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Sample records for understanding sorption mechanisms

  1. Understanding mechanisms to predict and optimize biochar for agrochemical sorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kathleen; Gámiz, Beatriz; Cox, Lucia; Spokas, Kurt; Koskinen, William

    2017-04-01

    The ability of biochars to bind various organic compounds has been widely studied due to the potential effects on pesticide fate in soil and interest in the adoption of biochar as a "low-cost" filter material. However, the sorptive behaviors of biochars are extremely variable and much of the reported data is limited to specific biochar-chemical interactions. The lack of knowledge regarding biochar sorption mechanisms limits our current ability to predict and optimize biochar's use. This work unveils mechanistic drivers of organic pesticide sorption on biochars through targeted alteration of biochar surface chemistry. Changes in the quantity and type of functional groups on biochars and other black carbon materials were achieved through treatments with H2O2, and CO2, and characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM/EDX). The sorption capacities of these treated biochars were subsequently measured to evaluate the effects of different surface moieties on the binding of target herbicides cyhalofop acid ((R)-2-[4-(4-cyano-2-fluorophenoxy)phenoxy]propionic acid) and clomazone (2-[(2-chlorophenyl)methyl]-4,4-dimethyl-1,2-oxazolidin-3-one). Sorption of both herbicides on the studied biochars increased following H2O2 activation; however, the influence of the H2O2 activation on sorption was more pronounced for cyhalofop acid (pKa = 3.9) than clomazone, which is non-ionizable. Increased cyhalofop acid sorption on H2O2 treated biochars can be attributed to the increase in oxygen containing functional groups as well as the decrease in biochar pH. In contrast, CO2 activation reduced the sorption of cyhalofop acid compared to untreated biochar. FTIR data suggest the reduced sorption on CO2 -treated biochar was due to the removal of surface carboxyl groups, further supporting the role of specific functionality in the sorption of ionizable herbicides. Results from this work offer insight into the mechanisms of sorption and

  2. Sorption mechanisms and sorption models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedoroff, M.; Lefevre, G.; Duc, M.; Neskovic, C.; Milonjic, S.

    2004-01-01

    Sorption at the solid-liquid interfaces play a major role in many phenomena and technologies: chemical separations, catalysis, biological processes, transport of toxic and radioactive species in surface and underground waters. The long term safety of radioactive waste repositories is based on artificial and natural barriers, intended to sorb radionuclides after the moment when the storage matrixes and containers will be corroded. Predictions on the efficiency of sorption for more than 10 6 years have to be done in order to demonstrate the safety of such depositories, what is a goal never encountered in the history of sciences and technology. For all these purposes, and, especially for the long term prediction, acquiring of sorption data constitutes only a first step of studies. Modeling based on a very good knowledge of sorption mechanisms is needed. In this review, we shall examine the main approaches and models used to quantify sorption processes, including results taken from the literature and from our own studies. We shall compare sorption models and examine their adequacy with sorption mechanisms. The cited references are only a few examples of the numerous articles published in that field. (orig.)

  3. Understanding the sorption behavior of Pu{sup 4+} on poly(amidoamine) dendrimer functionalized carbon nanotube. Sorption equilibrium, mechanism, kinetics, radiolytic stability, and back-extraction studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Parveen [Indian Institute of Technology, Himachal Pradesh (India); Sengupta, Arijit [Bahbha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Radiochemistry Div.; Deb, Ashish Kumar Singha; Ali, S. Musharaf [Bahbha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Chemical Engineering Div.; Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai (India); Dasgupta, Kinshuk [Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai (India). Mechanical Metallurgy Div.

    2017-07-01

    Poly(amidoamine) dendrimer functionalized carbon nanotube was demonstrated as highly efficient sorbent of the Pu{sup 4+} from radioactive waste solution. The second generation dendrimer was found to have more efficiency as compared to the 1{sup st} generation might be due to the availability of more functionality for coordinating to the Pu{sup 4+} ion. Analysis of different isotherm models revealed that, Langmuir isotherm was predominantly operating through chemi-sorption (with the sorption energy 10.07 and 16.95 kJ mol{sup -1} for 1{sup st} and 2{sup nd} generation dendrimer) with the sorption capacity 89.22 mg g{sup -1} and 92.48 mg g{sup -1} for 1{sup st} and 2{sup nd} generation dendrimer, respectively. Analysis of different sorption kinetics model revealed that the sorption proceeded via pseudo 2{sup nd} order reaction. The 2{sup nd} generation dendrimer was found to be radiolytically more stable while oxalic acid was found to be suitable for quantitative back extraction of Pu{sup 4+}.

  4. Sorption mechanisms of perfluorinated compounds on carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Shubo; Zhang Qiaoying; Nie Yao; Wei Haoran; Wang Bin; Huang Jun; Yu Gang; Xing Baoshan

    2012-01-01

    Sorption of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is critical for understanding their subsequent transport and fate in aqueous environments, but the sorption mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, the sorption of six PFCs on CNTs increased with increasing C-F chain length when they had a same functional group, and the CNTs with hydroxyl and carboxyl groups had much lower adsorbed amount than the pristine CNTs, indicating that hydrophobic interaction dominated the sorption of PFCs on the CNTs. Electrostatic repulsion suppressed the sorption of PFCs on the CNTs, resulting in the lower sorption with increasing pH. Hydrogen bonding interaction was negligible. The hydrophobic C-F chains can be closely adsorbed on the CNTs surface in parallel to the axis or along the curvature, making it impossible to form micelles on the CNT surface, leading to the lower sorption than other adsorbents. Highlights: ► Sorption capacities of PFOA on different CNTs are less than that on activated carbon and resins. ► Hydrophobic interaction is principally involved in the sorption of PFCs on CNTs. ► Electrostatic repulsion suppresses the sorption of PFCs on CNTs. - Hydrophobic interaction dominated the sorption of perfluorinated compounds on carbon nanotubes, while electrostatic repulsion suppressed their sorption.

  5. Toward an understanding of "Legacy P" - phosphorus sorption mechanisms in stream sediments as influenced by organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audette, Yuki; O'Halloran, Ivan P.; Nowell, Peter M.; Congreves, Katelyn; Voroney, R. Paul

    2017-04-01

    -P minerals, even under neutral to alkaline conditions. Thus, where OM-Fe-P forms predominate, we predict a high risk of SRP release from sediments when water chemistry changes. In addition, OM may inhibit the transformation of labile Ca-P forms to more stable Ca-P minerals. Loading of OM affects the development of hypoxia in aquatic systems, and the accumulation of OM can promote the release of both SRP and dissolved organic C to downstream environments. This study provides evidence that the presence of OM in stream sediments influences P sorption mechanisms and is critical in understanding P biogeochemistry in freshwater environments.

  6. Understanding the sorption mechanisms of aflatoxin B1 to kaolinite, illite, and smectite clays via a comparative computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Fuxing; Ge, Yangyang; Hu, Xiaojie; Goikavi, Caspar; Waigi, Michael Gatheru; Gao, Yanzheng; Ling, Wanting

    2016-12-15

    In current adsorption studies of biotoxins to phyllosilicate clays, multiply weak bonding types regarding these adsorptions are not well known; the major attractive forces, especially for kaolinite and illite, are difficult to be identified as compared to smectite with exchangeable cations. Here, we discriminated the bonding types of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contaminant to these clays by combined batch experiment with model computation, expounded their bonding mechanisms which have been not quantitatively described by researchers. The observed adsorbent-to-solution distribution coefficients (K d ) of AFB1 presented in increasing order of 18.5-37.1, 141.6-158.3, and 354.6-484.7L/kg for kaolinite, illite, and smectite, respectively. Normalization of adsorbent-specific surface areas showed that adsorption affinity of AFB1 is mainly dependent on the outside surfaces of clay aggregates. The model computation and test of ionic effect further suggested that weakly electrostatic attractions ((Si/Al-OH) 2 ⋯(OC) 2 ) are responsible for AFB1-kaolinite adsorption (K d , 18.5-37.1L/kg); a moderate electron-donor-acceptor attraction ((CO) 2 ⋯K + ⋯(O-Al) 3 ) is related to AFB1-illite adsorption (K d , 141.6-158.3L/kg); a strong calcium-bridging linkage ((CO) 2 ⋯Ca 2+ ⋯(O-Si) 4 ) is involved in AFB1-smectite adsorption (K d , 354.6-484.7L/kg). Changes in Gibbs free energy (ΔG°) suggested that the computed result is reliable, providing a good reproduction of AFB1-clay interaction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Recent progress in sorption mechanisms and models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedoroff, M.; Lefevre, G.

    2005-01-01

    reactivity of the different faces. Finally, we know more about the sorption processes and are able to model them with a better agreement with the real sorption mechanisms. However, this progress concerns a few simple systems and a further task will be the application of this knowledge to more complex systems. (authors)

  8. Sorption mechanisms of metals to graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Showalter, Allison R; Bunker, Bruce A; Duster, Thomas A; Szymanowski, Jennifer E S; Na, Chongzheng; Fein, Jeremy B

    2016-01-01

    Environmental toxic metal contamination remediation and prevention is an ongoing issue. Graphene oxide is highly sorptive for many heavy metals over a wide pH range under different ionic strength conditions. We present x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy results investigating the binding environment of Pb(II), Cd(II) and U(VI) ions onto multi-layered graphene oxide (MLGO). Analysis indicates that the dominant sorption mechanism of Pb to MLGO changes as a function of pH, with increasing inner sphere contribution as pH increases. In contrast, the sorption mechanism of Cd to MLGO remains constant under the studied pH range. This adsorption mechanism is an electrostatic attraction between the hydrated Cd +2 ion and the MLGO surface. The U(VI), present as the uranyl ion, changes only subtly as a function of pH and is bound to the surface via an inner sphere bond. Knowledge of the binding mechanism for each metal is necessary to help in optimizing environmental remediation or prevention in filtration systems. (paper)

  9. Mechanism of cesium sorption on potassium titanium hexacyanoferrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yongxia; Xu Shiping; Song Chongli

    1998-01-01

    The mechanism of cesium sorption on potassium titanium hexacyanoferrate is described. The dependence of the sorption speed on temperature, particle granule size, and the stirring speed is studied. The results show that the sorption process is controlled by liquid film diffusion and particle diffusion. An exchange reaction occurs mainly between K + in the exchanger and Cs + in the solution, i.e. potassium titanium hexacyanoferrate, and Cs + of simulated high-level liquid waste

  10. Arsenic Sorption on Mechanically Activated Magnetite and Olivine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Bujňáková

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic sorption on mechanically activated minerals such as magnetite Fe3O4 (Kiruna, Sweden and olivine (Mg,Fe2SiO4 (Ǻheim,Norway has been studied and compared in this work. Experiments were carried out with non-activated and mechanically activatedsamples. The activation of both minerals was performed in a planetary mill at different milling conditions. The specific surface areaand consequent sorption activity were enhanced by mechanical activation. The using of olivine seems to be better than magnetite fromthe point of view of milling time, which is necessary for achievement of the same sorption effect.

  11. Mechanisms of metal sorption by biochars: Biochar characteristics and modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongbo; Dong, Xiaoling; da Silva, Evandro B; de Oliveira, Letuzia M; Chen, Yanshan; Ma, Lena Q

    2017-07-01

    Biochar produced by thermal decomposition of biomass under oxygen-limited conditions has received increasing attention as a cost-effective sorbent to treat metal-contaminated waters. However, there is a lack of information on the roles of different sorption mechanisms for different metals and recent development of biochar modification to enhance metal sorption capacity, which is critical for biochar field application. This review summarizes the characteristics of biochar (e.g., surface area, porosity, pH, surface charge, functional groups, and mineral components) and main mechanisms governing sorption of As, Cr, Cd, Pb, and Hg by biochar. Biochar properties vary considerably with feedstock material and pyrolysis temperature, with high temperature producing biochars with higher surface area, porosity, pH, and mineral contents, but less functional groups. Different mechanisms dominate sorption of As (complexation and electrostatic interactions), Cr (electrostatic interactions, reduction, and complexation), Cd and Pb (complexation, cation exchange, and precipitation), and Hg (complexation and reduction). Besides sorption mechanisms, recent advance in modifying biochar by loading with minerals, reductants, organic functional groups, and nanoparticles, and activation with alkali solution to enhance metal sorption capacity is discussed. Future research needs for field application of biochar include competitive sorption mechanisms of co-existing metals, biochar reuse, and cost reduction of biochar production. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Sorption mechanisms of chromate with coprecipitated ferrihydrite in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamun, Abdullah Al, E-mail: mamun@toki.waseda.jp [Graduate School of Creative Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Morita, Masao, E-mail: masao.swimer@akane.waseda.jp [Graduate School of Creative Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Matsuoka, Mitsuaki, E-mail: m-matsuoka@aoni.waseda.jp [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Tokoro, Chiharu, E-mail: tokoro@waseda.jp [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Coprecipitation showed twice the sorption density of simple adsorption at pH 5. • Mechanism shift from outer- to inner-sphere surface complexation at high Cr/Fe. • In coprecipitation the mechanism shift occurs at lower Cr/Fe ratios than adsorption. • Higher-molar-ratio bidentate binuclear Cr−Fe bonds; yielded ferrihydrite expansion. - Abstract: Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) attracted researchers’ interest for its toxicity, natural availability and removal difficulty. Nevertheless, its sorption mechanism is not clearly understood yet. In this work, we elucidated the sorption mechanism of the co-precipitation of chromates with ferrihydrite through quantitative analysis. The influence of Cr/Fe molar ratio on sorption was investigated by zeta potential measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray adsorption fine-structure analysis (XAFS). Coprecipitation at pH 5 showed almost twice the sorption density of adsorption at pH 5. In co-precipitation, a shift of the XRD peak due to inner-sphere sorption of chromate was observed at Cr/Fe molar ratio 0.5. For adsorption, the same peak shift was confirmed at Cr/Fe molar ratio of 1. Zeta potential at pH 5 suggested that the sorption mechanism changed at Cr/Fe molar ratio 0.25 for coprecipitation and at Cr/Fe molar ratio of 1 for adsorption. Fitting of Cr and Fe K-edge extended X-ray adsorption fine-structure suggested that ferrihydrite immobilized Cr(VI) via outer sphere surface complexation for lower Cr/Fe ratios and via inner-sphere surface complexation for higher molar ratios. At higher molar ratios, bidentate binuclear Cr−Fe bonds were well established, thus resulting in the expansion of the ferrihydrite structure.

  13. Determination of sorption mechanisms of radionuclides onto clay minerals using extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daehn, R.; Scheidegger, A.; Baeyens, B.; Bradbury, M.H

    2001-03-01

    Much of the experimental work in the Waste Management Laboratory at PSI concentrates on trying to understand the processes and mechanisms which govern the release of safety-relevant radionuclides from waste matrices, and their transport through engineered barrier systems and the surrounding geosphere. For this reason, detailed sorption studies of radionuclides (Cs, Sr, Ni, Zn, Eu, Am, Th and Se) in clay and cement systems are being conducted. The sorption and modelling studies are combined with kinetic investigations and advanced spectroscopic and microscopic methods in order to understand the sorption mechanism on an atomic level. This approach is part of a new multidisciplinary research field called Molecular Environmental Science (MES). In this paper, a case study of Ni sorption on montmorillonite is presented to illustrate how EXAFS can be used successfully to better understand sorption processes. (author)

  14. Determination of sorption mechanisms of radionuclides onto clay minerals using extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daehn, R.; Scheidegger, A.; Baeyens, B.; Bradbury, M.H.

    2001-01-01

    Much of the experimental work in the Waste Management Laboratory at PSI concentrates on trying to understand the processes and mechanisms which govern the release of safety-relevant radionuclides from waste matrices, and their transport through engineered barrier systems and the surrounding geosphere. For this reason, detailed sorption studies of radionuclides (Cs, Sr, Ni, Zn, Eu, Am, Th and Se) in clay and cement systems are being conducted. The sorption and modelling studies are combined with kinetic investigations and advanced spectroscopic and microscopic methods in order to understand the sorption mechanism on an atomic level. This approach is part of a new multidisciplinary research field called Molecular Environmental Science (MES). In this paper, a case study of Ni sorption on montmorillonite is presented to illustrate how EXAFS can be used successfully to better understand sorption processes. (author)

  15. Sorption compressor/mechanical expander hybrid refrigeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. A.; Britcliffe, M.

    1987-01-01

    Experience with Deep Space Network (DSN) ground-based cryogenic refrigerators has proved the reliability of the basic two-stage Gifford-McMahon helium refrigerator. A very long life cryogenic refrigeration system appears possible by combining this expansion system or a turbo expansion system with a hydride sorption compressor in place of the usual motor driven piston compressor. To test the feasibility of this system, a commercial Gifford-McMahon refrigerator was tested using hydrogen gas as the working fluid. Although no attempt was made to optimize the system for hydrogen operation, the refrigerator developed 1.3 W at 30 K and 6.6 W at 60 K. The results of the test and of theoretical performances of the hybrid compressor coupled to these expansion systems are presented.

  16. Sorption and Migration Mechanisms of 237 Np through Sandy Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chantaraprachoom, Nanthavan; Tanaka, Tadao

    2003-06-01

    In order to evaluate migration behavior of radioactive nuclides in the disposal of low-level radioactive waste into a shallow land burial, the sorption characteristic and migration behavior of 237 Np through sandy soil was studied. Two experimental methods were performed by using batch and column systems. The distribution coefficients (K d ) obtained from the adsorption and desorption process are rather small about 16 and 21 cm 3 /g respectively. Size distribution of 237 Np species in the influent solution was measured by ultra-filtration technique. Migration mechanism of 237 Np was studied by column experiments. The experimental condition was the influence of volume of eluting solution; 100, 300, 500, 1000 and 2000 ml respectively. The result from five column experiments confirm that the sorption characteristics of 237 Np are mainly controlled by a reversible ion-exchange reaction and the migration of 237 Np in the sandy soil can be estimated by using the K d concept

  17. PCB congener sorption to carbonaceous sediment components: Macroscopic comparison and characterization of sorption kinetics and mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hyeok; Al-Abed, Souhail R.

    2009-01-01

    Sorption of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to sediment is a key process in determining their mobility, bioavailability, and chemical decomposition in aquatic environments. In order to examine the validity of currently used interpretation approaches for PCBs sorption, comparative results on 2-chlorobiphenyl sorption to carbonaceous components in sediments (activated carbon, carbon black, coal, soot, graphite, flyash, wood) were macroscopically correlated with the structural, morphological, crystallographic, and compositional properties of the carbonaceous components. Since the Freundlich sorption constant, K F (L kg -1 ) spanned several orders of magnitude, ranging from log K F of 6.13-5.27 for activated carbon, 5.04 for carbon black, 3.83 for coal to 3.08 for wood, organic carbon partitioning approach should be more specifically categorized, considering the various forms, nature and origins of organic carbon in sediment. Sorption rate constants and fraction parameters, which were numerically defined from empirical kinetic model with fast and slow sorption fractions, were closely related to the physicochemical properties of the carbonaceous components. Sorption interpretation approaches with a specific property and viewpoint, such as organic carbon partitioning, soot carbon distribution, or surface area correlation, did not properly explain the overall results on sorption capacity, fast and slow sorption kinetics, and partitioning coefficient. It is also important to emphasize the heterogeneous nature of sediment and the difficulties of encompassing the partitioning among its carbonaceous components.

  18. PCB congener sorption to carbonaceous sediment components: Macroscopic comparison and characterization of sorption kinetics and mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyeok [National Risk Management Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); Al-Abed, Souhail R., E-mail: al-abed.souhail@epa.gov [National Risk Management Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Sorption of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to sediment is a key process in determining their mobility, bioavailability, and chemical decomposition in aquatic environments. In order to examine the validity of currently used interpretation approaches for PCBs sorption, comparative results on 2-chlorobiphenyl sorption to carbonaceous components in sediments (activated carbon, carbon black, coal, soot, graphite, flyash, wood) were macroscopically correlated with the structural, morphological, crystallographic, and compositional properties of the carbonaceous components. Since the Freundlich sorption constant, K{sub F} (L kg{sup -1}) spanned several orders of magnitude, ranging from log K{sub F} of 6.13-5.27 for activated carbon, 5.04 for carbon black, 3.83 for coal to 3.08 for wood, organic carbon partitioning approach should be more specifically categorized, considering the various forms, nature and origins of organic carbon in sediment. Sorption rate constants and fraction parameters, which were numerically defined from empirical kinetic model with fast and slow sorption fractions, were closely related to the physicochemical properties of the carbonaceous components. Sorption interpretation approaches with a specific property and viewpoint, such as organic carbon partitioning, soot carbon distribution, or surface area correlation, did not properly explain the overall results on sorption capacity, fast and slow sorption kinetics, and partitioning coefficient. It is also important to emphasize the heterogeneous nature of sediment and the difficulties of encompassing the partitioning among its carbonaceous components.

  19. The sorption and mechanical properties of the modified cement matrix used for conditioning of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogaru, Daniela; Nuculae, Ortenzia; Jinescu, Gheorghita; Duliu, Octavian; Dogaru, Gheorghe

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Radioactive contaminant sorption onto concrete represents one of the most important retardation mechanisms in engineered barriers such as the conditioning matrix itself, concrete walls and concrete floors. During the life of a disposal facility for radioactive waste, the sorption properties as well as the mechanical properties of the cement are affected by both external and internal processes. The most important sorbing material present in concrete is the hydrated cement. The sorption data obtained for specific cement or cement mixes in general may be used to characterize a given cement type. In order to improve the mechanical and sorption properties of the cement matrix, different additives were used in the laboratory tests. The used additives are known to have good sorption properties. The paper describes the influence of the concentration of additives on the mechanical and sorption properties of the cement matrix. As radioactive contaminants 134 Cs, 60 Co, 3 H, 241 Am were used. (authors)

  20. Mechanisms of sorption of neptunium and technetium on argillaceous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooker, P.J.; West, J.M.; Noy, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    It is of pressing concern to understand the behaviour of radionuclides in the environment and in particular long-lived ones (e.g. Np-237 and Te-99) in argillaceous rocks. Clay formations have been chosen as likely candidates for holding low level radioactive waste repositories and in the event of leakage of radionuclides into the geosphere some knowledge of their fate is required in a far-field safety assessment study. The objectives of this present work were to examine the properties of neptunium and technetium in ground-waters associated with clay-rich materials and to ascertain the variations in sorption of these radionuclides under different environmental conditions and to use the information in a forecast of transport through a clay layer

  1. Improved understanding of tributyltin sorption on natural and biochar-amended sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiaoyu; Sheng, G Daniel; Qiu, Yuping

    2011-12-01

    A poor understanding of tributyltin (TBT) sorption on sediments has hindered an accurate evaluation of its environmental fate. The present study determined TBT sorption by a freshwater sediment (BH) and a coastal marine sediment (TZ) as influenced by pH, salinity, and biochar (BC) amendment into TZ. The isotherms were essentially linear, with K(OC) values in the range of 10(4) to 10(5) L/kg. Tributyltin sorption at pH 3.56 and 8.00 occurred mainly via partitioning. It reached maxima at pH equal to its pK(a) (=6.25) because of added ion exchange. A salinity increase from 5 to 35 practical salinity units enhanced TBT sorption at pH 3.56 and 8.00 on TZ by approximately 30% and on BH by approximately 80%, ascribed to the salting-out effect that reduced the solubilities of tributyltin hydroxide (TBTOH) and tributyltin chloride (TBTCl). At pH 6.25, the same salinity increase reduced TBT sorption on TZ by approximately 20% but enhanced TBT sorption on BH by approximately 35%. This was attributed to the enhancing role of salting out and the reducing role of metal competition for ion exchange. Tributyltin was two orders of magnitude more effectively sorbed by BC than by total organic carbon of TZ, mainly because of the high level of surface area of the BC. Although BC affinity for TBT may be significantly diminished when present in TZ, it was considered to be the primary contributor to TBT sorption from water. Biochar may thus be used to immobilize TBT in sediment for potential remediation. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  2. Capacity and mechanisms of ammonium and cadmium sorption on different wetland-plant derived biochars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Xiaoqiang; Hao, Hulin; Zhang, Changkuan; He, Zhenli; Yang, Xiaoe

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between Cd 2+ /NH 4 + sorption and physicochemical properties of biochars produced from different wetland plants. Biochars from six species of wetland plants (i.e., Canna indica, Pennisetum purpureum Schum, Thalia dealbata, Zizania caduciflora, Phragmites australis and Vetiveria zizanioides) were obtained at 500 °C and characterized, and their sorption for ammonium and cadmium was determined. There were significant differences in elemental composition, functional groups and specific surface area among the biochars derived from different wetland plant species. Sorption of ammonium and cadmium on the biochars could be described by a pseudo second order kinetic model, and the simple Langmuir model fits the isotherm data better than the Freundlich or Temkin model. The C. indica derived biochar had the largest sorption capacity for NH 4 + and Cd 2+ , with a maximum sorption of 13.35 and 125.8 mg g −1 , respectively. P. purpureum Schum derived biochar had a similar maximum sorption (119.3 mg g −1 ) for Cd 2+ . Ammonium sorption was mainly controlled by cation exchange, surface complexation with oxygen-containing functional groups and the formation of magnesium ammonium phosphate compounds, whereas for Cd 2+ sorption, the formation of cadmium phosphate precipitates, cation exchange and binding to oxygen-containing groups were the major possible mechanisms. In addition, the sorption of ammonium and cadmium was not affected by surface area and microporosity of the biochars. - Highlights: • Biochars varied in physicochemical properties and adsorption capacity. • Canna indica derived biochar has a high sorption capacity for Cd 2+ . • NH 4 + and Cd 2+ sorption on biochars fits a pseudo second order and Langmuir model. • Sorption mechanism is related to complexation, cation exchange and precipitation.

  3. Capacity and mechanisms of ammonium and cadmium sorption on different wetland-plant derived biochars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Xiaoqiang [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Hao, Hulin [Ningbo Raw Water Resource Research Academy, Ningbo (China); Zhang, Changkuan [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); He, Zhenli [Indian River Research and Education Center, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Fort Pierce, FL 34945 (United States); Yang, Xiaoe, E-mail: xyang571@yahoo.com [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between Cd{sup 2+}/NH{sub 4}{sup +} sorption and physicochemical properties of biochars produced from different wetland plants. Biochars from six species of wetland plants (i.e., Canna indica, Pennisetum purpureum Schum, Thalia dealbata, Zizania caduciflora, Phragmites australis and Vetiveria zizanioides) were obtained at 500 °C and characterized, and their sorption for ammonium and cadmium was determined. There were significant differences in elemental composition, functional groups and specific surface area among the biochars derived from different wetland plant species. Sorption of ammonium and cadmium on the biochars could be described by a pseudo second order kinetic model, and the simple Langmuir model fits the isotherm data better than the Freundlich or Temkin model. The C. indica derived biochar had the largest sorption capacity for NH{sub 4}{sup +} and Cd{sup 2+}, with a maximum sorption of 13.35 and 125.8 mg g{sup −1}, respectively. P. purpureum Schum derived biochar had a similar maximum sorption (119.3 mg g{sup −1}) for Cd{sup 2+}. Ammonium sorption was mainly controlled by cation exchange, surface complexation with oxygen-containing functional groups and the formation of magnesium ammonium phosphate compounds, whereas for Cd{sup 2+} sorption, the formation of cadmium phosphate precipitates, cation exchange and binding to oxygen-containing groups were the major possible mechanisms. In addition, the sorption of ammonium and cadmium was not affected by surface area and microporosity of the biochars. - Highlights: • Biochars varied in physicochemical properties and adsorption capacity. • Canna indica derived biochar has a high sorption capacity for Cd{sup 2+}. • NH{sub 4}{sup +} and Cd{sup 2+} sorption on biochars fits a pseudo second order and Langmuir model. • Sorption mechanism is related to complexation, cation exchange and precipitation.

  4. Sorption mechanism of Cd(II) from water solution onto chicken eggshell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Cano, Jose Valente; Leyva-Ramos, Roberto; Mendoza-Barron, Jovita; Guerrero-Coronado, Rosa María; Aragón-Piña, Antonio; Labrada-Delgado, Gladis Judith

    2013-07-01

    The mechanism and capacity of eggshell for sorbing Cd(II) from aqueous solution was examined in detail. The eggshell was characterized by several techniques. The eggshell was mainly composed of Calcite (CaCO3). The surface charge distribution was determined by acid-base titration and the point of zero charge (PZC) of the eggshell was found to be 11.4. The sorption equilibrium data were obtained in a batch adsorber, and the adsorption isotherm of Langmuir fitted the data quite well. The sorption capacity of eggshell increased while raising the pH from 4 to 6, this tendency was attributed to the electrostatic interaction between the Cd2+ in solution and the surface of the eggshell. Furthermore, the sorption capacity was augmented by increasing the temperature from 15 to 35 °C because the sorption was endothermic. The sorption of Cd(II) occurred mainly onto the calcareous layer of the eggshell, but slightly on the membrane layer. It was demonstrated that the sorption of Cd(II) was not reversible, and the main sorption mechanisms were precipitation and ion exchange. The precipitation of (Cd,Ca)CO3 on the surface of the eggshell was corroborated by SEM and XRD analysis.

  5. Understand quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omnes, R.

    2000-01-01

    The author presents the interpretation of quantum mechanics in a simple and direct way. This book may be considered as a complement of specialized books whose aim is to present the mathematical developments of quantum mechanics. As early as the beginning of quantum theory, Bohr, Heisenberg and Pauli proposed the basis of what is today called the interpretation of Copenhagen. This interpretation is still valid but 2 important discoveries have led to renew some aspects of the interpretation of Copenhagen. The first one was the discovery of the decoherence phenomenon which is responsible for the absence of quantum interferences in the macroscopic world. The second discovery was the achievement of the complete derivation of classical physics from quantum physics, it means that the classical determinism fits in the framework of quantum probabilism. A short summary ends each chapter. (A.C.)

  6. A study of sorption mechanism onto cement hydrates by isotherm measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Daisuke; Fujita, Tomonari

    2003-01-01

    In the concept for TRU waste disposal in Japan, cement is a potential waste packaging and backfilling material and is expected to provide chemical containment. In particular, the sorption of radionuclides onto cement material, which controls the aqueous concentrations of elements in the porewater, is a very important parameter when considering the release of radionuclides from the near field of a repository. Many safety assessment calculations currently assume radionuclide retardation as linear sorption equilibrium and describe it with a distribution ratio (R d value). In this study, the sorption mechanism is discussed by measuring the sorption isotherm of caesium, strontium and thorium onto Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H gel), to justify and support this assumption. In addition, the effect of competitive sorption between thorium and uranium and other groundwater ions is studied by examining sorption using a range of sodium chloride concentrations to simulate different groundwater ionic strengths. Based on the experimental results, we have showed that: Caesium and strontium sorb by substitution for Ca in C-S-H phases and the presence of some calcium sites with different ion-exchange log K values is suggested; Thorium would be fixed in a surface co-precipitation to form a solubility-limiting phase. The results of sorption experiments are reasonably well modelled by the ion-exchange model for caesium and strontium and the surface co-precipitation model for thorium, respectively. (author)

  7. Lead and cadmium sorption mechanisms on magnetically modified biochars

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trakal, L.; Veselská, V.; Šafařík, Ivo; Vítková, M.; Číhalová, S.; Komárek, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 203, MAR (2016), s. 318-324 ISSN 0960-8524 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14066 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : pyrolysis bio-chars * aqueous-solutions * heavy-metals * removal * adsorption * water * contaminants * pb * temperatures * copper * Magnetic biochar * Fe oxide impregnation * Metal sorption * Cation release * Wastewater treatment Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 5.651, year: 2016

  8. Understanding mechanical ventilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatburn, Robert L

    2010-12-01

    The respiratory care academic community has not yet adopted a standardized system for classifying and describing modes of ventilation. As a result, there is enough confusion that patient care, clinician education and even ventilator sales are all put at risk. This article summarizes a ventilator mode taxonomy that has been extensively published over the last 15 years. Specifically, the classification system has three components: a description of the control variables within breath; a description of the sequence of mandatory and spontaneous breaths; and a specification for the targeting scheme. This three-level specification provides scalability of detail to make the mode description appropriate for the particular need. At the bedside, we need only refer to a mode briefly using the first or perhaps first and second components. To distinguish between similar modes and brand names, we would need to include all components. This taxonomy uses the equation of motion for the respiratory system as the underlying theoretical framework. All terms relevant to describing modes of mechanical ventilation are defined in an extensive appendix.

  9. Sorption mechanisms of phenanthrene, lindane, and atrazine with various humic acid fractions from a single soil sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xilong; Guo, Xiaoying; Yang, Yu; Tao, Shu; Xing, Baoshan

    2011-03-15

    The sorption behavior of organic compounds (phenanthrene, lindane, and atrazine) to sequentially extracted humic acids and humin from a peat soil was examined. The elemental composition, XPS and (13)C NMR data of sorbents combined with sorption isotherm data of the tested compounds show that nonspecific interactions govern sorption of phenanthrene and lindane by humic substances. Their sorption is dependent on surface and bulk alkyl carbon contents of the sorbents, rather than aromatic carbon. Sorption of atrazine by these sorbents, however, is regulated by polar interactions (e.g., hydrogen bonding). Carboxylic and phenolic moieties are key components for H-bonding formation. Thermal analysis reveals that sorption of apolar (i.e., phenanthrene and lindane) and polar (i.e., atrazine) compounds by humic substances exhibit dissimilar relationships with condensation and thermal stability of sorption domains, emphasizing the major influence of domain spatial arrangement on sorption of organic compounds with distinct polarity. Results of pH-dependent sorption indicate that reduction in sorption of atrazine by the tested sorbents is more evident than phenanthrene with increasing pH, supporting the dependence of organic compound sorption on its polarity and structure. This study highlights the different interaction mechanisms of apolar and polar organic compounds with humic substances.

  10. Migration behavior and sorption mechanisms of radionuclides in sedimentary sand stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Tadao; Kamiyama, Hideo; Sriyotha, K.

    1993-05-01

    The influence of crushed particle size and weathering of sedimentary rock on migration behavior and sorption mechanisms of 60 Co, 85 Sr and 137 Cs has been investigated by using the fresh sand stones (classified into two particle size ranges of 1 ∼ 3 mm and 2 , KCl, NH 2 OH-HCl, K-oxalate and H 2 O 2 solutions were carried out, to elucidate their dominated sorption mechanisms. Distribution coefficient values of the all three radionuclides, Kds, for the sand stone of 1 ∼ 3 mm was smaller than that of 85 Sr, and the same irreversible sorptions as the selective sorption of Co onto manganese oxides and fixation of Cs by the layer silicate for 60 Co and 137 Cs, respectively. Larger sorbability of the weathered sand stone was explained to be related to an increase of amounts of the effective sorption site, such as cation exchangeable site, calcite, smectite and manganese oxides, which was possibly caused from metamorphism induced by weathering the fresh sand stone. (author)

  11. Investigating the gas sorption mechanism in an rht -metal-organic framework through computational studies

    KAUST Repository

    Pham, Tony T.

    2014-01-09

    experimental results for the two groups are quantitatively different, the sorption mechanisms (for both crystal structures and sorbates) are broadly similar and not inconsistent with either set of experimental data; the theoretical sorption isotherms themselves resemble those by Eddaoudi et al. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  12. Behaviors and mechanism of acid dyes sorption onto diethylenetriamine-modified native and enzymatic hydrolysis starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zuohua; Xiang Bo; Cheng Rumei; Li Yijiu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, different starches were modified by diethylenetriamine. The native starch reacted with diethylenetriamine giving CAS, whereas the enzymatic hydrolysis starch was modified by diethylenetriamine producing CAES. Adsorption capacities of CAES for four acid dyes, namely, Acid orange 7 (AO7), Acid orange 10 (AO10), Acid green 25 (AG25) and Acid red 18 (AR18) have been determined to be 2.521, 1.242, 1.798 and 1.570 mmol g -1 , respectively. In all cases, CAES has exhibited higher sorption ability than CAS, and the increment for these dyes took the sequence of AO7 (0.944 mmol g -1 ) > AO10 (0.592 mmol g -1 ) > AR18 (0.411 mmol g -1 ) > AG25 (0.047 mmol g -1 ). Sorption kinetics and isotherms analysis showed that these sorption processes were better fitted to pseudo-second-order equation and Langmuir equation. Chemical sorption mechanisms were confirmed by studying the effects of pH, ionic strength and hydrogen bonding. Thermodynamic parameters of these dyes onto CAES and CAS were also observed and it indicated that these sorption processes were exothermic and spontaneous in nature.

  13. New insights into the sorption mechanism of cadmium on red mud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Lei; Ma Chenyan; Ma Yibing; Zhang Shuzhen; Lv Jitao; Cui Mingqi

    2011-01-01

    Effectiveness and mechanism of cadmium (Cd) sorption on original, acidified and ball milling nano-particle red muds were investigated using batch sorption experiments, sequential extraction analysis and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The maximum sorption capacity of Cd was 0.16, 0.19, and 0.21 mol/kg for the original, acidified, and nano-particle red muds at pH 6.5, respectively. Both acidification and ball-milling treatments significantly enhanced Cd sorption and facilitated transformation of Cd into less extractable fractions. The Cd L III -edge XANES analysis indicated the formation of inner-sphere complexes of Cd similar to XCdOH (X represents surface groups on red mud) on the red mud surfaces although outer-sphere complexes of Cd were the primary species. This work shed light on the potential application of red mud to remediate Cd-contaminated soils and illustrated the promising tool of XANES spectroscopy for speciation of multicomponent systems of environmental relevance. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: → Red mud has a strong affinity for Cd contaminants. → Ball-milling treatments significantly enhance Cd sorption on red mud. → Cadmium partially formed inner-sphere complexes on the red mud surfaces. → Red mud can be used to remediate Cd contaminated soils effectively. - Cadmium can be strongly sorbed and partially forms inner-sphere complexes on red mud.

  14. PAL application to the study of sorption mechanism in polymers - capillary effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Y.; Shimadzu, A.; Ikeda, K.

    1999-01-01

    The positron annihilation lifetime technique can be applied to the study of the sorption mechanism in polymers in a quite unique way. In our previous experiments it had been shown that τ 3 and I 3 of polymers show a V-shaped dependence as a function of the contact with vapours. The decreasing part of the V-shaped dependence had been attributed to the Langmuir-type sorption, and the increasing part of delayed occurrence of the Henry-type sorption. But since there was some doubt that the capillary effect, i.e. the vapour to be sorbed is deposited in between the polymer membranes, might be involved in the increasing part, we performed a careful experiment to avoid the capillary effect. We have performed further experiments in a careful conditions to avoid the capillary effect, and have observed the same V-shape as before. Thus our interpretation of the V-shaped dependence has been established. Furthermore, in another example it is shown a case where the capillary effect is observed. This latter case is an example how positron annihilation lifetime can distinguish the real sorption and false sorption (capillary effect). (author)

  15. Assessment of metal sorption mechanisms by aquatic macrophytes using PIXE analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Módenes, A.N., E-mail: anmodenes@yahoo.com.br [Department of Chemical Engineering-Postgraduate Program, West Parana State University, Campus of Toledo, rua da Faculdade 645, Jd. La Salle, 85903-000 Toledo, PR (Brazil); Espinoza-Quiñones, F.R.; Santos, G.H.F.; Borba, C.E. [Department of Chemical Engineering-Postgraduate Program, West Parana State University, Campus of Toledo, rua da Faculdade 645, Jd. La Salle, 85903-000 Toledo, PR (Brazil); Rizzutto, M.A. [Physics Institute, University of São Paulo, Rua do Matão s/n, Travessa R 187, 05508-900 São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Divalent metal ion removals by Egeria densa biosorbent. • Multielements concentrations in biosorbent samples by PIXE analysis. • Elements mass balance in liquid and solid phase before and after metal removals. • Assessment of the mechanisms involved in Cd{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} removal by biosorbent. • Confirmation of the signature of ion exchange process in metal removal. -- Abstract: In this work, a study of the metal sorption mechanism by dead biomass has been performed. All batch metal biosorption experiments were performed using the aquatic macrophyte Egeria densa as biosorbent. Divalent cadmium and zinc solutions were used to assess the sorption mechanisms involved. Using a suitable equilibrium time of 2 h and a mixture of 300 mg biosorbent and 50 mL metal solution at pH 5, monocomponent sorption experiments were performed. In order to determine the residual amounts of metals in the aqueous solutions and the concentrations of removed metals in the dry biomass, Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) measurements in thin and thick target samples were carried out. Based on the strong experimental evidence from the mass balance among the major elements participating in the sorption processes, an ion exchange process was identified as the mechanism responsible for metal removal by the dry biomass.

  16. Investigation of Sorption and Diffusion Mechanisms, and Preliminary Economic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhave, Ramesh R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jubin, Robert Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Spencer, Barry B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nair, Sankar [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This report describes the synthesis and evaluation of molecular sieve zeolite membranes to separate and concentrate tritiated water (HTO) from dilute HTO-bearing aqueous streams. Several monovalent and divalent cation exchanged silico alumino phosphate (SAPO-34) molecular sieve zeolite membranes were synthesized on disk supports and characterized with gas and vapor permeation measurements. The pervaporation process performance was evaluated for the separation and concentration of tritiated water. Experiments were performed using tritiated water feed solution containing tritium at the high end of the range (1 mCi/mL) anticipated in a nuclear fuel processing system that includes both acid and water streams recycling. The tritium concentration was about 0.1 ppm. The permeate was recovered under vacuum. The HTO/H2O selectivity and separation factor calculated from the measured tritium concentrations ranged from 0.99 to 1.23, and 0.83-0.98, respectively. Although the membrane performance for HTO separation was lower than expected, several encouraging observations including molecular sieving and high vapor permeance are reported. Additionally, several new approaches are proposed, such as tuning the sorption and diffusion properties offered by small pore LTA zeolite materials, and cation exchanged aluminosilicates with high metal loading. It is hypothesized that substantially improved preferential transport of tritium (HTO) resulting in a more concentrated permeate can be achieved. Preliminary economic analysis for the membrane-based process to concentrate tritiated water is also discussed.

  17. How to understand quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Ralston, John P

    2018-01-01

    How to Understand Quantum Mechanics presents an accessible introduction to understanding quantum mechanics in a natural and intuitive way, which was advocated by Erwin Schroedinger and Albert Einstein. A theoretical physicist reveals dozens of easy tricks that avoid long calculations, makes complicated things simple, and bypasses the worthless anguish of famous scientists who died in angst. The author's approach is light-hearted, and the book is written to be read without equations, however all relevant equations still appear with explanations as to what they mean. The book entertainingly rejects quantum disinformation, the MKS unit system (obsolete), pompous non-explanations, pompous people, the hoax of the 'uncertainty principle' (it is just a math relation), and the accumulated junk-DNA that got into the quantum operating system by misreporting it. The order of presentation is new and also unique by warning about traps to be avoided, while separating topics such as quantum probability to let the Schroeding...

  18. Understanding the mechanisms of lung mechanical stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.S.N.B. Garcia

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical forces affect both the function and phenotype of cells in the lung. Bronchial, alveolar, and other parenchymal cells, as well as fibroblasts and macrophages, are normally subjected to a variety of passive and active mechanical forces associated with lung inflation and vascular perfusion as a result of the dynamic nature of lung function. These forces include changes in stress (force per unit area or strain (any forced change in length in relation to the initial length and shear stress (the stress component parallel to a given surface. The responses of cells to mechanical forces are the result of the cell's ability to sense and transduce these stimuli into intracellular signaling pathways able to communicate the information to its interior. This review will focus on the modulation of intracellular pathways by lung mechanical forces and the intercellular signaling. A better understanding of the mechanisms by which lung cells transduce physical forces into biochemical and biological signals is of key importance for identifying targets for the treatment and prevention of physical force-related disorders.

  19. Geochemical and Spectroscopic Investigations of Cd and Pb Sorption Mechanisms on Contrasting Biochars: Engineering Implications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trakal, L.; Bingöl, D.; Pohořelý, Michael; Hruška, M.; Komárek, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 171, NOV 2014 (2014), s. 442-451 ISSN 0960-8524 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-02219S Grant - others:GA MŠMT(CZ) LD13068 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : biochar * metals * sorption mechanisms Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides Impact factor: 4.494, year: 2014

  20. Sorption/Desorption Behavior and Mechanism of NH4(+) by Biochar as a Nitrogen Fertilizer Sustained-Release Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yanxue; Qi, Hejinyan; Liu, Yujia; He, Xiaowei

    2016-06-22

    Biochar, the pyrolysis product of biomass material with limited oxygen, has the potential to increase crop production and sustained-release fertilizer, but the understanding of the reason for improving soil fertility is insufficient, especially the behavior and mechanism of ammonium sulfate. In this study, the sorption/desorption effect of NH4(+) by biochar deriving from common agricultural wastes under different preparation temperatures from 200 to 500 °C was studied and its mechanism was discussed. The results showed that biochar displayed excellent retention ability in holding NH4(+) above 90% after 21 days under 200 °C preparation temperature, and it can be deduced that the oxygen functional groups, such as carboxyl and keto group, played the primary role in adsorbing NH4(+) due to hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interaction. The sorption/desorption effect and mechanism were studied for providing an optional way to dispose of agricultural residues into biochar as a nitrogen fertilizer sustained-release material under suitable preparation temperature.

  1. Sorption mechanism of U(VI) on to natural soil system: a study using intra-particle diffusion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rout, S.; Kumar, A.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    The rate of U(VI) adsorption onto natural soils from different parent materials has been studied experimentally using the batch adsorption method at five different initial U(VI) concentrations. The utility of Weber and Morris Interparticle diffusion model for describing the mechanism and kinetics of sorption is discussed. The study reveals that the mechanism of U(VI) sorption involves three steps such as: external surface adsorption, gradual adsorption stage which is the rate determining step and the last portion refers to the final equilibrium stage. The steps involved in sorption of U(VI) on to soil is same irrespective of soil types and initial U(VI) concentration. (author)

  2. Study of sorption mechanisms of europium(3) and uranium(6) ions on clays : impact of silicates; Etude des mecanismes de retention des ions U(6) et Eu(3) sur les argiles: influence des silicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowal-Fouchard, A

    2002-11-01

    Bentonite clay has been selected as a potential buffer or backfill material in a number of disposal programmes for high level waste. In order to enhance the thermodynamic database of sorption phenomena at the solid-water interface, we have investigated sorption mechanisms of europium(III) and uranium(VI) ions onto montmorillonite and bentonite. Thermodynamic data were obtained for different ions concentrations, different background electrolytes and different ionic strengths. The structural identification of the surface complexes and sorption sites was carried out using two spectroscopies, XPS and TRLIFS, while sorption edges were performed using batch experiments. However, clays are complex minerals and in order to understand these sorption mechanisms we have studied europium(III) and uranium(VI) retention on a silica and an alumina because these solids are often considered as basic components of clays. The comparison of structural results shows that europium ions are significantly sorbed on permanently charged sites of clay until pH 7. But this ion is also sorbed on {identical_to}SiOH and {identical_to}AlOH sites of montmorillonite at pH higher than 6. Uranyl ions sorption on montmorillonite is mainly explained by retention of three complexes on {identical_to}SiOH sites. Moreover, we have shown that nitrate ions and dissolved silicates affect on uranium(VI) sorption mechanisms onto alumina. Nevertheless, uranyl ions sorption on montmorillonite and bentonite only decreases with increasing carbonate concentration. Finally, all the sorption edges were then modeled using these results and a surface complexation model (2 pK and constant capacitance models). (author)

  3. Understanding hydrogen sorption in a metal-organic framework with open-metal sites and amide functional groups

    KAUST Repository

    Pham, Tony T.

    2013-05-09

    Grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) studies of the mechanism of hydrogen sorption in an rht-MOF known as Cu-TPBTM are presented. The MOF is a decorated/substituted isostructural analogue to the unembellished rht-MOF, PCN-61, that was studied previously [ Forrest, K. A.J. Phys. Chem. C 2012, 116, 15538-15549. ]. The simulations were performed using three different hydrogen potentials of increasing complexity. Simulated hydrogen sorption isotherms and calculated isosteric heat of adsorption, Qst, values were in excellent agreement with the reported experimental data for only a polarizable model in one of four experimentally observed crystal structure configurations. The study demonstrates the ability of modeling to distinguish the differential sorption of distinct strucures; one configuration is found to be dominant due to favorable interactions with substrates. In addition, it was discovered that the presence of polar amide groups had a significant effect on the electrostatics of the Cu2+ ions and directs the low-pressure physisorption of hydrogen in the MOF. This is in contrast to what was observed in PCN-61, where an exterior copper ion had a higher relative charge and was the favored loading site. This tunability of the electrostatics of the copper ions via chemical substitution on the MOF framework can be explained by the presence of the negatively charged oxygen atom of the amide group that causes the interior Cu2+ ion to exhibit a higher positive charge through an inductive effect. Further, control simulations, taking advantage of the flexibility afforded by theoretical modeling, include artificially modified charges for both Cu2+ ions chosen equal to or with a higher charge on the exterior Cu2+ ion. This choice resulted in distinctly different hydrogen sorption characteristics in Cu-TPBTM with no direct sorption on the open-metal sites. Thus, this study demonstrates both the tunable nature of MOF platforms and the possibility for rational design of sorption

  4. Uranyl ion sorption mechanisms on titanium oxide: a multi-scale approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenborre, J.; Drot, R.; Simoni, E.; Dong, W.; Du, J.; Dossot, M.; Humbert, B.; Ehrhardt, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Radionuclides retention mechanisms onto mineral phases is of primary importance for nuclear waste management. The aim of the presented study is to demonstrate that it is possible to predict the retention properties of a methodological powdery substrate from the study of its natural crystallographic orientations. Among the radionuclides of interest, U(VI) can be seen as a model of the radionuclides oxo-cations. The substrate under study is the titanium oxide (TiO 2 ). In fact, rutile can be found as powder and also as manufactured single crystal which allows to study the retention processes on perfectly known crystallographic planes. Since the repartition of the different crystallographic orientations are known for the powder, the results obtained for the single crystals can directly be used to account for the powder retention properties. By using combined spectroscopic techniques such as TRLFS, XPS, DRIFT and SHG, it is possible to determine the nature of the reactive surface sites and also the surface species. XPS and TRLFS measurements allowed to determine that two same uranyl surface species were formed on titania (110) and (001). Only, the relative intensities of these species vary with the surface coverage. Atomic Force Microscopy was carried out to verify that no surface precipitation occurs for the higher surface coverages. Moreover, these analysis have also evidenced that the U(VI) sorption is homogeneous. These observations were corroborated by SHG experiments (mainly for (001)) which have also shown that the sorption occurs, in a first step, onto preferential surface symmetry axis. For rutile powder, the preferential crystallographic orientations are (110), (100) and (101) in the ratio 60/20/20. TRLFS and XPS experiments have shown that two uranyl surface species are formed whatever the pH value ranged from 1 to 5. The spectroscopic characteristics of these species are the same as the ones observed on (110) and (001

  5. Insights into the mechanisms of mercury sorption onto aluminum based drinking water treatment residuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deliz Quiñones, Katherine; Hovsepyan, Anna; Oppong-Anane, Akua; Bonzongo, Jean-Claude J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Mercury sorption by Al-WTRs involves electrostatic forces and chemisorption. • Hg forms bonds with oxygen and sulfur atoms of Al-WTR’s organic ligands. • Mercury is incorporated into the residual fraction to form stable complexes. • Mercury binds mainly to SiO x species in the residual fraction. - Abstract: Several studies have demonstrated the ability of drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs) to efficiently sorb metal cations from aqueous solutions. Reported results have stimulated interest on the potential use of WTRs as sorbent for metal removal from contaminated aqueous effluents as well as in metal immobilization in contaminated soils. However, knowledge on mechanisms of metal sorption by WTRs remains very limited and data on the long-term stability of formed metal–WTR complexes as a function of changing key environmental parameters are lacking. In this study, chemical selective sequential extraction (SSE), scanning electron microscopy combined with X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to gain insight into the different mechanisms of mercury (Hg) binding to aluminum based WTR (Al-WTRs). Results from sorption studies show that a significant portion of Hg becomes incorporated in the operationally defined residual fraction of Al-WTRs, and therefore, not prone to dissolution and mobility. The results of solid phase analyses suggested that Hg immobilization by Al-WTR occurs largely through its binding to oxygen donor atoms of mineral ligands driven by a combination of electrostatic forces and covalent bonding.

  6. Insights into the mechanisms of mercury sorption onto aluminum based drinking water treatment residuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deliz Quiñones, Katherine, E-mail: Katherine.Deliz@amecfw.com; Hovsepyan, Anna, E-mail: anna_Hovsepyan@urscorp.com; Oppong-Anane, Akua; Bonzongo, Jean-Claude J., E-mail: bonzongo@ufl.edu

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Mercury sorption by Al-WTRs involves electrostatic forces and chemisorption. • Hg forms bonds with oxygen and sulfur atoms of Al-WTR’s organic ligands. • Mercury is incorporated into the residual fraction to form stable complexes. • Mercury binds mainly to SiO{sub x} species in the residual fraction. - Abstract: Several studies have demonstrated the ability of drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs) to efficiently sorb metal cations from aqueous solutions. Reported results have stimulated interest on the potential use of WTRs as sorbent for metal removal from contaminated aqueous effluents as well as in metal immobilization in contaminated soils. However, knowledge on mechanisms of metal sorption by WTRs remains very limited and data on the long-term stability of formed metal–WTR complexes as a function of changing key environmental parameters are lacking. In this study, chemical selective sequential extraction (SSE), scanning electron microscopy combined with X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to gain insight into the different mechanisms of mercury (Hg) binding to aluminum based WTR (Al-WTRs). Results from sorption studies show that a significant portion of Hg becomes incorporated in the operationally defined residual fraction of Al-WTRs, and therefore, not prone to dissolution and mobility. The results of solid phase analyses suggested that Hg immobilization by Al-WTR occurs largely through its binding to oxygen donor atoms of mineral ligands driven by a combination of electrostatic forces and covalent bonding.

  7. Sorption characteristics and mechanisms of organic contaminant to carbonaceous biosorbents in aqueous solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A series of carbonaceous biosorbents was prepared by pyrolyzing pine needles,a model biomass,at various temperatures (100-700℃) under an oxygen-limited condition for 6h. The elemental composi-tions and the specific surface areas (BET-N2) of the biosorbents were analyzed. Sorption properties of 4-nitrotoluene to the biosorbents and their mechanisms were investigated,and then correlated with the structures of the biosorbents. The result shows that with the increase of the pyrolytic temperature,the aromaticity of the carbonaceous biosorbents increases dramatically and the polarity (the (N+O)/C atomic ratio) decreases sharply. Correspondingly,conformations of the organic matter in the biosor-bents transform gradually from a "soft-state" to a "hard-state" and the specific surface areas of the resultant biosorbents extend rapidly. The sorption isotherms fit well with the Freundlich equation. The regression parameters (i.e.,N and lgKf) are linearly related to the aromaticity indices (the H/C atomic ratio). Contributions of adsorption and partition to total sorption of the carbonaceous biosorbents are quantified. The adsorption of the carbonaceous biosorbents increases quickly with the increase of the pyrolytic temperature. The saturated adsorption amounts (Qmax) increase linearly with the increase of the specific surface areas (SA) of the biosorbents. For the carbonaceous biosorbents with hard-state carbon,the calculated normalized-Qmax values by SA are comparable to the theoretical estimation (2.45 μmol/m2). In comparison,for the carbonaceous sorbents with soft-state carbon,the calculated nor-malized-Qmax values by SA are much higher than the theoretical estimation. The partition coefficients (Kom) increase with the decrease of the polarity of the biosorbents,reaching a maximum,and then de-crease sharply with further decreasing the polarity,suggesting that partition mechanism be dominated by the compatibility and accessibility of the sorbent medium with organic

  8. Sorption characteristics and mechanisms of organic contaminant to carbonaceous biosorbents in aqueous solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN BaoLiang; ZHOU DanDan; ZHU LiZhong; SHEN XueYou

    2008-01-01

    A series of carbonaceous biosorbents was prepared by pyrolyzing pine needles, a model biomass, at various temperatures (100-700℃) under an oxygen-limited condition for 6 h. The elemental composi-tions and the specific surface areas (BET-N2) of the biosorbents were analyzed. Sorption properties of 4-nitrotoluene to the biosorbents and their mechanisms were investigated, and then correlated with the structures of the biosorbents. The result shows that with the increase of the pyrolytic temperature, the sromaticity of the carbonaceous biosorbents increases dramatically and the polarity (the (N+O)/C atomic ratio) decreases sharply. Correspondingly, conformations of the organic matter in the biosor-bents transform gradually from a "soft-state" to a "hard-state" and the specific surface areas of the resultant biosorbents extend rapidly. The sorption isotherms fit well with the Freundlich equation. The regression parameters (I.e., N and IgKf) are linearly related to the aromaticity indices (the H/C atomic ratio). Contributions of adsorption and partition to total sorption of the carbonaceous biosorbents are quantified. The adsorption of the carbonaceous biosorbents increases quickly with the increase of the pyrolytic temperature. The saturated adsorption amounts (Qmax) increase linearly with the increase of the specific surface areas (SA) of the biosorbents. For the carbonaceous biosorbents with hard-state carbon, the calculated normalized-Qmax values by SA are comparable to the theoretical estimation (2.45 μmol/m2). In comparison, for the carbonaceous sorbents with soft-state carbon, the calculated nor-malized-Qmax values by SA are much higher than the theoretical estimation. The partition coefficients (Kom) increase with the decrease of the polarity of the biosorbents, reaching a maximum, and then de-crease sharply with further decreasing the polarity, suggesting that partition mechanism be dominated by the compatibility and accessibility of the sorbent medium with

  9. Hydro-mechanical coupling and permeability of an unsaturated swelling clay under hydrous and thermal stress: sorption curve and water permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olchitzky, E.

