Table 4). For the U.S., the most important policy is the EISA Title II Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). It progressively increases the required volumes of renewable fuel used in motor vehicles (Appendix B). The RFS requires 36 billion (B) gallons (gal) per year of renewable fuels by 2022

  11. KAPEAN: Understanding Affective States of Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Fernando; Barraza, Claudia; González, Nimrod; González, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Affective computing seeks to create computational systems that adapt content and resources according to the affective states of the users. However, the detection of the user's affection such as motivation and emotion is challenging especially when an attention problem is present. An approach to convey learning resources to children with learning…

  12. Cognitive Language and Content Standards: Language Inventory of the Common Core State Standards in Mathematics and the Next Generation Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Kathleen M.; Mi Choi, Kyong; Hand, Brian

    2016-01-01

    STEM education is a current focus of many educators and policymakers and the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) with the Common Core State Standards in Mathematics (CCSSM) are foundational documents driving curricular and instructional decision making for teachers and students in K-8 classrooms across the United States. Thus, practitioners…

  13. Standards for the 21st-Century Learner: Comparisons with NETS and State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie

    2008-01-01

    The American Association of School Librarians (AASL) and the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) have both recently launched new standards. These are known as the "AASL Standards for the 21st-Century Learner" and "The National Educational Technology Standards for Students: The Next Generation" (NETS). The standards from each…

  14. Preschool-aged children’s understanding of gratitude: Relations with emotion and mental state knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A.; de Lucca Freitas, Lia Beatriz; O’Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Developmental precursors to children’s early understanding of gratitude were examined. A diverse group of 263 children were tested for emotion and mental state knowledge at ages 3 and 4, and their understanding of gratitude was measured at age 5. Children varied widely in their understanding of gratitude, but most understood some aspects of gratitude-eliciting situations. A model-building path analysis approach was used to examine longitudinal relations among early emotion and mental state knowledge and later understanding of gratitude. Children with a better early understanding of emotions and mental states understand more about gratitude. Mental state knowledge at age 4 mediated the relation between emotion knowledge at age 3 and gratitude understanding at age 5. The current study contributes to the scant literature on the early emergence of children’s understanding of gratitude. PMID:23331105

  15. 75 FR 56911 - Request for Public Comment on the United States Standards for Corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... Public Comment on the United States Standards for Corn AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards... Standards and grading procedures for corn under the United States Grain Standards Act (USGSA). Since the standards were last revised, the use of corn for ethanol and the number of different varieties of corn has...

  16. Development of animal welfare understanding drives change in minimum welfare standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, D J; Webster, J R

    2014-04-01

    The process by which societies adapt to increasing knowledge about the mental and physical capacities of animals and the ways in which they are affected by human activities has been described as a journey. Different countries and regions are at various stages of this journey, and will take a unique path, depending on their specific social and cultural dynamics. However, all participants are unified by an increasing awareness of, and concern for, animal welfare. This journey has been characterised by a number of landmark events, one of which was the release of the Five Freedoms concept. Although aspirational and abstract, as it did not outline specific practical goals, nonetheless this concept became a catalyst for moving animal welfare thinking in a new direction, and set up a number of important targets for research. This eventually led to a key shift in thinking from a focus on biological functioning and resources, to ways of assessing welfare outcomes in terms of animals' experiences, i.e. their affective states. Behaviour science played an important role in the interpretation of animals' affective experiences, receiving compelling support from parallel studies in affective neuroscience. An important aspect of our understanding of animal welfare is that affective states can be negative or positive. Enabling animals to perform specific behaviours at key times when they are needed is central to the achievement of positive affective states. Another important event has been the development of practical ways to shift the spectrum of affective states towards a positive balance and their incorporation into welfare codes and regulations. The recent focus on positive affective states does not mean that negative experiences should be given less attention. In fact, in those countries that are at the early stages of the journey, improving function and productivity may be the most effective way to promote some important aspects of animal welfare. For example, alleviating

  17. Understanding Toxoplasmosis in the United States Through "Large Data" Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykins, Joseph; Wang, Kanix; Wheeler, Kelsey; Clouser, Fatima; Dixon, Ashtyn; El Bissati, Kamal; Zhou, Ying; Lyttle, Christopher; Rzhetsky, Andrey; McLeod, Rima

    2016-08-15

    Toxoplasma gondii infection causes substantial morbidity and mortality in the United States, and infects approximately one-third of persons globally. Clinical manifestations vary. Seropositivity is associated with neurologic diseases and malignancies. There are few objective data concerning US incidence and distribution of toxoplasmosis. Truven Health MarketScan Database and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes, including treatment specific to toxoplasmosis, identified patients with this disease. Spatiotemporal distribution and patterns of disease manifestation were analyzed. Comorbidities between patients and matched controls were compared. Between 2003 and 2012, 9260 patients had ICD-9 codes for toxoplasmosis. This database of patients with ICD-9 codes includes 15% of those in the United States, excluding patients with no or public insurance. Thus, assuming that demographics do not change incidence, the calculated total is 61 700 or 6856 patients per year. Disease was more prevalent in the South. Mean age at diagnosis was 37.5 ± 15.5 years; 2.4% were children aged 0-2 years, likely congenitally infected. Forty-one percent were male, and 73% of women were of reproductive age. Of identified patients, 38% had eye disease and 12% presented with other serious manifestations, including central nervous system and visceral organ damage. Toxoplasmosis was statistically associated with substantial comorbidities, including human immunodeficiency virus, autoimmune diseases, and neurologic diseases. Toxoplasmosis causes morbidity and mortality in the United States. Our analysis of private insurance records missed certain at-risk populations and revealed fewer cases of retinal disease than previously estimated, suggesting undercoding, underreporting, undertreating, or differing demographics of those with eye disease. Mandatory reporting of infection to health departments and gestational screening could improve care and facilitate detection of

  18. 75 FR 22551 - United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ...] United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Blueberries AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA... United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Blueberries. After considering the comments received... . The United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Blueberries are available by accessing the AMS Web...

  19. 78 FR 724 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Off-Highway Recreational Vehicles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9766-2] California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control...\\ California State Nonroad Engine and Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Authorization of State Standards... standards and other requirements relating to the control of emissions from such vehicles or engines if...

  20. A Case for Common Core State Standards: Gifted Curriculum 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanTassel-Baska, Joyce

    2012-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) is the most successful attempt to gain consensus across states for 21st century standards in language arts and mathematics. So far, 46 states have accepted these standards, with two consortia organized to translate them into resources and sample activities. A consultant firm has been hired to develop the…

  1. Stakeholder perceptions of lowering the blood alcohol concentration standard in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Lisa J; Eby, David W; Kostyniuk, Lidia P; St Louis, Renée M; Zanier, Nicole

    2017-12-01

    This study sought to better understand the past change in the legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) standard from 0.10% to 0.08% in the United States, as well as explore stakeholder perceptions about potential health and other impacts of further lowering the standard below 0.08%. In-depth interviews were conducted with representatives of 20 organizations considered to have an interest and investment in the potential impacts of strategies to decrease alcohol-impaired related crashes and injuries. Interviews were conducted by a trained moderator, using a structured guide. Themes from the interviews are presented for several discussion topics explored for both the earlier change in the legal BAC limit from 0.10% to 0.08% and a potential lowering of the limit below 0.08%. Topics included arguments for and against change; organizational position on the change; stakeholders on both sides of the issue; strategies to support or oppose the change; health and economic impacts; and enforcement and adjudication challenges. Collectively, results suggest that moving the BAC standard below the current level will require considerable effort and time. There was strong, but not complete, agreement that it will be difficult, and maybe infeasible in the short-term, for states to implement a BAC standard lower than 0.08%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Do state renewable portfolio standards promote in-state renewable generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Haitao; Powers, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Several US states have passed renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies in order to encourage investment in renewable energy technologies. Existing research on their effectiveness has either employed a cross-sectional approach or has ignored heterogeneity among RPS policies. In this paper, we introduce a new measure for the stringency of an RPS that explicitly accounts for some RPS design features that may have a significant impact on the strength of an RPS. We also investigate the impacts of renewable portfolio standards on in-state renewable electricity development using panel data and our new measure of RPS stringency, and compare the results with those when alternative measures are used. Using our new measure, the results suggest that RPS policies have had a significant and positive effect on in-state renewable energy development, a finding which is masked when design differences among RPS policies are ignored. We also find that another important design feature - allowing 'free trade' of REC's - can significantly weaken the impact of an RPS. These results should prove instructive to policy makers, whether considering the development of a federal-level RPS or the development or redesign of a state-level RPS. (author)

  3. Expressing our internal states and understanding those of others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cesare, Giuseppe; Di Dio, Cinzia; Marchi, Massimo; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2015-08-18

    Vitality form is a term that describes the style with which motor actions are performed (e.g., rude, gentle, etc.). They represent one characterizing element of conscious and unconscious bodily communication. Despite their importance in interpersonal behavior, vitality forms have been, until now, virtually neglected in neuroscience. Here, using the functional MRI (fMRI) technique, we investigated the neural correlates of vitality forms in three different tasks: action observation, imagination, and execution. Conjunction analysis showed that, in all three tasks, there is a common, consistent activation of the dorsocentral sector of the insula. In addition, a common activation of the parietofrontal network, typically active during arm movements production, planning, and observation, was also found. We conclude that the dorsocentral part of the insula is a key element of the system that modulates the cortical motor activity, allowing individuals to express their internal states through action vitality forms. Recent monkey anatomical data show that the dorsocentral sector of the insula is, indeed, connected with the cortical circuit involved in the control of arm movements.

  4. USDA snack food and beverage standards: how big of a stretch for the states?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie F; Piekarz, Elizabeth; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2014-06-01

    The USDA snack food and beverage standards take effect in school year (SY) 2014-2015. Although the USDA standards will provide nationwide requirements, concerns exist about compliance. This study examined whether existing state laws are aligned with the USDA standards to determine whether some states may be better positioned to facilitate compliance. Codified state statutory and regulatory laws effective for SY 2012-2013 for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia were identified through Boolean keyword searches using the Westlaw and LexisNexis databases. Laws were analyzed for alignment with 18 snack food and beverage provisions contained within the USDA standards. Thirty-eight states had snack food and beverage standards; 33 states' laws exceeded restrictions on foods of minimal nutritional value. Of the 33 states, no states' laws fully met the USDA's standards, 16 states' laws fully met and 10 states' laws partially met at least one USDA provision, and seven states' laws met no USDA provisions. One state's law met 9 of 18 provisions. On average, states met 4 of 18 provisions. States were more likely to meet individual USDA beverage than snack provisions. Implementation and compliance with the USDA standards may be facilitated in states with laws already containing provisions aligned with the USDA standards and may be more difficult in states with fewer or no provisions in alignment, suggesting possible geographic areas for the USDA to target with technical assistance and training efforts and for advocates to work in to facilitate compliance.

  5. Mother and Infant Talk about Mental States Relates to Desire Language and Emotion Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taumoepeau, Mele; Ruffman, Ted

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the relation between mother mental state language and child desire language and emotion understanding in 15--24-month-olds. At both times point, mothers described pictures to their infants and mother talk was coded for mental and nonmental state language. Children were administered 2 emotion understanding tasks and their mental…

  6. Preschool-Aged Children's Understanding of Gratitude: Relations with Emotion and Mental State Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A.; de Lucca Freitas, Lia Beatriz; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Developmental precursors to children's early understanding of gratitude were examined. A diverse group of 263 children was tested for emotion and mental state knowledge at ages 3 and 4, and their understanding of gratitude was measured at age 5. Children varied widely in their understanding of gratitude, but most understood some aspects of…

  7. State insurance exchanges face challenges in offering standardized choices alongside innovative value-based insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlette, Sabrina; Downs, David; Monahan, Christine H; Yondorf, Barbara

    2013-02-01

    Value-based insurance is a relatively new approach to health insurance in which financial barriers, such as copayments, are lowered for clinical services that are considered high value, while consumer cost sharing may be increased for services considered to be of uncertain value. Such plans are complex and do not easily fit into the simplified, consumer-friendly comparison tools that many state health insurance exchanges are formulating for use in 2014. Nevertheless some states and plans are attempting to strike the right balance between a streamlined health exchange shopping experience and innovative, albeit complex, benefit design that promotes value. For example, agencies administering exchanges in Vermont and Oregon are contemplating offering value-based insurance plans as an option in addition to a set of standardized plans. In the postreform environment, policy makers must find ways to present complex value-based insurance plans in a way that consumers and employers can more readily understand.

  8. 75 FR 43142 - United States Standards for Grades of Refried Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ...] United States Standards for Grades of Refried Beans AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION... comments on the possible establishment of voluntary United States Standards for Grades of Refried Beans... industry requested that USDA develop grade standards for canned refried beans to be used by the industry...

  9. 75 FR 51978 - United States Standards for Grades of Pineapple Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ...-327] United States Standards for Grades of Pineapple Juice AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The United States Standards for Grades of Pineapple Juice... e-mail [email protected] . Corrected copies of the U.S. Standards for Grades of Pineapple...

  10. Inventory of power plants in the United States. [By state within standard Federal Regions, using county codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    The purpose of this inventory of power plants is to provide a ready reference for planners whose focus is on the state, standard Federal region, and/or national level. Thus the inventory is compiled alphabetically by state within standard Federal regions. The units are listed alphabetically within electric utility systems which in turn are listed alphabetically within states. The locations are identified to county level according to the Federal Information Processing Standards Publication Counties and County Equivalents of the States of the United States. Data compiled include existing and projected electrical generation units, jointly owned units, and projected construction units.

  11. CEN standards for solar thermal systems - State of the art and expectted impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ree, B.G.C. van der; Pauschinger, Th.

    1996-01-01

    Since 1994, the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee TC 312 has been active in producing European Standards for thermal solar energy systems and components. In this paper, an overview of the present State of the Art of the draft standards is presented. These standards

  12. A Comprehensive Analysis of High School Genetics Standards: Are States Keeping Pace with Modern Genetics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, M. J.; Pleasants, C.; Solow, L.; Wong, A.; Zhang, H.

    2011-01-01

    Science education in the United States will increasingly be driven by testing and accountability requirements, such as those mandated by the No Child Left Behind Act, which rely heavily on learning outcomes, or "standards," that are currently developed on a state-by-state basis. Those standards, in turn, drive curriculum and instruction.…

  13. Territory in the Constitutional Standards of Unitary States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina V. Markhgeym

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on the analysis of the constitutions of seven European countries (Albania, Hungary, Greece, Spain, Malta, Poland, Sweden. The research allows to reveal general and specific approaches to consolidation of norms on territories in a state and give the characteristic of the corresponding constitutional norms. Given the authors ' comprehensive approach to the definition of the territory of the state declared constitutional norms were assessed from the perspective of the fundamental principles and constituent elements of the territory. Considering the specifics of the constitutional types of state territories authors suggest typical and variative models and determine the constitutions of unitary states, distinguished by their originality in the declared group of legal relations. The original constitutional language areas associated with the introduction at the state level, these types of areas that are not typical for other countries.

  14. The uncertainty of reference standards--a guide to understanding factors impacting uncertainty, uncertainty calculations, and vendor certifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Kevin; Chang, Ning; Dilek, Isil; Jian, Huahua; Pogue, Sherri; Sreenivasan, Uma

    2009-10-01

    Certified solution standards are widely used in forensic toxicological, clinical/diagnostic, and environmental testing. Typically, these standards are purchased as ampouled solutions with a certified concentration. Vendors present concentration and uncertainty differently on their Certificates of Analysis. Understanding the factors that impact uncertainty and which factors have been considered in the vendor's assignment of uncertainty are critical to understanding the accuracy of the standard and the impact on testing results. Understanding these variables is also important for laboratories seeking to comply with ISO/IEC 17025 requirements and for those preparing reference solutions from neat materials at the bench. The impact of uncertainty associated with the neat material purity (including residual water, residual solvent, and inorganic content), mass measurement (weighing techniques), and solvent addition (solution density) on the overall uncertainty of the certified concentration is described along with uncertainty calculations.

  15. Mathematical Modeling, Sense Making, and the Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Alan H.

    2013-01-01

    On October 14, 2013 the Mathematics Education Department at Teachers College hosted a full-day conference focused on the Common Core Standards Mathematical Modeling requirements to be implemented in September 2014 and in honor of Professor Henry Pollak's 25 years of service to the school. This article is adapted from my talk at this conference…

  16. Comparison of Standards and Technical Requirements of Grid-Connected Wind Power Plants in China and the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, David Wenzhong [Alternative Power Innovations, LLC; Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Mackay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wang, Weisheng [China Electric Power Research Inst. (China)

    2016-09-01

    The rapid deployment of wind power has made grid integration and operational issues focal points in industry discussions and research. Compliance with grid connection standards for wind power plants (WPPs) is crucial to ensuring the reliable and stable operation of the electric power grid. This report compares the standards for grid-connected WPPs in China to those in the United States to facilitate further improvements in wind power standards and enhance the development of wind power equipment. Detailed analyses of power quality, low-voltage ride-through capability, active power control, reactive power control, voltage control, and wind power forecasting are provided to enhance the understanding of grid codes in the two largest markets of wind power. This study compares WPP interconnection standards and technical requirements in China to those in the United States.

  17. An ecological method to understand agricultural standardization in peach orchard ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Nian-Feng; Zhang, Ming-Yi; Jiang, Jie-Xian; Ji, Xiang-Yun; Hao-Zhang

    2016-02-22

    While the worldwide standardization of agricultural production has been advocated and recommended, relatively little research has focused on the ecological significance of such a shift. The ecological concerns stemming from the standardization of agricultural production may require new methodology. In this study, we concentrated on how ecological two-sidedness and ecological processes affect the standardization of agricultural production which was divided into three phrases (pre-, mid- and post-production), considering both the positive and negative effects of agricultural processes. We constructed evaluation indicator systems for the pre-, mid- and post-production phases and here we presented a Standardization of Green Production Index (SGPI) based on the Full Permutation Polygon Synthetic Indicator (FPPSI) method which we used to assess the superiority of three methods of standardized production for peaches. The values of SGPI for pre-, mid- and post-production were 0.121 (Level IV, "Excellent" standard), 0.379 (Level III, "Good" standard), and 0.769 × 10(-2) (Level IV, "Excellent" standard), respectively. Here we aimed to explore the integrated application of ecological two-sidedness and ecological process in agricultural production. Our results are of use to decision-makers and ecologists focusing on eco-agriculture and those farmers who hope to implement standardized agricultural production practices.

  18. Maternal Mental State Language and Preschool Children's Attachment Security: Relation to Children's Mental State Language and Expressions of Emotional Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcquaid, Nancy; Bigelow, Ann E.; McLaughlin, Jessica; MacLean, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Mothers' mental state language in conversation with their preschool children, and children's preschool attachment security were examined for their effects on children's mental state language and expressions of emotional understanding in their conversation. Children discussed an emotionally salient event with their mothers and then relayed the…

  19. Related Rules and Programs that Help States Attain PM Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s national and regional rules to reduce emissions of pollutants that form particle pollution will help state and local governments meet the PM NAAQS. A number of voluntary programs also are helping areas reduce fine PM pollution.

  20. Focus on Collaboration: How Understanding the Nature of Trust Can Help Address the Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinio, Deborah

    2018-01-01

    Teacher and librarian collaboration is a main theme in school librarianship, education research, and professional literature. Now, within the American Association of School Librarians' "National School Library Standards," collaboration is one of the six Shared Foundations on which the standards are based. Improving collaboration in…

  1. Comparing Panelists' Understanding of Standard Setting across Multiple Levels of an Alternate Science Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Mary A.; Lyon, Steven R.; Heh, Peter; Zigmond, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale assessment programs, including alternate assessments based on alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS), must provide evidence of technical quality and validity. This study provides information about the technical quality of one AA-AAS by evaluating the standard setting for the science component. The assessment was designed to have…

  2. How Much Water Can We Save by Achieving Renewable Portfolio Standards in the Southwest United States?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzhen Feng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Electricity in the Southwestern United States is primarily generated with water intensive steam turbines. If energy demand continues to rise this will lead to a further rise in water demand. A comprehensive understanding of water consumption and withdrawal for utility scale generation of electricity is necessary before any improvements in the water efficiency of such systems in arid environments can be made. This study estimated and compared the water usage associated with thermoelectric generation (i.e., natural gas, coal, and solar energy, in the five driest Colorado River Basin states: Utah, New Mexico, Nevada, Arizona, and California. This study also examined and compared each state’s Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS and how this might impact water savings. Results showed that each state’s current RPS goals would reduce the water that is consumed by the generation of electricity. However, the amount of water savings will vary on a state by state basis. In order to reduce water consumption, replacing thermal electric generation with photovoltaic (PV solar can be significant and should be encouraged. The amount of water saved will vary, however, depending on the state’s choice of coal or natural gas.

  3. 44 CFR 201.4 - Standard State Mitigation Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... resources to reducing the effects of natural hazards. (b) Planning process. An effective planning process is... location of all natural hazards that can affect the State, including information on previous occurrences of... updating the plan. (ii) A system for monitoring implementation of mitigation measures and project closeouts...

  4. Investigating the Language Demands in the Common Core State Standards for English Language Learners: A Comparison Study of Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Wang, Yuan; Huang, Becky H.; Blood, Ian

    2014-01-01

    This study reports on a critical review of the language demands contained in the Common Core State Standards for English language arts (CCSS-ELA) with the aim of deriving important implications for the instruction of English language learners. The language demands of the CCSS-ELA were compared with those of existing English language arts (ELA) and…

  5. 7 CFR 58.2825 - United States Standard for ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT... DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 United States Department of Agriculture Standard for Ice Cream § 58.2825 United States... from the use of bulky optional ingredients, chocolate and cocoa solids used shall be considered the...

  6. 75 FR 4173 - Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... Part III Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 131 Water Quality Standards for the State of...-HQ-OW-2009-0596; FRL-9105-1] RIN 2040-AF11 Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is proposing numeric nutrient water quality criteria to protect aquatic...

  7. A Comparison of the American Common Core State Standards with the Finnish Educational System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    With the failure of the No Child Left Behind policies of the 1990's, educational reformers wished to establish a "new and improved" set of standards for the United States to follow. However, since their inception in 2006-2007, the new Common Core State Standards have become increasingly unpopular due to the fact that they remain largely…

  8. The Public Understanding of Assessment in Educational Reform in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    The United States education system depends on legislation and funding at the federal, state and local levels. Public understanding of assessment therefore is important to educational reform in the USA. Educational reformers often invoke assessment information as a reason for reform, typically by citing unacceptable achievement on some measure or…

  9. Understanding and Using Fiscal Data: A Guide for Part C State Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Maureen; Kilpatrick, Jamie; Nelson, Robin; Reid, Kellen

    2014-01-01

    This document provides an overview of the critical role of fiscal data in state Part C systems. This information is intended to help state Part C lead agency staff better understand strategic fiscal policy questions, the fiscal data elements needed to address those questions, and the benefits of using these data. Fiscal data provide powerful…

  10. Beyond the Rhetoric: An Historian's View of the "National" Standards for United States History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Sheldon M.

    1994-01-01

    Suggests there are flaws in the National Standards for United States History that could be detrimental to students. According to the author, in their pervasive present-mindedness and self-censorship, the standard's framers underestimate and ill-serve the students because the standards help develop a smug, superior, and self-righteous attitude…

  11. Standardization of the licensing process in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa, R.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses a major problem with the design review process for light water reactors. Major confusion exists over the design-basis requirements for a future nuclear power plant in the US. It is not at all clear how the conclusions of a severe accident review are to be integrated into the design approval process. The separation between a design-basis review and a severe accident review makes absolutely no sense if the severe accident review is to have an influence on the design. If an acceptable design is defined during the deterministic review, it is destructive to allow new design-basis requirements to appear during the probabilistic review. Clearly, the review process has too many undefined steps. It is believed that once all of the requirements are defined for a future design, and once the licensing process is exactly defined, the industry can begin a productive and successful standardization program

  12. Potential Ramifications of Common Core State Standards Adoption on Information Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Paul Eubanks

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, the decline in jobs for high school educated workers and the proliferation of jobs for post-secondary educated workers is driving the development of the Common Core State Standards. The Common Core State Standards theoretically shift K-12 pedagogy towards ability development of critical and extended thinking skills, preparing high school graduates for college and career readiness. This literature review explores the reasoning behind the shift to the Common Core State Standards and asks questions regarding the potential ramifications their adoption might have on post-secondary information literacy instruction.

  13. Concepts of Information Literacy and Information Literacy Standards among Undergraduate Students in Public and Private Universities in the State of Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Issa, Reham E.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of undergraduate college students attending a public and a private university in the State of Kuwait to understand how they develop their understanding and valuing of information literacy and information literacy standards. Data from student and faculty interviews and student…

  14. The Legislative Requirements for Measuring Quality in Transnational Education: Understanding Divergence While Maintaining Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Duncan; Henderson, Fiona; Lim, Choon Boey

    2017-01-01

    Australian universities have been actively engaged in transnational education since the 1990s. The challenges of assuring quality have seen a changing regulatory framework increasingly designed to ensure equivalence of standards wherever a course of study is offered and however it is delivered. Transnational Higher Education has grown…

  15. Understanding Emotions from Standardized Facial Expressions in Autism and Normal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Fulvia

    2005-01-01

    The study investigated the recognition of standardized facial expressions of emotion (anger, fear, disgust, happiness, sadness, surprise) at a perceptual level (experiment 1) and at a semantic level (experiments 2 and 3) in children with autism (N= 20) and normally developing children (N= 20). Results revealed that children with autism were as…

  16. Guidelines for Member States concerning radiation measurement standards and Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    In the early nineteen-sixties an acute need developed for higher dosimetric accuracy in radiation therapy, particularly in developing countries. This need led to the establishment of a number of dosimetry laboratories around the world, specializing in the calibration of radiation therapy dosimeters. In order to co-ordinate the provision of guidance and assistance to such laboratories, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) set up a Network of Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) under their joint aegis, as described in the IAEA booklet 'SSDLs: Development and Trends' (1985). This publication includes detailed criteria for the establishment of these laboratories. The present guidelines deal with the functions and status of SSDLs, in particular with the need for recognition and support by the competent national authorities. (author)

  17. Understanding IEC standard wind turbine models using SimPowerSystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Kaushik; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2016-01-01

    This article describes and exemplifies the IEC 61400-27 generic wind turbine models through an interactive multimedia learning environment - Matlab SimPowerSystems. The article aims help engineers with different backgrounds to get a better understanding of wind turbine dynamics and control...

  18. The Group That Calls Itself a State: Understanding the Evolution and Challenges of the Islamic State

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    to mount a fight against the global establishment in the form of states, al-Zarqawi was envisaging an establishment of his own. The embryo of al...the IS far too much credit in shaping its own destiny . Were it not for many unplanned and unintended events (see the section of this report on the

  19. State special calibration standard of acoustic pressure in aqueous medium within frequency range of 0.001 to 200 khz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golenkov, A.N.; Golub', S.G.; Likhachev, S.M.; Makarevich, B.N.; Fadeev, V.G.

    1974-01-01

    A standard approved by the State Standard Specification (GOST) is described. The standard has been developed at the VNIIFTRI. The metrology characteristics and main data of the standard units are presented

  20. Understanding the case of international labour standards – methodological insights into an ongoing debate

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Oliver

    2005-01-01

    "By globalization, national economies strengthen their ties towards each other; the same process causes growing interdependence" (Duwendag 2003, p. 119). Internationally agreed standards are regularly called for to guide and direct the process of globalisation. E. g. the German Vice-chancellor (who is also the minister responsible for labour market regulation) warned that profit-orientation threatened democracy if it would not allow for social responsibility of employers (Muentefering 2005). ...

  1. Characteristics of States' Alternate Assessments Based on Modified Academic Achievement Standards in 2008. Synthesis Report 72

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albus, Deb; Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Cormier, Damien

    2009-01-01

    In April 2007, Federal No Child Left Behind regulations were finalized that provided states with additional flexibility for assessing some students with disabilities. The regulations allowed states to offer another assessment option, alternate assessments based on modified academic achievement standards (AA-MAS). States are not required to have…

  2. Linking the Revised National Standards to Teaching Games for Understanding: An Eighth-Grade Soccer Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Craig; Subramaniam, Prithwi Raj

    2015-01-01

    In the United States it is estimated that over 3 million children and young people currently participate in youth soccer programs. This number has the potential to increase following a surge of interest in the U.S. Men's National Team World Cup performance in Brazil in 2014, and the U.S. Women's National Team World Cup win in Canada in 2015. This…

  3. Understanding how discrete populations of hypothalamic neurons orchestrate complicated behavioral states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison eGraebner

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A major question in systems neuroscience is how a single population of neurons can interact with the rest of the brain to orchestrate complex behavioral states. The hypothalamus contains many such discrete neuronal populations that individually regulate arousal, feeding, and drinking. For example, hypothalamic neurons that express hypocretin (Hcrt neuropeptides can sense homeostatic and metabolic factors affecting wakefulness and orchestrate organismal arousal. Neurons that express agouti-related protein (AgRP can sense the metabolic needs of the body and orchestrate a state of hunger. The organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT can detect the hypertonicity of blood and orchestrate a state of thirst. Each hypothalamic population is sufficient to generate complicated behavioral states through the combined efforts of distinct efferent projections. The principal challenge to understanding these brain systems is therefore to determine the individual roles of each downstream projection for each behavioral state. In recent years, the development and application of temporally precise, genetically encoded tools have greatly improved our understanding of the structure and function of these neural systems. This review will survey recent advances in our understanding of how these individual hypothalamic populations can orchestrate complicated behavioral states due to the combined efforts of individual downstream projections.

  4. Understanding Standards and Assessment Policy in Science Education: Relating and Exploring Variations in Policy Implementation by Districts and Teachers in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kevin John Boyett

    Current literature shows that many science teachers view policies of standards-based and test-based accountability as conflicting with research-based instruction in science education. With societal goals of improving scientific literacy and using science to spur economic growth, improving science education policy becomes especially important. To understand perceived influences of science education policy, this study looked at three questions: 1) How do teachers perceive state science standards and assessment and their influence on curriculum and instruction? 2) How do these policy perspectives vary by district and teacher level demographic and contextual differences? 3) How do district leaders' interpretations of and efforts within these policy realms relate to teachers' perceptions of the policies? To answer these questions, this study used a stratified sample of 53 districts across Wisconsin, with 343 middle school science teachers responding to an online survey; science instructional leaders from each district were also interviewed. Survey results were analyzed using multiple regression modeling, with models generally predicting 8-14% of variance in teacher perceptions. Open-ended survey and interview responses were analyzed using a constant comparative approach. Results suggested that many teachers saw state testing as limiting use of hands-on pedagogy, while standards were seen more positively. Teachers generally held similar views of the degree of influence of standards and testing regardless of their experience, background in science, credentials, or grade level taught. District SES, size and past WKCE scores had some limited correlations to teachers' views of policy, but teachers' perceptions of district policies and leadership consistently had the largest correlation to their views. District leadership views of these state policies correlated with teachers' views. Implications and future research directions are provided. Keywords: science education, policy

  5. A Comparison of Higher-Order Thinking between the Common Core State Standards and the 2009 New Jersey Content Standards in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sforza, Dario; Tienken, Christopher H.; Kim, Eunyoung

    2016-01-01

    The creators and supporters of the Common Core State Standards claim that the Standards require greater emphasis on higher-order thinking than previous state standards in mathematics and English language arts. We used a qualitative case study design with content analysis methods to test the claim. We compared the levels of thinking required by the…

  6. Problems of introduction of international standards of conscientious state financial management in Ukrainian practice

    OpenAIRE

    Anhelina, I.

    2014-01-01

    The m aintenance of the INTOSAI GOV standardssystem, which show by itself guidance from a conscientious state financial management in the field of internal control and standards of record-keeping, is generalized. The directions of the use of risk and control model COSO are determinated for the financial management of state sector in part of authentication of sources of risk, aims and duties of organization. The measures are worked out on introduction of standards of INTOSAI GOVand models of C...

  7. The Common Core State Standards' Quantitative Text Complexity Trajectory: Figuring out How Much Complexity Is Enough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Gary L.; Fitzgerald, Jill; Stenner, A. Jackson

    2013-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) set a controversial aspirational, quantitative trajectory for text complexity exposure for readers throughout the grades, aiming for all high school graduates to be able to independently read complex college and workplace texts. However, the trajectory standard is presented without reference to how the…

  8. Standards-Based Reform in the United States: History, Research, and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    conducted by professional organizations such as the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics . Although notions of what constitutes effective SBR have...some states and by various professional organizations, such as the curriculum standards developed by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics ... NCTM ). The mathematics content frameworks developed in California in the 1980s and the 1989 NCTMCurriculum and Evaluation Standards for School

  9. Adapting to Change: Teacher Perceptions of Implementing the Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, Brooke A.; Beziat, Tara L. R.; Danley, Sheree; Davis, Kashara; Lowery, Holly; Lucas, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    The current research study looked at secondary teachers' (grades 6-12) perceptions of their preparedness to implement the Common Core State Standards as well as their feelings about the training they have or have not received related to implementing the standards. The problem: Many conflicting views exist among teachers, parents, and others…

  10. EXPERIENCE OF IMPLEMENTATION OF THE LABOR PROTECTION CONTROL SYSTEM AT RUP «BMZ» IN ACCORDANCE WITH INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS OHSAS 180001 AND STATE STANDARD STB 18001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Zhuk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Experience of introduction of the control system by labour protection at RUP «BMZ» in accordance with international standard OHSAS 18001 and State standard STB 18001 is described.