    2002-02-01

    The use of swelling clay for engineered safety barriers of radioactive waste disposal require the understanding of its thermal-hydro-mechanical behaviour. This work concerns particularly the characterization and the modelling of the behaviour of one of these clays: the FoCa7 clay. The characteristics of the studied material are: the sorption (desorption) curve and the water permeability. For each of them, new experiments have allowed to acquire data in fields still few explored: in temperature (between 20 and 80 C) for the sorption curve and in the unsaturated field for the water permeability. The analysis of these results and of bibliographic data has allowed in one hand to estimate the importance of the hysteresis phenomenon and the temperature influence on the sorption curve and in another hand, to establish the requirement to introduce in the modelling of the sorption curve, a plastic parameter due to the irreversible deformations occurring during the compaction. Moreover, the tests carried out for data acquirement have been used too to give validation elements to the non linear behaviour laws proposed by O. Coussy and P. Dangla for the non saturated porous media. The particularity of these laws is to suppose the existence of an effective constraint in the non saturated field, this shows the importance of the validation elements presented here. (O.M.)

  10. Insights into the mechanisms of mercury sorption onto aluminum based drinking water treatment residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliz Quiñones, Katherine; Hovsepyan, Anna; Oppong-Anane, Akua; Bonzongo, Jean-Claude J

    2016-04-15

    Several studies have demonstrated the ability of drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs) to efficiently sorb metal cations from aqueous solutions. Reported results have stimulated interest on the potential use of WTRs as sorbent for metal removal from contaminated aqueous effluents as well as in metal immobilization in contaminated soils. However, knowledge on mechanisms of metal sorption by WTRs remains very limited and data on the long-term stability of formed metal-WTR complexes as a function of changing key environmental parameters are lacking. In this study, chemical selective sequential extraction (SSE), scanning electron microscopy combined with X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to gain insight into the different mechanisms of mercury (Hg) binding to aluminum based WTR (Al-WTRs). Results from sorption studies show that a significant portion of Hg becomes incorporated in the operationally defined residual fraction of Al-WTRs, and therefore, not prone to dissolution and mobility. The results of solid phase analyses suggested that Hg immobilization by Al-WTR occurs largely through its binding to oxygen donor atoms of mineral ligands driven by a combination of electrostatic forces and covalent bonding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Placebo analgesia: understanding the mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Medoff, Zev M; Colloca, Luana

    2015-01-01

    Expectations of pain relief drive placebo analgesia. Understanding how expectations of improvement trigger distinct biological systems to shape therapeutic analgesic outcomes has been the focus of recent pharmacologic and neuroimaging studies in the field of pain. Recent findings indicate that placebo effects can imitate the actions of real painkillers and promote the endogenous release of opioids and nonopioids in humans. Social support and observational learning also contribute to placebo a...

  12. Sorption mechanism of solvent vapors to coals; Sekitan eno yobai joki no shuchaku kiko no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, K.; Takanohashi, T.; Iino, M. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Institute for Chemical Reaction Science

    1996-10-28

    With an objective to clarify the interactions between micropore structure of coal and solvent reagents, a sorption experiment was carried out under solvent saturated vapor pressure. Low-volatile bituminous coal, Pocahontas No. 3 coal, has the aromatic ring structure developed, and makes solvent more difficult to diffuse into coal, hence sorption amount is small. Methanol has permeated since its polarity is high. High-volatile bituminous coal, Illinois No. 6 coal, makes solvent penetrate easily, and the sorption amount was large with both of aromatic and polar solvents. Since brown coal, Beulah Zap coal, contains a large amount of oxygen, and hydrogen bonding is predominant, sorption amount of cyclohexane and benzene having no polarity is small. Methanol diffuses while releasing hydrogen bond due to its polarity, and its sorption amount is large. A double sorption model is available, which expresses the whole sorption amount as a sum of physical sorption amount and amount of permeation into coal. This model was applied when it explained successfully the sorption behavior of the solvents relative to coals, excepting some of the systems. However, also observed were such abnormal behavior as sorption impediment due to interactions between coal surface and solvents, and permeation impediment due to hydroxyl groups inside the coals. 1 ref., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Understanding Mechanical Design with Respect to Manufacturability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondell, Skyler

    2010-01-01

    At the NASA Prototype Development Laboratory in Kennedy Space Center, Fl, several projects concerning different areas of mechanical design were undertaken in order to better understand the relationship between mechanical design and manufacturabiIity. The assigned projects pertained specifically to the NASA Space Shuttle, Constellation, and Expendable Launch Vehicle programs. During the work term, mechanical design practices relating to manufacturing processes were learned and utilized in order to obtain an understanding of mechanical design with respect to manufacturability.

  14. Recent developments in nanostructured inorganic materials for sorption of cesium and strontium: Synthesis and shaping, sorption capacity, mechanisms, and selectivity-A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alby, Delhia; Charnay, Clarence; Heran, Marc; Prelot, Bénédicte; Zajac, Jerzy

    2018-02-15

    Liquid wastes containing non-ferrous heavy metal ions and some radionuclides, 137 Cs and 90 Sr in particular, represent one of the most dangerous sources of environmental contamination. The remediation of wastewater containing such pollutants continue to be among the biggest challenges of Sustainable Development and Environmental Safety. Sorption-based technologies have proven their efficiency also in reducing the radionuclide content in aqueous streams to low-level residual activity, with the concomitant decrease in the amount of ultimate solid waste generated. Although sorption of cesium and strontium by resins, clays, and zeolites has been investigated intensively and even used in real applications, there is still considerable scope for improvement in terms of retention capacity and selectivity. Recent progress in design and preparation of nanostructured inorganic materials has attracted growing interest based on the potential for improving the retention performance when coupling such functionalities as ion exchange capacity, structural flexibility that may result in steric retention effects, as well as the propensity to interact specifically with the target metal cations. Titanate, vanadate, and tungsten based materials, manganese oxides, hexacyanoferrates, metal sulfides, ammonium molybdophosphates, or hydroxyapatite, characterized by various structures and morphologies, are reviewed with the emphasis being put on synthesis and shaping of such materials, their structure in relationship with the capacity and selectivity of trapping cesium and strontium from either single or multi-component aqueous solutions, as well as the possible retention mechanism. The potential candidates for remediation uses are selected with regard to their sorption capacity and distribution coefficient towards target cations, and also the pH window for an optimum cation capture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Understanding Mechanisms of Radiological Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rick Demmer; John Drake; Ryan James, PhD

    2014-03-01

    Over the last 50 years, the study of radiological contamination and decontamination has expanded significantly. This paper addresses the mechanisms of radiological contamination that have been reported and then discusses which methods have recently been used during performance testing of several different decontamination technologies. About twenty years ago the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC) at the INL began a search for decontamination processes which could minimize secondary waste. In order to test the effectiveness of these decontamination technologies, a new simulated contamination, termed SIMCON, was developed. SIMCON was designed to replicate the types of contamination found on stainless steel, spent fuel processing equipment. Ten years later, the INL began research into methods for simulating urban contamination resulting from a radiological dispersal device (RDD). This work was sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and included the initial development an aqueous application of contaminant to substrate. Since 2007, research sponsored by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has advanced that effort and led to the development of a contamination method that simulates particulate fallout from an Improvised Nuclear Device (IND). The IND method diverges from previous efforts to create tenacious contamination by simulating a reproducible “loose” contamination. Examining these different types of contamination (and subsequent decontamination processes), which have included several different radionuclides and substrates, sheds light on contamination processes that occur throughout the nuclear industry and in the urban environment.

  16. Sorption of metal ions on clay minerals. 2: Mechanism of Co sorption on hectorite at high and low ionic strength and impact on the sorbent stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlegel, M.L.; Charlet, L.; Manceau, A.

    1999-12-15

    The mechanism of Co uptake from aqueous solution onto hectorite (a magnesian smectite) and its impact on the stability of this clay mineral were investigated as a function of Co concentration (TotCo = 20 to 200 {micro}M, 0.3 M NaNO{sub 3}) and ionic strength (0.3 and 0.01 M NaNO{sub 3}, TotCo = 100 {micro}M) by combining kinetics measurements and Co K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. The morphology of the sorbent phase was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and consists of lath-type particles bounded by large basal planes and layer edges. Time-dependent isotherms for Co uptake at high ionic strength indicated the existence of several sorption mechanisms having distinct equilibration times. The dissolution of hectorite was monitored before and after Co addition. Spectral simulations revealed the occurrence of {approximately} 2 Mg and {approximately} 2 Si neighboring cations at interatomic distances characteristic of edge-sharing linkages between Co and Mg octahedra and corner-sharing linkages between Co octahedra and Si tetrahedra, respectively. This local structure is characteristic of inner sphere mononuclear surface complexes at layer edges of hectorite platelets. The occurrence of these complexes even at low ionic strength apparently conflicts with kinetics results, as exchangeable divalent cations are known to form outer sphere surface complexes. To clarify this issue, the amount of Co adsorbed on exchange sites was calculated from the solute Co concentration, assuming that cation exchange was always at equilibrium. These calculations showed that sorbed Co was transferred within 48 h from exchange sites to edge sorption sites.

  17. Understanding biochar mechanisms for practical implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaser, Bruno [Halle-Wittenberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Agrar- und Ernaehrungeswissenschaften Bodenbiogeochemie; Kammann, Claudia [Arbeitskreis zur Nutzung von Sekundaerrohstoffen und fuer Klimaschutz (ANS) e.V., Braunschweig (Germany). Fachausschuss Biokohle; Hochschule Geisenheim Univ. (Germany). Klimafolgenforschung-Klimawandel in Spezialkulturen; Loewen, Achim (ed.) [Arbeitskreis zur Nutzung von Sekundaerrohstoffen und fuer Klimaschutz (ANS) e.V., Braunschweig (Germany); HAWK Hochschule fuer Angewandte Wissenschaft und Kunst Hildesheim, Holzminden, Goettingen (Germany). Fachgebiet Nachhaltige Energie- und Umwelttechnik NEUtec

    2015-07-01

    The conference on ''understanding biochar mechanisms for practical implementation'' 2015 at the Geisenheim University aims at understanding biochar mechanism, that are crucial for beneficial and safety biochar technology implementation. Further issues are ecotoxicology, biochar in agriculture, horticulture, and animal husbandry. Practical issues concern analysis and characterization of technological processes, sustainable uses and certification, regulation and marketing aspects. The Conference is structured in 10 sessions.

  18. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi enhance the copper tolerance of Tagetes patula through the sorption and barrier mechanisms of intraradical hyphae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xishi; Fu, Lei; Xia, Yan; Zheng, Luqing; Chen, Chen; Shen, Zhenguo; Chen, Yahua

    2017-07-19

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are widespread soil fungi that can form endosymbiotic structures with the root systems of most plants and can improve the tolerance of host plants to heavy metals. In the present study, we investigated the effects of AMF (Glomus coronatum) inoculation on the tolerance of Tagetes patula L. to Cu. Almost all of the non-mycorrhizal plants exposed to 100 μM Cu died after 3 d, whereas phytotoxicity was only observed in mycorrhizal plants that were exposed to Cu concentrations greater than 100 μM. Analysing the dynamic accumulation of Cu indicated that, after 7 d of Cu exposure, less Cu was absorbed or accumulated by mycorrhizal plants than by control plants, and significantly less Cu was translocated to the shoots. Meanwhile, analysing the root morphology, the integrity of the root plasma membranes, the photosynthesis rate, and the content of essential elements of plants growing in cultures with 50 μM Cu revealed that AMF inoculation markedly alleviated the toxic effects of Cu stress on root system activity, photosynthesis rate, and mineral nutrient accumulation. In addition, to understand the Cu allocation, an energy spectrum analysis of Cu content at the transverse section of root tips was conducted and subsequently provided direct evidence that intraradical hyphae at the root endodermis could selectively immobilise large amounts of Cu. Indeed, the sorption and barrier mechanisms of AMF hyphae reduce Cu toxicity in the roots of T. patula and eventually enhance the plants' Cu tolerance.

  19. Influence of organic fertilization on the sorption mechanisms of 241 Am in tropical soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Tatiane Rocha

    2009-01-01

    In this work the mechanisms involved in the sorption of 241 Am were investigated depending on the physicochemical properties of some Brazilian soils and on alterations promoted by organic amendment. This experimental study was conducted in a controlled area, where pots containing different kinds of soils (histisol, ferralsol and nitisol), with different organic amendment doses (without amendment; 2 kg m -2 and 4 kg m -2 ) were artificially contaminated by radioactive solution water, which contained 241 Am. Migration studies, distribution (or partition) coefficient (KJ), bioavailability and organic matter were carried out in these soils, with ar without organic amendment. In order to evaluate the effective bioavailability of radionuclides, radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was cultivated in these pots, and later the concentration of 241 Am in radish's roots was measured. The main results show that 241 Am tends to be strongly attached to organic matter and that organic amendment in tropical soils minimizes the radionuclide studied desorption. Also, distribution (or partition) coefficient values for 241 Am were generated and these values are smaller than those ones determined for soils from temperate zones. Physical and chemical fractioning of organic matter were carried out. (author)

  20. Sorption mechanisms of selenium species (selenite and selenate) on copper-based minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devoy, J.

    2001-09-01

    The sorption of radionuclides on the surface of minerals represents a process capable to delay the migration of the elements from a spent fuel deep repository towards the biosphere. In the framework of a deep underground repository, an engineered clay barrier has a high trapping capacity for cationic radio-elements, in particular because of the negative charge of clay surfaces. However, anionic radioelements like selenium species, would be only weakly retained by chemical processes. In order to optimize the trapping capacity of a clay barrier with respect to anionic species, prospective studies are carried out in order to find and evaluate some minerals with specific chemical trapping functions. Among radionuclides, the case of selenium has to be considered because its isotope 79 Se is present in radioactive wastes and has a half life time of 6.5 10 4 years. It is also judicious to find a mineral capable of trapping simultaneously several anionic radio-elements. Copper oxides and sulfides (Cu 2 O, CuO, Cu 2 S, CuS, CuFeS 2 and Cu 5 FeS 4 ) are good adsorbents with respect to selenium species (selenite and selenate). These minerals, with their selenium retention properties, could be used also for the decontamination of soils and waters or to process industrial effluents. The sorption mechanisms have been studied in details for copper oxides (Cu 2 O and CuO) with respect to selenite and selenate. Chalcomenite precipitates in acid pH conditions when selenite is added to a Cu 2 O and CuO suspension. Selenate, in contact with cuprite (Cu 2 O) leads also to a selenium-based precipitate in acid pH environment. For higher pH values, selenite and selenate are adsorbed on copper oxides (Cu 2 O and CuO) and lead to internal and external sphere complexes, respectively. In the case of a selenite/cuprite mixture in basic pH environment and at the equilibrium, a chemical reaction occurs between the oxidation product of cuprite, Cu(OH) 2 and HSeO 3 . A preliminary study of

  1. Effect of Chemical Treatment on Mechanical and Water-Sorption Properties Coconut Fiber-Unsaturated Polyester from Recycled PET

    OpenAIRE

    Munirah Abdullah, Nurul; Ahmad, Ishak

    2012-01-01

    Coconut fibers were used as reinforcement for unsaturated polyester resin from recycled PET that has been prepared using glycolysis and polyesterification reaction. Various concentrations of alkali, silane, and silane on alkalized fiber were applied and the optimum concentration of treatments was determined. Morphological and mechanical properties of the composite have also been investigated to study the effect of fiber surface treatment. The influence of water uptake on the sorption characte...

  2. Sorption of ferrous iron by EPS from the acidophilic bacterium Acidiphilium Sp.: A mechanism proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapia, J.M.; MuNoz, J.; Gonzlez, F.; Blazquez, M.L.; Ballester, A.

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the uptake of Fe(II) by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from the acidophilic bacterium Acidiphillium 3.2Sup(5). These EPS were extracted using EDTA. EPS of A. 3.2Sup(5) loaded in sorption tests with Fe(II), were characterized using the following experimental techniques: scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The experimental results indicate that EPS adsorb ferrous iron according to Freundlich model with a metal sorption uptake of K = 1.14 mg1−1/n L1/n g−1 and a sorption intensity of 1/n = 1.26. In addition, ferrous iron sorption by EPS took place by preferential interaction with the carboxyl group which promotes the formation of ferrous iron oxalates (FeC2O4). Since the interaction reaction was reversible (Log K = 0.77 ± 0.33), that means that the cation sorption can be reversed at convenience. (Author)

  3. Mechanisms of plutonium sorption to mineral oxide surfaces: new insights with implications for colloid-enhanced migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwantes, J.M.; Santschi, P.H.

    2010-01-01

    New equilibrium and kinetic models have been developed to describe rate-limited sorption and desorption of Pu onto and off of mineral oxide surfaces using a generic approach to estimate sorption constants that require minimal laboratory calibrations. Equilibrium, reactions describing a total of six surface species were derived from a combination of empirical relationships previously described in the literature and generated as part of this work. These sorption reactions and corresponding equilibrium constants onto goethite (and silica) are: triple bond SOH + Pu 3+ triple bond SOPu 2+ + H + , log K = -2.1(-10) (1) triple bond SOH + Pu 4+ triple bond SOPu 3+ + H + , log K = 15.3(7.2) (2) triple bond SOH + PuO 2 + triple bond SOPuO 2 + H + , log K = -8.5(-16.5) (3) triple bond SOH + PuO 2 2+ triple bond SOPuO 2 + + H + , log K = 1.2(-6.5) (4) triple bond SOH + Pu 4- + 3H 2 O triple bond SOPu(OH) 3 + 4H + , log K = 12.5(4.6) (5) triple bond SOH + Pu 4+ + 4H 2 O triple bond SOPu(OH) 4 - + 5H + , log K = 5.0(-2.3) (6) The kinetic model decouples reduced (III, IV) and oxidized (V, VI) forms of Pu via a single rate-limiting, but reversible, surface mediated reaction: triple bond SOPuO 2 + H 2 O + 1/2H 2(g) ↔ k 1 k 2 triple bond SOPu(OH) 2 log k 1 = -5.3 (7) Where the reaction rate is equal to: (d[ triple bond SOPu 2 ])/(d t ) = k 1 [Pu OX ] - k 2 [Pu red ] (8) and [Pu OX ] and [Pu red ] are the sums of the oxidized (V and VI) and reduced (III and IV) surface species, respectively. Predictions using the equilibrium and kinetic models were validated against previously published experimental results, which give credence to the validity of the proposed mechanisms controlling the sorption of Pu onto mineral oxide surfaces. Of importance, a reversible, rate-limited, reaction successfully predicted time dependent behavior associated with Pu sorption onto goethite. Previously, researchers have suggested desorption of Pu to these surfaces is extremely slow or even irreversible

  4. Sorption equilibria of ethanol on cork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequin, Sonia; Chassagne, David; Karbowiak, Thomas; Bellat, Jean-Pierre

    2013-06-05

    We report here for the first time a thermodynamic study of gaseous ethanol sorption on raw cork powder and plate. Our study aims at a better understanding of the reactivity of this material when used as a stopper under enological conditions, thus in close contact with a hydroethanolic solution, wine. Sorption−desorption isotherms were accurately measured by thermogravimetry at 298 K in a large range of relative pressures. Sorption enthalpies were determined by calorimetry as a function of loading. Sorption−desorption isotherms exhibit a hysteresis loop probably due to the swelling of the material and the absorption of ethanol. Surprisingly, the sorption enthalpy of ethanol becomes lower than the liquefaction enthalpy as the filling increases. This result could be attributed to the swelling of the material, which would generate endothermic effects. Sorption of SO₂ on cork containing ethanol was also studied. When the ethanol content in cork is 2 wt %, the amount of SO₂ sorbed is divided by 2. Thus, ethanol does not enhance the sorption rate for SO₂ but, on the contrary, decreases the SO₂ sorption activity onto cork, probably because of competitive sorption mechanisms.

  5. Sorption by cation exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, M.H.; Baeyens, B.

    1994-04-01

    A procedure for introducing exchange into geochemical/surface complexation codes is described. Beginning with selectivity coefficients, K c , defined in terms of equivalent fractional ion occupancies, a general expression for the molar based exchange code input parameters, K ex , is derived. In natural systems the uptake of nuclides onto complex sorbents often occurs by more than one mechanism. The incorporation of cation exchange and surface complexation into a geochemical code therefore enables sorption by both mechanisms to be calculated simultaneously. The code and model concepts are tested against sets of experimental data from widely different sorption studies. A proposal is made to set up a data base of selectivity coefficients. Such a data base would form part of a more general one consisting of sorption mechanism specific parameters to be used in conjunction with geochemical/sorption codes to model and predict sorption. (author) 6 figs., 6 tabs., 26 refs

  6. Hydro-mechanical coupling and permeability of an unsaturated swelling clay under hydrous and thermal stress: sorption curve and water permeability; Couplage hydromecanique et permeabilite d'une argile gonflante non saturee sous sollicitations hydriques et thermiques: courbe de sorption et permeabilite a l'eau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olchitzky, E

    2002-02-15

    The use of swelling clay for engineered safety barriers of radioactive waste disposal require the understanding of its thermal-hydro-mechanical behaviour. This work concerns particularly the characterization and the modelling of the behaviour of one of these clays: the FoCa7 clay. The characteristics of the studied material are: the sorption (desorption) curve and the water permeability. For each of them, new experiments have allowed to acquire data in fields still few explored: in temperature (between 20 and 80 C) for the sorption curve and in the unsaturated field for the water permeability. The analysis of these results and of bibliographic data has allowed in one hand to estimate the importance of the hysteresis phenomenon and the temperature influence on the sorption curve and in another hand, to establish the requirement to introduce in the modelling of the sorption curve, a plastic parameter due to the irreversible deformations occurring during the compaction. Moreover, the tests carried out for data acquirement have been used too to give validation elements to the non linear behaviour laws proposed by O. Coussy and P. Dangla for the non saturated porous media. The particularity of these laws is to suppose the existence of an effective constraint in the non saturated field, this shows the importance of the validation elements presented here. (O.M.)

  7. Sorption of organophosphate esters by carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Wei; Yan, Li [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Duan, Jinming [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an 710055 (China); Jing, Chuanyong, E-mail: cyjing@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: The interfacial interactions between the OPE molecules and CNTs. - Highlights: • Oxygen-containing groups on CNTs change the sorption property for OPEs. • Molecular configuration of OPEs has insignificant impact on their sorption. • Hydrophobic, π–π EDA and Brønsted acid–base interaction occurred between the CNTs and OPEs. - Abstract: Insights from the molecular-level mechanism of sorption of organophosphate esters (OPEs) on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can further our understanding of the fate and transport of OPEs in the environment. The motivation for our study was to explore the sorption process of OPEs on multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs), single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) and their oxidized counterparts (O-MWCNTs and O-SWCNTs), and its molecular mechanism over a wide concentration range. The sorption isotherm results revealed that the hydrophobicity of OPEs dominated their affinities on a given CNT and the π–π electron donor–acceptor (EDA) interaction also played an important role in the sorption of aromatic OPEs. This π–π EDA interaction, verified with Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy, could restrict the radial vibration of SWCNTs and affect the deformation vibration γ(CH) bands of OPE molecules. The OPE surface coverage on CNTs, estimated using the nonlinear Dubinin–Ashtakhov model, indicated that the oxygen-containing functional groups on CNTs could interact with water molecules by H-bonding, resulting in a decrease in effective sorption sites. In addition, FTIR analysis also confirmed the occurrence of Brønsted acid–base interactions between OPEs and surface OH groups of SWCNTs. Our results should provide mechanistic insights into the sorption mechanism of OPE contaminants on CNTs.

  8. Investigating the sorption behavior of cadmium from aqueous solution by potassium permanganate-modified biochar: quantify mechanism and evaluate the modification method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zixi; Zhang, Qian; Li, Meng; Niu, Dongyuan; Sang, Wenjiao; Verpoort, Francis

    2018-03-01

    In this work, a KMnO 4 -modified-biochar-based composite material with manganese oxide produced at 600 °C was fabricated to investigate the sorption mechanism of Cd(II) and to comprehensively evaluate the effect of the modification on biochar properties. Cd(II) adsorption mechanisms were mainly controlled by interaction with minerals, complexation with oxygen-containing functional groups, and cation-π interaction. The sorption capacity was significantly reduced after a deash treatment of biochar, almost shrunk by 3 and 3.5 times for pristine biochar (PBC) and modified biochar (MBC). For deashed PBC, oxygen-containing functional groups were the main contributor toward Cd(II) adsorption while interaction with minerals was significantly compromised and became negligible. The sorption capacity was also apparently decreased after the deash treatment of MBC; however, for deashed MBC, interaction with minerals still was the main contributor to the sorption ability, which could be attributed to the mechanism of interaction of Cd(II) with loaded MnO x on biochar. Cation-π interaction in MBC was notably enhanced compared to PBC due to the oxidation of KMnO 4 on biomass. Also, sorption performance by oxygen-containing functional groups was also enhanced. Hence, the modification by KMnO 4 has a significant effect on the Cd(II) sorption performance of biochar.

  9. Sorption of colloids, organics, and metals onto gas-water interfaces: Transport mechanisms and potential remediation technology. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, T.K.; Wan, J.

    1998-01-01

    'Although contaminant sorption at mineral surfaces has received much recognition as a major mechanism controlling contaminant behavior in subsurface environments, virtually no attention has been given to the possibility of contaminant sorption at gas-water interfaces. Moreover, no effort has yet been advanced to optimize such interactions for the purpose of facilitating in-situ remediation. Gas-water interfaces, unlike water-solid interfaces, are mobile. Therefore, associations of contaminants with gas-water interfaces can be very important not only in subsurface contaminant distributions, but also in contaminant transport, and potentially in remediation. The first objective of this research is to develop a quantitative understanding of interactions between contaminants and gas-water interfaces. The anticipated results will provide insights into the poorly understood phenomenon of contaminant interactions with the gas-water interface, and improve the current conceptual models of contaminant behavior in subsurface environments. The second purpose of this research is to explore the possibility of using surfactant stabilized microbubbles for in-situ remediation. Both pump-and-treat, and air sparging remediation methods are ineffective at displacing contaminants in zones which are advectively inaccessible. Stable microbubbles can migrate beyond preferential flow pathways and enter lower permeability zones by buoyant rise. The microbubbles can deliver oxygen and nutrients for promoting aerobic degradation of organic contaminants, and also deliver surfactants for emulsifying NAPLs.'

  10. U(VI) and Eu(III) ion sorption in the interface solution-phosphate solids: Structural study and mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drot, Romuald

    1998-01-01

    As part of the storage of nuclear wastes in a deep underground disposal, radionuclides sorption on geological or engineered barriers is one of the most important factor which could enhance retardation. Thus, the knowledge of such mechanisms is needed. For this purpose, we chose to experimentally define sorption equilibria before performing simulation of retention data. Several phosphate compounds are potential candidates as engineered barrier additives. We considered Th 4 (PO 4 ) 4 P 2 O 7 , Zr 2 O(PO 4 ) 2 which allow to study the effect of PO 4 and P 2 O 7 groups separately. Eu(III) and U(IV) ions were used as structural probes in order to simulate actinides (III) and (VI) behavior. X-ray powder diffraction, IR spectroscopy and electron probe microanalysis were used to characterized the synthesized solids. Electrophoretic measurements showed an amphoteric behavior of surface sites. Moreover, laser spectro-fluorimetry experiments indicated that no diffusion phenomena of the sorbed ion inside the solid occurs. Thus, we considered that a surface complexation model should be applied. Laser spectro-fluorimetry and XPS allowed to determine the nature of surface sites. ZrP 2 O 7 presents only one single site (P 2 O 7 groups) whereas Th 4 (PO 4 ) 4 P 2 O 7 and Zr 2 O(PO 4 ) 2 admit two types of sites (PO 4 /P 2 O 7 and PO 4 /oxo groups, respectively). Sorbed species were identified using laser spectro-fluorimetry which indicate that, in KNO 3 0.5 M medium and for a known surface site, there are two surface complexes for U(VI) (sorption of UO 2+ 2 et de UO 2 NO + 3 species) and only one for Eu(III) (sorption of EuNO 2+ 3 ). They are linked to the substrate as bidentate inner sphere complexes (EXAFS study). Surface acidity constants were determined by simulation of potentiometric titration curves obtained for each solid suspension using FITEQL code (CCM). As sorption equilibria were defined, experimental retention data simulation was performed with respect to structural

  11. Respiratory mechanics to understand ARDS and guide mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauri, Tommaso; Lazzeri, Marta; Bellani, Giacomo; Zanella, Alberto; Grasselli, Giacomo

    2017-11-30

    As precision medicine is becoming a standard of care in selecting tailored rather than average treatments, physiological measurements might represent the first step in applying personalized therapy in the intensive care unit (ICU). A systematic assessment of respiratory mechanics in patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) could represent a step in this direction, for two main reasons. Approach and Main results: On the one hand, respiratory mechanics are a powerful physiological method to understand the severity of this syndrome in each single patient. Decreased respiratory system compliance, for example, is associated with low end expiratory lung volume and more severe lung injury. On the other hand, respiratory mechanics might guide protective mechanical ventilation settings. Improved gravitationally dependent regional lung compliance could support the selection of positive end-expiratory pressure and maximize alveolar recruitment. Moreover, the association between driving airway pressure and mortality in ARDS patients potentially underlines the importance of sizing tidal volume on respiratory system compliance rather than on predicted body weight. The present review article aims to describe the main alterations of respiratory mechanics in ARDS as a potent bedside tool to understand severity and guide mechanical ventilation settings, thus representing a readily available clinical resource for ICU physicians.

  12. Contribution to the study of sorption mechanisms at solid-liquid interfaces: application to the cases of apatites and oxy-hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duc, M.

    2002-11-01

    Sorption-desorption phenomena play an important role in the transport of toxic and radioactive elements in surface and underground water in contact with solid matter. Selenium, which is one of the long-lived radionuclides present in radioactive waste, is characterized by several oxidation states and by anionic species in aqueous solutions. In order to predict its transport, we need a good knowledge of its sorption processes. We have studied the sorption of Se(IV) and Se(VI) on two types of solids present in natural media or which have been proposed as additives to active barriers: hydroxy-apatites, fluoro-apatite and iron oxi-hydroxides (goethite and hematite). Sorption mechanisms have been studied through an approach including several different and complementary methods: titrimetry, zeta-metry, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photo electron spectroscopy, etc... Results showed that Se(VI) is much less sorbed than Se(VI) on both types of solids. For Se(IV) the sorption mechanisms are different for iron oxides and apatites. On oxides, sorption increases when pH decreases. It can be interpreted by a surface complexation model, essentially through an inner sphere complex (monodentate or bidentate). Modelling of Se sorption curves was performed after the determination of acido-basic properties of oxides. However, the determination of the intrinsic properties of oxides is disturbed by several parameters identified as impurities, evolution of the solid in solution, kinetic and solubility of the solid. For apatites, selenium sorption proceeds by exchange with superficial groups, with a maximum of fixation at approximately pH 8. Thanks to XPS measurements and the elaboration of a mathematical model, we could determine the depth of penetration of both selenium and cadmium on apatites. (author)

  13. Yucca Mountain Project far-field sorption studies and data needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meijer, A.

    1990-09-01

    Batch sorption experiments in which radionuclides dissolved in groundwaters from Yucca Mountain were sorbed onto samples of crushed tuff have resulted in a substantial database of sorption coefficients for radionuclides of interest to the repository program. Although this database has been useful in preliminary evaluations of Yucca Mountain as a potential site for a nuclear waste repository, the database has limitations that must be addressed before it can be used for performance assessment calculations in support of a license application for a waste repository. The purpose of this paper is to: review the applicability of simple (constant) sorption coefficients in transport calculations; review and evaluate alternative methods for the derivation of sorption coefficients; summarize and evaluate the present YMP sorption database to identify areas of data sufficiency and significant data gaps; summarize our current understanding of pertinent sorption mechanisms and associated kinetic parameters; evaluate the significance to the YMP of potential problems in the experimental determination and field application of sorption coefficients as enumerated by the NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 1987) in its technical position paper on sorption; formulate and evaluate strategies for the resolution of NRC concerns regarding experimental problems; and formulate a position on the sorption coefficient database and the level of understanding of sorption mechanisms likely to be required in the licensing application. 75 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  14. Development of composite calcium hydroxide sorbent in mechanical operations and evaluation of its basic sorption properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gara Paweł

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of research carried out on the possibility of obtaining composite calcium hydroxide sorbent in the process of two-step granulation, containing additional compounds of Al, Mg and Fe, and their textural and sorption studies. For this purpose, attempts were undertaken to compact commercial calcium hydroxide powder with six additives in the laboratory roll press. The resulting compacts were crushed and sieved in order to achieve the assumed sieve fraction. Based on the obtained results, basic parameters of the process of formation of composite sorbent have been determined. Both, the selected composite sorbents fractions and additives were subsequently subjected to textural studies (determination of the specific surface area and porosity and sorption capacity performance. In addition, for the better interpretation of the results, thermogravimetric studies were carried out both for the additives and composite sorbents, as well as the grain size distribution of the additives. The results of the physicochemical tests of the obtained composite sorbents were compared with analogic results from the study on fine-grained hydroxide sorbent without additives and carbonate sorbent. The presented results showed that in a two-step granulation process it is possible to obtain the granular Ca(OH2 sorbent, as well as composite sorbents possessing better SO2 sorption capacity in comparison to the powder Ca(OH2 and/or to the calcium carbonate sorbent. This can be attributed to the combination of capability of the sorbent to appropriate thermal decomposition and the formation of a group of pores in the range of 0.07-0.3 microns.

  15. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of reprogramming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Marie N. [Gene Expression Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla 92037, CA (United States); University Hospital of Würzburg, Department of Pediatrics, 2 Josef-Schneiderstrasse, 97080 Würzburg (Germany); Sancho-Martinez, Ignacio [Gene Expression Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla 92037, CA (United States); Centre for Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine, King' s College London, 28th Floor, Tower Wing, Guy' s Hospital, Great Maze Pond, London (United Kingdom); Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos, E-mail: belmonte@salk.edu [Gene Expression Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla 92037, CA (United States)

    2016-05-06

    Despite the profound and rapid advancements in reprogramming technologies since the generation of the first induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in 2006[1], the molecular basics of the process and its implications are still not fully understood. Recent work has suggested that a subset of TFs, so called “Pioneer TFs”, play an important role during the stochastic phase of iPSC reprogramming [2–6]. Pioneer TFs activities differ from conventional transcription factors in their mechanism of action. They bind directly to condensed chromatin and elicit a series of chromatin remodeling events that lead to opening of the chromatin. Chromatin decondensation by pioneer factors progressively occurs during cell division and in turn exposes specific gene promoters in the DNA to which TFs can now directly bind to promoters that are readily accessible[2, 6]. Here, we will summarize recent advancements on our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying reprogramming to iPSC as well as the implications that pioneer Transcription Factor activities might play during different lineage conversion processes. - Highlights: • Pioneer transcription factor activity underlies the initial steps of iPSC generation. • Reprogramming can occur by cis- and/or trans- reprogramming events. • Cis-reprogramming implies remodeling of the chromatin for enabling TF accessibility. • Trans-reprogramming encompasses direct binding of Tfs to their target gene promoters.

  16. Polyethylenimine-modified fungal biomass as a high-capacity biosorbent for Cr(VI) anions: sorption capacity and uptake mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shubo; Ting, Yen Peng

    2005-11-01

    Heavy metal pollution in the aqueous environment is a problem of global concern. Biosorption has been considered as a promising technology for the removal of low levels of toxic metals from industrial effluents and natural waters. A modified fungal biomass of Penicillium chrysogenum with positive surface charges was prepared by grafting polyethylenimine (PEI) onto the biomass surface in a two-step reaction. The presence of PEI on the biomass surface was verified by FTIR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. Due to the high density of amine groups in the long chains of PEI molecules on the surface, the modified biomass was found to possess positive zeta potential at pH below 10.4 as well as high sorption capacity for anionic Cr(VI). Using the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, the maximum sorption capacity for Cr(VI) at a pH range of 4.3-5.5 was 5.37 mmol/g of biomass dry weight, the highest sorption capacity for Cr(VI) compared to other sorbents reported in the literature. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) provided evidence of chromium aggregates formed on the biomass surface. XPS results verified the presence of Cr(III) on the biomass surface in the pH range 2.5-10.5, suggesting that some Cr(VI) anions were reduced to Cr(III) during the sorption. The sorption kinetics indicated that redox reaction occurred on the biomass surface, and whether the converted Cr(III) ions were released to solution or adsorbed on the biomass depended on the solution pH. Sorption mechanisms including electrostatic interaction, chelation, and precipitation were found to be involved in the complex sorption of chromium on the PEI-modified biomass.

  17. Sorption of Th(IV) onto ZnO nanoparticles and diatomite-supported ZnO nanocomposite. Kinetics, mechanism and activation parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusan, Sabriye; Aslani, Mahmut A.A.; Aytas, Sule [Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Inst. of Nuclear Sciences; Bampaiti, Anastasia; Noli, Fotini [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece). Dept. of Chemistry; Erenturk, Sema [Istanbul Technical Univ., Ayazaga Campus, Maslak-Istanbul (Turkey). Energy Inst.

    2016-11-01

    In this study, for the first time ZnO nanoparticles and diatomite-supported ZnO nanocomposite have been utilized as adsorbent for the removal of Th(IV) ions from aqueous solutions under different experimental conditions. The Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin- Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms were used to analyze the equilibrium data. The sorption equilibrium data were fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm with maximum sorption capacities values was found to be 1.105 mmol/g and 0.320 mmol/g for ZnO nanoparticles and diatomite supported ZnO nanocomposite, respectively. Pseudo-first and pseudo-second order equations, Intraparticle diffusion and Bangham's models were considered to evaluate the rate parameters and sorption mechanism. Sorption kinetics were better reproduced by the pseudo-second order model (R{sup 2} > 0.999), with an activation energy (E{sub a}) of +99.74 kJ/mol and +62.95 kJ/mol for ZnO nanoparticles and diatomite-supported ZnO nanocomposite, respectively. In order to specify the type of sorption reaction, thermodynamic parameters were also determined. The evaluated ΔG* and ΔH* indicate the non-spontaneous and endothermic nature of the reactions. The results of this work suggest that both of the used materials are fast and effective adsorbents for removing Th(IV) from aqueous solutions and chemical sorption plays a role in controlling the sorption rate.

  18. Understanding the H 2 Sorption Trends in the M-MOF-74 Series (M = Mg, Ni, Co, Zn)

    KAUST Repository

    Pham, Tony; Forrest, Katherine A.; Banerjee, Rahul; Orcajo, Gisela; Eckert, Juergen; Space, Brian

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. Electronic structure calculations and simulations of H2 sorption were performed in four members of the M-MOF-74 series: Mg-MOF-74, Ni-MOF-74, Co-MOF-74, and Zn-MOF-74. Notable differences were observed in the partial charge and polarizability of the metal ions derived from the electronic structure calculations. The modeling parameters obtained from the electronic structure calculations were found to influence certain features in the experimentally observed H2 sorption trends in the M-MOF-74 series. The simulations were performed with the inclusion of explicit many-body polarization, which was required to reproduce the experimental H2 sorption observables (i.e., sorption isotherms and isosteric heats of adsorption (Qst)) and the H2-metal interaction in all four MOFs using classical molecular simulation. Consistent with experimental measurements, the simulations captured the following trend for the H2-metal interaction strength: Ni-MOF-74 > Co-MOF-74 > Mg-MOF-74 > Zn-MOF-74. The calculations revealed that stronger H2-metal interactions within the M-MOF-74 series corresponded to shorter H2-metal distances and higher induced dipoles on the metal-sorbed H2 molecules. In addition, it was observed that there was a strong correlation between the H2-metal interaction and the polarization contribution. Although Mg-MOF-74 has the highest calculated partial charge for the metal ion within the series, the Mg2+ ion has a very low polarizability compared to the other M2+ ions; this explains why the H2-metal interaction in this MOF is weaker compared to those for Ni-MOF-74 and Co-MOF-74. The sterics interactions, reflected in the crystal structure for all four MOFs, also played a role for the observed H2 sorption trends. Zn-MOF-74 has the lowest H2 uptakes and Qst within the series due to an unfavorable geometric environment for the Zn2+ ions within the ZnO5 clusters. Lastly, the two-dimensional quantum rotational levels were calculated for the H

  19. Understanding the H 2 Sorption Trends in the M-MOF-74 Series (M = Mg, Ni, Co, Zn)

    KAUST Repository

    Pham, Tony

    2015-01-15

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. Electronic structure calculations and simulations of H2 sorption were performed in four members of the M-MOF-74 series: Mg-MOF-74, Ni-MOF-74, Co-MOF-74, and Zn-MOF-74. Notable differences were observed in the partial charge and polarizability of the metal ions derived from the electronic structure calculations. The modeling parameters obtained from the electronic structure calculations were found to influence certain features in the experimentally observed H2 sorption trends in the M-MOF-74 series. The simulations were performed with the inclusion of explicit many-body polarization, which was required to reproduce the experimental H2 sorption observables (i.e., sorption isotherms and isosteric heats of adsorption (Qst)) and the H2-metal interaction in all four MOFs using classical molecular simulation. Consistent with experimental measurements, the simulations captured the following trend for the H2-metal interaction strength: Ni-MOF-74 > Co-MOF-74 > Mg-MOF-74 > Zn-MOF-74. The calculations revealed that stronger H2-metal interactions within the M-MOF-74 series corresponded to shorter H2-metal distances and higher induced dipoles on the metal-sorbed H2 molecules. In addition, it was observed that there was a strong correlation between the H2-metal interaction and the polarization contribution. Although Mg-MOF-74 has the highest calculated partial charge for the metal ion within the series, the Mg2+ ion has a very low polarizability compared to the other M2+ ions; this explains why the H2-metal interaction in this MOF is weaker compared to those for Ni-MOF-74 and Co-MOF-74. The sterics interactions, reflected in the crystal structure for all four MOFs, also played a role for the observed H2 sorption trends. Zn-MOF-74 has the lowest H2 uptakes and Qst within the series due to an unfavorable geometric environment for the Zn2+ ions within the ZnO5 clusters. Lastly, the two-dimensional quantum rotational levels were calculated for the H

  20. Characterization of reactive tracers for C-wells field experiments 1: Electrostatic sorption mechanism, lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes, H.R.; Polzer, W.L.; Essington, E.H.; Newman, B.D.

    1989-11-01

    Lithium (Li + ) was introduced as lithium bromide (LiBr), as a retarded tracer for experiments in the C-wells complex at Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The objective was to evaluate the potential of lithium to sorb predominately by physical forces. lithium was selected as a candidate tracer on the basis of high solubility, good chemical and biological stability, and relatively low sorptivity; lack of bioaccumulation and exclusion as a priority pollutant in pertinent federal environmental regulations; good analytical detectability and low natural background concentrations; and a low cost Laboratory experiments were performed with suspensions of Prow Pass cuttings from drill hole UE-25p number-sign 1 at depths between 549 and 594 m in J-13 water at a pH of approximately 8 and in the temperature range of 25 degree C to 45 degree C. Batch equilibrium and kinetics experiments were performed; estimated thermodynamic constants, relative behavior between adsorption and desorption, and potentiometric studies provided information to infer the physical nature of lithium sorption

  1. A mechanistic approach to the generation of sorption databases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, M.H.; Baeyens, B.

    1992-01-01

    Sorption of radionuclides in the near and far fields of an underground nuclear waste repository is one of the most important processes retarding their release to the environment. In the vast majority of cases sorption data have been presented in terms of empirical parameters such as distribution coefficients and isotherm equations. A consequence of this empirical methodology is that the sorption data are only strictly valid under the experimental conditions at which they were measured. Implicit in this approach is the need to generate large amounts of data and fitting parameters necessary for an empirical description of sorption under all realistically conceivable conditions which may arise in space and time along the migration pathway to Man. An alternative approach to the problem is to try to understand, and develop model descriptions of, underlying retention mechanisms and to identify those systems parameters which essentially determine the extent of sorption. The aim of this work is to see to what extent currently existing mechanistic models, together with their associated data, can be applied to predict sorption data from laboratory experiments on natural systems. This paper describes the current status of this work which is very much in an early stage of development. An example is given whereby model predictions are compared with laboratory results for the sorption of Np at trace concentrations under oxidizing conditions on a series of minerals relevant to granite formations. 31 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs

  2. Metal sorption on kaolinite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westrich, H.R.; Brady, P.V.; Cygan, R.T.; Nagy, K.L.; Anderson, H.L.

    1997-01-01

    A key issue in performance assessment of low-level radioactive waste sites is predicting the transport and retardation of radionuclides through local soils under a variety of hydrologic and geochemical conditions. Improved transport codes should include a mechanistic model of radionuclide retardation. The authors have been investigating metal sorption (Cs + , Sr 2+ , and Ba 2+ ) on a simple clay mineral (kaolinite) to better understand the geochemical interactions of common soil minerals with contaminated groundwaters. These studies include detailed characterizations of kaolinite surfaces, experimental adsorption measurements, surface complexation modeling, and theoretical simulations of cation sorption. The aluminol edge (010) site has been identified as the most likely site for metal sorption on kaolinite in natural solutions. Relative metal binding strengths decrease from Ba 2+ to Sr 2+ to Cs + , with some portion sorbed on both kaolinite edges and basal surfaces. Some Cs + also appears to be irreversibly sorbed on both sites. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that Cs + is sorbed at aluminol (010) edge sites as an inner-sphere complex and weakly sorbed as an outer-sphere complex on (001) basal surfaces. These results provide the basis to understand and predict metal sorption onto kaolinite, and a framework to characterize sorption processes on more complex clay minerals

  3. Sorption data bases and mechanistic sorption studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, M.H.

    2000-01-01

    In common with many other countries with a nuclear programme, the Swiss concept for the disposal of radioactive waste is focused on deep burial in specially constructed repositories in geologically stable host rocks. Under such conditions, the most likely means whereby radionuclides might return to the biosphere involves their transport in slowly moving groundwater. The sorption of radionuclides by solid phases in the engineered barriers within the repository, and in the surrounding geological media, limits their release and retards their movement. Performance assessment studies for disposal concepts are carried out by Nagra, the National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste, in which various release scenarios are examined, and 'doses to man' calculated. The uptake of radionuclides by immobile phases is one of the pillars upon which the safety case rests. Hence, sorption databases are very important data sets for performance assessments. The methodology lying behind the construction of sorption databases, and some aspects of the supporting experimental work, are briefly described in this report. Flexible, long-term, focused research programmes are required to properly understand the radionuclide/rock/groundwater system, and this is an essential pre-requisite for producing robust state-of-the-art sorption databases. (author)

  4. Sorption data bases and mechanistic sorption studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, M.H

    2000-07-01

    In common with many other countries with a nuclear programme, the Swiss concept for the disposal of radioactive waste is focused on deep burial in specially constructed repositories in geologically stable host rocks. Under such conditions, the most likely means whereby radionuclides might return to the biosphere involves their transport in slowly moving groundwater. The sorption of radionuclides by solid phases in the engineered barriers within the repository, and in the surrounding geological media, limits their release and retards their movement. Performance assessment studies for disposal concepts are carried out by Nagra, the National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste, in which various release scenarios are examined, and 'doses to man' calculated. The uptake of radionuclides by immobile phases is one of the pillars upon which the safety case rests. Hence, sorption databases are very important data sets for performance assessments. The methodology lying behind the construction of sorption databases, and some aspects of the supporting experimental work, are briefly described in this report. Flexible, long-term, focused research programmes are required to properly understand the radionuclide/rock/groundwater system, and this is an essential pre-requisite for producing robust state-of-the-art sorption databases. (author)

  5. Understanding molecular structure from molecular mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allinger, Norman L

    2011-04-01

    Molecular mechanics gives us a well known model of molecular structure. It is less widely recognized that valence bond theory gives us structures which offer a direct interpretation of molecular mechanics formulations and parameters. The electronic effects well-known in physical organic chemistry can be directly interpreted in terms of valence bond structures, and hence quantitatively calculated and understood. The basic theory is outlined in this paper, and examples of the effects, and their interpretation in illustrative examples is presented.

  6. Micropore analysis of polymer networks by gas sorption and 129Xe NMR spectroscopy: toward a better understanding of intrinsic microporosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Jens; Schmidt, Johannes; Thomas, Arne; Böhlmann, Winfried

    2010-10-05

    The microporosity of two microporous polymer networks is investigated in detail. Both networks are based on a central spirobifluorene motif but have different linker groups, namely, imide and thiophene units. The microporosity of the networks is based on the "polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIM)" design strategy. Nitrogen, argon, and carbon dioxide were used as sorbates in order to analyze the microporosity in greater detail. The gas sorption data was analyzed with respect to important parameters such as specific surface area, pore volume, and pore size (distribution). It is shown that the results can be strongly model dependent and swelling effects have to be regarded. (129)Xe NMR was used as an independent technique for the estimation of the average pore size of the polymer networks. The results indicate that both networks are mainly ultramicroporous (pore sizes microporous matter might have a different micropore size in the solvent swollen/filled state that in the dry state.

  7. Quantum mechanics - a key to understanding magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Vleck, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    A translation is presented of J.H. van Vleck's lecture read at the 1977 Nobel Prize avarding ceremony. The basic results obtained using quantum mechanics in solving the problems of magnetism and especially paramagnetism are chronologically arranged. (Z.J.)

  8. Understanding gene functions and disease mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, Helmut; Aguilar-Pimentel, Juan Antonio; Amarie, Oana V.

    2018-01-01

    Since decades, model organisms have provided an important approach for understanding the mechanistic basis of human diseases. The German Mouse Clinic (GMC) was the first phenotyping facility that established a collaboration-based platform for phenotype characterization of mouse lines. In order...... to address individual projects by a tailor-made phenotyping strategy, the GMC advanced in developing a series of pipelines with tests for the analysis of specific disease areas. For a general broad analysis, there is a screening pipeline that covers the key parameters for the most relevant disease areas...

  9. Thermodynamic analysis of water vapor sorption isotherms and mechanical properties of selected paper-based food packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhim, Jong-Whan; Lee, Jun Ho

    2009-01-01

    Adsorption isotherms of 3 selected paper-based packaging materials, that is, vegetable parchment (VP) paper, Kraft paper, and solid-bleached-sulfate (SBS) paperboard, were determined at 3 different temperatures (25, 40, and 50 degrees C). The GAB isotherm model was found to fit adequately for describing experimental adsorption isotherm data for the paper samples. The monolayer moisture content of the paper samples decreased with increase in temperature, which is in the range of 0.0345 to 0.0246, 0.0301 to 0.0238, and 0.0318 to 0.0243 g water/g solid for the MG paper, the Kraft paper, and the SBS paperboard, respectively. The net isosteric heats of sorption (q(st)) for the paper samples decreased exponentially with increase in moisture content after reaching the maximum values of 18.51, 27.39, and 26.80 kJ/mol for the VP paper, the Kraft paper, and the SBS paperboard, respectively, at low-moisture content. The differential enthalpy and entropy of 3 paper samples showed compensation phenomenon with the isokinetic temperature of 399.7 K indicating that water vapor had been adsorbed onto the paper samples with the same mechanism. Depending on the paper material, tensile strength of paper samples was affected by moisture content.

  10. Inhibitory effects of extracellular polymeric substances on ofloxacin sorption by natural biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liwen; Dong, Deming; Hua, Xiuyi; Guo, Zhiyong

    2018-06-01

    Natural biofilms have strong affinities for organic contaminants, and their extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) have been thought to control the sorption process. However, the role of EPS in the sorption of antibiotics, an emerging concern, is poorly understood. Here, soluble (SEPS) and bound EPS (BEPS) were extracted from intact biofilms incubated at different lengths of time to obtain SEPS- and BEPS-free biofilms. Batch sorption experiments and infrared spectroscopy were used to investigate the role of EPS in the sorption of ofloxacin (OFL) by natural biofilms. The sorption capacities of OFL onto intact biofilms were lower than that those onto SEPS-free and BEPS-free biofilms. Partition and Langmuir adsorption contributed to the sorption of OFL onto these biofilms. SEPS and BEPS suppressed partitioning of OFL into biofilm organic matter. Meanwhile, the formation of hydrogen bonds could affect the Langmuir adsorption of OFL onto BEPS-free biofilms. These sorption mechanisms occurred simultaneously and enhanced the sorption capacities of biofilms after EPS removal. The information obtained in this study is beneficial for understanding the interaction mechanisms between antibiotics and natural biofilms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Sorption and mechanism of aqueous U(Ⅵ) onto red soil-colloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Liangshu; Huang Xin; Cao Cuncun; Chen Wei; Lu Junwen

    2013-01-01

    By static adsorption experiments, the effects of pH, ionic strength, adsorption time, uranium initial concentration, adsorbent dosage, red soil-colloid size, and organic matters on the biosorption capacity of red soil-colloid extracted from the soil around uranium tailing for uranium were studied. The adsorption process was analyzed by thermodynamics and kinetics, and the adsorption mechanism was characterized by the element analysis, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the adsorption capacity for U (Ⅵ) on red soil-colloid increases with the decrease of ionic strength or particle size, increases with the initial concentration of uranium, decreases with the increase of the amount of red soil-colloid; the saturated adsorption capacity q max can be up to 76.76 μg/mg by red soil-colloid which diameter is less than 1 μm at 25 ℃ and pH=3.5, when the ionic strength is 0.001 mol/L. FT-IR micrograph before and after red soil-colloid adsorbed uranyl ions indicates that the red soil-colloid are mainly composed of hydroxyl, carbonyl, Si-O, Si-O-Fe, etc. The adsorption of U (Ⅵ) on red soil-colloid follows Langmuir adsorption isotherm, and the pseudo-second-order equation provides the best correlation for the adsorption process. (authors)

  12. Highly Efficient Lead Distribution by Magnetic Sewage Sludge Biochar: Sorption Mechanisms and Bench Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifthikar, Jerosha; Wang, Jia; Wang, Qiliang; Wang, Ting; Wang, Huabin; Khan, Aimal; Jawad, Ali; Sun, Tingting; Jiao, Xiang; Chen, Zhuqi

    2017-08-01

    Highly efficient magnetic sewage sludge biochar (MSSBC) discloses feasible fabrication process with lower production cost, superior adsorption capacity, usage of waste sewage sludge as resource, selected by external magnetic field and exceptional regeneration property. 2gL -1 MSSBC exhibited a high adsorption capacity of 249.00mgg -1 in 200ppmPb(II) and the lead-MSSBC equilibrium was achieved within one hour, owing to the existence of the copious active sites. The adsorption kinetics was well described by the pseudo-second-order model while the adsorption isotherm could be fitted by Langmuir model. Mechanism study demonstrated the adsorption involved electrostatic attraction, ion exchange, inner-sphere complexation and formation of co-precipitates at the surface of MSSBC. Additionally, adsorption performance maintained remarkable in a broad pH window. These outcomes demonstrated the promising waste resource utilization by a feasible approach that turns the solid waste of sewage sludge into biochar adsorbent with auspicious applications in elimination of Pb(II) from wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Contribution to the study of sorption mechanisms at solid-liquid interfaces: application to the cases of apatites and oxy-hydroxides; Contribution a l'etude des mecanismes de sorption aux interfaces solide-liquide: application aux cas des apatites et des oxy-hydroxydes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duc, M

    2002-11-15

    Sorption-desorption phenomena play an important role in the transport of toxic and radioactive elements in surface and underground water in contact with solid matter. Selenium, which is one of the long-lived radionuclides present in radioactive waste, is characterized by several oxidation states and by anionic species in aqueous solutions. In order to predict its transport, we need a good knowledge of its sorption processes. We have studied the sorption of Se(IV) and Se(VI) on two types of solids present in natural media or which have been proposed as additives to active barriers: hydroxy-apatites, fluoro-apatite and iron oxi-hydroxides (goethite and hematite). Sorption mechanisms have been studied through an approach including several different and complementary methods: titrimetry, zeta-metry, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photo electron spectroscopy, etc... Results showed that Se(VI) is much less sorbed than Se(VI) on both types of solids. For Se(IV) the sorption mechanisms are different for iron oxides and apatites. On oxides, sorption increases when pH decreases. It can be interpreted by a surface complexation model, essentially through an inner sphere complex (monodentate or bidentate). Modelling of Se sorption curves was performed after the determination of acido-basic properties of oxides. However, the determination of the intrinsic properties of oxides is disturbed by several parameters identified as impurities, evolution of the solid in solution, kinetic and solubility of the solid. For apatites, selenium sorption proceeds by exchange with superficial groups, with a maximum of fixation at approximately pH 8. Thanks to XPS measurements and the elaboration of a mathematical model, we could determine the depth of penetration of both selenium and cadmium on apatites. (author)

  14. Biosorption of the metal-complex dye Acid Black 172 by live and heat-treated biomass of Pseudomonas sp. strain DY1: Kinetics and sorption mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Lin-Na; Wang, Bing [College of Life Science, Zhejiang University, 310058, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Li, Gang [Department of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Wenzhou Vocational College of Science and Technology, 325006 Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Wang, Sheng [College of Life Science, Zhejiang University, 310058, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province (China); Crowley, David E., E-mail: crowley@ucr.edu [Department of Environmental Science, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Zhao, Yu-Hua, E-mail: yhzhao225@zju.edu.cn [College of Life Science, Zhejiang University, 310058, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province (China)

    2012-02-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The maximum amount of Acid Black 172 sorption was about 2.98 mmol/g biomass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Amine groups played a major role in the biosorption of Acid Black 172. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The reasons of increased dye sorption by heat-treated biomass were proposed. - Abstract: The ability of Pseudomonas sp. strain DY1 to adsorb Acid Black 172 was studied to determine the kinetics and mechanisms involved in biosorption of the dye. Kinetic data for adsorption fit a pseudo-second-order model. Increased initial dye concentration could significantly enhance the amount of dye adsorbed by heat-treated biomass in which the maximum amount of dye adsorbed was as high as 2.98 mmol/g biomass, whereas it had no significant influence on dye sorption by live biomass. As treated temperature increased, the biomass showed gradual increase of dye sorption ability. Experiments using potentiometric titration and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated that amine groups (NH{sub 2}) played a prominent role in biosorption of Acid Black 172. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis indicated that heat treatment of the biomass increased the permeability of the cell walls and denatured the intracellular proteins. The results of biosorption experiments by different cell components confirmed that intracellular proteins contributed to the increased biosorption of Acid Black 172 by heat-treated biomass. The data suggest that biomass produced by this strain may have application for removal of metal-complex dyes from wastewater streams generated from the dye products industry.

  15. Enhancing the antimony sorption properties of nano titania-chitosan beads using epichlorohydrin as the crosslinker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishad, Padala Abdul; Bhaskarapillai, Anupkumar; Velmurugan, Sankaralingam

    2017-07-15

    Antimony is classified as a pollutant of priority importance by USEPA. We have earlier reported the synthesis of nano-titania impregnated epichlorohydrin crosslinked chitosan (TA-Cts-Epi) beads, in a format suitable for large scale applications with high sorption capacity for antimony. To understand the sorption mechanism, and to fine tune the bead composition, the effect of crosslinking density on the swelling and sorption properties of the beads was investigated in detail. Epichlorohydrin effected significant changes in physical and sorption properties of the beads. The antimony sorption capacity of the TA-Cts-Epi beads prepared by crosslinking 0.3g non-crosslinked titania-chitosan beads (TA-Cts-NCL) with 6.4mmol epichlorohydrin was 493μmol/g, while those crosslinked with 0.64mmol showed a capacity of 133μmol/g. Whereas, TA-Cts-NCL beads showed a capacity of 75μmol/g. The increase in uptake capacity with increase in crosslinking demonstrated the active involvement of the epichlorohydrin moieties in antimony binding leading to enhanced sorption. Apart from altering the stability, swelling behaviour and sorption kinetics of the beads, crosslinking significantly increased the uptake of the anionic species via electrostatic interactions. Epichlorohydrin crosslinked chitosan beads prepared without TiO 2 also showed similar behaviour. The results demonstrated the involvement of chitosan, TiO 2 and epichlorohydrin in sorption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Sorption of benzothiazoles onto sandy aquifer material under equilibrium and nonequlibrium conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kragulj Marijana M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the sorption behaviour of 1,3-benzothiazole (BT and 2-(methylthiobenzothiazole (MTBT was investigated on Danube geosorbent under equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions. All sorption isotherms fitted well with the Freundlich model (R2=0.932-0.993. The results showed that organic matter of the Danube geosorbent has a higher sorption affinity for the more hydrophobic MTBT compared to BT. However, sorption-desorption experiments showed that MTBT was more easily desorbed than BT molecules, which indicates the importance of absorption relative to adsorption in the overall sorption mechanism of MTBT. In general, molecules of BT and MTBT were more easily desorbed in the lower concentration range, which resulted in an increase in the hysteresis indices with increasing concentrations. Column experiments revealed that retention of the investigated compounds on the aquifer material followed the compound’s hydrophobicity. BT showed a lower retention, in accordance with its lower sorption affinity obtained in the static experiments, while MTBT showed a greater sorption affinity, and thus had a longer retention time on the column. Thus during transport BT represent greater risk for groundwaters than MTBT. These results have increased our understanding of benzothiazoles sorption and desorption process which represent one of the most important factors which influence the behaviour of organic compounds in the environment.

  17. Research on sorption behavior of radionuclides under shallow land environment. Mechanism and standard methodologies for measurement of distribution coefficients of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Tanaka, Tadao; Takebe, Shinichi; Nagao, Seiya; Ogawa, Hiromichi; Komiya, Tomokazu; Hagiwara, Shigeru

    2001-01-01

    This study consists of two categories' research works. One is research on sorption mechanism of radionuclides with long half-life, which are Technetium-99, TRU elements and U series radionuclides, on soil and rocks, including a development of database of distribution coefficients of radionuclides. The database on the distribution coefficients of radionuclides with information about measurement conditions, such as shaking method, soil characteristics and solution composition, has been already opened to the public (JAERI-DATABASE 20001003). Another study is investigation on a standard methodology of the distribution coefficient of radionuclide on soils, rocks and engineering materials in Japan. (author)

  18. Sorption of phosphate and zinc onto hematite and magnetite as mechanism of attenuation of contamination in agricultural soils

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Martínez, María del Rosario; Martí, Vicens; Giménez Izquierdo, Francisco Javier

    2014-01-01

    Excess of natural and synthetic fertilizers applied to agricultural soils is a well-known source of contamination of nitrates and potential source of contamination of metals (copper and zinc) and phosphates (Alloway 2010). Mineral phases such as iron oxides, are present in agricultural soils and they might play a main role in the retardation of the transport of different contaminants (Giménez et al. 2007). The present communication shows the experimental study of sorption of phosp...

  19. Sorption properties of carbon nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eletskii, Aleksandr V

    2004-01-01

    The current status of research in sorption properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is reviewed. The structural peculiarities of CNTs, determining their sorption characteristics, are considered. The mechanisms of sorption of gaseous and condensed substances by such structures are analyzed. Special attention is paid to the problem of using CNTs for storing hydrogen and other gaseous substances. Methods for filling CNTs with liquid materials, based on capillary phenomena and wetting the graphite surface of the CNT with liquids of various nature, are considered. Properties of 'peapods' formed as a result of filling single-walled CNTs with fullerene molecules are reviewed. Also considered are perspectives on the applied usage of the sorption properties of CNTs in electrochemical and fuel cells, and material storage devices, as well as for producing superminiature metallic conductors. (reviews of topical problems)

  20. Sorption/desorption reversibility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils and carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guohui

    2008-07-01

    Understanding sorption/desorption is an important prerequisite for the prediction of fate and transport of pollutants in the environment. During the last two decades, numerous studies have reported hysteresis phenomenon for the interaction of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) with natural organic matter (NOM). It manifests as nonsingular sorption/desorption isotherms or different rates for sorption and desorption, where during desorption a higher affinity of a compound on a given sorbent and a longer time scale for release than for sorption is observed. Other studies showed that some of the reported sorption/desorption hysteresis phenomena are due to experimental artifacts, mainly resulting from non-attainment of sorption equilibrium before desorption experiments, which result in 'pseudo-hysteresis'. Except for the hypothesis of sorbent reconfiguration, clear experimental evidence for the physical or chemical mechanisms proposed to lead to hysteresis is still lacking. In this study, sorption/desorption equilibrium and kinetics of phenanthrene sorption/desorption from two soils and three carbonaceous samples were investigated using both batch and column techniques. The main objective of this work was to monitor hysteresis phenomenon by carefully recovering the solute mass in the system and to compare sorption/desorption equilibria and kinetics thermodynamically. Nonsingular isotherms and higher desorption enthalpies as well as increased activation energies with proceeding desorption are expected if significant hysteresis exists. Sorption-desorption cycles were carried out to compare equilibrium isotherms and associated sorption/desorption enthalpies (AeH, isosteric heats). Instead of the traditional decant-and-refill batch method, the experiments were conducted using a newly designed batch protocol, which enables the determination of sorption/desorption isotherms at different temperatures using a closed batch system. This method additionally allows

  1. Sorption/desorption reversibility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils and carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guohui

    2008-07-01

    Understanding sorption/desorption is an important prerequisite for the prediction of fate and transport of pollutants in the environment. During the last two decades, numerous studies have reported hysteresis phenomenon for the interaction of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) with natural organic matter (NOM). It manifests as nonsingular sorption/desorption isotherms or different rates for sorption and desorption, where during desorption a higher affinity of a compound on a given sorbent and a longer time scale for release than for sorption is observed. Other studies showed that some of the reported sorption/desorption hysteresis phenomena are due to experimental artifacts, mainly resulting from non-attainment of sorption equilibrium before desorption experiments, which result in 'pseudo-hysteresis'. Except for the hypothesis of sorbent reconfiguration, clear experimental evidence for the physical or chemical mechanisms proposed to lead to hysteresis is still lacking. In this study, sorption/desorption equilibrium and kinetics of phenanthrene sorption/desorption from two soils and three carbonaceous samples were investigated using both batch and column techniques. The main objective of this work was to monitor hysteresis phenomenon by carefully recovering the solute mass in the system and to compare sorption/desorption equilibria and kinetics thermodynamically. Nonsingular isotherms and higher desorption enthalpies as well as increased activation energies with proceeding desorption are expected if significant hysteresis exists. Sorption-desorption cycles were carried out to compare equilibrium isotherms and associated sorption/desorption enthalpies (AeH, isosteric heats). Instead of the traditional decant-and-refill batch method, the experiments were conducted using a newly designed batch protocol, which enables the determination of sorption/desorption isotherms at different temperatures using a closed batch system. This method additionally allows the

  2. Enrofloxacin sorption on smectite clays: effects of pH, cations, and humic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wei; Hu, Shan; Jing, Chuanyong

    2012-04-15

    Enrofloxacin (ENR) occurs widely in natural waters because of its extensive use as a veterinary chemotherapeutic agent. To improve our understanding of the interaction of this emerging contaminant with soils and sediments, sorption of ENR on homoionic smectites and kaolinite was studied as a function of pH, ionic strength, exchangeable cations, and humic acid concentration. Batch experiments and in situ ATR-FTIR analysis suggested multiple sorption mechanisms. Cation exchange was a major contributor to the sorption of cationic ENR species on smectite. The decreased ENR sorption with increasing ionic strength indicated the formation of outer-sphere complexes. Exchangeable cations significantly influenced the sorption capacity, and the observed order was Cssorption, while humic acid had a negligible contribution to the interlayer intercalation. The results of this study provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms of ENR sorption on clay minerals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Elucidating the sorption mechanism of “mixed-mode” SPME using the basic drug amphetamine as a model compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltenburg, Hester; Groothuis, Floris A.; Droge, Steven T.J.; Bosman, Ingrid J.; Hermens, Joop L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •C18/propylsulfonic acid “mixed-mode” SPME fiber is efficient in sampling amphetamine. •Both protonated and neutral species of amphetamine sorb to the mixed-mode fiber. •Sorption of organic cations to this mixed-mode fiber depends on pH and salinity. •Amphetamine has a 20× higher affinity to the mixed-mode coating than to polyacrylate. -- Abstract: We studied the sorption of amphetamine as a model drug to represent small, polar organic cations to a new SPME coating combining C18 and propylsulfonic acid. This combination of hydrophobic and strong cation exchange (SCX) groups was compared to conventional SPME fibers with polyacrylate (PA) or C18 coating. The affinity of amphetamine at physiological pH (PBS) was 20 to 180 times greater for the new C18/SCX coating than for C18 alone and PA of different coating thickness. As amphetamine is a base and >99% protonated at physiological pH, this enhanced affinity is attributed to the ion-exchange phase in the coating. Tests at pH above the pK a of amphetamine show that, when normalized to the coating volume, neutral amphetamine also has a higher affinity compared to PA. As ion-exchange groups are not unlimitedly present in the coating, amphetamine isotherms level off to a saturation concentration on the C18/SCX fiber at the highest tested aqueous concentrations. Also, other cations (Na + , K + , Ca 2+ ) compete for the SCX sites and decrease the sorption coefficients, e.g. by 1.7 log units when comparing Milli-Q water with PBS. The C18/SCX fiber provides improved sensitivity over some of the classic SPME fibers. However, care should be taken near the cation exchange capacity of the fiber and the fiber should be calibrated in an appropriate matrix so as to eliminate competition effects

  4. Sorption Energy Maps of Clay Mineral Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cygan, Randall T.; Kirkpatrick, R. James

    1999-01-01

    A molecular-level understanding of mineral-water interactions is critical for the evaluation and prediction of the sorption properties of clay minerals that may be used in various chemical and radioactive waste disposal methods. Molecular models of metal sorption incorporate empirical energy force fields, based on molecular orbital calculations and spectroscopic data, that account for Coulombic, van der Waals attractive, and short-range repulsive energies. The summation of the non-bonded energy terms at equally-spaced grid points surrounding a mineral substrate provides a three dimensional potential energy grid. The energy map can be used to determine the optimal sorption sites of metal ions on the exposed surfaces of the mineral. By using this approach, we have evaluated the crystallographic and compositional control of metal sorption on the surfaces of kaolinite and illite. Estimates of the relative sorption energy and most stable sorption sites are derived based on a rigid ion approximation

  5. Sorption mechanisms of selenium species (selenite and selenate) on copper-based minerals; Mecanismes de sorption des especes du selenium (selenite et seleniate) sur des mineraux a base de cuivre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devoy, J

    2001-09-01

    The sorption of radionuclides on the surface of minerals represents a process capable to delay the migration of the elements from a spent fuel deep repository towards the biosphere. In the framework of a deep underground repository, an engineered clay barrier has a high trapping capacity for cationic radio-elements, in particular because of the negative charge of clay surfaces. However, anionic radioelements like selenium species, would be only weakly retained by chemical processes. In order to optimize the trapping capacity of a clay barrier with respect to anionic species, prospective studies are carried out in order to find and evaluate some minerals with specific chemical trapping functions. Among radionuclides, the case of selenium has to be considered because its isotope {sup 79}Se is present in radioactive wastes and has a half life time of 6.5 10{sup 4} years. It is also judicious to find a mineral capable of trapping simultaneously several anionic radio-elements. Copper oxides and sulfides (Cu{sub 2}O, CuO, Cu{sub 2}S, CuS, CuFeS{sub 2} and Cu{sub 5}FeS{sub 4}) are good adsorbents with respect to selenium species (selenite and selenate). These minerals, with their selenium retention properties, could be used also for the decontamination of soils and waters or to process industrial effluents. The sorption mechanisms have been studied in details for copper oxides (Cu{sub 2}O and CuO) with respect to selenite and selenate. Chalcomenite precipitates in acid pH conditions when selenite is added to a Cu{sub 2}O and CuO suspension. Selenate, in contact with cuprite (Cu{sub 2}O) leads also to a selenium-based precipitate in acid pH environment. For higher pH values, selenite and selenate are adsorbed on copper oxides (Cu{sub 2}O and CuO) and lead to internal and external sphere complexes, respectively. In the case of a selenite/cuprite mixture in basic pH environment and at the equilibrium, a chemical reaction occurs between the oxidation product of cuprite, Cu

  6. Understanding Mechanism of Photocatalytic Microbial Decontamination of Environmental Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhabilal Regmi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Several photocatalytic nanoparticles are synthesized and studied for potential application for the degradation of organic and biological wastes. Although these materials degrade organic compounds by advance oxidation process, the exact mechanisms of microbial decontamination remains partially known. Understanding the real mechanisms of these materials for microbial cell death and growth inhibition helps to fabricate more efficient semiconductor photocatalyst for large-scale decontamination of environmental wastewater or industries and hospitals/biomedical labs generating highly pathogenic bacteria and toxic molecules containing liquid waste by designing a reactor. Recent studies on microbial decontamination by photocatalytic nanoparticles and their possible mechanisms of action is highlighted with examples in this mini review.

  7. Student Understanding of Time Dependence in Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emigh, Paul J.; Passante, Gina; Shaffer, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    The time evolution of quantum states is arguably one of the more difficult ideas in quantum mechanics. In this article, we report on results from an investigation of student understanding of this topic after lecture instruction. We demonstrate specific problems that students have in applying time dependence to quantum systems and in recognizing…

  8. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT I, UNDERSTANDING MECHANICAL CLUTCHES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    ONE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE DESIGNED TO UPGRADE THE JOB SKILLS AND TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE OF DIESEL MAINENANCE MECHANICS THIS MATERIAL WAS DEVELOPED BY INDUSTRIAL TRAINING AND SUBJECT-MATTER SPECIALISTS AND TESTED IN INDUSTRIAL TRAINING SITUATIONS. THE PURPOSE OF THIS FIRST UNIT IS TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF COMPONENTS, OPERATION, AND ADJUSTMENTS…

  9. Advanced waterflooding in chalk reservoirs: Understanding of underlying mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahid, Adeel; Sandersen, Sara Bülow; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, a number of studies have shown SO42−, Ca2+ and Mg2+ to be potential determining ions, which may be added to the injected brine for improving oil recovery during waterflooding in chalk reservoirs. However the understanding of the mechanism leading to an increase in oil recove...... of a microemulsion phase could be the possible reasons for the observed increase in oil recovery with sulfate ions at high temperature in chalk reservoirs besides the mechanism of the rock wettability alteration, which has been reported in most previous studies.......Over the last decade, a number of studies have shown SO42−, Ca2+ and Mg2+ to be potential determining ions, which may be added to the injected brine for improving oil recovery during waterflooding in chalk reservoirs. However the understanding of the mechanism leading to an increase in oil recovery...

  10. Sorption Characteristics of Mixed Molecules of Glutaraldehyde from Water on Mesoporous Acid-Amine Modified Low-Cost Activated Carbon: Mechanism, Isotherm, and Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukosha Lloyd

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The environmental discharge of inefficiently treated waste solutions of the strong biocide glutaraldehyde (GA from hospitals has potential toxic impact on aquatic organisms. The adsorption characteristics of mixed polarized monomeric and polymeric molecules of GA from water on mesoporous acid-amine modified low-cost activated carbon (AC were investigated. It was found that the adsorption strongly depended on pH and surface chemistry. In acidic pH, the adsorption mechanism was elaborated to involve chemical sorption of mainly hydroxyl GA monomeric molecules on acidic surface groups, while in alkaline pH, the adsorption was elaborated to involve both chemical and physical sorption of GA polymeric forms having mixed functional groups (aldehyde, carboxyl, and hydroxyl on acidic and amine surface groups. The optimum pH of adsorption was about 12 with significant contribution by cooperative adsorption, elucidated in terms of hydrogen bonding and aldol condensation. Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich models were fitted to isotherm data. The adsorption kinetics was dependent on initial concentration and temperature and described by the Elovich model. The adsorption was endothermic, while the intraparticle diffusion model suggested significant contribution by film diffusion. The developed low-cost AC could be used to supplement the GA alkaline deactivation process for efficient removal of residual GA aquatic toxicity.

  11. Sorption and migration of neptunium in porous sedimentary materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Tadao; Mukai, Masayuki; Nakayama, Shinichi

    2005-01-01

    Column migration experiments of neptunium were conducted for porous sedimentary materials: coastal sand, tuffaceous sand, ando soil, reddish soil, yellowish soil and loess, and migration behavior, sorption mechanisms and chemical formation of Np were investigated. The migration behavior of Np in each material was much different each other, due to chemical formation in solution and/or sorption mechanism of Np. Mathematical models of different concepts were applied to the experimental results to interpret the sorption mechanism and the migration behavior. It can be concluded that both of instantaneous equilibrium sorption and sorption-desorption kinetics have to be considered to model the Np migration in sedimentary materials. (author)

  12. Modeling PCN-61 and PCN-66: Isostructural rht -Metal–Organic Frameworks with Distinct CO 2 Sorption Mechanisms

    KAUST Repository

    Pham, Tony; Forrest, Katherine A.; McDonald, Kyle; Space, Brian

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. Simulations of CO2 sorption were performed in two members of the highly tunable rht-metal-organic framework (MOF) platform: PCN-61 and PCN-66. These MOFs differ only in the triisophthalate ligand used to synthesize the respective MOFs. In PCN-61, the center of the ligand contains a benzene ring; this ring is substituted with a triphenylamine group in PCN-66. There are two chemically distinct Cu2+ ions that comprise the copper paddlewheels, [Cu2(O2CR)4], in all rht-MOFs. One type of Cu2+ ion, denoted Cu1, projects into the truncated tetrahedral (T-Td) and truncated octahedral (T-Oh) cages, while the other Cu2+ ion, denoted Cu2, projects into the cuboctahedral (cub-Oh) cages. Electronic structure calculations revealed that, in PCN-61, the Cu2 ions have a significantly higher partial positive charge than the Cu1 ions, whereas the opposite was observed in PCN-66. The simulations revealed that the CO2 molecules sorb initially onto the Cu2+ ions that have the higher partial positive charge, i.e., the Cu2 ions in PCN-61 and the Cu1 ions in PCN-66. This was demonstrated by examining the radial distribution function, g(r), about both Cu2+ ions and the modeled structure at low loading for both MOFs. This study provided insights into how differences in the charge distributions about the copper paddlewheels between two isostructural MOFs, arising from the choice of functionality on the ligand, can lead to different CO2 binding sites at low loading and suggests a more general conceptual framework for controlling sorption through the tuning of MOF electronics.

  13. Modeling PCN-61 and PCN-66: Isostructural rht -Metal–Organic Frameworks with Distinct CO 2 Sorption Mechanisms

    KAUST Repository

    Pham, Tony

    2014-11-05

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. Simulations of CO2 sorption were performed in two members of the highly tunable rht-metal-organic framework (MOF) platform: PCN-61 and PCN-66. These MOFs differ only in the triisophthalate ligand used to synthesize the respective MOFs. In PCN-61, the center of the ligand contains a benzene ring; this ring is substituted with a triphenylamine group in PCN-66. There are two chemically distinct Cu2+ ions that comprise the copper paddlewheels, [Cu2(O2CR)4], in all rht-MOFs. One type of Cu2+ ion, denoted Cu1, projects into the truncated tetrahedral (T-Td) and truncated octahedral (T-Oh) cages, while the other Cu2+ ion, denoted Cu2, projects into the cuboctahedral (cub-Oh) cages. Electronic structure calculations revealed that, in PCN-61, the Cu2 ions have a significantly higher partial positive charge than the Cu1 ions, whereas the opposite was observed in PCN-66. The simulations revealed that the CO2 molecules sorb initially onto the Cu2+ ions that have the higher partial positive charge, i.e., the Cu2 ions in PCN-61 and the Cu1 ions in PCN-66. This was demonstrated by examining the radial distribution function, g(r), about both Cu2+ ions and the modeled structure at low loading for both MOFs. This study provided insights into how differences in the charge distributions about the copper paddlewheels between two isostructural MOFs, arising from the choice of functionality on the ligand, can lead to different CO2 binding sites at low loading and suggests a more general conceptual framework for controlling sorption through the tuning of MOF electronics.

  14. Amide mediated enhancement of sorption efficiency of trivalent f-elements on functionalized carbon nanotube: evidence of physiosorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Nishesh K.; Sengupta, Arijit; Rane, Vinayak G.; Kadam, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    Amide Functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube (CNT-DHA) was found to enhance the sorption efficiency of trivalent lanthanides and actinides from aqueous acidic solution. Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) and Temkin isotherm models were employed to understand the sorption mechanism revealing the predominance of Fruendlich isotherm. The sorption energy evaluated from D-R isotherm revealed the sorption process is physisorption, which was confirmed by the no shift in the IR frequency of amide functionality of carbon nanotube on sorption. The EPR spectra of the Gd"3"+ sorbed on carbon nanotube also showed no perturbation on the local environment of Gd"3"+ on sorption again revealing the physisorption. Analysis of the sorption kinetics through Lagergren's first order kinetics, intra particle diffusion model and pseudo second order kinetics revealed that the sorption kinetics followed pseudo second order kinetics for Am"3"+ and Eu"3"+ with rate constants 4.04E-05mg g"-"1 min"-"1 and 8.27E-05 mg g"-"1 min"-"1 respectively. The radiolytic stability of CNT-DHA was evaluated and found to be satisfactory. EDTA was found to strip the trivalent lanthanides and actinides almost quantitatively. (author)

  15. Advances in the understanding of crystal growth mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Nishinaga, T; Harada, J; Sasaki, A; Takei, H

    1997-01-01

    This book contains the results of a research project entitled Crystal Growth Mechanisms on an Atomic Scale, which was carried out for 3 years by some 72 reseachers. Until recently in Japan, only the technological aspects of crystal growth have been emphasized and attention was paid only to its importance in industry. However the scientific aspects also need to be considered so that the technology of crystal growth can be developed even further. This project therefore aimed at understanding crystal growth and the emphasis was on finding growth mechanisms on an atomic scale.

  16. Toward a quantitative understanding of mechanical behavior of nanocrystalline metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dao, M.; Lu, L.; Asaro, R.J.; Hosson, J.T.M. de; Ma, E.

    2007-01-01

    Focusing on nanocrystalline (nc) pure face-centered cubic metals, where systematic experimental data are available, this paper presents a brief overview of the recent progress made in improving mechanical properties of nc materials, and in quantitatively and mechanistically understanding the underlying mechanisms. The mechanical properties reviewed include strength, ductility, strain rate and temperature dependence, fatigue and tribological properties. The highlighted examples include recent experimental studies in obtaining both high strength and considerable ductility, the compromise between enhanced fatigue limit and reduced crack growth resistance, the stress-assisted dynamic grain growth during deformation, and the relation between rate sensitivity and possible deformation mechanisms. The recent advances in obtaining quantitative and mechanics-based models, developed in line with the related transmission electron microscopy and relevant molecular dynamics observations, are discussed with particular attention to mechanistic models of partial/perfect-dislocation or deformation-twin-mediated deformation processes interacting with grain boundaries, constitutive modeling and simulations of grain size distribution and dynamic grain growth, and physically motivated crystal plasticity modeling of pure Cu with nanoscale growth twins. Sustained research efforts have established a group of nanocrystalline and nanostructured metals that exhibit a combination of high strength and considerable ductility in tension. Accompanying the gradually deepening understanding of the deformation mechanisms and their relative importance, quantitative and mechanisms-based constitutive models that can realistically capture experimentally measured and grain-size-dependent stress-strain behavior, strain-rate sensitivity and even ductility limit are becoming available. Some outstanding issues and future opportunities are listed and discussed

  17. Effect of Mechanical Impact Energy on the Sorption and Diffusion of Moisture in Reinforced Polymer Composite Samples on Variation of Their Sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Startsev, V. O.; Il'ichev, A. V.

    2018-05-01

    The effect of mechanical impact energy on the sorption and diffusion of moisture in polymer composite samples on variation of their sizes was investigated. Square samples, with sides of 40, 60, 80, and 100 mm, made of a KMKU-2m-120.E0,1 carbon-fiber and KMKS-2m.120.T10 glass-fiber plastics with different resistances to calibrated impacts, were compared. Impact loading diagrams of the samples in relation to their sizes and impact energy were analyzed. It is shown that the moisture saturation and moisture diffusion coefficient of the impact-damaged materials can be modeled by Fick's second law with account of impact energy and sample sizes.

  18. Sorption of ionizable and ionic organic compounds to biochar, activated carbon and other carbonaceous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kah, Melanie; Sigmund, Gabriel; Xiao, Feng; Hofmann, Thilo

    2017-11-01

    The sorption of ionic and ionizable organic compounds (IOCs) (e.g., pharmaceuticals and pesticides) on carbonaceous materials plays an important role in governing the fate, transport and bioavailability of IOCs. The paradigms previously established for the sorption of neutral organic compounds do not always apply to IOCs and the importance of accounting for the particular sorption behavior of IOCs is being increasingly recognized. This review presents the current state of knowledge and summarizes the recent advances on the sorption of IOCs to carbonaceous sorbents. A broad range of sorbents were considered to evaluate the possibility to read across between fields of research that are often considered in isolation (e.g., carbon nanotubes, graphene, biochar, and activated carbon). Mechanisms relevant to IOCs sorption on carbonaceous sorbents are discussed and critically evaluated, with special attention being given to emerging sorption mechanisms including low-barrier, charge-assisted hydrogen bonds and cation-π assisted π-π interactions. The key role played by some environmental factors is also discussed, with a particular focus on pH and ionic strength. Overall the review reveals significant advances in our understanding of the interactions between IOCs and carbonaceous sorbents. In addition, knowledge gaps are identified and priorities for future research are suggested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Intact and Impaired Mechanisms of Action Understanding in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivanti, Giacomo; McCormick, Carolyn; Young, Gregory S.; Abucayan, Floridette; Hatt, Naomi; Nadig, Aparna; Ozonoff, Sally; Rogers, Sally J.

    2016-01-01

    Typically developing children understand and predict others’ behavior by extracting and processing relevant information such as the logic of their actions within the situational constraints and the intentions conveyed by their gaze direction and emotional expressions. Children with autism have difficulties understanding and predicting others’ actions. With the use of eye tracking and behavioral measures, we investigated action understanding mechanisms used by 18 children with autism and a well-matched group of 18 typically developing children. Results showed that children with autism (a) consider situational constraints in order to understand the logic of an agent’s action and (b) show typical usage of the agent’s emotional expressions to infer his or her intentions. We found (c) subtle atypicalities in the way children with autism respond to an agent’s direct gaze and (d) marked impairments in their ability to attend to and interpret referential cues such as a head turn for understanding an agent’s intentions. PMID:21401220

  20. Understanding and imitating unfamiliar actions: distinct underlying mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana C Carmo

    Full Text Available The human "mirror neuron system" has been proposed to be the neural substrate that underlies understanding and, possibly, imitating actions. However, since the brain activity with mirror properties seems insufficient to provide a good description for imitation of actions outside one's own repertoire, the existence of supplementary processes has been proposed. Moreover, it is unclear whether action observation requires the same neural mechanisms as the explicit access to their meaning. The aim of this study was two-fold as we investigated whether action observation requires different processes depending on 1 whether the ultimate goal is to imitate or understand the presented actions and 2 whether the to-be-imitated actions are familiar or unfamiliar to the subject. Participants were presented with both meaningful familiar actions and meaningless unfamiliar actions that they had to either imitate or discriminate later. Event-related Potentials were used as differences in brain activity could have been masked by the use of other techniques with lower temporal resolution. In the imitation task, a sustained left frontal negativity was more pronounced for meaningless actions than for meaningful ones, starting from an early time-window. Conversely, observing unfamiliar versus familiar actions with the intention of discriminating them led to marked differences over right centro-posterior scalp regions, in both middle and latest time-windows. These findings suggest that action imitation and action understanding may be sustained by dissociable mechanisms: while imitation of unfamiliar actions activates left frontal processes, that are likely to be related to learning mechanisms, action understanding involves dedicated operations which probably require right posterior regions, consistent with their involvement in social interactions.

  1. Understanding mechanisms of toxicity: Insights from drug discovery research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, Keith A.; Kavlock, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Toxicology continues to rely heavily on use of animal testing for prediction of potential for toxicity in humans. Where mechanisms of toxicity have been elucidated, for example endocrine disruption by xenoestrogens binding to the estrogen receptor, in vitro assays have been developed as surrogate assays for toxicity prediction. This mechanistic information can be combined with other data such as exposure levels to inform a risk assessment for the chemical. However, there remains a paucity of such mechanistic assays due at least in part to lack of methods to determine specific mechanisms of toxicity for many toxicants. A means to address this deficiency lies in utilization of a vast repertoire of tools developed by the drug discovery industry for interrogating the bioactivity of chemicals. This review describes the application of high-throughput screening assays as experimental tools for profiling chemicals for potential for toxicity and understanding underlying mechanisms. The accessibility of broad panels of assays covering an array of protein families permits evaluation of chemicals for their ability to directly modulate many potential targets of toxicity. In addition, advances in cell-based screening have yielded tools capable of reporting the effects of chemicals on numerous critical cell signaling pathways and cell health parameters. Novel, more complex cellular systems are being used to model mammalian tissues and the consequences of compound treatment. Finally, high-throughput technology is being applied to model organism screens to understand mechanisms of toxicity. However, a number of formidable challenges to these methods remain to be overcome before they are widely applicable. Integration of successful approaches will contribute towards building a systems approach to toxicology that will provide mechanistic understanding of the effects of chemicals on biological systems and aid in rationale risk assessments

  2. Student understanding of time dependence in quantum mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. Emigh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] The time evolution of quantum states is arguably one of the more difficult ideas in quantum mechanics. In this article, we report on results from an investigation of student understanding of this topic after lecture instruction. We demonstrate specific problems that students have in applying time dependence to quantum systems and in recognizing the key role of the energy eigenbasis in determining the time dependence of wave functions. Through analysis of student responses to a set of four interrelated tasks, we categorize some of the difficulties that underlie common errors. The conceptual and reasoning difficulties that have been identified are illustrated through student responses to four sets of questions administered at different points in a junior-level course on quantum mechanics. Evidence is also given that the problems persist throughout undergraduate instruction and into the graduate level.

  3. Understanding Hydrogen Sorption in In- soc -MOF: A Charged Metal-Organic Framework with Open-Metal Sites, Narrow Channels, and Counterions

    KAUST Repository

    Pham, Tony

    2015-03-04

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations of hydrogen sorption were performed in In-soc-MOF, a charged metal-organic framework (MOF) that contains In3O trimers coordinated to 5,5′-azobis(1,3-benzenedicarboxylate) linkers. The MOF contains nitrate counterions that are located in carcerand-like capsules of the framework. This MOF was shown to have a high hydrogen uptake at 77 K and 1.0 atm. The simulations were performed with a potential that includes explicit many-body polarization interactions, which were important for modeling gas sorption in a charged/polar MOF such as In-soc-MOF. The simulated hydrogen sorption isotherms were in good agreement with experiment in this challenging platform for modeling. The simulations predict a high initial isosteric heat of adsorption, Qst, value of about 8.5 kJ mol-1, which is in contrast to the experimental value of 6.5 kJ mol-1 for all loadings. The difference in the Qst behavior between experiment and simulation is attributed to the fact that, in experimental measurements, the sorbate molecules cannot access the isolated cages containing the nitrate ions, the most energetically favorable site in the MOF, at low pressures due to an observed diffusion barrier. In contrast, the simulations were able to capture the sorption of hydrogen onto the nitrate ions at low loading due to the equilibrium nature of GCMC simulations. The experimental Qst values were reproduced in simulation by blocking access to all of the nitrate ions in the MOF. Furthermore, at 77 K, the sorbed hydrogen molecules were reminiscent of a dense fluid in In-soc-MOF starting at approximately 5.0 atm, and this was verified by monitoring the isothermal compressibility, βT, values. The favorable sites for hydrogen sorption were identified from the polarization distribution as the nitrate ions, the In3O trimers, and the azobenzene nitrogen atoms. Lastly, the two-dimensional quantum rotational levels

  4. Recent progress on understanding the mechanisms of amyloid nucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatani, Eri; Yamamoto, Naoki

    2018-04-01

    Amyloid fibrils are supramolecular protein assemblies with a fibrous morphology and cross-β structure. The formation of amyloid fibrils typically follows a nucleation-dependent polymerization mechanism, in which a one-step nucleation scheme has widely been accepted. However, a variety of oligomers have been identified in early stages of fibrillation, and a nucleated conformational conversion (NCC) mechanism, in which oligomers serve as a precursor of amyloid nucleation and convert to amyloid nuclei, has been proposed. This development has raised the need to consider more complicated multi-step nucleation processes in addition to the simplest one-step process, and evidence for the direct involvement of oligomers as nucleation precursors has been obtained both experimentally and theoretically. Interestingly, the NCC mechanism has some analogy with the two-step nucleation mechanism proposed for inorganic and organic crystals and protein crystals, although a more dramatic conformational conversion of proteins should be considered in amyloid nucleation. Clarifying the properties of the nucleation precursors of amyloid fibrils in detail, in comparison with those of crystals, will allow a better understanding of the nucleation of amyloid fibrils and pave the way to develop techniques to regulate it.

  5. Extensive Sorption of Organic Compounds to Black Carbon, Coal and Kerogen in Sediments and Soils: Mechanisms and Consequences for Distribution, Bioaccumulation and Biodegradation (Critical Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, G.; Gustafsson, O.; Bucheli, T.D.; Jonker, M.T.O.; Koelmans, A.A.; Noort, van P.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that sorption of organic chemicals to soils and sediments can be described by "dual-mode sorption": absorption in amorphous organic matter (AOM) and adsorption to carbonaceous materials such as black carbon (BC), coal, and kerogen, collectively termed "carbonaceous

  6. Understanding the thermal, mechanical and electrical properties of epoxy nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarathi, R.; Sahu, R.K.; Rajeshkumar, P.

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, the electrical, mechanical and thermal properties of epoxy nanocomposite materials were studied. The electrical insulation characteristics were analyzed through short time breakdown voltage test, accelerated electrical ageing test, and by tracking test. The breakdown voltage increases with increase in nano-clay content up to 5 wt%, under AC and DC voltages. The volume resistivity, permittivity and tan(δ) of the epoxy nanocomposites were measured. The Weibull studies indicate that addition of nanoclay upto 5 wt% enhances the characteristic life of epoxy nanocomposite insulation material. The tracking test results indicate that the tracking time is high with epoxy nanocomposites as compared to pure epoxy. Ageing studies were carried out to understand the surface characteristic variation through contact angle measurement. The hydrophobicity of the insulating material was analysed through contact angle measurement. The diffusion coefficients of the material with different percentage of clay in epoxy nanocomposites were calculated. The exfoliation characteristics in epoxy nanocomposites were analyzed through wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) studies. The thermal behaviour of the epoxy nanocomposites was analyzed by carrying out thermo gravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) studies. Heat deflection temperature of the material was measured to understand the stability of the material for intermittent temperature variation. The dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) results indicated that storage modulus of the material increases with small amount of clay in epoxy resin. The activation energy of the material was calculated from the DMA results

  7. Mechanisms influencing student understanding on an outdoor guided field trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caskey, Nourah Al-Rashid

    Field trips are a basic and important, yet often overlooked part of the student experience. They provide the opportunity to integrate real world knowledge with classroom learning and student previous personal experiences. Outdoor guided field trips leave students with an increased understanding, awareness and interest and in science. However, the benefits of this experience are ambiguous at best (Falk and Balling, 1982; Falk and Dierking, 1992; Kisiel, 2006.) Students on an outdoor guided field trip to a local nature park experienced a significant increase in their understanding of the rock cycle. The changes in the pre-field trip test and the post-field trip test as well as their answers in interviews showed a profound change in the students' understanding and in their interest in the subject matter. The use of the "student's voice" (Bamberger and Tal, 2008) was the motivation for data analysis. By using the students' voice, I was able to determine the mechanisms that might influence their understanding of a subject. The central concepts emerging from the data were: the outdoor setting; the students' interest; the social interaction. From these central concepts, a conceptual model was developed. The outdoor setting allows for the freedom to explore, touch, smell and movement. This, in turn, leads to an increased interest in subject matter. As the students are exploring, they are enjoying themselves and become more open to learning. Interest leads to a desire to learn (Dewey, 1975). In addition to allowing the freedom to explore and move, the outdoor setting creates the condition for social interaction. The students talk to each other as they walk; they have in-depth discourse regarding the subject matter---with the teachers, each other and with the guides. The guides have an extremely important role in the students' learning. The more successful guides not only act as experts, but also adjust to the students' needs and act or speak accordingly. The

  8. Understanding Neurological Disease Mechanisms in the Era of Epigenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Irfan A.; Mehler, Mark F.

    2015-01-01

    The burgeoning field of epigenetics is making a significant impact on our understanding of brain evolution, development, and function. In fact, it is now clear that epigenetic mechanisms promote seminal neurobiological processes, ranging from neural stem cell maintenance and differentiation to learning and memory. At the molecular level, epigenetic mechanisms regulate the structure and activity of the genome in response to intracellular and environmental cues, including the deployment of cell type–specific gene networks and those underlying synaptic plasticity. Pharmacological and genetic manipulation of epigenetic factors can, in turn, induce remarkable changes in neural cell identity and cognitive and behavioral phenotypes. Not surprisingly, it is also becoming apparent that epigenetics is intimately involved in neurological disease pathogenesis. Herein, we highlight emerging paradigms for linking epigenetic machinery and processes with neurological disease states, including how (1) mutations in genes encoding epigenetic factors cause disease, (2) genetic variation in genes encoding epigenetic factors modify disease risk, (3) abnormalities in epigenetic factor expression, localization, or function are involved in disease pathophysiology, (4) epigenetic mechanisms regulate disease-associated genomic loci, gene products, and cellular pathways, and (5) differential epigenetic profiles are present in patient-derived central and peripheral tissues. PMID:23571666

  9. Effects of oil dispersant on solubilization, sorption and desorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediment–seawater systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xiao; Gong, Yanyan; O’Reilly, S.E.; Zhao, Dongye

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Oil dispersant enhances solubilization of PAHs more effectively than surfactants. • Dispersant and dispersed oil enhance sediment sorption of PAHs and induce hysteresis. • Partitioning to sediment-sorbed dispersant is the mechanism for enhanced PAH uptake. • Dual-mode models well simulate dispersant-facilitated sorption of PAHs on sediment. • Deepwater conditions reduce solubilization of PAHs and lessen dispersant effects. - Abstract: This work investigated effects of a prototype oil dispersant on solubilization, sorption and desorption of three model PAHs in sediment–seawater systems. Increasing dispersant dosage linearly enhanced solubility for all PAHs. Conversely, the dispersant enhanced the sediment uptake of the PAHs, and induced significant desorption hysteresis. Such contrasting effects (adsolubilization vs. solubilization) of dispersant were found dependent of the dispersant concentration and PAH hydrophobicity. The dual-mode models adequately simulated the sorption kinetics and isotherms, and quantified dispersant-enhanced PAH uptake. Sorption of naphthalene and 1-methylnaphthalene by sediment positively correlated with uptake of the dispersant, while sorption of pyrene dropped sharply when the dispersant exceeded its critical micelle concentration (CMC). The deepwater conditions diminished the dispersant effects on solubilization, but enhanced uptake of the PAHs, albeit sorption of the dispersant was lowered. The information may aid in understanding roles of dispersants on distribution, fate and transport of petroleum PAHs in marine systems

  10. Understanding quantum mechanics by measuring the properties of mesoscopic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, R.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of the electrical transport and magnetic properties of micron-size scale insulators, metals, semi-metals, and semiconductors at low temperatures have uncovered a wealth of unexpected phenomena. The only way to understand these new properties is by invoking many of the postulates of quantum mechanics. The author has confirmed that the electron acts as a long-range phase-coherent wave and conventional classical forces are not as important as scalar and vector potentials in determining the response of the electron as it moves through its environment. This talk will focus on the measurement of the Aharonov-Bohm self-interference effects, nonlocal transport phenomena, and persistent currents in normal metal ring structures that have been observed in these nanostructures

  11. Our Evolving Understanding of the Mechanism of Quinolones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Gutierrez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of DNA supercoiling is essential for the proper regulation of a plethora of biological processes. As a consequence of this mode of regulation, ahead of the replication fork, DNA replication machinery is prone to introducing supercoiled regions into the DNA double helix. Resolution of DNA supercoiling is essential to maintain DNA replication rates that are amenable to life. This resolution is handled by evolutionarily conserved enzymes known as topoisomerases. The activity of topoisomerases is essential, and therefore constitutes a prime candidate for targeting by antibiotics. In this review, we present hallmark investigations describing the mode of action of quinolones, one of the antibacterial classes targeting the function of topoisomerases in bacteria. By chronologically analyzing data gathered on the mode of action of this imperative antibiotic class, we highlight the necessity to look beyond primary drug-target interactions towards thoroughly understanding the mechanism of quinolones at the level of the cell.

  12. Sorption of simazine to corn straw biochars prepared at different pyrolytic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guixiang; Zhang Qing; Sun Ke; Liu Xitao; Zheng Wenjuan; Zhao Ye

    2011-01-01

    Simazine sorption to corn straw biochars prepared at various temperatures (100-600 deg. C) was examined to understand its sorption behavior as influenced by characteristics of biochars. Biochars were characterized via elemental analysis, BET-N 2 surface area (SA), FTIR and 13 C NMR. Freundlich and dual-mode models described sorption isotherms well. Positive correlation between log K oc values and aromatic C contents and negative correlation between log K oc values and (O + N)/C ratios indicate aromatic-rich biochars have high binding affinity to simazine (charge transfer (π-π*) interactions) and hydrophobic binding may overwhelm H-bonding, respectively. Dual-mode model results suggest adsorption contribution to total sorption increases with carbonization degree. Positive correlation between amounts of adsorption (Q ad ) and SA indicates pore-filling mechanism. Comparison between our results and those obtained with other sorbents indicates corn straw biochars produced at higher temperature can effectively retain simazine. These observations will be helpful for designing biochars as engineered sorbents to remove triazine herbicides. - Highlights: → Biochars were characterized via elemental analysis, BET-N 2 , FTIR and 13 C NMR. → Freundlich and dual-mode models described sorption isotherms well. → Biochar produced at higher temperature had larger sorption capacity for simazine. → Aromatic-rich biochars have high binding affinity to simazine. → Dual-mode model results suggest adsorption contribution to total sorption. - The corn straw biochar prepared at higher temperature with stronger hydrophobicity, more aromatic C and larger surface area had higher sorption capacity for simazine.

  13. Prediction of metal sorption in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westrich, Henry R.; Anderson, Harold L. Jr.; Arthur, Sara E.; Brady, Patrick V.; Cygan, Randall T.; Liang, Jianjie; Zhang, Pengchu; Yee, N.

    2000-01-01

    Radionuclide transport in soils and groundwaters is routinely calculated in performance assessment (PA) codes using simplified conceptual models for radionuclide sorption, such as the K D approach for linear and reversible sorption. Model inaccuracies are typically addressed by adding layers of conservativeness (e.g., very low K D 's), and often result in failed transport predictions or substantial increases in site cleanup costs. Realistic assessments of radionuclide transport over a wide range of environmental conditions can proceed only from accurate, mechanistic models of the sorption process. They have focused on the sorption mechanisms and partition coefficients for Cs + , Sr 2+ and Ba 2+ (analogue for Ra 2+ ) onto iron oxides and clay minerals using an integrated approach that includes computer simulations, sorption/desorption measurements, and synchrotron analyses of metal sorbed substrates under geochemically realistic conditions. Sorption of Ba 2+ and Sr 2+ onto smectite is strong, pH-independent, and fully reversible, suggesting that cation exchange at the interlayer basal sites controls the sorption process. Sr 2+ sorbs weakly onto geothite and quartz, and is pH-dependent. Sr 2+ sorption onto a mixture of smectite and goethite, however, is pH- and concentration dependent. The adsorption capacity of montmorillonite is higher than that of goethite, which may be attributed to the high specific surface area and reaction site density of clays. The presence of goethite also appears to control the extent of metal desorption. In-situ, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopic measurements for montmorillonite and goethite show that the first shell of adsorbed Ba 2+ is coordinated by 6 oxygens. The second adsorption shell, however, varies with the mineral surface coverage of adsorbed Ba 2+ and the mineral substrate. This suggests that Ba 2+ adsorption on mineral surfaces involves more than one mechanism and that the stability of sorbed

  14. Sorption isolation of strontium from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avramenko, V.A.; Zheleznov, V.V.; Kaplun, E.V.; Sokol'nitskaya, T.A.; Yukhkam, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    Sorption isolation of strontium from seawater is considered and prospects of use of selective adsorbents for purification of seawater or liquid radioactive wastes mixed with seawater from 90 Sr are discussed. Comparative analysis of sorptive properties of adsorbents of different nature is done. It is shown that sorption-reagent materials developed by authors can to afford effective separation of 90 Sr from seawater. Possible mechanism of strontium sorption by these adsorbents is considered. The prospect of their use for purification of liquid radioactive wastes from strontium is shown [ru

  15. Understanding Liver Regeneration: From Mechanisms to Regenerative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilgenkrantz, Hélène; Collin de l'Hortet, Alexandra

    2018-04-16

    Liver regeneration is a complex and unique process. When two-thirds of a mouse liver is removed, the remaining liver recovers its initial weight in approximately 10 days. The understanding of the mechanisms responsible for liver regeneration may help patients needing large liver resections or transplantation and may be applied to the field of regenerative medicine. All differentiated hepatocytes are capable of self-renewal, but different subpopulations of hepatocytes seem to have distinct proliferative abilities. In the setting of chronic liver diseases, a ductular reaction ensues in which liver progenitor cells (LPCs) proliferate in the periportal region. Although these LPCs have the capacity to differentiate into hepatocytes and biliary cells in vitro, their ability to participate in liver regeneration is far from clear. Their expansion has even been associated with increased fibrosis and poorer prognosis in chronic liver diseases. Controversies also remain on their origin: lineage studies in experimental mouse models of chronic injury have recently suggested that these LPCs originate from hepatocyte dedifferentiation, whereas in other situations, they seem to come from cholangiocytes. This review summarizes data published in the past 5 years in the liver regeneration field, discusses the mechanisms leading to regeneration disruption in chronic liver disorders, and addresses the potential use of novel approaches for regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sorption studies of uranium in sediment-groundwater systems from the natural analogue sites of Needle's Eye and Broubster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgo, J.J.; Falck, W.E.; Hooker, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the results of sorption experiments designed to provide essential data for migration modelling. Sorption of 233 U from natural ground-water onto peat from Broubster and silt from Needle's Eye was studied under atmospheric conditions and different pH regimes. The temperature was maintained at 10 0 C and, in the case of Needle's Eye silt, the kinetics of sorption were followed. The results were analyzed in conjunction with speciation modelling in an attempt to understand the sorption mechanisms and to extrapolate the findings to cover the range of conditions likely to be met in the field. This work is part of the CEC project Mirage - Second phase, research area 'Natural analogues'

  17. The effect of organic amendment on mobility of cesium in tropical soils - The effect of organic amendment on sorption mechanisms for cesium and cobalt in tropical soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasserman, M.A.V.; Santos-Oliveira, R. [Instituto de Engenharia nuclear/CNEN. Rua Helio de Almeida, 75. Cidade Universitaria - Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro, RJ. CEP 21941-906 (Brazil); Garcia, R.J.L.; Ferreira, A.C.M.; Rochedo, E.R.R.; Sobrinho, G.A.N. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria/CNEN. Av. Salvador Allende s /no. Rio de Janeiro, RJ. CEP: 22780-160 (Brazil); Perez, D.V. [Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Solos/EMBRAPA. R. Jardim Botanico, 1024.Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP: 22460-000 (Brazil); Wasserman, J.C. [dUFF Network of Environment and Sustainable Development (REMADS-UFF), University Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    This work aimed to investigate the mechanisms involved in the sorption of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co as a function of the physico-chemical properties of some types of Brazilian soils and the changes on the behavior of these radionuclides due to changes in soil properties promoted by organic amendment. The experimental study was conducted in a controlled area, where pots containing different types of soils (Ferralsol, Nitisol and Histosol) and different doses of organic amendment (no amendment; 2 kg.m{sup -2} and 4 kg.m{sup -2}) were spiked with {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co. The organic amendment used in this experiment was obtained in the Unit of Compost of the Organic Material of Pinheiral (RJ, Brazil), where the compost is made up from the leaves swept from the streets of the Pinheiral city. The mobility of these radionuclides in the soil was assessed through sequential chemical extraction and desorption studies as a function of pH. The bioavailability was evaluated through the effective absorption of radionuclide by root crops (Raphanus sativus, L). This study evidenced that the organic amendment plays an important role in the desorption processes of cobalt and cesium, reducing desorption of both nuclides beneath higher organic amendment dose. This behavior was observed in acid conditions as well in alkaline. However extreme acid conditions may mobilize both radionuclides, although cobalt mobility was shown to be more sensitive to low pH than cesium. (authors)

  18. Understanding the mechanisms behind coking pressure: Relationship to pore structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John J. Duffy; M. Castro Diaz; Colin E. Snape; Karen M. Steel; Merrick R. Mahoney [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Nottingham Fuel and Energy Centre, School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering

    2007-09-15

    Three low volatile coals A, B and C with oven wall pressures of 100 kPa, 60 kPa and 20 kPa respectively were investigated using high-temperature rheometry, {sup 1}H NMR, thermogravimetric analysis and SEM, with the primary aim to better understand the mechanisms behind the coking pressure phenomenon. Rheometer plate displacement measurements ({Delta}L) have shown differences in the expansion and contraction behaviour of the three coals, which seem to correlate with changes in rheological properties; while SEM images have shown that the expansion process coincides with development of pore structure. It is considered that the point of maximum plate height ({Delta}L{sub max}) prior to contraction may be indicative of a cell opening or pore network forming process, based on analogies with other foam systems. Such a process may be considered important for coking pressure since it provides a potential mechanism for volatile escape, relieving internal gas pressure and inducing charge contraction. For coal C, which has the highest fluidity {delta}L{sub max} occurs quite early in the softening process and consequently a large degree of contraction is observed; while for the lower fluidity coal B, the process is delayed since pore development and consequently wall thinning progress at a slower rate. When {Delta}L{sub max} is attained, a lower degree of contraction is observed because the event occurs closer to resolidification where the increasing viscosity/elasticity can stabilise the expanded pore structure. For coal A which is relatively high fluidity, but also high coking pressure, a greater degree of swelling is observed prior to cell rupture, which may be due to greater fluid elasticity during the expansion process. This excessive expansion is considered to be a potential reason for its high coking pressure. 58 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Investigation of metal ions sorption of brown peat moss powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelus, Nadezhda; Blokhina, Elena; Novikov, Dmitry; Novikova, Yaroslavna; Chuchalin, Vladimir

    2017-11-01

    For regularities research of sorptive extraction of heavy metal ions by cellulose and its derivates from aquatic solution of electrolytes it is necessary to find possible mechanism of sorption process and to choice a model describing this process. The present article investigates the regularities of aliovalent metals sorption on brown peat moss powder. The results show that sorption isotherm of Al3+ ions is described by Freundlich isotherm and sorption isotherms of Na+ i Ni2+ are described by Langmuir isotherm. To identify the mechanisms of brown peat moss powder sorption the IR-spectra of the initial brown peat moss powder samples and brown peat moss powder samples after Ni (II) sorption were studied. Metal ion binding mechanisms by brown peat moss powder points to ion exchange, physical adsorption, and complex formation with hydroxyl and carboxyl groups.