  11. Common Core State Standards for Mathematics: How Well Do the Textbook and Instructional Methods Align?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawding, Denise M.

    2016-01-01

    The Common Core Math Standards were written to address concerns that the math curriculum in the United States was not focused and coherent. Based on national and international assessments, the United States math scores have remained stagnant, while other countries have seen significant growth in their scores. This study, designed as an action…

  12. A Study of State Social Studies Standards for American Indian Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Connor K.

    2015-01-01

    In this study the author surveys social studies standards from 14 U.S. states seeking to answer: (a) what social studies knowledge about American Indians is deemed essential by those states mandating the development of American Indian Education curricula for all public K-12 students? and (b) at what grade levels is this social studies content…

  13. States Move toward Computer Science Standards. Policy Update. Vol. 23, No. 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley-Coulson, Eve

    2016-01-01

    While educators and parents recognize computer science as a key skill for career readiness, only five states have adopted learning standards in this area. Tides are changing, however, as the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) recognizes with its call on states to provide a "well-rounded education" for students, to include computer science…

  14. A National Education Standards Exit Strategy for States. WebMemo. No. 3437

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Lindsey M.

    2011-01-01

    The push for centralized control over what every child should learn has never had more momentum. The Obama Administration has pressured states to adopt the Common Core State Standards Initiative, conditioning more than $4 billion in Race to the Top grants on its adoption. The Administration's blueprint for the rewrite of No Child Left Behind also…

  15. Below regulatory concern standards: The limits of state and local authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    The paper discusses: (1) the scope of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's authority to develop and implement below regulatory concern or BRC standards; and (2) the limitations on the legal authority of states and local governments to create impediments to full implementation of such standards. The paper demonstrates that the NRC is acting well within its statutory authority in developing BRC regulations and guidelines, and that the ability of state and local governments to impede generators' use of those regulations and guidelines on the basis of legal or regulatory initiatives is substantially circumscribed. While some generators may be reluctant, as a result of political factors, to utilize BRC standards, the decision whether or not to use such standards should not be made without careful consideration of the applicable legal and regulatory limitations on state and local authority

  16. Including Alternative Resources in State Renewable Portfolio Standards: Current Design and Implementation Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Bird, L.

    2012-11-01

    Currently, 29 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have instituted a renewable portfolio standard (RPS). An RPS sets a minimum threshold for how much renewable energy must be generated in a given year. Each state policy is unique, varying in percentage targets, timetables, and eligible resources. This paper examines state experience with implementing renewable portfolio standards that include energy efficiency, thermal resources, and non-renewable energy and explores compliance experience, costs, and how states evaluate, measure, and verify energy efficiency and convert thermal energy. It aims to gain insights from the experience of states for possible federal clean energy policy as well as to share experience and lessons for state RPS implementation.

  17. 9 CFR 79.6 - Standards for States to qualify as Consistent States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS... second incisor such that the animal may be traced to its flock of birth; provided that: (A) A State may... slaughter channels unless it is identified to the flock of birth, is not from an Inconsistent State, and is...

  18. An analysis of Renewable Portfolio Standard policy formulation and its influence on state level energy prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollester, Peter Colin

    Over the past two decades, environmental concern has crept to the forefront of the world policy agenda. This concern has manifested itself differently throughout the world. In the United States, this has come in the form of Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) which have become one of the primary policy tools which states use to encourage renewable energy generation. The advent of RPS has spurred intense debate at a federal and state level, centering on the economic merits of promoting renewable energy generation. Detractors argue that RPS will raise electricity rates, since generation from renewable sources is typically costlier than energy generated from fossil fuels. At this point, evidence to the relationship between RPS on electricity prices remains unclear. Researchers have attempted to understand this relationship through a variety of means. The most common being regression based models, which utilize readily available United States Energy Information Agency (US EIA) data, and have uncovered a number of important independent variables which are incorporated into the model in this study. Examples include personal income, state population, and deregulation of an energy market. In addition to empirical studies, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has created complex mathematical models which generate scenario projections based on a number of assumptions. While interesting, these are forward looking tools and as such have not yielded a tremendous amount of insight into the underlying policy mechanics of RPS. A challenge of addressing this topic which is worth noting is that much of the research available which analyzes the merits of RPS caters to distinct political or private sector agendas. The research gathered for this study is comprehensive, and attempts to avoid studies with any clear political, ideological, or financial motivation. Using the insights from previous researchers this study develops a rigorous fixed effects regression model to

  19. Energy efficiency as a resource in state portfolio standards: Lessons for more expansive policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoyre, Autumn

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, state electricity portfolio standards in the U.S. are analyzed to examine how energy efficiency is being created as a particular kind of resource through this type of climate change governance. Such policies can incentivize energy efficiency by requiring or encouraging electricity providers to meet a certain percentage of their demand through energy efficiency measures. North Carolina’s portfolio standard is used as an in-depth case study to identify factors that are then compared across all 36 states that include energy efficiency as part of a portfolio requirement or goal. The main finding of this study is that state portfolio standards tend to emphasize demand-side energy efficiency, or energy efficiency on the customer’s side of the electricity meter, and only rarely incentivize a full range of both demand-side and supply-side efficiency changes. As a result, the amount of energy efficiency and climate change mitigation benefits that are likely to result from this type of portfolio standard policy tool are limited. From this analysis, lessons are drawn out for crafting stronger portfolio standards that incentivize a wider range of efficiency changes across electricity networks. - Highlights: • Energy efficiency in 36 U.S. state portfolio standard policies was analyzed. • Such standards were found to incentivize mainly demand-side energy efficiency. • Supply-side energy efficiency was rarely incentivized by portfolio standards. • Such framings likely limit the carbon mitigation potential of these policies. • Recommendations are made for more expansive portfolio standard policies.

  20. Science standards: The foundation of evolution education in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Watts

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Science standards and textbooks have a huge impact on the manner in which evolution is taught in American classrooms. Standards dictate how much time and what points have to be dedicated to the subject in order to prepare students for state-wide assessments, while the textbooks will largely determine how the subject is presented in the classroom. In the United States both standards and textbooks are determined at the state-level through a political process. Currently there is a tremendous amount of pressure arising from anti-evolutionists in the United States to weaken or omit the teaching of evolution despite recommendations from central institutions such as the National Academy of Science. Results from the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA showed that not only are American students performing below average, but also that their performance is declining as they scored worse in 2012 than they did in 2010. Interestingly PISA also found that the internal variation within a country is often greater than between countries with a variation of up to 300 points, which is equivalent to seven years of education pointing to the extreme heterogeneous quality of education within a country (OECD, 2012. An implementation of strong standards would not only help to increase the average performance of American students but could also alleviate the vast discrepancy between the highest and lowest scoring groups of American students. Although the Next Generation Science Standards have been in existence since 2013 and A Framework for K-12 Science Education has been available to the public since 2011 many American states still continue to create their own standards that, according to the Fordham study, are well below par (Lerner et al., 2012. Due to the political nature of the adoption procedure of standards and textbooks, there are many opportunities for interested individuals to get involved in the process of improving these fundamental elements of

  1. [Development of legislation and standardization of acupuncture therapy in the United States of America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shou-Dong; Hou, You-Juan; Meng, Fan-Hong; Chen, Shu-Juan; Wang, Yan-Yao; Jiang, Fan; Ding, Ming

    2012-06-01

    In the present article, the authors summarized the state of acupuncture therapy in the United States of America from 1) history and current state, 2) legislation and its contents, management system and introduction of health insurance system, and 3) standardization. Acupuncture therapy, as a complementary or alternative therapy, has been widely supported and approved by majority of states in the USA. The authors hold that due to differences between the oriental and western cultures and difficulties of Chinese medicine in quantitative and qualitative studies, the legislation on acupuncture therapy for approval of the American Parliament needs paying more efforts.

  2. How should we understand non-equilibrium many-body steady states?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghrebi, Mohammad; Gorshkov, Alexey

    : Many-body systems with both coherent dynamics and dissipation constitute a rich class of models which are nevertheless much less explored than their dissipationless counterparts. The advent of numerous experimental platforms that simulate such dynamics poses an immediate challenge to systematically understand and classify these models. In particular, nontrivial many-body states emerge as steady states under non-equilibrium dynamics. In this talk, I use a field-theoretic approach based on the Keldysh formalism to study nonequilibrium phases and phase transitions in such models. I show that an effective temperature generically emerges as a result of dissipation, and the universal behavior including the dynamics near the steady state is described by a thermodynamic universality class. In the end, I will also discuss possibilities that go beyond the paradigm of an effective thermodynamic behavior.

  3. Association of State Access Standards With Accessibility to Specialists for Medicaid Managed Care Enrollees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndumele, Chima D; Cohen, Michael S; Cleary, Paul D

    2017-10-01

    Medicaid recipients have consistently reported less timely access to specialists than patients with other types of coverage. By 2018, state Medicaid agencies will be required by the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) to enact time and distance standards for managed care organizations to ensure an adequate supply of specialist physicians for enrollees; however, there have been no published studies of whether these policies have significant effects on access to specialty care. To compare ratings of access to specialists for adult Medicaid and commercial enrollees before and after the implementation of specialty access standards. We used Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems survey data to conduct a quasiexperimental difference-in-differences (DID) analysis of 20 163 nonelderly adult Medicaid managed care (MMC) enrollees and 54 465 commercially insured enrollees in 5 states adopting access standards, and 37 290 MMC enrollees in 5 matched states that previously adopted access standards. Reported access to specialty care in the previous 6 months. Seven thousand six hundred ninety-eight (69%) Medicaid enrollees and 28 423 (75%) commercial enrollees reported that it was always or usually easy to get an appointment with a specialist before the policy implementation (or at baseline) compared with 11 889 (67%) of Medicaid enrollees in states that had previously implemented access standards. Overall, there was no significant improvement in timely access to specialty services for MMC enrollees in the period following implementation of standard(s) (adjusted difference-in-differences, -1.2 percentage points; 95% CI, -2.7 to 0.1), nor was there any impact of access standards on insurance-based disparities in access (0.6 percentage points; 95% CI, -4.3 to 5.4). There was heterogeneity across states, with 1 state that implemented both time and distance standards demonstrating significant improvements in access and reductions in disparities

  4. Stability of the electroweak ground state in the Standard Model and its extensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Luzio, Luca; Isidori, Gino; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    We review the formalism by which the tunnelling probability of an unstable ground state can be computed in quantum field theory, with special reference to the Standard Model of electroweak interactions. We describe in some detail the approximations implicitly adopted in such calculation. Particular attention is devoted to the role of scale invariance, and to the different implications of scale-invariance violations due to quantum effects and possible new degrees of freedom. We show that new interactions characterized by a new energy scale, close to the Planck mass, do not invalidate the main conclusions about the stability of the Standard Model ground state derived in absence of such terms.

  5. Stability of the electroweak ground state in the Standard Model and its extensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Luzio, Luca, E-mail: diluzio@ge.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Genova and INFN, Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova (Italy); Isidori, Gino [Department of Physics, University of Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland); Ridolfi, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Genova and INFN, Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova (Italy)

    2016-02-10

    We review the formalism by which the tunnelling probability of an unstable ground state can be computed in quantum field theory, with special reference to the Standard Model of electroweak interactions. We describe in some detail the approximations implicitly adopted in such calculation. Particular attention is devoted to the role of scale invariance, and to the different implications of scale-invariance violations due to quantum effects and possible new degrees of freedom. We show that new interactions characterized by a new energy scale, close to the Planck mass, do not invalidate the main conclusions about the stability of the Standard Model ground state derived in absence of such terms.

  6. Stability of the electroweak ground state in the Standard Model and its extensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Di Luzio

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We review the formalism by which the tunnelling probability of an unstable ground state can be computed in quantum field theory, with special reference to the Standard Model of electroweak interactions. We describe in some detail the approximations implicitly adopted in such calculation. Particular attention is devoted to the role of scale invariance, and to the different implications of scale-invariance violations due to quantum effects and possible new degrees of freedom. We show that new interactions characterized by a new energy scale, close to the Planck mass, do not invalidate the main conclusions about the stability of the Standard Model ground state derived in absence of such terms.

  7. Personnel involved in the development of nuclear standards in the United States, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.B.

    1976-05-01

    The development of voluntary nuclear standards in the United States is an active and necessary endeavor of the technical community concerned with the safe, orderly, and economic development of the nuclear potential. There are almost 8000 people presently involved either in writing voluntary standards and codes or in the management and processing roles necessary for their approval and promulgation. This document records the current participation of these people as member, chairman, or secretary of about 900 identified committees and projects. The standards projects are identified with the organizations that are responsible for the preparation, review, and maintenance of the standards and that provide support through supervisory committees and headquarters staff. The Directory has four major sections: personnel, employers, committees, and a KWIC Index of committee titles. The Directory can be used to identify those nuclear standards projects currently active, to indicate the participation of employers, and to recognize the contributions of individuals to these often interdisciplinary activities

  8. Personnel involved in the development of nuclear standards in the United States, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.B.

    1977-03-01

    The development of voluntary nuclear standards in the United States is an active and necessary endeavor of the technical community concerned with the safe, orderly, and economic development of the nuclear potential. There are almost 8000 people presently involved either in writing voluntary standards and codes or in the management and processing roles necessary for their approval and promulgation. This document records the current participation of these people as member, chairman, or secretary of about 900 identified committees and projects. The standards projects are identified with the organizations that are responsible for the preparation, review, and maintenance of the standards and that provide support through supervisory committees and headquarters staff. The directory has four major sections: personnel, employers, committees, and a KWIC index of committee titles. The directory can be used to identify those nuclear standards projects currently active, to indicate the participation of employers, and to recognize the contributions of individuals to these often interdisciplinary activities

  9. Personnel involved in the development of nuclear standards in the United States, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, E.B. (ed.)

    1977-03-01

    The development of voluntary nuclear standards in the United States is an active and necessary endeavor of the technical community concerned with the safe, orderly, and economic development of the nuclear potential. There are almost 8000 people presently involved either in writing voluntary standards and codes or in the management and processing roles necessary for their approval and promulgation. This document records the current participation of these people as member, chairman, or secretary of about 900 identified committees and projects. The standards projects are identified with the organizations that are responsible for the preparation, review, and maintenance of the standards and that provide support through supervisory committees and headquarters staff. The directory has four major sections: personnel, employers, committees, and a KWIC index of committee titles. The directory can be used to identify those nuclear standards projects currently active, to indicate the participation of employers, and to recognize the contributions of individuals to these often interdisciplinary activities.

  10. Personnel involved in the development of nuclear standards in the United States, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, E.B. (ed.)

    1976-05-01

    The development of voluntary nuclear standards in the United States is an active and necessary endeavor of the technical community concerned with the safe, orderly, and economic development of the nuclear potential. There are almost 8000 people presently involved either in writing voluntary standards and codes or in the management and processing roles necessary for their approval and promulgation. This document records the current participation of these people as member, chairman, or secretary of about 900 identified committees and projects. The standards projects are identified with the organizations that are responsible for the preparation, review, and maintenance of the standards and that provide support through supervisory committees and headquarters staff. The Directory has four major sections: personnel, employers, committees, and a KWIC Index of committee titles. The Directory can be used to identify those nuclear standards projects currently active, to indicate the participation of employers, and to recognize the contributions of individuals to these often interdisciplinary activities.

  11. Physical Principles of Development of the State Standard of Biological Cell Polarizability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuvalov, G. V.; Generalov, K. V.; Generalov, V. M.; Kruchinina, M. V.; Koptev, E. S.; Minin, O. V.; Minin, I. V.

    2018-03-01

    A new state standard of biological cell polarizability based on micron-size latex particles has been developed. As a standard material, it is suggested to use polystyrene. Values of the polarizability calculated for erythrocytes and values of the polarizability of micron-size spherical latex particles measured with measuring-computing complexes agree within the limits of satisfactory relative error. The Standard allows one the unit of polarizability measurements [m3] to be assigned to cells and erythrocytes for the needs of medicine.

  12. Emotional state talk and emotion understanding: a training study with preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavazzi, Ilaria Grazzani; Ornaghi, Veronica

    2011-11-01

    ABSTRACTThe present study investigates whether training preschool children in the active use of emotional state talk plays a significant role in bringing about greater understanding of emotion terms and improved emotion comprehension. Participants were 100 preschool children (M=52 months; SD=9·9; range: 35-70 months), randomly assigned to experimental or control conditions. They were pre- and post-tested to assess their language comprehension, metacognitive language comprehension and emotion understanding. Analyses of pre-test data did not show any significant differences between experimental and control groups. During the intervention phase, the children were read stories enriched with emotional lexicon. After listening to the stories, children in the experimental group took part in conversational language games designed to stimulate use of the selected emotional terms. In contrast, the control group children did not take part in any special linguistic activities after the story readings. Analyses revealed that the experimental group outperformed the control group in the understanding of inner state language and in the comprehension of emotion.

  13. A comparative analysis of Science-Technology-Society standards in elementary, middle and high school state science curriculum frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Karen Marie

    An analysis of curriculum frameworks from the fifty states to ascertain the compliance with the National Science Education Standards for integrating Science-Technology-Society (STS) themes is reported within this dissertation. Science standards for all fifty states were analyzed to determine if the STS criteria were integrated at the elementary, middle, and high school levels of education. The analysis determined the compliance level for each state, then compared each educational level to see if the compliance was similar across the levels. Compliance is important because research shows that using STS themes in the science classroom increases the student's understanding of the concepts, increases the student's problem solving skills, increases the student's self-efficacy with respect to science, and students instructed using STS themes score well on science high stakes tests. The two hypotheses for this study are: (1) There is no significant difference in the degree of compliance to Science-Technology-Society themes (derived from National Science Education Standards) between the elementary, middle, and high school levels. (2) There is no significant difference in the degree of compliance to Science-Technology-Society themes (derived from National Science Education Standards) between the elementary, middle, and high school level when examined individually. The Analysis of Variance F ratio was used to determine the variance between and within the three educational levels. This analysis addressed hypothesis one. The Analysis of Variance results refused to reject the null hypothesis, meaning there is significant difference in the compliance to STS themes between the elementary, middle and high school educational levels. The Chi-Square test was the statistical analysis used to compare the educational levels for each individual criterion. This analysis addressed hypothesis two. The Chi-Squared results showed that none of the states were equally compliant with each

  14. Standardization of nuclear power plants in the United States: recent regulatory developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, B.Z.; Tourtellotte, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    On April 18, 1989, the United States (U.S.) Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) amended the regulations governing the process for licensing nuclear power plants in the United States to provide for issuance of early site permits, standard design certifications and combined construction permits and operating licenses for nuclear power reactors. The new regulations are designed to achieve early resolution of licensing issues and facilitate standardization of nuclear power plants in the United States. The program for design standardization is central to efforts mounted by the U.S. government and industry to ensure that there will be a next generation of nuclear power facilities in the U.S. The most significant changes are provisions for certification of standard designs and for issuance prior to start of construction of combined licenses which incorporate a construction permit and an operating license with conditions. Such certifications and combined licenses must contain tests, inspections and analyses, and acceptance criteria, which are necessary and sufficient to provide reasonable assurance that the facility has been constructed and will operate in accordance with the combined license. A number of significant implementation issues have arisen. In addition a major court case brought by several anti-nuclear groups is pending, challenging NRC authority to issue combined licenses. It is the goal of the U.S. nuclear industry to have the first of the next generation of standardized nuclear power plants ordered, licensed, constructed and on-line by the year 2000. (author)

  15. Environmental politics in the US: a study of state sulfur dioxide standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.

    2005-01-01

    What determines the environmental regulatory regime of a country or region? This paper addresses the question in detail, using the US and its widely varying environmental policies as the case study. What factors lead some US states to pass strict environmental regulations, while others are content with the baseline standards required at the national level? This work outlines the state environmental choice as a trade-off between the desires of consumers (who want better environmental quality) and of producers (who want less restrictive environmental standards). A rational state legislator maximises her chances of being re-elected by balancing these two competing forces when setting environmental policy. I test this model by directly analysing the state decision to adopt more restrictive sulfur dioxide regulations than those required by the federal government under the Environmental Protection Agency's ''National Ambient Air Quality Standards'' program. The statistical results suggest that legislators weigh the relative influence of consumer and producer groups when setting sulfur dioxide standards, in addition to accounting for meteorological influences that affect the cost of compliance with stricter environmental regulations. Limited evidence is also provided to support an inverted-U shaped relationship between income levels and environmental regulations. (author)

  16. [The federal state educational standard and teaching of history of medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokina, T S

    2016-01-01

    The article considers actual issues of teaching of history of medicine in Russia in connection with transition of higher medical school of Russia to the new Federal state educational standard of high education if the third generation meaning placement of discipline in education process, programs of training, personnel support.

  17. Bioinformatics in High School Biology Curricula: A Study of State Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wefer, Stephen H.; Sheppard, Keith

    2008-01-01

    The proliferation of bioinformatics in modern biology marks a modern revolution in science that promises to influence science education at all levels. This study analyzed secondary school science standards of 49 U.S. states (Iowa has no science framework) and the District of Columbia for content related to bioinformatics. The bioinformatics…

  18. 77 FR 53199 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Advanced Clean Car Program; Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... cars, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles (and limited requirements related to heavy... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [AMS-FRL-9724-4] California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Advanced Clean Car Program; Request for Waiver of Preemption; Opportunity for Public Hearing and...

  19. The Impact of International Financial Reporting Standards on Accounting Curriculum in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yallapragada, RamMohan R.; Toma, Alfred G.; Roe, C. William

    2011-01-01

    According to the time line presently specified by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), business firms in the United States (US) should switch from the existing US accounting reporting guidelines of the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) to International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) by the year 2014. The US business…

  20. 77 FR 50500 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; California Nonroad Compression...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [AMS-FRL 9716-8] California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; California Nonroad Compression Ignition Engines--In-Use Fleets; Authorization Request... emissions control of new engines not listed under section 209(e)(1). The section 209(e) rule and its...

  1. 76 FR 7196 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Request for Authorization of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9264-4] California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Request for Authorization of Airborne Toxic Control Measure for In-Use Portable Diesel Engines 50... for In-Use Strategies to Control Emissions from Diesel Engines,'' 13 California Code of Regulations...

  2. 78 FR 721 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Transport Refrigeration Units...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards... requirements related to the control of emissions from non-new nonroad engines or vehicles. Section 209(e)(2... requirements relating to the control of emissions from new nonroad spark-ignition engines smaller than 50...

  3. The Relationship between Teacher Attitudes toward the Common Core State Standards and Informational Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estruch, Marcie Jane

    2018-01-01

    This study sought to determine the relationship between teachers' attitudes toward the Common Core State Standards and three predetermined factors. These factors were (1) teachers' attitudes toward the practicality of pedagogical shift three, balancing informational and literary texts, (2) teachers' attitudes toward school support with the…

  4. Leading Change for the Implementation of Common Core State Standards in Rural School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Paul; Wise, Donald

    2015-01-01

    Rural school districts across the nation, with their limited resources, face daunting challenges posed by the implementation of the Common Core State Standards. This article presents a recent study of 13 rural school districts in the Central Valley of California and how these districts are responding to those challenges. A total of 352 teachers…

  5. Search for the standard model Higgs boson in tau final states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abazov, V.M.; et al., [Unknown; Ancu, L.S.; de Jong, S.J.; Filthaut, F.; Galea, C.F.; Hegeman, J.G.; Houben, P.; Meijer, M.M.; Svoisky, P.; van den Berg, P.J.; van Leeuwen, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    We present a search for the standard model Higgs boson using hadronically decaying tau leptons, in 1 fb(-1) of data collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron p(p)over-bar collider. We select two final states: tau(+/-) plus missing transverse energy and b jets, and tau(+)tau(-) plus

  6. RAFTing with Raptors: Connecting Science, English Language Arts, and the Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Gary J.; McMurtrie, Deborah H.; Coleman, Bridget K.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores using the RAFT strategy (Role, Audience, Format, Topic) for writing in science classes. The framework of the RAFT strategy will be explained, and connections with Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for ELA/Literacy will be discussed. Finally, there will be a discussion of a professional learning experience for teachers in…

  7. A Discussion of Change Theory, System Theory, and State Designed Standards and Accountability Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, Larry; Christy, W. Keith

    This brief paper is a presentation that preceeded another case of considering the ongoing dialogue on the advantages and disadvantages of centralized and decentralized school-improvement processes. It attempts to raise a number of questions about the relationship between state-designed standards and accountability initiatives and change and…

  8. A Research Agenda for the Common Core State Standards: What Information Do Policymakers Need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentner, Diane Stark; Ferguson, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This report looks specifically at the information and data needs of policymakers related to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and the types of research that could provide this information. The ideas in this report were informed by a series of meetings and discussions about a possible research agenda for the Common Core, sponsored by the…

  9. Examining English Language Arts Common Core State Standards Instruction through Cultural Historical Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett-Tatum, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The English Language Arts Common Core State Standards and corresponding assessments brought about many changes for educators, their literacy instruction, and the literacy learning of their students. This study examined the day-to-day literacy instruction of two primary grade teachers during their first year of full CCSS implementation. Engestr?m's…

  10. High School Teachers' Perspectives on the English Language Arts Common Core State Standards: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Lasisi

    2016-01-01

    This was an exploratory study that examined high school teachers' perspectives about their early experiences with the English language arts Common Core State Standards. The sources of data for the study included a survey and structured interviews. Twenty-three high school ELA teachers from one unified school district in Southern California…

  11. 78 FR 2946 - United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service [Document Number AMS-FV-09-0028, FV-11-327] United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Vegetables AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) of the...

  12. 78 FR 52131 - United States Standards for Grades of Creole Onions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service [Doc. Number AMS-FV-13-0018] United States Standards for Grades of Creole Onions AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice..., which were issued under the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946. The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS...

  13. Strengthen Your Music Program by Incorporating Aspects of the ELA Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nancy Thompson

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of the English Language Arts (ELA) Common Core State Standards (CCSS) reduces the traditional separation between the study of different subjects. Increased focus on nonfiction reading and writing means more incorporation of other content, such as music, into language arts classes. CCSS's emphasis on speaking and writing across…

  14. Integrating the English Language Arts Common Core State Standards into Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Alisa R.; Bullock, Kerri

    2015-01-01

    Physical education teachers are expected to implement the English language arts (ELA) Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in their instruction. This has proved to be challenging for many physical educators. The purpose of this article is to provide developmentally appropriate examples of how to incorporate the ELA CCSS into physical education,…

  15. Comparing the results of recall surveys and standardized searches in understanding bird-window collisions at houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine A. Kummer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Every year a large number of birds die when they collide with windows. The actual number is difficult to ascertain. Previous attempts to estimate bird-window collision rates in Canada relied heavily on a prior citizen-science study that used memory-based surveys. Such an approach to data collection has many potential biases. We built upon this study and its recommendations for future research by creating a citizen-science program that actively searched for collision evidence at houses and apartments for an extended period with the objective to see how standardized approaches to data collection compared with memory recall. Absolute collision estimates as well as relative differences were compared between residence types in the two studies, and we found considerable differences in absolute values for collisions but similar rankings of collision rates between residence types. Collision recall rates in our study (56.5% were very similar those in the prior 2012 study, where 50.5% of participants remembered a bird colliding with a window at some time in the past. Fatality estimates, however, were 1.4 times higher in the 2012 study than in our study based on standardized searches. Rural houses with a bird feeder consistently had the highest number of collisions. This suggests that memory recall surveys may be a useful tool for understanding the relative importance of different risk factors causing bird-window collisions.

  16. Microscopic dynamics in simple liquids: a clue to understanding the basic thermodynamics of the liquid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrillo, C; Bermejo, F J; Maira-Vidal, A; Fernandez-Perea, R; Bennington, S M; Martin, D

    2004-01-01

    The advent of inelastic x-ray scattering techniques has prompted a reawakened interest in the dynamics of simple liquids. Such studies are often carried out using simplified models to account for the stochastic dynamics that give rise to quasielastic scattering. The vibrational and diffusive dynamics of molten potassium are studied here by an experiment using neutron scattering and are shown to provide some clues to understand the basic thermodynamics of the liquid state. The findings reported here suggest ways in which the true complementarity of neutron and x-ray scattering may be profitably exploited

  17. Renewable Portfolio Standards in the States: Balancing Goals and Implementation Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cory, K. S.; Swezey, B. G.

    2007-12-01

    This paper reports on renewable portfolio standards (RPS) and how the RPS rules vary from state to state. This variation presents important challenges to successful implementation. Key issues are discussed in terms of resource availability, solar-specific provisions, and political and regulatory consistency, and their impacts on the ability to finance new renewable energy projects. This report emphasizes the fact that a successful RPS policy must balance a state's goals for fuel diversity, economic development, price effects, and environmental benefits.

  18. Suggestibility, expectancy, trance state effects, and hypnotic depth: I. Implications for understanding hypnotism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekala, Ronald J; Kumar, V K; Maurer, Ronald; Elliott-Carter, Nancy; Moon, Edward; Mullen, Karen

    2010-04-01

    This paper reviews the relationships between trance or altered state effects, suggestibility, and expectancy as these concepts are defined in the theorizing of Weitzenhoffer (2002), Holroyd (2003), Kirsch (1991), and others, for the purpose of demonstrating how these concepts can be assessed with the PCI-HAP (Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory: Hypnotic Assessment Procedure; Pekala, 1995a, b). In addition, how the aforementioned variables may relate to the nature of hypnosis/hypnotism as a function of self-reported hypnotic depth are discussed, along with how the PCI-HAP may be used as a means to measure hypnotic responsivity from a more phenomenological state perspective, in contrast to more traditional behavioral trait assessment instruments like the Harvard, the Stanford C, or the HIP. A follow-up paper (Pekala, Kumar, Maurer, Elliott-Carter, Moon, & Mullen, 2010) will present research data on the PCI-HAP model and how this model can be useful for better understanding hypnotism.

  19. Understanding mechanisms of solid-state phase transformations by probing nuclear materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Srikumar; Donthula, Harish

    2018-04-01

    In this review a few examples will be cited to illustrate that a study on a specific nuclear material sometimes lead to a better understanding of scientific phenomena of broader interests. Zirconium alloys offer some unique opportunities in addressing fundamental issues such as (i) distinctive features between displacive and diffusional transformations, (ii) characteristics of shuffle and shear dominated displacive transformations and (iii) nature of mixed-mode transformations. Whether a transformation is of first or higher order?" is often raised while classifying it. There are rare examples, such as Ni-Mo alloys, in which during early stages of ordering the system experiences tendencies for both first order and second order transitions. Studies on the order-disorder transitions under a radiation environment have established the pathway for the evolution of ordering. These studies have also identified the temperature range over which the chemically ordered state remains stable in steady state under radiation.

  20. Upgrade of internal events PSA model using the AESJ level-1 PSA standard for operating state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Teruyoshi; Yoneyama, Mitsuru; Hirokawa, Naoki; Sato, Chikahiro; Sato, Eisuke; Tomizawa, Shigeatsu

    2009-01-01

    In 2003, the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) started to develop the Level-1 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) standard of internal events for operating state (AESJ standard). The AESJ standard has been finished to be asked for public comment. Using the AESJ standard (draft version), the authors have upgraded the PSA model for Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) BWR-5 plant not only to reflect latest knowledge but also to ensure high quality of PSA model (not yet peer-reviewed) for the purpose of better operation and maintenance management of TEPCO BWR plants. For example, the categorization of structures, systems and components (SSCs) will be performed to improve nuclear reactor safety using information of risk importance. (author)

  1. International performance-oriented packaging standards adopted in the united states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCall, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    On January 1, 1991, the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) initiated a transition to adopting a modified version of current international standards for packaging and transporting hazardous materials and hazardous wastes. This transition permits a 5-year phase-in period that will impact all phases of hazardous material transportation including material classification and description, packaging for shipment, and hazard communication standards. These changes are being enacted through the DOT Federal Docket HM-181, 'Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards.' These regulatory standards will have dramatic impact on nearly 5 billion tons of hazardous materials transported within the United States each year. This paper summarizes the principal elements of the new DOT regulations, the latest implementation schedule and impacts on U.S. shipping activities, and discusses outstanding issues that remain to be solved through the next 5 years. (author)

  2. Including alternative resources in state renewable portfolio standards: Current design and implementation experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heeter, Jenny; Bird, Lori

    2013-01-01

    As of October 2012, 29 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have instituted a renewable portfolio standard (RPS). Each state policy is unique, varying in percentage targets, timetables, and eligible resources. Increasingly, new RPS polices have included alternative resources. Alternative resources have included energy efficiency, thermal resources, and, to a lesser extent, non-renewables. This paper examines state experience with implementing renewable portfolio standards that include energy efficiency, thermal resources, and non-renewable energy and explores compliance experience, costs, and how states evaluate, measure, and verify energy efficiency and convert thermal energy. It aims to gain insights from the experience of states for possible federal clean energy policy as well as to share experience and lessons for state RPS implementation. - Highlights: • Increasingly, new RPS policies have included alternative resources. • Nearly all states provide a separate tier or cap on the quantity of eligible alternative resources. • Where allowed, non-renewables and energy efficiency are being heavily utilized

  3. Standard forms and entanglement engineering of multimode Gaussian states under local operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serafini, Alessio; Adesso, Gerardo

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the action of local unitary operations on multimode (pure or mixed) Gaussian states and single out the minimal number of locally invariant parameters which completely characterize the covariance matrix of such states. For pure Gaussian states, central resources for continuous-variable quantum information, we investigate separately the parameter reduction due to the additional constraint of global purity, and the one following by the local-unitary freedom. Counting arguments and insights from the phase-space Schmidt decomposition and in general from the framework of symplectic analysis, accompany our description of the standard form of pure n-mode Gaussian states. In particular, we clarify why only in pure states with n ≤ 3 modes all the direct correlations between position and momentum operators can be set to zero by local unitary operations. For any n, the emerging minimal set of parameters contains complete information about all forms of entanglement in the corresponding states. An efficient state engineering scheme (able to encode direct correlations between position and momentum operators as well) is proposed to produce entangled multimode Gaussian resources, its number of optical elements matching the minimal number of locally invariant degrees of freedom of general pure n-mode Gaussian states. Finally, we demonstrate that so-called 'block-diagonal' Gaussian states, without direct correlations between position and momentum, are systematically less entangled, on average, than arbitrary pure Gaussian states

  4. Novel five-state latch using double-peak negative differential resistance and standard ternary inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sunhae; Rok Kim, Kyung

    2016-04-01

    We propose complement double-peak negative differential resistance (NDR) devices with ultrahigh peak-to-valley current ratio (PVCR) over 106 by combining tunnel diode with conventional CMOS and its compact five-state latch circuit by introducing standard ternary inverter (STI). At the “high”-state of STI, n-type NDR device (tunnel diode with nMOS) has 1st NDR characteristics with 1st peak and valley by band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) and trap-assisted tunneling (TAT), whereas p-type NDR device (tunnel diode with pMOS) has second NDR characteristics from the suppression of diode current by off-state MOSFET. The “intermediate”-state of STI permits double-peak NDR device to operate five-state latch with only four transistors, which has 33% area reduction compared with that of binary inverter and 57% bit-density reduction compared with binary latch.

  5. 77 FR 39459 - Fisheries of the United States; National Standard 1 Guidelines; Extension of Public Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    .... 120425420-2420-01] RIN 0648-BB92 Fisheries of the United States; National Standard 1 Guidelines; Extension... adjustments to the National Standard 1 Guidelines, one of 10 national standards for fishery conservation and... National Standard 1 Guidelines. The ANPR provides the public with a formal opportunity to comment on the...

  6. Understanding Flood Seasonality and Its Temporal Shifts within the Contiguous United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Sheng [Institute of Hydrology and Water Resources, School of Civil Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China; Li, Hong-Yi [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Leung, L. Ruby [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Guo, Jiali [College of Civil and Hydropower Engineering, China Three Gorges University, Yichang, China; State Key Laboratory of Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China; Ran, Qihua [Institute of Hydrology and Water Resources, School of Civil Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China; Demissie, Yonas [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Washington State University Tri-Cities, Richland, Washington; Sivapalan, Murugesu [Department of Geography and Geographic Information Science, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Champaign, Illinois; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Urbana, Illinois

    2017-07-01

    Understanding the causes of flood seasonality is critical for better flood management. This study examines the seasonality of annual maximum floods (AMF) and its changes before and after 1980 at over 250 natural catchments across the contiguous United States. Using circular statistics to define a seasonality index, our analysis focuses on the variability of the flood occurrence date. Generally, catchments with more synchronized seasonal water and energy cycles largely inherit their seasonality of AMF from that of annual maximum rainfall (AMR). In contrast, the seasonality of AMF in catchments with loosely synchronized water and energy cycles are more influenced by high antecedent storage, which is responsible for the amplification of the seasonality of AMF over that of AMR. This understanding then effectively explains a statistically significant shift of flood seasonality detected in some catchments in the recent decades. Catchments where the antecedent soil water storage has increased since 1980 exhibit increasing flood seasonality while catchments that have experienced increases in storm rainfall before the floods have shifted towards floods occurring more variably across the seasons. In the eastern catchments, a concurrent widespread increase in event rainfall magnitude and reduced soil water storage have led to a more variable timing of floods. Our findings of the role of antecedent storage and event rainfall on the flood seasonality provide useful insights for understanding future changes in flood seasonality as climate models projected changes in extreme precipitation and aridity over land.

  7. Comparative Analysis and Considerations for PV Interconnection Standards in the United States and China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-01-01

    The main objectives of this report are to evaluate China's photovoltaic (PV) interconnection standards and the U.S. counterparts and to propose recommendations for future revisions to these standards. This report references the 2013 report Comparative Study of Standards for Grid-Connected PV System in China, the U.S. and European Countries, which compares U.S., European, and China's PV grid interconnection standards; reviews various metrics for the characterization of distribution network with PV; and suggests modifications to China's PV interconnection standards and requirements. The recommendations are accompanied by assessments of four high-penetration PV grid interconnection cases in the United States to illustrate solutions implemented to resolve issues encountered at different sites. PV penetration in China and in the United States has significantly increased during the past several years, presenting comparable challenges depending on the conditions of the grid at the point of interconnection; solutions are generally unique to each interconnected PV installation or PV plant.

  8. Integrating industry nuclear codes and standards into United States Department of Energy facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacox, J.

    1995-02-01

    Recently the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has mandated facilities under their jurisdiction use various industry Codes and Standards developed for civilian power reactors that operate under U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission License. While this is a major step forward in putting all our nuclear facilities under common technical standards there are always problems associated with implementing such advances. This paper will discuss some of the advantages and problems experienced to date. These include the universal challenge of educating new users of any technical documents, repeating errors made by the NRC licensed facilities over the years and some unique problems specific to DOE facilities.

  9. Understanding health-care access and utilization disparities among Latino children in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langellier, Brent A; Chen, Jie; Vargas-Bustamante, Arturo; Inkelas, Moira; Ortega, Alexander N

    2016-06-01

    It is important to understand the source of health-care disparities between Latinos and other children in the United States. We examine parent-reported health-care access and utilization among Latino, White, and Black children (≤17 years old) in the United States in the 2006-2011 National Health Interview Survey. Using Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition, we portion health-care disparities into two parts (1) those attributable to differences in the levels of sociodemographic characteristics (e.g., income) and (2) those attributable to differences in group-specific regression coefficients that measure the health-care 'return' Latino, White, and Black children receive on these characteristics. In the United States, Latino children are less likely than Whites to have a usual source of care, receive at least one preventive care visit, and visit a doctor, and are more likely to have delayed care. The return on sociodemographic characteristics explains 20-30% of the disparity between Latino and White children in the usual source of care, delayed care, and doctor visits and 40-50% of the disparity between Latinos and Blacks in emergency department use and preventive care. Much of the health-care disadvantage experienced by Latino children would persist if Latinos had the sociodemographic characteristics as Whites and Blacks. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Common Core State Standards for ELA/Literacy and Next Generation Science Standards: Convergences and Discrepancies Using Argument as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Okhee

    2017-01-01

    As the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for English language arts (ELA)/literacy and the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) highlight connections across subject areas, convergences and discrepancies come into view. As a prominent example, this article focuses on how the CCSS and the NGSS treat "argument," especially in Grades…

  11. Harmonisation of legislation and standards: views from a member State's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susanna, A.

    2002-01-01

    Surely everyone will agree that harmonisation of legislation and standards should be a must for any science based branch of knowledge; this holds in particular for radiation protection with its manifold social implications. Probably, most will also recognise that radiation protection is characterised all over the world by standards that are well harmonised at a high degree, particularly in comparison with other science based branches of knowledge. For this, ICRP certainly deserves unreserved praise because the authoritative body of experts making up the Commission has been able over the years to elaborate a set of recommendations that the majority of other experts in the world recognise as being state of the art or, in other words, the best on the basis of the scientific information available at a given time. Besides, we must not forget the important role that other International Organisations play in this respect, among which the role of IAEA together with NEA, WHO etc is foremost; indeed, as soon as new basic recommendations are published by ICRP these bodies start a meritorious work of preparing standards, based on ICRP recommendations, in order to help Member States to have an updated and harmonised radiation protection legislation. In Europe, this harmonisation role is played by the organs of the European Union; in this respect, it is well known that within the Union harmonisation takes a binding nature, because standards recommended by the EU are usually issued as directives that Member States have an obligation to transpose in their national legislation. It is also well known that the last Euratom directives no. 29 of the 1996 and no 43 of 1997 were to be transposed by May 2000 into national legislation by member States

  12. Understanding HIV-Related Stigma Among Women in the Southern United States: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, Caroline K; Hutson, Sadie P

    2017-01-01

    Societal stigmatization of HIV/AIDS due to assumptions about transmission and associated behaviors plays a substantial role in the psychosocial well-being of people living with this chronic illness, particularly for women in traditionally conservative geographic regions. Known for social conservatism, the Southern United States (US) holds the highest incidence rate of HIV infection in the US. A systematic search of four databases was used to identify 27 relevant scientific articles pertaining to HIV-related stigma among women living with HIV/AIDS in the Southern US. These studies revealed a rudimentary understanding of stigma sources, effects, and stigma-reduction interventions in this population. Due to the cultural specificity of stigma, further differentiation of stigma in discrete sectors of the South as well as a dialogue about the moral implications of stigma is necessary to lay the groundwork for patient-centered interventions to mitigate the destructive effects of stigma experienced by women in this region.

  13. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Washington. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  14. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Kentucky. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  15. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Vermont

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Vermont. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  16. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Wyoming. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  17. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Louisiana. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  18. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Maryland. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  19. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Nevada. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  20. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Ohio. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  1. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Nebraska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Nebraska. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  2. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Idaho. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  3. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Iowa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Iowa. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  4. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Utah. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  5. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of North Dakota. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  6. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of West Virginia. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  7. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Oklahoma. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  8. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Tennessee. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  9. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of New Mexico. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  10. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Mississippi. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  11. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Montana. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  12. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of New York. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  13. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Maine. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  14. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Michigan. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  15. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Indiana. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  16. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Rhode Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Rhode Island. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  17. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Pennsylvania. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  18. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of New Hampshire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of New Hampshire. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  19. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Texas. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  20. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Kansas. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  1. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of North Carolina. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  2. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Massachusetts. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  3. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Minnesota. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  4. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Illinois. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  5. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Virginia. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  6. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Oregon. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  7. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of New Jersey. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  8. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of South Carolina. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  9. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of South Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of South Dakota. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  10. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Missouri. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  11. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Wisconsin. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  12. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of California. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  13. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Arizona. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  14. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Georgia. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  15. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Florida. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  16. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Arkansas. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  17. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Connecticut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Connecticut. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  18. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Hawaii. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  19. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Alaska. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  20. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Colorado. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  1. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Delaware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Delaware. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  2. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Alabama. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  3. Understanding the occurrence of interracial marriage in the United States through differential assimilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Richard; Ford-Robertson, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    American society is undergoing unprecedented cultural changes in the 21st century. This social transformation began with the civil rights movement in the 1960s. As the United States becomes more diverse, both racially and ethnically, equal access to a variety of social institutions and organizations becomes more challenging. With respect to marriage, popular media continually report the blurring of boundaries between racial and ethnic groups. As a result, there has been a tremendous increase in interracial dating and marriage over the past several decades. There are considerable differences between the occurrence of interracial dating and interracial marriage. Data suggest that there is a much higher level of interracial dating in comparison to interracial marriage. This research effort focuses on trends in interracial marriages in the United States between 1980 and 2006. Information from the U.S. Census Bureau was used to analyze changes in the number and frequency of interracial marriages in American society over a 22-year time frame. Differential assimilation is employed for understanding interracial marriage trends and distinguishing important statistical differences between marriages with a Black spouse and those interracial marriages not involving a Black spouse. This exploration provides important empirical findings for assessing the progress of assimilation in America.

  4. Stormwater Design Return Period Standards for U.S. Transportation Infrastructure: How Are States Approaching Resilience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaras, C.; Lopez, T.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is projected to increase the frequency and intensity of precipitation in many regions, which is relevant for stormwater engineering designs and resilience in the transportation sector. Existing and future stormwater infrastructure is generally designed for historical and stationary hydrologic conditions. For example, the design return period is based on statistical analysis of past precipitation events, often over a 50-year historical timeline. The design return period translates into how much peak precipitation volume a system is designed for in a state, and provides information about the performance of a drainage structure. The higher the design period used by an engineer for a given stormwater system, the more peak stormwater volume the system can convey. Therefore, design return periods can be associated with a design's near-term and long-term resilience. However, there is a tradeoff between the choice of design return period, the total infrastructure capital cost, and the resilience of a system to heavy precipitation events. This study analyzes current stormwater infrastructure design guidelines for state departments of transportation in the contiguous United States, in order to understand how stormwater design return periods vary across states and provide insight into the resilience of current stormwater systems design. The study found that the design return period varies considerably across the United States by roadway functional class and drainage classification, as well as within climate regions. Understanding this variation will help states identify possible vulnerabilities, highlight deficiencies across states and infrastructure types, and help in updating design return periods to increase the climate resilience of stormwater infrastructure.

  5. Understanding Carbon Sequestration Options in the United States: Capabilities of a Carbon Management Geographic Information System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahowski, Robert T.; Dooley, James J.; Brown, Daryl R.; Mizoguchi, Akiyoshi; Shiozaki, Mai

    2001-04-03

    While one can discuss various sequestration options at a national or global level, the actual carbon management approach is highly site specific. In response to the need for a better understanding of carbon management options, Battelle in collaboration with Mitsubishi Corporation, has developed a state-of-the-art Geographic Information System (GIS) focused on carbon capture and sequestration opportunities in the United States. The GIS system contains information (e.g., fuel type, location, vintage, ownership, rated capacity) on all fossil-fired generation capacity in the Untied States with a rated capacity of at least 100 MW. There are also data on other CO2 sources (i.e., natural domes, gas processing plants, etc.) and associated pipelines currently serving enhanced oil recovery (EOR) projects. Data on current and prospective CO2 EOR projects include location, operator, reservoir and oil characteristics, production, and CO2 source. The system also contains information on priority deep saline aquifers and coal bed methane basins with potential for sequestering CO2. The GIS application not only enables data storage, flexible map making, and visualization capabilities, but also facilitates the spatial analyses required to solve complex linking of CO2 sources with appropriate and cost-effective sinks. A variety of screening criteria (spatial, geophysical, and economic) can be employed to identify sources and sinks most likely amenable to deployment of carbon capture and sequestration systems. The system is easily updateable, allowing it to stay on the leading edge of capture and sequestration technology as well as the ever-changing business landscape. Our paper and presentation will describe the development of this GIS and demonstrate its uses for carbon management analysis.

  6. Teaching High School Physical Education According to National Standards: The 6 Verbs of Success--Demonstrate, Understand, Participate, Achieve, Exhibit and Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert, Greg

    2010-01-01

    The six national content standards from NASPE define what a student should know and be able to do as a result of a high quality physical education program. The "NASPE SIX" serve as a North Star to guide teachers as they prepare and implement programs. Simply stated, the NASPE Standards for Physical Education are all about six simple…

  7. Understanding the complexities of private standards in global agri-food chains as they impact developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Spencer; Humphrey, John

    2010-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of private standards governing food safety, food quality and environmental and social impacts of agri-food systems has raised concerns about the effects on developing countries, as well as the governance of agri-food value chains more broadly. It is argued that current debates have been 'clouded' by a failure to recognise the diversity of private standards in terms of their institutional form, who develops and adopts these standards and why. In particular, there is a need to appreciate the close inter-relationships between public regulations and private standards and the continuing ways in which private standards evolve.

  8. The Common Core State Standards and the Role of Instructional Materials: A Case Study on EdReports.org

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to review research studies investigating the role of instructional materials in relation to the Common Core State Standards and to evaluate whether a new organisation, EdReports.org, founded to evaluate the alignment of instructional materials to the Common Core State Standards, has achieved its objectives. Content…

  9. Modeling of storage tank settlement based on the United States standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruchenkova Alesya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Up to 60% of storage tanks in operation have uneven settlement of the outer bottom contour, which often leads to accidents. Russian and foreign regulatory documents have different requirements for strain limits of metal structures. There is an increasing need for harmonizing regulatory documents. The aim of this study is to theoretically justify and to assess the possibility of applying the U.S. standards for specifying the allowable settlement of storage tanks used in Russia. The allowable uneven settlement was calculated for a vertical steel tank (VST-20000 according to API-653, a standard of the American Petroleum Institute. The calculated allowable settlement levels were compared with those established by Russian standards. Based on the finite element method, the uneven settlement development process of a storage tank was modeled. Stress-strain state parameters of tank structures were obtained at the critical levels established in API-653. Relationships of maximum equivalent stresses in VST metal structures to the vertical settlement component for settlement zones of 6 to 72 m in length were determined. When the uneven settlement zone is 6 m in length, the limit state is found to be caused by 30-mm vertical settlement, while stresses in the wall exceed 330 MPa. When the uneven settlement zone is 36 m in length, stresses reach the yield point only at 100-mm vertical settlement.

  10. From Prescribed Curriculum to Classroom Practice: An Examination of the Implementation of the New York State Earth Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contino, Julie; Anderson, O. Roger

    2013-01-01

    In New York State (NYS), Earth science teachers use the "National Science Education Standards" (NSES), the NYS "Learning Standards for Mathematics, Science and Technology" (NYS Standards), and the "Physical Setting/Earth Science Core Curriculum" (Core Curriculum) to create local curricula and daily lessons. In this…

  11. 77 FR 58086 - Fisheries of the United States; National Standard 1 Guidelines; Reopening of Public Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    .... 120425420-2420-01] RIN 0648-BB92 Fisheries of the United States; National Standard 1 Guidelines; Reopening... Rulemaking (ANPR) published on May 3, 2012, on potential adjustments to the National Standard 1 Guidelines... adjustments to the National Standard 1 Guidelines. The ANPR provides the public with a formal opportunity to...

  12. Integration of the Common Core State Standards into CTE: Challenges and Strategies of Career and Technical Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asunda, Paul A.; Finnell, Alicia M.; Berry, Nicholas R.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, conversations about the importance of education standards in our school systems have intensified. Common Core State Standards (CCSS) are being implemented across most of the country. The standards require a major shift in instruction and the needed supports really are not there. This study investigated the common barriers,…

  13. Conceptual understanding and groundwater quality of selected basin-fill aquifers in the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiros, Susan A.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Anning, David W.; Huntington, Jena M.

    2010-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey has been conducting a regional analysis of water quality in the principal aquifer systems in the southwestern United States (hereinafter, “Southwest”) since 2005. Part of the NAWQA Program, the objective of the Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study is to develop a better understanding of water quality in basin-fill aquifers in the region by synthesizing information from case studies of 15 basins into a common set of important natural and human-related factors found to affect groundwater quality.The synthesis consists of three major components:1. Summary of current knowledge about the groundwater systems, and the status of, changes in, and influential factors affecting quality of groundwater in basin-fill aquifers in 15 basins previously studied by NAWQA (this report).2. Development of a conceptual model of the primary natural and human-related factors commonly affecting groundwater quality, thereby building a regional understanding of the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to contaminants.3. Development of statistical models that relate the concentration or occurrence of specific chemical constituents in groundwater to natural and human-related factors linked to the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to contamination.Basin-fill aquifers occur in about 200,000 mi2 of the 410,000 mi2 SWPA study area and are the primary source of groundwater supply for cities and agricultural communities. Four of the principal aquifers or aquifer systems of the United States are included in the basin-fill aquifers of the study area: (1) the Basin and Range basin-fill aquifers in California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona; (2) the Rio Grande aquifer system in New Mexico and Colorado; (3) the California Coastal Basin aquifers; and (4) the Central Valley aquifer system in California. Because of the generally limited availability of surface-water supplies in

  14. Cultural Landscapes as a Methodology for Understanding Natural Resource Management Impacts in the Western United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca S. Toupal

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Multicultural demands on public lands in the United States continue to challenge federal land managers to address social and cultural concerns in their planning efforts. Specifically, they lack adequate knowledge of cultural concerns, as well as a consistent strategy for acquiring that knowledge for use in decision-making. Current federal approaches to understanding such issues as access, use, and control of resources include public participation, conservation partnerships, government-to-government consultations with American Indian tribes, cultural resource inventories, and landscape analysis. Given that cultural knowledge arises from human-nature relationships and shared perceptions of natural environments, and that landscapes are the ultimate expression of such knowledge, an exploratory methodology was developed to provide a different approach to understanding cultural concerns through landscape perceptions. Using cultural landscape theories and applications from the natural and social sciences, this study examines the landscape perceptions of four groups concerned with management planning of the Baboquivari Wilderness Area in southern Arizona: the Bureau of Land Management, the landowners of the Altar Valley, recreationists, and members of the Tohono O'odham Nation. The methodology is based on a human-nature relationship rather than cultural aspects or features. It takes a holistic approach that differs from other perception studies in that it includes: emic aspects of data collection and analysis; a spatial component (triangulation of data collection through narrative and graphic descriptions; ethnographic, on-site interviews; and cultural consensus analysis and small-sample theory. The results include: verification of four cultural groups; two levels of consensus (in the population of concern, and in each group that overlap in some aspects of landscape perception; descriptions of four cultural landscapes that illustrate similarities and

  15. Describing students of the African Diaspora: Understanding micro and meso level science learning as gateways to standards based discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Ed

    2007-04-01

    In much of the educational literature, researchers make little distinction between African-American students and students of the African Diaspora who immigrated to the United States. Failing to describe these salient student differences serves to perpetuate an inaccurate view of African-American school life. In today's large cities, students of the African Diaspora are frequently learning science in settings that are devoid of the resources and tools to fully support their success. While much of the scholarship unites these disparate groups, this article details the distinctive learning culture created when students from several groups of the African Diaspora learn biology together in a Brooklyn Suspension Center. Specifically this work explains how one student, Gabriel, functions in a biology class. A self-described black-Panamanian, Gabriel had tacitly resigned to not learning science, which then, in effect, precluded him from any further associated courses of study in science, and may have excluded him from the possibility of a science related career. This ethnography follows Gabriel's science learning as he engaged in cogenerative dialogue with teachers to create aligned learning and teaching practices. During the 5 months of this research, Gabriel drew upon his unique lifeworld and the depth of his hybridized cultural identity to produce limited, but nonetheless important demonstrations of science. Coexistent with his involvement in cogenerative dialogue, Gabriel helped to construct many classroom practices that supported a dynamic learning environment which produced small yet concrete examples of standards based biology. This study supports further investigation by the science education community to consider ways that students' lifeworld experiences can serve to structure and transform the urban science classroom.

  16. A standardized, uniform and universal dental chart for documenting state of dentition before anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatt, S P; Aurisch, J; Wong, K

    2001-02-01

    It is vital to have adequate and precise documentation of the condition of a patient's dentition before commencing an anaesthetic. The incidence of dental damage during anaesthesia is not low. To the authors' knowledge, there is no standardized method used by anaesthetists to document the state of a patient's dentition. We propose the introduction of a standardized uniform dental chart to enable anaesthetists to accurately document the condition of their patients' teeth. This vital information can be easily obtained during the preanaesthetic assessment. With the increase in medical litigation and demands for adequate documentation, we believe this chart can become an invaluable part of every hospital's preanaesthetic assessment form. The dental chart is to be offered as a service to anaesthetists in the form of a copyright-free "Freeware" computer diskette or adhesive sticker and will be downloadable from the internet.

  17. Understanding the Relationship Between State Forgiveness and Psychological Wellbeing: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Sadaf; Dolan, Alan; Barlow, Jane

    2017-04-01

    Over the last 20 years, increasing attention has been given to associations between dispositional forgiveness and specific mental health problems. However, few studies have assessed whether forgiving real-life interpersonal hurts may be related to diverse psychological health outcomes. The present study addresses this gap by investigating, in depth, relationships between perceptions about state forgiveness and a variety of mental wellbeing outcomes as well as exploring perceptions about the factors that may modify such effects. Developing an understanding of a forgiveness wellbeing relationship is of relevance to healthcare workers, researchers and policy makers with an interest in improving public health. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted, and data were analysed using grounded theory methods. From England and Ireland, eleven adults who were affiliated with religious/spiritual and secular/atheist groups were recruited using purposive and convenience sampling methods. Key themes that appeared to be related to the effects of unforgiveness were: increases in negative affect; reduction in cognitive abilities and barriers to psychological and social growth. For the majority of participants, state forgiveness had strong ties to participants perceived sense of mental wellbeing, including reductions in negative affect, feeling positive emotions, positive relations with others, spiritual growth, a sense of meaning and purpose in life as well as a greater sense of empowerment. The data also revealed a number of factors that may positively or negatively influence a forgiveness-wellbeing link such as: viewing an offender as spiritually similar or different, responsibility/karma, blaming, wanting restitution/apology as well as practices such as meditation and prayer. The findings suggest that forgiving a range of real-life interpersonal offences may be an important determinant of psychological wellbeing, particularly among religious/spiritual populations

  18. Understanding the current state of infection preventionists through competency, role, and activity self-assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalp, Ericka L; Marx, James F; Davis, James

    2017-06-01

    The Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC) MegaSurvey, administered in 2015, was completed by approximately 4,079 APIC members. The survey sought to gain a better understanding the current state of 4 components of infection prevention practice: demographic characteristics, compensation, organizational structure, and practice and competency. The data for this analysis come from the APIC MegaSurvey Practice and Competency domain. Descriptive statistics and χ 2 analyses were conducted to examine differences in infection preventionist (IP) competency, roles, and activity self-assessments. The majority of IPs self-assessed their competency as Proficient compared with Novice or Expert for each of the 8 IP core competency activities. Forty percent of IPs self-rated their competency as Expert in the Preventing/Controlling the Transmission of Infectious Agents/HAIs component. IPs reported Novice competency in Employee/Occupational Health (29%); Cleaning, Sterilization, Disinfection, and Asepsis (23%); and Education and Research categories (22%). Differences in self-rated competency among IPs by discipline type (public health, nurse, and laboratory) were identified. Differences in self-rated competency were identified for each of the 8 IP core competency activities. IPs report using various resource types to gain competency. Future research is needed to identify opportunities to increase competency levels in the weakest-rated competency activities. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Does an Emphasis on the Concept of Quantum States Enhance Students' Understanding of Quantum Mechanics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greca, Ileana Maria; Freire, Olival

    Teaching physics implies making choices. In the case of teaching quantum physics, besides an educational choice - the didactic strategy - another choice must be made, an epistemological one, concerning the interpretation of quantum theory itself. These two choices are closely connected. We have chosen a didactic strategy that privileges the phenomenological-conceptual approach, with emphasis upon quantum features of the systems, instead of searching for classical analogies. This choice has led us to present quantum theory associated with an orthodox, yet realistic, interpretation of the concept of quantum state, considered as the key concept of quantum theory, representing the physical reality of a system, independent of measurement processes. The results of the mplementation of this strategy, with three groups of engineering students, showed that more than a half of them attained a reasonable understanding of the basics of quantum mechanics (QM) for this level. In addition, a high degree of satisfaction was attained with the classes as 80% of the students of the experimental groups claimed to have liked it and to be interested in learning more about QM.

  20. Renewable Portfolio Standards in the United States - A Status Report with Data Through 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan; Wiser, Ryan; Barbose, Galen; Bird, Lori; Churchill, Susannah; Deyette, Jeff; Holt, Ed

    2008-04-09

    Renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have proliferated at the state level in the United States since the late 1990s. In combination with Federal tax incentives, state RPS requirements have emerged as one of the most important drivers of renewable energy capacity additions. The focus of most RPS activity in the U.S. has been within the states. Nonetheless, the U.S. House of Representatives and Senate have, at different times, each passed versions of a Federal RPS; a Federal RPS, however, has not yet been signed into law. The design of an RPS can and does vary, but at its heart an RPS simply requires retail electricity suppliers (also called load-serving entities, or LSEs) to procure a certain minimum quantity of eligible renewable energy. An RPS establishes numeric targets for renewable energy supply, applies those targets to retail electricity suppliers, and seeks to encourage competition among renewable developers to meet the targets in a least-cost fashion. RPS purchase obligations generally increase over time, and retail suppliers typically must demonstrate compliance on an annual basis. Mandatory RPS policies are backed by various types of compliance enforcement mechanisms, and many--but not all--such policies include the trading of renewable energy certificates (RECs). Renewables portfolio standards are a relatively recent addition to the renewable energy policy landscape, and these policies continue to evolve. Keeping up with the design, early experience, and projected impacts of these programs is a challenge. This report seeks to fill this need by providing basic, factual information on RPS policies in the United States. It focuses on state-level initiatives, though a later section briefly discusses Federal developments as well. The report does not cover municipal-level renewable energy goals, unless required by state law. Similarly, this report focuses on mandatory state RPS requirements, though it also touches on non-binding renewable energy goals

  1. Supporting Solar Power in Renewables Portfolio Standards: Experience from the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan; Barbose, Galen; Holt, Edward

    2010-10-01

    Among the available options for encouraging the increased deployment of renewable electricity, renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have become increasingly popular. The RPS is a relatively new policy mechanism, however, and experience with its use is only beginning to emerge. One key concern that has been voiced is whether RPS policies will offer adequate support to a wide range of renewable energy technologies and applications or whether, alternatively, RPS programs will favor a small number of the currently least-cost forms of renewable energy. This report documents the design of and early experience with state-level RPS programs in the United States that have been specifically tailored to encourage a wider diversity of renewable energy technologies, and solar energy in particular. As shown here, state-level RPS programs specifically designed to support solar have already proven to be an important, albeit somewhat modest, driver for solar energy deployment, and those impacts are projected to continue to build in the coming years. State experience in supporting solar energy with RPS programs is mixed, however, and full compliance with existing requirements has not been achieved. The comparative experiences described herein highlight the opportunities and challenges of applying an RPS to specifically support solar energy, as well as the importance of policy design details to ensuring that program goals are achieved.

  2. The Role of District Office Leaders in the Adoption and Implementation of the Common Core State Standards in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Francesca T.; Lawson, Hal A.; Wilcox, Kristen Campbell; Schiller, Kathryn S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This multiple case study investigated district leaders' orientations and strategies as their elementary schools proceeded with state-mandated implementation of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). We identified differences between schools achieving above-predicted outcomes on state CCSS assessments ("odds-beaters") and…

  3. IFRS STANDARDS AND THEIR POLITICAL ACCEPTANCE IN EUROPE AND UNITED STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Lapková

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The year 2005 marked the start of a new era in global conduct of business, and thefulfillment of a thirty-year effort to create the financial reporting rules for a worldwidecapital market. For during that year’s financial reporting cycle, as many as 7,000 listedcompanies in the 25 European Union member states, plus many others in countries such asAustralia, New Zealand, Russia, and South Africa were expected (in the EU, required toproduce annual financial statements in compliance with a single set of international rules—International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS. Many other business entities, whilenot publicly held and not currently required to comply with IFRS, will also do so, eitherimmediately or over time, in order to conform to what is clearly becoming the newworldwide standard. Since there are about 15,000 SEC-registered companies in the USAthat prepare financial statements in accordance with US GAAP (plus countless nonpubliclyheld companies also reporting under GAAP, the vast majority of the world’s largebusinesses will now be reporting under one or the other of these two comprehensivesystems of accounting and financial reporting rules.Most other national GAAP standards have been reduced in importance or are being phasedout as nations all over the worlds are now embracing IFRS. For example, Canada hasannounced that Canadian GAAP (which was very similar to US GAAP will be eliminatedand replaced by IFRS by 2011. More immediately, China will require listed companies toemploy IFRS. It is quite predictable that only US GAAP will (for the foreseeable futureremain as a competitive force in the accounting standards arena, and even that situation willbe more a formality than a substantive reality, given the formal commitment (andsubstantial progress made to date to “converge” US GAAP and IFRS.