  20. Influence of sorption competition on sorption data for MX-80 bentonite used in performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, M.H.; Baeyens, B.; Marques Fernandes, M.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In order to obtain a (quasi) mechanistic understanding of radionuclide uptake on clay minerals and argillaceous rocks, the majority of sorption experiments have been carried out on purified clay minerals such as montmorillonite and illite at trace concentrations (sorption edges), or as a function of concentration (sorption isotherms), with a single radionuclide under well-defined conditions in simple background electrolytes. As a result of such studies the 2 site proto-lysis non electrostatic surface complexation cation exchange (2SPNE SC/CE) sorption model, was developed and has been successfully applied to quantitatively describe the uptake of numerous radionuclides of differing valences as a function of pH and concentration on montmorillonite. In a deep geological repository for high level waste, stable impurities arise from many sources: they are present in the pore waters, in the tunnel back fill materials and host rock formations, they arise from the corrosion of the carbon steel canister and finally they are dissolved from the spent fuel and vitrified high level waste simultaneously with the radionuclides. These impurities, which are an integral part of a realistic repository system, can potentially compete with radionuclides for the sorption sites on the backfill materials and host rock and thus reduce their uptake on them. The influence of competitive sorption is not intrinsically included (or only partly so) in the sorption model. It is clearly an inherently important issue to quantify the influence of sorption competition on the transport of released radionuclides through the multi-barrier system in a deep repository. In this study an extreme case of a competitive sorption scenario in the near field of a HLW repository is presented. Two factors are considered: one associated with the high concentrations and the other with competitive sorption effects. The tendency in both cases is to cause a reduction in

  1. Characteristic and mechanism of Th{sup 4+} sorption from nitric acid solutions by rice and wheat bran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monji, Akbar Boveiri [Kharazmi Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Faculty of Chemistry; Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghoulipour, Vanik [Kharazmi Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Faculty of Chemistry; Mallah, Mohammad Hassan [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-07-01

    In line with our previously conducted researches, various instrumental methods were applied to evaluate the adsorption features and mechanism of Th{sup 4+} from highly acidic solution (4M HNO{sub 3}) by rice and wheat bran. Although the results of cation exchange confirmed the existence of ion-exchange interaction in Th{sup 4+} adsorption, it had a trivial contribution in the biosorption process. The presence of Th{sup 4+} ions on the biomass surface was obviously revealed in SEM images and EDS elemental analysis. Moreover, the linkage of C=O, O-H and N-H functional groups on the biomass surface with Th{sup 4+} ions was clearly represented in the ATR-FTIR spectroscopic analysis. Additionally, desorption studies indicated that ammonium oxalate (>81.3%) and ammonium carbonate (>75.4%) were effective in desorbing Th{sup 4+} from the biomass surface due to strong interactions of hard functional groups of C=O with Th{sup 4+}. The overall observations unfold the fact that electrostatic complexation mechanism is dominant between biomass and Th{sup 4+} ions.

  2. AFFECTS OF MECHANICAL MILLING AND METAL OXIDE ADDITIVES ON SORPTION KINETICS OF 1:1 LiNH2/MgH2 MIXTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdy, C.; Anton, D.; Gray, J.

    2010-12-08

    The destabilized complex hydride system composed of LiNH{sub 2}:MgH{sub 2} (1:1 molar ratio) is one of the leading candidates of hydrogen storage with a reversible hydrogen storage capacity of 8.1 wt%. A low sorption enthalpy of {approx}32 kJ/mole H{sub 2} was first predicted by Alapati et al. utilizing first principle density function theory (DFT) calculations and has been subsequently confirmed empirically by Lu et al. through differential thermal analysis (DTA). This enthalpy suggests that favorable sorption kinetics should be obtainable at temperatures in the range of 160 C to 200 C. Preliminary experiments reported in the literature indicate that sorption kinetics are substantially lower than expected in this temperature range despite favorable thermodynamics. Systematic isothermal and isobaric sorption experiments were performed using a Sievert's apparatus to form a baseline data set by which to compare kinetic results over the pressure and temperature range anticipated for use of this material as a hydrogen storage media. Various material preparation methods and compositional modifications were performed in attempts to increase the kinetics while lowering the sorption temperatures. This paper outlines the results of these systematic tests and describes a number of beneficial additions which influence kinetics as well as NH{sub 3} formation.

  3. Affects of Mechanical Milling and Metal Oxide Additives on Sorption Kinetics of 1:1 LiNH2/MgH2 Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald L. Anton

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The destabilized complex hydride system composed of LiNH2:MgH2 (1:1 molar ratio is one of the leading candidates of hydrogen storage with a reversible hydrogen storage capacity of 8.1 wt%. A low sorption enthalpy of ~32 kJ/mole H2 was first predicted by Alapati et al. utilizing first principle density function theory (DFT calculations and has been subsequently confirmed empirically by Lu et al. through differential thermal analysis (DTA. This enthalpy suggests that favorable sorption kinetics should be obtainable at temperatures in the range of 160 °C to 200 °C. Preliminary experiments reported in the literature indicate that sorption kinetics are substantially lower than expected in this temperature range despite favorable thermodynamics. Systematic isothermal and isobaric sorption experiments were performed using a Sievert’s apparatus to form a baseline data set by which to compare kinetic results over the pressure and temperature range anticipated for use of this material as a hydrogen storage media. Various material preparation methods and compositional modifications were performed in attempts to increase the kinetics while lowering the sorption temperatures. This paper outlines the results of these systematic tests and describes a number of beneficial additions which influence kinetics as well as NH3 formation.

  4. Quantification of Cation Sorption to Engineered Barrier Materials Under Extreme Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, Brian [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Schlautman, Mark [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Rao, Linfeng [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Nitsche, Heino [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Gregorich, Kenneth [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-02-02

    The objective of this research is to examine mechanisms and thermodynamics of actinide sorption to engineered barrier materials (iron (oxyhydr)oxides and bentonite clay) for nuclear waste repositories under high temperature and high ionic strength conditions using a suite of macroscopic and microscopic techniques which will be coupled with interfacial reaction models. Gaining a mechanistic understanding of interfacial processes governing the sorption/sequestration of actinides at mineral-water interfaces is fundamental for the accurate prediction of actinide behavior in waste repositories. Although macroscale sorption data and various spectroscopic techniques have provided valuable information regarding speciation of actinides at solid-water interfaces, significant knowledge gaps still exist with respect to sorption mechanisms and the ability to quantify sorption, particularly at high temperatures and ionic strengths. This objective is addressed through three major tasks: (1) influence of oxidation state on actinide sorption to iron oxides and clay minerals at elevated temperatures and ionic strengths; (2) calorimetric titrations of actinide-mineral suspensions; (3) evaluation of bentonite performance under repository conditions. The results of the work will include a qualitative conceptual model and a quantitative thermodynamic speciation model describing actinide partitioning to minerals and sediments, which is based upon a mechanistic understanding of specific sorption processes as determined from both micro-scale and macroscale experimental techniques. The speciation model will be a thermodynamic aqueous and surface complexation model of actinide interactions with mineral surfaces that is self-consistent with macroscopic batch sorption data, calorimetric and potentiometric titrations, X-ray absorption Spectroscopy (XAS, mainly Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS)), and electron microscopy analyses. The novelty of the proposed work lies largely in

  5. Quantification of Cation Sorption to Engineered Barrier Materials Under Extreme Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, Brian; Schlautman, Mark; Rao, Linfeng; Nitsche, Heino; Gregorich, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research is to examine mechanisms and thermodynamics of actinide sorption to engineered barrier materials (iron (oxyhydr)oxides and bentonite clay) for nuclear waste repositories under high temperature and high ionic strength conditions using a suite of macroscopic and microscopic techniques which will be coupled with interfacial reaction models. Gaining a mechanistic understanding of interfacial processes governing the sorption/sequestration of actinides at mineral-water interfaces is fundamental for the accurate prediction of actinide behavior in waste repositories. Although macroscale sorption data and various spectroscopic techniques have provided valuable information regarding speciation of actinides at solid-water interfaces, significant knowledge gaps still exist with respect to sorption mechanisms and the ability to quantify sorption, particularly at high temperatures and ionic strengths. This objective is addressed through three major tasks: (1) influence of oxidation state on actinide sorption to iron oxides and clay minerals at elevated temperatures and ionic strengths; (2) calorimetric titrations of actinide-mineral suspensions; (3) evaluation of bentonite performance under repository conditions. The results of the work will include a qualitative conceptual model and a quantitative thermodynamic speciation model describing actinide partitioning to minerals and sediments, which is based upon a mechanistic understanding of specific sorption processes as determined from both micro-scale and macroscale experimental techniques. The speciation model will be a thermodynamic aqueous and surface complexation model of actinide interactions with mineral surfaces that is self-consistent with macroscopic batch sorption data, calorimetric and potentiometric titrations, X-ray absorption Spectroscopy (XAS, mainly Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS)), and electron microscopy analyses. The novelty of the proposed work lies largely in

  6. Understanding human action: integrating meanings, mechanisms, causes, and contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keestra, M.; Repko, A.F.; Newell, W.H.; Szostak, R.

    2012-01-01

    Humans are capable of understanding an incredible variety of actions performed by other humans. Even though these range from primary biological actions like eating and fleeing, to acts in parliament or in poetry, humans generally can make sense of each other’s actions. Understanding other people’s

  7. Characterization of U(VI) Sorption-Desorption Processes and Model Upscaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Jing; Dong, Wenming; Ball, William P.

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of the overall collaborative EMSP effort (with which this project is associated) were to characterize sorption and desorption processes of U(VI) on pristine and contaminated Hanford sediments over a range of sediment facies and materials properties and to relate such characterization both to fundamental molecular-scale understanding and field-scale models of geochemistry and mass transfer. The research was intended to provide new insights on the mechanisms of U(VI) retardation at Hanford, and to allow the development of approaches by which laboratory-developed geochemical models could be upscaled for defensible field-scale predictions of uranium transport in the environment. Within this broader context, objectives of the JHU-based project were to test hypotheses regarding the coupled roles of adsorption and impermeable-zone diffusion in controlling the fate and transport of U(VI) species under conditions of comparatively short-term exposure. In particular, this work tested the following hypotheses: (1) the primary adsorption processes in the Hanford sediment over the pH range of 7 to 10 are surface complexation reactions of aqueous U(VI) hydroxycarbonate and carbonate complexes with amphoteric edge sites on detrital phyllosilicates in the silt/clay size fraction; (2) macroscopic adsorption intensity (at given aqueous conditions) is a function of mineral composition and aquatic chemistry; and (3) equilibrium sorption and desorption to apply in short-term, laboratory-spiked pristine sediments; and (4) interparticle diffusion can be fully understood in terms of a model that couples molecular diffusion of uranium species in the porewater with equilibrium sorption under the relevant aqueous conditions. The primary focus of the work was on developing and applying both models and experiments to test the applicability of ''local equilibrium'' assumptions in the modeling interpretation of sorption retarded interparticle diffusion, as relevant to processes of

  8. U(VI) and Eu(III) ion sorption in the interface solution-phosphate solids: Structural study and mechanisms; Sorption des ions U(VI) et Eu(III) a l`interface solution - solides phosphates: Etude structurale et mechanismes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drot, Romuald [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

    1998-09-18

    As part of the storage of nuclear wastes in a deep underground disposal, radionuclides sorption on geological or engineered barriers is one of the most important factor which could enhance retardation. Thus, the knowledge of such mechanisms is needed. For this purpose, we chose to experimentally define sorption equilibria before performing simulation of retention data. Several phosphate compounds are potential candidates as engineered barrier additives. We considered Th{sub 4}(PO{sub 4}){sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}, Zr{sub 2}O(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} which allow to study the effect of PO{sub 4} and P{sub 2}O{sub 7} groups separately. Eu(III) and U(IV) ions were used as structural probes in order to simulate actinides (III) and (VI) behavior. X-ray powder diffraction, IR spectroscopy and electron probe microanalysis were used to characterized the synthesized solids. Electrophoretic measurements showed an amphoteric behavior of surface sites. Moreover, laser spectro-fluorimetry experiments indicated that no diffusion phenomena of the sorbed ion inside the solid occurs. Thus, we considered that a surface complexation model should be applied. Laser spectro-fluorimetry and XPS allowed to determine the nature of surface sites. ZrP{sub 2}O{sub 7} presents only one single site (P{sub 2}O{sub 7} groups) whereas Th{sub 4}(PO{sub 4}){sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} and Zr{sub 2}O(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} admit two types of sites (PO{sub 4}/P{sub 2}O{sub 7} and PO{sub 4}/oxo groups, respectively). Sorbed species were identified using laser spectro-fluorimetry which indicate that, in KNO{sub 3} 0.5 M medium and for a known surface site, there are two surface complexes for U(VI) (sorption of UO{sup 2+}{sub 2} et de UO{sub 2}NO{sup +}{sub 3} species) and only one for Eu(III) (sorption of EuNO{sup 2+}{sub 3}). They are linked to the substrate as bidentate inner sphere complexes (EXAFS study). Surface acidity constants were determined by simulation of potentiometric titration curves obtained for each solid

  9. Testosterone sorption and desorption: Effects of soil particle size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Yong, E-mail: yqi01@unomaha.edu [Civil Engineering Dept., University of Nebraska-Lincoln at Omaha Campus, Omaha, NE 68182 (United States); Zhang, Tian C. [Civil Engineering Dept., University of Nebraska-Lincoln at Omaha Campus, Omaha, NE 68182 (United States); Ren, Yongzheng [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Smaller soil particles have higher sorption and lower desorption rates. • The sorption capacity ranks as clay > silt > sand. • Small particles like clays have less potential for desorption. • Colloids (clays) have high potential to facilitate the transport of hormones in soil–water environments. - Abstract: Soils contain a wide range of particles of different diameters with different mobility during rainfall events. Effects of soil particles on sorption and desorption behaviors of steroid hormones have not been investigated. In this study, wet sieve washing and repeated sedimentation methods were used to fractionate the soils into five ranges. The sorption and desorption properties and related mechanisms of testosterone in batch reactors filled with fractionated soil particles were evaluated. Results of sorption and desorption kinetics indicate that small soil particles have higher sorption and lower desorption rates than that of big ones. Thermodynamic results show the sorption processes are spontaneous and exothermal. The sorption capacity ranks as clay > silt > sand, depending mainly on specific surface area and surface functional groups. The urea control test shows that hydrogen bonding contributes to testosterone sorption onto clay and silt but not on sand. Desorption tests indicate sorption is 36–65% irreversible from clay to sand. Clays have highest desorption hysteresis among these five soil fractions, indicating small particles like clays have less potential for desorption. The results provide indirect evidence on the colloid (clay)-facilitated transport of hormones (micro-pollutants) in soil environments.

  10. Glyphosate sorption/desorption on biochars - interactions of physical and chemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kathleen E; Spokas, Kurt A; Gamiz, Beatriz; Cox, Lucia; Papiernik, Sharon K; Koskinen, William C

    2018-05-01

    Biochar, a carbon-rich product of biomass pyrolysis, could limit glyphosate transport in soil and remediate contaminated water. The present study investigates the sorption/desorption behavior of glyphosate on biochars prepared from different hardwoods at temperatures ranging from 350 to 900 °C to elucidate fundamental mechanisms. Glyphosate (1 mg L -1 ) sorption on biochars increased with pyrolysis temperature and was highest on 900 °C biochars; however, total sorption was low on a mass basis (glyphosate in soils, did not alter biochar sorption capacities. Glyphosate did not desorb from biochar with CaCl 2 solution; however, up to 86% of the bound glyphosate was released with a K 2 HPO 4 solution. Results from this study suggest a combined impact of surface chemistry and physical constraints on glyphosate sorption/desorption on biochar. Based on the observed phosphate-induced desorption of glyphosate, the addition of P-fertilizer to biochar-amended soils can remobilize the herbicide and damage non-target plants; therefore, improved understanding of this risk is necessary. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Enhanced PCBs sorption on biochars as affected by environmental factors: Humic acid and metal cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yu; Wang Lei; Fang Guodong; Herath, H.M.S.K.; Wang Yujun; Cang Long; Xie Zubin; Zhou Dongmei

    2013-01-01

    Biochar plays an important role in the behaviors of organic pollutants in the soil environment. The role of humic acid (HA) and metal cations on the adsorption affinity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to the biochars in an aqueous medium and an extracted solution from a PCBs-contaminated soil was studied using batch experiments. Biochars were produced with pine needles and wheat straw at 350 °C and 550 °C under anaerobic condition. The results showed that the biochars had high adsorption affinity for PCBs. Pine needle chars adsorbed less nonplanar PCBs than planar ones due to dispersive interactions and separation. Coexistence of HA and metal cations increased PCBs sorption on the biochars accounted for HA adsorption and cation complexation. The results will aid in a better understanding of biochar sorption mechanism of contaminants in the environment. - Highlights: ► Application of the biochars for PCBs sorption was a new and effective way. ► The biochars had higher adsorption affinity for PCBs in the soil extracted solution. ► Pine needle chars adsorbed less nonplanar PCBs than planar ones. ► Coexisting humic acid or metal cations increased PCBs sorption on the biochars. - The biochars had higher adsorption affinity for PCBs in the extracted soil solution because coexisting humic acid and metal cations increased their sorption.

  12. Understanding the mechanism of base development of HSQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jihoon; Chao, Weilun; Griedel, Brian; Liang, Xiaogan; Lewis, Mark; Hilken, Dawn; Olynick, Deirdre

    2009-06-16

    We study the dissolution mechanism of HSQ (hydrogen silsesquioxane) in base solutions with the addition of chloride salts to elucidate the development mechanism. Reaction mechanisms are proposed based on the dissolution mechanism of quartz. Development kinetics points to two dose-dependent development mechanisms. Considering ion sizes, both hydrated and non-hydrated, and ion exchange, we propose that a combination of a surface dominated reaction at higher doses and a matrix dominated reaction at lower doses accounts for the high development contrast with a NaOH base/NaCl salt mixture. The interplay between the hydrated and non-hydrated ion size leads to higher contrast developers, such as tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) with NaCl.

  13. Insights into an intriguing gas sorption mechanism in a polar metal–organic framework with open-metal sites and narrow channels

    KAUST Repository

    Forrest, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Simulations of H2 and CO2 sorption were performed in the metal-organic framework (MOF), [Cu(Me-4py-trz-ia)]. This MOF was recently shown experimentally to exhibit high uptake for H2 and CO2 sorption and this was reproduced and elucidated through the simulations performed herein. Consistent with experiment, the theoretical isosteric heat of adsorption, Qst, values were nearly constant across all loadings for both sorbates. The simulations revealed that sorption directly onto the open-metal sites was not observed in this MOF, ostensibly a consequence of the low partial positive charges of the Cu2+ ions as determined through electronic structure calculations. Sorption was primarily observed between adjacent carboxylate oxygen atoms (site 1) and between nearby methyl groups (site 2) of the organic linkers. In addition, saturation of the most energetically favorable sites (site 1) is possible only after filling a nearby site (site 2) first due to the MOF topology. This suggests that the lack of dependence on loading for the Qst is due to the concurrent filling of sites 1 and 2, leading to an observed average Qst value. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

  14. Simulation of the Mechanism of Gas Sorption in a Metal–Organic Framework with Open Metal Sites: Molecular Hydrogen in PCN-61

    KAUST Repository

    Forrest, Katherine A.; Pham, Tony; McLaughlin, Keith; Belof, Jonathan L.; Stern, Abraham C.; Zaworotko, Michael J.; Space, Brian

    2012-01-01

    polarizability; sorbed hydrogen is a dipolar dense fluid in the MOF. This study demonstrates that many-body polarization makes a critical contribution to gas sorption structure and must be accounted for in modeling MOFs with polar interaction sites. © 2012

  15. Chemical alteration of calcium silicate hydrates in saline groundwater. Mechanism of sorption of Na on C-S-H and effect of NaCl on leaching of Ca from C-S-H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Daisuke; Fujita, Tomonari

    2004-01-01

    In the concept for TRU waste disposal in Japan, cement is a potential waste packaging and backfilling material and is expected to provide chemical containment. In the presence of some reactive ions in a saline groundwater, the chemical properties of cement materials should be affected. In this study, the mechanism of sorption of sodium (Na) on C-S-H and the effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration on dissolution of Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H) are discussed by measuring the sorption isotherm of sodium onto C-S-H gel (Ca/Si = 0.65-1.2). Based on the experimental results, it is showed that sodium sorbs by substitution for Ca in C-S-H phases and leaching of Ca from C-S-H is enhanced in NaCl solution ( -1 mol dm -3 ). The results of sorption experiments are reasonably well modelled by the ion-exchange model assuming some calcium sites with different ion-exchange log K values. It is also suggested that the dissolution of C-S-H can be modelled reasonably well by considering the effect of ionic strength on activity coefficients of aqueous species for high Ca/Si ratio of C-S-H, and the effect of exchange of sodium with calcium of C-S-H on leaching of Ca becomes obvious for lower Ca/Si ratio of C-S-H. (author)

  16. Sorption Mechanisms of Cesium on Cu II2Fe II(CN) 6and Cu II3[Fe III(CN) 6] 2Hexacyanoferrates and Their Relation to the Crystalline Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrault, S.; Jimenez, B.; Garnier, E.; Fedoroff, M.; Jones, D. J.; Loos-Neskovic, C.

    1998-12-01

    CuII2FeII(CN)6·xH2O and CuII3[FeIII(CN)6]2·xH2O can be prepared with reproducible chemical compositions and structures after careful washing. They have cubicFmoverline3mstructures with iron vacancies. In CuII2FeII(CN)6, copper occupies two different sites: Cu1 in position 4blinked to Fe through the CN groups, and Cu2 not linked to the CN groups and partially occupying the interstitial 24epositions. The second type of site is not present in CuII3[FeIII(CN)6]2. Sorption kinetics and isotherms were determined for cesium on both hexacyanoferrates by batch experiments. On CuII3[FeIII(CN)6]2, the maximum uptake is only 0.073 Cs/Fe (at./at.). On CuII2FeII(CN)6, the uptake reaches 1.5 Cs/Fe. The sorption kinetics include at least two steps: at1/2variation until approximately 72 h and then a slow evolution studied up to 6 months. The sorption mechanism is complex. The main process seems to be diffusion of ion pairs, followed by a reorganization of the solid, resulting in one or more new solid phases. The presence of the Cu2 site seems to play a favorable role in the sorption. Owing to its good midterm stability and the first rapid step of exchange, CuII2FeII(CN)6·xH2O seems to be one of the most promising compounds for the recovery of cesium from nuclear liquid wastes.

  17. Sorption properties of wool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radetić Maja M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Strict ecological legislation, especially in highly developed countries, imposed requirements for the purification of industrial effluents and the need for efficient oil clean up after sea and inland water spills. Although numerous processes have been developed, the application of sorbents is still one of the most efficient methods to remove heavy metal ions, dyes and crude oil from water. Recently, special attention was paid to sorbents based on natural fibres. A review of studies concerning the sorption properties of wool is presented in this paper. The presence of various functional groups on the wool fibre surface contributes to the efficient sorption of heavy metal ions and dyes. A hydrophobic, scaly surface and fibre crimp strongly influence the high sorption capacity of wool for oil. Wool has great sorption potential even as a recycled material. Accordingly, it can be used as a viable substitute to commercially available synthetic sorbents that show poor biodegradab ility.

  18. Status report on SIRS: sorption information retrieval system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hostetler, D.D.; Serne, R.J.; Baldwin, A.J.; Petrie, G.M.

    1980-11-01

    Two major uses were identified for the Sorption Information Retrieval System: (1) to aid geochemists in the elucidation of sorption mechanisms; and (2) to aid safety assessment modelers in selection of Kds for any given scenerio. Other benefits such as providing an auditable vehicle for the Kd selection were also discussed

  19. Understanding the Mechanism behind Maternal Imprisonment and Adolescent School Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Rosa M.

    2011-01-01

    This study empirically tested 3 mechanisms commonly suggested to disadvantage youths whose mothers are incarcerated in prison. An event history analysis of school dropout was conducted on a sample of 6,008 adolescents in a large city created by merging several Illinois state administrative data. Findings revealed that adolescents are indeed at…

  20. Understanding the biological mechanisms of Zika virus disease ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will use advanced biomolecular, genomics and proteomics techniques to explain the molecular mechanisms by which the Zika virus infects and persists in the human body, how it affects the human reproductive and central nervous system, and how the risk of fetal abnormalities can be better predicted in infected ...

  1. Understanding "Understanding" Flow for Network-Centric Warfare: Military Knowledge-Flow Mechanics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nissen, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Network-centric warfare (NCW) emphasizes information superiority for battlespace efficacy, but it is clear that the mechanics of how knowledge flows are just as important as those pertaining to the networks and communication...

  2. Sorption performance and mechanism of a sludge-derived char as porous carbon-based hybrid adsorbent for benzene derivatives in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Lingjun [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou, 510275 (China); Xiong, Ya, E-mail: cesxya@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou, 510275 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control and Remediation Technology, Guangzhou, 510275 (China); Sun, Lianpeng; Tian, Shuanghong [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou, 510275 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control and Remediation Technology, Guangzhou, 510275 (China); Xu, Xianyan; Zhao, Cunyuan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou, 510275 (China); Luo, Rongshu [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou, 510275 (China); Yang, Xin [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou, 510275 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control and Remediation Technology, Guangzhou, 510275 (China); Shih, Kaimin [Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong SAR (China); Liu, Haiyang [Department of Chemistry, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510641 (China)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Hierarchical porous sludge char were fabricated by pyrolysis at 500 °C. • A stronger Si–O bond (1.83 Å and 1.87 Å) between the carboxyl and SiO{sub 2} was found. • Quantum chemistry calculation confirmed the interaction of Si–O and H–O bonds. • Multiple model (Q{sub T} = Q{sub A} + K{sub P}Ce) was presented in the sludge char sorption process. - Abstract: A porous sludge-derived char was prepared by a new one-step pyrolytic process with citric acid–ZnCl{sub 2} mixed fabricating-pore agents. The sludge-derived char was confirmed to be a hierarchically porous hybrid adsorbent containing-elemental carbon, -highly carbonized organic species and -inorganic ash with a great surface area of 792.4 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}. It was used as a carbon-based hybrid adsorbent for four benzene derivatives including 4-chlorophenol, phenol, benzoic acid and 4-hydroxylbenzoic acid in aqueous solution. Results showed that their sorption isotherms were nonlinear at low concentrations and linear at high concentrations. The sorption performance could be described by a multiple sorption model (Q{sub T} = Q{sub A} + K{sub P}C{sub e}). The order of these partition sorption coefficients (K{sub P}) of these benzene derivatives was consistent with their octanol–water partition coefficients (log K{sub ow}), but those saturated amounts (Q{sub A}) were inconsistent with their log K{sub ow}. The inconstancy was found to be considerably dependent on the preferential interaction of benzoic acid with SiO{sub 2} in the sludge-derived char. Quantum theoretical calculation confirmed that the preferential interaction was attributed to the formation of hydrogen bonds (1.61 and 1.69 Å) and new Si–O bonds (1.83 and 1.87 Å) between the carboxyl of benzoic acid and the SiO{sub 2} surface in the sorption process.

  3. How Electroconvulsive Therapy Works?: Understanding the Neurobiological Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amit; Kar, Sujita Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a time tested treatment modality for the management of various psychiatric disorders. There have been a lot of modifications in the techniques of delivering ECT over decades. Despite lots of criticisms encountered, ECT has still been used commonly in clinical practice due to its safety and efficacy. Research evidences found multiple neuro-biological mechanisms for the therapeutic effect of ECT. ECT brings about various neuro-physiological as well as neuro-chemical changes in the macro- and micro-environment of the brain. Diverse changes involving expression of genes, functional connectivity, neurochemicals, permeability of blood-brain-barrier, alteration in immune system has been suggested to be responsible for the therapeutic effects of ECT. This article reviews different neurobiological mechanisms responsible for the therapeutic efficacy of ECT. PMID:28783929

  4. Long Term Sorption Diffusion Experiment (LTDE-SD). Performance of main in situ experiment and results from water phase measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widestrand, Henrik; Byegaard, Johan; Nilsson, Kersti; Hoeglund, Susanne; Gustafsson, Erik; Kronberg, Magnus

    2010-12-01

    The LTDE-SD experiment, (Long Term Sorption Diffusion Experiment) aimed at increasing the scientific knowledge of sorption and diffusion under in situ conditions and to provide data for performance and safety assessment calculations. Performance and results of the in situ experiment phase are presented in the report. In total, 21 radionuclide trace elements and one stable trace element were injected, circulated and sampled for ∼6.5 months in a closed borehole section. The trace elements represented non-sorbing tracers and sorbing tracers for which the sorption was dominated by a cation exchange mechanism, a surface complexation mechanism, or dependent on an electrochemical reduction in order to reach the tetravalent state (oxidation state IV) considered very strongly sorbing. The borehole section in contact with the tracer labelled groundwater consisted in part of a natural fracture surface and a borehole section in the unaltered matrix rock, devoid of natural fractures. Water samples were regularly extracted and analysed for trace element concentration and a few ion exchange speciation and filtered samplings were also conducted. Independent colloid filtering and chemical speciation calculations were performed in support the evaluation. Sorption was demonstrated for a series of elements present in the experiment. The amounts lost of the different respective tracers from the aqueous phase follow very well the general understanding of the relative sorption strength of the tracers, as inferred from e.g. batch sorption experiments and dynamic in situ tracer experiments. The chemical speciation calculations of the different tracers were in line with the results of the ion exchange speciation performed during the experiment. With the exception of UO 2 2+ carbonate complexes formed, no strong indications were obtained that aqueous complexation prevents adsorption under the chemical conditions of the experiment. The 20 nm filtered sampling indicated that radionuclide

  5. Long Term Sorption Diffusion Experiment (LTDE-SD). Performance of main in situ experiment and results from water phase measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widestrand, Henrik; Byegaard, Johan; Nilsson, Kersti; Hoeglund, Susanne; Gustafsson, Erik (Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden)); Kronberg, Magnus (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    The LTDE-SD experiment, (Long Term Sorption Diffusion Experiment) aimed at increasing the scientific knowledge of sorption and diffusion under in situ conditions and to provide data for performance and safety assessment calculations. Performance and results of the in situ experiment phase are presented in the report. In total, 21 radionuclide trace elements and one stable trace element were injected, circulated and sampled for approx6.5 months in a closed borehole section. The trace elements represented non-sorbing tracers and sorbing tracers for which the sorption was dominated by a cation exchange mechanism, a surface complexation mechanism, or dependent on an electrochemical reduction in order to reach the tetravalent state (oxidation state IV) considered very strongly sorbing. The borehole section in contact with the tracer labelled groundwater consisted in part of a natural fracture surface and a borehole section in the unaltered matrix rock, devoid of natural fractures. Water samples were regularly extracted and analysed for trace element concentration and a few ion exchange speciation and filtered samplings were also conducted. Independent colloid filtering and chemical speciation calculations were performed in support the evaluation. Sorption was demonstrated for a series of elements present in the experiment. The amounts lost of the different respective tracers from the aqueous phase follow very well the general understanding of the relative sorption strength of the tracers, as inferred from e.g. batch sorption experiments and dynamic in situ tracer experiments. The chemical speciation calculations of the different tracers were in line with the results of the ion exchange speciation performed during the experiment. With the exception of UO{sub 2} 2+ carbonate complexes formed, no strong indications were obtained that aqueous complexation prevents adsorption under the chemical conditions of the experiment. The 20 nm filtered sampling indicated that

  6. Sorption of humic acid to functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fei; Yao, Jun; Chen, Huilun; Yi, Zhengji; Xing, Baoshan

    2013-01-01

    The environmental behavior of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and humic acid (HA) is a prominent concern, but effect of functionalities on their sorption is not clear yet. Functionalized multi-walled CNTs (MCNT15) and HA were used to study their sorption behavior. Sorption rate of HA to MCNTs was dominantly controlled by its diffusion from liquid-MCNT boundary to MCNT surfaces. The sorption is in the sequence of MCNT15 > MCNT15-NH 2 > MCNT15-OH > MCNT15-COOH > MCNT15-Ni, which was dependent on their surface area and meso- and macro-pore volume. The functionalities of MCNTs regulated the sorption by affecting their interaction mechanisms (i.e., H-bonding, π–π, and hydrophobic interaction). Additionally, the amount of these functionalities on the MCNT surface reduced indirectly the sorption sites due to the steric hindrance. Electrostatic repulsion deceased the sorption of HA by MCNTs with increasing pH. This study demonstrated the importance of functionalities on the MCNTs for the sorption of HA. -- Highlights: •HA sorption kinetics was well fitted using Lagergren pseudo second-order model. •Sorption rate of HA was controlled by diffusion from liquid-MCNT boundary to MCNT surfaces. •Sorption was dependent on their surface area and meso- and macro-pore volume. •Functionalities of MCNTs regulated the sorption by affecting interaction mechanisms. -- The functionalities of MCNTs regulated the sorption behavior between MCNTs and HA

  7. Sorption of methanol in alkali exchange zeolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rep, M.; Rep, M.; Corma, Avelino; Palomares, A.E.; Palomares gimeno, A.E.; van Ommen, J.G.; Lefferts, Leonardus; Lercher, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    Metal cation methanol sorption complexes in MFI (ZSM5), MOR and X have been studied by in situ i.r. spectroscopy in order to understand the nature of interactions of methanol in the molecular sieve pores. The results show that (a) a freely vibrating hydroxy and methyl group of methanol exist on

  8. Understanding mechanisms of autoimmunity through translational research in vitiligo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassner, James P; Harris, John E

    2016-01-01

    Vitiligo is an autoimmune disease of the skin that leads to life-altering depigmentation and remains difficult to treat. However, clinical observations and translational studies over 30-40 years have led to the development of an insightful working model of disease pathogenesis: Genetic risk spanning both immune and melanocyte functions is pushed over a threshold by known and suspected environmental factors to initiate autoimmune T cell-mediated killing of melanocytes. While under cellular stress, melanocytes appear to signal innate immunity to activate T cells. Once the autoimmune T cell response is established, the IFN-γ-STAT1-CXCL10 signaling axis becomes the primary inflammatory pathway driving both progression and maintenance of vitiligo. This pathway is a tempting target for both existing and developing pharmaceuticals, but further detailing how melanocytes signal their own demise may also lead to new therapeutic targets. Research in vitiligo may be the future key to understand the pathogenesis of organ-specific autoimmunity, as vitiligo is common, reversible, progresses over the life of the individual, has been relatively well-defined, and is quite easy to study using translational and clinical approaches. What is revealed in these studies can lead to innovative treatments and also help elucidate the principles that underlie similar organ-specific autoimmune diseases, especially in cases where the target organ is less accessible. PMID:27764715

  9. Understanding the mechanisms of amorphous creep through molecular simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Penghui; Short, Michael P; Yip, Sidney

    2017-12-26

    Molecular processes of creep in metallic glass thin films are simulated at experimental timescales using a metadynamics-based atomistic method. Space-time evolutions of the atomic strains and nonaffine atom displacements are analyzed to reveal details of the atomic-level deformation and flow processes of amorphous creep in response to stress and thermal activations. From the simulation results, resolved spatially on the nanoscale and temporally over time increments of fractions of a second, we derive a mechanistic explanation of the well-known variation of creep rate with stress. We also construct a deformation map delineating the predominant regimes of diffusional creep at low stress and high temperature and deformational creep at high stress. Our findings validate the relevance of two original models of the mechanisms of amorphous plasticity: one focusing on atomic diffusion via free volume and the other focusing on stress-induced shear deformation. These processes are found to be nonlinearly coupled through dynamically heterogeneous fluctuations that characterize the slow dynamics of systems out of equilibrium.

  10. Study on sorption capacity of synthetic zeolite for simulated nuclide Cs+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinming; Yi Facheng

    2006-01-01

    For the sake of understanding the functionary order of simulated nuclide Cs + and Synthetic Zeolite (ZF), the sorption equilibrium time and sorption capacity of simulated nuclide Cs + on ZF are studied with the intermittence method. The difference of temperature, pH value, Cs + concentration and medium on sorption capacity and sorption ratio are investigated. The results show that the sorption complexion of simulated nuclide Cs + on ZF in the same concentration solution are sorption equilibrium quantity in range of 155-190 mg/g in different temperatures and that in range of 165-190 mg/g in different pH values and that in range of 120-210 mg/g in different media; and changing order of equilibrium adsorption ratio is the same to that of sorption equilibrium quantity, but their changing range are wider than that of sorption equilibrium quantity; equilibrium adsorption quantity in range of 180-380 mg/g in different concentration solutions, and changing order of equilibrium adsorption ratio is opposite to that of sorption equilibrium quantity, and more-over, their changing range are wider than that of the sorption equilibrium quantity. Sorption equilibrium time of simulated nuclide Cs + on ZF is about ten to fifteen days. So the changing range of sorption capacity of simulated nuclide Cs + on ZF with conditions effects is smaller and the sorption equilibrium time is also less and ZF preferably absorbs Cs in radiation wastes and thus consumedly reduces the effect of radwaste on the environment. (authors)

  11. Sorption of Europium in zirconium silicate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia R, G.

    2004-01-01

    Some minerals have the property of sipping radioactive metals in solution, that it takes advantage to manufacture contention barriers that are placed in the repositories of nuclear wastes. The more recent investigations are focused in the development of new technologies guided to the sorption of alpha emissors on minerals which avoid their dispersion in the environment. In an effort to contribute to the understanding of this type of properties, some studies of sorption of Europium III are presented like homologous of the americium, on the surface of zirconium silicate (ZrSiO 4 ). In this work the results of sorption experiences are presented as well as the interpretation of the phenomena of the formation of species in the surface of the zirconium silicate. (Author)

  12. Understanding the removal mechanisms of PPCPs and the influence of main technological parameters in anaerobic UASB and aerobic CAS reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarino, T; Suarez, S; Lema, J M; Omil, F

    2014-08-15

    The removal of 16 Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) were studied in a conventional activated sludge (CAS) unit and an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. Special attention was paid to each biomass conformation and activity as well as to operational conditions. Biodegradation was the main PPCP removal mechanism, being higher removals achieved under aerobic conditions, except in the case of sulfamethoxazole and trimetrophim. Under anaerobic conditions, PPCP biodegradation was correlated with the methanogenic rate, while in the aerobic reactor a relationship with nitrification was found. Sorption onto sludge was influenced by biomass conformation, being only significant for musk fragrances in the UASB reactor, in which an increase of the upward velocity and hydraulic retention time improved this removal. Additionally, PPCP sorption increased with time in the UASB reactor, due to the granular biomass structure which suggests the existence of intra-molecular diffusion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Antimony sorption properties of chitosan - nano TiO2 composite beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishad, Padala Abdul; Bhaskarapillai, Anupkumar; Velmurugan, Sankaralingam

    2015-01-01

    Routine decontamination campaigns of nuclear reactors are generally effective in removing various radionuclides such as cobalt, caesium, etc., and bring down the radiation field. However, during some of the decontamination campaigns, the radiation field at some surfaces was seen to have actually gone up. This was found to be due to lack of removal of antimony isotopes by the regular ion exchange resins used, which subsequently deposited over out of core surfaces leading to increased radiation field on those surfaces. Thus there exists a need for efficient antimony removal system. We have synthesised nano titania impregnated - epichlorohydrin crosslinked chitosan beads, which were found to have high sorption capacity for antimony. The beads, which were synthesised in formats suitable for large scale (column mode) applications, were shown to be effective sorbent of antimony in both +3 and +5 oxidation states. The sorbent exhibited complete removal of antimony from its aqueous solutions of concentration ranging from 150 ppb to 120 ppm. In order to understand the sorption mechanism and to fine tune the bead composition, the effect of crosslinker concentration used during the synthesis on the swelling and sorption properties of the beads was investigated in detail. The variation effected significant changes in physical parameters such as bead diameter, swelling ratio, equilibrium water content and true wet density. Sorption capacity, unlike with regular resins, was found to increase with increase in crosslinker amount. The antimony sorption capacity of the crosslinked beads prepared by crosslinking 0.3 g uncrosslinked beads with 6.4 mmol epichlorohydrin (crosslinker) was 493 μmol/g. Non-crosslinked beads showed a capacity of 75 μmol/g, while the crosslinked beads made with the least amount of crosslinker (0.64 mmol per 0.3 g beads) showed a capacity of 133 μmol/g. These results indicate the possible involvement of the crosslinker in the sorption. (author)

  14. Modeling approaches of competitive sorption and transport of trace metals and metalloids in soils: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, H M; Zhang, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Competition among various heavy metal species for available adsorption sites on soil matrix surfaces can enhance the mobility of contaminants in the soil environment. Accurate predictions of the fate and behavior of heavy metals in soils and geologic media requires the understanding of the underlying competitive-sorption and transport processes. In this review, we present equilibrium and kinetic models for competitive heavy metal sorption and transport in soils. Several examples are summarized to illustrate the impact of competing ions on the reactivities and mobility of heavy metals in the soil-water environment. We demonstrate that equilibrium Freundlich approaches can be extended to account for competitive sorption of cations and anions with the incorporation of competition coefficients associated with each reaction. Furthermore, retention models of the multiple-reaction type including the two-site nonlinear equilibrium-kinetic models and the concurrent- and consecutive-multireaction models were modified to describe commonly observed time-dependent behaviors of heavy metals in soils. We also show that equilibrium Langmuir and kinetic second-order models can be extended to simulate the competitive sorption and transport in soils, although the use of such models is limited due to their simplifying assumptions. A major drawback of the empirically based Freundlich and Langmuir approaches is that their associated parameters are specific for each soil. Alternatively, geochemical models that are based on ion-exchange and surface-complexation concepts are capable of quantifying the competitive behavior of several chemical species under a wide range of environmental conditions. Such geochemical models, however, are incapable of describing the time-dependent sorption behavior of heavy metal ions in competitive systems. Further research is needed to develop a general-purpose model based on physical and chemical mechanisms governing competitive sorption in soils. Copyright

  15. Sorption of radionuclides by tertiary clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, J.F.; Czurda, K.A.

    1990-01-01

    The sorption capacity of different clay types for some metals (Co, Cs, Sr and Zn), occurring as common radionuclides in radioactive waste deposits, had been analysed by a static (batch technique) and a dynamic method (percolation tests, in which the driving force is a hydraulic gradient). Sorption capacity generally increased with an increasing pH of solution. A decrease of sorption capacity had been observed in the order Zn > Cs ≥ Co > Sr for the batch and Cs > Zn > Sr > Co for the percolation tests. Clay marls showed a distinctly higher sorption respectively retention capacity as pure clays. Sorption capacity depends on solution parameters like type and concentration of radionuclide, pH, salt concentration, etc., and on rock parameters like mineral content (e.g. swelling clay minerals and carbonates), organic material, rock pH, micro fabric, etc. A third parameter of great influence is the contact time between clay and solution. The adsorption isotherms reflect two different adsorption mechanisms: a very rapid adsorption (a few minutes) on the external surfaces of clay minerals and a slow adsorption process (weeks and longer), due to the diffusion of metal ions into the interlayer space of clay minerals. 12 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  16. Competitive sorption of heavy metals by water hyacinth roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jia-Chuan; Liu, Hou-Qi; Feng, Hui-Min; Li, Wen-Wei; Lam, Michael Hon-Wah; Lam, Paul Kwan-Sing; Yu, Han-Qing

    2016-12-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a global issue severely constraining aquaculture practices, not only deteriorating the aquatic environment but also threatening the aquaculture production. One promising solution is adopting aquaponics systems where a synergy can be established between aquaculture and aquatic plants for metal sorption, but the interactions of multiple metals in such aquatic plants are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the absorption behaviors of Cu(II) and Cd(II) in water by water hyacinth roots in both single- and binary-metal systems. Cu(II) and Cd(II) were individually removed by water hyacinth roots at high efficiency, accompanied with release of protons and cations such as Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ . However, in a binary-metal arrangement, the Cd(II) sorption was significantly inhibited by Cu(II), and the higher sorption affinity of Cu(II) accounted for its competitive sorption advantage. Ionic exchange was identified as a predominant mechanism of the metal sorption by water hyacinth roots, and the amine and oxygen-containing groups are the main binding sites accounting for metal sorption via chelation or coordination. This study highlights the interactive impacts of different metals during their sorption by water hyacinth roots and elucidates the underlying mechanism of metal competitive sorption, which may provide useful implications for optimization of phytoremediation system and development of more sustainable aquaculture industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of mechanistic sorption model and treatment of uncertainties for Ni sorption on montmorillonite/bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochs, Michael; Ganter, Charlotte; Tachi, Yukio; Suyama, Tadahiro; Yui, Mikazu

    2011-02-01

    Sorption and diffusion of radionuclides in buffer materials (bentonite) are the key processes in the safe geological disposal of radioactive waste, because migration of radionuclides in this barrier is expected to be diffusion-controlled and retarded by sorption processes. It is therefore necessary to understand the detailed/coupled processes of sorption and diffusion in compacted bentonite and develop mechanistic /predictive models, so that reliable parameters can be set under a variety of geochemical conditions relevant to performance assessment (PA). For this purpose, JAEA has developed the integrated sorption and diffusion (ISD) model/database in montmorillonite/bentonite systems. The main goal of the mechanistic model/database development is to provide a tool for a consistent explanation, prediction, and uncertainty assessment of K d as well as diffusion parameters needed for the quantification of radionuclide transport. The present report focuses on developing the thermodynamic sorption model (TSM) and on the quantification and handling of model uncertainties in applications, based on illustrating by example of Ni sorption on montmorillonite/bentonite. This includes 1) a summary of the present state of the art of thermodynamic sorption modeling, 2) a discussion of the selection of surface species and model design appropriate for the present purpose, 3) possible sources and representations of TSM uncertainties, and 4) details of modeling, testing and uncertainty evaluation for Ni sorption. Two fundamentally different approaches are presented and compared for representing TSM uncertainties: 1) TSM parameter uncertainties calculated by FITEQL optimization routines and some statistical procedure, 2) overall error estimated by direct comparison of modeled and experimental K d values. The overall error in K d is viewed as the best representation of model uncertainty in ISD model/database development. (author)

  18. Understanding ozone mechanisms to alleviate ceramic membrane fouling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Irma Giovanna Llamosas

    Ceramic membranes are a strong prospect as an advanced treatment in the drinking water domain. But their high capital cost and the lack of specific research on their performance still discourage their application in this field. Thus, knowing that fouling is the main drawback experienced in filtration processes, this bench-scale study was aimed to assess the impact of an ozonation pre-treatment on the alleviation of the fouling of UF ceramic membranes. Preozonation and filtration steps were performed under two different pH and ozone doses. Chosen pH values were at the limits of natural surface waters range (6.5 and 8.5) to keep practicability. Raw water from the Thousand Isle's river at Quebec-Canada was used for the tests. The filtration setup involved an unstirred dead-end filtration cell operated at constant flux. Results showed that pre-oxidation by ozone indeed reduced the fouling degree of the membranes according to the dose applied (up to 60 and 85% for membranes 8 and 50 kDa, respectively). Direct NOM oxidation was found responsible for this effect as the presence of molecular ozone was not essential to achieve these results. In the context of this experiment, however, pH showed to be more effective than the ozonation pre-treatment to keep fouling at low levels: 70% lower at pH 6.5 than at pH 8.5 for un-ozonated waters, which was contrary to most of the literature found on the topic (Changwon, 2013; De Angelis & Fidalgo, 2013; Karnik et al., 2005; S. Lee & Kim, 2014). This behaviour results mainly from the operation mode used in the experiment, the electrical repulsions between MON molecules at basic pH that led to the accumulation of material on the feed side of the membranes (concentration polarisation) and ulterior cake formation. In addition, solution pH showed an influence in the definition of fouling mechanisms. At solution pH 6.5, which was precisely the isoelectric point of the membranes (+/-6.5), the blocking fouling mode was frequently detected

  19. Understanding cracking failures of coatings: A fracture mechanics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Ryong

    A fracture mechanics analysis of coating (paint) cracking was developed. A strain energy release rate (G(sub c)) expression due to the formation of a new crack in a coating was derived for bending and tension loadings in terms of the moduli, thicknesses, Poisson's ratios, load, residual strain, etc. Four-point bending and instrumented impact tests were used to determine the in-situ fracture toughness of coatings as functions of increasing baking (drying) time. The system used was a thin coating layer on a thick substrate layer. The substrates included steel, aluminum, polycarbonate, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), and Noryl. The coatings included newly developed automotive paints. The four-point bending configuration promoted nice transversed multiple coating cracks on both steel and polymeric substrates. The crosslinked type automotive coatings on steel substrates showed big cracks without microcracks. When theoretical predictions for energy release rate were compared to experimental data for coating/steel substrate samples with multiple cracking, the agreement was good. Crosslinked type coatings on polymeric substrates showed more cracks than theory predicted and the G(sub c)'s were high. Solvent evaporation type coatings on polymeric substrates showed clean multiple cracking and the G(sub c)'s were higher than those obtained by tension analysis of tension experiments with the same substrates. All the polymeric samples showed surface embrittlement after long baking times using four-point bending tests. The most apparent surface embrittlement was observed in the acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) substrate system. The impact properties of coatings as a function of baking time were also investigated. These experiments were performed using an instrumented impact tester. There was a rapid decrease in G(sub c) at short baking times and convergence to a constant value at long baking times. The surface embrittlement conditions and an embrittlement toughness

  20. Response to the comments of Y. S. Ho to the paper 'Sorption of radionickel to goethite. Effect of water quality parameters and temperature'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baowei Hu; ShaoXing University, ShaoXing, Zhejiang; Wen Cheng; Hui Zhang; Guodong Sheng; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei

    2011-01-01

    understand the potential pollution of radionickel in natural environment. In our published paper [1], the macroscopic data is helpful to understand the sorption mechanism of radionickel at solid-water interfaces. However, the information at microscopic level such as microstructures and chemical species of radionickel can be more accurate to assess the potential physicochemical behavior of radionickel in the environment. This information can be obtained from spectroscopy studies such as XPS, TRLFS and EXAFS. (author)

  1. Sixth-Grade Students' Progress in Understanding the Mechanisms of Global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visintainer, Tammie; Linn, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    Developing solutions for complex issues such as global climate change requires an understanding of the mechanisms involved. This study reports on the impact of a technology-enhanced unit designed to improve understanding of global climate change, its mechanisms, and their relationship to everyday energy use. Global Climate Change, implemented in…

  2. Transport and sorption of volatile organic compounds and water vapor in porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Tsair-Fuh [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-07-01

    To gain insight on the controlling mechanisms for VOC transport in porous media, the relations among sorbent properties, sorption equilibrium and intraparticle diffusion processes were studied at the level of individual sorbent particles and laboratory columns for soil and activated carbon systems. Transport and sorption of VOCs and water vapor were first elucidated within individual dry soil mineral grains. Soil properties, sorption capacity, and sorption rates were measured for 3 test soils; results suggest that the soil grains are porous, while the sorption isotherms are nonlinear and adsorption-desorption rates are slow and asymmetric. An intragranular pore diffusion model coupled with the nonlinear Freundlich isotherm was developed to describe the sorption kinetic curves. Transport of benzene and water vapor within peat was studied; partitioning and sorption kinetics were determined with an electrobalance. A dual diffusion model was developed. Transport of benzene in dry and moist soil columns was studied, followed by gaseous transport and sorption in activated carbon. The pore diffusion model provides good fits to sorption kinetics for VOCs to soil and VOC to granular activated carbon and activated carbon fibers. Results of this research indicate that: Intraparticle diffusion along with a nonlinea sorption isotherm are responsible for the slow, asymmetric sorption-desorption. Diffusion models are able to describe results for soil and activated carbon systems; when combined with mass transfer equations, they predict column breakthrough curves for several systems. Although the conditions are simplified, the mechanisms should provide insight on complex systems involving transport and sorption of vapors in porous media.

  3. Sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on particulate organic matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Xueyan; Luo Lei; Ma Yibing; Zhang Shuzhen

    2010-01-01

    Particulate organic matter (POM) is a key organic matter fraction which can influence soil fertility. Its interactions with hydrophobic organic pollutants (HOCs) have not been characterized and the mechanisms of retention of HOCs by POM remain unclear. In the present study, sorption behaviors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) naphthalene (NAP), phenanthrene (PHE), and pyrene (PYR) by POMs separated from different soils were examined and the POMs were characterized by elemental analysis, solid state 13 C NMR, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results indicated that POMs were mainly composed of aliphatic components with high polarity. The different original POMs showed similar chemical composition and configuration. Sorption behaviors of PAHs indicated that there was no significant difference in sorption capacity among the POMs. Sorption of NAP and PHE by POMs displayed a nonlinear isotherm, while sorption of PYR yielded a linear isotherm. No significant hysteresis and ionic strength effect were observed for PAH desorption from the POMs.

  4. Understanding the removal mechanisms of PPCPs and the influence of main technological parameters in anaerobic UASB and aerobic CAS reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarino, T.; Suarez, S.; Lema, J.M.; Omil, F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Removals of 16 PPCPs under aerobic and anaerobic conditions were quantified. • Operation conditions (HRT, v up , biomass activity and conformation) influenced removal. • Highest removals associated to aerobic biodegradation. • Sorption was only relevant for lipophilic compounds in the UASB reactor. - Abstract: The removal of 16 Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) were studied in a conventional activated sludge (CAS) unit and an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. Special attention was paid to each biomass conformation and activity as well as to operational conditions. Biodegradation was the main PPCP removal mechanism, being higher removals achieved under aerobic conditions, except in the case of sulfamethoxazole and trimetrophim. Under anaerobic conditions, PPCP biodegradation was correlated with the methanogenic rate, while in the aerobic reactor a relationship with nitrification was found. Sorption onto sludge was influenced by biomass conformation, being only significant for musk fragrances in the UASB reactor, in which an increase of the upward velocity and hydraulic retention time improved this removal. Additionally, PPCP sorption increased with time in the UASB reactor, due to the granular biomass structure which suggests the existence of intra-molecular diffusion

  5. Understanding the removal mechanisms of PPCPs and the influence of main technological parameters in anaerobic UASB and aerobic CAS reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarino, T., E-mail: teresa.alvarino@usc.es; Suarez, S., E-mail: Sonia.suarez@usc.es; Lema, J.M., E-mail: juan.lema@usc.es; Omil, F., E-mail: francisco.omil@usc.es

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Removals of 16 PPCPs under aerobic and anaerobic conditions were quantified. • Operation conditions (HRT, v{sub up}, biomass activity and conformation) influenced removal. • Highest removals associated to aerobic biodegradation. • Sorption was only relevant for lipophilic compounds in the UASB reactor. - Abstract: The removal of 16 Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) were studied in a conventional activated sludge (CAS) unit and an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. Special attention was paid to each biomass conformation and activity as well as to operational conditions. Biodegradation was the main PPCP removal mechanism, being higher removals achieved under aerobic conditions, except in the case of sulfamethoxazole and trimetrophim. Under anaerobic conditions, PPCP biodegradation was correlated with the methanogenic rate, while in the aerobic reactor a relationship with nitrification was found. Sorption onto sludge was influenced by biomass conformation, being only significant for musk fragrances in the UASB reactor, in which an increase of the upward velocity and hydraulic retention time improved this removal. Additionally, PPCP sorption increased with time in the UASB reactor, due to the granular biomass structure which suggests the existence of intra-molecular diffusion.

  6. Sorption of fluoroquinolones and sulfonamides in 13 Brazilian soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Rafael Marques Pereira; Alleoni, Luis Reynaldo Ferracciú; Tornisielo, Valdemar Luiz; Regitano, Jussara Borges

    2013-08-01

    Animal production is a leading economic activity in Brazil and antibiotics are widely used. However, the occurrence, behavior, and impacts of antibiotics in Brazilian soils are still poorly known. We evaluated the sorption behavior of four fluoroquinolones (norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, danofloxacin, and enrofloxacin) and five sulfonamides (sulfadiazine, sulfachloropyridazine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfadimidine, and sulfathiazole) in 13 Brazilian soils with contrasting physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties. Fluoroquinolone sorption was very high (Kd≥544 L kg(-1)) whereas sulfonamide sorption ranged from low to high (Kd=0.7-70.1 L kg(-1)), consistent with previous reports in the literature. Soil texture and cation exchange capacity were the soil attributes that most affected sorption. Cation exchange was the most important sorption mechanism for the fluoroquinolones in highly weathered tropical soils, although cation bridging and ion pairing could not be ruled out. Hydrophobic partition played an important role in the sorption of the sulfonamides, but sorption was also affected by non-hydrophobic interactions with organic and/or mineral surfaces. Sorption for both compound classes tended to be higher in soils with high Al and Fe oxihydroxide contents, but they were not correlated with Kd values. No direct effect of soil pH was seen. The fluoroquinolones are not expected to leach even in worst-case scenarios (soils rich in sand and poor in organic carbon), whereas soil attributes dictate leaching potential for the sulfonamides. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Prediction of water vapour sorption isotherms and microstructure of hardened Portland cement pastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgh, James M. de; Foster, Stephen J.; Valipour, Hamid R.

    2016-01-01

    Water vapour sorption isotherms of cementitious materials reflect the multi-scale physical microstructure through its interaction with moisture. Our ability to understand and predict adsorption and desorption behaviour is essential in the application of modern performance-based approaches to durability analysis, along with many other areas of hygro-mechanical and hygro-chemo-mechanical behaviour. In this paper, a new physically based model for predicting water vapour sorption isotherms of arbitrary hardened Portland cement pastes is presented. Established thermodynamic principles, applied to a microstructure model that develops with hydration, provide a rational basis for predictions. Closed-form differentiable equations, along with a rational consideration of hysteresis and scanning phenomena, makes the model suitable for use in numerical moisture simulations. The microstructure model is reconciled with recently published 1 H NMR and mercury intrusion porosimetry results.

  8. On the derivation of a sorption database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewart, F.T.; Haworth, A.; Wisbey, S.J.

    1992-01-01

    The safety arguments in support of many radioactive waste repository concepts are heavily dependent on the existence of a sorption reaction. Such a reaction will, in the near field, reduce the magnitude of the release of a number of hazardous radionuclides so that their release to the geosphere is dispersed in time. In the geosphere, the sorption reactions provide a mechanism whereby the migration of the elements released from the repository is retarded and the radioisotopes then subsequently decay. The processes involved in sorption cannot in many cases be satisfactorily represented in thermodynamic terms such as are employed in the description of dissolution and precipitation. Experiments that investigate these reactions are not easy to perform. The sorption parameters that are obtained experimentally for the near field relate, in the UK case, to sorption on to a cementitious surface. These surfaces, since they consist substantially of calcium hydroxide or calcium silicate hydrates, control the aqueous chemistry, do not permit pH changes to be made and limit the range of concentrations of sorbate that may be used. In the far field, on the other hand, the surfaces are not in general so active with respect to the solution chemistry and data can be obtained across a wide spectrum of aqueous chemistries. These data, although they may be useful in testing and parameterizing models, may not have validity under field conditions since the minerals will, inevitably, react to the changes in water chemistry, over geological timescales. The uncertainties in the experimental data are, for many elements and solids, balanced by a reasonable agreement between workers in the values of the parameters used to describe sorption. 22 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  9. Study of the enthalpy-entropy mechanism from water sorption of orange seeds (C. sinensis cv. Brazilian for the use of agro-industrial residues as a possible source of vegetable oil production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Penteado Rosa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Orange seeds are a promising agroindustry-waste which can be implemented in the extraction and production of vegetable oil. The relationship between moisture content and water activity provides useful information for the processing and storage of this waste item. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism of water sorption enthalpy-entropy of orange seeds (C. sinensis cv. Brazilians according to the moisture content. Therefore, desorption isotherms were determined at five different temperature (30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 ºC under a wide range of moisture content (0.005-0.057 kg kg-1 d.b. and water activity (0.02-0.756. Theoretical and empirical models were used for modeling the desorption isotherms. An analytical solution of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation was proposed to compute the isosteric heat of sorption, the differential entropy, and Gibbs free energy using the Oswin model when the effect of temperature on the hygroscopic equilibrium was considered.

  10. A kinetic approach to model sorption dynamics of radionuclides in soils: from desire to operational application?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Garin, A.; Garcia-Sanchez, L.; Coppin, F. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (France); Krimissa, M. [Electricite de France (France)

    2014-07-01

    The understanding of radionuclides (RN) behaviour and subsequent fluxes in the soil/solution/plant system is still a challenging question for realistic short, medium or long term risk assessments. Several years of researches have been devoted to improve the modeling of radionuclides migration in soils and their transfer to other compartments of the biosphere (eg. plants), as well as to constitute databases of model parameters (eg. distribution coefficient (K{sub d})). These works contributed to define, and then to extend, the domain of applicability of radioecological models, but they also helped to identify gaps and ways to improve them. However, these improvements have not been fully taken into account. Within this framework, the evolution of RN chemical speciation in time (often described as aging) was specifically addressed, as it control RN retention properties and bioavailability. Regarding soluble and RN solid speciation in soils, such processes generally lead to a shift from low to high K{sub d} values. Common explanations consist in the transfer of sorbed RN to non-(or less) exchangeable solid species, or in the lixiviation of the most available radionuclide fraction, both decreasing the reversibly sorbed RN fraction. Kinetics studies have examined such changes in K{sub d} value with time and various models have been proposed to fit the different evolutions. Among them, an empirical three-box model is often used to describe the kinetics of RN sorption when RN mostly occurs in the soil solution as a free ion (eg. Cs and Sr). This model assumes that the radionuclide may be sorbed either as a labile fraction, defining an exchangeable K{sub d}-like liquid/solid distribution, or sorbed as a less or non-exchangeable fraction. The last is estimated through its corresponding sorption and desorption rate constants, which describes a pseudo-first order reaction. Modeling of sorption dynamic is a way to link K{sub d} values derived from field-contaminated soils to

  11. Sorption of V and VI group metalloids (As, Sb, Te on modified peat sorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansone-Bertina Linda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigates arsenic, antimony and tellurium sorption using iron modified peat. The results were obtained using batch tests and the sorption was studied as a function of initial metalloid concentration, pH and sorption time, as well as the presence of competing substances. The obtained results indicate that modification of peat with Fe compounds significantly enhances the sorption capacity of the sorbents used for sorption of arsenic, antimony and tellurium. The optimal pH interval for the sorption of Sb(III is 6.5–9 and for As(V and Sb(V – 3–6, while As(III and tellurium sorption using Fe-modified peat is favourable in a wider interval of 3–9. The presence of competing ions as well as HA affect sorption of metalloids on Fe-modified peat. A minor impact on the reduction of metalloid sorption was detected in the presence of nitrate, sulphate, carbonate and tartrate ions, while in the presence of phosphate and HA the sorption ability of metalloids can be considerably reduced. The obtained results of kinetic experiments indicate that sorption of metalloids on Fe-modified peat mainly occurs relying on mechanisms of physical sorption processes.

  12. Simulation of the Mechanism of Gas Sorption in a Metal–Organic Framework with Open Metal Sites: Molecular Hydrogen in PCN-61

    KAUST Repository

    Forrest, Katherine A.

    2012-07-26

    Grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations were performed to investigate hydrogen sorption in an rht-type metal-organic framework (MOF), PCN-61. The MOF was shown to have a large hydrogen uptake, and this was studied using three different hydrogen potentials, effective for bulk hydrogen, but of varying sophistication: a model that includes only repulsion/dispersion parameters, one augmented with charge-quadrupole interactions, and one supplemented with many-body polarization interactions. Calculated hydrogen uptake isotherms and isosteric heats of adsorption, Q st, were in quantitative agreement with experiment only for the model with explicit polarization. This success in reproducing empirical measurements suggests that modeling MOFs that have open metal sites is feasible, though it is often not considered to be well described via a classical potential function; here it is shown that such systems may be accurately described by explicitly including polarization effects in an otherwise traditional empirical potential. Decomposition of energy terms for the models revealed deviations between the electrostatic and polarizable results that are unexpected due to just the augmentation of the potential surface by the addition of induction. Charge-quadrupole and induction energetics were shown to have a synergistic interaction, with inclusion of the latter resulting in a significant increase in the former. Induction interactions strongly influence the structure of the sorbed hydrogen compared to the models lacking polarizability; sorbed hydrogen is a dipolar dense fluid in the MOF. This study demonstrates that many-body polarization makes a critical contribution to gas sorption structure and must be accounted for in modeling MOFs with polar interaction sites. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  13. Technetium Sorption Media Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, J.B.; Kelly, S.E.; Robbins, R.A.; Adams, R.D.; Thorson, M.A.; Haass, C.C.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents information and references to aid in the selection of 99Tc sorption media for feasibility studies regarding the removal of 99Tc from Hanford's low activity waste. The report contains literature search material for sorption media (including ion exchange media) for the most tested media to date, including SuperLig 639, Reillex HPQ, TAM (Kruion), Purolite A520E and A530E, and Dowex 1X8. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for management and completion of the River Protection Project (RPP) mission, which comprises both the Hanford Site tank farms and the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The RPP mission is to store, retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste; store and dispose of treated wastes; and close the tank farm waste management areas and treatment facilities in a safe, environmentally compliant, cost-effective and energy-effective manner.

  14. TECHNETIUM SORPTION MEDIA REVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DUNCAN JB; KELLY SE; ROBBINS RA; ADAMS RD; THORSON MA; HAASS CC

    2011-08-25

    This report presents information and references to aid in the selection of 99Tc sorption media for feasibility studies regarding the removal of 99Tc from Hanford's low activity waste. The report contains literature search material for sorption media (including ion exchange media) for the most tested media to date, including SuperLig 639, Reillex HPQ, TAM (Kruion), Purolite A520E and A530E, and Dowex 1X8. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for management and completion of the River Protection Project (RPP) mission, which comprises both the Hanford Site tank farms and the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The RPP mission is to store, retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste; store and dispose of treated wastes; and close the tank farm waste management areas and treatment facilities in a safe, environmentally compliant, cost-effective and energy-effective manner.

  15. Sorption of actinides onto nanodiamonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchatskaya, Yulia; Romanchuk, Anna; Yakovlev, Ruslan; Kulakova, Inna [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation). Dept. of Chemistry; Shiryaev, Andrei [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry; Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Geology of Ore Deposits, Petrography, Mineralogy and Geochemistry; Kalmykov, Stepan [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation). Dept. of Chemistry; Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry; Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry

    2015-06-01

    Detonation nanodiamonds (ND) present a significant part of nanocarbons group, which could be produced on commercial scale by detonation of explosives in a closed chamber. Their unique properties of high surface area, low weight and radiation resistance make ND a prospective candidate for applications in sorption processes in radiochemistry. To study the influence of surface chemistry on sorption properties, apristine sample of ND was treated with acids and hydrogen. The surface chemistry of the samples was characterised by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Boehm titration. The sorption properties of ND were tested fordifferent radionuclides. The sorption capacity of ND was shown to be higher than those of commonly used radionuclide sorbents like activated carbon and compariable to other members of nanocarbon group like graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes. The sorption properties were shown to be influenced by the presence of oxygen-containing groups on the surface of ND. This represents an opportunity to increase the sorption capacity of ND.

  16. Sorption of actinides onto nanodiamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchatskaya, Yulia; Romanchuk, Anna; Yakovlev, Ruslan; Kulakova, Inna; Shiryaev, Andrei; Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow; Kalmykov, Stepan; Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow; Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow

    2015-01-01

    Detonation nanodiamonds (ND) present a significant part of nanocarbons group, which could be produced on commercial scale by detonation of explosives in a closed chamber. Their unique properties of high surface area, low weight and radiation resistance make ND a prospective candidate for applications in sorption processes in radiochemistry. To study the influence of surface chemistry on sorption properties, apristine sample of ND was treated with acids and hydrogen. The surface chemistry of the samples was characterised by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Boehm titration. The sorption properties of ND were tested fordifferent radionuclides. The sorption capacity of ND was shown to be higher than those of commonly used radionuclide sorbents like activated carbon and compariable to other members of nanocarbon group like graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes. The sorption properties were shown to be influenced by the presence of oxygen-containing groups on the surface of ND. This represents an opportunity to increase the sorption capacity of ND.

  17. Characterization of nanoporous shales with gas sorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joewondo, N.; Prasad, M.

    2017-12-01

    The understanding of the fluid flow in porous media requires the knowledge of the pore system involved. Fluid flow in fine grained shales falls under different regime than transport regime in conventional reservoir due to the different average pore sizes in the two materials; the average pore diameter of conventional sandstones is on the micrometer scale, while of shales can be as small as several nanometers. Mercury intrusion porosimetry is normally used to characterize the pores of conventional reservoir, however with increasingly small pores, the injection pressure required to imbibe the pores becomes infinitely large due to surface tension. Characterization of pores can be expressed by a pore size distribution (PSD) plot, which reflects distribution of pore volume or surface area with respect to pore size. For the case of nanoporous materials, the surface area, which serves as the interface between the rock matrix and fluid, becomes increasingly large and important. Physisorption of gas has been extensively studied as a method of nanoporous solid characterization (particularly for the application of catalysis, metal organic frameworks, etc). The PSD is obtained by matching the experimental result to the calculated theoretical result (using Density Functional Theory (DFT), a quantum mechanics based modelling method for molecular scale interactions). We present the challenges and experimental result of Nitrogen and CO2 gas sorption on shales with various mineralogy and the interpreted PSD obtained by DFT method. Our result shows significant surface area contributed by the nanopores of shales, hence the importance of surface area measurements for the characterization of shales.

  18. Framework for Understanding the Patterns of Student Difficulties in Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshman, Emily; Singh, Chandralekha

    2015-01-01

    Compared with introductory physics, relatively little is known about the development of expertise in advanced physics courses, especially in the case of quantum mechanics. Here, we describe a framework for understanding the patterns of student reasoning difficulties and how students develop expertise in quantum mechanics. The framework posits that…

  19. Sorption heat engines: simple inanimate negative entropy generators

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, Anthonie W. J.; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

    2005-01-01

    The name 'sorption heat engines' is proposed for simple negative entropy generators that are driven by thermal cycling and work on alternating adsorption and desorption. These generators are in general not explicitly recognized as heat engines. Their mechanism is applicable to the fields of engineering, physics, chemistry, geology, and biology, in particular the origin of life. Four kinds of sorption heat engines are distinguished depending on the occurrence of changes in the adsorbent or ads...

  20. Sorption Properties of Steam Treated Wood and Plant Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Preben; Jensen, Signe Kamp; Jones, Dennis

    2003-01-01

    temperatures the behaviour was different for low/medium RH and high RH. For low/medium range RH (.... This behaviour corresponds to the reduction of the number of primary sorption sites on e.g. hemicellulose. For high range RH (> ca. 85 %) two additional mechanisms may have been active. One is the capillary sorption in micropores created as a result of the thermal degradation of cell wall matter. A second...

  1. Role of interlayer hydration in lincomycin sorption by smectite clays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuiping; Ding, Yunjie; Teppen, Brian J; Boyd, Stephen A; Song, Cunyi; Li, Hui

    2009-08-15

    Lincomycin, an antibiotic widely administered as a veterinary medicine, is frequently detected in water. Little is known about the soil-water distribution of lincomycin despite the fact that this is a major determinant of its environmental fate and potential for exposure. Cation exchange was found to be the primary mechanism responsible for lincomycin sorption by soil clay minerals. This was evidenced by pH-dependent sorption, and competition with inorganic cations for sorptive sites. As solution pH increased, lincomycin sorption decreased. The extent of reduction was consistent with the decrease in cationic lincomycin species in solution. The presence of Ca2+ in solution diminished lincomycin sorption. Clay interlayer hydration status strongly influenced lincomycin adsorption. Smectites with the charge deficit from isomorphic substitution in tetrahedral layers (i.e., saponite) manifest a less hydrated interlayer environment resulting in greater sorption than that by octahedrally substituted clays (i.e., montmorillonite). Strongly hydrated exchangeable cations resulted in a more hydrated clay interlayer environment reducing sorption in the order of Ca- smectite. X-ray diffraction revealed that lincomycin was intercalated in smectite clay interlayers. Sorption capacity was limited by clay surface area rather than by cation exchange capacity. Smectite interlayer hydration was shown to be a major, yet previously unrecognized, factor influencing the cation exchange process of lincomycin on aluminosilicate mineral surfaces.

  2. Unit mechanisms of fission gas release: Current understanding and future needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonks, Michael; Andersson, David; Devanathan, Ram; Dubourg, Roland; El-Azab, Anter; Freyss, Michel; Iglesias, Fernando; Kulacsy, Katalin; Pastore, Giovanni; Phillpot, Simon R.; Welland, Michael

    2018-06-01

    Gaseous fission product transport and release has a large impact on fuel performance, degrading fuel and gap properties. While gaseous fission product behavior has been investigated with bulk reactor experiments and simplified analytical models, recent improvements in experimental and modeling approaches at the atomistic and mesoscales are beginning to reveal new understanding of the unit mechanisms that define fission product behavior. Here, existing research on the basic mechanisms of fission gas release during normal reactor operation are summarized and critical areas where work is needed are identified. This basic understanding of the fission gas behavior mechanisms has the potential to revolutionize our ability to predict fission product behavior and to design fuels with improved performance. In addition, this work can serve as a model on how a coupled experimental and modeling approach can be applied to understand the unit mechanisms behind other critical behaviors in reactor materials.

  3. Understanding the Growth Mechanism of GaN Epitaxial Layers on Mechanically Exfoliated Graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianbao; Liu, Chenyang; Zhang, Zhe; Yu, Bin; Dong, Hailiang; Jia, Wei; Jia, Zhigang; Yu, Chunyan; Gan, Lin; Xu, Bingshe; Jiang, Haiwei

    2018-04-27

    The growth mechanism of GaN epitaxial layers on mechanically exfoliated graphite is explained in detail based on classic nucleation theory. The number of defects on the graphite surface can be increased via O-plasma treatment, leading to increased nucleation density on the graphite surface. The addition of elemental Al can effectively improve the nucleation rate, which can promote the formation of dense nucleation layers and the lateral growth of GaN epitaxial layers. The surface morphologies of the nucleation layers, annealed layers and epitaxial layers were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, where the evolution of the surface morphology coincided with a 3D-to-2D growth mechanism. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to characterize the microstructure of GaN. Fast Fourier transform diffraction patterns showed that cubic phase (zinc-blend structure) GaN grains were obtained using conventional GaN nucleation layers, while the hexagonal phase (wurtzite structure) GaN films were formed using AlGaN nucleation layers. Our work opens new avenues for using highly oriented pyrolytic graphite as a substrate to fabricate transferable optoelectronic devices.

  4. Modeling Fission Product Sorption in Graphite Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szlufarska, Izabela; Morgan, Dane; Allen, Todd

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this project is to determine changes in adsorption and desorption of fission products to/from nuclear-grade graphite in response to a changing chemical environment. First, the project team will employ principle calculations and thermodynamic analysis to predict stability of fission products on graphite in the presence of structural defects commonly observed in very high-temperature reactor (VHTR) graphites. Desorption rates will be determined as a function of partial pressure of oxygen and iodine, relative humidity, and temperature. They will then carry out experimental characterization to determine the statistical distribution of structural features. This structural information will yield distributions of binding sites to be used as an input for a sorption model. Sorption isotherms calculated under this project will contribute to understanding of the physical bases of the source terms that are used in higher-level codes that model fission product transport and retention in graphite. The project will include the following tasks: Perform structural characterization of the VHTR graphite to determine crystallographic phases, defect structures and their distribution, volume fraction of coke, and amount of sp2 versus sp3 bonding. This information will be used as guidance for ab initio modeling and as input for sorptivity models; Perform ab initio calculations of binding energies to determine stability of fission products on the different sorption sites present in nuclear graphite microstructures. The project will use density functional theory (DFT) methods to calculate binding energies in vacuum and in oxidizing environments. The team will also calculate stability of iodine complexes with fission products on graphite sorption sites; Model graphite sorption isotherms to quantify concentration of fission products in graphite. The binding energies will be combined with a Langmuir isotherm statistical model to predict the sorbed concentration of fission products

  5. Influence of light-weight organic matters on strontium sorption to bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tsing-Hai; Wu, Ding-Chiang; Teng, Shi-Ping

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Light-weight organic matters were frequently observed in groundwater. Their existence had significant influence on the transport of radionuclides. In this study, light-weight organic acid species including oxalic (MW 90), succinic (MW 118), adipic (MW 146), azelaic (MW 188), eicosanedioic (MW 306), benzoic (MW 122), salicylic (MW 138), and gallic (MW 170) were selected as the surrogate of natural organic matters. Their effects on strontium sorption to bentonite were evaluated by using a surface complexation model MINEQL+. Under this framework, three sorption mechanisms were considered: 1. structure sorption sites, 2. edge sorption sites, 3. further hydration of adsorbed Sr 2+ . The presence of organic species had no influence on Sr cation sorption to structure sorption sites. However, Sr cation sorption to edge sorption was affected by the organics to certain extent. For example, sorption capability of edge sites toward Sr was increased by the gallic species. Furthermore, hydration of adsorbed Sr was significantly affected by the presence of organic species. This might relate to that adsorbed Sr would become the bridge associating organic species on bentonite surfaces, but this argument required more solid spectral evidences to support. Some preliminary observations on Sr sorption to bentonite were obtained in this work; however, further experiments are still required by conducting experiments with more variety of organic species. By doing a comprehensive study, it would be much beneficial to make a more accurate evaluation of the influence of organic matters on Sr sorption

  6. Development of a Self-Consistent Model of Plutonium Sorption: Quantification of Sorption Enthalpy and Ligand-Promoted Dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, Brian [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Kaplan, Daniel I [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Arai, Yuji [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Becker, Udo [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ewing, Rod [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2016-12-29

    This university lead SBR project is a collaboration lead by Dr. Brian Powell (Clemson University) with co-principal investigators Dan Kaplan (Savannah River National Laboratory), Yuji Arai (presently at the University of Illinois), Udo Becker (U of Michigan) and Rod Ewing (presently at Stanford University). Hypothesis: The underlying hypothesis of this work is that strong interactions of plutonium with mineral surfaces are due to formation of inner sphere complexes with a limited number of high-energy surface sites, which results in sorption hysteresis where Pu(IV) is the predominant sorbed oxidation state. The energetic favorability of the Pu(IV) surface complex is strongly influenced by positive sorption entropies, which are mechanistically driven by displacement of solvating water molecules from the actinide and mineral surface during sorption. Objectives: The overarching objective of this work is to examine Pu(IV) and Pu(V) sorption to pure metal (oxyhydr)oxide minerals and sediments using variable temperature batch sorption, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and quantum-mechanical and empirical-potential calculations. The data will be compiled into a self-consistent surface complexation model. The novelty of this effort lies largely in the manner the information from these measurements and calculations will be combined into a model that will be used to evaluate the thermodynamics of plutonium sorption reactions as well as predict sorption of plutonium to sediments from DOE sites using a component additivity approach.

  7. Study of the radium sorption/desorption on goethite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassot, S.; Stammose, D.; Mallet, C.; Lefebvre, C.; Ferreux, J.-M.

    2000-01-01

    The oxi-hydroxides, present at trace level in uranium mill tailings, are responsible of about 70% of the 226 radium sorption, half being fixed on crystallized forms. This radionuclide (half time=1622y), present at high level (50 to 100kBq.kg -1 ), can be released in groundwater, involving a possible contamination of the food chain (actual concentration limit=0.37Bq.1 -1 ). So, it is very important to point out the mechanisms of the radium sorption/desorption on crystallized oxi-hydroxides as a function of chemical conditions of the system. The radium sorption on synthetic goethite α-FeOOH has been studied as a function of contact time, initial radium activity, pH, sodium and calcium concentrations. The results show that, after one hour of contact time (necessary to reach equilibrium), the radium sorption increases widely in a pH range 6-7. The increase of Na + concentration is without influence on the radium sorption, indicating the low interactions between sodium and surface sites. At the opposite, the presence of calcium in solution decreases widely the radium sorption, that indicates a competition between calcium and radium for the same kind of sorption sites of the oxi-hydroxide surface. The percentage of radium desorbed increases widely with time, from 1 to 120h and becomes constant at a time higher than 120h. This long equilibrium time for desorption in comparison with sorption one can be explain by a local evolution of the sorption sites of the solid, which become less accessible for the solution in contact. (author)

  8. Lead sorption-desorption from organic residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte Zaragoza, Victor M; Carrillo, Rogelio; Gutierrez Castorena, Carmen M

    2011-01-01

    Sorption and desorption are mechanisms involved in the reduction of metal mobility and bioavailability in organic materials. Metal release from substrates is controlled by desorption. The capacity of coffee husk and pulp residues, vermicompost and cow manure to adsorb Pb2+ was evaluated. The mechanisms involved in the sorption process were also studied. Organic materials retained high concentrations of lead (up to 36,000 mg L(-1)); however, the mechanisms of sorption varied according to the characteristics of each material: degree of decomposition, pH, cation exchange capacity and percentage of organic matter. Vermicompost and manure removed 98% of the Pb from solution. Lead precipitated in manure and vermicompost, forming lead oxide (PbO) and lead ferrite (PbFe4O7). Adsorption isotherms did not fit to the typical Freundlich and Langmuir equations. Not only specific and non-specific adsorption was observed, but also precipitation and coprecipitation. Lead desorption from vermicompost and cow manure was less than 2%. For remediation of Pb-polluted sites, the application of vermicompost and manure is recommended in places with alkaline soils because Pb precipitation can be induced, whereas coffee pulp residue is recommended for acidic soils where Pb is adsorbed.

  9. Sorption of a nonionic surfactant Tween 80 by minerals and soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Soyoung, E-mail: soyoung@pusan.ac.kr; Jeong, Hoon Young, E-mail: hjeong@pusan.ac.kr

    2015-03-02

    Highlights: • Tween 80 sorption varies significantly among soil minerals. • Sorption mechanisms and atomic compositions explain to mineral-specific sorption. • Clay minerals and SOM in soils are the key contributors to Tween 80 sorption. • Hysteresis suggests the potential difficulty in removing residual surfactants. - Abstract: Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate Tween 80 sorption by oxides, aluminosilicates, and soils. For oxides, the sorption by silica and alumina follow linear isotherms, and that by hematite follows a Langmuir isotherm. Considering isotherm type and surface coverage, Tween 80 may partition into the silica/alumina–water interface, whereas it may bind to hematite surface sites. Among aluminosilicates, montmorillonite shows the greatest sorption due to the absorption of Tween 80 into interlayers. For other aluminosilicates, it sorbs to surfaces, with the sorption increasing as plagioclase < vermiculite < kaolinite. This results from the relative reactivity among surface sites: ≡NaOH, ≡CaOH << ≡SiOH < ≡AlOH. Experiments using dry- and wet-sieved soils reveal that fine-grained clay minerals, difficult to separate by dry-sieving, contribute significantly to Tween 80 sorption. The greater sorption by untreated soils than H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-treated soils indicates that soil organic matter is a vital sorbent. The sorption hysteresis, contributed to by clay minerals and soil organic matter, is characterized by the greater sorption during the desorption than the sorption stages. This suggests the potential difficulty in removing surfactants from soils. Also, sorption of surfactants can adversely affect surfactant-enhanced remediation by decreasing the aquifer permeability and the availability of surfactants for micellar solubilization.

  10. New Drugs for Anemia Treatment Based on a New Understanding of the Mechanisms of Stress Erythropoiesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0449 TITLE: New Drugs for Anemia Treatment Based on a New Understanding of the Mechanisms of Stress Erythropoiesis...COVERED 1Sep2012 - 31Aug2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER New Drugs for Anemia Treatment Based on a New Understanding of the...cell formation in "Nan" (neonatal anemia ) mice, raising the level of red cells to almost normal. It also causes an increase in the numbers of splenic

  11. Understanding the molecular mechanism(s) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) induced interferon resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qashqari, Hanadi; Al-Mars, Amany; Chaudhary, Adeel; Abuzenadah, Adel; Damanhouri, Ghazi; Alqahtani, Mohammed; Mahmoud, Maged; El Sayed Zaki, Maysaa; Fatima, Kaneez; Qadri, Ishtiaq

    2013-10-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the foremost causes of chronic liver disease affecting over 300 million globally. HCV contains a positive-stranded RNA of ~9600 nt and is surrounded by the 5' and 3'untranslated regions (UTR). The only successful treatment regimen includes interferon (IFN) and ribavirin. Like many other viruses, HCV has also evolved various mechanisms to circumvent the IFN response by blocking (1) downstream signaling actions via STAT1, STAT2, IRF9 and JAK-STAT pathways and (2) repertoire of IFN Stimulatory Genes (ISGs). Several studies have identified complex host demographic and genetic factors as well as viral genetic heterogeneity associated with outcomes of IFN therapy. The genetic predispositions of over 2000 ISGS may render the patients to become resistant, thus identification of such parameters within a subset of population are necessary for management corollary. The ability of various HCV genotypes to diminish IFN antiviral responses plays critical role in the establishment of chronic infection at the acute stage of infection, thus highlighting importance of the resistance in HCV treated groups. The recently defined role of viral protein such as C, E2, NS3/NS4 and NS5A proteins in inducing the IFN resistance are discussed in this article. How the viral and host genetic composition and epistatic connectivity among polymorphic genomic sites synchronizes the evolutionary IFN resistance trend remains under investigation. However, these signals may have the potential to be employed for accurate prediction of therapeutic outcomes. In this review article, we accentuate the significance of host and viral components in IFN resistance with the aim to determine the successful outcome in patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigating and Improving Student Understanding of Key Ideas in Quantum Mechanics throughout Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emigh, Paul Jeffrey

    This dissertation describes research on student understanding of quantum mechanics across multiple levels of instruction. The primary focus has been to identify patterns in student reasoning related to key concepts in quantum mechanics. The specific topics include quantum measurements, time dependence, vector spaces, and angular momentum. The research has spanned a variety of different quantum courses intended for introductory physics students, upper-division physics majors, and graduate students in physics. The results of this research have been used to develop a set of curriculum, Tutorials in Physics: Quantum Mechanics, for addressing the most persistent student difficulties. We document both the development of this curriculum and how it has impacted and improved student understanding of quantum mechanics.

  13. A Framework for Understanding the Patterns of Student Difficulties in Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Chandralekha

    2015-04-01

    Compared with introductory physics, relatively little is known about the development of expertise in advanced physics courses, especially in the case of quantum mechanics. We describe a theoretical framework for understanding the patterns of student reasoning difficulties and how students develop expertise in quantum mechanics. The framework posits that the challenges many students face in developing expertise in quantum mechanics are analogous to the challenges introductory students face in developing expertise in introductory classical mechanics. This framework incorporates the effects of diversity in students' prior preparation, goals and motivation for taking upper-level physics courses in general as well as the ``paradigm shift'' from classical mechanics to quantum mechanics. The framework is based on empirical investigations demonstrating that the patterns of reasoning, problem-solving, and self-monitoring difficulties in quantum mechanics bear a striking resemblance to those found in introductory classical mechanics. Examples from research in quantum mechanics and introductory classical mechanics will be discussed to illustrate how the patterns of difficulties are analogous as students learn to unpack the respective principles and grasp the formalism in each knowledge domain during the development of expertise. Embracing such a theoretical framework and contemplating the parallels between the difficulties in these two knowledge domains can enable researchers to leverage the extensive literature for introductory physics education research to guide the design of teaching and learning tools for helping students develop expertise in quantum mechanics. Support from the National Science Foundation is gratefully acknowledged.

  14. Understanding Creep Mechanisms in Graphite with Experiments, Multiscale Simulations, and Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Disordering mechanisms in graphite have a long history with conflicting viewpoints. Using Raman and x-ray photon spectroscopy, electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction experiments and atomistic modeling and simulations, the current project has developed a fundamental understanding of early-to-late state radiation damage mechanisms in nuclear reactor grade graphite (NBG-18 and PCEA). We show that the topological defects in graphite play an important role under neutron and ion irradiation.

  15. Understanding Creep Mechanisms in Graphite with Experiments, Multiscale Simulations, and Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eapen, Jacob [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Murty, Korukonda [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Burchell, Timothy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-06-02

    Disordering mechanisms in graphite have a long history with conflicting viewpoints. Using Raman and x-ray photon spectroscopy, electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction experiments and atomistic modeling and simulations, the current project has developed a fundamental understanding of early-to-late state radiation damage mechanisms in nuclear reactor grade graphite (NBG-18 and PCEA). We show that the topological defects in graphite play an important role under neutron and ion irradiation.

  16. Sorption of actinides in granitic rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allard, B

    1982-11-01

    The sorption of americium (III), neptunium(V) and plutonium on geologic media under oxic conditions has been measured by a batch technique. The aqueous phase was a synthetic groundwater or 4M NaCl solution. The solid phase was a pure mineral, representative of igneous rocks, or granite. Altogether 40 different minerals and rocks were used. The effects of pH and the ionic strength of the aqueous phase as well as of the cation exchange capacity and the surface/mass ratio of the solid sorbent are discussed. Empirical equations giving the distribution coefficient as a function of pH in the environmental pH-range 7-9 are suggested. Some observations and conclusions concerning sorption mechanisms are given. (author)

  17. Sixth-Grade Students' Progress in Understanding the Mechanisms of Global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visintainer, Tammie; Linn, Marcia

    2015-04-01

    Developing solutions for complex issues such as global climate change requires an understanding of the mechanisms involved. This study reports on the impact of a technology-enhanced unit designed to improve understanding of global climate change, its mechanisms, and their relationship to everyday energy use. Global Climate Change, implemented in the Web-based Inquiry Science Environment (WISE), engages sixth-grade students in conducting virtual investigations using NetLogo models to foster an understanding of core mechanisms including the greenhouse effect. Students then test how the greenhouse effect is enhanced by everyday energy use. This study draws on three data sources: (1) pre- and post-unit interviews, (2) analysis of embedded assessments following virtual investigations, and (3) contrasting cases of two students (normative vs. non-normative understanding of the greenhouse effect). Results show the value of using virtual investigations for teaching the mechanisms associated with global climate change. Interviews document that students hold a wide range of ideas about the mechanisms driving global climate change. Investigations with models help students use evidence-based reasoning to distinguish their ideas. Results show that understanding the greenhouse effect offers a foundation for building connections between everyday energy use and increases in global temperature. An impediment to establishing coherent understanding was the persistence of an alternative conception about ozone as an explanation for climate change. These findings illustrate the need for regular revision of curriculum based on classroom trials. We discuss key design features of models and instructional revisions that can transform the teaching and learning of global climate change.

  18. Defluoridation by Bacteriogenic Iron Oxides: Sorption Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, K.; Ferris, F.

    2009-05-01

    At concentrations above 1 mg/L, fluoride in drinking water can lead to dental and skeletal fluorosis, a disease that causes mottling of the teeth, calcification of ligaments, crippling bone deformities and many other physiological disorders that can, ultimately, lead to death. Conservative estimates are that fluorosis afflicts tens of millions of people worldwide. As there is no treatment for fluorosis, prevention is the only means of controlling the disease. While numerous defluoridation techniques have been explored, no single method has been found to be both effective and inexpensive enough to implement widely. Our research began in India, with a large-scale geochemical study of the groundwater in a fluoride-contaminated region of Orissa. Having developed a better understanding of the geochemical relationships that exist between fluoride and other parameters present in an affected area, as well as the complex relationships that arise among those parameters that can impact the presence of fluoride, we began investigating certain remediation scenarios involving iron oxides. A common approach to remediation involves the partitioning of fluoride from groundwater by sorption onto a variety of materials, one of the most effective of which is iron oxide whose surface area acts as a scavenger for fluoride. In the presence of iron oxidizing bacteria, the oxidation rate of iron has been shown to be ˜6 times greater than in their absence; fluoride should, therefore, be removed from an aqueous environment by bacteriogenic iron oxides (BIOS) much more quickly than by abiotic iron oxides. Most recently, sorption studies have been conducted using both BIOS and synthetic hydrous ferric oxides in order to compare the behavior between biotic and abiotic sorbents. These studies have provided sorption isotherms that allow comparison of fluoride removed by sorption to BIOS versus synthetic iron oxides. Sorption affinity constants have also been determined, which allow for the

  19. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the interfacial self-healing of supramolecular rubbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bose, R.K.; Garcia Espallargas, S.J.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2013-01-01

    Supramolecular rubbers based on 2-aminoethylimidazolidone and fatty acids with epoxy crosslinks have been shown to self-heal via multiple hydrogen bonding sites. In this work, several tools are used to investigate the molecular mechanisms taking place at the interface to understand cohesive healing

  20. Enhanced understanding of the relationship between chemical modification and mechanical properties of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart; Daniel J. Yelle; John Ralph; Robert J. Moon; Donald S. Stone; Joseph E. Jakes

    2008-01-01

    Chemical additions to wood often change its bulk properties, which can be determined using conventional macroscopic mechanical tests. However, the controlling interactions between chemicals and wood take place at and below the scale of individual cells and cell walls. To better understand the effects of chemical additions to wood, we have adapted and extended two...

  1. The implications of water extractable organic matter (WEOM) on the sorption of typical parent, alkyl and N/O/S-containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by microplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruilong; Tan, Huadong; Zhang, Linlin; Wang, Shaopeng; Wang, Yinghui; Yu, Kefu

    2018-07-30

    Microplastics sorption of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) was the core processes that cause negative effects to biota, and their influencing factors and related mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we explored the impacts of water extractable organic matter (WEOM), an important source of endogenous dissolved organic matter in mangrove sediment, on the sorption coefficients of typical parent, alkyl and N/O/S-containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by microplastics. The presence of L-WEOM (D) impeded the PAHs sorption as the coefficients (K f ) decreased to 10.17 (μg/kg)/(μg/L) n and to 8.39 (μg/kg)/(μg/L) n for fluorene (Flu) and 1-methyl-fluorene (1-M-Flu), respectively. The K f exhibited good linear relationships with the aliphaticity of L-WEOM (p  0.05). Under the presences of L-WEOM (D), (S) and (K), the lone pair electrons of N/O/S-containing PAHs was the dominant factor contributing to the obvious difference of the K f values from the other groups. Moreover, the largest impact of L-WEOM (D) on the Flu sorption was in the case of PVC microplastics, while almost no effect was in the case of PS microplastics. The findings of our work may be helpful in improving our understanding of the role of WEOM on the sorption of PAHs to microplastics in the field mangrove sediment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Compilation of radionuclide sorption coefficients for performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbol, P.; Engkvist, I. [PI Chemical Consulting HB, Landvetter (Sweden)

    1997-09-01

    The report presents four possible site-specific conditions in Sweden. The different sorption mechanisms applicable to the studied elements together with the K{sub d} concept are shortly summarised. The influence of organic substances present in the groundwater on the element`s sorption and mobility is also discussed. Criteria for selection of K{sub d} values are presented together with sensitivity of the values to pH, E{sub h} and salinity. Sorption coefficients are recommended for elements in the repository with half-life above 5.3 years. The elements reviewed are: Cs, Sr, Ra, Ln, Ac, Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm, Co, Ni, Cd, Zr, Nb, Tc, Pd, Ag, Sn, C, I, Cl, Se and Kr. For every element there is a recommendation of a realistic K{sub d} value with an uncertainty limit. The selection is based on experimental investigations or chemical analogues. In some cases few or no K{sub d} data were found, and it is recommended that sorption studies be performed on elements such as Cd, Pa, Cm, Zr, Nb, Pd, Ag and Sn. The recommended K{sub d} values for the different element`s sorption on granitic rock, serve as a guidance of the sorption performance 87 refs, 18 tabs

  3. Compilation of radionuclide sorption coefficients for performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbol, P.; Engkvist, I.

    1997-09-01

    The report presents four possible site-specific conditions in Sweden. The different sorption mechanisms applicable to the studied elements together with the K d concept are shortly summarised. The influence of organic substances present in the groundwater on the element's sorption and mobility is also discussed. Criteria for selection of K d values are presented together with sensitivity of the values to pH, E h and salinity. Sorption coefficients are recommended for elements in the repository with half-life above 5.3 years. The elements reviewed are: Cs, Sr, Ra, Ln, Ac, Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm, Co, Ni, Cd, Zr, Nb, Tc, Pd, Ag, Sn, C, I, Cl, Se and Kr. For every element there is a recommendation of a realistic K d value with an uncertainty limit. The selection is based on experimental investigations or chemical analogues. In some cases few or no K d data were found, and it is recommended that sorption studies be performed on elements such as Cd, Pa, Cm, Zr, Nb, Pd, Ag and Sn. The recommended K d values for the different element's sorption on granitic rock, serve as a guidance of the sorption performance

  4. Correlational study between sorption and goo apparent organoclays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, D.L.; Silva, M.R.O.; Ferreira, H.S.; Brasileiro, C.T.

    2016-01-01

    The sorption of surfactants in bentonite clay can occur through the mechanism of adsorption and absorption, this being a very supple phenomenon according clay and surfactant utilized. Thus the more surfactant sorbed at the organoclay it becomes, and can be used in various applications, including in oil drilling fluid. This study aimed to correlate the sorption of surfactants with the rheological properties of non-aqueous fluids (oil base). In organophilization process was used Bentongel clay which had its concentration varied from 3.16 to 7.16% by weight of clay. It was used to organophilization an ionic surfactant Praepagem WB with 75% of active matter, where its concentration ranged from 127-181 mEq. After organophilizated the clays were filtered, dried in an oven for 48 hours and passed in ABNT sieve No. 200, to be so characterized. Sorption was calculated from mathematical equations. Non-aqueous fluids were prepared according to standard Petrobras (EP-1EP-00023A) for rheological testing. Correlating the sorption of surfactant, and the rheological properties of non-aqueous fluid, obtained satisfactory results where observed through the scatter plots there is a strong correlation between the variables sorption and apparent viscosity, it should also be noted that the viscosity is a variable which increases with an increase in sorption, confirming that the surfactant concentration influences the viscosity. (author)

  5. Effect of pH, ionic strength and fulvic acid on the sorption and desorption of cobalt to bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Sh.M.; Ren, A.P.; Chen, Ch.L.; Chen, Y.X.; Wang, X.

    2006-01-01

    Humic substances and bentonite have attracted great interest in radioactive waste management. Here the sorption of cobalt on bentonite in the presence and absence of fulvic acid (FA) under ambient conditions was studied. The effects of pH, ionic strength, FA and solution concentrations on cobalt sorption to bentonite were also investigated using batch techniques. The results indicate that the sorption of cobalt is strongly dependent on pH and is independent of ionic strength under our experimental conditions. Surface complexation is considered the main mechanism of cobalt sorption to bentonite. In the presence of FA, little effect of FA on cobalt sorption was found at pH 8. The addition sequences of FA/Co 2+ to the bentonite suspension on the sorption of cobalt to FA-coated bentonite were also studied. The results indicated that the sorption is not influenced by the addition sequences. Some possible mechanisms are discussed

  6. Sorption and release of organics by primary, anaerobic, and aerobic activated sludge mixed with raw municipal wastewater.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskar Modin

    Full Text Available New activated sludge processes that utilize sorption as a major mechanism for organics removal are being developed to maximize energy recovery from wastewater organics, or as enhanced primary treatment technologies. To model and optimize sorption-based activated sludge processes, further knowledge about sorption of organics onto sludge is needed. This study compared primary-, anaerobic-, and aerobic activated sludge as sorbents, determined sorption capacity and kinetics, and investigated some characteristics of the organics being sorbed. Batch sorption assays were carried out without aeration at a mixing velocity of 200 rpm. Only aerobic activated sludge showed net sorption of organics. Sorption of dissolved organics occurred by a near-instantaneous sorption event followed by a slower process that obeyed 1st order kinetics. Sorption of particulates also followed 1st order kinetics but there was no instantaneous sorption event; instead there was a release of particles upon mixing. The 5-min sorption capacity of activated sludge was 6.5±10.8 mg total organic carbon (TOC per g volatile suspend solids (VSS for particulate organics and 5.0±4.7 mgTOC/gVSS for dissolved organics. The observed instantaneous sorption appeared to be mainly due to organics larger than 20 kDa in size being sorbed, although molecules with a size of about 200 Da with strong UV absorbance at 215-230 nm were also rapidly removed.

  7. Sorption of chromium(VI) and chromium(III) on aluminium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Music, S.

    1986-01-01

    Factors that influence the sorption of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) on aluminium hydroxide were investigated. The sorption of chromates decreases as the pH of the suspension increases. The mechanism of CrOsub(4)sup(2-) sorption was interpreted in terms of reactions between chromates and -OH and/or Hsub(2)O groups at the hydroxide/liquid interface. It was shown that chromates are more tightly sorbed on aluminium hydroxide compared to other anions, e.g. chlorides. On the other hand, specifically absorbed anions, such as molybdates, compete strongly with chromates for the sorption sites. The sorption of chromium(III) increases with the pH of the suspension. Also, the sorption of chromium(III) is suppressed in the presence of citrate ions. The best conditions for the fixation of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) by aluminium hydroxide are presented. (author)

  8. Sorption of chromium(III) and chromium(VI) on lead sulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Music, S.

    1985-01-01

    The sorption of chromium(III) and chromium(VI) on lead sulfide was investigated in dependence on pH, time of sorption, and on the concnetrations of sorbate and sorbent. The mechanisms of the sorption of Crsup(3+) and CrOsub(4)sup(2-) traces on lead sulfide are discussed; a difference between CrOsub(4)sup(2-) sorption on PbS and α-Fesub(2)Osub(3) was found. Sulfates and molybdates affect the removal of chromates from aqueous solutions. Lead sulfide carrier prepared in this work was also used for the preconcentration of chromium(III) and chromium(VI) from tap water. (author)

  9. Sorption of microamounts of Cesup(3+), Pmsup(3+), Gdsup(3+) and Ybsup(3+) on aluminium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Music, S.

    1986-01-01

    The sorption of microamounts of trivalent lanthanides (Lnsup(3+)) on freshly precipitated Al(OH)sub(3) was measured in dependence on pH and on the time of sorption. The influence of organic complexing ligands and inorganic electrolytes on the sorption process was also investigated. The mechanism of sorption is discussed. Freshly precipitated Al(OH)sub(3) could be used for the preconcentration of microamounts of trivalent lanthanides. However, the preconcentration was not quantitative in the presence of high concentrations of complexing ligands (citrate and similar) which formed strong complexes with Lnsup(3+) ions. (author)

  10. Unit mechanisms of fission gas release: Current understanding and future needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonks, Michael; Andersson, David; Devanathan, Ram; Dubourg, Roland; El-Azab, Anter; Freyss, Michel; Iglesias, Fernando; Kulacsy, Katalin; Pastore, Giovanni; Phillpot, Simon R.; Welland, Michael

    2018-06-01

    Gaseous fission product transport and release has a large impact on fuel performance, degrading fuel properties and, once the gas is released into the gap between the fuel and cladding, lowering gap thermal conductivity and increasing gap pressure. While gaseous fission product behavior has been investigated with bulk reactor experiments and simplified analytical models, recent improvements in experimental and modeling approaches at the atomistic and mesoscales are being applied to provide unprecedented understanding of the unit mechanisms that define the fission product behavior. In this article, existing research on the basic mechanisms behind the various stages of fission gas release during normal reactor operation are summarized and critical areas where experimental and simulation work is needed are identified. This basic understanding of the fission gas behavior mechanisms has the potential to revolutionize our ability to predict fission product behavior during reactor operation and to design fuels that have improved fission product retention. In addition, this work can serve as a model on how a coupled experimental and modeling approach can be applied to understand the unit mechanisms behind other critical behaviors in reactor materials.

  11. Sorption of trivalent lanthanides and actinides onto montmorillonite: Macroscopic, thermodynamic and structural evidence for ternary hydroxo and carbonato surface complexes on multiple sorption sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, M Marques; Scheinost, A C; Baeyens, B

    2016-08-01

    The credibility of long-term safety assessments of radioactive waste repositories may be greatly enhanced by a molecular level understanding of the sorption processes onto individual minerals present in the near- and far-fields. In this study we couple macroscopic sorption experiments to surface complexation modelling and spectroscopic investigations, including extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopies (TRLFS), to elucidate the uptake mechanism of trivalent lanthanides and actinides (Ln/An(III)) by montmorillonite in the absence and presence of dissolved carbonate. Based on the experimental sorption isotherms for the carbonate-free system, the previously developed 2 site protolysis non electrostatic surface complexation and cation exchange (2SPNE SC/CE) model needed to be complemented with an additional surface complexation reaction onto weak sites. The fitting of sorption isotherms in the presence of carbonate required refinement of the previously published model by reducing the strong site capacity and by adding the formation of Ln/An(III)-carbonato complexes both on strong and weak sites. EXAFS spectra of selected Am samples and TRLFS spectra of selected Cm samples corroborate the model assumptions by showing the existence of different surface complexation sites and evidencing the formation of Ln/An(III) carbonate surface complexes. In the absence of carbonate and at low loadings, Ln/An(III) form strong inner-sphere complexes through binding to three Al(O,OH)6 octahedra, most likely by occupying vacant sites in the octahedral layers of montmorillonite, which are exposed on {010} and {110} edge faces. At higher loadings, Ln/An(III) binds to only one Al octahedron, forming a weaker, edge-sharing surface complex. In the presence of carbonate, we identified a ternary mono- or dicarbonato Ln/An(III) complex binding directly to one Al(O,OH)6 octahedron, revealing that type-A ternary complexes form with the one

  12. Framework for understanding the patterns of student difficulties in quantum mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Marshman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] Compared with introductory physics, relatively little is known about the development of expertise in advanced physics courses, especially in the case of quantum mechanics. Here, we describe a framework for understanding the patterns of student reasoning difficulties and how students develop expertise in quantum mechanics. The framework posits that the challenges many students face in developing expertise in quantum mechanics are analogous to the challenges introductory students face in developing expertise in introductory classical mechanics. This framework incorporates both the effects of diversity in upper-level students’ prior preparation, goals, and motivation in general (i.e., the facts that even in upper-level courses, students may be inadequately prepared, have unclear goals, and have insufficient motivation to excel as well as the “paradigm shift” from classical mechanics to quantum mechanics. The framework is based on empirical investigations demonstrating that the patterns of reasoning, problem-solving, and self-monitoring difficulties in quantum mechanics bear a striking resemblance to those found in introductory classical mechanics. Examples from research in quantum mechanics and introductory classical mechanics are discussed to illustrate how the patterns of difficulties are analogous as students learn to unpack the respective principles and grasp the formalism in each knowledge domain during the development of expertise. Embracing such a framework and contemplating the parallels between the difficulties in these two knowledge domains can enable researchers to leverage the extensive literature for introductory physics education research to guide the design of teaching and learning tools for helping students develop expertise in quantum mechanics.

  13. Framework for understanding the patterns of student difficulties in quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshman, Emily; Singh, Chandralekha

    2015-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] Compared with introductory physics, relatively little is known about the development of expertise in advanced physics courses, especially in the case of quantum mechanics. Here, we describe a framework for understanding the patterns of student reasoning difficulties and how students develop expertise in quantum mechanics. The framework posits that the challenges many students face in developing expertise in quantum mechanics are analogous to the challenges introductory students face in developing expertise in introductory classical mechanics. This framework incorporates both the effects of diversity in upper-level students' prior preparation, goals, and motivation in general (i.e., the facts that even in upper-level courses, students may be inadequately prepared, have unclear goals, and have insufficient motivation to excel) as well as the "paradigm shift" from classical mechanics to quantum mechanics. The framework is based on empirical investigations demonstrating that the patterns of reasoning, problem-solving, and self-monitoring difficulties in quantum mechanics bear a striking resemblance to those found in introductory classical mechanics. Examples from research in quantum mechanics and introductory classical mechanics are discussed to illustrate how the patterns of difficulties are analogous as students learn to unpack the respective principles and grasp the formalism in each knowledge domain during the development of expertise. Embracing such a framework and contemplating the parallels between the difficulties in these two knowledge domains can enable researchers to leverage the extensive literature for introductory physics education research to guide the design of teaching and learning tools for helping students develop expertise in quantum mechanics.

  14. How LeuT shapes our understanding of the mechanisms of sodium-coupled neurotransmitter transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penmatsa, Aravind; Gouaux, Eric

    2014-03-01

    Neurotransmitter transporters are ion-coupled symporters that drive the uptake of neurotransmitters from neural synapses. In the past decade, the structure of a bacterial amino acid transporter, leucine transporter (LeuT), has given valuable insights into the understanding of architecture and mechanism of mammalian neurotransmitter transporters. Different conformations of LeuT, including a substrate-free state, inward-open state, and competitive and non-competitive inhibitor-bound states, have revealed a mechanistic framework for the transport and transport inhibition of neurotransmitters. The current review integrates our understanding of the mechanistic and pharmacological properties of eukaryotic neurotransmitter transporters obtained through structural snapshots of LeuT.

  15. Proteomic approaches to understanding the role of the cytoskeleton in host-defense mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulovic, Marko; Godovac-Zimmermann, Jasminka

    2014-01-01

    The cytoskeleton is a cellular scaffolding system whose functions include maintenance of cellular shape, enabling cellular migration, division, intracellular transport, signaling and membrane organization. In addition, in immune cells, the cytoskeleton is essential for phagocytosis. Following the advances in proteomics technology over the past two decades, cytoskeleton proteome analysis in resting and activated immune cells has emerged as a possible powerful approach to expand our understanding of cytoskeletal composition and function. However, so far there have only been a handful of studies of the cytoskeleton proteome in immune cells. This article considers promising proteomics strategies that could augment our understanding of the role of the cytoskeleton in host-defense mechanisms. PMID:21329431

  16. Preparation, characterization of electrospun meso-hydroxylapatite nanofibers and their sorptions on Co(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hualin, E-mail: hlwang@hfut.edu.cn [School of Chemical Technology, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui 230009 (China); Zhang, Peng; Ma, Xingkong; Jiang, Suwei; Huang, Yan; Zhai, Linfeng [School of Chemical Technology, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui 230009 (China); Jiang, Shaotong [School of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, Anhui 230009 (China)

    2014-01-30

    Highlights: • PVA/HA nanofibers could change into meso-HA nanofibers by calcination process. • Sorption of Co(II) on meso-HA was strongly dependent on pH and ionic strength. • Sorption kinetic data were well fitted by the pseudo-second-order rate equation. • Sorption isotherms could be well described by the Langmuir model. • Sorption process of Co(II) on meso-HA nanofibers was spontaneous and endothermic. -- Abstract: In this work, mesoporous hydroxylapatite (meso-HA) nanofibers were prepared via calcination process with polyvinyl alcohol/HA (PVA/HA) hybrid nanofibers fabricated by electrospinning technique as precursors, and the removal efficiency of meso-HA nanofibers toward Co(II) was evaluated via sorption kinetics and sorption isotherms. Furthermore, the sorption behaviors of Co(II) on meso-HA nanofibers were explored as a function of pH, ionic strength, and thermodynamic parameters. There existed hydrogen bonds between HA and PVA matrix in precursor nanofibers which could change into meso-HA nanofibers with main pore diameter at 27 nm and specific surface area at 114.26 m{sup 2}/g by calcination process. The sorption of Co(II) on meso-HA was strongly dependent on pH and ionic strength. Outer-sphere surface complexation or ion exchange was the main mechanisms of Co(II) adsorption on meso-HA at low pH, whereas inner-sphere surface complexation was the main adsorption mechanism at high pH. The sorption kinetic data were well fitted by the pseudo-second-order rate equation. The sorption isotherms could be well described by the Langmuir model. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔH°, ΔS° and ΔG°) calculated from the temperature-dependent sorption isotherms suggested that the sorption process of Co(II) on meso-HA nanofibers was spontaneous and endothermic.