  4. Understanding the use of standardized nursing terminology and classification systems in published research: A case study using the International Classification for Nursing Practice(®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strudwick, Gillian; Hardiker, Nicholas R

    2016-10-01

    In the era of evidenced based healthcare, nursing is required to demonstrate that care provided by nurses is associated with optimal patient outcomes, and a high degree of quality and safety. The use of standardized nursing terminologies and classification systems are a way that nursing documentation can be leveraged to generate evidence related to nursing practice. Several widely-reported nursing specific terminologies and classifications systems currently exist including the Clinical Care Classification System, International Classification for Nursing Practice(®), Nursing Intervention Classification, Nursing Outcome Classification, Omaha System, Perioperative Nursing Data Set and NANDA International. However, the influence of these systems on demonstrating the value of nursing and the professions' impact on quality, safety and patient outcomes in published research is relatively unknown. This paper seeks to understand the use of standardized nursing terminology and classification systems in published research, using the International Classification for Nursing Practice(®) as a case study. A systematic review of international published empirical studies on, or using, the International Classification for Nursing Practice(®) were completed using Medline and the Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature. Since 2006, 38 studies have been published on the International Classification for Nursing Practice(®). The main objectives of the published studies have been to validate the appropriateness of the classification system for particular care areas or populations, further develop the classification system, or utilize it to support the generation of new nursing knowledge. To date, most studies have focused on the classification system itself, and a lesser number of studies have used the system to generate information about the outcomes of nursing practice. Based on the published literature that features the International Classification for Nursing

  5. Supporting solar power in renewables portfolio standards: Experience from the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiser, Ryan; Barbose, Galen; Holt, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have become an increasingly popular option for encouraging the deployment of renewable electricity. It is a relatively new policy mechanism, however, and experience with its use is only beginning to emerge. One key concern is whether RPS policies offer adequate support to a wide range of renewable energy technologies and applications or whether, alternatively, they will favor a small number of the currently least-cost forms of renewable energy. This article documents the design of and early experience with state-level RPS programs in the United States that have been specifically tailored to encourage a wider diversity of renewable energy technologies, and solar energy in particular. As shown here, state-level RPS programs specifically designed to support solar have already proven to be an important driver for solar energy deployment, and those impacts are projected to build in the coming years. State experience in supporting solar energy with RPS programs is mixed, however, and full compliance with existing requirements has not been achieved. The comparative experiences described herein highlight the opportunities and challenges of applying an RPS to specifically support solar energy, as well as the importance of policy design details to ensuring that program goals are achieved. - Research highlights: → Many states have adopted RPS policies with solar or DG set-asides. → Solar and DG set-asides have become a significant driver for solar growth. → Compliance with solar/DG set-aside targets has been mixed. → The estimated retail rate impacts have thus far been relatively modest. → Various emerging issues will affect the future impact of RPS policies on solar growth.

  6. Engaging Teenagers in Astronomy Using the Lens of Next Generation Science Standards and Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, Sean; Wolf, Debbie; Harrison, Jeremiah

    2017-06-01

    The Vanguard Double Star Workshop has been developed to teach eighth graders the technique of measuring position angle and separation of double stars. Through this program, the students follow in the footsteps of a professional scientist by researching the topic, performing the experiment, writing a scientific article, publishing a scientific article, and finally presenting the material to peers. An examination of current educational standards grounds this program in educational practice and philosophy.

  7. Engaging Teenagers in Astronomy Using the Lens of Next Generation Science Standards and Common Core State Standards (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, S.; Wolf, D.; Harrison, J.

    2017-12-01

    (Abstract only) The Vanguard Double Star Workshop has been developed to teach eighth graders the technique of measuring position angle and separation of double stars. Through this program, the students follow in the footsteps of a professional scientist by researching the topic, performing the experiment, writing a scientific article, publishing a scientific article, and finally presenting the material to peers. An examination of current educational standards grounds this program in educational practice and philosophy.

  8. Understanding the relationship between Kano model's customer satisfaction scores and self-stated requirements importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkpojiogu, Emmanuel O C; Hashim, Nor Laily

    2016-01-01

    Customer satisfaction is the result of product quality and viability. The place of the perceived satisfaction of users/customers for a software product cannot be neglected especially in today competitive market environment as it drives the loyalty of customers and promotes high profitability and return on investment. Therefore understanding the importance of requirements as it is associated with the satisfaction of users/customers when their requirements are met is worth the pain considering. It is necessary to know the relationship between customer satisfactions when their requirements are met (or their dissatisfaction when their requirements are unmet) and the importance of such requirement. So many works have been carried out on customer satisfaction in connection with the importance of requirements but the relationship between customer satisfaction scores (coefficients) of the Kano model and users/customers self-stated requirements importance have not been sufficiently explored. In this study, an attempt is made to unravel the underlying relationship existing between Kano model's customer satisfaction indexes and users/customers self reported requirements importance. The results of the study indicate some interesting associations between these considered variables. These bivariate associations reveal that customer satisfaction index (SI), and average satisfaction coefficient (ASC) and customer dissatisfaction index (DI) and average satisfaction coefficient (ASC) are highly correlated (r = 96 %) and thus ASC can be used in place of either SI or DI in representing customer satisfaction scores. Also, these Kano model's customer satisfaction variables (SI, DI, and ASC) are each associated with self-stated requirements importance (IMP). Further analysis indicates that the value customers or users place on requirements that are met or on features that are incorporated into a product influences the level of satisfaction such customers derive from the product. The

  9. Overview of the Common Core State Standard initiative and educational reform movement from the vantage of speech-language pathologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staskowski, Maureen

    2012-05-01

    Educational reform is sweeping the country. The adoption and the implementation of the Common Core State Standards in almost every state are meant to transform education. It is intended to update the way schools educate, the way students learn, and to ultimately prepare the nation's next generation for the global workplace. This article will describe the Common Core State Standard initiative and the underlying concerns about the quality of education in the United States as well as the opportunities this reform initiative affords speech-language pathologists. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  10. Understanding environmental contributions to autism: Causal concepts and the state of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Schmidt, Rebecca J; Krakowiak, Paula

    2018-04-01

    The complexity of neurodevelopment, the rapidity of early neurogenesis, and over 100 years of research identifying environmental influences on neurodevelopment serve as backdrop to understanding factors that influence risk and severity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This Keynote Lecture, delivered at the May 2016 annual meeting of the International Society for Autism Research, describes concepts of causation, outlines the trajectory of research on nongenetic factors beginning in the 1960s, and briefly reviews the current state of this science. Causal concepts are introduced, including root causes; pitfalls in interpreting time trends as clues to etiologic factors; susceptible time windows for exposure; and implications of a multi-factorial model of ASD. An historical background presents early research into the origins of ASD. The epidemiologic literature from the last fifteen years is briefly but critically reviewed for potential roles of, for example, air pollution, pesticides, plastics, prenatal vitamins, lifestyle and family factors, and maternal obstetric and metabolic conditions during her pregnancy. Three examples from the case-control CHildhood Autism Risks from Genes and the Environment Study are probed to illustrate methodological approaches to central challenges in observational studies: capturing environmental exposure; causal inference when a randomized controlled clinical trial is either unethical or infeasible; and the integration of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental influences on development. We conclude with reflections on future directions, including exposomics, new technologies, the microbiome, gene-by-environment interaction in the era of -omics, and epigenetics as the interface of those two. As the environment is malleable, this research advances the goal of a productive and fulfilling life for all children, teen-agers and adults. Autism Res 2018, 11: 554-586. © 2018 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  11. Assessing, understanding, and conveying the state of the Arctic sea ice cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perovich, D. K.; Richter-Menge, J. A.; Rigor, I.; Parkinson, C. L.; Weatherly, J. W.; Nghiem, S. V.; Proshutinsky, A.; Overland, J. E.

    2003-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that the Arctic sea ice cover is undergoing significant climate-induced changes, affecting both its extent and thickness. Satellite-derived estimates of Arctic sea ice extent suggest a reduction of about 3% per decade since 1978. Ice thickness data from submarines suggest a net thinning of the sea ice cover since 1958. Changes (including oscillatory changes) in atmospheric circulation and the thermohaline properties of the upper ocean have also been observed. These changes impact not only the Arctic, but the global climate system and are likely accelerated by such processes as the ice-albedo feedback. It is important to continue and expand long-term observations of these changes to (a) improve the fundamental understanding of the role of the sea ice cover in the global climate system and (b) use the changes in the sea ice cover as an early indicator of climate change. This is a formidable task that spans a range of temporal and spatial scales. Fortunately, there are numerous tools that can be brought to bear on this task, including satellite remote sensing, autonomous buoys, ocean moorings, field campaigns and numerical models. We suggest the integrated and coordinated use of these tools during the International Polar Year to monitor the state of the Arctic sea ice cover and investigate its governing processes. For example, satellite remote sensing provides the large-scale snapshots of such basic parameters as ice distribution, melt zone, and cloud fraction at intervals of half a day to a week. Buoys and moorings can contribute high temporal resolution and can measure parameters currently unavailable from space including ice thickness, internal ice temperature, and ocean temperature and salinity. Field campaigns can be used to explore, in detail, the processes that govern the ice cover. Numerical models can be used to assess the character of the changes in the ice cover and predict their impacts on the rest of the climate system. This work

  12. Tests of the Standard Model with Multi boson final states at the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Gonella, Giulia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Measurements of the cross sections of the production of pairs of electroweak gauge bosons at the LHC constitute stringent tests of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model and provide a model- independent means to search for new physics at the TeV scale. The ATLAS collaboration has performed detailed measurements of integrated and differential cross sections of the production of heavy di-boson pairs in fully-leptonic and semi-leptonic final states at centre-of-mass energies of 13 TeV. The results are compared to predictions and provide constraints on new physics, by setting limits on anomalous triple gauge couplings. Some analyses in this area will be reviewed and their main results summarised.

  13. Standards for the contents of heavy metals in soils of some states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.N. Vodyanitskii

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In line with the present-day ecological and toxicological data obtained by Dutch ecologists, heavy metals/metalloids form the following succession according to their hazard degree in soils: Se > Tl > Sb > Cd > V > Hg > Ni > Cu > Cr > As > Ba. This sequence substantially differs from the succession of heavy elements presented in the general toxicological Russian GOST (State Norms and Standards, which considers As, Cd, Hg, Se, Pb, and Zn to be strongly hazardous elements, whereas Co, Ni, Mo, Sb, and Cr to be moderately hazardous. As compared to the Dutch general toxicological approach, the hazard of lead, zinc, and cobalt is lower in soils, and that of vanadium, antimony, and barium is higher in Russia. MPC must been adopted for strongly hazardous thallium, selenium, and vanadium in Russia.

  14. Compliance with technical standards for radiological protection at radiation therapy services in Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eduardo, Maria Bernadete de Paula; Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh

    2004-01-01

    Radiation therapy services provide essential therapeutic procedures for cancer, one of the main causes of population morbidity and mortality. Despite their importance in the health system and their potential risks due to the use of ionizing radiation, there are few studies on such services. We evaluated compliance with technical standards for radiological protection in radiation therapy services in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Forty-nine services were studied in 2000 through interviews with technical staff. Typologies of performance profiles focusing on structure and process variables were constructed and services compared. Important differences were observed in the services' positions in the health care system, level of complexity, and geographic distribution, with better average performance in structural conditions but very inadequate performance in patient protection, indicating the need for more effective health surveillance. (author)

  15. Understanding Attitudes on Gender and Training at the United States Air Force Academy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Do, James J

    2005-01-01

    .... Prior to the admission of women at USAFA, the Department of Physical Education created physical fitness standards based on research that showed physiological differences in males and females (Baldi, 1991; Petosa, 1989...

  16. Understanding heterogeneity in metropolitan India: the added value of remote sensing data for analyzing sub-standard residential areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baud, I.; Kuffer, M.; Pfeffer, K.; Sliuzas, R.; Karuppannan, S.

    2010-01-01

    Analyzing the heterogeneity in metropolitan areas of India utilizing remote sensing data can help to identify more precise patterns of sub-standard residential areas. Earlier work analyzing inequalities in Indian cities employed a constructed index of multiple deprivations (IMDs) utilizing data from

  17. Standard colonic lavage alters the natural state of mucosal-associated microbiota in the human colon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Harrell

    Full Text Available Past studies of the human intestinal microbiota are potentially confounded by the common practice of using bowel-cleansing preparations. We examined if colonic lavage changes the natural state of enteric mucosal-adherent microbes in healthy human subjects.Twelve healthy individuals were divided into three groups; experimental group, control group one, and control group two. Subjects in the experimental group underwent an un-prepped flexible sigmoidoscopy with biopsies. Within two weeks, subjects were given a standard polyethylene glycol-based bowel cleansing preparation followed by a second flexible sigmoidoscopy. Subjects in control group one underwent two un-prepped flexible sigmoidoscopies within one week. Subjects in the second control group underwent an un-prepped flexible sigmoidoscopy followed by a second flexible sigmoidoscopy after a 24-hour clear liquid diet within one week. The mucosa-associated microbial communities from the two procedures in each subject were compared using 16S rRNA gene based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP, and library cloning and sequencing.Clone library sequencing analysis showed that there were changes in the composition of the mucosa-associated microbiota in subjects after colonic lavage. These changes were not observed in our control groups. Standard bowel preparation altered the diversity of mucosa-associated microbiota. Taxonomic classification did not reveal significant changes at the phylum level, but there were differences observed at the genus level.Standard bowel cleansing preparation altered the mucosal-adherent microbiota in all of our subjects, although the degree of change was variable. These findings underscore the importance of considering the confounding effects of bowel preparation when designing experiments exploring the gut microbiota.

  18. Financing the New Adequacy: Towards New Models of State Education Finance Systems That Support Standards Based Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstegen, Deborah A.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses need for reinventing state education finance systems to provide adequacy and equity aligned to standards-based reform. Provides initial specifications for "The New Finance." Examines in depth approaches for determining a base spending level considered adequate for the average child to reach high educational standards. (Contains…

  19. 49 CFR 1103.11 - Standards of ethical conduct in courts of the United States to be observed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards of ethical conduct in courts of the... PRACTITIONERS Canons of Ethics The Practitioner's Duties and Responsibilities Toward the Board § 1103.11 Standards of ethical conduct in courts of the United States to be observed. These canons further the purpose...

  20. 77 FR 74985 - Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Streams and Downstream Protection Values for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Streams and Downstream Protection Values for Lakes... its numeric water quality standards for nutrients in Florida that were promulgated and published on.... Water Quality Criteria D. EPA Determination Regarding Florida and EPA's Rulemaking E. EPA Promulgation...

  1. 75 FR 45579 - Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters; Supplemental Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters; Supplemental Notice of Data...), proposing numeric nutrient water quality criteria to protect aquatic life in lakes and flowing waters within... will consider the comments received before finalizing the proposed rule, ``Water Quality Standards for...

  2. 77 FR 74449 - Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters; Proposed Rule; Stay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters; Proposed Rule; Stay AGENCY... Protection Agency (EPA) proposes to temporarily stay our regulation the ``Water Quality Standards for the... Information Does this action apply to me? Citizens concerned with water quality in Florida may be interested...

  3. Delivery of care consistent with the psychosocial standards in pediatric cancer: Current practices in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scialla, Michele A; Canter, Kimberly S; Chen, Fang Fang; Kolb, E Anders; Sandler, Eric; Wiener, Lori; Kazak, Anne E

    2018-03-01

    With published evidence-based Standards for Psychosocial Care for Children with Cancer and their Families, it is important to know the current status of their implementation. This paper presents data on delivery of psychosocial care related to the Standards in the United States. Pediatric oncologists, psychosocial leaders, and administrators in pediatric oncology from 144 programs completed an online survey. Participants reported on the extent to which psychosocial care consistent with the Standards was implemented and was comprehensive and state of the art. They also reported on specific practices and services for each Standard and the extent to which psychosocial care was integrated into broader medical care. Participants indicated that psychosocial care consistent with the Standards was usually or always provided at their center for most of the Standards. However, only half of the oncologists (55.6%) and psychosocial leaders (45.6%) agreed or strongly agreed that their psychosocial care was comprehensive and state of the art. Types of psychosocial care provided included evidence-based and less established approaches but were most often provided when problems were identified, rather than proactively. The perception of state of the art care was associated with practices indicative of integrated psychosocial care and the extent to which the Standards are currently implemented. Many oncologists and psychosocial leaders perceive that the delivery of psychosocial care at their center is consistent with the Standards. However, care is quite variable, with evidence for the value of more integrated models of psychosocial services. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. 25 CFR 542.4 - How do these regulations affect minimum internal control standards established in a Tribal-State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How do these regulations affect minimum internal control... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.4 How do these regulations affect minimum internal control standards established in a Tribal-State compact? (a) If there is a...

  5. 75 FR 56911 - Request for Public Comment on the United States Standards for Rough Rice, Brown Rice for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... for Rough Rice, Brown Rice for Processing, and Milled Rice AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and... reviewing the United States Standards and grading procedures for Rough Rice, Brown Rice for Processing, and Milled Rice under the Agriculture Marketing Act of 1946 (AMA). Since the standards were last revised...

  6. Examining Elementary Literacy Teachers' Perceptions of Their Preparedness to Implement the English Language Arts Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams-Budde, Melissa; Miller, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine elementary literacy teachers' perceptions of their preparedness to implement the ELA CCSS [English Language Arts Common Core State Standards]. We defined preparedness across three dimensions: teachers' perceived levels of knowledge of the standards and its components; efficacy to implement changes; and…

  7. The regulatory framework of accounting and accounting standard-setting bodies in the European Union member states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Mamić-Sačer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the principal features of accounting in the 21st century is harmonisation and stanardisation. Regulation of the European Parliament and European Council No. 1606/2002 harmonizes financial reporting for certain companies in the EU. However, national accounting principles are of great importance for financial reporting. The main purpose of this research was to investigate the application of generally accepted accounting principles, the regulatory accounting framework and the standard-setting bodies of EU member states. The analysis of these accounting issues was conducted with respect to all 28 EU member states. The results indicate that EU member states regulate their principal accounting issues through separate accounting acts or implement those issues in companies acts. Some EU member states do not have national accounting standards, the national accounting principles being incorporated in companies acts and accounting acts. Nevertheless, national accounting standard-setting bodies are governmental organisations in almost half the member states.

  8. Understanding Problem-Solving Errors by Students with Learning Disabilities in Standards-Based and Traditional Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouck, Emily C.; Bouck, Mary K.; Joshi, Gauri S.; Johnson, Linley

    2016-01-01

    Students with learning disabilities struggle with word problems in mathematics classes. Understanding the type of errors students make when working through such mathematical problems can further describe student performance and highlight student difficulties. Through the use of error codes, researchers analyzed the type of errors made by 14 sixth…

  9. Implementing renewable energy portfolio standards: The good, the bad, and the ugly in a two state comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelly, Chelsea

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how household practices with regard to energy usage change and how to most effectively encourage the adoption of technologies that utilize renewable energy sources at the residential scale are important issues for addressing the environmental impacts of energy use. Here, the social practices model (Spaargaren, 2003) is applied to examine solar technology adopters in two U.S. States who were interviewed about adopting residential solar electric technology and specifically about their experiences with the rebate and incentive programs available to them. Examining the policies and interrogating their potentially unintended consequences from the perspective of the user sheds light on how residential solar incentive programs act as systems of provision, shaping the practices of solar technology adopters, in hopes of improving these incentive programs and effectively encouraging increased residential solar technology adoption. Findings suggest that feed-in tariffs offer additional positive outcomes related to broadening the context for adoption and encouraging future energy conservation while size restrictions, wholesale pricing in net metering agreements, and inconsistent policy mechanisms across utilities in the same state all have potentially unintended negative consequences. Utilizing a perspective attentive to social practice offers a means of improving the design and implementation of energy policy. - Highlights: • Over half of the U.S. states have implemented renewable portfolio standards (RPS). • RPS mandates sometimes include provisions for residential solar technology. • This solar-sets asides have different implementation structures. • The specifics of these policies affect the actual practices of adopters. • This examination of solar-set aside policy is intended to improve policy

  10. Development of the Exam of GeoloGy Standards, EGGS, to Measure Students' Conceptual Understanding of Geology Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffey, S. K.; Slater, T. F.; Slater, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    Discipline-based geoscience education researchers have considerable need for criterion-referenced, easy-to-administer and easy-to-score, conceptual diagnostic surveys for undergraduates taking introductory science survey courses in order for faculty to better be able to monitor the learning impacts of various interactive teaching approaches. To support ongoing discipline-based science education research to improve teaching and learning across the geosciences, this study establishes the reliability and validity of a 28-item, multiple-choice, pre- and post- Exam of GeoloGy Standards, hereafter simply called EGGS. The content knowledge EGGS addresses is based on 11 consensus concepts derived from a systematic, thematic analysis of the overlapping ideas presented in national science education reform documents including the Next Generation Science Standards, the AAAS Benchmarks for Science Literacy, the Earth Science Literacy Principles, and the NRC National Science Education Standards. Using community agreed upon best-practices for creating, field-testing, and iteratively revising modern multiple-choice test items using classical item analysis techniques, EGGS emphasizes natural student language over technical scientific vocabulary, leverages illustrations over students' reading ability, specifically targets students' misconceptions identified in the scholarly literature, and covers the range of topics most geology educators expect general education students to know at the end of their formal science learning experiences. The current version of EGGS is judged to be valid and reliable with college-level, introductory science survey students based on both standard quantitative and qualitative measures, including extensive clinical interviews with targeted students and systematic expert review.

  11. Facilitating Conceptual Change in Understanding State of Matter and Solubility Concepts by Using 5E Learning Cycle Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Eren; Geban, Omer

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to compare the effectiveness of 5E learning cycle model based instruction and traditionally designed chemistry instruction on 10th grade students' understanding of state of matter and solubility concepts. In this study, 119 tenth grade students from chemistry courses instructed by same teacher from an Anatolian…

  12. Monitoring and understanding changes in heat waves, cold waves, floods, and droughts in the United States: State of knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Thomas C.; Heim, Richard R.; Hirsch, Robert M.; Kaiser, Dale P.; Brooks, Harold; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Dole, Randall M.; Giovannettone, Jason P.; Guirguis, Kristen; Karl, Thomas R.; Katz, Richard W.; Kunkel, Kenneth E.; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; McCabe, Gregory J.; Paciorek, Christopher J.; Ryberg, Karen R.; K Wolter, BS Silva; Schubert, Siegfried; Silva, Viviane B. S.; Stewart, Brooke C.; Vecchia, Aldo V.; Villarini, Gabriele; Vose, Russell S.; Walsh, John; Wehner, Michael; Wolock, David; Wolter, Klaus; Woodhouse, Connie A.; Wuebbles, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Weather and climate extremes have been varying and changing on many different time scales. In recent decades, heat waves have generally become more frequent across the United States, while cold waves have been decreasing. While this is in keeping with expectations in a warming climate, it turns out that decadal variations in the number of U.S. heat and cold waves do not correlate well with the observed U.S. warming during the last century. Annual peak flow data reveal that river flooding trends on the century scale do not show uniform changes across the country. While flood magnitudes in the Southwest have been decreasing, flood magnitudes in the Northeast and north-central United States have been increasing. Confounding the analysis of trends in river flooding is multiyear and even multidecadal variability likely caused by both large-scale atmospheric circulation changes and basin-scale “memory” in the form of soil moisture. Droughts also have long-term trends as well as multiyear and decadal variability. Instrumental data indicate that the Dust Bowl of the 1930s and the drought in the 1950s were the most significant twentieth-century droughts in the United States, while tree ring data indicate that the megadroughts over the twelfth century exceeded anything in the twentieth century in both spatial extent and duration. The state of knowledge of the factors that cause heat waves, cold waves, floods, and drought to change is fairly good with heat waves being the best understood.

  13. The emergence of international food safety standards and guidelines: understanding the current landscape through a historical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsingh, Brigit

    2014-07-01

    Following the Second World War, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) teamed up to construct an International Codex Alimentarius (or 'food code') which emerged in 1963. The Codex Committee on Food Hygiene (CCFH) was charged with the task of developing microbial hygiene standards, although it found itself embroiled in debate with the WHO over the nature these standards should take. The WHO was increasingly relying upon the input of biometricians and especially the International Commission on Microbial Specifications for Foods (ICMSF) which had developed statistical sampling plans for determining the microbial counts in the final end products. The CCFH, however, was initially more focused on a qualitative approach which looked at the entire food production system and developed codes of practice as well as more descriptive end-product specifications which the WHO argued were 'not scientifically correct'. Drawing upon historical archival material (correspondence and reports) from the WHO and FAO, this article examines this debate over microbial hygiene standards and suggests that there are many lessons from history which could shed light upon current debates and efforts in international food safety management systems and approaches.

  14. The emergence of the State. A holistic approach to understand the origin, the role and challenges of public power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis I. Gordillo Pérez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The term "State" is often used to identify a political phenomenon that emerged in Europe since the collapse of feudalism with the fundamental characteristics of territoriality, centralization, sovereignty, differentiation and institutionalization. This concept leads to limitations that result from the application of a methodology that is incomplete for a comprehensive understanding of the State, as it does not differentiate within the so-called States, the various existing types and political and social consequences derived from each of these types. This paper advocates the use of the methodology used by Pierre Birnbaum to analyze the State as a historical fact and social which is a creation from own social practices of a time and a specific space, in relation to a particular culture and with a particular historical trajectory. To this end, this article deals, first, with the sociological-historical theory on the origin of the State along with the presentation of their methodology and analysis of the relationship of capitalism, social structure and culture with the State (paragraphs 2 and 3 ; secondly, this work focuses on the advantages of the methodology proposed by Birnbaum to analyze the State while original creation, highlighting the division Strong State / Weak State proposed by the author (4 and 5; and, finally, it raises the challenges facing the State today (paragraphs 6 and 7.

  15. 39 CFR 111.2 - Availability of the Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of the Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual. 111.2 Section 111.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POST OFFICE SERVICES [DOMESTIC MAIL] GENERAL INFORMATION ON POSTAL SERVICE § 111.2...

  16. Teaching to Exceed the English Language Arts Common Core State Standards: A Literacy Practices Approach for 6-12 Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Richard; Thein, Amanda Haertling; Webb, Allen

    2012-01-01

    As the new English Language Arts Common Core State Standards take hold across the United States, the need grows for pre-service and in-service teachers to be ready to develop curriculum and instruction that addresses their requirements. This timely, thoughtful, and comprehensive text directly meets this need. It delineates a literacy practices and…

  17. Understanding the evolution of the fiscal situation of the Brazilian states; 2006–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Rossi, Júnior

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The text analyzes how the Brazilian states’ fiscal position evolved between 2006 and 2015, with the data revealing a clear deterioration in state-level public finances during that period. The rating methodology developed by the Ministry of Finance is used to show that, when comparing 2006–2008 to 2013–2015, 21 of the 26 states and the Federal District saw their fiscal position deteriorate. The results suggest that after the global financial crisis the states failed to pursue a fiscal rule that would curb the growth of spending in a context of falling revenue and rising debt. The study shows that, despite shrinking revenue, the states maintained the pace of expenditure growth, particularly payroll and pension expenses. Moreover, the text shows that following the crisis, state-level revenue would have declined by even more were it not for a substantial increase in credit inflows. While additional borrowing enabled the states to maintain public investment in the short term, this policy showed to be unsustainable. The paper shows that higher debt and the lack of the adjustment in public spending have a negative impact on state-level investment in the long term. JEL classification: E61, E62, E65, Keywords: Fiscal rules, Brazil, Federalism

  18. Red states, blue states, and divorce: understanding the impact of conservative Protestantism on regional variation in divorce rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Jennifer; Levchak, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Why do states with larger proportions of religious conservatives have higher divorce rates than states with lower proportions of religious conservatives? This project examines whether earlier transitions to marriage and parenthood among conservative Protestants (known risk factors for divorce) contribute to this paradox while attending to other plausible explanations. County-level demographic information from all 50 states is combined from a variety of public data sources and merged with individual records from the National Surveys of Family Growth to estimate both aggregated county and multilevel individual models of divorce. Results show that individual religious conservatism is positively related to individual divorce risk, solely through the earlier transitions to adulthood and lower incomes of conservative Protestants. However, the proportion of conservative Protestants in a county is also independently and positively associated with both the divorce rate in that county and an individual's likelihood of divorcing. The earlier family formation and lower levels of educational attainment and income in counties with a higher proportion of conservative Protestants can explain a substantial portion of this association. Little support is found for alternative explanations of the association between religious conservatism and divorce rates, including the relative popularity of marriage versus cohabitation across counties.

  19. Non-destructive testing. The current state of standards and qualification and certification for leak testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Yoshikazu

    2011-01-01

    Domestic standards of the leak testing are enacted as one of Japan Industrial Standards. The conformity is advanced between these domestic standards and ISO (International Organization for Standardization) standard. ISO9712 (Non-destructive testing-Qualification and certification of personnel) was revised to include the leak testing of qualification and certification in 2005. The preparation working group of qualification and certification for leak testing is planning start aiming at the system in one and a half years. (author)

  20. Understanding heterogeneity in metropolitan India: The added value of remote sensing data for analyzing sub-standard residential areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baud, Isa; Kuffer, Monika; Pfeffer, Karin; Sliuzas, Richard; Karuppannan, Sadasivam

    2010-10-01

    Analyzing the heterogeneity in metropolitan areas of India utilizing remote sensing data can help to identify more precise patterns of sub-standard residential areas. Earlier work analyzing inequalities in Indian cities employed a constructed index of multiple deprivations (IMDs) utilizing data from the Census of India 2001 ( http://censusindia.gov.in). While that index, described in an earlier paper, provided a first approach to identify heterogeneity at the citywide scale, it neither provided information on spatial variations within the geographical boundaries of the Census database, nor about physical characteristics, such as green spaces and the variation in housing density and quality. In this article, we analyze whether different types of sub-standard residential areas can be identified through remote sensing data, combined, where relevant, with ground-truthing and local knowledge. The specific questions address: (1) the extent to which types of residential sub-standard areas can be drawn from remote sensing data, based on patterns of green space, structure of layout, density of built-up areas, size of buildings and other site characteristics; (2) the spatial diversity of these residential types for selected electoral wards; and (3) the correlation between different types of sub-standard residential areas and the results of the index of multiple deprivations utilized at electoral ward level found previously. The results of a limited number of test wards in Delhi showed that it was possible to extract different residential types matching existing settlement categories using the physical indicators structure of layout, built-up density, building size and other site characteristics. However, the indicator 'amount of green spaces' was not useful to identify informal areas. The analysis of heterogeneity showed that wards with higher IMD scores displayed more or less the full range of residential types, implying that visual image interpretation is able to zoom in

  1. USIA's Integration into the State Department: Advocating Policy Trumps Promoting Mutual Understanding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klopfenstein, Neil R

    2003-01-01

    ... Jesse Helms on the fate of USIA. The integration of USIA into the State Department is remarkable, not only for the reasons the senior staffer noted above, but also because it ensured that American public diplomacy at the beginning...

  2. Necessity for Consistent and Understandable Engagement Policies with Non-State Actors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fitzpatrick, Andrew P

    2008-01-01

    How does a nonstate actor, namely a recognized armed insurgent group, transition to the political realm from insurgent to state actor, and what are the implications of such transitions for U.S. foreign policy...

  3. Climate consequences of low-carbon fuels: The United States Renewable Fuel Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Jason; Tajibaeva, Liaila; Polasky, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    A common strategy for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from energy use is to increase the supply of low-carbon alternatives. However, increasing supply tends to lower energy prices, which encourages additional fuel consumption. This “fuel market rebound effect” can undermine climate change mitigation strategies, even to the point where efforts to reduce GHG emissions by increasing the supply of low-carbon fuels may actually result in increased GHG emissions. Here, we explore how policies that encourage the production of low-carbon fuels may result in increased GHG emissions because the resulting increase in energy use overwhelms the benefits of reduced carbon intensity. We describe how climate change mitigation strategies should follow a simple rule: a low-carbon fuel with a carbon intensity of X% that of a fossil fuel must displace at least X% of that fossil fuel to reduce overall GHG emissions. We apply this rule to the United States Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2). We show that absent consideration of the fuel market rebound effect, RFS2 appears to reduce GHG emissions, but once the fuel market rebound effect is factored in, RFS2 actually increases GHG emissions when all fuel GHG intensity targets are met. - Highlights: • Low-carbon fuels partially displace petroleum via fuel market rebound effect. • Synthesis of recent analyses shows incomplete petroleum displacement by biofuels. • Fuel market rebound effect can reduce or reverse climate benefit of low-carbon fuels. • Fossil fuel displacement must exceed relative carbon footprint of a low-carbon fuel. • The Renewable Fuel Standard increases greenhouse gas emissions when mandate is met.

  4. The generalized cosmic equation of state. A revised study with cosmological standard rulers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Yubo [Shanxi Datong University, School of Physics, Datong (China); Zhang, Jia [Weinan Normal University, Department of Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Weinan, Shanxi (China); Cao, Shuo; Zheng, Xiaogang; Xu, Tengpeng; Qi, Jingzhao [Beijing Normal University, Department of Astronomy, Beijing (China)

    2017-12-15

    In this paper, the generalized equation of state (GEoS) for dark energy (w{sub β} = w{sub 0} - w{sub β}[(1+z){sup -β} - 1]/β) is investigated with the combined standard ruler data from the observations of intermediate-luminosity radio quasars, galaxy clusters, BAO and CMB. The constraint results show that the best-fit EoS parameters are w{sub 0} = -0.94{sup +0.57}{sub -0.41}, w{sub β} = -0.17{sup +2.45}{sub -4.81} and β = -1.42 (with a lower limit of β > -2.70 at 68.3% C.L.), which implies that at early times the dark energy vanishes. In the framework of nine truncated GEoS models with different β parameters, our findings present very clear evidence disfavoring the case that dark energy always dominates over the other material components in the early universe. Moreover, stringent constraints can be obtained in combination with the latest measurements of Hubble parameter at different redshifts: w{sub 0} = -1.01{sup +0.56}{sub -0.31}, w{sub β} = 0.01{sup +2.33}{sub -4.52} and β = -0.42 (with a lower limit of β > -2.40 at 68.3% C.L.). Finally, the results obtained from the transition redshift (z{sub t}) and Om(z) diagnostic indicate that: (1) The above constraints on the GEoS model agree very well with the transition redshift interval 0.49 ≤ z{sub t} ≤ 0.88 within 1σ error region. (2) At the current observational level, the GEoS model is practically indistinguishable from ΛCDM, although a small deviation from ΛCDM cosmology is present in the combined standard ruler data. (orig.)

  5. The spin-charge-family theory offers understanding of the triangle anomalies cancellation in the standard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mankoc Borstnik, N.S. [University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Nielsen, H.B.F. [Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2017-12-15

    The standard model has for massless quarks and leptons ''miraculously'' no triangle anomalies due to the fact that the sum of all possible traces T r[τ{sup Ai}τ{sup Bj}τ{sup Ck}] - where τ{sup Ai}, τ{sup Bi} and τ{sup Ck} are the generators of one, of two or of three of the groups SU(3), SU(2) and U(1) - over the representations of one family of the left handed fermions and anti-fermions (and separately of the right handed fermions and anti-fermions), contributing to the triangle currents, is equal to zero.{sup [1-4]} It is demonstrated in this paper that this cancellation of the standard model triangle anomaly follows straightforwardly if the SO(3, 1), SU(2), U(1) and SU(3) are the subgroups of the orthogonal group SO(13, 1), as it is in the spin-charge-family theory.{sup [5-22]} We comment on the SO(10) anomaly cancellation, which works if handedness and charges are related ''by hand''. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Puerto Rican understandings of child disability: methods for the cultural validation of standardized measures of child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannotti, Mary E; Handwerker, W Penn

    2002-12-01

    Validating the cultural context of health is important for obtaining accurate and useful information from standardized measures of child health adapted for cross-cultural applications. This paper describes the application of ethnographic triangulation for cultural validation of a measure of childhood disability, the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) for use with children living in Puerto Rico. The key concepts include macro-level forces such as geography, demography, and economics, specific activities children performed and their key social interactions, beliefs, attitudes, emotions, and patterns of behavior surrounding independence in children and childhood disability, as well as the definition of childhood disability. Methods utilize principal components analysis to establish the validity of cultural concepts and multiple regression analysis to identify intracultural variation. Findings suggest culturally specific modifications to the PEDI, provide contextual information for informed interpretation of test scores, and point to the need to re-standardize normative values for use with Puerto Rican children. Without this type of information, Puerto Rican children may appear more disabled than expected for their level of impairment or not to be making improvements in functional status. The methods also allow for cultural boundaries to be quantitatively established, rather than presupposed. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  7. Toward understanding the relationship between personality and well-being states and traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Carly; Biesanz, Jeremy C

    2018-04-06

    Although there is a robust connection between dispositional personality traits and well-being, relatively little research has comprehensively examined the ways in which all Big Five personality states are associated with short-term experiences of well-being within individuals. To address three central questions about the nature of the relationship between personality and well-being states: First, to what extent do personality and well-being states covary within individuals? Second, to what extent do personality and well-being states influence one another within individuals? Finally, are these within-person relationships moderated by dispositional personality traits and well-being? Two experience sampling studies (N = 161 and N = 146) were conducted over two weeks. Across both studies all Big Five personality states were correlated with short term experiences of well-being within individuals. Individuals were more extraverted, emotionally stable, conscientious, agreeable and open in moments when they experienced higher well-being (greater self-esteem, life satisfaction, positive affect and less negative affect). Moreover, personality and well-being states dynamically influenced one another over time within individuals and these associations were not generally moderated by dispositional traits or well being. Behaviour and well-being are inter-connected within the context of the Big Five model of personality. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Building states without building nations: understanding urban citizenship in Dili, Timor Leste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valenti, Alex

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available State and nation building, although often used interchangeably in international relations policy and literature, are in fact two distinct, although closely intertwined, processes: the (recons-truction of a state cannot be reduced to a technical exercise, that is, state building; rather, it needs to focus just as significantly on the (reconstruction of the country’s social fabric in order to develop the sense of citizenship upon which its sovereignty and legitimacy rest, that is, nation building. This research note introduces urban spaces as interesting contexts to explore the relationship between state and nation building, arguing that their diversity is both a challenge and an opportunity for the state to create a sense of citizenship amongst its population. The case of Dili, the capital of Timor Leste, where a violent past and rapid urbanisation have combined to shape extremely diverse social, political and economic urban spaces, is used here to explore how the population of three case study areas perceives the impact of state policies and to question how these perceptions influence the scales at which people build their identity as well as how these scales affect the construction of local, urban or national citizenship in Timor Leste.

  9. To what extent have high schools in California been able to implement state-mandated nutrition standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Sarah E; Bullock, Sally Lawrence; Woodward-Lopez, Gail; Clark, Sarah E; Kao, Janice; Craypo, Lisa; Barry, Jay; Crawford, Patricia B

    2009-09-01

    To determine extent and factors associated with implementation of California's school nutrition standards 1 year after standards became active. Information on competitive foods and beverages available in schools was collected from a representative sample of 56 public high schools in California. Adherence to nutrition standards was calculated for each item and summarized for each school by venue. The association between schools' sociodemographic characteristics and adherence to standards was determined by multivariate analysis. The majority of schools were adhering to the required beverage standards. None of the schools selling competitive foods were 100% adherent to the food standards. Adherence to both standards tended to be highest in food service venues. In univariate analyses, percent nonwhite enrollment, population density, percent free/reduced-price (FRP) meal eligibility, and school size were significantly correlated with the beverage adherence rate. Percent nonwhite enrollment and population density remained significant in the multivariate regression model. Percent nonwhite enrollment and percent FRP meal eligibility were significantly correlated with the food adherence rate in univariate analysis, but neither remained significant in the multiple regression model. California high schools are making progress toward implementation of the state nutrition standards. Beverage standards appear easier to achieve than nutrient-based food standards. Additional support is needed to provide schools with resources to implement and monitor these policies. Simpler standards and/or a reduction in the foods and beverages sold could better enable schools to achieve and monitor adherence.

  10. "Boss of the United States" Kindergarteners' Concept of Voting: Five Scaffolded Lessons that Build Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulrey, Betty C.; Ackerman, Ann T.; Howson, Patricia H.

    2012-01-01

    In any U.S. presidential election year, classroom teachers integrate lessons into their curriculum that help students understand their privileges, responsibilities, and rights as good citizens. Teaching about the electoral process and voting in primary classrooms is one way to build a foundation that promotes civic engagement. In this article, the…

  11. Theory of Mind: Understanding Young Children's Pretence and Mental States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    2014-01-01

    For more than two decades, research has focused on the understanding of pretence as an important means for young children to conceptualise the mind. Many use the phrase "mental representation" to a mental model of some entity or concept, which describes what is inside the minds of young children in relation to a real-world situation or…

  12. Understanding public drug procurement in India: a comparative qualitative study of five Indian states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prabal Vikram; Tatambhotla, Anand; Kalvakuntla, Rohini; Chokshi, Maulik

    2013-01-01

    To perform an initial qualitative comparison of the different procurement models in India to frame questions for future research in this area; to capture the finer differences between the state models through 53 process and price parameters to determine their functional efficiencies. Qualitative analysis is performed for the study. Five states: Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Odisha, Punjab and Maharashtra were chosen to ensure heterogeneity in a number of factors such as procurement type (centralised, decentralised or mixed); autonomy of the procurement organisation; state of public health infrastructure; geography and availability of data through Right to Information Act (RTI). Data on procurement processes were collected through key informant analysis by way of semistructured interviews with leadership teams of procuring organisations. These process data were validated through interviews with field staff (stakeholders of district hospitals, taluk hospitals, community health centres and primary health centres) in each state. A total of 30 actors were interviewed in all five states. The data collected are analysed against 52 process and price parameters to determine the functional efficiency of the model. The analysis indicated that autonomous procurement organisations were more efficient in relation to payments to suppliers, had relatively lower drug procurement prices and managed their inventory more scientifically. The authors highlight critical success factors that significantly influence the outcome of any procurement model. In a way, this study raises more questions and seeks the need for further research in this arena to aid policy makers.

  13. Phun Week: Understanding Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limson, Mel; Matyas, Marsha Lakes

    2009-01-01

    Topics such as sports, exercise, health, and nutrition can make the science of physiology relevant and engaging for students. In addition, many lessons on these topics, such as those on the cardiovascular, respiratory, and digestive systems, align with national and state life science education standards. Physiology Understanding Week (PhUn…

  14. Using measures of single-cell physiology and physiological state to understand organismic aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendenhall, Alexander; Driscoll, Monica; Brent, Roger

    2016-02-01

    Genetically identical organisms in homogeneous environments have different lifespans and healthspans. These differences are often attributed to stochastic events, such as mutations and 'epimutations', changes in DNA methylation and chromatin that change gene function and expression. But work in the last 10 years has revealed differences in lifespan- and health-related phenotypes that are not caused by lasting changes in DNA or identified by modifications to DNA or chromatin. This work has demonstrated persistent differences in single-cell and whole-organism physiological states operationally defined by values of reporter gene signals in living cells. While some single-cell states, for example, responses to oxygen deprivation, were defined previously, others, such as a generally heightened ability to make proteins, were, revealed by direct experiment only recently, and are not well understood. Here, we review technical progress that promises to greatly increase the number of these measurable single-cell physiological variables and measureable states. We discuss concepts that facilitate use of single-cell measurements to provide insight into physiological states and state transitions. We assert that researchers will use this information to relate cell level physiological readouts to whole-organism outcomes, to stratify aging populations into groups based on different physiologies, to define biomarkers predictive of outcomes, and to shed light on the molecular processes that bring about different individual physiologies. For these reasons, quantitative study of single-cell physiological variables and state transitions should provide a valuable complement to genetic and molecular explanations of how organisms age. © 2015 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Sociocultural Behavior Sensemaking: State of the Art in Understanding the Operational Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    data are then processed and 54 | Visualization for sociocultural understanding assimilated into climate models to better visualize the dynamics of...makers to quickly identify the key policy levers that control system behavior. The C- ROADS model of global climate change (Sterman et al., 2012...data values to generate a trend forecast—the latter is called an Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average ( ARIMA ). The order of the models is

  16. The National Shipbuilding Research Program. United States Shipbuilding Standards Master Plan Update

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    .... 7. Develop a marketing strategy for the plan. 8. Adopt or convert existing global standards for domestic use. This update includes an updated survey, the SP-6 tactical plan, new windows into standards on the internet, and more.

  17. 76 FR 61287 - Request for Public Comment on the United States Standards for Barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... barley marketing and define U.S. barley quality in the domestic and global marketplace. The standards define commonly used industry terms; contain basic principles governing the application of standards... standards using approved methodologies and can be applied at any point in the marketing chain. Furthermore...

  18. XBRL Standard for Financial Reporting in Croatia: Current State and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gostimir Dejan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Harmonization and standardization is becoming important among regulators and business community. XBRL has entered the global stage as a financial reporting standard. Its mission was to standardize the financial reporting, lower the reporting costs and make the reporting as transparent as possible.

  19. Theory of Mind: Children's Understanding of Mental States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    2014-01-01

    For more than three decades, theory of mind (ToM) has been one of the leading and prevalent issues in developmental psychology. ToM is the ability to ascribe mental states (e.g. beliefs, intents, desires, pretending, knowledge) to oneself and others as well as to recognise that others have beliefs, desires, and intentions that differ from…

  20. Understanding the solid-state forms of fenofibrate - a spectroscopic and computational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinz, Andrea; Gordon, Keith C; McGoverin, Cushla M

    2009-01-01

    combined with density functional theory calculations [B3LYP 6-31G(d)], solid-state changes that occur upon recrystallization of amorphous fenofibrate were monitored and described using in situ Raman spectroscopy. A comparison of the calculated vibrational spectra of a fenofibrate monomer and two dimer...

  1. Understanding Educational Reform in Global Context: Economy, Ideology, and the State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Mark B., Ed.

    This book presents a set of national case studies on educational reform of higher education that views reform as processes of ideological and social struggles. The titles and authors are as follows: "Educational Reform: Social Struggles, the State and the World Economic System" (Mark B. Ginsburg, et al.); "Restructuring Education…

  2. Displaying Now-Understanding: The Finnish Change-of-State Token "aa"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivisto, Aino

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the use of the Finnish change-of-state token "aa" that has previously not been identified. The central claim is that even though "aa" indicates a cognitive shift experienced by the speaker, it does not function as a receipt of new information. Instead, the token "aa" indicates that the speaker…

  3. Charge-Transfer States in Organic Solar Cells: Understanding the Impact of Polarization, Delocalization, and Disorder

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Zilong

    2017-05-08

    We investigate the impact of electronic polarization, charge delocalization, and energetic disorder on the charge-transfer (CT) states formed at a planar C60/pentacene interface. The ability to examine large complexes containing up to seven pentacene molecules and three C60 molecules allows us to take explicitly into account the electronic polarization effects. These complexes are extracted from a bilayer architecture modeled by molecular dynamics simulations and evaluated by means of electronic-structure calculations based on long-range-separated functionals (ωB97XD and BNL) with optimized range-separation parameters. The energies of the lowest charge-transfer states derived for the large complexes are in very good agreement with the experimentally reported values. The average singlet-triplet energy splittings of the lowest CT states are calculated not to exceed 10 meV. The rates of geminate recombination as well as of dissociation of the triplet excitons are also evaluated. In line with experiment, our results indicate that the pentacene triplet excitons generated through singlet fission can dissociate into separated charges on a picosecond time scale, despite the fact that their energy in C60/pentacene heterojunctions is slightly lower than the energies of the lowest CT triplet states.

  4. Understanding the Differential Selectivity of Arrestins toward the Phosphorylation State of the Receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sensoy, Ozge; de Sousa Moreira, Irina; Morra, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    Proteins in the arrestin family exhibit a conserved structural fold that nevertheless allows for significant differences in their selectivity for G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and their phosphorylation states. To reveal the mechanism of activation that prepares arrestin for selective

  5. International standards for optical wireless communications: state-of-the-art and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Marian

    2017-10-01

    As the number of active OWC installations is growing fast, the standards for compatibility of co-existing neighbouring systems are being developed. The paper addresses the Laser Safety (IEC standards), ITU-T Study Group 15 standards (G.640 Co-location longitudinally compatible interfaces for free space optical systems), ITU-Radiocommunication Sector standards (P.1817-1 Propagation data required for the design of terrestrial free-space optical links), and the IEEE Work in Progress - standardization activity on Visible Light Communications. International standards of FSO communications have been reviewed and discussed. ITU, IEC, and IEEE International standards for Free-Space Optical links have been reviewed. The system reliability and availability as well as security issues will be addressed as well in the talk.

  6. Should a vehicle fuel economy standard be combined with an economy-wide greenhouse gas emissions constraint? Implications for energy and climate policy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karplus, Valerie J.; Paltsev, Sergey; Babiker, Mustafa; Reilly, John M.

    2013-01-01

    The United States has adopted fuel economy standards that require increases in the on-road efficiency of new passenger vehicles, with the goal of reducing petroleum use and (more recently) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Understanding the cost and effectiveness of fuel economy standards, alone and in combination with economy-wide policies that constrain GHG emissions, is essential to inform coordinated design of future climate and energy policy. We use a computable general equilibrium model, the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, to investigate the effect of combining a fuel economy standard with an economy-wide GHG emissions constraint in the United States. First, a fuel economy standard is shown to be at least six to fourteen times less cost effective than a price instrument (fuel tax) when targeting an identical reduction in cumulative gasoline use. Second, when combined with a cap-and-trade (CAT) policy, a binding fuel economy standard increases the cost of meeting the GHG emissions constraint by forcing expensive reductions in passenger vehicle gasoline use, displacing more cost-effective abatement opportunities. Third, the impact of adding a fuel economy standard to the CAT policy depends on the availability and cost of abatement opportunities in transport—if advanced biofuels provide a cost-competitive, low carbon alternative to gasoline, the fuel economy standard does not bind and the use of low carbon fuels in passenger vehicles makes a significantly larger contribution to GHG emissions abatement relative to the case when biofuels are not available. This analysis underscores the potentially large costs of a fuel economy standard relative to alternative policies aimed at reducing petroleum use and GHG emissions. It further emphasizes the need to consider sensitivity to vehicle technology and alternative fuel availability and costs as well as economy-wide responses when forecasting the energy, environmental, and economic outcomes of

  7. Grain growth: The key to understand solid-state dewetting of silver thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquet, P.; Podor, R.; Ravaux, J.; Teisseire, J.; Gozhyk, I.; Jupille, J.; Lazzari, R.

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of solid-state dewetting of polycrystalline silver thin films in oxygen atmosphere was investigated with in situ and real-time environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy at high temperature combined with Atomic Force Microscopy. Three steps were identified during dewetting: induction, hole propagation without specific rim and sintering. Moreover, it was observed that a very selective grain growth, promoted by surface diffusion, plays a key role all along the process.

  8. Understanding the Geographic Controls of Hazardous Convective Weather Environments in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, K. A.; Chavas, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    Hazardous Convective Weather (HCW), such as severe thunderstorms and tornadoes, poses significant risk to life and property in the United States every year. While these HCW events are small scale, they develop principally within favorable larger-scale environments (i.e., HCW environments). Why these large-scale environments are confined to specific regions, particularly the Eastern United States, is not well understood. This can, in part, be related to a limited fundamental knowledge of how the climate system creates HCW environment, which provides uncertainty in how HCW environments may be altered in a changing climate. Previous research has identified the Gulf of Mexico to the south and elevated terrain upstream as key geographic contributors to the generation of HCW environments over the Eastern United States. This work investigates the relative role of these geographic features through "component denial" experiments in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5). In particular, CAM5 simulations where topography is removed (globally and regionally) and/or the Gulf of Mexico is converted to land is compared to a CAM5 control simulation of current climate following the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) protocols. In addition to exploring differences in general characteristics of the large-scale environments amongst the experiments, HCW changes will be explored through a combination of high shear and high Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE) environments. Preliminary work suggests that the removal of elevated terrain reduces the inland extent of HCW environments in the United States, but not the existence of these events altogether. This indicates that topography is crucial for inland HCW environments but perhaps not for their existence in general (e.g., near the Gulf of Mexico). This initial work is a crucial first step to building a reduced-complexity framework within CAM5 to quantify how land-ocean contrast and elevated terrain control

  9. Effects of traditional grammar teaching on standard six learners’ performance in understanding and using simple present tense, simple past tense, pronouns, and articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulasimani Munohsamy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to investigate whether there is any effect of the traditional grammar teaching on Standard Six learners’ performance in understanding and using simple present tense, simple past tense, pronouns and articles in writing. The sample for the study consisted of 40 Standard Six students of SK Tansau, Putatan, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah who was divided equally into two groups which were the treatment group and the control groups. Tests of understanding and of using the simple present tense, simple past tense, pronouns and articles were used as the instruments of the study. The data was collected through the administration of the pre-test and post-test. To analyze the collected data, the SPSS (Statistical Packages for Social Sciences version 11.5 was used. T-test was used to see if there was a significant difference in the mean of gain score. The Pearson Correlation was used on both tests between treatment group and control group to establish the relationship between scores on understanding and scores on using the grammatical features investigated. The study found that there was no significant difference in the mean of gain score in simple present tense, simple past tense and pronouns of the understanding test as well as writing test between the treatment and control groups. The results also indicated that there was no correlation between scores on test of understanding and test of using simple present tense, simple past tense, pronouns and articles on writing in the treatment group. There have been research studies in the past that lend clear cut support to the teaching of grammar as a mean of improving writing, however the results of this research clearly show that the implementation of Traditional Grammar Teaching has no effects on the students’ writing.

  10. Single-mode solid-state polymer dye laser fabricated with standard I-line UV lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Søren; Mironov, Andrej; Nilsson, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    We present single-mode solid-state polymer dye lasers fabricated with standard UV lithography. The lasers use a high-order Bragg grating and rely on index-tuning of a photosensitive polymer for waveguiding. The gain medium is Rhodamine 6G.......We present single-mode solid-state polymer dye lasers fabricated with standard UV lithography. The lasers use a high-order Bragg grating and rely on index-tuning of a photosensitive polymer for waveguiding. The gain medium is Rhodamine 6G....

  11. Do Large-Scale Exams Adequately Assess Inquiry? An Evaluation of the Alignment of the Inquiry Behaviors in New York State's "Living Environment Regents Examination" to the NYS Inquiry Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Heather L.; Matthews, Dorothy M.

    2008-01-01

    The "Living Environment Regents Examination" is meant to provide a measure of the quality of New York State students' knowledge and understanding of biological content and science inquiry ability, as it is defined in the "MST Standards" and the "Living Environment Core Curriculum". This article examines the degree to…

  12. South Ural State University Campus: Architectural Development Concept in Accordance with International Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabiev, S. G.

    2017-11-01

    The article deals with the vital problem of the implementation of the Program to enhance the competitiveness of the South Ural State University (SUSU) among other scientific and educational centers, which defines the main objective - to form a world-class university. According to the set objective, the most important task is to build a landscaped campus, which can be efficiently solved by the architectural means. The solution of this task is based on the scientific methods of the territorial and architectural improvement of the main university building complex development in the northern academic area and the architectural and aesthetic improvement of the space structural arrangement of the buildings. The author analyzes the global practice of modern campuses in Russia and abroad based on the Internet resources. The author carried out some additional on-site surveys of foreign campuses in Australia, Canada and China. The essence of the architectural concept of the first university campus development stage lies in the science-based achievement of a harmonious architectural and space unity of solid and plane elements of the site development, landscape arrangement of the main building’s courtyard and the adjacent territories with an efficient use of the relief, water areas and planting, allotment of additional spaces for landscaped areas due to a split-level arrangement, including a landscaped platform, increase of the underground space utilization share with the arrangement of an underground car parking and an underground walkway considering the environmental requirements. Further, it is planned to use the author’s methodological approach for the southern academic and the northern residential university areas, which will allow to create a duly completed landscaped SUSU campus with a developed infrastructure according to the international standards.

  13. Understanding Toxoplasmosis in the United States Through “Large Data” Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykins, Joseph; Wang, Kanix; Wheeler, Kelsey; Clouser, Fatima; Dixon, Ashtyn; El Bissati, Kamal; Zhou, Ying; Lyttle, Christopher; Rzhetsky, Andrey; McLeod, Rima

    2016-01-01

    Background. Toxoplasma gondii infection causes substantial morbidity and mortality in the United States, and infects approximately one-third of persons globally. Clinical manifestations vary. Seropositivity is associated with neurologic diseases and malignancies. There are few objective data concerning US incidence and distribution of toxoplasmosis. Methods. Truven Health MarketScan Database and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes, including treatment specific to toxoplasmosis, identified patients with this disease. Spatiotemporal distribution and patterns of disease manifestation were analyzed. Comorbidities between patients and matched controls were compared. Results. Between 2003 and 2012, 9260 patients had ICD-9 codes for toxoplasmosis. This database of patients with ICD-9 codes includes 15% of those in the United States, excluding patients with no or public insurance. Thus, assuming that demographics do not change incidence, the calculated total is 61 700 or 6856 patients per year. Disease was more prevalent in the South. Mean age at diagnosis was 37.5 ± 15.5 years; 2.4% were children aged 0–2 years, likely congenitally infected. Forty-one percent were male, and 73% of women were of reproductive age. Of identified patients, 38% had eye disease and 12% presented with other serious manifestations, including central nervous system and visceral organ damage. Toxoplasmosis was statistically associated with substantial comorbidities, including human immunodeficiency virus, autoimmune diseases, and neurologic diseases. Conclusions. Toxoplasmosis causes morbidity and mortality in the United States. Our analysis of private insurance records missed certain at-risk populations and revealed fewer cases of retinal disease than previously estimated, suggesting undercoding, underreporting, undertreating, or differing demographics of those with eye disease. Mandatory reporting of infection to health departments and gestational

  14. Understanding U.S. Physician Satisfaction: State of the Evidence and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Timothy; Young, Gary; Xiang, Elaine; Raver, Eli

    2015-01-01

    Physician satisfaction is an important issue, yet we know less about it than we should. This narrative review updates our knowledge about U.S. physician satisfaction and proposes new foci for understanding and studying the topic that align better with the evolving U.S. healthcare delivery system, physicians' everyday work situations, and medicine's internal demographic changes. Using the PubMed database of empirical studies published between 2008 and 2013 that examine U.S. physician job, career, or work satisfaction, we compare our review findings with a review covering studies published between 1970 and 2007. We included 22 studies in our review. Overall, U.S. physicians experience moderate to high levels of job, work, and career satisfaction, and these levels have remained stable over time. This is surprising given discussions in the popular press of declining physician satisfaction. The observed consistency and the high levels of satisfaction do not tell the entire story. While autonomy, income, and perceived job demands are several of the stronger predictors of physician satisfaction, variables such as age and gender have been understudied. And our understanding of what drives physician satisfaction still draws too heavily on other variables that are less salient given today's workplace and the current trends in professional demographics and employment arrangements. Future thinking and research on physician satisfaction should align more with the array of changes now occurring within the U.S. medical profession and the larger U.S. healthcare delivery system, within which physicians work. To do this, new variables and conceptual thinking that capture these changes must be used.

  15. Understanding the decision-making environment for people in minimally conscious state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelden, Kudret; Sargent, Sarah; Samanta, Jo

    2017-04-11

    Patients in minimally conscious state (MCS) show minimal, fluctuating but definitive signs of awareness of themselves and their environments. They may exhibit behaviours ranging from the ability to track objects or people with their eyes, to the making of simple choices which requires the ability to recognise objects and follow simple commands. While patients with MCS have higher chances of further recovery than people in vegetative states, this is not guaranteed and their prognosis is fundamentally uncertain. Therefore, patients with MCS need regular input from healthcare professionals to monitor their progress (or non-progress) and to address their needs for rehabilitation, for the provision of an appropriate environment and equipment. These requirements form a backdrop to the potentially huge variety of ethical-legal dilemmas that may be faced by their families, caregivers and ultimately, the courts. This paper analyses the decision-making environment for people with MCS using data obtained through four focus groups which included the input of 29 senior decision makers in the area. The results of the focus group study are presented and further explored with attention on recurrent and strong themes such as lack of expertise, resource issues, and the influence of families and friends of people with MCS.

  16. Social determinants of health and local government: understanding and uptake of ideas in two Australian states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, Angela; Lane, Anna; Lewis, Felicity-Ann; Baum, Fran; Harris, Patrick

    2016-10-23

    To examine the awareness and perceptions of local government staff about the social determinants of health (SDoH) and health inequity and use of these ideas to shape policy and practice. 96 staff at 17 councils in South Australia or New South Wales responded to questions in a pilot online survey concerning: sources of knowledge about, familiarity with the evidence on, attitudes towards, and uses of ideas about the social determinants of health. Eight of 68 SA councils and 16 of 152 NSW councils were randomly selected stratified by state and metropolitan status. Differences between states and metropolitan/non-metropolitan status were explored. The majority of respondents (88.4%) reported some familiarity with ideas about the broad determinants of health and 90% agreed that the impact of policy action on health determinants should be considered in all major government policy and planning initiatives. Research articles, government/professional reports, and professional contacts were rated as important sources of knowledge about the social determinants of health. Resources need to be dedicated to systematic research on practical implementation of interventions on social determinants of health inequities and towards providing staff with more practical information about interventions and tools to evaluate those interventions. The findings suggest there is support for action addressing the social determinants of health in local government. The findings extend similar research regarding SDoH and government in NZ and Canada to Australian local government. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  17. The Czech national long distances measuring standard Koštice - State of play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Červinka

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This article gives information about new Czech national long distances measuring standard, which has been preparedat the distance base near the Koštice village. Submitter of the project is the Czech Office for Standards, Metrology and Testing.Research and document preparation for creation of the measuring standard were ensured by the Research Institute of Geodesy,Topography and Cartography. Interlaboratory comparisons were made by staff of the Bundeswehr University in Munich. The paperreports about works, which will be carried out on national standard in the second half of this year. Purpose of this works is to improvecharacteristics of accuracy of national etalon.

  18. Understanding the effectiveness of precursor reductions in lowering 8-hr ozone concentrations--Part II. The eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Steven D; Blanchard, Charles L; Ziman, Stephen D

    2004-11-01

    Analyses of ozone (O3) measurements in conjunction with photochemical modeling were used to assess the feasibility of attaining the federal 8-hr O3 standard in the eastern United States. Various combinations of volatile organic compound (VOC) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission reductions were effective in lowering modeled peak 1-hr O3 concentrations. VOC emissions reductions alone had only a modest impact on modeled peak 8-hr O3 concentrations. Anthropogenic NOx emissions reductions of 46-86% of 1996 base case values were needed to reach the level of the 8-hr standard in some areas. As NOx emissions are reduced, O3 production efficiency increases, which accounts for the less than proportional response of calculated 8-hr O3 levels. Such increases in O3 production efficiency also were noted in previous modeling work for central California. O3 production in some urban core areas, such as New York City and Chicago, IL, was found to be VOC-limited. In these areas, moderate NOx emissions reductions may be accompanied by increases in peak 8-hr O3 levels. The findings help to explain differences in historical trends in 1- and 8-hr O3 levels and have serious implications for the feasibility of attaining the 8-hr O3 standard in several areas of the eastern United States.

  19. Work-related falls among union carpenters in Washington State before and after the Vertical Fall Arrest Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, Hester J; Li, Leiming; Dement, John

    2003-08-01

    Washington State enacted a change in their fall standard for the construction industry in 1991, preceding the Safety Standard for Fall Protection in the Construction Industry promulgated by Federal OSHA in 1994. We evaluated changes in the rate of falls from elevations and measures of severity among a large cohort of union carpenters after the fall standard change in Washington State, taking into account the temporal trends in their overall injury rates. There was a significant decrease in the rate of falls from height after the standard went into effect, even after adjusting for the overall decrease in work-related injuries among this cohort. Much of the decrease was immediate, likely representing the publicity surrounding fatal falls and subsequent promulgation of the standard. The greatest decrease was seen between 3 and 3(1/2) years after the standard went into effect. There was a significant reduction in mean paid lost days per event after the standard change and there was a significant reduction in mean cost per fall when adjusting for age and the temporal trend for costs among non-fall injuries. Through the use of observational methods we have demonstrated significant effects of the Washington State Vertical Fall Arrest Standard among carpenters in the absence of a control or comparison group. Without controlling for the temporal trend in overall injury rates, the rate of decline in falls appeared significantly greater, but the more pronounced, but delayed, decline was not seen. The analyses demonstrate potential error in failing to account for temporal patterns or assuming that a decline after an intervention is related to the intervention. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Understanding Suicide Across the Lifespan: A United States Perspective of Suicide Risk Factors, Assessment & Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Ian H; Thrower, Natasha; Noroian, Paul; Saleh, Fabian M

    2018-01-01

    Suicide is a troubling, preventable phenomenon. Prior to attempts, individuals often seek help, prompting practitioners to perform risk assessments that ideally use evidence-based risk management strategies. A literature review was performed using Harvard Countway Library of Medicine, Google Scholar, PubMed. Key words used were "Forensic Science," "Suicide Risk Management," "Pediatric Suicide Risk Factors," "Adult Suicide Risk Factors," "Geriatric Suicide Risk Factors," "Suicide Risk Assessment." Parameters limited articles to studies/reviews completed in the past twenty years in the United States. Results indicated predictors of suicide in juveniles were insomnia, burdensomeness, and recent conflicts with family or a romantic partner. Adults had greater risk if male, substance abusing, with marital/job loss. Elderly individuals with multiple medical comorbidities, hopelessness, and isolation were at higher risk. Everyone evaluated should be screened for access to firearms. Management of suicide risk involves providing the least restrictive form of treatment which maintains an individual's safety. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Understanding landowner intentions to create early successional forest habitat in the northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayer, Ashley A.; Stedman, Richard C.; Allred, Shorna B.; Rosenberg, Kenneth V.; Fuller, Angela K.

    2016-01-01

    Early successional forest habitat (ESH) and associated wildlife species in the northeastern United States are in decline. One way to help create early successional forest conditions is engaging private forest landowners in even-aged forest management because their limited participation may have contributed to declines in ESH for wildlife species of high conservation concern. We applied the reasoned action approach from social psychology to predict intentions of landowners in the 13-county Southern Tier of New York State, USA, to conduct patch-cuts, which is a type of even-aged forest management. We tested the predictive ability of the model using data from a mail survey of landowners conducted from November 2010 to January 2011. Landowner intention to conduct patch-cuts was high (55% of respondents), with attitude being the strongest direct predictor of behavioral intention. Our results suggest that patch-cutting intentions are most likely expressed by landowners who think the behavior is good for their land and wildlife, believe in positive outcomes of land and wildlife management, belong to a game wildlife organization, and have conducted patch-cuts in the past. Strategies to engage more landowners in ESH management will have the highest likelihood of success if outreach efforts focus on influencing behavioral beliefs and subsequently attitudes, possibly working with game wildlife organizations to communicate a unified message for habitat conservation, including the importance of maintaining and creating ESH. Our results demonstrate the importance of social science research to increase the likelihood that conservation targets for declining wildlife species are met. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. VA State Profile. Virginia: Standards of Learning (SOL) End-of-Course Exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides information about Virginia's Standards of Learning (SOL) End-of-Course Exams. The purpose of the end-of-course assessments is to measure the achievement of students on the Standards of Learning adopted by the Virginia Board of Education for specific high school courses, and to ensure that students graduating from Virginia…

  3. 78 FR 50412 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Amendments to Spark Ignition Marine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... Engine Pollution Control Standards; Amendments to Spark Ignition Marine Engine and Boat Regulations... emission standards; enhanced evaporative emission controls for high performance sterndrive/inboard engines... requirement relating to the control of emissions from new nonroad engines which are used in construction...