  17. Contribution of local probes in the understanding of mechanical effect on localized corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignal, Vincent; Oltra, Roland; Mary, Nicolas

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the actual effects of mechanical stresses on the processes leading to pitting corrosion necessitates to develop both a mechanical approach and electrochemical experiments at a microscopic scale. Typical embrittlement can be observed after straining around MnS inclusions on a re-sulfurized 316 stainless steels and their corrosion sensitivity have been classified using the micro-capillary electrochemical cell technique. It has been shown that the numerical simulation of the location of stress gradients is possible before the local electrochemical analysis and could be a very interesting way to define the pitting susceptibility of micro-cracked areas during straining. (authors)

  18. Influence of organic fertilization on the sorption mechanisms of {sup 241} Am in tropical soils; A influencia da adubacao organica nos mecanismos de sorcao do {sup 241} Am em solos tropicais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Tatiane Rocha

    2009-07-01

    In this work the mechanisms involved in the sorption of {sup 241}Am were investigated depending on the physicochemical properties of some Brazilian soils and on alterations promoted by organic amendment. This experimental study was conducted in a controlled area, where pots containing different kinds of soils (histisol, ferralsol and nitisol), with different organic amendment doses (without amendment; 2 kg m{sup -2} and 4 kg m{sup -2}) were artificially contaminated by radioactive solution water, which contained {sup 241}Am. Migration studies, distribution (or partition) coefficient (KJ), bioavailability and organic matter were carried out in these soils, with ar without organic amendment. In order to evaluate the effective bioavailability of radionuclides, radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was cultivated in these pots, and later the concentration of {sup 241}Am in radish's roots was measured. The main results show that {sup 241}Am tends to be strongly attached to organic matter and that organic amendment in tropical soils minimizes the radionuclide studied desorption. Also, distribution (or partition) coefficient values for {sup 241}Am were generated and these values are smaller than those ones determined for soils from temperate zones. Physical and chemical fractioning of organic matter were carried out. (author)

  19. Influence of organic fertilization on the sorption mechanisms of {sup 241} Am in tropical soils; A influencia da adubacao organica nos mecanismos de sorcao do {sup 241} Am em solos tropicais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Tatiane Rocha

    2009-07-01

    In this work the mechanisms involved in the sorption of {sup 241}Am were investigated depending on the physicochemical properties of some Brazilian soils and on alterations promoted by organic amendment. This experimental study was conducted in a controlled area, where pots containing different kinds of soils (histisol, ferralsol and nitisol), with different organic amendment doses (without amendment; 2 kg m{sup -2} and 4 kg m{sup -2}) were artificially contaminated by radioactive solution water, which contained {sup 241}Am. Migration studies, distribution (or partition) coefficient (KJ), bioavailability and organic matter were carried out in these soils, with ar without organic amendment. In order to evaluate the effective bioavailability of radionuclides, radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was cultivated in these pots, and later the concentration of {sup 241}Am in radish's roots was measured. The main results show that {sup 241}Am tends to be strongly attached to organic matter and that organic amendment in tropical soils minimizes the radionuclide studied desorption. Also, distribution (or partition) coefficient values for {sup 241}Am were generated and these values are smaller than those ones determined for soils from temperate zones. Physical and chemical fractioning of organic matter were carried out. (author)

  20. Understanding the mechanism of catalytic fast pyrolysis by unveiling reactive intermediates in heterogeneous catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemberger, Patrick; Custodis, Victoria B. F.; Bodi, Andras; Gerber, Thomas; van Bokhoven, Jeroen A.

    2017-06-01

    Catalytic fast pyrolysis is a promising way to convert lignin into fine chemicals and fuels, but current approaches lack selectivity and yield unsatisfactory conversion. Understanding the pyrolysis reaction mechanism at the molecular level may help to make this sustainable process more economic. Reactive intermediates are responsible for product branching and hold the key to unveiling these mechanisms, but are notoriously difficult to detect isomer-selectively. Here, we investigate the catalytic pyrolysis of guaiacol, a lignin model compound, using photoelectron photoion coincidence spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation, which allows for isomer-selective detection of reactive intermediates. In combination with ambient pressure pyrolysis, we identify fulvenone as the central reactive intermediate, generated by catalytic demethylation to catechol and subsequent dehydration. The fulvenone ketene is responsible for the phenol formation. This technique may open unique opportunities for isomer-resolved probing in catalysis, and holds the potential for achieving a mechanistic understanding of complex, real-life catalytic processes.

  1. Material properties of biofilms – key methods for understanding permeability and mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Nicole; Birjiniuk, Alona; Samad, Tahoura S.; Doyle, Patrick S.; Ribbeck, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms can form biofilms, which are multicellular communities surrounded by a hydrated extracellular matrix of polymers. Central properties of the biofilm are governed by this extracellular matrix, which provides mechanical stability to the three-dimensional biofilm structure, regulates the ability of the biofilm to adhere to surfaces, and determines the ability of the biofilm to adsorb gasses, solutes, and foreign cells. Despite their critical relevance for understanding and eliminating of biofilms, the materials properties of the extracellular matrix are understudied. Here, we offer the reader a guide to current technologies that can be utilized to specifically assess the permeability and mechanical properties of the biofilm matrix and its interacting components. In particular, we highlight technological advances in instrumentation and interactions between multiple disciplines that have broadened the spectrum of methods available to conduct these studies. We review pioneering work that furthers our understanding of the material properties of biofilms. PMID:25719969

  2. RI: Rheology as a Tool for Understanding the Mechanics of Live Ant Aggregations, Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-04

    earwax of pigs, dogs , cows, and humans. We find that earwax is shear-thinning for all these animals. This ability enables it to cling to the ear in low...self-cleaning.” Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology annual meeting, 2017.  P. Yang, D. Dao, R. Lehner, D. Hu, “ The hydrodynamics of...RI: Rheology as a Tool for Understanding the Mechanics of Live Ant Aggregations, Part 2 An Anton Paarr MCR 501 rheometer was purchased in order to

  3. ITER safety task NID-5a: on the effect of tritium sorption on building surfaces as a passive mechanism for reducing airborne concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natalizio, A.

    1994-09-01

    As part of the source term analysis for ITER, it is important to investigate the potential for building surface interaction with tritium as a potential attenuation mechanism, which in the absence of engineered systems may be effective in reducing tritium environmental releases. (author). 2 refs., 8 tabs., 3 figs

  4. Sorption and diffusion of FE(II) in bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muurinen, A.; Tournassat, C.; Hadi, J.; Greneche, J.-M.

    2014-02-01

    . Qualitatively, the sorption of the radioactive 55 Fe on all the clays shows the same type of behaviour, i.e. sorption increases with increasing pH. In the measurements with the bentonite purified at VTT, the sorption occurs at a higher pH than in the measurements carried out with bentonite purified at BRGM. The sorption experiments in the acetate buffer of pH 5 show decreasing sorption of 55 Fe as a function of the increasing concentration of the added Fe(II). A general model for the investigated clays is proposed where Fe sorption is due to adsorption on exchange sites, strong and weak complexation sites and electron transfer with the structural Fe. All mechanisms identified apply to all clay samples but with variations in CEC values, structural Fe redox potential and strong and weak sites' surface density. The measured diffusivities show rather low values (10 -15 - 10 -16 m 2 /s) at pH 8 and 5. At pH 8, the diffusion curve calculated with a reactive transport model on the basis of the sorption matches fairly well the experimental results. At pH 5, the model predicts a much longer diffusion distance than found in the experiment. The reason for this discrepancy is not yet understood. A possible explanation could be a slow redox/sorption process which does not appear in the short batch sorption measurements. (orig.)

  5. Sorption and diffusion of FE(II) in bentonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muurinen, A. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Tournassat, C.; Hadi, J. [BRGM, Orleans (France); Greneche, J.-M. [LPCE, Le Mans (France)

    2014-02-15

    . Qualitatively, the sorption of the radioactive {sup 55}Fe on all the clays shows the same type of behaviour, i.e. sorption increases with increasing pH. In the measurements with the bentonite purified at VTT, the sorption occurs at a higher pH than in the measurements carried out with bentonite purified at BRGM. The sorption experiments in the acetate buffer of pH 5 show decreasing sorption of {sup 55}Fe as a function of the increasing concentration of the added Fe(II). A general model for the investigated clays is proposed where Fe sorption is due to adsorption on exchange sites, strong and weak complexation sites and electron transfer with the structural Fe. All mechanisms identified apply to all clay samples but with variations in CEC values, structural Fe redox potential and strong and weak sites' surface density. The measured diffusivities show rather low values (10{sup -15} - 10{sup -16} m{sup 2}/s) at pH 8 and 5. At pH 8, the diffusion curve calculated with a reactive transport model on the basis of the sorption matches fairly well the experimental results. At pH 5, the model predicts a much longer diffusion distance than found in the experiment. The reason for this discrepancy is not yet understood. A possible explanation could be a slow redox/sorption process which does not appear in the short batch sorption measurements. (orig.)

  6. Review of sorption models, and their suitability for use in performance assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, K.B.

    1997-02-01

    The sorption of radionuclides on mineral surfaces is an important mechanism for retarding the movement of radionuclides from a geological nuclear fuel disposal vault, through the geosphere, to the biosphere. Sorption processes are known to increase the travel times for some radionuclides by 103 to 106 times relative to the groundwater flow, and this delay can provide the opportunity for radioactive decay before the radionuclide enters the biosphere. Sorption models are, or can be, used as a means of including the effects of sorption in the transport equations which describe the movement of radionuclides through the geosphere. Sorption models are, or could be, based on sorption isotherms, such as the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, ion-exchange models, surface-complexation models, or parametric models that are, essentially, interpolated databases. All national nuclear fuel waste disposal programs currently assume the linear adsorption isotherm, which states that the degree of sorption on a surface is a linear function of the concentration of sorbing ion in solution. The sorption models that are, or could be, applied to the movement of radionuclides in the geosphere are reviewed. It is concluded that, at the present state of knowledge, no single model has been demonstrated to provide an adequate description of radionuclide sorption. Reasons for this inadequacy vary, ranging from lack of data, through restricted ability to describe sorption under a variety of conditions, to current levels of development of the models. It is concluded that a parametric model, associated with a linear sorption isotherm, is currently the most practical choice that can be made. Following the completion of an earlier draft of this report, a new approach to surface complexation modelling, the 'discrete-log-K-spectrum' model, was published. This model appears to have the potential to achieve a synthesis of many of the concepts used in sorption modelling. For this reason, a description of

  7. Comparative evaluation for the sorption capacity of four carbonaceous sorbents to phenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Feng Jin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sorption kinetics and isotherms of phenol by four carbonaceous sorbents (activated carbon (AC, mesoporous carbon (MPC, bamboo biochar (BBC and oak wood biochar (OBC were compared in this study. MPC has the fastest sorption rate and initial sorption potential, which were indicated by sorption rate constants and initial sorption rate “h” in a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The ordered and straight pore structure of MPC facilitated the accessibility of phenol. The AC showed the greatest sorption capacity towards phenol with maximum sorption of 123 mg/g as calculated by the Langmuir model. High surface area, complexity of pore structure, and the strong binding force of the π–π electron-donor-acceptor interaction between phenol molecules and AC were the main mechanisms. The BBC and OBC had much slower sorption and lower sorption capacity (33.04 and 29.86 mg/g, respectively, compared to MPC (73.00 mg/g and AC, indicating an ineffective potential for phenol removal from water.

  8. Sorption of radionickel to goethite: Effect of water quality parameters and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baowei Hu; ShaoXing University, ShaoXing; Wen Cheng; Hui Zhang; Guodong Sheng; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei

    2010-01-01

    In this work, sorption of Ni(II) from aqueous solution to goethite as a function of various water quality parameters and temperature was investigated. The results indicated that the pseudo-second-order rate equation fitted the kinetic sorption well. The sorption of Ni(II) to goethite was strongly dependent on pH and ionic strength. A positive effect of HA/FA on Ni(II) sorption was found at pH 8.0. The Langmuir, Freundlich, and D-R models were applied to simulate the sorption isotherms at three different temperatures of 293.15 K, 313.15 K and 333.15 K. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔH 0 , ΔS 0 and ΔG 0 ) were calculated from the temperature dependent sorption, and the results indicated that the sorption was endothermic and spontaneous. At low pH, the sorption of Ni(II) was dominated by outer-sphere surface complexation or ion exchange with Na + /H + on goethite surfaces, whereas inner-sphere surface complexation was the main sorption mechanism at high pH. (author)

  9. Sorption of radiostrontium from liquid metallic rubidium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhujkov, B.L.; Kokhnyuk, V.M.; Vincent, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    One studied the radiostrontium (in particular, 82 Sr) sorption from the liquid metallic Rb in various inorganic sorbents (both metals and oxides). One studied the temperature dependence and the dynamics of the adsorption and put forward an interpretation of the observed mechanisms. The elaborated approach enables to extract 82 Sr efficiently from the Rb targets upon their irradiation by the accelerated protons. One studies various procedures and the applicability of the process to ensure elaboration of a new highly efficient process to produce 82 Sr, in particular, with the targets of the circulating Rb [ru

  10. Reactive Molecular Dynamics Simulations to Understand Mechanical Response of Thaumasite under Temperature and Strain Rate Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajilar, Shahin; Shafei, Behrouz; Cheng, Tao; Jaramillo-Botero, Andres

    2017-06-22

    Understanding the structural, thermal, and mechanical properties of thaumasite is of great interest to the cement industry, mainly because it is the phase responsible for the aging and deterioration of civil infrastructures made of cementitious materials attacked by external sources of sulfate. Despite the importance, effects of temperature and strain rate on the mechanical response of thaumasite had remained unexplored prior to the current study, in which the mechanical properties of thaumasite are fully characterized using the reactive molecular dynamics (RMD) method. With employing a first-principles based reactive force field, the RMD simulations enable the description of bond dissociation and formation under realistic conditions. From the stress-strain curves of thaumasite generated in the x, y, and z directions, the tensile strength, Young's modulus, and fracture strain are determined for the three orthogonal directions. During the course of each simulation, the chemical bonds undergoing tensile deformations are monitored to reveal the bonds responsible for the mechanical strength of thaumasite. The temperature increase is found to accelerate the bond breaking rate and consequently the degradation of mechanical properties of thaumasite, while the strain rate only leads to a slight enhancement of them for the ranges considered in this study.

  11. Comparing uranyl sorption complexes on soil and reference clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chisholm-Brause, C.J.; Berg, J.M.; Conradson, S.D.; Morris, D.E.; McKinley, J.P.; Zachara, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Clay minerals and other components in natural soils may play a key role in limiting the mobility of uranium in the environment through the formation of sorption complexes. Reference clays are frequently used as models to study sorption processes because they have well-known chemical and physical properties, but they may differ chemically and morphologically from clays derived from natural soils. Therefore, inferences based on reference clay data have been questioned. The authors have used luminescence and x-ray absorption spectroscopies to characterize the sorption complexes of aqueous uranyl (UO 2 2+ ) species on two soil smectites from the Kenoma and Ringold formations, and compared these results to those obtained on reference smectite clays. The pH dependence of uptake suggests that the ratio of sorption on amphoteric edge sites is greater for the soil smectites than for reference clays such as Wyoming montmorillonite (SWy-1). The luminescence spectra for uranyl sorbed to the soil clays are very similar to those for uranyl sorbed principally to the edge sites of SWy-1. This observation supports the solution data suggesting that adsorption to amphoteric sites is a more important mechanism for soil clays. However, the spectral data indicate that the sorption complexes on natural and reference clays are quite similar. Furthermore, as with the reference clays, the authors have found that the chemistry of the solution plays a greater role in defining the sorption complex than does the clay matrix. Thus, if differences in surface properties are adequately taken into account, the reference clays may serve as useful analogs for soil clays in investigations of metal-ion sorption

  12. Review of the sorption of actinides on natural minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beall, G.W.

    1981-01-01

    Over the past few years, a large body of data concerning sorption of actinides on geologic media has been built in connection with high-level-waste disposal. The primary aim of the work has been to allow predictions of the migration behavior of these radionuclides in the case of a breach of the repository that allowed groundwater flow through the repository. As a result of this work, some new backfill materials specifically tailored for the actinides have also been designed. Several major mechanisms of sorption that appear to dominate the sorption of actinides have emerged from these studies. These mechanisms can be divided into solution reactions dominated by hydrolysis, chemisorption reactions, and oxidation-reduction reactions. Each of these mechanisms will be discussed in detail, with experimental examples. Surprisingly, one mechanism, cation exchange, does not play an important role; why it fails to operate in any significant way in the environmental pH region will be discussed. The implications of the sorption mechanisms for waste forms and backfill materials will be discussed in detail. These discussions will center primarily around the valence state of the actinide in various waste forms and the effect of various anions on leachability from waste forms and backfill materials

  13. Understanding dental CAD/CAM for restorations--the digital workflow from a mechanical engineering viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapie, L; Lebon, N; Mawussi, B; Fron Chabouis, H; Duret, F; Attal, J-P

    2015-01-01

    As digital technology infiltrates every area of daily life, including the field of medicine, so it is increasingly being introduced into dental practice. Apart from chairside practice, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) solutions are available for creating inlays, crowns, fixed partial dentures (FPDs), implant abutments, and other dental prostheses. CAD/CAM dental solutions can be considered a chain of digital devices and software for the almost automatic design and creation of dental restorations. However, dentists who want to use the technology often do not have the time or knowledge to understand it. A basic knowledge of the CAD/CAM digital workflow for dental restorations can help dentists to grasp the technology and purchase a CAM/CAM system that meets the needs of their office. This article provides a computer-science and mechanical-engineering approach to the CAD/CAM digital workflow to help dentists understand the technology.

  14. Sorption data bases for generic Swiss argillaceous rock systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, M. H.; Baeyens, B.; Thoenen, T.

    2010-09-01

    implies, these factors were used to convert the (predominantly) illite sorption values into sorption values valid for the defined generic conditions with regard to mineralogy and porewater composition. Conversion factors were used to adapt sorption values to mineralogy (CF min ), to pH value (CF pH ) and to radionuclide speciation (CF spec ). Finally, a Lab→Field conversion factor (CF Lab→Field ) was applied to adapt sorption data measured in dispersed systems (batch experiments) to intact rock under in-situ conditions. Calcareous rock is used in safety analyses as being representative of a clay rock which has lost most of its favorable sorption properties due to near-field effects such as alteration by an alkaline plume and subsequent processes. It is assumed that calcareous rocks do not contain any significant quantities of phyllosilicates and that only uptake data on calcite are relevant. Sorption data on calcite are extremely sparse and the uptake mechanisms are not fully understood. However, when the existing sorption data (log R d values) are plotted against the ionic radii of the respective metals, an acceptable linear correlation between these two quantities is found. This so-called linear free energy relationship is used to complement the sparse experimental data in the SDB for calcareous systems. (authors)

  15. Cognitive neuroepigenetics: the next evolution in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying learning and memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Paul; Bredy, Timothy W.

    2016-07-01

    A complete understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of learning and memory continues to elude neuroscientists. Although many important discoveries have been made, the question of how memories are encoded and maintained at the molecular level remains. So far, this issue has been framed within the context of one of the most dominant concepts in molecular biology, the central dogma, and the result has been a protein-centric view of memory. Here, we discuss the evidence supporting a role for neuroepigenetic mechanisms, which constitute dynamic and reversible, state-dependent modifications at all levels of control over cellular function, and their role in learning and memory. This neuroepigenetic view suggests that DNA, RNA and protein each influence one another to produce a holistic cellular state that contributes to the formation and maintenance of memory, and predicts a parallel and distributed system for the consolidation, storage and retrieval of the engram.

  16. Sorption of Emerging Organic Wastewater Contaminants to Four Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Roberts

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional onsite wastewater treatment system design relies on a septic tank and soil treatment unit (STU for treatment of wastewater and integration of the final effluent into the environment. Organic water contaminants (OWCs, chemicals found in pharmaceutical drugs, detergents, surfactants, and other personal care and cleaning products, have been observed in septic tank effluent and the environment. Sorption of OWC mass to soil is a key mechanism in the removal and retardation of many of these chemicals in effluent as it travels through an STU. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the fraction of organic carbon of soil and the equilibrium sorption partitioning coefficient of a selected group of relevant and diverse OWCs. A secondary goal is to evaluate current methods of modeling the sorption of selected OWCs in soil. Five point Freundlich isotherms were constructed from equilibrium sorption batch tests for target OWCs with four different soils. For soils with organic carbon fraction between 0.021 and 0.054, Kd values were calculated between 60 and 185 for 4-nonylphenol, 75 to 260 for triclosan, 115 to 270 for bisphenol-A, 3 to 255 for 17β-estradiol, 40 to 55 for 17α-ethynylestradiol, and 28 to 70 for estrone. An empirically derived, direct relationship between foc and Kd may be a useful approach to estimating sorption for a soil based on organic carbon content.

  17. Sorption behaviour of well-defined oxidation states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allard, B.; Olofsson, U.; Torstenfelt, B.; Kipatsi, H.

    1983-05-01

    The sorption of the actinides Am(III), Th(IV), Np(V), Pa(V), U(VI) and Pu has been studied as a function of pH (2-12) for two nuclide concentrations (10 -7 -10 -9 M) (only one for Pa and U) in the systems Al 2 0 3 - 0.01 M NaCl0 4 and Si0 2 - 0.01 M NaCl0 4 . Distribution coefficients have been determined by a batch technique after various contact times (6h - 6w) at constant temperature (25degreeC) in systems equilibrated with air. The observed sorption behaviour indicates a predominantly physical adsorption mechanism, where pH of the aqueous phase is the principal chemical parameter of influence. The sorption is highly related to the degree of hydrolysis, with a maximum in the pH-region where neutral species dominate and with a reduction of the sorption under conditions when anionic species (hydroxides or carbonates) would exist in solution. This is particularly the case for U(VI) at pH above 7-8 when anionic carbonate complexes would be formed. Plutonium is predominantly tetravalent under the present conditions, as indicated by the sorption behaviour. (authors)

  18. Sorption techniques for production of high purity refractory metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shatalov, V.V.; Peganov, V.A.; Logvinenko, I.A.; Molchanova, T.V.

    2004-01-01

    A consideration is given to potentialities of sorption processes tot provide a high quality of refractory metal and their alloys when using hydrometallurgical methods for raw material processing. The efficiency of application of ion exchange technology is shown for complex solutions reprocessing for various types of polymetallic raw materials, among them uranium ores, enriched concentrates of refractory metal ores, intermediate products, waste solutions. Based on investigation results on the behaviour of elements in process solutions and the mechanism of their sorption and elution, the process of pure chemical compounds production are developed which provide thereafter manufacturing compact metals. The flowsheets developed are mastered on a commercial scale [ru

  19. Utilizing toxicogenomic data to understand chemical mechanism of action in risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Vickie S., E-mail: wilson.vickie@epa.gov [National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Keshava, Nagalakshmi [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20460 (United States); Hester, Susan [National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Segal, Deborah; Chiu, Weihsueh [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20460 (United States); Thompson, Chad M. [ToxStrategies, Inc., 23501 Cinco Ranch Blvd., Suite G265, Katy, TX 77494 (United States); Euling, Susan Y. [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20460 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    The predominant role of toxicogenomic data in risk assessment, thus far, has been one of augmentation of more traditional in vitro and in vivo toxicology data. This article focuses on the current available examples of instances where toxicogenomic data has been evaluated in human health risk assessment (e.g., acetochlor and arsenicals) which have been limited to the application of toxicogenomic data to inform mechanism of action. This article reviews the regulatory policy backdrop and highlights important efforts to ultimately achieve regulatory acceptance. A number of research efforts on specific chemicals that were designed for risk assessment purposes have employed mechanism or mode of action hypothesis testing and generating strategies. The strides made by large scale efforts to utilize toxicogenomic data in screening, testing, and risk assessment are also discussed. These efforts include both the refinement of methodologies for performing toxicogenomics studies and analysis of the resultant data sets. The current issues limiting the application of toxicogenomics to define mode or mechanism of action in risk assessment are discussed together with interrelated research needs. In summary, as chemical risk assessment moves away from a single mechanism of action approach toward a toxicity pathway-based paradigm, we envision that toxicogenomic data from multiple technologies (e.g., proteomics, metabolomics, transcriptomics, supportive RT-PCR studies) can be used in conjunction with one another to understand the complexities of multiple, and possibly interacting, pathways affected by chemicals which will impact human health risk assessment.

  20. Utilizing toxicogenomic data to understand chemical mechanism of action in risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Vickie S.; Keshava, Nagalakshmi; Hester, Susan; Segal, Deborah; Chiu, Weihsueh; Thompson, Chad M.; Euling, Susan Y.

    2013-01-01

    The predominant role of toxicogenomic data in risk assessment, thus far, has been one of augmentation of more traditional in vitro and in vivo toxicology data. This article focuses on the current available examples of instances where toxicogenomic data has been evaluated in human health risk assessment (e.g., acetochlor and arsenicals) which have been limited to the application of toxicogenomic data to inform mechanism of action. This article reviews the regulatory policy backdrop and highlights important efforts to ultimately achieve regulatory acceptance. A number of research efforts on specific chemicals that were designed for risk assessment purposes have employed mechanism or mode of action hypothesis testing and generating strategies. The strides made by large scale efforts to utilize toxicogenomic data in screening, testing, and risk assessment are also discussed. These efforts include both the refinement of methodologies for performing toxicogenomics studies and analysis of the resultant data sets. The current issues limiting the application of toxicogenomics to define mode or mechanism of action in risk assessment are discussed together with interrelated research needs. In summary, as chemical risk assessment moves away from a single mechanism of action approach toward a toxicity pathway-based paradigm, we envision that toxicogenomic data from multiple technologies (e.g., proteomics, metabolomics, transcriptomics, supportive RT-PCR studies) can be used in conjunction with one another to understand the complexities of multiple, and possibly interacting, pathways affected by chemicals which will impact human health risk assessment

  1. New elements to understand hydrogen diffusion and trapping mechanisms in quenched and tempered HSLA martensitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frappart, S.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen Embrittlement is a complex phenomenon responsible of metal degradation. It mainly depends on the material (chemical composition, heat treatment), the environment or the mechanical state. The main goal of this study is to give new elements to understand hydrogen diffusion and trapping mechanisms in High Strength Low Alloy martensitic steels used in the field of 'Oil and Gas' applications and nuclear industry. In this way, the purpose is to identify hydrogen trapping sites related to microstructural features as a basis for a better knowledge concerning hydrogen embrittlement. Thus, accurate electrochemical permeation set-up (with or without a mechanical state) were developed as well as a procedure to thoroughly analyze experimental data. An original approach on how to interpret electrochemical permeation results has been therefore performed. Afterward, the effect of different critical parameters has been assessed i.e. the membrane thickness, the surface state of the detection side as well as the microstructure and the mechanical state. The relationship between physical parameters associated to diffusion and trapping with the microstructure evolution will give rise to a first thought 'toward the embrittlement'

  2. Kinetic and isotherm studies of bisphenol A adsorption onto orange albedo(Citrus sinensis): Sorption mechanisms based on the main albedo components vitamin C, flavones glycosides and carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamgaing, Theophile; Doungmo, Giscard; Melataguia Tchieno, Francis Merlin; Gouoko Kouonang, Jimmy Julio; Mbadcam, Ketcha Joseph

    2017-07-03

    Orange albedo and its adsorption capacity towards bisphenol A (BPA) were studied. Adsorption experiments were conducted in batch mode at 25-55°C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to characterise the biosorbent. The effects of various parameters including adsorption time, equilibrium pH, adsorbent dosage and initial adsorbate concentration were investigated. The optimum contact time and pH for the removal of BPA were 60 min and 2, respectively. It was found that the adsorption isotherms best matched the Freundlich model, the adsorption of BPA being multilayer and that of the albedo surface heterogeneous. From the kinetic studies, it was found that the removal of BPA best matched the pseudo-second order kinetic model. An adsorption mechanism based on the albedo surface molecules is proposed and gives a good account of π-π interactions and hydrogen bonding. Orange albedo, with a maximum BPA loading capacity of 82.36 mg g -1 (significantly higher than that of most agricultural residues), is a good candidate for BPA adsorption in aqueous media.

  3. Evaluation of sorption distribution coefficient of Cs onto granite using sorption data collected in sorption database and sorption model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasaki, S.

    2013-01-01

    Based on the sorption distribution coefficients (K d ) of Cs onto granite collected from the JAERI Sorption Database (SDB), the parameters for a two-site model without the triple-layer structure were optimized. Comparing the experimentally measured K d values of Cs onto Mizunami granite carried out by JAEA with the K d values predicted by the model, the effect of the ionic strength on the K d values of Cs onto granite was evaluated. It was found that K d values could be determined using the content of biotite in granite at a sodium concentration ([Na]) of 1 x 10 -2 to 5 x 10 -1 mol/dm 3 . It was suggested that in high ionic strength solutions, the sorption of Cs onto other minerals such as microcline should also be taken into account. (author)

  4. Evaluation of sorption distribution coefficient of Cs onto granite using sorption data collected in sorption database and sorption model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasaki, S., E-mail: nagasas@mcmaster.ca [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Based on the sorption distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) of Cs onto granite collected from the JAERI Sorption Database (SDB), the parameters for a two-site model without the triple-layer structure were optimized. Comparing the experimentally measured K{sub d} values of Cs onto Mizunami granite carried out by JAEA with the K{sub d} values predicted by the model, the effect of the ionic strength on the K{sub d} values of Cs onto granite was evaluated. It was found that K{sub d} values could be determined using the content of biotite in granite at a sodium concentration ([Na]) of 1 x 10{sup -2} to 5 x 10{sup -1} mol/dm{sup 3} . It was suggested that in high ionic strength solutions, the sorption of Cs onto other minerals such as microcline should also be taken into account. (author)

  5. The investigation of wood hydrolysis lignin ability for uranium sorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachkova, N.G.; Shuktomova, I.I.; Taskaev, A.I.

    2001-01-01

    The uranium are sorbed in wood hydrolysis lignin efficacious and very strong both in uranyl nitrate solutions and in podsolic soil. It may well be that formation of complexes are possible mechanism of irreversible sorption. The static capacity of lignin are 2.7 mg/g. (author)

  6. Sorption isotherms, GAB parameters and isosteric heat of sorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quirijns, E.J.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.; Loon, van W.K.P.; Straten, van G.

    2005-01-01

    The diffusion-sorption drying model has been developed as a physics-based way to model the decreasing drying rate at low moisture contents. This new model is founded on the existence of different classes of water: free and bound water. The transition between these classes and the corresponding

  7. Sorption of antibiotic sulfamethoxazole varies with biochars produced at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Hao; Wang, Zhenyu; Zhao, Jian; Herbert, Stephen; Xing, Baoshan

    2013-01-01

    Sorption of sulfonamides on biochars is poorly understood, thus sulfamethoxazole (SMX) sorption on biochars produced at 300–600 °C was determined as a function of pH and SMX concentration, as well as the inorganic fractions in the biochars. Neutral SMX molecules (SMX 0 ) were dominant for sorption at pH 1.0–6.0. Above pH 7.0, although biochars surfaces were negatively-charged, anionic SMX species sorption increased with pH and is regulated via charge-assisted H-bonds. SMX 0 sorption at pH 5.0 was nonlinear and adsorption-dominant for all the biochars via hydrophobic interaction, π–π electron donor–acceptor interaction and pore-filling. The removal of inorganic fraction reduced SMX sorption by low-temperature biochars (e.g., 300 °C), but enhanced the sorption by high-temperature biochars (e.g., 600 °C) due to the temperature-dependent inorganic fractions in the biochars. These observations are useful for producing designer biochars as engineered sorbents to reduce the bioavailability of antibiotics and/or predict the fate of sulfonamides in biochar-amended soils. -- Highlights: •Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) sorption on biochars at pH 5.0 was adsorption-dominant. •Removal of inorganic fractions in low-temperature biochars reduced SMX sorption. •Removal of inorganic fractions in high-temperature biochars enhanced SMX sorption. •Anionic SMX was adsorbed on negatively charged biochar via charge-assisted H-bond. -- Solution pH and biochar property control the sorption amount and mechanisms of antibiotic sulfamethoxazole

  8. Statistical grand rounds: understanding the mechanism: mediation analysis in randomized and nonrandomized studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascha, Edward J; Dalton, Jarrod E; Kurz, Andrea; Saager, Leif

    2013-10-01

    In comparative clinical studies, a common goal is to assess whether an exposure, or intervention, affects the outcome of interest. However, just as important is to understand the mechanism(s) for how the intervention affects outcome. For example, if preoperative anemia was shown to increase the risk of postoperative complications by 15%, it would be important to quantify how much of that effect was due to patients receiving intraoperative transfusions. Mediation analysis attempts to quantify how much, if any, of the effect of an intervention on outcome goes though prespecified mediator, or "mechanism" variable(s), that is, variables sitting on the causal pathway between exposure and outcome. Effects of an exposure on outcome can thus be divided into direct and indirect, or mediated, effects. Mediation is claimed when 2 conditions are true: the exposure affects the mediator and the mediator (adjusting for the exposure) affects the outcome. Understanding how an intervention affects outcome can validate or invalidate one's original hypothesis and also facilitate further research to modify the responsible factors, and thus improve patient outcome. We discuss the proper design and analysis of studies investigating mediation, including the importance of distinguishing mediator variables from confounding variables, the challenge of identifying potential mediators when the exposure is chronic versus acute, and the requirements for claiming mediation. Simple designs are considered, as well as those containing multiple mediators, multiple outcomes, and mixed data types. Methods are illustrated with data collected by the National Surgical Quality Improvement Project (NSQIP) and utilized in a companion paper which assessed the effects of preoperative anemic status on postoperative outcomes.

  9. EXAFS study of plutonium sorption onto kaolinite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, T.Y.; Banik, L.; Buda, R.A.; Amayri, S.; Drebert, J.; Kratz, J.V.; Trautmann, N.; Reich, T.; Ageev, A.L.; Korshunov, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    The uptake mechanism of plutonium by kaolinite was investigated by applying X-ray absorption spectroscopy to batch sorption samples (total Pu concentrations 1 and 10 μM; 4 g kaolinite/L in 0.1 M NaClO 4 ; 1 ≤ pH ≤ 9; presence and absence of ambient CO 2 ). For XAFS measurements, one sample was prepared from a Pu(III) solution at pH 6 under argon atmosphere. Three samples were obtained by sorption of Pu(IV) at pH I, 4, and 9 in an air-equilibrated system. The Pu L III -edge XANES spectra indicated that in all samples, including the Pu(III) sample, plutonium is sorbed at the kaolinite surface as Pu(IV). The Pu L III -edge k 3 -weighted EXAFS spectra showed eight oxygen atoms at an average Pu-O distance of 2.3 angstrom. Two Pu atoms were detected at ∼ 3.7 angstrom in all spectra, indicating the formation of polynuclear Pu(IV) species at the kaolinite surface. For the sample prepared from Pu(III) solution, an additional Pu-O shell at 3.2 angstrom was observed. The spectra of samples prepared from Pu(IV) included a Pu-Al/Si co-ordination shell at approximately 3.6 angstrom, indicating formation of inner-sphere sorption complexes. The structural models used in the least-squares fits were confirmed by an alternative EXAFS data analysis approach based on a modified Tikhonov regularization method. (authors)

  10. Similar verbal memory impairments in schizophrenia and healthy aging. Implications for understanding of neural mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Henry; Bilker, Warren B

    2015-03-30

    Memory is impaired in schizophrenia patients but it is not clear whether this is specific to the illness and whether different types of memory (verbal and nonverbal) or memories in different cognitive domains (executive, object recognition) are similarly affected. To study relationships between memory impairments and schizophrenia we compared memory functions in 77 schizophrenia patients, 58 elderly healthy individuals and 41 young healthy individuals. Tests included verbal associative and logical memory and memory in executive and object recognition domains. We compared relationships of memory functions to each other and to other cognitive functions including psychomotor speed and verbal and spatial working memory. Compared to the young healthy group, schizophrenia patients and elderly healthy individuals showed similar severe impairment in logical memory and in the ability to learn new associations (NAL), and similar but less severe impairment in spatial working memory and executive and object memory. Verbal working memory was significantly more impaired in schizophrenia patients than in the healthy elderly. Verbal episodic memory impairment in schizophrenia may share common mechanisms with similar impairment in healthy aging. Impairment in verbal working memory in contrast may reflect mechanisms specific to schizophrenia. Study of verbal explicit memory impairment tapped by the NAL index may advance understanding of abnormal hippocampus dependent mechanisms common to schizophrenia and aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Understanding comorbidity among internalizing problems: Integrating latent structural models of psychopathology and risk mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankin, Benjamin L.; Snyder, Hannah R.; Gulley, Lauren D.; Schweizer, Tina H.; Bijttebier, Patricia; Nelis, Sabine; Toh, Gim; Vasey, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that comorbidity is the rule, not the exception, for categorically defined psychiatric disorders, and this is also the case for internalizing disorders of depression and anxiety. This theoretical review paper addresses the ubiquity of comorbidity among internalizing disorders. Our central thesis is that progress in understanding this co-occurrence can be made by employing latent dimensional structural models that organize both psychopathology as well as vulnerabilities and risk mechanisms and by connecting the multiple levels of risk and psychopathology outcomes together. Different vulnerabilities and risk mechanisms are hypothesized to predict different levels of the structural model of psychopathology. We review the present state of knowledge based on concurrent and developmental sequential comorbidity patterns among common discrete psychiatric disorders in youth, and then we advocate for the use of more recent bifactor dimensional models of psychopathology (e.g., p factor, Caspi et al., 2014) that can help to explain the co-occurrence among internalizing symptoms. In support of this relatively novel conceptual perspective, we review six exemplar vulnerabilities and risk mechanisms, including executive function, information processing biases, cognitive vulnerabilities, positive and negative affectivity aspects of temperament, and autonomic dysregulation, along with the developmental occurrence of stressors in different domains, to show how these vulnerabilities can predict the general latent psychopathology factor, a unique latent internalizing dimension, as well as specific symptom syndrome manifestations. PMID:27739389

  12. Features of Knowledge Building in Biology: Understanding Undergraduate Students’ Ideas about Molecular Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southard, Katelyn; Wince, Tyler; Meddleton, Shanice; Bolger, Molly S.

    2016-01-01

    Research has suggested that teaching and learning in molecular and cellular biology (MCB) is difficult. We used a new lens to understand undergraduate reasoning about molecular mechanisms: the knowledge-integration approach to conceptual change. Knowledge integration is the dynamic process by which learners acquire new ideas, develop connections between ideas, and reorganize and restructure prior knowledge. Semistructured, clinical think-aloud interviews were conducted with introductory and upper-division MCB students. Interviews included a written conceptual assessment, a concept-mapping activity, and an opportunity to explain the biomechanisms of DNA replication, transcription, and translation. Student reasoning patterns were explored through mixed-method analyses. Results suggested that students must sort mechanistic entities into appropriate mental categories that reflect the nature of MCB mechanisms and that conflation between these categories is common. We also showed how connections between molecular mechanisms and their biological roles are part of building an integrated knowledge network as students develop expertise. We observed differences in the nature of connections between ideas related to different forms of reasoning. Finally, we provide a tentative model for MCB knowledge integration and suggest its implications for undergraduate learning. PMID:26931398

  13. Progress in Understanding Degradation Mechanisms and Improving Stability in Organic Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Mateker, William R.

    2016-12-23

    Understanding the degradation mechanisms of organic photovoltaics is particularly important, as they tend to degrade faster than their inorganic counterparts, such as silicon and cadmium telluride. An overview is provided here of the main degradation mechanisms that researchers have identified so far that cause extrinsic degradation from oxygen and water, intrinsic degradation in the dark, and photo-induced burn-in. In addition, it provides methods for researchers to identify these mechanisms in new materials and device structures to screen them more quickly for promising long-term performance. These general strategies will likely be helpful in other photovoltaic technologies that suffer from insufficient stability, such as perovskite solar cells. Finally, the most promising lifetime results are highlighted and recommendations to improve long-term performance are made. To prevent degradation from oxygen and water for sufficiently long time periods, OPVs will likely need to be encapsulated by barrier materials with lower permeation rates of oxygen and water than typical flexible substrate materials. To improve stability at operating temperatures, materials will likely require glass transition temperatures above 100 °C. Methods to prevent photo-induced burn-in are least understood, but recent research indicates that using pure materials with dense and ordered film morphologies can reduce the burn-in effect.

  14. Progress in Understanding Degradation Mechanisms and Improving Stability in Organic Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Mateker, William R.; McGehee, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the degradation mechanisms of organic photovoltaics is particularly important, as they tend to degrade faster than their inorganic counterparts, such as silicon and cadmium telluride. An overview is provided here of the main degradation mechanisms that researchers have identified so far that cause extrinsic degradation from oxygen and water, intrinsic degradation in the dark, and photo-induced burn-in. In addition, it provides methods for researchers to identify these mechanisms in new materials and device structures to screen them more quickly for promising long-term performance. These general strategies will likely be helpful in other photovoltaic technologies that suffer from insufficient stability, such as perovskite solar cells. Finally, the most promising lifetime results are highlighted and recommendations to improve long-term performance are made. To prevent degradation from oxygen and water for sufficiently long time periods, OPVs will likely need to be encapsulated by barrier materials with lower permeation rates of oxygen and water than typical flexible substrate materials. To improve stability at operating temperatures, materials will likely require glass transition temperatures above 100 °C. Methods to prevent photo-induced burn-in are least understood, but recent research indicates that using pure materials with dense and ordered film morphologies can reduce the burn-in effect.

  15. Batch-Versuche zur Bestimmung der Sorption und Reaktionskinetik von fluoreszierenden Tracern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaitl, Tobias; Wohnlich, Stefan

    2018-06-01

    For many tracer experiments, prior determination of interaction between solid medium and used tracers is of major interest in order to achieve efficient, economic and successful field experiments. In the present study, three different types of batch experiments were performed with three fluorescent dyes (Na-Fluorescein, Amidorhodamin G and Tinopal CBS-X) and three different rock types (sandstone, claystone and limestone), to determine distribution coefficients and reaction kinetics. All three rock types were analysed for organic carbon content, specific surface area and mineralogical composition to identify the main sorption mechanisms. For all tracers, different sorption properties were found depending on the type of rock. The strongest sorption was observed for Tinopal CBS-X in contact with claystone. Only Na-Fluorescein showed sorption (albeit limited) in contact with the sandstones. The investigated limestones indicated a high sorption for the tracer Tinopal CBS-X. Regarding reaction kinetics, in most cases, thermodynamic equilibrium conditions were reached after two weeks.

  16. Sorption of fission nuclides on model milk components. I. Sorption of radiostrontium on hydroxyapatite in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosskopfova, O.; Kopunec, R.; Matel, L.; Macasek, F.; Kristin, J.

    1999-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite, Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 is a mineral widely spread in nature as a main constituent of phosphate rocks, and also as the major inorganic component of bones and teeth. It was found that sorption process occurs by an ion exchange reaction mechanism between strontium ions in solution and calcium ions in apatite. Ca 2+ → Sr 2+ substitution in hydroxyapatite is important since it explains the mechanism of incorporation of beta-active Sr-90 of atomic debris into the human skeletal system. The strontium uptake at 100 grad C is done by adsorption and diffusion while at 25 grad C it is done by the process of adsorption only. The hydroxyapatite was prepared from aqueous solutions and characterized by standard analytical methods. Some samples of hydroxyapatite were modified by heating after its precipitation from aqueous solution. The sample obtained had characteristics of well crystallized stoichiometric hydroxyapatite. Also, commercial hydroxy-apatites were used. Sorption of strontium ions on synthetic hydroxyapatite was examined using batch method and sorption depends on the method of preparation of hydroxyapatite. In generally, sorption of strontium decreases with the increase in the particle size of hydroxyapatite and decreases with the increase in the pH ( hydroxyapatite surface is amphoteric and acts as a buffer in a wide pH range). The sorption of strontium increases with the increase in [Sr 2+ ] or [Ca 2+ ] in solution to ∼ 10 -5 mol · dm -3 for the hydroxyapatite prepared by heating. The experimental data for sorption of strontium has been fitted with Langmuir-adsorption isotherm. (authors)

  17. Sorption on inactive repository components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardiner, M.P.; Smith, A.J.; Williams, S.J.

    1990-11-01

    The near-field of an intermediate level/low level radioactive waste repository will contain significant quantities of iron and steel, Magnox and Zircaloy. Their corrosion products may possess significant sorption capacity for radioelements. The sorption of americium and plutonium onto magnesium hydroxide, zirconium hydroxide, colloidal magnetite and colloidal haematite has been studied under conditions typical of the porewater of a cementitious near-field. R D values ≥ 10 5 m g -1 were measured for both actinides on the oxides and hydroxides. These values are at least as great as those measured on crushed 3:1 Blast Furnace Slag/Ordinary Portland cement. Competitive sorption experiments have shown that sorption onto the corrosion products does not take place in preference to that on the cement or the converse. Magnetite and haematite colloids are positively charged in cement-equilibrated water whilst zirconium hydroxide is negatively charged. Crushed cement was found to be positively charged. Simple experiments show that only a small proportion of haematite colloids is potentially mobile through a column of crushed cement. (author)

  18. Sorption on inactive repository components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardiner, M.P.; Smith, A.J.; Williams, S.J.

    1990-07-01

    The near-field of an intermediate level/low level radioactive waste repository will contain significant quantities of iron and steel, Magnox and Zircaloy. Their corrosion products may possess significant sorption capacity for radioelements. The sorption of americium and plutonium onto magnesium hydroxide, zirconium hydroxide, colloidal magnetite and colloidal haematite has been studied under conditions typical of the porewater of a cementitious near-field. R D values ≥ 10 5 ml g -1 were measured for both actinides on the oxides and hydroxides. These values are at least as great at those measured on crushed 3:1 Blast Furnace Slag/Ordinary Portland Cement. Competitive sorption experiments have shown that sorption onto the corrosion products does not take place in preference to that on the cement or the converse. Magnetite and haematite colloids are positively charged in cement-equilibrated water whilst zirconium hydroxide is negatively charged. Crushed cement was found to be positively charged. Simple experiments show that only a small proportion of haematite colloids is potentially mobile through a column of crushed cement. (author)

  19. Gender differences in conceptual understanding of Newtonian mechanics: a UK cross-institution comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, Simon; Donnelly, Robyn; MacPhee, Cait; Sands, David; Birch, Marion; Walet, Niels R

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of a combined study from three UK universities where we investigate the existence and persistence of a performance gender gap in conceptual understanding of Newtonian mechanics. Using the Force Concept Inventory, we find that students at all three universities exhibit a statistically significant gender gap, with males outperforming females. This gap is narrowed but not eliminated after instruction, using a variety of instructional approaches. Furthermore, we find that before instruction the quartile with the lowest performance on the diagnostic instrument comprises a disproportionately high fraction (∼50%) of the total female cohort. The majority of these students remain in the lowest-performing quartile post-instruction. Analysis of responses to individual items shows that male students outperform female students on practically all items on the instrument. Comparing the performance of the same group of students on end-of-course examinations, we find no statistically significant gender gaps. (paper)

  20. The contributions of cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging to understanding mechanisms of behavior change in addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Jon; Naqvi, Nasir H; Debellis, Robert; Breiter, Hans C

    2013-06-01

    In the last decade, there has been an upsurge of interest in understanding the mechanisms of behavior change (MOBC) and effective behavioral interventions as a strategy to improve addiction-treatment efficacy. However, there remains considerable uncertainty about how treatment research should proceed to address the MOBC issue. In this article, we argue that limitations in the underlying models of addiction that inform behavioral treatment pose an obstacle to elucidating MOBC. We consider how advances in the cognitive neuroscience of addiction offer an alternative conceptual and methodological approach to studying the psychological processes that characterize addiction, and how such advances could inform treatment process research. In addition, we review neuroimaging studies that have tested aspects of neurocognitive theories as a strategy to inform addiction therapies and discuss future directions for transdisciplinary collaborations across cognitive neuroscience and MOBC research. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  1. Sorption isotherms: A review on physical bases, modeling and measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limousin, G. [Atomic Energy Commission, Tracers Technology Laboratory, 38054 Grenoble Cedex (France) and Laboratoire d' etude des Transferts en Hydrologie et Environnement (CNRS-INPG-IRD-UJF), BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex (France)]. E-mail: guillaumelimousin@yahoo.fr; Gaudet, J.-P. [Laboratoire d' etude des Transferts en Hydrologie et Environnement (CNRS-INPG-IRD-UJF), BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex (France); Charlet, L. [Laboratoire de Geophysique Interne et Techtonophysique - CNRS-IRD-LCPC-UJF-Universite de Savoie, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex (France); Szenknect, S. [Atomic Energy Commission, Tracers Technology Laboratory, 38054 Grenoble Cedex (France); Barthes, V. [Atomic Energy Commission, Tracers Technology Laboratory, 38054 Grenoble Cedex (France); Krimissa, M. [Electricite de France, Division Recherche et Developpement, Laboratoire National d' Hydraulique et d' Environnement - P78, 6 quai Watier, 78401 Chatou (France)

    2007-02-15

    The retention (or release) of a liquid compound on a solid controls the mobility of many substances in the environment and has been quantified in terms of the 'sorption isotherm'. This paper does not review the different sorption mechanisms. It presents the physical bases underlying the definition of a sorption isotherm, different empirical or mechanistic models, and details several experimental methods to acquire a sorption isotherm. For appropriate measurements and interpretations of isotherm data, this review emphasizes 4 main points: (i) the adsorption (or desorption) isotherm does not provide automatically any information about the reactions involved in the sorption phenomenon. So, mechanistic interpretations must be carefully verified. (ii) Among studies, the range of reaction times is extremely wide and this can lead to misinterpretations regarding the irreversibility of the reaction: a pseudo-hysteresis of the release compared with the retention is often observed. The comparison between the mean characteristic time of the reaction and the mean residence time of the mobile phase in the natural system allows knowing if the studied retention/release phenomenon should be considered as an instantaneous reversible, almost irreversible phenomenon, or if reaction kinetics must be taken into account. (iii) When the concentration of the retained substance is low enough, the composition of the bulk solution remains constant and a single-species isotherm is often sufficient, although it remains strongly dependent on the background medium. At higher concentrations, sorption may be driven by the competition between several species that affect the composition of the bulk solution. (iv) The measurement method has a great influence. Particularly, the background ionic medium, the solid/solution ratio and the use of flow-through or closed reactor are of major importance. The chosen method should balance easy-to-use features and representativity of the studied

  2. Sorption and desorption of carbamazepine from water by smectite clays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weihao; Ding, Yunjie; Boyd, Stephen A; Teppen, Brian J; Li, Hui

    2010-11-01

    Carbamazepine is a prescription anticonvulsant and mood stabilizing pharmaceutical administered to humans. Carbamazepine is persistent in the environment and frequently detected in water systems. In this study, sorption and desorption of carbamazepine from water was measured for smectite clays with the surface negative charges compensated with K+, Ca2+, NH4+, tetramethylammonium (TMA), trimethylphenylammonium (TMPA) and hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) cations. The magnitude of sorption followed the order: TMPA-smectite≥HDTMA-smectite>NH4-smectite>K-smectite>Ca-smectite⩾TMA-smectite. The greatest sorption of carbamazepine by TMPA-smectite is attributed to the interaction of conjugate aromatic moiety in carbamazepine with the phenyl ring in TMPA through π-π interaction. Partitioning process is the primary mechanism for carbamazepine uptake by HDTMA-smectite. For NH4-smectite the urea moiety in carbamazepine interacts with exchanged cation NH4+ by H-bonding hence demonstrating relatively higher adsorption. Sorption by K-, Ca- and TMA-smectites from water occurs on aluminosilicate mineral surfaces. These results implicate that carbamazepine sorption by soils occurs primarily in soil organic matter, and soil mineral fractions play a secondary role. Desorption of carbamazepine from the sorbents manifested an apparent hysteresis. Increasing irreversibility of desorption vs. sorption was observed for K-, Ca-, TMA-, TMPA- and HDTMA-clays as aqueous carbamazepine concentrations increased. Desorption hysteresis of carbamazepine from K-, Ca-, NH4-smectites was greater than that from TMPA- and HDTMA-clays, suggesting that the sequestrated carbamazepine molecules in smectite interlayers are more resistant to desorption compared to those sorbed by organic phases in smectite clays. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Smartphone users: Understanding how security mechanisms are perceived and new persuasive methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaleh, Mansour; Alomar, Noura; Alarifi, Abdulrahman

    2017-01-01

    Protecting smartphones against security threats is a multidimensional problem involving human and technological factors. This study investigates how smartphone users’ security- and privacy-related decisions are influenced by their attitudes, perceptions, and understanding of various security threats. In this work, we seek to provide quantified insights into smartphone users’ behavior toward multiple key security features including locking mechanisms, application repositories, mobile instant messaging, and smartphone location services. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that reveals often unforeseen correlations and dependencies between various privacy- and security-related behaviors. Our work also provides evidence that making correct security decisions might not necessarily correlate with individuals’ awareness of the consequences of security threats. By comparing participants’ behavior and their motives for adopting or ignoring certain security practices, we suggest implementing additional persuasive approaches that focus on addressing social and technological aspects of the problem. On the basis of our findings and the results presented in the literature, we identify the factors that might influence smartphone users’ security behaviors. We then use our understanding of what might drive and influence significant behavioral changes to propose several platform design modifications that we believe could improve the security levels of smartphones. PMID:28297719

  4. Stress biology and aging mechanisms: toward understanding the deep connection between adaptation to stress and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epel, Elissa S; Lithgow, Gordon J

    2014-06-01

    The rate of biological aging is modulated in part by genes interacting with stressor exposures. Basic research has shown that exposure to short-term stress can strengthen cellular responses to stress ("hormetic stress"). Hormetic stress promotes longevity in part through enhanced activity of molecular chaperones and other defense mechanisms. In contrast, prolonged exposure to stress can overwhelm compensatory responses ("toxic stress") and shorten lifespan. One key question is whether the stressors that are well understood in basic models of aging can help us understand psychological stressors and human health. The psychological stress response promotes regulatory changes important in aging (e.g., increases in stress hormones, inflammation, oxidative stress, insulin). The negative effects of severe stress are well documented in humans. Potential positive effects of acute stress (stress resistance) are less studied, especially at the cellular level. Can stress resistance slow the rate of aging in humans, as it does in model organisms? If so, how can we promote stress resistance in humans? We urge a new research agenda embracing the continuum from cellular stress to psychological stress, using basic and human research in tandem. This will require interdisciplinary novel approaches that hold much promise for understanding and intervening in human chronic disease. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Smartphone users: Understanding how security mechanisms are perceived and new persuasive methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Alsaleh

    Full Text Available Protecting smartphones against security threats is a multidimensional problem involving human and technological factors. This study investigates how smartphone users' security- and privacy-related decisions are influenced by their attitudes, perceptions, and understanding of various security threats. In this work, we seek to provide quantified insights into smartphone users' behavior toward multiple key security features including locking mechanisms, application repositories, mobile instant messaging, and smartphone location services. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that reveals often unforeseen correlations and dependencies between various privacy- and security-related behaviors. Our work also provides evidence that making correct security decisions might not necessarily correlate with individuals' awareness of the consequences of security threats. By comparing participants' behavior and their motives for adopting or ignoring certain security practices, we suggest implementing additional persuasive approaches that focus on addressing social and technological aspects of the problem. On the basis of our findings and the results presented in the literature, we identify the factors that might influence smartphone users' security behaviors. We then use our understanding of what might drive and influence significant behavioral changes to propose several platform design modifications that we believe could improve the security levels of smartphones.