  4. 77 FR 9916 - California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Mobile Cargo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... performance standards for engines equipped in newly purchased, leased, or rented (collectively known as... section 209 proceeding is to: Consider all evidence that passes the threshold test of materiality and... regulations also set forth in- use performance standards applicable to non-new yard and non-yard trucks. To...

  5. Recommendations for enforcing and administering lighting-efficiency standards in existing public buildings in New York State. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-09-30

    To determine the most efficient, cost-effective means of enforcing lighting standards in existing public buildings, various enforcement procedures were investigated. A summary of conclusions and recommendations are presented. In Chapter 1, the adoption of a modified version of the sections of the proposed ASHRAE 100 standards that relate to lighting is recommended. The basic features of the proposed ASHRAE 100 standards are described and compared with those of other types of standards, and the modifications recommended to facilitate implementation are then presented. In Chapter 2, the structure is outlined and the details are provided of the enforcement strategy devised based on self-certification and penalties for noncompliance. Chapter 3 is intended to guide the state in implementing that strategy; it is suggested that the State Energy Office begin to conduct inspections of buildings selected first randomly and then according to a specific discriminant-analysis scheme. The timetable that should be followed and the management responsibilities that should be assigned if the state is to meet its 1980 goals related to saving energy through the implementation of lighting-efficiency standards are delineated in Chapter 4. The appendixes provide additional information and data supporting the specific conclusions and recommendations presented throughout the text. (MCW)

  6. Did state renewable portfolio standards induce technical change in methane mitigation in the U.S. landfill sector?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhotal, Katherine Casey

    Landfill gas (LFG) projects use the gas created from decomposing waste, which is approximately 49% methane, and substitute it for natural gas in engines, boilers, turbines, and other technologies to produce energy or heat. The projects are beneficial in terms of increased safety at the landfill, production of a cost-effective source of energy or heat, reduced odor, reduced air pollution emissions, and reduced greenhouse gas emissions. However, landfills sometimes face conflicting policy incentives. The theory of technical change shows that the diffusion of a technology or groups of technologies increases slowly in the beginning and then picks up speed as knowledge and better understanding of using the technology diffuses among potential users. Using duration analysis, data on energy prices, State and Federal policies related to landfill gas, renewable energy, and air pollution, as well as control data on landfill characteristics, I estimate the influence and direction of influence of renewable portfolio standards (RPS). The analysis found that RPS positively influences the diffusion of landfill gas technologies, encouraging landfills to consider electricity generation projects over direct sales of LFG to another facility. Energy price increases or increased revenues for a project are also critical. Barriers to diffusion include air emission permits in non-attainment areas and policies, such as net metering, which promote other renewables over LFG projects. Using the estimates from the diffusion equations, I analyze the potential influence of a Federal RPS as well as the potential interaction with a Federal, market based climate change policy, which will increase the revenue of a project through higher energy sale prices. My analysis shows that a market based climate change policy such as a cap-and-trade or carbon tax scheme would increase the number of landfill gas projects significantly more than a Federal RPS.

  7. 77 FR 73459 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Notice of Waiver of Clean Air Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9759-4] California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Notice of Waiver of Clean Air Act Preemption; California's 2010 Model Year Heavy-Duty Vehicle and... for CARB's own motor vehicle pollution control program based on lack of compelling and extraordinary...

  8. Preservice Secondary Teachers' Conceptions from a Mathematical Modeling Activity and Connections to the Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlmann, Micah; Maiorca, Cathrine; Olson, Travis A.

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical modeling is an essential integrated piece of the Common Core State Standards. However, researchers have shown that mathematical modeling activities can be difficult for teachers to implement. Teachers are more likely to implement mathematical modeling activities if they have their own successful experiences with such activities. This…

  9. 9/11 and the War on Terror in Curricula and in State Standards Documents. CIRCLE Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Jeremy; Hess, Diana

    2011-01-01

    This Fact Sheet reports findings from an ongoing study of the representation of 9/11 and terrorism in curricula, textbooks, and state standards documents. The study was conducted in three stages. The first two stages focused on how supplemental curricula and best-selling social studies textbooks published between 2002-2010 present the events of…

  10. 39 CFR 111.1 - Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual; incorporated by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mailing Standards of the United States Postal Service, Domestic Mail Manual; incorporated by reference of regulations governing domestic mail services... the approval of the Director of the Federal Register.” In conformity with that provision, and with 39...

  11. 77 FR 74923 - Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Estuaries, Coastal Waters, and South Florida...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... proposing numeric water quality criteria to protect ecological systems, aquatic life, and human health from... III surface waters share water quality criteria established to protect fish consumption, recreation... Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Estuaries, Coastal Waters, and South Florida Inland...

  12. The Cultural Influence in Accounting Standard Setting: A Comparative Analysis of the United States, Canada, and England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Robert; And Others

    A study of the processes for establishing the principles and policies of measurement and disclosure in preparing financial reports examines differences in these processes in the United States, Canada, and England. Information was drawn from international accounting literature on standard setting. The differences and similarities in the…

  13. 77 FR 50502 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; In-Use Heavy-Duty Vehicles (As...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL 9716-9] California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; In- Use Heavy-Duty Vehicles (As Applicable to Yard Trucks and Two-Engine Sweepers); Opportunity... control of emissions from new nonroad engines which are used in construction equipment or vehicles or used...

  14. Common Core State Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects for English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Luciana C., Ed.

    2016-01-01

    This volume in the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for English Language Learners series was designed to deepen teacher's knowledge and provides instructional approaches and practices for supporting grades 6-12 ELLs as they meet the ambitious expectations of the CCSS for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects. This…

  15. States' Participation Guidelines for Alternate Assessments Based on Modified Academic Achievement Standards (AA-MAS) in 2008. Synthesis Report 71

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Rogers, Christopher; Cormier, Damien; Thurlow, Martha L.

    2008-01-01

    Federal regulations (U.S. Department of Education, 2007a) provide states with the flexibility to offer an alternate assessment based on modified academic achievement standards (AA-MAS). This assessment option is for a small group of students with disabilities who can make significant progress, but may not reach grade-level achievement within the…

  16. Preservice Secondary Teachers Perceptions of College-Level Mathematics Content Connections with the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Travis A.

    2016-01-01

    Preservice Secondary Mathematics Teachers (PSMTs) were surveyed to identify if they could connect early-secondary mathematics content (Grades 7-9) in the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) with mathematics content studied in content courses for certification in secondary teacher preparation programs. Respondents were asked to…

  17. The Common Core State Standards: An Opportunity to Enhance Formative Assessment in History/Social Studies Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateh, Comfort M.; Wyngowski, Aaron J.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the opportunity that the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) present for enhancing formative assessment (FA) in history and social studies classrooms. There is evidence that FA can enhance learning for students if implemented well. Unfortunately, teachers continue to be challenged in implementing FA in their classrooms. We…

  18. States' Participation Guidelines for Alternate Assessments Based on Modified Academic Achievement Standards (AA-MAS) in 2010. Synthesis Report 82

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Hodgson, Jennifer R.; Price, Lynn M.; Thurlow, Martha L.

    2011-01-01

    Federal legislation requires that all students participate in state accountability systems. Most students with disabilities participate in the regular assessment, with or without accommodations. Students with more significant cognitive disabilities participate in the Alternate Assessment based on Alternate Achievement Standards (AA-AAS). A few…

  19. States' Flexibility Waiver Plans for Alternate Assessments Based on Alternate Achievement Standards (AA-AAS). Synthesis Report 96

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Edwards, Lynn M.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Hodgson, Jennifer R.

    2014-01-01

    All states have alternate assessments based on alternate achievement standards (AA-AAS) for students with the most significant cognitive disabilities. For accountability purposes, the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) allows up to 1% of students to be counted as proficient with this assessment option. In 2011 the U.S. Department of…

  20. Teachers' Perceptions on Preparedness and Supports to Implement the English Language Arts Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Maria Clara

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to: (1) describe elementary teachers' perceptions on their preparedness to implement the English Language Arts Common Core State Standards (ELA-CCSS); (2) determine how perceptions influenced changes in instructional practices; and (3) to explore ELA-CCSS implementation challenges and/or barriers in supporting teacher…

  1. Deficiencies in public understanding about tobacco harm reduction: results from a United States national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviniemi, Marc T; Kozlowski, Lynn T

    2015-07-02

    Tobacco products differ in their relative health harms. The need for educating consumers about such harms is growing as different tobacco products enter the marketplace and as the FDA moves to regulate and educate the public about different products. However, little is known about the patterns of the public's knowledge of relative harms. Data were analyzed from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) 4 Cycle 2, a population-representative survey of US adults conducted between October 2012 and January 2013 (N = 3630). Participants reported their perceptions of the relative risks of e-cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, and different types of cigarettes compared to "traditional" cigarettes. Relative risk perceptions for each product type, as well as the consistency and accuracy of harm reduction beliefs, were analyzed. About 65% of the respondents accurately reported that no cigarettes were less harmful than any others. Slightly more than half of U.S. adults perceived e-cigarettes to be safer than regular cigarettes, a belief in line with current scientific evidence. By contrast, only 9% of respondents perceived some smokeless tobacco products to be safer, a belief strongly supported by the evidence. Only 3.5% of respondents had patterns of relative risk perceptions in line with current scientific evidence for all three modalities. The discrepancy between current evidence and public perceptions of relative risk of various tobacco/nicotine products was marked; for most tobacco types, a large proportion of the population held inaccurate harm reduction beliefs. Although there was substantial awareness that no cigarettes were safer than any other cigarettes, there could be benefits from increasing the percentage of the public that appreciates this fact, especially among current smokers. Given the potential benefits of tobacco risk reduction strategies, public health education efforts to increase understanding of basic harm reduction principles are needed to

  2. Understanding international road safety disparities: Why is Australia so much safer than the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Wesley E

    2018-02-01

    Despite similarities to the US in terms of transportation, land use, and culture, Australia kills 5.3 people per 100,000 population on the roads each year, as compared to the US rate of 12.4. Similar trends hold when accounting for distance driven and the number of registered cars. This paper seeks to understand what is behind the road safety disparities between these two countries. The results suggest that a number of inter-related factors seem to play a role in the better road safety outcomes of Australia as compared to the US. This includes Australia's strategies related to seat belt usage and impaired driving as well as their efforts to help curb vehicle speeds and reduce exposure. Design-related differences include a much greater reliance on roundabouts and narrower street cross-sections as well as guidelines that encourage self-enforcing roads. Policy-related differences include stronger and more extensive enforcement programs, restrictive licensing programs, and higher driving costs. Combined with a more urban population and multimodal infrastructure, Australia tends to discourage driving mileage and exposure while encouraging safer modes of transportation such as transit, at least more so than in most of the US. Australia also enacted their version of Vision Zero - called the Safe System Approach - more than a decade before similar policies began cropping up in US cities. While it is difficult to attribute recent road safety successes to any specific policy, Australia continues to expand their lead on the US in terms of safety outcomes and is a road safety example worthy of consideration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Understanding public perceptions of benefits and risks of childhood vaccinations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Geoboo

    2014-03-01

    In the face of a growing public health concern accompanying the reemerging threat of preventable diseases, this research seeks mainly to explain variations in the perceived benefits and risks of vaccinations among the general public in the United States. As Mary Douglas and Aaron Wildavsky's grid-group cultural theory of risk perception claims, the analytical results based upon original data from a nationwide Internet survey of 1,213 American adults conducted in 2010 suggest that individuals' cultural predispositions contribute to the formation of their perceptions pertaining to vaccine benefits and risks at both societal and individual levels, in conjunction with other factors suggested by previous risk perception literature, such as perceived prevalence of diseases, trust, knowledge level, and demographic characteristics. Those with a strong hierarch orientation tend to envision greater benefits and lesser risks and conceive of a relatively high ratio of benefit to risk when compared to other cultural types. By contrast, those with a strong fatalist tendency are inclined to emphasize risks and downplay benefits while conceiving of a low vaccination benefit-risk ratio. Situated between hierarchs and fatalists, strong egalitarians are prone to perceive greater benefits, smaller risks, and a more positive benefit-risk ratio than strong individualists. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. Electromagnetic field standards in Central and Eastern European countries: current state and stipulations for international harmonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajsek, P; Pakhomov, A G; Klauenberg, B J

    2002-04-01

    Electromagnetic field standards in the West are based on well-established acute biological effects that could be considered as signaling a potentially adverse health effect. The specific absorption rate, which is proportional to the tissue heating (thermal effects), represents the basic restriction of exposure to Radio-Frequency (RF) fields. On the other hand, Eastern European standards are designed to protect from potential non-thermal effects that might be caused by chronic exposure to very low intensities, where a so-called "power load" (a product of field intensity and duration of exposure) represents the basic limitation. Thus, electromagnetic field standards in Eastern European countries differ considerably from those which are proposed by the International Commission of Non-ionizing Radiation Protection and the Standards Coordinating Committee 28 of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. In the present paper, the strategies for development of exposure limit values in electromagnetic fields standards currently in force in Eastern and Central European countries are discussed. Some differences as well as similarities of the national health and safety standards and the main obstacles to harmonization of these standards with those being established by Western national and international organizations and agencies are presented.

  5. Mother and Infant Talk about Mental States: Systemic Emergence of Psychological Lexicon and Theory of Mind Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollo, D.; Buttiglieri, F.

    In recent years, a number of studies that have examined how social experiences are related to children's theory of mind development, have found that: (1) the frequency of mothers' mental state utterances used in mother-child picture-book reading, is correlated with children's theory of mind abilities; (2) mothers' use of cognitive terms is related more strongly to children's theory of mind performances than the mothers' references to other mental states, such as desires or emotions (Adrian, Clemente, Villanueva, Rieffe, 2005; Ruffman, Slade, Crowe, 2002; Taumoepeau, Ruffman, 2006; Dunn, 2002). Despite the evidence for the role of mothers' language, there is disagreement over how exactly it improves children's theory of mind development. In short, mentalistic comments contain distinctive words, grammatical constructions and pragmatic features. The question is, however, which factor is critical (de Rosnay, Pons, Harris, Morrell, 2004). The present study addresses this issue and focuses on relationship between mothers' mental state terms and children's performances in theory of mind tasks (emotion understanding and false belief tasks). Mothers were asked to read some pictures to 10 children between 3;0 and 5;0. Among the different mental state references (perceptual, emotional, volitional, cognitive, moral and communicative), it was found that the frequency and variety of mothers' mental state words were significantly associated with children's mental lexicon. In addition, emotional terms correlated positively with children's false belief performance. Kind of emotional words that are used by the mothers with reference to the Italian language will be discussed.

  6. GASB proposes new standards for financial reporting of postemployment benefits by state and local governments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Karl D

    2003-03-01

    GASB has proposed new standards that will affect the way in which governments report postemployment health care benefits in audited external financial statements, resulting in more complete and transparent reporting by employers and plans and more relevant and useful information for the users of governmental financial reports. This article provides an overview of current financial reporting standards and practice, the financial reporting objectives of the project, the proposed measurement approach, noteworthy specific proposals, and the projected timetable for completion of the project and implementation of the new standards.

  7. States and tendencies of German standards in the field of nuclear filter technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichtner, N.; Sinhuber, D.

    1977-01-01

    The current situation in the Federal Republic of Germany with regard to standards and guidelines in the field of filter technology, as they apply to nuclear technology, is first presented. A detailed discussion follows of the results arrived at by the Nuclear Technology Standards Committee in its deliberations on the Standards' project DIN 25 414 'Ventilation equipment in nuclear power stations'. Particular attention is paid to the technical safety requirements for particulate filters, filter casings and filter housings, and methods of testing. The results so far obtained as regards filters in ventilation plant for pressurized water reactors are also dealt with

  8. Understanding Trends in Kidney Function 1 Year after Kidney Transplant in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yihung; Tilea, Anca; Gillespie, Brenda; Shahinian, Vahakn; Banerjee, Tanushree; Grubbs, Vanessa; Powe, Neil; Rios-Burrows, Nilka; Pavkov, Meda; Saran, Rajiv

    2017-08-01

    Lower eGFR 1 year after kidney transplant is associated with shorter allograft and patient survival. We examined how practice changes in the past decade correlated with time trends in average eGFR at 1 year after kidney transplant in the United States in a cohort of 189,944 patients who received a kidney transplant between 2001 and 2013. We calculated the average eGFR at 1 year after transplant for the recipient cohort of each year using the appropriate Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation depending on the prevailing methodology of creatinine measurement, and used linear regression to model the effects of practice changes on the national post-transplant eGFR trend. Between the 2001-2005 period and the 2011-2013 period, average 1-year post-transplant eGFR remained essentially unchanged, with differences of 1.34 (95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 1.65) ml/min per 1.73 m 2 and 0.66 (95% confidence interval, 0.32 to 1.01) ml/min per 1.73 m 2 among deceased and living donor kidney transplant recipients, respectively. Over time, the mean age of recipients increased and more marginal organs were used; adjusting for these trends unmasked a larger temporal improvement in post-transplant eGFR. However, changes in immunosuppression practice had a positive effect on average post-transplant eGFR and balanced out the negative effect of recipient/donor characteristics. In conclusion, average 1-year post-transplant eGFR remained stable, despite increasingly unfavorable attributes in recipients and donors. With an aging ESRD population and continued organ shortage, preservation of average post-transplant eGFR will require sustained improvement in immunosuppression and other aspects of post-transplant care. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  9. The challenge of regional accents for aviation English language proficiency standards: a study of difficulties in understanding in air traffic control-pilot communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiewtrakul, T; Fletcher, S R

    2010-02-01

    Although English has been the international aviation language since 1951, formal language proficiency testing for key aviation personnel has only recently been implemented by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). It aims to ensure minimum acceptable levels of English pronunciation and comprehension universally, but does not attend to particular regional dialect difficulties. However, evidence suggests that voice transmissions between air traffic controllers and pilots are a particular problem in international airspace and that pilots may not understand messages due to the influence of different accents when using English. This study explores the potential impact of 'non-native English' in pilot-air traffic control transmissions using a 'conversation analysis' technique to examine approach phase recordings from Bangkok International Airport. Results support that communication errors, defined by incidents of pilots not understanding, occur significantly more often when speakers are both non-native English, messages are more complex and when numerical information is involved. These results and their possible implications are discussed with reference to the development of ICAO's new language proficiency standards. Statement of Relevance: This study builds on previous work and literature, providing further evidence to show that the risks caused by language and linguistics in aviation must be explored more deeply. Findings are particularly contemporary and relevant today, indicating that recently implemented international standards would benefit from further exploratory research and development.

  10. 75 FR 8056 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; California New Nonroad Compression...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... life.\\12\\ At that time, CARB also provided for implementation flexibility for post-manufacture marinizers and optional reduced- emission standard labeling requirements for ``Blue Sky Series'' CI engines...

  11. 77 FR 72851 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Portable Equipment Registration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... evidence that passes the threshold test of materiality and * * * thereafter assess such material evidence... standards, the overall cost to those parties would be around $250 million.\\44\\ The PERP thus results in an...

  12. 77 FR 32645 - Revision of Performance Standards for State Medicaid Fraud Control Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... familiar with, and adhere to, policies and procedures. To determine whether a Unit meets this standard, OIG... provide training on the elements of successful fraud referrals and receive training on the role and...

  13. 76 FR 62074 - Proposed Revision of Performance Standards for State Medicaid Fraud Control Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... familiar with, and adhere to, policies and procedures. In meeting this standard, the following performance... funding permits. E. Through cross-training or by other means, Unit staff receive training on the role and...

  14. 76 FR 5586 - California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Mobile Cargo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... requirements are designed to use best available control technologies to reduce public exposure to emissions of...-use yard trucks to meet BACT performance standards primarily through accelerated turnover of older...

  15. Understanding Long-Term Variations in Surface Ozone in United States (U.S. National Parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah McGlynn

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Long-term surface ozone observations at 25 National Park Service sites across the United States were analyzed for processes on varying time scales using a time scale decomposition technique, the Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD. Time scales of interest include the seasonal cycle, large-scale climate oscillations, and long-term (>10 years trends. Emission reductions were found to have a greater impact on sites that are nearest major urban areas. Multidecadal trends in surface ozone were increasing at a rate of 0.07 to 0.37 ppbv year−1 before 2004 and decreasing at a rate of −0.08 to −0.60 ppbv year−1 after 2004 for sites in the East, Southern California, and Northwestern Washington. Sites in the Intermountain West did not experience a reversal of trends from positive to negative until the mid- to late 2000s. The magnitude of the annual amplitude (=annual maximum–minimum decreased at eight sites, two in the West, two in the Intermountain West, and four in the East, by 5–20 ppbv and significantly increased at three sites; one in Alaska, one in the West, and one in the Intermountain West, by 3–4 ppbv. Stronger decreases in the annual amplitude occurred at a greater proportion of sites in the East (4/6 sites than in the West/Intermountain West (4/19 sites. The date of annual maximums and/or minimums has changed at 12 sites, occurring 10–60 days earlier in the year. There appeared to be a link between the timing of the annual maximum and the decrease in the annual amplitude, which was hypothesized to be related to a decrease in ozone titration resulting from NOx emission reductions. Furthermore, it was found that a phase shift of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO, from positive to negative, in 1998–1999 resulted in increased occurrences of La Niña-like conditions. This shift had the effect of directing more polluted air masses from East Asia to higher latitudes over the North American continent. The change in the

  16. The current state of Contract Law in Australia and why it is important for rural managers to understand it

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Farmers are business managers and as such they must understand the law or they are likely to fall foul of it. This especially applies to contract law, with which they deal constantly. Contract law is made up of the common law – as the courts have decided it – and statute law- as the state and federal parliaments have enacted statutes which modify the common law. The most important and most recent of the latter is the new Australian Consumer Law.

  17. Overview of Development and Deployment of Codes, Standards and Regulations Affecting Energy Storage System Safety in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conover, David R.

    2014-08-22

    This report acquaints stakeholders and interested parties involved in the development and/or deployment of energy storage systems (ESS) with the subject of safety-related codes, standards and regulations (CSRs). It is hoped that users of this document gain a more in depth and uniform understanding of safety-related CSR development and deployment that can foster improved communications among all ESS stakeholders and the collaboration needed to realize more timely acceptance and approval of safe ESS technology through appropriate CSR.

  18. Implementation of Competitive Food and Beverage Standards in a Sample of Massachusetts Schools: The NOURISH Study (Nutrition Opportunities to Understand Reforms Involving Student Health).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jessica A; Rosenfeld, Lindsay; Schmidt, Nicole; Cohen, Juliana F W; Gorski, Mary; Chaffee, Ruth; Smith, Lauren; Rimm, Eric B

    2015-08-01

    During 2012, Massachusetts adopted comprehensive school competitive food and beverage standards that closely align with Institute of Medicine recommendations and Smart Snacks in School national standards. We examined the extent to which a sample of Massachusetts middle schools and high schools sold foods and beverages that were compliant with the state competitive food and beverage standards after the first year of implementation, and complied with four additional aspects of the regulations. Observational cohort study with data collected before implementation (Spring 2012) and 1 year after implementation (Spring 2013). School districts (N=37) with at least one middle school and one high school participated. Percent of competitive foods and beverages that were compliant with Massachusetts standards and compliance with four additional aspects of the regulations. Data were collected via school site visits and a foodservice director questionnaire. Multilevel models were used to examine change in food and beverage compliance over time. More products were available in high schools than middle schools at both time points. The number of competitive beverages and several categories of competitive food products sold in the sample of Massachusetts schools decreased following the implementation of the standards. Multilevel models demonstrated a 47-percentage-point increase in food and 46-percentage-point increase in beverage compliance in Massachusetts schools from 2012 to 2013. Overall, total compliance was higher for beverages than foods. This study of a group of Massachusetts schools demonstrated the feasibility of schools making substantial changes in response to requirements for healthier competitive foods, even in the first year of implementation. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Content Analysis of Immigration in Traditional, New, and Non-Gateway State Standards for U.S. History and Civics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburn, Jeremy; Journell, Wayne; Buchanan, Lisa Brown

    2016-01-01

    In this content analysis of state U.S. History and Civics standards, we compared the treatment of immigration across three types of states with differing immigration demographics. Analyzing standards from 18 states from a critical race methodology perspective, our findings indicated three sets of tensions: a unified American story versus local…

  20. Revolutionizing Earth System Science Education for the 21st Century: Report and Recommendations from a 50-State Analysis of Earth Science Education Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Martos; Barstow, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) commissioned TERC to complete a review of science education standards for all 50 states. The study analyzed K-12 Earth science standards to determine how well each state addresses key Earth-science content, concepts and skills. This report reveals that few states have thoroughly integrated…

  1. Current state of standardization in the field of dimensional computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartscher, Markus; Härtig, Frank; Neuschaefer-Rube, Ulrich; Sato, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    Industrial x-ray computed tomography (CT) is a well-established non-destructive testing (NDT) technology and has been in use for decades. Moreover, CT has also started to become an important technology for dimensional metrology. But the requirements on dimensional CTs, i.e., on performing coordinate measurements with CT, are different from NDT. For dimensional measurements, the position of interfaces or surfaces is of importance, while this is often less critical in NDT. Standardization plays an important role here as it can create trust in new measurement technologies as is the case for dimensional CT. At the international standardization level, the ISO TC 213 WG 10 is working on specifications for dimensional CT. This paper highlights the demands on international standards in the field of dimensional CT and describes the current developments from the viewpoint of representatives of national and international standardization committees. Key aspects of the discussion are the material influence on the length measurement error E and how E can best be measured. A respective study was performed on hole plates as new reference standards for error testing of length measurements incorporating the material influence. We performed corresponding measurement data analysis and present a further elaborated hole plate design. The authors also comment on different approaches currently pursued and give an outlook on upcoming developments as far as they can be foreseen. (paper)

  2. Nutrition Standards for Away-from-home Foods in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Deborah A.; Bhatia, Rajiv

    2012-01-01

    Away-from-home foods are regulated with respect to the prevention of food-borne diseases and potential contaminants, but not for their contribution to dietary-related chronic diseases. Away-from-home foods have more calories, salt, sugar, and fat and provide fewer fruits and vegetables than recommended by national nutrition guidelines; thus, frequent consumption of away-from-home foods contributes to obesity, hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, and cancer. In light of this, many localities are already adopting regulations or sponsoring programs to improve the quality of away-from-home foods. We review the rationale for developing nutritional performance standards for away-from-home foods in light of limited human capacity to regulate intake or physiologically compensate for a poor diet. We offer a set of model performance standards to be considered as a new area of environmental regulation. Models for voluntary implementation of consumer standards exist in the environmental domain and may be useful templates for implementation. Implementing such standards, whether voluntarily or via regulations, will require addressing a number of practical and ideological challenges. Politically, regulatory standards contradict the belief that adults should be able to navigate dietary risks in away-from-home settings unaided. PMID:22329431

  3. Hospital website rankings in the United States: expanding benchmarks and standards for effective consumer engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Timothy R; Hefner, Jennifer L; Ford, Eric W; McAlearney, Ann Scheck; Menachemi, Nir

    2014-02-25

    these scores, rank order calculations for the top 100 websites are presented. Additionally, a link to raw data, including AHA ID, is provided to enable researchers and practitioners the ability to further explore relationships to other dynamics in health care. This census assessment of US hospitals and their health systems provides a clear indication of the state of the sector. While stakeholder engagement is core to most discussions of the role that hospitals must play in relation to communities, management of an online presence has not been recognized as a core competency fundamental to care delivery. Yet, social media management and network engagement are skills that exist at the confluence of marketing and technical prowess. This paper presents performance guidelines evaluated against best-demonstrated practice or independent standards to facilitate improvement of the sector's use of websites and social media.

  4. A Policy Analysis of Student Attendance Standards Related to State Education Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilliams, Mary Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a project report of a policy analysis of state attendance information available to public schools. Current state attendance information rarely expands beyond compulsory attendance law. It is vague, non-existent or difficult to find. Research provides strong links between student attendance and achievement. Informed school leaders…

  5. The OSHA Communication Standard and State Right-to-Know Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll, Michalene H.

    1990-01-01

    As a result of a 1988 federal appellate court mandate, schools and colleges in 24 states and 2 territories with OSHA-approved state plans must inform their employees about hazardous chemicals to which they may be exposed. School administrators should implement a responsible program meeting regulatory compliance, tort liability, and public…

  6. 34 CFR 200.1 - State responsibilities for developing challenging academic standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... advanced—that determine how well students are mastering the material in the State's academic content... lower-achieving students toward mastering the proficient and advanced levels of achievement. (B... with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) who meet the State's criteria under paragraph (e)(2) of this...

  7. 76 FR 7194 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Request for Authorization of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9264-3] California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control... Toxic Control Measure (ATCM) for in-use portable diesel-fueled engines 50 brake-horsepower (hp) and... within-the-scope confirmation. \\2\\ This includes: California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control...

  8. 34 CFR 692.41 - What standards may a State use to determine substantial financial need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PARTNERSHIP PROGRAM Leveraging Educational Assistance Partnership Program How Does A State Select Students... establishes that are approved by the Secretary. A State may define substantial financial need in terms of... “independent student” as defined under section 480(d) of the HEA. However, for good cause shown, the Secretary...

  9. Setting a national minimum standard for health benefits: how do state benefit mandates compare with benefits in large-group plans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Allison; Mika, Stephanie; Nuzum, Rachel; Schoen, Cathy

    2009-06-01

    Many proposed health insurance reforms would establish a federal minimum benefit standard--a baseline set of benefits to ensure that people have adequate coverage and financial protection when they purchase insurance. Currently, benefit mandates are set at the state level; these vary greatly across states and generally target specific areas rather than set an overall standard for what qualifies as health insurance. This issue brief considers what a broad federal minimum standard might look like by comparing existing state benefit mandates with the services and providers covered under the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program (FEHBP) Blue Cross and Blue Shield standard benefit package, an example of minimum creditable coverage that reflects current standard practice among employer-sponsored health plans. With few exceptions, benefits in the FEHBP standard option either meet or exceed those that state mandates require-indicating that a broad-based national benefit standard would include most existing state benefit mandates.

  10. THE CURRENT STATE OF APPLICATION OF INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS IN UKRAINE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zasadnyi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzed the process of reforming the system of accounting and reporting in Ukraine in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards. The main results of the tasks of the Strategy of application IFRS in Ukraine approved by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine in 2007 are identified. The results of analysis showed that only 1% of the total number of enterprises form the financial statements in accordance with IFRS, the others apply national standards of accounting. The proportion of small enterprises is 95% that do not have the financial capacity, qualified staff and the necessary motivation for the formation of financial statements in accordance with IFRS. As a result, one of the main objectives of the reform of the accounting and reporting is to improve the legislation on accounting for small enterprises and develop national accounting standards of the simplified procedure for accounting of assets, liabilities, equity and financial results of the calculation for small enterprises.

  11. The contribution of solid-state NMR spectroscopy to understanding biomineralization: Atomic and molecular structure of bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duer, Melinda J.

    2015-04-01

    Solid-state NMR spectroscopy has had a major impact on our understanding of the structure of mineralized tissues, in particular bone. Bone exemplifies the organic-inorganic composite structure inherent in mineralized tissues. The organic component of the extracellular matrix in bone is primarily composed of ordered fibrils of collagen triple-helical molecules, in which the inorganic component, calcium phosphate particles, composed of stacks of mineral platelets, are arranged around the fibrils. This perspective argues that key factors in our current structural model of bone mineral have come about through NMR spectroscopy and have yielded the primary information on how the mineral particles interface and bind with the underlying organic matrix. The structure of collagen within the organic matrix of bone or any other structural tissue has yet to be determined, but here too, this perspective shows there has been real progress made through application of solid-state NMR spectroscopy in conjunction with other techniques. In particular, NMR spectroscopy has highlighted the fact that even within these structural proteins, there is considerable dynamics, which suggests that one should be cautious when using inherently static structural models, such as those arising from X-ray diffraction analyses, to gain insight into molecular roles. It is clear that the NMR approach is still in its infancy in this area, and that we can expect many more developments in the future, particularly in understanding the molecular mechanisms of bone diseases and ageing.