  6. Investigating and improving student understanding of the expectation values of observables in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshman, Emily; Singh, Chandralekha

    2017-01-01

    The expectation value of an observable is an important concept in quantum mechanics since measurement outcomes are, in general, probabilistic and we only have information about the probability distribution of measurement outcomes in a given quantum state of a system. However, we find that upper-level undergraduate and PhD students in physics have both conceptual and procedural difficulties when determining the expectation value of a physical observable in a given quantum state in terms of the eigenstates and eigenvalues of the corresponding operator, especially when using Dirac notation. Here we first describe the difficulties that these students have with determining the expectation value of an observable in Dirac notation. We then discuss how the difficulties found via student responses to written surveys and individual interviews were used as a guide in the development of a quantum interactive learning tutorial (QuILT) to help students develop a good grasp of the expectation value. The QuILT strives to help students integrate conceptual understanding and procedural skills to develop a coherent understanding of the expectation value. We discuss the effectiveness of the QuILT in helping students learn this concept from in-class evaluations. (paper)

  7. Understanding dental CAD/CAM for restorations--accuracy from a mechanical engineering viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapie, Laurent; Lebon, Nicolas; Mawussi, Bernardin; Fron-Chabouis, Hélène; Duret, Francois; Attal, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    As is the case in the field of medicine, as well as in most areas of daily life, digital technology is increasingly being introduced into dental practice. Computer-aided design/ computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) solutions are available not only for chairside practice but also for creating inlays, crowns, fixed partial dentures (FPDs), implant abutments, and other dental prostheses. CAD/CAM dental practice can be considered as the handling of devices and software processing for the almost automatic design and creation of dental restorations. However, dentists who want to use dental CAD/CAM systems often do not have enough information to understand the variations offered by such technology practice. Knowledge of the random and systematic errors in accuracy with CAD/CAM systems can help to achieve successful restorations with this technology, and help with the purchasing of a CAD/CAM system that meets the clinical needs of restoration. This article provides a mechanical engineering viewpoint of the accuracy of CAD/ CAM systems, to help dentists understand the impact of this technology on restoration accuracy.

  8. Tritium sorption by cement and subsequent release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, F.; Yamawaki, M.

    1995-01-01

    In a fusion reactor or tritium-handling facilities, contamination of concrete by tritium and subsequent release from it to the reator or experimental room is a matter of problem for safe control of tritium and management of operational environment. In order to evaluate this tritium behavior, interaction of tritiated water with concrete or cement should be clarified. In the present study, HTO sorption and subsequent release from cement were experimentally studied.(1)Sorption experiments were conducted using columns packed with cement particles of different sizes. From the analysis of the breakthrough curve, tritium diffusivity in macropores and microparticles were evaluated.(2)From the short-term tritium release experiments, effective desorption rate constants were evaluated and the effects of temperature and moisture were studied.(3)In the long-term tritium release experiments to 6000h, the tritium release mechanism was found to be composed of three kinds of water: initially from capillary water, and in the second stage from gel water and from the water in the cement crystal.(4)Tritium release behavior by heat treatment to 800 C was studied. A high temperature above 600 C was required for the tritium trapped in the crystal water to be released. (orig.)

  9. Towards understanding the mechanisms and the kinetics of nanoparticle penetration through protective gloves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinches, L; Boutrigue, N; Zemzem, M; Hallé, S; Peyrot, C; Lemarchand, L; Wilkinson, K J; Tufenkji, N

    2015-01-01

    Parallel to the increased use of engineered nanoparticles (ENP) in the formulation of commercial products or in medicine, numerous health and safety agencies have recommended the application of the precautionary principle to handle ENP; namely, the recommendation to use protective gloves against chemicals. However, recent studies reveal the penetration of titanium dioxide nanoparticles through nitrile rubber protective gloves in conditions simulating occupational use. This project is designed to understand the links between the penetration of gold nanoparticles (nAu) through nitrile rubber protective gloves and the mechanical and physical behaviour of the elastomer material subjected to conditions simulating occupational use (i.e., mechanical deformations (MD) and sweat). Preliminary analyses show that nAu suspensions penetrate selected glove materials after exposure to prolonged (3 hours) dynamic deformations. Significant morphological changes are observed on the outer surface of the glove sample; namely, the number and the surface of the micropores on the surface increase. Moreover, nitrile rubber protective gloves are also shown to be sensitive to the action of nAu suspension and to the action of the saline solution used to simulate sweat (swelling). (paper)

  10. Understanding deformation mechanisms during powder compaction using principal component analysis of compression data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopwani, Rahul; Buckner, Ira S

    2011-10-14

    Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to pharmaceutical powder compaction. A solid fraction parameter (SF(c/d)) and a mechanical work parameter (W(c/d)) representing irreversible compression behavior were determined as functions of applied load. Multivariate analysis of the compression data was carried out using PCA. The first principal component (PC1) showed loadings for the solid fraction and work values that agreed with changes in the relative significance of plastic deformation to consolidation at different pressures. The PC1 scores showed the same rank order as the relative plasticity ranking derived from the literature for common pharmaceutical materials. The utility of PC1 in understanding deformation was extended to binary mixtures using a subset of the original materials. Combinations of brittle and plastic materials were characterized using the PCA method. The relationships between PC1 scores and the weight fractions of the mixtures were typically linear showing ideal mixing in their deformation behaviors. The mixture consisting of two plastic materials was the only combination to show a consistent positive deviation from ideality. The application of PCA to solid fraction and mechanical work data appears to be an effective means of predicting deformation behavior during compaction of simple powder mixtures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of human microtia via a pig model of HOXA1 syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruimin Qiao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Microtia is a congenital malformation of the outer ears. Although both genetic and environmental components have been implicated in microtia, the genetic causes of this innate disorder are poorly understood. Pigs have naturally occurring diseases comparable to those in humans, providing exceptional opportunity to dissect the molecular mechanism of human inherited diseases. Here we first demonstrated that a truncating mutation in HOXA1 causes a monogenic disorder of microtia in pigs. We further performed RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq analysis on affected and healthy pig embryos (day 14.25. We identified a list of 337 differentially expressed genes (DEGs between the normal and mutant samples, shedding light on the transcriptional network involving HOXA1. The DEGs are enriched in biological processes related to cardiovascular system and embryonic development, and neurological, renal and urological diseases. Aberrant expressions of many DEGs have been implicated in human innate deformities corresponding to microtia-associated syndromes. After applying three prioritizing algorithms, we highlighted appealing candidate genes for human microtia from the 337 DEGs. We searched for coding variants of functional significance within six candidate genes in 147 microtia-affected individuals. Of note, we identified one EVC2 non-synonymous mutation (p.Asp1174Asn as a potential disease-implicating variant for a human microtia-associated syndrome. The findings advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying human microtia, and provide an interesting example of the characterization of human disease-predisposing variants using pig models.

  12. The use of micro-/milli-fluidics to better understand the mechanisms behind deep venous thrombosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Zoe; Alexiadis, Alessio; Brill, Alexander; Nash, Gerard; Vigolo, Daniele

    2016-11-01

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a dangerous and painful condition in which blood clots form in deep veins (e.g., femoral vein). If these clots become unstable and detach from the thrombus they can be delivered to the lungs resulting in a life threatening complication called pulmonary embolism (PE). Mechanisms of clot development in veins remain unclear but researchers suspect that the specific flow patterns in veins, especially around the valve flaps, play a fundamental role. Here we show how it is now possible to mimic the current murine model by developing micro-/milli-fluidic experiments. We exploited a novel detection technique, ghost particle velocimetry (GPV), to analyse the velocity profiles for various geometries. These vary from regular microfluidics with a rectangular cross section with a range of geometries (mimicking the presence of side and back branches in veins, closed side branch and flexible valves) to a more accurate venous representation with a 3D cylindrical geometry obtained by 3D printing. In addition to the GPV experiments, we analysed the flow field developing in these geometries by using computational fluid dynamic simulations to develop a better understanding of the mechanisms behind DVT. ZS gratefully acknowledges financial support from the EPSRC through a studentship from the Sci-Phy-4-Health Centre for Doctoral Training (EP/L016346/1).

  13. Understanding the mechanisms of familiar voice-identity recognition in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguinness, Corrina; Roswandowitz, Claudia; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2018-03-31

    Humans have a remarkable skill for voice-identity recognition: most of us can remember many voices that surround us as 'unique'. In this review, we explore the computational and neural mechanisms which may support our ability to represent and recognise a unique voice-identity. We examine the functional architecture of voice-sensitive regions in the superior temporal gyrus/sulcus, and bring together findings on how these regions may interact with each other, and additional face-sensitive regions, to support voice-identity processing. We also contrast findings from studies on neurotypicals and clinical populations which have examined the processing of familiar and unfamiliar voices. Taken together, the findings suggest that representations of familiar and unfamiliar voices might dissociate in the human brain. Such an observation does not fit well with current models for voice-identity processing, which by-and-large assume a common sequential analysis of the incoming voice signal, regardless of voice familiarity. We provide a revised audio-visual integrative model of voice-identity processing which brings together traditional and prototype models of identity processing. This revised model includes a mechanism of how voice-identity representations are established and provides a novel framework for understanding and examining the potential differences in familiar and unfamiliar voice processing in the human brain. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sorption kinetics of diuron on volcanic ash derived soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres-Jensen, Lizethly; Rodríguez-Becerra, Jorge; Parra-Rivero, Joselyn; Escudey, Mauricio; Barrientos, Lorena; Castro-Castillo, Vicente

    2013-10-15

    Diuron sorption kinetic was studied in Andisols, Inceptisol and Ultisols soils in view of their distinctive physical and chemical properties: acidic pH and variable surface charge. Two types of kinetic models were used to fit the experimental dates: those that allow to establish principal kinetic parameters and modeling of sorption process (pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order), and some ones frequently used to describe solute transport mechanisms of organic compounds on different sorbents intended for remediation purposes (Elovich equation, intraparticle diffusion, Boyd, and two-site nonequilibrium models). The best fit was obtained with the pseudo-second-order model. The rate constant and the initial rate constant values obtained through this model demonstrated the behavior of Diuron in each soil, in Andisols were observed the highest values for both parameters. The application of the models to describe solute transport mechanisms allowed establishing that in all soils the mass transfer controls the sorption kinetic across the boundary layer and intraparticle diffusion into macropores and micropores. The slowest sorption rate was observed on Ultisols, behavior which must be taken into account when the leaching potential of Diuron is considered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Does knowledge of seat design and whiplash injury mechanisms translate to understanding outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, Paul C

    2011-12-01

    Review of whiplash injury mechanisms and effects of anti-whiplash systems including active head restraint (AHR) and Whiplash Protection System (WHIPS). This article provides an overview of previous biomechanical and epidemiological studies of AHR and WHIPS and investigates whether seat design and biomechanical knowledge of proposed whiplash injury mechanisms translates to understanding outcomes of rear crash occupants. In attempt to reduce whiplash injuries, some newer automobiles incorporate anti-whiplash systems such as AHR or WHIPS. During a rear crash, mechanically based systems activate by occupant momentum pressing into the seatback whereas electronically based systems activate using crash sensors and an electronic control unit linked to the head restraint. To investigate the effects of AHR and WHIPS on occupant responses including head and neck loads and motions, biomechanical studies of simulated rear crashes have been performed using human volunteers, mathematical models, crash dummies, whole cadavers, and hybrid cadaveric/surrogate models. Epidemiological studies have evaluated the effects of AHR and WHIPS on reducing whiplash injury claims and lessening subjective complaints of neck pain after rear crashes. RESULTS.: Biomechanical studies indicate that AHR and WHIPS reduced the potential for some whiplash injuries but did not completely eliminate the injury risk. Epidemiological outcomes indicate reduced whiplash injury claims or subjective complaints of crash-related neck pain between 43 and 75% due to AHR and between 21% and 49% due to WHIPS as compared to conventional seats and head restraints. Yielding energy-absorbing seats aim to reduce occupant loads and accelerations whereas AHRs aim to provide early head support to minimize head and neck motions. Continued objective biomechanical and epidemiological studies of anti-whiplash systems together with industry, governmental, and clinical initiatives will ultimately lead to reduced whiplash injuries

  16. Next Steps Toward Understanding Human Habitation of Space: Environmental Impacts and Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globus, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    factor alone implying at least some shared underlying mechanisms. Thus, both ground based and spaceflight research utilizing model organisms provide the opportunity to better understand environmental factors and biological mechanisms that contribute to human health and survival in space.

  17. A full understanding of oxygen reduction reaction mechanism on Au(1 1 1) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Dai, Changqing; Fisher, Adrian; Shen, Yanchun; Cheng, Daojian

    2017-09-01

    Oxygen reduction and hydrogen peroxide reduction are technologically important reactions in energy-conversion devices. In this work, a full understanding of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) mechanism on Au(1 1 1) surface is investigated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations, including the reaction mechanisms of O2 dissociation, OOH dissociation, and H2O2 dissociation. Among these ORR mechanisms on Au(1 1 1), the activation energy of \\text{O}2* hydrogenation reaction is much lower than that of \\text{O}2* dissociation, indicating that \\text{O}2* hydrogenation reaction is more appropriate at the first step than \\text{O}2* dissociation. In the following, H2O2 can be formed with the lower activation energy compared with the OOH dissociation reaction, and finally H2O2 could be generated as a detectable product due to the high activation energy of H2O2 dissociation reaction. Furthermore, the potential dependent free energy study suggests that the H2O2 formation is thermodynamically favorable up to 0.4 V on Au(1 1 1), reducing the overpotential for 2e - ORR process. And the elementary step of first H2O formation becomes non-spontaneous at 0.4 V, indicating the difficulty of 4e - reduction pathway. Our DFT calculations show that H2O2 can be generated on Au(1 1 1) and the first electron transfer is the rate determining step. Our results show that gold surface could be used as a good catalyst for small-scale manufacture and on-site production of H2O2.

  18. Features of Knowledge Building in Biology: Understanding Undergraduate Students' Ideas about Molecular Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southard, Katelyn; Wince, Tyler; Meddleton, Shanice; Bolger, Molly S

    2016-01-01

    Research has suggested that teaching and learning in molecular and cellular biology (MCB) is difficult. We used a new lens to understand undergraduate reasoning about molecular mechanisms: the knowledge-integration approach to conceptual change. Knowledge integration is the dynamic process by which learners acquire new ideas, develop connections between ideas, and reorganize and restructure prior knowledge. Semistructured, clinical think-aloud interviews were conducted with introductory and upper-division MCB students. Interviews included a written conceptual assessment, a concept-mapping activity, and an opportunity to explain the biomechanisms of DNA replication, transcription, and translation. Student reasoning patterns were explored through mixed-method analyses. Results suggested that students must sort mechanistic entities into appropriate mental categories that reflect the nature of MCB mechanisms and that conflation between these categories is common. We also showed how connections between molecular mechanisms and their biological roles are part of building an integrated knowledge network as students develop expertise. We observed differences in the nature of connections between ideas related to different forms of reasoning. Finally, we provide a tentative model for MCB knowledge integration and suggest its implications for undergraduate learning. © 2016 K. Southard et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  19. FTIR spectrophotometry, kinetics and adsorption isotherms modeling, ion exchange, and EDX analysis for understanding the mechanism of Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} removal by mango peel waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Muhammad [Biotechnology Group, Centre for Environment Protection Studies, PCSIR Laboratories Complex, Ferozepur Road, Lahore 54600 (Pakistan)], E-mail: iqbalm@fulbrightweb.org; Saeed, Asma [Biotechnology Group, Centre for Environment Protection Studies, PCSIR Laboratories Complex, Ferozepur Road, Lahore 54600 (Pakistan); Zafar, Saeed Iqbal [School of Biological Sciences, University of Punjab, Lahore 54590 (Pakistan)

    2009-05-15

    Mango peel waste (MPW) was evaluated as a new sorbent for the removal of Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} from aqueous solution. The maximum sorption capacity of Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} was found to be 68.92 and 99.05 mg g{sup -1}, respectively. The kinetics of sorption of both metals was fast, reaching at equilibrium in 60 min. Sorption kinetics and equilibria followed pseudo-second order and Langmuir adsorption isotherm models. FTIR analysis revealed that carboxyl and hydroxyl functional groups were mainly responsible for the sorption of Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+}. Chemical modification of MPW for blocking of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups showed that 72.46% and 76.26% removal of Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+}, respectively, was due to the involvement of carboxylic group, whereas 26.64% and 23.74% was due to the hydroxyl group. EDX analysis of MPW before and after metal sorption and release of cations (Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +}) and proton H{sup +} from MPW with the corresponding uptake of Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} revealed that the main mechanism of sorption was ion exchange. The regeneration experiments showed that the MPW could be reused for five cycles without significant loss in its initial sorption capacity. The study points to the potential of new use of MPW as an effective sorbent for the removal of Cd{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} from aqueous solution.

  20. Comparative study on sorption of radiocobalt to montmorillonite and its Al-pillared and cross-linked samples. Effect of pH, ionic strength and fulvic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, S.; Cheng, J.; Chen, C.; Wang, X.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of pH, ionic strength and fulvic acid on sorption of radiocobalt on montmorillonite and its Al-pillared and cross-linked samples were studied using batch technique. The results indicate that the sorption of cobalt is strongly dependent on pH values and independent of ionic strength. Fulvic acid enhances the sorption of cobalt slightly at low pH, but has no influence at high pH values. Surface complexation is considered the main mechanism of cobalt sorption to montmorillonite. The sequences of FA/Co 2+ additions to the system did not affect cobalt sorption. (author)

  1. Understanding the mechanical and acoustical characteristics of sand aggregates compacting under triaxial conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangx, Suzanne; Brantut, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    failure being present but occurring to a relatively limited extent. Acoustic emission localization showed that failure was focussed along a broad shear plane. At higher confining pressure pervasive grain failure clearly accommodated compaction, though no strain localization was observed and failure appeared to be through cataclastic flow. Chemical environment, i.e. chemically inert decane vs. water as a pore fluid, had no significant effect on compaction in the strain rate range tested. Grain size distribution or grain shape also appeared to not affect the observed mechanical behaviour. Our results can be used to better understand the compaction behaviour of poorly consolidated sandstones. Future research will focus on understanding the effect of cementation on strain localization in deforming artificial Ottawa sandstone.

  2. Binary Component Sorption of Cadmium, and Copper Ions onto Yangtze River Sediments with Different Particle Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxin Fan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sorption is a crucial process that influences immobilization and migration of heavy metals in an aqueous environment. Sediments represent one of the ultimate sinks for heavy metals discharged into water body. Moreover, the particle size of sediments plays an extremely important role in the immobilization of heavy metals. In this study, the sorption and desorption of cadmium (Cd and copper (Cu onto sediments with different particle sizes were investigated to predict the rate and capacity of sorption, to understand their environmental behaviors in an aqueous environment. Batch sorption and kinetic experiments were conducted to obtain the retained amount and rate of Cd and Cu in a binary system. Experimental data were simulated using sorption models to ascertain the sorption capacity and the kinetic rate. Results of European Communities Bureau of Reference (BCR sequential extraction showed the highest concentration of Cd (0.344 mg kg−1, and its distribution varied with sediment particle size and site. Furthermore, most of Cu (approximately 57% to 84% existed as a residual fraction. The sorption of Cu onto six sediments followed a pseudo-first order reaction, whereas that of Cd followed a pseudo-second order reaction. Additionally, the competitive Langmuir model fitted the batch sorption experimental data extremely well. The highest sorption capacities of Cd and Cu reach 0.641 mmol kg−1 and 62.3 mmol kg−1, respectively, on the smallest submerged sediment particles. The amounts of Cu and Cd desorbed (mmol kg−1 increased linearly with the initial concentration increasing. Thus, sediment texture is an important factor that influences the sorption of heavy metal onto sediments.

  3. Understanding the hydrolysis mechanism of ethyl acetate catalyzed by an aqueous molybdocene: a computational chemistry investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tílvez, Elkin; Cárdenas-Jirón, Gloria I; Menéndez, María I; López, Ramón

    2015-02-16

    , in general, the information reported here could be of interest in designing new catalysts and understanding the reaction mechanism of these and other metal-catalyzed hydrolysis reactions.

  4. SORPTION AND SOLUBILITY OF LOW-SHRINKAGE RESIN-BASED DENTAL COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevda Yantcheva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Resin-based composites are well-established restorative materials. However, these materials may absorb significant amounts of water when exposed to aqueous environments. Sorption and solubility are affecting composite restorations by two different mechanisms; the first is the up taking of water producing an increased weight and the second is the dissolution of materials in water, leading to a weight reduction of the final conditioned samples. Objective: To measure the water sorption and solubility of different low-shrinkage resin-based composites. Six materials were selected: Filtek P60, Filtek Ultimate, SonicFill, Filtek Silorane, Kalore and Venus Diamond. Materials and methods: Five disc specimens were prepared of each material and polymerized with diode light-curing unit. Water sorption and solubility of the different materials were were calculated by means of weighting the samples before and after water immersion and desiccation. Data were statistically analyzed using Shapiro-Wilk One Way Analysis of Variance followed by the Holm-Sidak comparison test . Results: There were significant differences (p<=0.001 between materials regarding sorption and solubility. Regarding sorption F. Silorane showed lowest values, followed by SonicFill, without significant difference between them. Statistical significant differences exist between F. Silorane and F.P60, F. Ultimate, Kalore. Significant differences exist between SonicFill and F. Ultimate. F.Silorane (-0.018 and Kalore (-0.010 showed lowest values of solubility but there were marginal difference among all composites investigated. Conclusions: 1.The material with lowest values of sorption and solubility was F.Silorane. 2. The attained sorption and solubility values for composites are influenced by the differences in resin matrix composition and filler contend. 3. Modifications of dimethacrylate matrix did not minimize significantly sorption and solubility of composites. 4. Besides water

  5. New approach in modeling Cr(VI) sorption onto biomass from metal binary mixtures solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chang [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Anhui Normal University, South Jiuhua Road, 189, 241002 Wuhu (China); Chemical Engineering Department, Escola Politècnica Superior, Universitat de Girona, Ma Aurèlia Capmany, 61, 17071 Girona (Spain); Fiol, Núria [Chemical Engineering Department, Escola Politècnica Superior, Universitat de Girona, Ma Aurèlia Capmany, 61, 17071 Girona (Spain); Villaescusa, Isabel, E-mail: Isabel.Villaescusa@udg.edu [Chemical Engineering Department, Escola Politècnica Superior, Universitat de Girona, Ma Aurèlia Capmany, 61, 17071 Girona (Spain); Poch, Jordi [Applied Mathematics Department, Escola Politècnica Superior, Universitat de Girona, Ma Aurèlia Capmany, 61, 17071 Girona (Spain)

    2016-01-15

    In the last decades Cr(VI) sorption equilibrium and kinetic studies have been carried out using several types of biomasses. However there are few researchers that consider all the simultaneous processes that take place during Cr(VI) sorption (i.e., sorption/reduction of Cr(VI) and simultaneous formation and binding of reduced Cr(III)) when formulating a model that describes the overall sorption process. On the other hand Cr(VI) scarcely exists alone in wastewaters, it is usually found in mixtures with divalent metals. Therefore, the simultaneous removal of Cr(VI) and divalent metals in binary mixtures and the interactive mechanism governing Cr(VI) elimination have gained more and more attention. In the present work, kinetics of Cr(VI) sorption onto exhausted coffee from Cr(VI)–Cu(II) binary mixtures has been studied in a stirred batch reactor. A model including Cr(VI) sorption and reduction, Cr(III) sorption and the effect of the presence of Cu(II) in these processes has been developed and validated. This study constitutes an important advance in modeling Cr(VI) sorption kinetics especially when chromium sorption is in part based on the sorbent capacity of reducing hexavalent chromium and a metal cation is present in the binary mixture. - Highlights: • A kinetic model including Cr(VI) reduction, Cr(VI) and Cr(III) sorption/desorption • Synergistic effect of Cu(II) on Cr(VI) elimination included in the model • Model validation by checking it against independent sets of data.

  6. New approach in modeling Cr(VI) sorption onto biomass from metal binary mixtures solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chang; Fiol, Núria; Villaescusa, Isabel; Poch, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades Cr(VI) sorption equilibrium and kinetic studies have been carried out using several types of biomasses. However there are few researchers that consider all the simultaneous processes that take place during Cr(VI) sorption (i.e., sorption/reduction of Cr(VI) and simultaneous formation and binding of reduced Cr(III)) when formulating a model that describes the overall sorption process. On the other hand Cr(VI) scarcely exists alone in wastewaters, it is usually found in mixtures with divalent metals. Therefore, the simultaneous removal of Cr(VI) and divalent metals in binary mixtures and the interactive mechanism governing Cr(VI) elimination have gained more and more attention. In the present work, kinetics of Cr(VI) sorption onto exhausted coffee from Cr(VI)–Cu(II) binary mixtures has been studied in a stirred batch reactor. A model including Cr(VI) sorption and reduction, Cr(III) sorption and the effect of the presence of Cu(II) in these processes has been developed and validated. This study constitutes an important advance in modeling Cr(VI) sorption kinetics especially when chromium sorption is in part based on the sorbent capacity of reducing hexavalent chromium and a metal cation is present in the binary mixture. - Highlights: • A kinetic model including Cr(VI) reduction, Cr(VI) and Cr(III) sorption/desorption • Synergistic effect of Cu(II) on Cr(VI) elimination included in the model • Model validation by checking it against independent sets of data

  7. Understanding the molecular mechanism of pulse current charging for stable lithium-metal batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Tan, Shen; Li, Linlin; Lu, Yingying; He, Yi

    2017-01-01

    High energy and safe electrochemical storage are critical components in multiple emerging fields of technologies. Rechargeable lithium-metal batteries are considered to be promising alternatives for current lithium-ion batteries, leading to as much as a 10-fold improvement in anode storage capacity (from 372 to 3860 mAh g−1). One of the major challenges for commercializing lithium-metal batteries is the reliability and safety issue, which is often associated with uneven lithium electrodeposition (lithium dendrites) during the charging stage of the battery cycling process. We report that stable lithium-metal batteries can be achieved by simply charging cells with square-wave pulse current. We investigated the effects of charging period and frequency as well as the mechanisms that govern this process at the molecular level. Molecular simulations were performed to study the diffusion and the solvation structure of lithium cations (Li+) in bulk electrolyte. The model predicts that loose association between cations and anions can enhance the transport of Li+ and eventually stabilize the lithium electrodeposition. We also performed galvanostatic measurements to evaluate the cycling behavior and cell lifetime under pulsed electric field and found that the cell lifetime can be more than doubled using certain pulse current waveforms. Both experimental and simulation results demonstrate that the effectiveness of pulse current charging on dendrite suppression can be optimized by choosing proper time- and frequency-dependent pulses. This work provides a molecular basis for understanding the mechanisms of pulse current charging to mitigating lithium dendrites and designing pulse current waveforms for stable lithium-metal batteries. PMID:28776039

  8. Sorption of small amounts of europium(III) on iron(III) hydroxide and oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Music, S.; Gessner, M.; Wolf, R.H.H.

    1979-01-01

    The sorption of small amounts of europium(III) on iron(III) hydroxide and oxide has been studied as a function of pH. The mechanism of sorption is discussed. Optimum conditions have been found for the preconcentration of small or trace amounts of europium(III) by iron(III) hydroxide and oxide. The influence of complexing agents (EDTA, oxalate, tartrate and 5-sulfosalicylic acid) on the sorption of small amounts of europium(III) on iron(III) oxide has also been studied. (author)

  9. Nonlinear chemical sorption isotherms in the assessment of nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, J.R.; LeNeveu, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    Radionuclides emplaced in an underground disposal vault can possibly migrate from the vault, and through the geosphere, to enter Man's environment. Chemical sorption is a primary mechanism for retarding this migration. The effects of nonlinear chemical sorption isotherms on radionuclide transport are discussed. A method is given by which nonlinear isotherms can be approximated by the linear sorption isotherm used in the vault submodel. The relevance of nonlinear isotherms to transport in the geosphere is discussed, and it is shown that the linear isotherm model is conservative for deep geologic disposal. 22 refs

  10. Understanding creep in sandstone reservoirs - theoretical deformation mechanism maps for pressure solution in granular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangx, Suzanne; Spiers, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Subsurface exploitation of the Earth's natural resources removes the natural system from its chemical and physical equilibrium. As such, groundwater extraction and hydrocarbon production from subsurface reservoirs frequently causes surface subsidence and induces (micro)seismicity. These effects are not only a problem in onshore (e.g. Groningen, the Netherlands) and offshore hydrocarbon fields (e.g. Ekofisk, Norway), but also in urban areas with extensive groundwater pumping (e.g. Venice, Italy). It is known that fluid extraction inevitably leads to (poro)elastic compaction of reservoirs, hence subsidence and occasional fault reactivation, and causes significant technical, economic and ecological impact. However, such effects often exceed what is expected from purely elastic reservoir behaviour and may continue long after exploitation has ceased. This is most likely due to time-dependent compaction, or 'creep deformation', of such reservoirs, driven by the reduction in pore fluid pressure compared with the rock overburden. Given the societal and ecological impact of surface subsidence, as well as the current interest in developing geothermal energy and unconventional gas resources in densely populated areas, there is much need for obtaining better quantitative understanding of creep in sediments to improve the predictability of the impact of geo-energy and groundwater production. The key problem in developing a reliable, quantitative description of the creep behaviour of sediments, such as sands and sandstones, is that the operative deformation mechanisms are poorly known and poorly quantified. While grain-scale brittle fracturing plus intergranular sliding play an important role in the early stages of compaction, these time-independent, brittle-frictional processes give way to compaction creep on longer time-scales. Thermally-activated mass transfer processes, like pressure solution, can cause creep via dissolution of material at stressed grain contacts, grain

  11. Molecular Targets of Antihypertensive Peptides: Understanding the Mechanisms of Action Based on the Pathophysiology of Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaustav Majumder

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in using functional foods or nutraceuticals for the prevention and treatment of hypertension or high blood pressure. Although numerous preventive and therapeutic pharmacological interventions are available on the market, unfortunately, many patients still suffer from poorly controlled hypertension. Furthermore, most pharmacological drugs, such as inhibitors of angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE, are often associated with significant adverse effects. Many bioactive food compounds have been characterized over the past decades that may contribute to the management of hypertension; for example, bioactive peptides derived from various food proteins with antihypertensive properties have gained a great deal of attention. Some of these peptides have exhibited potent in vivo antihypertensive activity in both animal models and human clinical trials. This review provides an overview about the complex pathophysiology of hypertension and demonstrates the potential roles of food derived bioactive peptides as viable interventions targeting specific pathways involved in this disease process. This review offers a comprehensive guide for understanding and utilizing the molecular mechanisms of antihypertensive actions of food protein derived peptides.

  12. Towards Understanding the Catalytic Mechanism of Human Paraoxonase 1: Experimental and In Silico Mutagenesis Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Rajan K; Aggarwal, Geetika; Bajaj, Priyanka; Kathuria, Deepika; Bharatam, Prasad V; Pande, Abhay H

    2017-08-01

    Human paraoxonase 1 (h-PON1) is a ~45-kDa serum enzyme that can hydrolyze a variety of substrates, including organophosphate (OP) compounds. It is a potential candidate for the development of antidote against OP poisoning in humans. However, insufficient OP-hydrolyzing activity of native enzyme affirms the urgent need to develop improved variant(s) having enhanced OP-hydrolyzing activity. The crystal structure of h-PON1 remains unsolved, and the molecular details of how the enzyme catalyses hydrolysis of different types of substrates are also not clear. Understanding the molecular details of the catalytic mechanism of h-PON1 is essential to engineer better variant(s) of enzyme. In this study, we have used a random mutagenesis approach to increase the OP-hydrolyzing activity of recombinant h-PON1. The mutants not only showed a 10-340-fold increased OP-hydrolyzing activity against different OP substrates but also exhibited differential lactonase and arylesterase activities. In order to investigate the mechanistic details of the effect of observed mutations on the hydrolytic activities of enzyme, molecular docking studies were performed with selected mutants. The results suggested that the observed mutations permit differential binding of substrate/inhibitor into the enzyme's active site. This may explain differential hydrolytic activities of the enzyme towards different substrates.

  13. Understanding gas production mechanism and effectiveness of well stimulation in the Haynesville shale through reservoir simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, L.; Thompson, J.W.; Robinson, J.R. [Schlumberger, Houston, TX (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The Haynesville Shale Basin is one of the large and most active shale gas plays in the United States, with 185 horizontal rigs currently in place. The Haynesville Shale is a very tight source rock and resource play. The gas resources are being converted into gas reserves with horizontal wells and hydraulic fracture treatments. A complex fracture network created during well stimulation is the main factor in generating superior early well performance in the area. The key to making better wells in all the gas shale plays is to understand how to create more surface area during hydraulic stimulation jobs and preserve the surface area for as long as possible. This paper presented a unique workflow and methodology that has enabled analysis of production data using reservoir simulation to explain the shale gas production mechanism and the effectiveness of stimulation treatments along laterals. Since 2008, this methodology has been used to analyze production data from more than 30 horizontal wells in the Haynesville Shale. Factors and parameters relating to short and long term well performance were investigated, including pore pressure, rock matrix quality, natural fractures, hydraulic fractures, and complex fracture networks. Operators can use the simulation results to determine where and how to spend resources to produce better wells and to reduce the uncertainties of developing these properties. 19 refs., 1 tab., 17 figs.

  14. Does an Emphasis on the Concept of Quantum States Enhance Students' Understanding of Quantum Mechanics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greca, Ileana Maria; Freire, Olival

    Teaching physics implies making choices. In the case of teaching quantum physics, besides an educational choice - the didactic strategy - another choice must be made, an epistemological one, concerning the interpretation of quantum theory itself. These two choices are closely connected. We have chosen a didactic strategy that privileges the phenomenological-conceptual approach, with emphasis upon quantum features of the systems, instead of searching for classical analogies. This choice has led us to present quantum theory associated with an orthodox, yet realistic, interpretation of the concept of quantum state, considered as the key concept of quantum theory, representing the physical reality of a system, independent of measurement processes. The results of the mplementation of this strategy, with three groups of engineering students, showed that more than a half of them attained a reasonable understanding of the basics of quantum mechanics (QM) for this level. In addition, a high degree of satisfaction was attained with the classes as 80% of the students of the experimental groups claimed to have liked it and to be interested in learning more about QM.

  15. Application of microscopy methods to the understanding of mechanisms involved in ilmenite reduction by hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vries, M.; Grey, I.; Fitzgerald, J.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Titania pigment is one of the major drivers of the mineral sands industry with production of over 4 million tpa in 2002 for paints, plastics, paper and ceramics applications. The main feedstock for titania pigment production is ilmenite, FeTiO 3 . It is used either directly or after it has been upgraded to a higher titania content. The major commercial upgrading processes are electro smelting (titania slag) or high temperature char reduction followed by iron removal (synthetic rutile SR). Future ilmenite upgrading processes are likely to use low temperature hydrogen reduction according to reaction, followed by aeration of the metallic iron and acid leaching to produce a high grade SR (Nicholson et al, 2000). The commercial application of such a process requires a detailed knowledge of the kinetics of reaction. FeTiO 3 + H 2 = Fe(m) + TiO 2 + H 2 O. The kinetics of ilmenite reduction has been studied at CSIRO Minerals using a specially designed thermogravimetric apparatus built around a Cahn pressurised symmetrical beam balance. The kinetics have been measured as a function of different operating parameters such as temperature, gas velocity and pressure. The parameters were set so as to minimise mass transport effects and increase chemical reaction control and to ensure the reduction kinetics are outside the gas starvation region. Small samples were used that had been sintered at close to melting point to form large grains with low unconnected porosity. High flow rates of reactant gas were also used. The application of a range of microscopy techniques to the reduced samples at various stages of reaction conversion has been critical to the development of an understanding of the reaction mechanisms. From analysis of TEM, IFESEM and optical microscopy results it appears that initially, chemical reaction is rate controlling at the surface and as the reaction proceeds topochemically inwards then diffusion mechanisms increase their control. Reaction proceeds

  16. Effects of humic acid and heavy metals on the sorption of polar and apolar organic pollutants onto biochars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fei; Sun, Hongwen; Ren, Xinhao; Liu, Yarui; Zhu, Hongkai; Zhang, Peng; Ren, Chao

    2017-01-01

    The effects of humic acid (HA) and heavy metals (Cu 2+ and Ag + ) on the sorption of polar and apolar organic pollutants onto biochars that were produced at temperatures of 200 °C (BC200) and 700 °C (BC700) were studied. Due to the plentiful polar functional groups on BC200, cationic propranolol exhibited higher levels of sorption than naphthalene on BC200 while naphthalene and propranolol showed similar sorption capacities on BC700. HA changed the characteristics of biochars and generally inhibited the sorption of target organic pollutants on biochars; however, enhancement occurred in some cases depending on the pollutants involved and their concentrations, biochars used and the addition sequences and concentrations of HA. On BC200, HA modifications mainly influenced sorption by decreasing its polarity and increasing its aromaticity, while on BC700, the surface area and pore volume greatly decreased due to the pore-blocking effects of HA. Residue dissolved HA in solution may also contribute to sorption inhibition. Complexation between polar functional groups on BC200 and heavy metals slightly enhanced the sorption of neutral naphthalene and significantly enhanced that of anionic 4-nitro-1-naphtol, while limited the sorption of cationic propranolol. Heavy metals together with their associated water molecules decreased the sorption of target chemicals on BC700 via pore-filling or pore-mouth-covering. Inhibition of heavy metals for 4-nitro-1-naphthol was found to be the weakest due to the bridge effects of heavy metals between 4-nitro-1-naphtol and BC700. The higher polarizability of Ag + led to the increase of its sorption on biochars in the presence of organic aromatic pollutants. The results of the present study shed light on the sorption mechanisms of bi-solute systems and enable us to select suitable biochar sorbents when chemicals co-exist. - Highlights: • Polar functional groups on low-temperature biochar enhanced propranolol sorption. • Humic acid

  17. Kinetics of boron ions sorption from solution by inorganic anion exchanger of MNH type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leont'eva, G.V.

    1990-01-01

    By the method of restricted volume in case of boron excess in solution kinetics of boron sorption by inorganic anion-exchanger of the composition (Mg 0.55 Ni 0.45 )(OH) 2 has been studied. The sorption was carried out from solution containing Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Cl - , SO 4 2- , CO 3 2- , HCO 3 at 283, 293, 303 and 313 K and pH 8.1, while the density of solution was 1225 kg/m 3 . The sorption mechanism was considered. It is shown that heterogeneity of the character of kinetic curves is caused by the change in the mechanism of limiting stages of the sorption

  18. Applicability of microautoradiography to sorption studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.L.; Wolfsberg, K.

    1979-01-01

    The technique of microautoradiography was applied to the study of the sorption of uranium and americium on five rock types which exist at the Nevada Test Site. It was found that autoradiograms could be prepared in a few days which would allow the specific minerals responsible for sorption to be identified. Furthermore, the state of aggregation of the sorbed species was clearly indicated. It was concluded that microautoradiography was a useful adjunct to currently used methods for studying sorption of certain radionuclides

  19. Optimization of Nano-Carbon Materials for Hydrogen Sorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakobson, Boris I [Rice University

    2013-08-02

    Research undertaken has added to the understanding of several critical areas, by providing both negative answers (and therefore eliminating expensive further studies of unfeasible paths) and positive feasible options for storage. Theoretical evaluation of the early hypothesis of storage on pure carbon single wall nanotubes (SWNT) has been scrutinized with the use of comprehensive computational methods (and experimental tests by the Center partners), and demonstrated that the fundamentally weak binding energy of hydrogen is not sufficiently enhanced by the SWNT curvature or even defects, which renders carbon nanotubes not practical media. More promising direction taken was towards 3-dimensional architectures of high porosity where concurrent attraction of H2 molecule to surrounding walls of nano-scale cavities can double or even triple the binding energy and therefore make hydrogen storage feasible even at ambient or somewhat lower temperatures. An efficient computational tool has been developed for the rapid capacity assessment combining (i) carbon-foam structure generation, (ii) accurate empirical force fields, with quantum corrections for the lightweight H2, and (iii) grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation. This made it possible to suggest optimal designs for carbon nanofoams, obtainable via welding techniques from SWNT or by growth on template-zeolites. As a precursor for 3D-foams, we have investigated experimentally the synthesis of VANTA (Vertically Aligned NanoTube Arrays). This can be used for producing nano-foams. On the other hand, fluorination of VANTA did not show promising increase of hydrogen sorption in several tests and may require further investigation and improvements. Another significant result of this project was in developing a fundamental understanding of the elements of hydrogen spillover mechanisms. The benefit of developed models is the ability to foresee possible directions for further improvement of the spillover mechanism.

  20. Current understanding of the driving mechanisms for spatiotemporal variations of atmospheric speciated mercury: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric mercury (Hg is a global pollutant and thought to be the main source of mercury in oceanic and remote terrestrial systems, where it becomes methylated and bioavailable; hence, atmospheric mercury pollution has global consequences for both human and ecosystem health. Understanding of spatial and temporal variations of atmospheric speciated mercury can advance our knowledge of mercury cycling in various environments. This review summarized spatiotemporal variations of total gaseous mercury or gaseous elemental mercury (TGM/GEM, gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM, and particulate-bound mercury (PBM in various environments including oceans, continents, high elevation, the free troposphere, and low to high latitudes. In the marine boundary layer (MBL, the oxidation of GEM was generally thought to drive the diurnal and seasonal variations of TGM/GEM and GOM in most oceanic regions, leading to lower GEM and higher GOM from noon to afternoon and higher GEM during winter and higher GOM during spring–summer. At continental sites, the driving mechanisms of TGM/GEM diurnal patterns included surface and local emissions, boundary layer dynamics, GEM oxidation, and for high-elevation sites mountain–valley winds, while oxidation of GEM and entrainment of free tropospheric air appeared to control the diurnal patterns of GOM. No pronounced diurnal variation was found for Tekran measured PBM at MBL and continental sites. Seasonal variations in TGM/GEM at continental sites were attributed to increased winter combustion and summertime surface emissions, and monsoons in Asia, while those in GOM were controlled by GEM oxidation, free tropospheric transport, anthropogenic emissions, and wet deposition. Increased PBM at continental sites during winter was primarily due to local/regional coal and wood combustion emissions. Long-term TGM measurements from the MBL and continental sites indicated an overall declining trend. Limited measurements suggested TGM

  1. Current understanding of the driving mechanisms for spatiotemporal variations of atmospheric speciated mercury: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Huiting; Cheng, Irene; Zhang, Leiming

    2016-10-01

    Atmospheric mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant and thought to be the main source of mercury in oceanic and remote terrestrial systems, where it becomes methylated and bioavailable; hence, atmospheric mercury pollution has global consequences for both human and ecosystem health. Understanding of spatial and temporal variations of atmospheric speciated mercury can advance our knowledge of mercury cycling in various environments. This review summarized spatiotemporal variations of total gaseous mercury or gaseous elemental mercury (TGM/GEM), gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), and particulate-bound mercury (PBM) in various environments including oceans, continents, high elevation, the free troposphere, and low to high latitudes. In the marine boundary layer (MBL), the oxidation of GEM was generally thought to drive the diurnal and seasonal variations of TGM/GEM and GOM in most oceanic regions, leading to lower GEM and higher GOM from noon to afternoon and higher GEM during winter and higher GOM during spring-summer. At continental sites, the driving mechanisms of TGM/GEM diurnal patterns included surface and local emissions, boundary layer dynamics, GEM oxidation, and for high-elevation sites mountain-valley winds, while oxidation of GEM and entrainment of free tropospheric air appeared to control the diurnal patterns of GOM. No pronounced diurnal variation was found for Tekran measured PBM at MBL and continental sites. Seasonal variations in TGM/GEM at continental sites were attributed to increased winter combustion and summertime surface emissions, and monsoons in Asia, while those in GOM were controlled by GEM oxidation, free tropospheric transport, anthropogenic emissions, and wet deposition. Increased PBM at continental sites during winter was primarily due to local/regional coal and wood combustion emissions. Long-term TGM measurements from the MBL and continental sites indicated an overall declining trend. Limited measurements suggested TGM/GEM increasing from the

  2. Understanding the mechanisms that change the conductivity of damaged ITO-coated polymeric films: A micro-mechanical investigation

    KAUST Repository

    Nasr Saleh, Mohamed; Lubineau, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Degradation from mechanical loading of transparent electrodes made of indium tin oxide (ITO) endangers the integrity of any material based on these electrodes, including flexible organic solar cells. However, how different schemes of degradation

  3. Strontium sorption on Savannah River Plant soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeffner, S.L.

    1984-12-01

    A laboratory study of strontium-85 sorption was conducted using Savannah River Plant soil and groundwater from the low-level waste burial ground. Systematic variation of soil and water composition indicates that strontium sorption is most strongly a function of pH. Changes in clay content and in K + , Ca 2+ , or Mg 2+ concentrations influence strontium sorption indirectly through the slight pH changes which result. The ions Na + , Cl - , and NO 3 - have no effect. Ferrous ion, added to groundwater to simulate the conditions of water at the bottom of waste trenches, did not account for low strontium sorption observed with some trench waters

  4. Radiochemical study of the sorption of iodate ions on iron(III) hydroxide precipitate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Music, S.; Sipalo-Zuljevic, J.; Wolf, R.H.H.

    1980-01-01

    The sorption of iodate ions on iron(III) hydroxide in dependence on the pH, the aging time of the precipitate and the duration of the contact between the sorbate and the sorbent have been studied. Na 131 IO 3 was used as a radioactive indicator. The sorption mechanism has been discussed in terms of electrostatic and ion-exchange processes at the solid/liquid interface. (author)

  5. Data for the sorption of actinides on candidate materials for use in repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, R.D.; Pryke, D.C.; Rees, J.H.

    1988-02-01

    The sorptive behaviour of the actinides uranium, neptunium, plutonium and americium has been investigated under air-saturated conditions on a number of candidate near-field materials by batch sorption experiments. Distribution ratios were measured with respect to initial actinide concentration, the solid:liquid ratio and contact time. Desorption experiments were carried out to help elucidate the mechanism of sorption. The fit of the data to the Freundlich isotherm was assessed. This work contains the data obtained in the investigation. (author)

  6. Sorption of Cs onto γ-Al2O3 using batch technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiangke

    2004-01-01

    The sorption of Cs onto γ-Al 2 O 3 is studied by using batch technique, ultra-filtration method and UV vis spectrophotometer at room temperature, pH 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0, the ionic strength of NaClO 4 is from 0.001 mol/L to 0.1 mol/L. The concentration of humic acid in the solution is determined at wavelength of 254 nm. The sorption of humic acid on the γ-Al 2 O 3 is strong (≅98% HA is sorbed on the surface of alumina at pH zpc =9.2)) and strongly dependent on pH values. At pH>9.2, the sorption of HA is decreased markedly with the increasing of pH. Humic acid has a little negative effect on the sorption of Cs onto alumina, this may be attributed to the formation of HA-Cs complexation in the solution. The sorption of Cs onto γ-Al 2 O 3 is weakly dependent on the pH and independent on the ionic strength. Freundlich isotherm can fit the sorption isotherms very well. The sorption of Cs onto γ-Al 2 O 3 may be contributed to cation exchange and surface complexation mechanisms. (authors)

  7. [Surface Property and Sorption Characteristics of Phosphorus onto Surface Sediments in Sanggou Bay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jia-mei; Cao, Xiao-yan; Liu, Su-mei; Wang, Li-sha; Yang, Gui-peng; Ge, Cheng-feng; Lu, Min

    2016-02-15

    Kinetic curves and isotherms were investigated to study the sorption mechanism of phosphorus onto the sediments of Sanggou Bay, together with the surface charge properties of sediments and the forms of phosphorus studied. The results showed that the sorption including a fast process and a slow one, and could be described by a two-compartment first order equation. The thermodynamic isotherms were well fitted with a modified Langmuir equation. The maximum adsorption capacity was larger in summer than in spring, and the smaller particle size was favorable to the sorption. The maximum adsorption capacities (Qm) were 0.0471-0.1230 mg x g(-1), and the zero equilibrium phosphorus concentration (EPC0) of the sediments ranged from 0.0596 mg x L(-1) to 0.1927 mg x L(-1), which indicated that the sediments from Sanggou Bay were sources of phosphorus. Inorganic phosphorus (IP) was the main form of total phosphorus (TP). The contents of exchangeable or loosely absorbed P and Fe-bound P increased significantly in the samples after sorption. The sorption process involved physical sorption and chemical sorption, with the former being the predominant.

  8. Sorption of perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluoroheptanoic acid on granular activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Luo, Qi; Gao, Bin; Chiang, Sheau-Yun Dora; Woodward, David; Huang, Qingguo

    2016-02-01

    The sorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) on granular activated carbon (GAC) was characterized and compared to explore the underlying mechanisms. Sorption of the three perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) on GAC appeared to be a rapid intra-particle diffusion process, which were well represented by the pseudo-second-order rate model with the sorption rate following the order PFOS > PFOA > PFHpA. Sorption isotherm data were well fitted by the Freundlich model with the sorption capacity (Kf) of PFOS, PFOA and PFHpA being 4.45, 2.42 and 1.66 respectively. This suggests that the hydrophilic head group on PFAAs, i.e. sulfonate vs carboxylic, has a strong influence on their sorption. Comparison between PFOA and PFHpA revealed that hydrophobicity could also play a role in the sorption of PFAAs on GAC when the fluorocarbon chain length is different. Analyses using Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR)-Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy suggested possible formation of a negative charge-assisted H-bond between PFAAs and the functionalities on GAC surfaces, including non-aromatic ketones, sulfides, and halogenated hydrocarbons. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nitrate sorption on activated carbon modified with CaCl2: Equilibrium, isotherms and kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanella Odivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, nitrate (NO3- removal from aqueous solutions was investigated using granular activated carbon (GAC modified with CaCl2. Batch sorption studies were performed as a function of sorbent dose, initial nitrate concentration and pH. Sorption was maximized between pH 3 and 9. Studies on the effect of pH showed that the ion exchange mechanism might be involved in the sorption process. The percentage of nitrate removed increased with increasing sorbent concentration, and the ideal sorbent dose was found to be 20 g•L-1. Four isotherm models-Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson and Sips-were used to fit the experimental data. The Redlich-Peterson isotherm model explained the sorption process well and showed the best coefficient of determination (0.9979 and Chi-square test statistic (0.0079. Using the Sips isotherm model, the sorption capacity (qe was found to be 1.93 mg nitrate per g of sorbent. Kinetic experiments indicated that sorption was a fast process, reaching equilibrium within 120 min. The nitrate sorption kinetic data were successfully fitted to a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The overall results demonstrated potential applications of modified GAC for nitrate removal from aqueous solutions.

  10. Uranyl sorption onto alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson, A.M.M.

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism for the adsorption of uranyl onto alumina from aqueous solution was studied experimentally and the data were modeled using a triple layer surface complexation model. The experiments were carried out at low uranium concentrations (9 x 10 -11 --5 x 10 -8 M) in a CO 2 free environment at varying electrolyte concentrations (0.01--1 M) and pH (4.5--12). The first and second acid dissociation constants, pK a1 and pK a2 , of the alumina surface were determined from potentiometric titrations to be 7.2 ± 0.6 and 11.2 ± 0.4, respectively. The adsorption of uranium was found to be independent of the electrolyte concentration. The authors therefore conclude that the uranium binds as an inner sphere complex. The results were modeled using the code FITEQL. Two reactions of uranium with the surface were needed to fit the data, one forming a uranyl complex with a single surface hydroxyl and the other forming a bridged or bidentate complex reacting with two surface hydroxyls of the alumina. There was no evidence from these experiments of site heterogeneity. The constants used for the reactions were based in part on predictions made utilizing the Hard Soft Acid Base, HSAB, theory, relating the surface complexation constants to the hydrolysis of the sorbing metal ion and the acid dissociation constants of the mineral oxide surface

  11. The low FODMAP diet: recent advances in understanding its mechanisms and efficacy in IBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudacher, Heidi M; Whelan, Kevin

    2017-08-01

    There is an intensifying interest in the interaction between diet and the functional GI symptoms experienced in IBS. Recent studies have used MRI to demonstrate that short-chain fermentable carbohydrates increase small intestinal water volume and colonic gas production that, in those with visceral hypersensitivity, induces functional GI symptoms. Dietary restriction of short-chain fermentable carbohydrates (the low fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide and polyol (FODMAP) diet) is now increasingly used in the clinical setting. Initial research evaluating the efficacy of the low FODMAP diet was limited by retrospective study design and lack of comparator groups, but more recently well-designed clinical trials have been published. There are currently at least 10 randomised controlled trials or randomised comparative trials showing the low FODMAP diet leads to clinical response in 50%-80% of patients with IBS, in particular with improvements in bloating, flatulence, diarrhoea and global symptoms. However, in conjunction with the beneficial clinical impact, recent studies have also demonstrated that the low FODMAP diet leads to profound changes in the microbiota and metabolome, the duration and clinical relevance of which are as yet unknown. This review aims to present recent advances in the understanding of the mechanisms by which the low FODMAP diet impacts on symptoms in IBS, recent evidence for its efficacy, current findings regarding the consequences of the diet on the microbiome and recommendations for areas for future research. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Neutron reflectivity study of critical adsorption. Application to the understanding of environmental mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jestin, Jacques

    2001-01-01

    This study is within the scope of fundamental knowledge transfer to a field case-study, i.e. the understanding of the adsorption properties of binary mixtures against a wall in the case of soil pollution by liquid hydrocarbons. From the theoretical study of critical adsorption, which has been well described in the literature, we carried out experiments on model systems by using neutron techniques. Neutron reflectivity was then applied to the liquid-vapor interface of three different binary mixtures: perfluorohexane-hexane, deuterated methanol-cyclohexane and methanol-deuterated cyclohexane. The experimental data were analysed according to the theoretical prediction of Fisher and De Gennes, along with Liu and Fisher that suggested a power law decrease of the concentration profile (with an exponent equal to 0.52) followed by an exponential function. The characteristic exponent and the amplitude ratios for the methanol-cyclohexane mixtures were found fitted well with theoretical values for the three systems. Only the perfluorohexane-hexane mixture exhibited a particular behavior in the adsorption process that affected the power law amplitude value. This step allowed us to study non critical adsorption and to apply neutrons techniques, e.g. reflectivity and small angles neutrons scattering, to a water-2,5 dimethylpyridine mixture against silica, which is a model system for soils polluted by water/hydrocarbon mixtures. These experiments highlighted new experimental difficulties, which were not fully solved over this study, together with some problems in the analysis that would require specific modelling. Nevertheless, this study shows the capabilities of neutrons techniques to investigate some environmental mechanisms. Moreover, some of the results reported here can be used as a basis for future experiments. (author)

  13. General review of solar-powered closed sorption refrigeration systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarbu, Ioan; Sebarchievici, Calin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Provide review of development in solar sorption refrigeration technologies. • Theoretical basis and applications of absorption and adsorption cycles are discussed. • Thermodynamic properties of most common working pairs have been reviewed. • Development of hybrid or thermal energy storage adsorption systems was explored. • A comparison between solar-powered absorption and adsorption systems was performed. - Abstract: The negative environmental impacts of burning fossil fuels have forced the energy research community seriously to consider renewable sources, such as naturally available solar energy. Thermally powered refrigeration technologies are classified into two categories: thermo-mechanical technology and sorption technology (open systems or closed systems). This paper provides a detailed review of the solar closed sorption (absorption and adsorption) refrigeration systems, which utilise working pairs (fluids). After an introduction of the basic principles of these systems, the history of development and recent advances in solar sorption refrigeration technologies are reported. The adsorption cooling typically has a lower heat source temperature requirement than the absorption cooling. Based on the coefficient of performance (COP), the absorption systems are preferred over the adsorption systems, and the higher temperature issues can be easily handled with solar adsorption systems. The thermodynamic properties of most common working fluids, as well as the use of ternary mixtures in solar-powered absorption systems, have been reviewed in this study. The paper also refers to new approaches to increase the efficiency and sustainability of the basic adsorption cycles, such as the development of hybrid or thermal energy storage adsorption systems. This research shows that solar-powered closed sorption refrigeration technologies can be attractive alternatives not only to serve the needs for air-conditioning, refrigeration, ice making, thermal

  14. Diffusion and sorption properties of radionuclides in compacted bentonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Ji-Wei; Neretnieks, I. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    1997-07-01

    In this report, recent studies on sorption and diffusion of radionuclides in compacted bentonite have been reviewed. The sorption distribution coefficient and diffusion coefficient data obtained from experiments in the literature have been compiled. Based on these experimental data and the report SKB-TR--91-16 (Brandberg and Skagius, 1991), this report proposes a set of sorption distribution coefficient and diffusion coefficient values for modelling purpose for safety analysis of nuclear waste repositories. The variability and uncertainty of the diffusivity data span somewhat more than an order or magnitude up and down. Most of the nuclides have an effective diffusivity in around 10{sup -10} m{sup 2}/s. Ion exclusion effects are observed for C, Cl and for Tc in oxidizing waters. Effective diffusivities are nearly tow orders of magnitude lower for these elements and of the order of 10{sup -12} m{sup 2}/s. Surface diffusion effects are found for Cs, Ni, Pa, Pb, Ra, Sn, Sr and Zr. Effective diffusivities for these elements are of the order of 10{sup -8} m{sup 2}/s. The surface diffusion effect should decrease in saline waters which is seen for Cs and Sr where there are data available. It is also deemed that Ra will have this effect because of its similarity with Sr. The other nuclides should also show this decrease but no data is available. Sorption and diffusion mechanisms in compacted bentonite are discussed in the report. In highly compacted bentonite, sorption and hence its distribution coefficient is not well defined, and a pore diffusion coefficient or a surface diffusion coefficient is not well defined either. Therefore, an apparent diffusion coefficient and a total concentration gradient should be more relevant in describing the diffusion process in compacted bentonite. 99 refs.