  12. State strategies of governance in biomedical innovation: aligning conceptual approaches for understanding 'Rising Powers' in the global context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faulkner Alex

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 'Innovation' has become a policy focus in its own right in many states as they compete to position themselves in the emerging knowledge economies. Innovation in biomedicine is a global enterprise in which 'Rising Power' states figure prominently, and which undoubtedly will re-shape health systems and health economies globally. Scientific and technological innovation processes and policies raise difficult issues in the domains of science/technology, civil society, and the economic and healthcare marketplace. The production of knowledge in these fields is complex, uncertain, inter-disciplinary and inter-institutional, and subject to a continuing political struggle for advantage. As part of this struggle, a wide variety of issues - regulation, intellectual property, ethics, scientific boundaries, healthcare market formation - are raised and policy agendas negotiated. Methods A range of social science disciplines and approaches have conceptualised such innovation processes. Against a background of concepts such as the competition state and the developmental state, and national innovation systems, we give an overview of a range of approaches that have potential for advancing understanding of governance of global life science and biomedical innovation, with special reference to the 'Rising Powers', in order to examine convergences and divergences between them. Conceptual approaches that we focus on include those drawn from political science/political economy, sociology of technology; Innovation Studies and Science & Technology Studies. The paper is part of a project supported by the UK ESRC's Rising Powers programme. Results We show convergences and complementarities between the approaches discussed, and argue that the role of the national state itself has become relatively neglected in much of the relevant theorising. Conclusions We conclude that an approach is required that enables innovation and governance to be seen as 'co

  13. State strategies of governance in biomedical innovation: aligning conceptual approaches for understanding 'Rising Powers' in the global context

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background 'Innovation' has become a policy focus in its own right in many states as they compete to position themselves in the emerging knowledge economies. Innovation in biomedicine is a global enterprise in which 'Rising Power' states figure prominently, and which undoubtedly will re-shape health systems and health economies globally. Scientific and technological innovation processes and policies raise difficult issues in the domains of science/technology, civil society, and the economic and healthcare marketplace. The production of knowledge in these fields is complex, uncertain, inter-disciplinary and inter-institutional, and subject to a continuing political struggle for advantage. As part of this struggle, a wide variety of issues - regulation, intellectual property, ethics, scientific boundaries, healthcare market formation - are raised and policy agendas negotiated. Methods A range of social science disciplines and approaches have conceptualised such innovation processes. Against a background of concepts such as the competition state and the developmental state, and national innovation systems, we give an overview of a range of approaches that have potential for advancing understanding of governance of global life science and biomedical innovation, with special reference to the 'Rising Powers', in order to examine convergences and divergences between them. Conceptual approaches that we focus on include those drawn from political science/political economy, sociology of technology; Innovation Studies and Science & Technology Studies. The paper is part of a project supported by the UK ESRC's Rising Powers programme. Results We show convergences and complementarities between the approaches discussed, and argue that the role of the national state itself has become relatively neglected in much of the relevant theorising. Conclusions We conclude that an approach is required that enables innovation and governance to be seen as 'co-producing' each other in a multi

  14. Search for Standard Model Higgs boson in the two-photon final state in ATLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davignon Olivier

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We report on the search for the Standard Model Higgs boson decaying into two photons based on proton-proton collision data with a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV recorded by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. The dataset has an integrated luminosity of about 1:08 fb−1. The expected cross section exclusion at 95% confidence level varies between 2:0 and 5:8 times the Standard Model cross section over the diphoton mass range 110 – 150 GeV. The maximum deviations from the background-only expectation are consistent with statistical fluctuations.

  15. 78 FR 63160 - United States Standards for Feed Peas, Split Peas, and Lentils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... Standards for Feed Peas, Split Peas, and Lentils under the Agriculture Marketing Act (AMA) of 1946. To... meeting the needs in today's marketing environment. DATES: GIPSA will consider comments received by..., DC, 20250-3604. Email comments to: [email protected] Fax: (202) 690-2173. Internet: Go to http...

  16. 76 FR 34031 - United States Standards for Grades of Processed Raisins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ...: Myron Betts, Inspection and Standardization Section, Processed Products Branch (PPB), Fruit and... third sub-type, ``Vine-dried (without the application of drying chemicals or materials)'' and change the..., treated with drying chemicals or materials''. On February 28, 2006, AMS published an advance notice of...

  17. 40 CFR 122.44 - Establishing limitations, standards, and other permit conditions (applicable to State NPDES...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... procedures which account for existing controls on point and nonpoint sources of pollution, the variability of... ocean discharges; (8) Incorporate alternative effluent limitations or standards where warranted by... identified in a storm water pollution prevention plan are adequate and properly implemented in accordance...

  18. Living Traditions--A Teacher's Guide: Teaching Local History Using State and National Learning Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelding, Mark; Kemple, Martin; Kiefer, Joseph

    This guide is designed to take teachers through a step-by-step process for developing an integrated, standards-based curriculum that focuses on the stories, history, folkways, and agrarian traditions of the local community. Such a place-based curriculum helps students to become culturally literate, makes learning relevant and engaging, draws on…

  19. 76 FR 24872 - California State Nonroad Engine and Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Authorization of Tier II...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... Pollution Control Standards; Authorization of Tier II Marine Inboard/Sterndrive Spark Ignition Engine... requirement relating to the control of emissions for certain new nonroad engines or vehicles.\\1\\ Section 209(e... control of emissions from either of the following new nonroad engines or nonroad vehicles subject to...

  20. 75 FR 43975 - California State Motor Vehicle and Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Truck Idling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... standards) for the control of emissions from new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines prior to March... approval relating to the control of emissions from any new motor vehicle or new motor vehicle engine as... relating to the control of emissions from new nonroad spark-ignition engines smaller than 50 horsepower...

  1. 76 FR 38153 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Commercial Harbor Craft Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... Standards; Commercial Harbor Craft Regulations; Opportunity for Public Hearing and Comment AGENCY... engines on commercial harbor craft. CARB has requested that EPA issue a new authorization under [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. California's Commercial Harbor Craft Regulations In a...

  2. Kindergarten Is More than Ready for the Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer-Vida, Louisa; Levitt, Roberta; Kelly, Susan P.

    2012-01-01

    Standards can aid educators as they work to produce strong student writers who can create meaningful and skillfully crafted authentic pieces of writing. This once-a-month, yearlong professional development program, conducted during the school day, shifted a district's kindergarten writing program to a writing workshop model that enabled the…

  3. Defining Strong State Accountability Systems: How Can Better Standards Gain Greater Traction? A First Look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Eileen; Scull, Janie; Slicker, Gerilyn; Winkler, Amber M.

    2012-01-01

    Rigorous standards and aligned assessments are vital tools for boosting education outcomes but they have little traction without strong accountability systems that attach consequences to performance. In this pilot study, Eileen Reed, Janie Scull, Gerilyn Slicker, and Amber Winkler lay out the essential features of such accountability systems,…

  4. 78 FR 45907 - United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ..., frozen cooked squash, frozen summer squash, frozen sweetpotatoes, frozen turnip greens with turnips, and... standards to better serve the industry. A 60-day period was provided for interested persons to submit... and their suppliers. AFFI's more than 500 member companies represent approximately 90 percent of the...

  5. 78 FR 58089 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Off-Road Compression Ignition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... reduced the annual BACT requirements from a 28 percent turnover and retrofit requirement in the prior... Board (CARB) request for authorization of regulations designed to reduce PM and NO X emissions from in... progressively more stringent combined PM and NO X standard, or to reduce emissions through technology upgrades...

  6. 77 FR 51750 - United States Standards for Grades of Grapefruit Juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... standards in order to encourage uniformity and consistency in commercial practices.'' AMS is committed to... Grapefruit Juice. The petitioner requested the removal of the maximum limit for ``free and suspended pulp... concentrate, grapefruit juice, and frozen concentrated grapefruit juice establish limits for maximum free and...

  7. Health impact assessment in the United States: Has practice followed standards?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuchter, Joseph; Bhatia, Rajiv; Corburn, Jason; Seto, Edmund

    2014-01-01

    As an emerging practice, Health Impact Assessment is heterogeneous in purpose, form, and scope and applied in a wide range of decision contexts. This heterogeneity challenges efforts to evaluate the quality and impact of practice. We examined whether information in completed HIA reports reflected objectively-evaluable criteria proposed by the North American HIA Practice Standards Working Group in 2009. From publically-available reports of HIAs conducted in the U.S. and published from 2009 to 2011, we excluded those that were components of, or comment letters on, Environmental Impact Assessments (5) or were demonstration projects or student exercises (8). For the remaining 23 reports, we used practice standards as a template to abstract data on the steps of HIA, including details on the rationale, authorship, funding, decision and decision-makers, participation, pathways and methods, quality of evidence, and recommendations. Most reports described screening, scoping, and assessment processes, but there was substantial variation in the extent of these processes and the degree of stakeholder participation. Community stakeholders participated in screening or scoping in just two-thirds of the HIAs (16). On average, these HIAs analyzed 5.5 determinants related to 10.6 health impacts. Most HIA reports did not include evaluation or monitoring plans. This study identifies issues for field development and improvement. The standards might be adapted to better account for variability in resources, produce fit-for-purpose HIAs, and facilitate innovation guided by the principles. - Highlights: • Our study examined reported HIAs in the U.S. against published practice standards. • Most HIAs used some screening, scoping and assessment elements from the standards. • The extent of these processes and stakeholder participation varied widely. • The average HIA considered multiple health determinants and impacts. • Evaluation or monitoring plans were generally not included in

  8. Health impact assessment in the United States: Has practice followed standards?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuchter, Joseph, E-mail: jws@berkeley.edu [University of California, Berkeley, School of Public Health, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, 50 University Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-7360 (United States); Bhatia, Rajiv [University of California, Berkeley, Institute of Urban and Regional Development (United States); Corburn, Jason [University of California, Berkeley, College of Environmental Design, Department of City and Regional Planning (United States); Seto, Edmund [University of Washington, School of Public Health, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health (United States)

    2014-07-01

    As an emerging practice, Health Impact Assessment is heterogeneous in purpose, form, and scope and applied in a wide range of decision contexts. This heterogeneity challenges efforts to evaluate the quality and impact of practice. We examined whether information in completed HIA reports reflected objectively-evaluable criteria proposed by the North American HIA Practice Standards Working Group in 2009. From publically-available reports of HIAs conducted in the U.S. and published from 2009 to 2011, we excluded those that were components of, or comment letters on, Environmental Impact Assessments (5) or were demonstration projects or student exercises (8). For the remaining 23 reports, we used practice standards as a template to abstract data on the steps of HIA, including details on the rationale, authorship, funding, decision and decision-makers, participation, pathways and methods, quality of evidence, and recommendations. Most reports described screening, scoping, and assessment processes, but there was substantial variation in the extent of these processes and the degree of stakeholder participation. Community stakeholders participated in screening or scoping in just two-thirds of the HIAs (16). On average, these HIAs analyzed 5.5 determinants related to 10.6 health impacts. Most HIA reports did not include evaluation or monitoring plans. This study identifies issues for field development and improvement. The standards might be adapted to better account for variability in resources, produce fit-for-purpose HIAs, and facilitate innovation guided by the principles. - Highlights: • Our study examined reported HIAs in the U.S. against published practice standards. • Most HIAs used some screening, scoping and assessment elements from the standards. • The extent of these processes and stakeholder participation varied widely. • The average HIA considered multiple health determinants and impacts. • Evaluation or monitoring plans were generally not included in

  9. 40 CFR 67.11 - Standards for approval of State programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... opportunity for confrontation between persons advocating differing positions on material factual matters; and... State, together with any information necessary to verify its accuracy; (ii) Within 30 days of receipt of...

  10. ANALYSIS OF THE TEACHERS’ INVOLVEMENT IN THE DISCUSSION OF THE APPLICATION OF THE FEDERAL STATE EDUCATIONAL STANDARDS VIA ONLINE RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С Н Вачкова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the research results of the teachers’ involvement extent in current problems emerging in educational activities. The paper discusses the concept of involvement, its functions and scientific approaches to its analysis; suggests the original definition and structure of this concept, describes the chosen methodology of its analysis, database research and the nature of the sample, analysis tools. The base of the present research was the Internet portal “Public expertise of normative documents in education”. There is a detailed description of quantitative results, the indicators of teachers’ participation in discussing problems of education in relation to normative educational documents of Federal state educational standards of primary, basic and secondary general education. The research results showed the indicators of teachers’ activity and the expressed problems in application the Federal state educational standards.

  11. Magnetic ground state of SrRuO3 thin film and applicability of standard first-principles approximations to metallic magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryee, Siheon; Han, Myung Joon

    2017-07-05

    A systematic first-principles study has been performed to understand the magnetism of thin film SrRuO 3 which lots of research efforts have been devoted to but no clear consensus has been reached about its ground state properties. The relative t 2g level difference, lattice distortion as well as the layer thickness play together in determining the spin order. In particular, it is important to understand the difference between two standard approximations, namely LDA and GGA, in describing this metallic magnetism. Landau free energy analysis and the magnetization-energy-ratio plot clearly show the different tendency of favoring the magnetic moment formation, and it is magnified when applied to the thin film limit where the experimental information is severely limited. As a result, LDA gives a qualitatively different prediction from GGA in the experimentally relevant region of strain whereas both approximations give reasonable results for the bulk phase. We discuss the origin of this difference and the applicability of standard methods to the correlated oxide and the metallic magnetic systems.

  12. Primary Radiation Damage in Materials. Review of Current Understanding and Proposed New Standard Displacement Damage Model to Incorporate in Cascade Defect Production Efficiency and Mixing Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordlund, Kai; Sand, Andrea E.; Granberg, Fredric; Zinkle, Steven J.; Stoller, Roger; Averback, Robert S.; Suzudo, Tomoaki; Malerba, Lorenzo; Banhart, Florian; Weber, William J.; Willaime, Francois; Dudarev, Sergei; Simeone, David

    2015-01-01

    Under the auspices of the NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC), the Working Party on Multi-scale Modelling of Fuels and Structural Materials for Nuclear Systems (WPMM) was established in 2008 to assess the scientific and engineering aspects of fuels and structural materials, aiming at evaluating multi-scale models and simulations as validated predictive tools for the design of nuclear systems, fuel fabrication and performance. The WPMM's objective is to promote the exchange of information on models and simulations of nuclear materials, theoretical and computational methods, experimental validation, and related topics. It also provides member countries with up-to-date information, shared data, models and expertise. The WPMM Expert Group on Primary Radiation Damage (PRD) was established in 2009 to determine the limitations of the NRT-dpa standard, in the light of both atomistic simulations and known experimental discrepancies, to revisit the NRT-dpa standard and to examine the possibility of proposing a new improved standard of primary damage characteristics. This report reviews the current understanding of primary radiation damage from neutrons, ions and electrons (excluding photons, atomic clusters and more exotic particles), with emphasis on the range of validity of the 'displacement per atom' (dpa) concept in all major classes of materials with the exception of organics. The report also introduces an 'athermal recombination-corrected dpa' (arc-dpa) relation that uses a relatively simple functional to address the well-known issue that 'displacement per atom' (dpa) overestimates damage production in metals under energetic displacement cascade conditions, as well as a 'replacements-per-atom' (rpa) equation, also using a relatively simple functional, that accounts for the fact that dpa is understood to severely underestimate actual atom relocation (ion beam mixing) in metals. (authors)

  13. Methodology for correlations between doses and detectability in standard mammographic images: application in Sao Paulo state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furquim, Tania Aparecida Correia

    2005-01-01

    Measurements using mammography units were performed in loco in 50 health establishments, randomly sampled from an equipment list of the Cadastro Nacional de Estabelecimentos de Saude (Health Establishments Brazilian Catalog). For the measurements six phantoms were utilized to establish different quality criteria and to evaluate doses in different breast thicknesses. Two different methods of measuring average glandular doses (AGD) were applied, and measurements of entrance surface doses (ESD) were also realized, in order to obtain mean values to Sao Paulo State. A study relating distribution and properties of different mammography trademarks with doses was performed. The sensitometry of processors allowed a quantification of the film-processing contrast index, A g , establishing a state mean value. The phantom images allowed the evaluation of detection limits of structures as microcalcifications, fibers, and masses, and state mean values were established for: spatial resolution (on surface and glandular breast position); image contrast; and detection expert ability from phantom images in two situations: before knowing the image targets and after viewing of a target map. Then, the results were compared to target detections in laboratory environment. Based on dose results, A g , image contrast, maximum contrast, and detection ratio, a relationship between them was determined. The results show that, in Sao Paulo State, mean glandular doses were lower than reference levels considering the Wu method, and close to or above reference levels for ail phantoms considering the Dance method. The ESD was always close to or above reference levels. The A g presented a mean value of (10,42 ± 0,20) for Sao Paulo State, and the image contrast was lower than the required limits established by the phantom manufacturers. The high contrast resolution showed that mammography units presented the expected values of line pair per mm in the State. The detectability evaluation of local

  14. Where is New York State relative to cleanup standards for soils contaminated with radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merges, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    In September 1993, New York State adopted a cleanup guideline for radioactively contaminated sites being remediated for unrestricted release. This paper reviews this cleanup guideline and discusses its implementation by Bureau of Radiation staff. A cleanup guideline (1) has been adopted by the State of New York which applies to residual radiological contamination on sites undergoing remediation for unrestricted use. The guideline is flexible and allows for alternative site cleanup approaches. The application of this guidance by radiation control program staff is discussed herein. There may be a need to revisit properties that were felt to be open-quotes cleanclose quotes previously - but fail to meet the new guidance

  15. Mothers' use of cognitive state verbs in picture-book reading and the development of children's understanding of mind: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrián, Juan E; Clemente, Rosa Ana; Villanueva, Lidón

    2007-01-01

    Mothers read stories to their children (N=41) aged between 3.3 years and 5.11 years old, and children then completed two false-belief tasks. One year later, mothers read a story to 37 of those children who were also given four tasks to assess their advanced understanding of mental states. Mothers' early use of cognitive verbs in picture-book reading correlated with their children's later understanding of mental states. Some pragmatic aspects of maternal input correlated with children's later outcomes. Two different factors in mothers' cognitive discourse were identified, suggesting a zone of proximal development in children's understanding of mental states.

  16. Relationship between weak central coherence and mental states understanding in children with Autism and in children with ADHD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pina Filippello

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The central coherence involves the processes of perceptual coding and attention mechanisms, highly deficient in children with ADHD (Booth & Happé, 2010. According to this theory, also children with autism are overly focused on details to the expense of a global perspective, and this negatively affects their ability to integrate environmental stimuli into a coherent whole (Happé, Booth, Charlton, Hughes, 2006. The aim of this study was to determine differences in central coherence of children with high functioning autism (ASD; n=10, children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n=10 and typically developing peers (n=10. Individuals with ADHD exhibit significant deficits in perceptual skills and problem solving, failing also in mental states understanding tasks. While the children with autism spectrum disorder show impairments in making pragmatic inferences. Future research should therefore concentrate on the investigation of the cognitive and psychological mechanisms underlying these effects.

  17. Tunneling in green tea: understanding the antioxidant activity of catechol-containing compounds. A variational transition-state theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejero, Ismael; Gonzalez-García, Núria; Gonzalez-Lafont, Angels; Lluch, José M

    2007-05-09

    The catechol functionality present in the catechins is responsible for the protective effects exerted by green tea against a wide range of human diseases. High-level electronic structure calculations and canonical variational transition-state theory including multidimensional tunneling corrections have allowed us to understand the key factors of the antioxidant effectiveness of the catechol group. This catechol group forms two hydrogen bonds with the two oxygen atoms of the lipid peroxyl radical, leading to a very compact reactant complex. This fact produces an extremely narrow adiabatic potential-energy profile corresponding to the hydrogen abstraction by the peroxyl radical, which makes it possible for a huge tunneling contribution to take place. So, quantum-mechanical tunneling highly increases the corresponding rate constant value, in such a way that catechins become able to trap the lipid peroxyl radicals in a dominant competition with the very damaging free-radical chain-lipid peroxidation reaction.

  18. 76 FR 77521 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Commercial Harbor Craft Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... section 209 proceeding is to: consider all evidence that passes the threshold test of materiality and... Air Basin's non-attainment status by reducing NO X and PM 2.5 levels. AWO states that there is no....5 levels is inaccurate and outdated in that it does not represent the most current operation of...

  19. 45 CFR 400.103 - Coverage of refugees who spend down to State financial eligibility standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage of refugees who spend down to State... Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Refugee Medical Assistance Conditions of Eligibility for...

  20. How State Courts Have Responded to "Gertz" in Setting Standards of Fault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, William Osler

    1979-01-01

    A review of recent state court decisions in libel cases suggests that the law of defamation is in as much disarray as it was when the Supreme Court recognized the problem and tried to remedy it with its 1974 decision in "Gertz v. Robert Welch Inc." (GT)

  1. 76 FR 61095 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Within the Scope Determination and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9474-5] California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control... longer expected to produce fuel-cell vehicles to meet part of its gold vehicle credit requirements for... motor vehicle pollution control program. Because EPA has not received adverse public comment challenging...

  2. 78 FR 34177 - Implementation of the 2008 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Ozone: State Implementation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... industries. It also means providing as much assistance and flexibility as possible to the states as they work... associated with oil and gas development, internal combustion engines, incinerators, boilers and cement kilns... of much of the discussion of this rule. When a topic is discussed that is not covered by subpart 2...

  3. 75 FR 11880 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; California Nonroad Compression...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [AMS-FRL-9126-4] California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control... to the control of emissions from either of the following new nonroad engines or nonroad vehicles... other requirements relating to emissions control of new engines not listed under section 209(e)(1). The...

  4. Standards for Certification/Preparation of Social Studies Teachers: A Fifty State Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Wayne; Weible, Tom

    A national survey determined minimum certification requirements for secondary social studies teachers in general education, professional education, and history/social science. Data were obtained through questionnaires completed by social studies education curriculum specialists and by officials in the certification divisions of state education…

  5. Aligning Assessment and Instruction with State Standards for Children with Significant Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Polly R.; Stodden, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a classroom teacher's perspective on one of the important requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) legislation and aligned language found in the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA 2004)--that of aligning assessment and instructional practices with state academic content standard…

  6. 76 FR 31575 - United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Onions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... processors of frozen onions in the United States. The petition provided information on style, sample size... change in the style designations for minced style, and a correction to the text. The members agreed with the proposed section concerning requirements for Styles, Type I, Whole onions and Type II, Pearl...

  7. Adaptation by Stealth: Understanding climate information use across scales and decision spaces in water management in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, C.; Vang Rasmussen, L.; Lemos, M. C.

    2016-12-01

    While there has been considerable focus on understanding how factors related to the creation of climate knowledge affect its uptake and use, less attention has been paid to the actors, decisions, and processes through which climate information supports, or fails to support, action. This is particularly the case concerning how different scales of decision-making influence information uptake. In this study, we seek to understand how water and resource managers' decision space influences climate information use in two Great Lakes watersheds. We find that despite the availability of tailored climate information, actual use of information in decision making remains low. Reasons include: a) lack of willingness to place climate on agendas because local managers perceive climate change as politically risky and a difficult and intangible problem; b) lack of formal mandate or authority at the city and county scale to translate climate information into on-the-ground action, c) problems with the information itself, and d) perceived lack of demand for climate information by those managers who have the mandate and authority (e.g. at the state level) to use (or help others use) climate information. Our findings suggest that 1) climate scientists and information brokers should produce information that meets a range of decision needs and reserve intensive tailoring efforts for decision makers who have authority and willingness to employ climate information, 2) without support from higher levels of decision-making (e.g. state) it is unlikely that climate information use for adaptation decisions will accelerate significantly in the next few years, and 3) the trend towards adopting more sustainability and resilience practices over climate-specific actions should be supported as an important component of the climate adaptation repertoire.

  8. Utilizing GIS to Examine the Relationship Between State Renewable Portfolio Standards and the Adoption of Renewable Energy Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea Schelly

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, there is no comprehensive energy policy at the federal level. To address issues as diverse as climate change, energy security, and economic development, individual states have increasingly implemented Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPSs, which mandate that utility providers include a specified amount of electricity from renewable energy sources in their total energy portfolios. Some states have included incentives for individual energy technologies in their RPS, such as solar electric (also called photovoltaic or PV technology. Here, we use GIS to visualize adoption of RPSs and electricity generation from renewable energy sources in the US and examine changes in renewable electricity and solar electric generation over time with the goal of informing future policies aimed at promoting the adoption of renewable energy technologies.

  9. A Comparative Study of Standardized Infinity Reference and Average Reference for EEG of Three Typical Brain States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaoxing Zheng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The choice of different reference electrodes plays an important role in deciphering the functional meaning of electroencephalography (EEG signals. In recent years, the infinity zero reference using the reference electrode standard technique (REST has been increasingly applied, while the average reference (AR was generally advocated as the best available reference option in previous classical EEG studies. Here, we designed EEG experiments and performed a direct comparison between the influences of REST and AR on EEG-revealed brain activity features for three typical brain behavior states (eyes-closed, eyes-open and music-listening. The analysis results revealed the following observations: (1 there is no significant difference in the alpha-wave-blocking effect during the eyes-open state compared with the eyes-closed state for both REST and AR references; (2 there was clear frontal EEG asymmetry during the resting state, and the degree of lateralization under REST was higher than that under AR; (3 the global brain functional connectivity density (FCD and local FCD have higher values for REST than for AR under different behavior states; and (4 the value of the small-world network characteristic in the eyes-closed state is significantly (in full, alpha, beta and gamma frequency bands higher than that in the eyes-open state, and the small-world effect under the REST reference is higher than that under AR. In addition, the music-listening state has a higher small-world network effect than the eyes-closed state. The above results suggest that typical EEG features might be more clearly presented by applying the REST reference than by applying AR when using a 64-channel recording.

  10. Do biofuel blending mandates reduce gasoline consumption? Implications of state-level renewable fuel standards for energy security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Shinling

    In an effort to keep America's addiction to oil under control, federal and state governments have implemented a variety of policy measures including those that determine the composition of motor gasoline sold at the pump. Biofuel blending mandates known as Renewable Fuel Standards (RFS) are designed to reduce the amount of foreign crude oil needed to be imported as well as to boost the local ethanol and corn industry. Yet beyond looking at changes in gasoline prices associated with increased ethanol production, there have been no empirical studies that examine effects of state-level RFS implementation on gasoline consumption. I estimate a Generalized Least Squares model for the gasoline demand for the 1993 to 2010 period with state and time fixed effects controlling for RFS. States with active RFS are Minnesota, Hawaii, Missouri, Florida, Washington, and Oregon. I find that, despite the onset of federal biofuel mandates across states in 2007 and the lower energy content of blended gasoline, being in a state that has implemented RFS is associated with 1.5% decrease in gasoline consumption (including blended gasoline). This is encouraging evidence for efforts to lessen dependence on gasoline and has positive implications for energy security.

  11. Search for the Standard Model Higgs Boson in Leptons plus Jets Final States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Huong [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Searches for SM Higgs boson production in the leptons plus jets final states with a data set corresponding to 9.7 fb-1 of $\\bar{p}$p collisions at √s = 1.96TeV collected by the DØ Experiment are presented in this thesis. The searches are carried out in two independent analyses, accounting for different signal topologies.

  12. Understanding the relationship between proactive and reactive aggression, and cyberbullying across United States and Singapore adolescent samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Rebecca P; Huan, Vivien S; Florell, Dan

    2014-01-01

    This study examined cyberbullying among adolescents across United States and Singapore samples. Specifically, the purpose of the investigation was to study the differential associations between proactive and reactive aggression, and cyberbullying across two cultures. A total of 425 adolescents from the United States (M age = 13 years) and a total of 332 adolescents from Singapore (M age = 14.2 years) participated in the study. Results of the moderator analyses suggested that nationality was not a moderator of the relationship between proactive aggression and cyberbullying, and between reactive aggression and cyberbullying. As expected, findings showed proactive aggression to be positively associated with cyberbullying, after controlling for reactive aggression, across both samples. Likewise, as hypothesized, reactive aggression and cyberbullying was not found to be significant after controlling for proactive aggression across both samples. Implications of these findings were discussed: (a) Proactive aggression is a possible risk factor for both bullying and cyberbullying; (b) proactive and reactive aggression could be argued to be distinct as they have different correlates-only proactive aggression contributed to cyberbullying after controlling for reactive aggression; (c) this research extends previous work and contributes toward cross-cultural work using similar and comparable measures across different samples; and (d) prevention and intervention programs targeted at proactive aggressive adolescents could adopt a two-pronged approach by changing mind sets, and by understanding and adopting a set of rules for Internet etiquette.

  13. Understanding the role of the news media in HPV vaccine uptake in the United States: Synthesis and commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollust, Sarah E; LoRusso, Susan M; Nagler, Rebekah H; Fowler, Erika Franklin

    2016-06-02

    Vaccination rates for the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine fall below targets and only 2 states and the District of Columbia require the vaccine for middle school-age children. Messages conveyed through news media-to parents, providers, policymakers, and the general public-may contribute to sluggish vaccination rates and policy action. In this commentary, we review the findings from 13 published studies of news media coverage of the HPV vaccine in the United States since FDA licensure in 2006. We find 2 important themes in news coverage: a rising focus on political controversy and a consistent emphasis on the vaccine as for girls, even beyond the point when the vaccine was recommended for boys. These political and gendered messages have consequences for public understanding of the vaccine. Future research should continue to monitor news media depictions of the HPV vaccine to assess whether political controversy will remain a pronounced theme of coverage or whether the media ultimately depict the vaccine as a routine public health service.

  14. Dual fluorescence of excited state intra-molecular proton transfer of HBFO: mechanistic understanding, substituent and solvent effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenjing; Chen, Xuebo

    2014-03-07

    A combined approach of the multiconfigurational perturbation theory with the Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus methodology has been employed to calculate the minimum potential energy profiles and the rates of excited state intra-molecular proton transfer (ESIPT) for the WOLED material molecule of HBFO and its four meta- or para-substituted compounds in gas phase, acetonitrile and cyclohexane solvents. The kinetic control for these reactions is quantitatively determined and extensively studied on the basis of the accurate potential energy surfaces when the thermodynamic factor associated with the free energy change becomes negligible in the case of the existence of a significant barrier in the ESIPT process. These computational efforts contribute to a deep understanding of the ESIPT mechanism, dual emission characteristics, kinetic controlling factor, substituent and solvent effects for these material molecules. The white light emission is generated by the establishment of dynamic equilibrium between enol and keto forms in the charge transfer excited SCT((1)ππ*) state. The performance of white light emission is quantitatively demonstrated to be mainly sensitive to the molecular tailoring approach of the electronic properties of meta- or para- substituents by the modulation of the forward/backward ESIPT rate ratio. The quality of white light emission is slightly tunable through its surrounding solvent environment. These computational results will provide a useful strategy for the molecular design of OLED and WOLED materials.

  15. An exploratory study of the influence of national and state standards on middle school science teachers' classroom assessment practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWaters, Kathy Jean

    2001-07-01

    Classroom assessment practices of middle school science teachers were identified and the influence of national and state science standards on these practices was examined. In Phase I of this study a mail questionnaire was sent to 450 middle school (grades 5,6,7 and 8) science teachers in 17 parishes in Louisiana to obtain information about their classroom assessment practices. In Phase II, nine middle school teachers in eight departmentalized classrooms, two classes at each grade, participated in a qualitative study. Data were collected through questionnaires, classroom observations, interviews and document analysis. Data analysis revealed three major categories of classroom assessment targets: (a) student achievement, (b) student attitudes and, (c) student products. Results indicated that most teachers are using different assessment methods when assessing different achievement targets, as recommended by science reform documents. It was also determined that many teachers are using appropriate methods to assess student learning. While teachers reported that students spend an inordinate amount of time engaged in assessment activities, classroom observations suggested that the activities were not always written tests or graded activities. Another key finding is that there is a disconnect between the quality of teaching and the quality of assessment. Teachers who teach the material recommended by science reform documents and use recommended instructional strategies were observed to stop teaching and engage students in a "test rehearsal" geared towards rote memorization of factual information. Data suggest that the national and state science content standards are influencing the content and the format of teacher-made tests. Teachers' reported using the standards during assessment construction or selection in a wide variety of ways. The most direct use of the standards reported was to select content, format and cognitive level for test items. A more circumspect approach

  16. A Case Study of the Alignment between Curriculum and Assessment in the New York State Earth Science Standards-Based System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contino, Julie

    2013-01-01

    In a standards-based system, it is important for all components of the system to align in order to achieve the intended goals. No Child Left Behind law mandates that assessments be fully aligned with state standards, be valid, reliable and fair, be reported to all stakeholders, and provide evidence that all students in the state are meeting the…

  17. The CORE Community: Career and Technical Education Teachers' Perceptions of the Common Core State Standards after a Professional Development Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stair, Kristin; Hock, Gaea; Warner, Wendy; Levy, Natalie; Conrad, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Since the 1983 U.S Department of Education's report, "A Nation at Risk," various educational initiatives have been developed to support an increase in state standards and greater educational accountability (Liebtag, 2013). Despite opportunities to link Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and instructional curriculum, CTE teachers often…

  18. 34 CFR 222.162 - What disparity standard must a State meet in order to be certified and how are disparities in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What disparity standard must a State meet in order to be certified and how are disparities in current expenditures or revenues per pupil measured? 222.162... of the Act § 222.162 What disparity standard must a State meet in order to be certified and how are...

  19. Moving beyond Compliance: Promoting Research-Based Professional Discretion in the Implementation of the Common Core State Standards in English Language Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Rebecca; Kline, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    State- and local-level mandates are currently being implemented to ensure strict compliance to the new national Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts (CCSS for ELA) and related assessments. These standards provide many potential opportunities to improve literacy education nationally and locally. However, the CCSS for ELA will…

  20. THE BECOMING OF INFORMATION CULTURE IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL STATE EDUCATIONAL STANDARD OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION’S IMPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapina Svetlana Nikolaevna

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the approaches to the definition of “information culture”, its components, the system of personal values needed to succeed in the information and professional activities, the problem of students’ information culture formation in the modern information society. The analysis of the implementation of the Federal state educational standard of vocational education in "teaching in primary schools" is held. The variable part cycles of the basic professional educational programs is distributed on the base of the local professional community’s research and additional competencies. Such subjects as “Russian language and Speech”, “The cultural world of students”, “Ethics in business communication” are introduced through the variable part of the educational standard. The general amount of hours for such subject as «Computer science, information and communication technology in the professional activity" is increased. The results of the special study reveal the level of information culture of the future primary school teachers. According to the results it can be concluded that insufficient level of information culture’s development is impossible for a successful career and self-fulfillment in the present conditions. The article proposes the directions for the formation of future primary school teachers’ information culture in the implementation of the federal state educational standard of vocational education. According to the results of this research it is possible to tell about the effectiveness of these directions’ implementation.

  1. THE BECOMING OF INFORMATION CULTURE IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL STATE EDUCATIONAL STANDARD OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION’S IMPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Светлана Николаевна Лапина

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the approaches to the definition of “information culture”, its components, the system of personal values needed to succeed in the information and professional activities, the problem of students’ information culture formation in the modern information society. The analysis of the implementation of the Federal state educational standard of vocational education in "teaching in primary schools" is held. The variable part cycles of the basic professional educational programs is distributed on the base of the local professional community’s research and additional competencies. Such subjects as “Russian language and Speech”, “The cultural world of students”, “Ethics in business communication” are introduced through the variable part of the educational standard. The general amount of hours for such subject as «Computer science, information and communication technology in the professional activity" is increased. The results of the special study reveal the level of information culture of the future primary school teachers. According to the results it can be concluded that insufficient level of information culture’s development is impossible for a successful career and self-fulfillment in the present conditions. The article proposes the directions for the formation of future primary school teachers’ information culture in the implementation of the federal state educational standard of vocational education. According to the results of this research it is possible to tell about the effectiveness of these directions’ implementation.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-5-31

  2. Quantum resistance standard accuracy close to the zero-dissipation state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schopfer, F.; Poirier, W. [Laboratoire National de métrologie et d' Essais (LNE), 29 avenue Roger Hennequin, 78197 Trappes (France)

    2013-08-14

    We report on a comparison of four GaAs/AlGaAs-based quantum resistance standards using an original technique adapted from the well-known Wheatstone bridge. This work shows that the quantized Hall resistance at Landau level filling factor ν=2 can be reproducible with a relative uncertainty of 32×10{sup −12} in the dissipationless limit of the quantum Hall effect regime. In the presence of a very small dissipation characterized by a mean macroscopic longitudinal resistivity R{sub xx}(B) of a few μΩ, the discrepancy ΔR{sub H}(B) between quantum Hall resistors measured on the Hall plateau at magnetic induction B turns out to follow the so-called resistivity rule R{sub xx}(B)=αB×d(ΔR{sub H}(B))/dB. While the dissipation increases with the measurement current value, the coefficient α stays constant in the range investigated (40−120 μA). This result enlightens the impact of the dissipation emergence in the two-dimensional electron gas on the Hall resistance quantization, which is of major interest for the resistance metrology. The quantum Hall effect is used to realize a universal resistance standard only linked to the electron charge e and the Planck constant h and it is known to play a central role in the upcoming revised Système International of units. There are therefore fundamental and practical benefits in testing the reproducibility property of the quantum Hall effect with better and better accuracy.

  3. ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION AS A MEANS OF PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF TEACHERS AND ADMINISTRATORS IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF FEDERAL STATE EDUCATIONAL STANDARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. А. Сиденко

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In our time, gradually increasing dissatisfaction with the results of public school education, their inadequcy to modern requirements and expectations. Real benchmarks of general education in a traditional school, until recently, remained the specific knowledge and skills of individual school subjects. Beyond these substantive results is lost identity of the child, whose development should be meaning and purpose of education. The Federal state educational standard of the second generation was created to solve these problems. In this article the author talks about the difficulties faced by educational institutions in connection with the transition to the federal government general education standard. The author developed and validated a model of training based on the formation of learners’ motivation of achievement through the acquisition of personal meaning.Purchase on Elibrary.ru > Buy now

  4. Negotiating reform at an arm's length from the state: Disease Management Programmes and the introduction of clinical standards in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burau, Viola

    2009-07-01

    Studies of German health policy often highlight institutional constraints to reform. However, based on a case study of the introduction of clinical standards as part of the Disease Management Programmes for chronic illnesses, this article suggests that negotiating reform at an arm's length from the state can also lead to governance change, although the strengthening of hierarchy is not as prominent as that in some of the countries studied in this special issue. As such, the case of Germany offers interesting insights into the politics of governance change that occur in the shadow, but largely without the direct involvement of the state, which is typical of a corporatist health-care state. In this respect, the analysis identifies three leverages for change. First, the change in medical governance explicitly builds on earlier reforms and gives the reform alliance a competitive edge. Second, the organisations of the joint self-administration, as a more or less open ally of the state, play an influential role throughout the reform process. Importantly and third, this is complemented by the state steering at a distance.

  5. Search for non-standard model signatures in the WZ/ZZ final state at CDF run II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman, Matthew [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This thesis discusses a search for non-Standard Model physics in heavy diboson production in the dilepton-dijet final state, using 1.9 fb -1 of data from the CDF Run II detector. New limits are set on the anomalous coupling parameters for ZZ and WZ production based on limiting the production cross-section at high š. Additionally limits are set on the direct decay of new physics to ZZ andWZ diboson pairs. The nature and parameters of the CDF Run II detector are discussed, as are the influences that it has on the methods of our analysis.

  6. Search for non-standard model signatures in the WZ/ZZ final state at CDF Run II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    This thesis discusses a search for non-Standard Model physics in heavy diboson production in the dilepton-dijet final state, using 1.9 fb -1 of data from the CDF Run II detector. New limits are set on the anomalous coupling parameters for ZZ and WZ production based on limiting the production cross-section at high (cflx s). Additionally limits are set on the direct decay of new physics to ZZ andWZ diboson pairs. The nature and parameters of the CDF Run II detector are discussed, as are the influences that it has on the methods of our analysis.

  7. Search for beyond standard model physics (non-SUSY) in final states with photons at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palencia, Jose Enrique; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of searches for non-standard model phenomena in photon final states. These searches use data from integrated luminosities of {approx} 1-4 fb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV, collected with the CDF and D0 detectors at the Fermilab Tevatron. No significant excess in data has been observed. We report limits on the parameters of several BSM models (excluding SUSY) for events containing photons.

  8. Directory of Book Trade and Related Organizations. Books Trade Associations, United States and Canada; International and Foreign Book Trade Associations; National Information Standards Organization (NISO) Standards; Calendar, 2003-2012; Acronyms; Index of Organizations; Subject Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker Annual Library and Book Trade Almanac, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Includes two lists: one of book trade associations in the United States and Canada, and one of international and foreign book trade associations. Concludes with National Information Standards Organization (NISO) standards; calendar, 2003-2012; acronyms; index of organizations; and subject index. (LRW)

  9. ENVIROSUITE: USING STATE-OF-THE-ART SYNCHROTRON TECHNIQUES TO UNDERSTAND ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION SCIENCE ISSUES AT THE MOLECULAR LEVEL.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FITTS,J.P.; KALB,P.D.; FRANCIS,A.J.; FUHRMANN,M.; DODGE,C.J.; GILLOW,J.B.

    2004-03-01

    Although DOE's Environmental Management program has made steady progress in cleaning up environmental legacies throughout the DOE complex, there are still significant remediation issues that remain to be solved. For example, DOE faces difficult challenges related to potential mobilization of radionuclides (e.g., actinides) and other hazardous contaminants in soils, removal and final treatment of high-level waste and residuals from leaking tanks, and the long-term stewardship of remediated sites and engineered disposal facilities, to name just a few. In some cases, new technologies and technology applications will be required based on current engineering expertise. In others, however, basic scientific research is needed to understand the mechanisms of how contaminants behave under specific conditions and how they interact with the environment, from which new engineering solutions can emerge. At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Stony Brook University, scientists have teamed to use state-of-the-art synchrotron techniques to help understand the basic interactions of contaminants in the environment. Much of this work is conducted at the BNL National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), which is a user facility that provides high energy X-ray and ultraviolet photon beams to facilitate the examination of contaminants and materials at the molecular level. These studies allow us to determine how chemical speciation and structure control important parameters such as solubility, which in turn drive critical performance characteristics such as leaching. In one study for example, we are examining the effects of microbial activity on actinide contaminants under conditions anticipated at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. One possible outcome of this research is the identification of specific microbes that can trap uranium or other contaminants within the intracellular structure and help mitigate mobility. In another study, we are exploring the interaction of contaminants

  10. ENVIROSUITE: USING STATE-OF-THE-ART SYNCHROTRON TECHNIQUES TO UNDERSTAND ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION SCIENCE ISSUES AT THE MOLECULAR LEVEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FITTS, J.P.; KALB, P.D.; FRANCIS, A.J.; FUHRMANN, M.; DODGE, C.J.; GILLOW, J.B.

    2004-01-01

    Although DOE's Environmental Management program has made steady progress in cleaning up environmental legacies throughout the DOE complex, there are still significant remediation issues that remain to be solved. For example, DOE faces difficult challenges related to potential mobilization of radionuclides (e.g., actinides) and other hazardous contaminants in soils, removal and final treatment of high-level waste and residuals from leaking tanks, and the long-term stewardship of remediated sites and engineered disposal facilities, to name just a few. In some cases, new technologies and technology applications will be required based on current engineering expertise. In others, however, basic scientific research is needed to understand the mechanisms of how contaminants behave under specific conditions and how they interact with the environment, from which new engineering solutions can emerge. At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Stony Brook University, scientists have teamed to use state-of-the-art synchrotron techniques to help understand the basic interactions of contaminants in the environment. Much of this work is conducted at the BNL National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), which is a user facility that provides high energy X-ray and ultraviolet photon beams to facilitate the examination of contaminants and materials at the molecular level. These studies allow us to determine how chemical speciation and structure control important parameters such as solubility, which in turn drive critical performance characteristics such as leaching. In one study for example, we are examining the effects of microbial activity on actinide contaminants under conditions anticipated at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. One possible outcome of this research is the identification of specific microbes that can trap uranium or other contaminants within the intracellular structure and help mitigate mobility. In another study, we are exploring the interaction of contaminants with

  11. Search for the standard model higgs boson in eτ final states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howley, Ian James [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Presented in this dissertation is a search for the standard model (SM) Higgs boson using the DØ detector at Fermilab in Batavia, IL. The SM is a fantastically accurate theory describing the fundamental interactions and particles of the Universe. The only undiscovered particle in the SM is the Higgs boson, which is hypothesized to be responsible for electroweak symmetry breaking and giving mass to all other particles. Considered in this search is the process H + X → eτhjj, where e is an electron, τh is the hadronic decay of a tau, and j is a jet, using p $\\bar{p}$ collisions at center of mass energy√s = 1.96 TeV. This search includes three production modes: associated production, gluon fusion and vector boson fusion. It also utilizes two decay channels: H→ ττ and H → WW. A new technique, dubbed the Global Boosted Decision Tree, is introduced which offers a means of providing continuity to a multivariate search as a function of a particular parameter, in this case, the mass of the Higgs boson. The observed (expected) limit on the ratio of cross section times branching fraction to the SM at 95% confidence level is 14.6 (16.0) at mH = 125 GeV. This result is combined with the related channel H + X → μτhjj and produced an observed (expected) limit of 9.0 (11.3) at mH = 125 GeV.

  12. Three-peak standard white organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kunping; Wei, Bin

    2014-12-01

    Standard white organic light-emitting device (OLED) lighting provides a warm and comfortable atmosphere and shows mild effect on melatonin suppression. A high-efficiency red OLED employing phosphorescent dopant has been investigated. The device generates saturated red emission with Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.66, 0.34), characterized by a low driving voltage of 3.5 V and high external quantum efficiency of 20.1% at 130 cd m-2. In addition, we have demonstrated a two-peak cold white OLED by combining with a pure blue emitter with the electroluminescent emission of 464 nm, 6, 12-bis{[N-(3,4-dimethylpheyl)-N-(2,4,5-trimethylphenyl)]} chrysene (BmPAC). It was found that the man-made lighting device capable of yielding a relatively stable color emission within the luminance range of 1000-5000 cd m-2. And the chromaticity coordinates, varying from (0.25, 0.21) to (0.23, 0.21). Furthermore, an ultrathin layer of green-light-emitting tris (2-phenylpyridinato)iridium(Ⅲ) Ir(ppy)3 in the host material was introduced to the emissive region for compensating light. By appropriately controlling the layer thickness, the white light OLED achieved good performance of 1280 cd m-2 at 5.0 V and 5150 cd m-2 at 7.0 V, respectively. The CIE coordinates of the emitted light are quite stable at current densities from 759 cd m-2 to 5150 cd m-2, ranging from (0.34, 0.37) to (0.33, 0.33).

  13. Dynamics of psychophysiological state of the boxers influenced by the standard of specialized demands of specialized basic training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P. Martsiv

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Examined the psychophysiological state of boxers with 9 types of reactions to the anticipation stage of the specialized basic training. In the experiment involved 18 male boxers aged 18-20 years. We investigated the dynamics of the reactions of anticipation in boxers under the influence of standard specialized loads. In the main part of the session boxers improved individual series 4-5 shock the boxing bag with the installation of the most strongly and quickly strike (loading dose - 9 rounds of 3 minutes each with an interval of 1 minute rest. Upon completion of the boxers performed strength training with weightlifting neck and stuffed ball. The regularities of the occurrence of each type of response in this group of athletes, provides a way of their use as criteria for assessing the psycho-physiological state of boxers.

  14. Adding sound to theory of mind: Comparing children's development of mental-state understanding in the auditory and visual realms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasni, Anita A; Adamson, Lauren B; Williamson, Rebecca A; Robins, Diana L

    2017-12-01

    Theory of mind (ToM) gradually develops during the preschool years. Measures of ToM usually target visual experience, but auditory experiences also provide valuable social information. Given differences between the visual and auditory modalities (e.g., sights persist, sounds fade) and the important role environmental input plays in social-cognitive development, we asked whether modality might influence the progression of ToM development. The current study expands Wellman and Liu's ToM scale (2004) by testing 66 preschoolers using five standard visual ToM tasks and five newly crafted auditory ToM tasks. Age and gender effects were found, with 4- and 5-year-olds demonstrating greater ToM abilities than 3-year-olds and girls passing more tasks than boys; there was no significant effect of modality. Both visual and auditory tasks formed a scalable set. These results indicate that there is considerable consistency in when children are able to use visual and auditory inputs to reason about various aspects of others' mental states. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluating the Gifted Students' Understanding Related to Plasma State Using Plasma Experimental System and Two-Tier Diagnostic Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Saadet Deniz; Ayas, Bahadir; Aybek, Eren Can; Pat, Suat

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the experimental system design related to plasma state on the gifted students' understanding on the subject of the plasma state. To test the research hypothesis, one group pretest-posttest research model was carried out with 18 eighth-grade (4 girls and 14 boys) gifted students in…

  16. Stepping Stones to Others' Minds: Maternal Talk Relates to Child Mental State Language and Emotion Understanding at 15, 24, and 33 Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taumoepeau, Mele; Ruffman, Ted

    2008-01-01

    This continuation of a previous study (Taumoepeau & Ruffman, 2006) examined the longitudinal relation between maternal mental state talk to 15- and 24-month-olds and their later mental state language and emotion understanding (N = 74). The previous study found that maternal talk about the child's desires to 15-month-old children uniquely predicted…

  17. A model to investigate intention understanding in autism?. Comment on "Seeing mental states: An experimental strategy for measuring the observability of other minds" by Cristina Becchio et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Paul A. G.; Hamilton, Antonia F. de C.

    2018-03-01

    Becchio et al. [2] specify the conditions under which mental states are observable in the kinematics of other agents. Given that autistic people display differences in their understanding of other's mental states [1] and show an insensitivity to the kinematics of co-actors' movements [5,10], what are the implications of Becchio et al.'s strategy for the study of autism?

  18. Enhancing Understanding of Transformation Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Jonathan; Childrey, Maria

    2012-01-01

    With the Common Core State Standards' emphasis on transformations, teachers need a variety of approaches to increase student understanding. Teaching matrix transformations by focusing on row vectors gives students tools to create matrices to perform transformations. This empowerment opens many doors: Students are able to create the matrices for…

  19. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards:A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2007-01-16

    State renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have emerged as one of the most important policy drivers of renewable energy capacity expansion in the U.S. Collectively, these policies now apply to roughly 40% of U.S. electricity load, and may have substantial impacts on electricity markets, ratepayers, and local economies. As RPS policies have been proposed or adopted in an increasing number of states, a growing number of studies have attempted to quantify the potential impacts of these policies, focusing primarily on projecting cost impacts, but sometimes also estimating macroeconomic and environmental effects. This report synthesizes and analyzes the results and methodologies of 28 distinct state or utility-level RPS cost impact analyses completed since 1998. Together, these studies model proposed or adopted RPS policies in 18 different states. We highlight the key findings of these studies on the costs and benefits of RPS policies, examine the sensitivity of projected costs to model assumptions, assess the attributes of different modeling approaches, and suggest possible areas of improvement for future RPS analysis.

  20. Ferenczi's concept of identification with the aggressor: understanding dissociative structure with interacting victim and abuser self-states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Elizabeth F

    2014-03-01

    No one has described more passionately than Ferenczi the traumatic induction of dissociative trance with its resulting fragmentation of the personality. Ferenczi introduced the concept and term, identification with the aggressor in his seminal "Confusion of Tongues" paper, in which he described how the abused child becomes transfixed and robbed of his senses. Having been traumatically overwhelmed, the child becomes hypnotically transfixed by the aggressor's wishes and behavior, automatically identifying by mimicry rather than by a purposeful identification with the aggressor's role. To expand upon Ferenczi's observations, identification with the aggressor can be understood as a two-stage process. The first stage is automatic and initiated by trauma, but the second stage is defensive and purposeful. While identification with the aggressor begins as an automatic organismic process, with repeated activation and use, gradually it becomes a defensive process. Broadly, as a dissociative defense, it has two enacted relational parts, the part of the victim and the part of the aggressor. This paper describes the intrapersonal aspects (how aggressor and victim self-states interrelate in the internal world), as well as the interpersonal aspects (how these become enacted in the external). This formulation has relevance to understanding the broad spectrum of the dissociative structure of mind, borderline personality disorder, and dissociative identity disorder.

  1. STATE POLICY FUNDAMENTALS IN FORMATION OF A NATIONAL STANDARD OF "GREEN CONSTRUCTION" FOR ASSESSMENT OF ITEMS OF REAL PROPERTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolchigin Mikhail Aleksandrovich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors analyze the problem of implementation of principles of "green construction" in the Russian Federation. Despite the availability of the appropriate legislation in the field of environmental safety of construction, there are no legal, social, or economic incentives that may boost development of "green" technologies. Until recently, fundamentals of the state policy in the field of environmental protection of real estate development have not succeeded in motivating market players to implement advanced green technologies. However, recently, the government has begun motivating the construction industry towards the use of "green" technologies. The first activity is aimed at improving the legislation and updating the international voluntary certification according to BREAM and LEED standards. The result is the acceptance of the National Green Building Standard for real estate valuation that will open up new opportunities and prospects to the participants of the construction market. However, at the initial phase of implementation of "Fundamentals of the State Policy in the Field of Environmental Development of the Russian Federation", government authorities should provide their support to proponents of green buildings, including financial inflows.

  2. An evaluation of the impact of state Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) on retail, commercial, and industrial electricity prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puram, Rakesh

    The Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) has become a popular mechanism for states to promote renewable energy and its popularity has spurred a potential bill within Congress for a nationwide Federal RPS. While RPS benefits have been touted by several groups, it also has detractors. Among the concerns is that RPS standards could raise electricity rates, given that renewable energy is costlier than traditional fossil fuels. The evidence on the impact of RPS on electricity prices is murky at best: Complex models by NREL and USEIA utilize computer programs with several assumptions which make empirical studies difficult and only predict slight increases in electricity rates associated with RPS standards. Recent theoretical models and empirical studies have found price increases, but often fail to comprehensively include several sets of variables, which in fact could confound results. Utilizing a combination of past papers and studies to triangulate variables this study aims to develop both a rigorous fixed effects regression model as well as a theoretical framework to explain the results. This study analyzes state level panel data from 2002 to 2008 to analyze the effect of RPS on residential, commercial, and industrial electricity prices, controlling for several factors including amount of electricity generation from renewable and non-renewable sources, customer incentives for renewable energy, macroeconomic and demographic indicators, and fuel price mix. The study contrasts several regressions to illustrate important relationships and how inclusions as well as exclusion of various variables have an effect on electricity rates. Regression results indicate that the presence of RPS within a state increases the commercial and residential electricity rates, but have no discernable effect on the industrial electricity rate. Although RPS tends to increase electricity prices, the effect has a small impact on higher electricity prices. The models also indicate that jointly all

  3. Monitoring maternal and newborn health outcomes in Bauchi State, Nigeria: an evaluation of a standards-based quality improvement intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabo, Ibrahim; Otolorin, Emmanuel; Williams, Emma; Orobaton, Nosa; Abdullahi, Hannatu; Sadauki, Habib; Abdulkarim, Masduk; Abegunde, Dele

    2016-10-01

    This study assessed the correlation between compliance with set performance standards and maternal and neonatal deaths in health facilities. Baseline and three annual follow-up assessments were conducted, and each was followed by a quality improvement initiative using the Standards Based Management and Recognition (SBM-R) approach. Twenty-three secondary health facilities of Bauchi state, Nigeria. Health care workers and maternity unit patients. We examined trends in: (i) achievement of SBM-R set performance standards based on annual assessment data, (ii) the use of maternal and newborn health (MNH) service delivery practices based on data from health facility registers and supportive supervision and (iii) MNH outcomes based on routine service statistics. At the baseline assessment in 2010, the facilities achieved 4% of SBM-R standards for MNH, on average, and this increased to 86% in 2013. Over the same time period, the study measured an increase in the administration of uterotonic for active management of third stage of labor from 10% to 95% and a decline in the incidence of postpartum hemorrhage from 3.3% to 1.9%. Institutional neonatal mortality rate decreased from 9 to 2 deaths per 1000 live births, while the institutional maternal mortality ratio dropped from 4113 to 1317 deaths per 100 000 live births. Scaling up SBM-R for quality improvement has the potential to prevent maternal and neonatal deaths in Nigeria and similar settings. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care.

  4. California Diploma Project Technical Report II: Alignment Study--Alignment Study of the Health Sciences and Medical Technology Draft Standards and California's Exit Level Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaughy, Charis; de Gonzalez, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    The California Department of Education is in the process of revising the Career and Technical Education (CTE) Model Curriculum Standards. The Educational Policy Improvement Center (EPIC) conducted an investigation of the draft version of the Health Sciences and Medical Technology Standards (Health Science). The purpose of the study is to…

  5. The Whole Story: Understanding Fraction Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Juli K.; Tobias, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    What does it look like to "understand" operations with fractions? The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) uses the term "understand" when describing expectations for students' knowledge related to each of the fraction operations within grades 4 through 6 (CCSSI 2010). Furthermore, CCSSM elaborates that…

  6. Protein folding: Defining a standard set of experimental conditions and a preliminary kinetic data set of two-state proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maxwell, Karen L.; Wildes, D.; Zarrine-Afsar, A.

    2005-01-01

    Recent years have seen the publication of both empirical and theoretical relationships predicting the rates with which proteins fold. Our ability to test and refine these relationships has been limited, however, by a variety of difficulties associated with the comparison of folding and unfolding ...... efforts is to set uniform standards for the experimental community and to initiate an accumulating, self-consistent data set that will aid ongoing efforts to understand the folding process....... constructs. The lack of a single approach to data analysis and error estimation, or even of a common set of units and reporting standards, further hinders comparative studies of folding. In an effort to overcome these problems, we define here a consensus set of experimental conditions (25°C at pH 7.0, 50 m...... rates, thermodynamics, and structure across diverse sets of proteins. These difficulties include the wide, potentially confounding range of experimental conditions and methods employed to date and the difficulty of obtaining correct and complete sequence and structural details for the characterized...

  7. Of paradise and clean power: The effect of California's renewable portfolio standard on in-state renewable energy generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Clifton Lee

    Renewable portfolio standards (RPS), policies that encourage acquisition of electricity from renewable energy sources, have become popular instruments for discouraging the use of climate change inducing-fossil fuels. There has been limited research, however, that empirically evaluates their effectiveness. Using data gathered by three governmental entities -- the federal-level Energy Information Administration and two California agencies, the Employment Development Department and the Department of Finance -- this paper investigates the impact of California's RPS, one of the nation's most ambitious such policies, on in-state renewable energy generation. It finds that the California RPS did not bring about a one-time increase in generation with its inception, nor did it compel an increase in generation over time. These results raise questions as to the best way to structure RPS policies in light of growing interest in the establishment of a national RPS.

  8. Beyond Standard Model searches in jets plus missing transverse energy final states with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00414488; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Conventi, Francesco

    Dark Matter (DM) is currently one of the most challenging goal in the LHC programme: if DM exists it can be pair-produced in proton-proton collisions. Since its weakly-interacting nature, final signatures with high missing momentum and Standard Model (SM) particles are employed in these searches. This thesis presents results on signatures involving bottom quarks in final states, described in models where DM production occurs via massive spin-0 mediators (scalar or pseudoscalar) with a coupling to SM particles proportional to their masses. These collider searches provide an interesting complementarity to DM direct and indirect detection experiments, covering the parameter space with low DM masses. The results shown in the thesis are obtained on the data collected by the ATLAS experiment in 2015 and 2016.

  9. The Effect of Design Modifications to the Typographical Layout of the New York State Elementary Science Learning Standards on User Preference and Process Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Jeffery E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of four different design layouts of the New York State elementary science learning standards on user processing time and preference. Three newly developed layouts contained the same information as the standards core curriculum. In this study, the layout of the core guide is referred to as Book.…

  10. Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects. Appendix C: Samples of Student Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common Core State Standards Initiative, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This document presents writing samples that have been annotated to illustrate the criteria required to meet the Common Core State Standards for particular types of writing--argument, informative/explanatory text, and narrative--in a given grade. Each of the samples exhibits at least the level of quality required to meet the Writing standards for…

  11. Anticipation Guides: Reading for Mathematics Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Anne E.; Pegg, Jerine; Case, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    With the acceptance by many states of the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics, new emphasis is being placed on students' ability to engage in mathematical practices such as understanding problems (including word problems), reading and critiquing arguments, and making explicit use of definitions (CCSSI 2010). Engaging students in…

  12. Modern Housing Retrofit: Assessment of Upgrade Packages to EnerPHit Standard for 1940–1960 State Houses in Auckland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Leardini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available New Zealand state housing includes a significant portion of problematic buildings constructed after the public housing scheme launched in 1936. Most of these houses are still uninsulated, thus, cold, draughty, mouldy, and progressively decaying; however, as they are fundamental elements of the country’s culture, society, and environment, and are built with good quality materials and sound construction, they are suitable candidates for effective energy upgrades. This paper presents findings of a study on problems and opportunities of retrofitting the state houses built between 1940 and 1960 in the Auckland region. It advocates strategic national policies and initiatives for retrofitting, based on more challenging performance thresholds. The research defines and virtually implements an incremental intervention strategy including different retrofit packages for a typical 1950s stand-alone house. Indoor and outdoor environmental parameters were monitored over a year, and data used to establish a base case for thermal simulation. The upgrade packages were then modelled to assess their impact on the house’s thermal performance, comparing heating requirements and comfort of various insulation and ventilation options. The paper reports on effective ways of preserving the integrity of such a house, while improving its thermal performance to the EnerPHit standard, and discusses the benefits of introducing this holistic approach into New Zealand retrofit practice.

  13. [Reliability and validity of the standardized Mini Mental State Examination in the diagnosis of mild dementia in Turkish population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güngen, Can; Ertan, Turan; Eker, Engin; Yaşar, Resmiye; Engin, Funda

    2002-01-01

    Reliability and validity of the Mini Mental State Examination in differentiating mild dementia from normal controls in Turkish population. The Standardized Mini Mental State Examination (SMMSE) and its instruction were translated into Turkish. A total of 212 subjects with mean age of 77 +/- 6, were recruited for the study. 71 were diagnosed to be demented and 141 were evaluated as normal controls. The scale total score was analysed for discriminant validity using Student's t-test. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and kappa score were calculated for all of the scores between 18 and 29. Kappa value was calculated for the comparison of the dementia diagnosis between the two investigators using the best cut off score obtained in the analysis above. Statistical analysis revealed that the Turkish version of the SMMSE has high discriminant validity and interrater reliability in the diagnosis of mild dementia. The cut off score 23/24 was found to have the highest sensitivity (0.91), specificity (0.95), positive and negative predictive values (0.90 and 0.95) and kappa score (0.86). Interrater reliability analysis showed high correlation (r:0.99) and kappa value (0.92). The results of this study showed that the Turkish version of the SMMSE has high reliability and validity for the diagnosis of mild dementia in Turkish population.

  14. Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    "Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding" is a 19-minute award-winning short-film about teaching at university and higher-level educational institutions. It is based on the "Constructive Alignment" theory developed by Prof. John Biggs. The film delivers a foundation for understanding what...

  15. Self-organizing Map Analysis for Understanding Comprehensive Relationships between Formulation Variables, State of Water, and the Physical Stability of Pharmaceutical Emulsions

    OpenAIRE

    Onuki, Yoshinori; Hasegawa, Naoki; Horita, Akihiro; Ueno, Naomi; Kida, Chihiro; Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Obata, Yasuko; Toshokan, Toshokan

    2015-01-01

    The physical stability of pharmaceutical emulsions is an important quality attribute to be considered. To obtain a better understanding of this issue, this study investigated the contribution of the state of water to the physical stability of pharmaceutical emulsions. The key technology to evaluate the state of water was magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). For sample preparation, model emulsions with different formulation variables (surfactant content, water content, and hydrophilic–lipophilic ...

  16. Thinking or feeling? An exploratory study of maternal scaffolding, child mental state talk, and emotion understanding in language-impaired and typically developing school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuill, Nicola; Little, Sarah

    2018-06-01

    Mother-child mental state talk (MST) supports children's developing social-emotional understanding. In typically developing (TD) children, family conversations about emotion, cognition, and causes have been linked to children's emotion understanding. Specific language impairment (SLI) may compromise developing emotion understanding and adjustment. We investigated emotion understanding in children with SLI and TD, in relation to mother-child conversation. Specifically, is cognitive, emotion, or causal MST more important for child emotion understanding and how might maternal scaffolding support this? Nine 5- to 9-year-old children with SLI and nine age-matched typically developing (TD) children, and their mothers. We assessed children's language, emotion understanding and reported behavioural adjustment. Mother-child conversations were coded for MST, including emotion, cognition, and causal talk, and for scaffolding of causal talk. Children with SLI scored lower than TD children on emotion understanding and adjustment. Mothers in each group provided similar amounts of cognitive, emotion, and causal talk, but SLI children used proportionally less cognitive and causal talk than TD children did, and more such child talk predicted better child emotion understanding. Child emotion talk did not differ between groups and did not predict emotion understanding. Both groups participated in maternal-scaffolded causal talk, but causal talk about emotion was more frequent in TD children, and such talk predicted higher emotion understanding. Cognitive and causal language scaffolded by mothers provides tools for articulating increasingly complex ideas about emotion, predicting children's emotion understanding. Our study provides a robust method for studying scaffolding processes for understanding causes of emotion. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Stress Corrosion Cracking of Pipeline Steels in Fuel Grade Ethanol and Blends - Study to Evaluate Alternate Standard Tests and Phenomenological Understanding of SCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-30

    Main aim of this project was to evaluate alternate standard test methods for stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and compare them with the results from slow strain rate test (SSRT) results under equivalent environmental conditions. Other important aim of...

  18. Postindustrial Capitalism and the Problems with Bourdieu's Social and Cultural Capital in Understanding the Black/White Achievement Gap in the United States and United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocombe, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    This hermeneutical essay demonstrates why and how Pierre Bourdieu's social reproduction theory is neither an adequate explanation for understanding praxis nor the Black/White academic achievement gap in contemporary postindustrial economies like that of the United States and the United Kingdom. The underlining hypothesis of the work is that the…

  19. Teaching Trajectories and Students' Understanding of Difficult Concepts in Biology in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area in Rivers State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumuni, Abosede Anthonia Olufemi; Dike, John Worlu; Uzoma-Nwogu, Azibaolanari

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of teaching trajectories on students' understanding of difficult concepts in Biology. Two research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study which was carried out in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State. Two public coeducational schools out of thirteen drawn through purposive sampling…

  20. Why a German "Oh" Is Not Necessarily an English "Oh": Showing Understanding and Emotions with Change-of-State Tokens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linneweber, Judith

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a two-session teaching unit on German change-of-state tokens such as "oh," "ach" and "achso." Goal is to teach students the appropriate reaction through change-of-state tokens in various situations. Students are provided with authentic data based on empirical research in conversation analysis (CA).…