  15. Sorption of polar and nonpolar organic contaminants by oil-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Chen, Shuo; Quan, Xie; Zhao, Huimin; Zhang, Yaobin

    2008-12-01

    Sorption of nonpolar (phenanthrene and butylate) and polar (atrazine and diuron) organic chemicals to oil-contaminated soil was examined to investigate oil effects on sorption of organic chemicals and to derive oil-water distribution coefficients (K(oil)). The resulting oil-contaminated soil-water distribution coefficients (K(d)) for phenanthrene demonstrated sorption-enhancing effects at both lower and higher oil concentrations (C(oil)) but sorption-reducing (competitive) effects at intermediate C(oil) (approximately 1 g kg(-1)). Rationalization of the different dominant effects was attempted in terms of the relative aliphatic carbon content which determines the accessibility of the aromatic cores to phenanthrene. Little or no competitive effect occurred for butylate because its sorption was dominated by partitioning. For atrazine and diuron, the changes in K(d) at C(oil) above approximately 1 g kg(-1) were negligible, indicating that the presently investigated oil has little or no effect on the two tested compounds even though the polarity of the oil is much less than soil organic matter (SOM). Therefore, specific interactions with the active groups (aromatic and polar domains) are dominantly responsible for the sorption of polar sorbates, and thus their sorption is controlled by available sorption sites. This study showed that the oil has the potential to be a dominant sorptive phase for nonpolar pollutants when compared to SOM, but hardly so for polar compounds. The results may aid in a better understanding of the role of the aliphatic and aromatic domains in sorption of nonpolar and polar organic pollutants.

  16. Understanding the mechanisms that change the conductivity of damaged ITO-coated polymeric films: A micro-mechanical investigation

    KAUST Repository

    Nasr Saleh, Mohamed

    2014-11-01

    Degradation from mechanical loading of transparent electrodes made of indium tin oxide (ITO) endangers the integrity of any material based on these electrodes, including flexible organic solar cells. However, how different schemes of degradation change the conductivity of ITO devices remains unclear. We propose a systematic micro-mechanics-based approach to clarify the relationship between degradation and changes in electrical resistance. By comparing experimentally measured channel crack densities to changes in electrical resistance returned by the different micro-mechanical schemes, we highlight the key role played by the residual conductivity in the interface between the ITO electrode and its substrate after delamination. We demonstrate that channel cracking alone does not explain the experimental observations. Our results indicate that delamination has to take place between the ITO electrode and the substrate layers and that the residual conductivity of this delaminated interface plays a major role in changes in electrical resistance of the degraded device. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Enhanced sorption of radiocobalt from water by Bi(III) modified montmorillonite: A novel adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Zhiqiang; Li Yuan; Zhang Shouwei; Niu Haihong; Chen Zhesheng; Xu Jinzhang

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Bi-Mt has higher surface area than Ca-Mt. → The sorption of Co(II) on Bi-Mt is dependent on ionic strength and pH. → The sorption of Co(II) on Bi-Mt is an spontaneous and endothermic process. → Bi-Mt has good practical application potential in wastewater disposal. - Abstract: In this study, Ca-montmorillonite (Ca-Mt) modified with Bi 3+ was used as a novel adsorbent for the sorption of Co(II) from aqueous solutions. The sorption of Co(II) on Bi-montmorillonite (Bi-Mt) was investigated as a function of contact time, pH, ionic strength, adsorbent content, Co(II) concentrations, fulvic acid (FA) and temperature. Compared to Ca-Mt, Bi-Mt showed a higher affinity to bind Co(II) ions. The sorption percentage of Co(II) on Bi-Mt increased with increasing pH at pH 3.0-8.5, and then maintained the high level at pH 8.5-12. The sorption of Co(II) on Bi-Mt was dependent on ionic strength at low pH, and independent of ionic strength at high pH. The presence of FA enhanced Co(II) sorption at low pH, but suppressed Co(II) sorption at high pH. The thermodynamic data derived from temperature dependent sorption isotherms suggested that the sorption of Co(II) on Bi-Mt was spontaneous and endothermic process. Outer-sphere surface complexation and/or ion exchange were the main mechanisms of Co(II) sorption on Bi-Mt at low pH, whereas inner-sphere surface complexation was the main sorption mechanism at high pH. From the experimental results, it is possible to conclude that Bi-Mt is suitable for application of Co(II) removal from aqueous solutions.

  18. Diffusion and sorption on hardened cement pastes - experiments and modelling results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakob, A.; Sarott, F.-A.; Spieler, P.

    1999-08-01

    Large parts of repositories for low and intermediate level radioactive waste consist of cementitious materials. Radionuclides are transported by diffusion in the cement matrix or, in case of fractured or highly permeable cement, by advection and dispersion. In this work we aim at a mechanistic understanding of diffusion processes of some reactive tracers. On the laboratory scale, ten through-diffusion experiments were performed to study these processes for Cl{sup -}, I{sup -}, Cs{sup +} and Ni{sup 2+} ions in a Sulphate Resisting Portland Cement (SRPC) equilibrated with an artificial pore water. Some of the experiments continued up to nearly three years with daily measurements. In all the experiments, a cement disk initially saturated with an artificial pore water was exposed on one side to a highly diluted solution containing the species of interest. On the second side, a near-zero concentration boundary was maintained to drive through-diffusion of the tracer. The changes of concentrations on both sides of the samples were monitored, allowing careful mass balances. From these data, values of the diffusive flux and the mass of tracer taken up by the cementitious material were determined as a function of time. In the subsequent modelling, the time histories of these tracer breakthroughs were fitted using five different models. The simplest model neglects all retarding mechanisms except pure diffusion. More complex models either account for instantaneous equilibrium sorption in form of linear or non-linear (Freundlich) sorption or for first-order sorption kinetics where the forward reaction may be linear or non-linear according to the Freundlich isotherm, while the back-reaction is linear. Hence, the analysis allows the extraction of the diffusion coefficient and parameter values for the sorption isotherm or rate-constants for sorption and desorption. The fits to the experimental data were carried out by an automated Marquardt-Levenberg procedure yielding error

  19. Using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to discriminate among different sorption sites of micas: With implications for heterogeneous reduction of chromate at the mica-water interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilton, E.S.; Moses, C.O.; Veblen, D.R.

    2000-04-01

    This contribution uses Cr2p and 3p binding energies (BEs) determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to distinguish Cr{sup III} sorbed to different mica sorption sites. The results were used to better understand mechanisms for coupled sorption-reduction of Cr{sub (aq)}{sup VI} by ferrous micas. The research is important because: (1) Cr contamination is a serious and wide spread problem associated with a variety of industries; (2) Micas are important sorbents for Cr because they are ubiquitous, sorb cations and anions over a wide range of pH, and participate in heterogeneous redox reactions via structural Fe{sup II} and FE{sup III}; and (3) The mobility of cations sorbed by micas will depend, in part, on the dominant sorption site. Micas (two biotites, end member phologopite and muscovite) were reacted with Cr{sup III} solutions that contained variable concentrations of NaCl and KCl. Samples were extracted at times intervals and mica edge orientations were analyzed by ZPS. Cr{sub (aq)}{sup III} sorption was greater in Cr{sup III}-NaCl solutions relative to Cr{sup III}-KCl solutions. Cr2p and 3p BEs were bracketed by those for Cr{sup III} in the structure of silicates and in Cr{sup III}-oxyhydroxides. The BE of Cr{sup III} sorbed to micas was higher by about 0.3 eV after reaction with Cr{sup III}-NaCl solutions compared to Cr{sup III}-KCl aqueous solutions. At the experimental conditions, Na{sup +} and K{sup +} differentially block permanent charge sites but not variably charged edge sites of micas. Using the constraints inherent in the experimental design, the authors interpret the difference in CR{sup III} BE between the Cr{sup III}-NaCl and Cr{sup III}-KCl experiments to reflect a change in the dominant sorption site, where high and low Cr BEs indicate Cr sorbed by the interlamellar region and variably charged functional groups at mica edges, respectively. They conclude that small BE shifts for cations sorbed to silicates can be interpreted with

  20. Development of JAEA sorption database (JAEA-SDB). Update of sorption/QA data in FY2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachi, Yukio; Suyama, Tadahiro

    2016-03-01

    Sorption and diffusion of radionuclides in buffer materials (bentonite) and rocks are the key processes in the safe geological disposal of radioactive waste, because migration of radionuclides in these barrier materials is expected to be diffusion-controlled and retarded by sorption processes. It is therefore necessary to understand the sorption and diffusion processes and develop databases compiling reliable data and mechanistic/predictive models, so that reliable parameters can be set under a variety of geochemical conditions relevant to performance assessment (PA). For this purpose, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has developed databases of sorption and diffusion parameters in bentonites and rocks. These sorption and diffusion databases (SDB/DDB) were firstly developed as an important basis for the H12 PA of high-level radioactive waste disposal, and have been provided through the Web. JAEA has been continuing to improve and update the SDB/DDB in view of potential future data needs, focusing on assuring the desired quality level and testing the usefulness of the databases for possible applications to PA-related parameter setting. The present report focuses on improving and updating of the sorption database (JAEA-SDB) as basis of integrated approach for PA-related K d setting and mechanistic sorption model development. This includes an overview of database structure, contents and functions including additional data evaluation function focusing on statistical data evaluation and grouping of data related to potential perturbations. K d data and their QA results are updated by focusing our recent activities on the K d setting and mechanistic model development. As a result, 11,206 K d data from 83 references were added, total number of K d values in the JAEA-SDB reached about 58,000. The QA/classified K d data reached about 60% for all K d data in JAEA-SDB. The updated JAEA-SDB is expected to make it possible to obtain quick overview of the available data, and to

  1. The effect of MWCNT treatment by H2O2 and/or UV on fulvic acids sorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech, Bożena

    2017-05-01

    The carbon nanotubes (CNT) present in the wastewater subjected to treatment will possess altered physico-chemical properties. The changed properties will result in the unknown behavior of CNT in the environment after disposal; and it is expected to differ from their pristine analogues. In the present paper the effect of sorption of dissolved organic matter with fulvic acids (FA) as representatives onto UV and/or H 2 O 2 treated CNT was tested. Both kinetics and mechanism of sorption was estimated. The chemical adsorption was a rate limiting step and a pseudo-second order kinetics described the sorption of FA onto UV and/or H 2 O 2 treated CNT. The treating increased affinity towards FA and treating by UV and H 2 O 2 simultaneously possessed greater impact on k 2 than UV and H 2 O 2 separately. The greatest effect on CNT sorption capacity revealed H 2 O 2 . The sorption mechanism was described by Temkin (CNT-H 2 O 2 ) and Dubinin-Radushkevich model. The increase in CNT surface disorder caused by UV and/or H 2 O 2 treatment favored sorption of FA via π-π interactions (exfoliated surface and disordered CNT walls). FA sorption occurred between aromatic rings of FA and CNT and hydrogen bonds formed with the oxygen functional groups. The results indicate that UV and/or H 2 O 2 treatment affected the sorption capacity and affinity of CNT towards FA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Laboratory experiments for understanding mechanical properties of fractured granite under supercritical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, M.; Takahashi, M.; Takagi, K.; Hirano, N.; Tsuchiya, N.

    2017-12-01

    To extract geothermal energy effectively and safely from magma and/or adjacent hot rock, we need to tackle many issues which require new technology development, such as a technique to control a risk from induced-earthquakes. On a development of induced-earthquake mitigation technology, it is required to understand roles of factors on occurrences of the induced-earthquake (e.g., strength, crack density, and fluid-rock reaction) and their intercorrelations (e.g., Asanuma et al., 2012). Our purpose of this series of experiments is to clarify a relationship between the rock strength and the crack density under supercritical conditions. We conducted triaxial deformation test on intact granite rock strength under high-temperature (250 - 750°C), high-pressure (104 MPa) condition at a constant load velocity (0.1 μm/sec) using a gas-rig at AIST. We used Oshima granite, which has initially Young's modulus increased with decreasing the temperature from 32.3 GPa at 750°C to 57.4 GPa at 250°C. At 400 °C, the stress drop accelerated the deformation with 98 times faster velocity than that at load-point. In contrast, at 650°C and 750°C, the velocity during stress drop kept the same order of the load-point velocity. Therefore, the deformation mechanism may start to be changed from brittle to ductile when the temperature exceeds 650°C. Highly dense cracked granite specimens were formed by a rapid decompression test (RDT) using an autoclave settled at Tohoku University (Hirano et al., 2016JpGU), caused by a reduction of fluid pressure within 1-2 sec from vapor/supercritical state (10 - 48 MPa, 550 °C) to ambient pressure. The specimens after RDT show numerous microcracks on X-ray CT images. The RDT imposed the porosity increasing towards 3.75 % and Vp and Vs decreasing towards 1.37±0.52 km/s and 0.97±0.25 km/s. The Poisson's ratio shows the negative values in dry and 0.5 in wet. In the meeting, we will present results of triaxial deformation test on such cracked granites

  3. Toward Understanding Mechanisms Controlling Urea Delivery in a Coastal Plain Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzilkowski, S. S.; Buda, A. R.; Boyer, E. W.; Bryant, R. B.; May, E. B.

    2012-12-01

    Improved understanding of nutrient mobilization and delivery to surface waters is critical to protecting water quality in agricultural watersheds. Urea, a form of organic nitrogen, is a common nutrient found in fertilizers, manures, and human waste, and is gaining recognition as an important driver of coastal eutrophication, particularly through the development of harmful algal blooms. While several studies have documented elevated urea concentrations in tributaries draining to the Chesapeake Bay, little is known about the potential sources and flow pathways responsible for urea delivery from the landscape to surface waters, as well as how these sources and pathways might vary with changing seasons, antecedent conditions, and storm types. In this study, we investigated hydrologic controls on urea delivery in the Manokin River watershed through the analysis of urea concentration dynamics and hysteresis patterns during seven storm events that occurred in 2010 and 2011. The Manokin River is a Coastal Plain watershed (11.1 km2) on the Delmarva Peninsula that drains directly to the Chesapeake Bay and is characterized by extensive rural development coupled with intensive agriculture, particularly poultry production. Sampling was conducted through monthly grab sampling at baseflow conditions and by time-weighted, automated (Sigma) samplers during stormflow events. Monitored storms were chosen to represent a spectrum of antecedent conditions based on precipitation and groundwater levels in the area. Flushing from the landscape during events was found to be the predominant urea delivery mechanism, as urea concentrations increased 3-9 times above baseflow concentrations during storms. The timing and number of flushes, as well as the degree of increased concentrations were dependent on antecedent conditions and the characteristics of the storm event. For instance, during an intense (13.7 mm hr-1), short-duration (4 hrs) storm in August of 2010 when antecedent conditions were

  4. New sorption-reagent materials for decontamination of liquid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avramenko, V.A.; Golikov, A.P.; Zheleznov, V.V.; Kaplun, E.V.; Marinin, D.V.; Sokolnitskaya, T.A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Use of selective sorbents in liquid radioactive waste (LRW) management is widely spread in the field of nuclear power objects liquid waste decontamination, since the main objective there is to remove long-lived radionuclides of the nuclear cycle. The latter include, first of all, cesium-137, strontium-90, cobalt-60 and a number of α-irradiators. In this case LRW composition for most of the nuclear power objects is rather simple, except acidic deactivation solutions. At the same time, liquid radioactive wastes of different research centers have a variable chemical and radiochemical composition depending on objectives and tasks of a given center research activities. As a result, application of sorption technologies in such waste decontamination determines special requirements to these sorbents selectivity: a wide spectrum of radionuclides that can be removed and fairly high selectivity enabling to remove radionuclides from solutions of complex chemical composition (containing surfactants, complexing agents etc.). This paper is concerned with studying properties of new materials selective to different radionuclides. These materials are capable to interact with solution components whether already contained in the waste or deliberately added into resulting solution. Such sorption-reagent materials combine universal character of co-precipitation methods with simplicity of sorption methods. In this work we studied sorption-reagent inorganic ion-exchange materials interacting with sulfate-, carbonate-, oxalate-, sulfide-, and permanganate-ions. Insoluble compounds formed as a result of this interaction increase tens- and hundreds-fold the sorption selectivity of different radionuclides - strontium, cobalt, mercury, iron, and manganese as compared to conventional ion-exchange system. By means of X-ray phase analysis, IR-spectroscopy, chemical and radiochemical analysis, we have studied the mechanism of radionuclide sorption on different sorption

  5. Sorption of radionuclides on inorganic sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajec, P.; Matel, L.

    1995-01-01

    The sorption of cesium, strontium, plutonium and americium from water solution on natural zeolite, clay minerals, synthetic zeolites and ferrocyanides in silica gel matrix was studied. The same experiments but with synthetic zeolites irradiated by the dose 100 kGy proved no change in sorption properties. 1 tab., 4 refs

  6. Nitrate Sorption in an Agricultural Soil Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissem Hamdi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing concentrations of in surface water and groundwater can cause ecological and public health effects and has come under increased scrutiny by both environmental scientists and regulatory agencies. For many regions though, including the Sahel of Tunisia, little is known about the sorption capacity of soils. In this project we measured sorption by a profile of an iso-humic soil from Chott Meriem, Tunisia. Soil samples were collected from four soil depths (0–25, 25–60, 60–90, and 90–120 cm on 1 June 2011, and their sorption capacity was determined using batch experiments under laboratory conditions. The effects of contact time, the initial concentration, and the soil-solution ratio on sorption were investigated. In general, the results suggested that was weakly retained by the Chott Meriem soil profile. The quantity of sorption increased with depth, contact time, initial concentration, and soil-solution ratios. To evaluate the sorption capacities of the soil samples at concentrations ranging between 25 and 150 mg L−1 experimental data were fitted to both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm sorption models. The results indicated that Freundlich model was better for describing sorption in this soil profile.

  7. Using interviews to understand the assignment mechanism in a nonexperimental study: the case of eighth grade algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickles, Jordan H

    2011-10-01

    Many inquiries regarding the causal effects of policies or programs are based on research designs where the treatment assignment process is unknown, and thus valid inferences depend on tenuous assumptions about the assignment mechanism. This article draws attention to the importance of understanding the assignment mechanism in policy and program evaluation studies, and illustrates how information collected through interviews can develop a richer understanding of the assignment mechanism. Focusing on the issue of student assignment to algebra in 8th grade, I show how a preliminary data collection effort aimed at understanding the assignment mechanism is particularly beneficial in multisite observational studies in education. The findings, based on ten interviews and administrative data from a large school district, draw attention to the often ignored heterogeneity in the assignment mechanism across schools. These findings likely extend beyond the current research project in question to related educational policy issues such as ability grouping, tracking, differential course taking, and curricular intensity, as well as other social programs in which the assignment mechanism can differ across sites.

  8. Sorption-desorption of samarium in Febex bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez-Guinart, O.; Rigol, A.; Vidal, M.; Fernandez-Poyatos, P.; Alba, M. D.

    2012-01-01

    with a Be window. Determination of Sm in the solutions derived from sorption-desorption experiments. Samarium concentrations were determined with ICP-OES and ICP-MS. The wavelength used in the ICP-OES was 359.3 nm, whereas the isotope 147 Sm was used in the ICP-MS. The quantification limits for the ICP-OES and ICP-MS were 30 μg L -1 and 10 ng L -1 , respectively. The initial sample shows an asymmetric 001 reflexion whose maximum corresponds to a basal spacing of 14.6 A and a shoulder to a higher 2θ. This is compatible with a heterogeneity composition of the interlayer space where divalent cations predominate. After sorption in water and at increasing Sm concentrations, the peaks became symmetric and the 001 reflexion shifted progressively to lower 2θ up to a basal spacing of 15.3 A compatible with a more homogeneous composition of the interlayer space and the exchange of the original interlayer divalent cations with Sm. These results indicated that whereas at lower concentration sorption was controlled by inner-sphere mechanisms, at higher initial Sm concentrations the predominant sorption mechanism was cationic exchange. The scenario differed when the sorption took place in the interstitial water medium, as the 001 reflexion did not shift to lower 2θ, but it widened and slightly shifted to higher 2θ. Both facts indicate competitiveness between Sm and the cations in the solution. Although the affinity for the interlayer space, in general, increases with the cation charge and then favors Sm, this was only observed for the highest initial Sm concentrations. Samarium sorption-desorption Samarium sorption was higher in water than in the interstitial, basically due to the cationic competition effect both for specific and for ionic-exchange, regular sites. This was consistent with results from the XRD analyses, and it was corroborated by the increase in the divalent cation concentrations in the final solutions after sorption when increasing samarium initial

  9. Ruthenium complexing in sorption by granulated sorbents with ethylene diamine and diethyl amine groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simanova, S.A.; Kolmakova, A.I.; Konovalov, L.V.; Kukushkin, Yu.N.; Kalalova, E.

    1986-01-01

    The sorption process of ruthenium (4) chlorocomplexes - K 2 (RuCl 6 ) macroporous granulated copolymers of glycidylmethacrylate ethylene dimethacrylate with ethylene diamine and diethyl amine has been studied. Sorption has been carried out under the static conditions (at 20 and 98 deg C) from 0.1-2.0 MxHCl and 1.0 M NaCl solutions. It is established that the sorption from acidic solutions proceeds according to anion exchange mechanism with formation of onium chlorocomplexes in the sorbent phase, subjecting to Anderson regrouping during the heating. During the sorption from neutral solutions the second-sphere coordination of polymer amino groups accirs near ruthenium atom and amino-chloride complexes are formed in the sorbent phase

  10. Sorption to soil, biochar and compost: is prediction to multicomponent mixtures possible based on single sorbent measurements?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Kah

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Amendment with biochar and/or compost has been proposed as a strategy to remediate soil contaminated with low levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The strong sorption potential of biochar can help sequestering contaminants while the compost may promote their degradation. An improved understanding of how sorption evolves upon soil amendment is an essential step towards the implementation of the approach. The present study reports on the sorption of pyrene to two soils, four biochars and one compost. Detailed isotherm analyzes across a wide range of concentration confirmed that soil amendments can significantly increase the sorption of pyrene. Comparisons of data obtained by a classical batch and a passive sampling method suggest that dissolved organic matter did not play a significant role on the sorption of pyrene. The addition of 10% compost to soil led to a moderate increase in sorption (<2-fold, which could be well predicted based on measurements of sorption to the individual components. Hence, our result suggest that the sorption of pyrene to soil and compost can be relatively well approximated by an additive process. The addition of 5% biochar to soil (with or without compost led to a major increase in the sorption of pyrene (2.5–4.7-fold, which was, however, much smaller than that suggested based on the sorption measured on the three individual components. Results suggest that the strong sorption to the biochar was attenuated by up to 80% in the presence of soil and compost, much likely due to surface and pore blockage. Results were very similar in the two soils considered, and collectively suggest that combined amendments with compost and biochar may be a useful approach to remediate soils with low levels of contamination. Further studies carried out in more realistic settings and over longer periods of time are the next step to evaluate the long term viability of remediation approaches based on biochar amendments.

  11. Sorption of mercury on chemically synthesized polyaniline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remya Devi, P.S.; Verma, R.; Sudersanan, M.

    2006-01-01

    Sorption of inorganic mercury (Hg 2+ ) and methyl mercury, on chemically synthesized polyaniline, in 0.1-10N HCl solutions has been studied. Hg 2+ is strongly sorbed at low acidities and the extent of sorption decreases with increase in acidity. The sorption of methyl mercury is very low in the HCl concentration range studied. Sorption of Hg 2+ on polyaniline in 0.1-10N LiCl and H 2 SO 4 solutions has also been studied. The analysis of the data indicates that the sorption of Hg 2+ depends on the degree of protonation of polyaniline and the nature of mercury(II) chloride complexes in solution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis (XPS) of polyaniline sorbed with mercury show that mercury is bound as Hg 2+ . Sorbed mercury is quantitatively eluted from polyaniline with 0.5N HNO 3 . Polyaniline can be used for separation and pre-concentration of inorganic mercury from aqueous samples. (author)

  12. Phenanthrene sorption on biochar-amended soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahawaththa Gamage, Inoka Damayanthi Kumari; Moldrup, Per; Paradelo Pérez, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    on their influences on the sorption of environmental contaminants. In a field-based study at two experimental sites in Denmark, we investigated the effect of birch wood-derived biochar (Skogans kol) on the sorption of phenanthrene in soils with different properties. The soil sorption coefficient, Kd (L kg-1......), of phenanthrene was measured on sandy loam and loamy sand soils which have received from zero up to 100 t ha-1 of biochar. Results show that birch wood biochar had a higher Kd compared to soils. Furthermore, the application of birch wood biochar enhanced the sorption of phenanthrene in agricultural soils...... carbon, while it negatively correlated with clay content. The results also revealed that biochar-mineral interactions play an important role in the sorption of phenanthrene in biochar-amended soil....

  13. Cobalt sorption onto Savannah River Plant soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeffner, S.L.

    1985-06-01

    A laboratory study of cobalt-60 sorption was conducted using Savannah River Plant soil and groundwater from the low-level waste burial ground. Systematic variation of soil and water composition indicates that cobalt sorption is most strongly a function of pH. Over a pH range of 2 to 9, the distribution coefficient ranged from 2 to more than 10,000 mL/g. Changes in clay content and in K + , Ca 2+ , or Mg 2+ concentrations influence cobalt sorption indirectly through the slight pH changes which result. The ions Na + , Cl - , and NO 3 - have no effect on cobalt sorption. Ferrous ion, added to groundwater to simulate the condition of water at the bottom of the waste trenches, accounts for part of the decrease in cobalt sorption observed with trench waters. 17 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  14. Synthesis, properties and effect of ionizing radiation on sorption behavior of iron silico-antimonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, I.M.; Zakaria, E.S.; El-Naggar, I.M.; Shama, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Incorporation of iron oxide into silico-antimonate of different Si/Sb molar ratios introduced a class of dual salts ion exchangers with advanced ion exchange properties. Physicochemical and equilibrium studies have been carried out to understand the ion exchange properties of these materials. Apparent investigation indicated that iron incorporation into silico-antimonate yields materials having excellent mechanical properties. On the basis of distribution studies, the materials were found to be highly selective for Sr 2+ or Ce 3+ depending on their Si/Sb molar ratios. Diffractogram, thermogram, IR spectra and sorption performance of crystalline FeSiSb (114) indicated that no detectable structural changes after an exposure up to 100 kGy of γ-rays. Effect of reaction temperature on the exchange process was investigated and the respective thermodynamic parameters were calculated. (author)

  15. Pressure impact of autoclave treatment on water sorption and pectin composition of flax cellulosic-fibres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alix, S; Colasse, L; Morvan, C; Lebrun, L; Marais, S

    2014-02-15

    The tensile properties of flax fibres might permit them to be used in composites as reinforcement in organic resin, as long as their mechanical properties are reproducible and their water sorption are reduced. In this study, to minimise the variability of mechanical properties, several samples of flax fibres were blended as a non-woven fabric. In order to reduce the water absorption of this non-woven technical fibres, an autoclave treatment was performed which was expected to remove the pectins and then to reduce the water sorption on their negative charges. The impact of autoclave pressure (0.5, 1 and 2 bars) on water sorption was investigated by using a gravimetric static equilibrium method. The Park model based on the three sorption modes: Langmuir, Henry's law and clustering, was successfully used to simulate the experimental sorption data. The lowest pressure treatments impacted only the Langmuir contribution while the 2 bar autoclave-treatment positively impacted the water resistance in the core of fibres by reducing Henry's absorption rate. This was shown to be related to the chemical modifications at the surface and in the core of fibres. A schematic model is presented relating the water sorption and the pectic composition of the fabric. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. How Do Students in an Innovative Principle-Based Mechanics Course Understand Energy Concepts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lin; Chabay, Ruth; Sherwood, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    We investigated students' conceptual learning of energy topics in an innovative college-level introductory mechanics course, entitled Matter & Interactions (M&I) Modern Mechanics. This course differs from traditional curricula in that it emphasizes application of a small number of fundamental principles across various scales, involving…

  17. Towards a neurobiological understanding of pain in chronic pancreatitis: mechanisms and implications for treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren S. Olesen

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion:. Chronic pancreatitis is associated with abnormal processing of pain at the peripheral and central level of the pain system. This neurobiological understanding of pain has important clinical implications for treatment and prevention of pain chronification.

  18. Measurement of clay surface areas by polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) sorption and its use for quantifying illite and smectite abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, A.E.; Eberl, D.D.

    2004-01-01

    A new method has been developed for quantifying smectite abundance by sorbing polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) on smectite particles dispersed in aqueous solution. The sorption density of PVP-55K on a wide range of smectites, illites and kaolinites is ~0.99 mg/m2, which corresponds to ~0.72 g of PVP-55K per gram of montmorillonite. Polyvinylpyrrolidone sorption on smectites is independent of layer charge and solution pH. PVP sorption on SiO2, Fe2O3 and ZnO normalized to the BET surface area is similar to the sorption densities on smectites. γ-Al2O3, amorphous Al(OH)3 and gibbsite have no PVP sorption over a wide range of pH, and sorption of PVP by organics is minimal. The insensitivity of PVP sorption densities to mineral layer charge, solution pH and mineral surface charge indicates that PVP sorption is not localized at charged sites, but is controlled by more broadly distributed sorption mechanisms such as Van der Waals’ interactions and/or hydrogen bonding. Smectites have very large surface areas when dispersed as single unit-cell-thick particles (~725 m2/g) and usually dominate the total surface areas of natural samples in which smectites are present. In this case, smectite abundance is directly proportional to PVP sorption. In some cases, however, the accurate quantification of smectite abundance by PVP sorption may require minor corrections for PVP uptake by other phases, principally illite and kaolinite. Quantitative XRD can be combined with PVP uptake measurements to uniquely determine the smectite concentration in such samples.

  19. Effects of humic acid and heavy metals on the sorption of polar and apolar organic pollutants onto biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Sun, Hongwen; Ren, Xinhao; Liu, Yarui; Zhu, Hongkai; Zhang, Peng; Ren, Chao

    2017-12-01

    The effects of humic acid (HA) and heavy metals (Cu 2+ and Ag + ) on the sorption of polar and apolar organic pollutants onto biochars that were produced at temperatures of 200 °C (BC200) and 700 °C (BC700) were studied. Due to the plentiful polar functional groups on BC200, cationic propranolol exhibited higher levels of sorption than naphthalene on BC200 while naphthalene and propranolol showed similar sorption capacities on BC700. HA changed the characteristics of biochars and generally inhibited the sorption of target organic pollutants on biochars; however, enhancement occurred in some cases depending on the pollutants involved and their concentrations, biochars used and the addition sequences and concentrations of HA. On BC200, HA modifications mainly influenced sorption by decreasing its polarity and increasing its aromaticity, while on BC700, the surface area and pore volume greatly decreased due to the pore-blocking effects of HA. Residue dissolved HA in solution may also contribute to sorption inhibition. Complexation between polar functional groups on BC200 and heavy metals slightly enhanced the sorption of neutral naphthalene and significantly enhanced that of anionic 4-nitro-1-naphtol, while limited the sorption of cationic propranolol. Heavy metals together with their associated water molecules decreased the sorption of target chemicals on BC700 via pore-filling or pore-mouth-covering. Inhibition of heavy metals for 4-nitro-1-naphthol was found to be the weakest due to the bridge effects of heavy metals between 4-nitro-1-naphtol and BC700. The higher polarizability of Ag + led to the increase of its sorption on biochars in the presence of organic aromatic pollutants. The results of the present study shed light on the sorption mechanisms of bi-solute systems and enable us to select suitable biochar sorbents when chemicals co-exist. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Radiotracer study of sorption of europium on Gorleben sand from aqueous solutions containing humic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benes, P.; Stamberg, K.; Siroky, L.; Mizera, J.

    2002-01-01

    The sorption of trace europium, as a trivalent actinide homologue, was studied in the system Gorleben sand - aqueous solution with the aim to elucidate its mechanism. Radiotracer method ( 152/154 Eu) and batch experiments were used. Simultaneously, the distribution of humic substances present in, or added to the system was measured. The evaluation of the sorption was complicated by the adsorption of Eu on the walls of polyethylene vials used for the experiments, which was rather high and had to be taken into consideration. It has been found that Eu sorption on Gorleben sand increases from pH 2 to pH 5-7 and then it decreases. The decrease is due to the complexation of Eu with humic substances leached from Gorleben sand at pH>7. The position of the sorption maximum depends on the composition of the solution and on the liquid-to-solid ratio. It is shifted to lower pH values in the presence of added humic acid (HA), which enhances Eu sorption at low PH values and suppresses it at pH values higher than 5. The regions of the enhancing/suppressing effects coincidence with the high/low adsorption of HA on Gorleben sand, respectively. The increasing ionic strength (from 0.01 to 0.1) and europium concentration (3.4 x 10 -8 to 9.3 x 10 -7 mol/l) suppress the relative sorption (expressed in %) at low pH values and enhance it at pH>6-8. Addition of carbonates (5 x 10 -3 mol/l) supports Eu sorption at pH>7.5 so that no decrease with pH is observed till pH 9. Alkaline leaching of the sand significantly changes most of the effects found. These results were qualitatively interpreted and conclusions were drawn on the mechanism of the sorption. (author)

  1. U(VI) sorption on granite: prediction and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nebelung, C.; Brendler, V.

    2010-01-01

    One widely accepted approach - component additivity (CA) - to describe the sorption of contaminants onto complex materials such as rocks or soils is based on the assumption that the surface of a complex mineral assemblage is composed of a mixture of mineral constituents whose surface properties are known from independent studies. An internally consistent SCM (surface complexation model) database can be developed that describes the adsorption reactions of solutes to each phase. Here, the capability of such a methodology was tested, using the code MINTEQA2 including thermodynamic data of the NEA-TDB, and literature data for SCM, namely the DDL model. The sorption characteristics of U(VI) on granite (from Eibenstock, Saxony, Germany, with the main components quartz, albite, orthoclase, and muscovite) was predicted and then compared to batch experiments. Granite plays an important role in the remediation of former uranium ore mining and milling sites, but is also one of the host rocks considered for final disposal of nuclear materials. Safety assessment requires a detailed understanding of this system and its retention potential with regard to hazardous components. Namely the sorption of uranium in this complex rock is not fully understood yet. The experiments thus also provided a better understanding of the far-field behaviour in granitic geological nuclear repositories. The robustness of the prediction was tested by variation of the granite composition and the variation of the specific surface area (SSA) - first all components were predicted with a uniform granite SSA, second with a distinct SSA for each granite component (determined on pure minerals for the same grain size fractions). Changes in compositions yielded only marginal differences in the prediction. Different approaches to SSA showed somewhat larger deviations. In conclusion, the CA methodology is a valid and robust approach to U(VI) sorption onto complex substrates such as granite, provided sufficient

  2. Autoradiographic study of actinide sorption on climax stock granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beall, G.W.; O'Kelley, G.D.; Allard, B.

    1980-06-01

    An autoradiographic technique that employed an arrangement for placing in firm contact Polaroid sheet film, a scintillator screen, and the radioactive face of a specimen was applied to a study of the sorption of americium, neptunium, plutonium, and uranium on Climax Stock granite under varying conditions of pH and Eh. Qualitative agreement was found between the sorption of americium on crushed, pure minerals and on the minerals comprising the specimen of Climax Stock granite. The observations also supported a mechanism for reduction of Np(V) to Np(IV) and Pu(VI) to Pu(IV) by Fe(II)-containing minerals. There was no evidence for reduction of U(VI) by the Fe(II)-containing minerals, although the uranium, assumed to be present as UO 2 2+ , appeared to be the only actinide species to exhibit sorption by a simple, cation-exchange mechanism at particular mineral sites. Some implications of these results for nuclear waste isolation are discussed briefly

  3. Advances in understanding of soil biogeochemical cycles: the mechanism of HS entry into the root interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, Olga

    2017-04-01

    Humic substances represent the major reservoir of carbon (C) in ecosystems, and their turnover is crucial for understanding the global C cycle. As shown by some investigators [1-2], the phenomenon of the uptake of the whole humic particles by plant roots is a significant step of biogeochemical cycle of carbon in soils. The mechanism of HS entry the root interior remained unknown for a long time. However recently, the last one was discovered [3]. An advanced model [3] includes two hypotheses. These hypotheses are as follows: (1) each nano-size particle possesses a quantum image that can be revealed as a packet of electromagnetic waves; (2) the interaction of nano-size particle with the membrane (plasma membrane) of living cells, on which it is adsorbed, occurs via the development of the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability on the membrane surface. An advanced model allows us to look insight some into some phenomena that were observed by experiments but remained not understood [2]. The authors [2] applied tritium autoradiography to wheat seedlings cultivated with tritium-labeled HS to consider the uptake of humic particles by plant roots. They found a significant increase in the content of some polar (monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol (SQDG) and phosphatidylcholine (PC)) and neutral (free fatty acids, FFA) lipids which were detected in the wheat seedlings treated with humic particles. Authors [2] pointed that lipids MGDG, DGDG, SQDG are crucial for functional and structural integrity of the photosystem complex. Therefore, a stimulating action of adsorbed humic particles evoked phenomena like photosynthesis in root cells that can be interpreted using an advanced model: humic particles being nano-size particles become adsorbed on the plant roots in soils, and influence their micro environment, where they are located, with the specific electromagnetic exposure. Another finding of authors consisted in the

  4. Dynamic design of gas sorption J-T refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, C.K.

    1986-01-01

    A long-life Joule-Thomson refrigerator which is heat powered, involves no sealing, and has few mechanical parts and is desirable for longterm sensor cooling in space. In the gas-sorption J-T refrigerator, cooling is achieved by gas sorption (either adsorption or absorption) processes. Currently, a modular, single-stage refrigerator is being designed and built to be operated at 20 K. The design was analyzed using a dynamic model, which is described here. The model includes the kinetics of the compressors and the heat switches, the heat transfer of the pre-coolers and the heat exchangers, the on/off ratio of the check valves, and the impedance of the J-T valve. The cooling power, the cycle time, and the operating conditions were obtained in terms of the power input, the heat sink temperature, and the J-T impedance

  5. Dynamic design of gas sorption J-T refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, C. K.

    1986-01-01

    A long-life Joule-Thomson refrigerator which is heat powered, involves no sealing, and has few mechanical parts is desirable for long-term sensor cooling in space. In the gas-sorption J-T refrigerator, cooling is achieved by gas sorption (either adsorption or absorption) processes. Currently, a modular, single-stage refrigerator is being designed and built to be operated at 20 K. The design was analyzed using a dynamic model, which is described here. The model includes the kinetics of the compressors and the heat switches, the heat transfer of the pre-coolers and the heat exchangers, the on/off ratio of the check valves, and the impedance of the J-T valve. The cooling power, the cycle time, and the operating conditions were obtained in terms of the power input, the heat sink temperature, and the J-T impedance.

  6. Understanding the mechanism of sweet taste: synthesis of tritium labeled guanidineacetic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagarajan, S.; Kellogg, M.S.; DuBois, G.E. (NutraSweet Company, Mt. Prospect, IL (United States)); Williams, D.S. (Amersham International plc, Cardiff (United Kingdom). Cardiff Labs.); Gresk, C.J.; Markos, C.S. (Searle Research and Development, Skokie, IL (United States))

    1992-08-01

    Syntheses of tritium labeled guanidineacetic acid sweetener and a tritiated photoaffinity labeling reagent via the catalytic hydrogenation of the dibromo intermediates are described. These labeled compounds were required for the investigation of sweet taste mechanism. (author).

  7. Understanding the mechanism of sweet taste: synthesis of tritium labeled guanidineacetic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagarajan, S.; Kellogg, M.S.; DuBois, G.E.; Williams, D.S.

    1992-01-01

    Syntheses of tritium labeled guanidineacetic acid sweetener and a tritiated photoaffinity labeling reagent via the catalytic hydrogenation of the dibromo intermediates are described. These labeled compounds were required for the investigation of sweet taste mechanism. (author)

  8. Oxide nanoparticle EUV resists: toward understanding the mechanism of positive and negative tone patterning

    KAUST Repository

    Chakrabarty, Souvik; Ouyang, Christine; Krysak, Marie; Trikeriotis, Markos; Cho, Kyoungyoung; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.; Ober, Christopher K.

    2013-01-01

    DUV, EUV and e-beam patterning of hybrid nanoparticle photoresists have been reported previously by Ober and coworkers. The present work explores the underlying mechanism that is responsible for the dual tone patterning capability of these photoresist materials. Spectroscopic results correlated with mass loss and dissolution studies suggest a ligand exchange mechanism responsible for altering the solubility between the exposed and unexposed regions. © 2013 SPIE.

  9. Oxide nanoparticle EUV resists: toward understanding the mechanism of positive and negative tone patterning

    KAUST Repository

    Chakrabarty, Souvik

    2013-04-01

    DUV, EUV and e-beam patterning of hybrid nanoparticle photoresists have been reported previously by Ober and coworkers. The present work explores the underlying mechanism that is responsible for the dual tone patterning capability of these photoresist materials. Spectroscopic results correlated with mass loss and dissolution studies suggest a ligand exchange mechanism responsible for altering the solubility between the exposed and unexposed regions. © 2013 SPIE.

  10. Using realist synthesis to understand the mechanisms of interprofessional teamwork in health and social care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Gillian; Sims, Sarah; Harris, Ruth

    2014-11-01

    Realist synthesis offers a novel and innovative way to interrogate the large literature on interprofessional teamwork in health and social care teams. This article introduces realist synthesis and its approach to identifying and testing the underpinning processes (or "mechanisms") that make an intervention work, the contexts that trigger those mechanisms and their subsequent outcomes. A realist synthesis of the evidence on interprofessional teamwork is described. Thirteen mechanisms were identified in the synthesis and findings for one mechanism, called "Support and value" are presented in this paper. The evidence for the other twelve mechanisms ("collaboration and coordination", "pooling of resources", "individual learning", "role blurring", "efficient, open and equitable communication", "tactical communication", "shared responsibility and influence", "team behavioural norms", "shared responsibility and influence", "critically reviewing performance and decisions", "generating and implementing new ideas" and "leadership") are reported in a further three papers in this series. The "support and value" mechanism referred to the ways in which team members supported one another, respected other's skills and abilities and valued each other's contributions. "Support and value" was present in some, but far from all, teams and a number of contexts that explained this variation were identified. The article concludes with a discussion of the challenges and benefits of undertaking this realist synthesis.

  11. Analysis of multiple instructional techniques on the understanding and retention of select mechanical topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetsco, Sara Elizabeth

    There are several topics that introductory physics students typically have difficulty understanding. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate if multiple instructional techniques will help students to better understand and retain the material. The three units analyzed in this study are graphing motion, projectile motion, and conservation of momentum. For each unit students were taught using new or altered instructional methods including online laboratory simulations, inquiry labs, and interactive demonstrations. Additionally, traditional instructional methods such as lecture and problem sets were retained. Effectiveness was measured through pre- and post-tests and student opinion surveys. Results suggest that incorporating multiple instructional techniques into teaching will improve student understanding and retention. Students stated that they learned well from all of the instructional methods used except the online simulations.

  12. Influence of the redox state on the neptunium sorption under alkaline conditions. Batch sorption studies on titanium dioxide and calcium silicate hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tits, Jan; Laube, Andreas; Wieland, Erich; Gaona, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Wet chemistry experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of the redox state and aqueous speciation on the uptake of neptunium by titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) and by calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H) under alkaline conditions. TiO 2 was chosen as a reference sorbent to determine the surface complexation behaviour of neptunium under alkaline conditions. C-S-H phases are important constituents of cement and concrete. They may contribute significantly to radionuclide retention due to their high recrystallization rates making incorporation the dominating sorption mechanism for many radionuclides (e.g. the actinides) on these materials. The sorption of neptunium on both solids was found to depend strongly on the degree of hydrolysis. On TiO 2 R d values for Np(IV), Np(V) and Np(VI) are identical at pH = 10 and decrease with progressing hydrolysis in case of Np(V) and Np(VI). On C-S-H phases, R d values for the three redox states are also identical at pH = 10. While the R d values for Np(VI) sorption on C-S-H phases decrease with progressing hydrolysis, the R d values for Np(IV) and Np(V) sorption are not affected by the pH. In addition to the effect of hydrolysis, the presence of Ca is found to promote Np(V) and Np(VI) sorption on TiO 2 whereas on C-S-H phases, the present wet chemistry data do not give unambiguous evidence. Thus, the aqueous speciation appears to have a similar influence on the sorption of the actinides on both types of solids despite the different sorption mechanism. The similar R d values for Np(IV,V,VI) sorption at pH = 10 can be explained qualitatively by invoking inter-ligand electrostatic repulsion between OH groups in the coordination sphere of Np(V) and Np(VI). This mechanism was proposed earlier in the literature for the prediction of actinide complexation constants with inorganic ligands. A limiting coordination number for each Np redox state, resulting from the inter-ligand electrostatic repulsion, allows the weaker sorption of the

  13. Thermodynamic study of uranyl sorption onto lanthanum monophosphate (LaPO4) and magnetite (Fe3O4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felix, Olivia

    2012-01-01

    The migration of radio-toxic elements in the geosphere is mainly regulated by chemical parameters which control the partitioning of the elements between mineral phases and aqueous solutions. Variation in temperature may affect the retention properties of a mineral surface and requires a careful investigation in order to understand the radionuclides behavior in the geosphere. In this way, the interaction mechanisms between uranium(VI) and two minerals (LaPO 4 and Fe 3 O 4 ) have been studied. In a first step, the monazite (LaPO 4 ) has been chosen as methodological solid in order to clearly define all the different stages needed to completely characterize the influence of temperature on the sorption phenomena. To reach that goal, three media, more or less complexants towards aqueous uranyl and the mineral surface, have been considered. Physico-chemical as well as surface acid-base properties of the solid surface have been studied by considering three electrolytes (NaClO 4 , NaNO 3 and Na 2 SO 4 ) and temperatures ranged from 25 C to 95 C. The point of zero charge has been found to be identical for perchlorate and nitrate media (pH PZC =2.1) but it was found to be one pK unit higher for the sulfate medium indicating a sorption of the background electrolyte ions. The reaction heats associated to the hydration of the solid have been measured by using microcalorimetry and the nature of the reactive surface sites has been determined by carrying out Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TRLFS). On the basis of these experimental constraints, the titration curves obtained for the monazite suspensions were fitted by using the Constant Capacitance Model and the 1-pK model was preferred to characterize the surface charge evolution, due to the limited number of adjustable parameters. The surface protonation constants being determined, the behavior of U(VI) towards the monazite surface in the three electrolytes has been investigated. On the basis of both U

  14. Sorption behavior of cesium onto bentonite colloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iijima, Kazuki; Masuda, Tsuguya; Tomura, Tsutomu

    2004-01-01

    It is considered that bentonite colloid might be generated from bentonite which will be used as buffer material in geological disposal system, and can facilitate the migration of radionuclides by means of sorption. In order to examine this characteristic, sorption and desorption experiments of Cs onto bentonite colloid were carried out to obtain its distribution coefficient (Kd) and information on the reversibility of its sorption. In addition, particle size distribution and shape of colloid were investigated and their effect on the sorption behavior was discussed. Kds for Cs were around 20 m 3 /kg for sorption and 30 m 3 /kg for desorption, in which sorbed Cs was desorbed by 8.4x10 -4 mol/l of NaCl solution. These values did not show any dependencies on Cs concentration and duration of sorption and desorption. The first 20% of sorbed Cs was desorbed reversibly at least. Most of colloidal particles were larger than 200 nm and TEM micrographs showed they had only several sheets of the clay crystal. Obtained Kds for colloidal bentonite were larger than those for powdered bentonite. This can be caused by difference of competing ions in the solution, characteristics of contained smectite, or sorption site density. (author)

  15. Sorption of uranyl ions on hydrous oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.R.; Venkataramani, B.

    1988-01-01

    Sorption of uranyl ions on hydrous titanium oxide (HTiO), magnetite (MAG), and hydrous thorium oxide (HThO) has been studied as a function of pH. Hydrous oxides have been characterized by their pH-titration curves, intrinsic dissociation constants (pK ai * ) and point of zero charge (pH pzc ). The fraction of protonated surface hydroxyl groups as well as the surface pH (pH surf ) as a function of solution pH have been computed. The distribution of various hydrolyzed species of uranyl ions with solution pH have been compared with uranyl sorption isotherm on these oxides. Sorption edge in all the cases occurs when free hydroxyl groups are available on the surface and pH surf is sufficiently high to favor the formation of dimer-like species on the surface. A new model for the sorption process, called surface hydrolysis model, which explains these and other features of uranyl sorption on hydrous oxides has been proposed. The model visualizes the sorption process as linking of uranyl ions with two adjacent free surface hydroxyl groups without deprotonation (provided the surface pH is high for the hydrolysis of uranyl ions) and formation of dimer-like structures on the surface. The new model has been successfully applied to the present and other available data on uranyl ion sorption on hydrous oxides. (author)

  16. Sorption of streptococcus faecium to glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oerstavik, D.

    1977-01-01

    A method has been developed by which to study the sorption of Streptococcus faecium to soda-lime cover glasses. Conditions were chosen to minimize the influence on sorption of bacterial polymer production, passive sorption being studied rather than attachment mediated by metabolic activities. Sorption of S. faecium increased with increasing temperature (to 50degC), time, and cell concentration, but equilibrium apparently was not reached even after incubation for 8 hours or at a cell concentration of 3 x 10 10 per ml. Sorption increased with solute molarity up to 0.1 M concentration of NaCl and KCl, indicating an effect of the electrical double layers on the apposition of cells to the glass surface. Desorption of bacteria could be obtained after multiple washings of the glasses in buffer or by the action of Tween 80, but not if sorbed bacteria were left in distilled water, various salt solutions, urea, or in suspensions of unlabelled bacteria. It was concluded that sorption occurred as a result of chemical interactions between the glass and the cell surface. Tween 80 at a concentration of 1 per cent inhibited sorption to 26 per cent of buffer controls, 2 M urea was less effective, and 1 M NaCl was without effect. It is suggested that hydrophobic interactions may be of importance in the binding of S. faecium to glass. (author)

  17. SITE-94. Adaptation of mechanistic sorption models for performance assessment calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, R.C.

    1996-10-01

    Sorption is considered in most predictive models of radionuclide transport in geologic systems. Most models simulate the effects of sorption in terms of empirical parameters, which however can be criticized because the data are only strictly valid under the experimental conditions at which they were measured. An alternative is to adopt a more mechanistic modeling framework based on recent advances in understanding the electrical properties of oxide mineral-water interfaces. It has recently been proposed that these 'surface-complexation' models may be directly applicable to natural systems. A possible approach for adapting mechanistic sorption models for use in performance assessments, using this 'surface-film' concept, is described in this report. Surface-acidity parameters in the Generalized Two-Layer surface complexation model are combined with surface-complexation constants for Np(V) sorption ob hydrous ferric oxide to derive an analytical model enabling direct calculation of corresponding intrinsic distribution coefficients as a function of pH, and Ca 2+ , Cl - , and HCO 3 - concentrations. The surface film concept is then used to calculate whole-rock distribution coefficients for Np(V) sorption by altered granitic rocks coexisting with a hypothetical, oxidized Aespoe groundwater. The calculated results suggest that the distribution coefficients for Np adsorption on these rocks could range from 10 to 100 ml/g. Independent estimates of K d for Np sorption in similar systems, based on an extensive review of experimental data, are consistent, though slightly conservative, with respect to the calculated values. 31 refs

  18. Understanding Irreversible Degradation of Nb3Sn Wires with Fundamental Fracture Mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Yuhu [PPPL; Calzolaio, Ciro [Univ of Geneva; Senatore, Carmine [Univ of Geneva

    2014-08-01

    Irreversible performance degradation of advanced Nb3Sn superconducting wires subjected to transverse or axial mechanical loading is a critical issue for the design of large-scale fusion and accelerator magnets such as ITER and LHC. Recent SULTAN tests indicate that most cable-in-conduit conductors for ITER coils made of Nb3Sn wires processed by various fabrication techniques show similar performance degradation under cyclic loading. The irreversible degradation due to filament fracture and local strain accumulation in Nb3Sn wires cannot be described by the existing strand scaling law. Fracture mechanic modeling combined with X-ray diffraction imaging of filament micro-crack formation inside the wires under mechanical loading may reveal exciting insights to the wire degradation mechanisms. We apply fundamental fracture mechanics with a singularity approach to study influence of wire filament microstructure of initial void size and distribution to local stress concentration and potential crack propagation. We report impact of the scale and density of the void structure on stress concentration in the composite wire materials for crack initiation. These initial defects result in an irreversible degradation of the critical current beyond certain applied stress. We also discuss options to minimize stress concentration in the design of the material microstructure for enhanced wire performance for future applications.

  19. The contribution of experimental in vivo models to understanding the mechanisms of adaptation to mechanical loading in bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee B Meakin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Changing loading regimens by natural means such as exercise, with or without interference such as osteotomy, has provided useful information on the structure:function relationship in bone tissue. However, the greatest precision in defining those aspects of the overall strain environment that influence modeling and remodeling behavior has been achieved by relating quantified changes in bone architecture to quantified changes in bones’ strain environment produced by direct, controlled artificial bone loading.Jiri Heřt introduced the technique of artificial loading of bones in vivo with external devices in the 1960s using an electromechanical device to load rabbit tibiae through transfixing stainless steel pins. Quantifying natural bone strains during locomotion by attaching electrical resistance strain gauges to bone surfaces was introduced by Lanyon, also in the 1960s. These studies in a variety of bones in a number of species demonstrated remarkable uniformity in the peak strains and maximum strain rates experienced.Experiments combining strain gauge instrumentation with artificial loading in sheep, pigs, roosters, turkeys, rats and mice has yielded significant insight into the control of strain-related adaptive (remodeling. This diversity of approach has been largely superseded by non-invasive transcutaneous loading in rats and mice which is now the model of choice for many studies. Together such studies have demonstrated that; over the physiological strain range, bone’s mechanically-adaptive processes are responsive to dynamic but not static strains; the size and nature of the adaptive response controlling bone mass is linearly related to the peak loads encountered; the strain-related response is preferentially sensitive to high strain rates and unresponsive to static ones; is most responsive to unusual strain distributions; is maximized by remarkably few strain cycles and that these are most effective when interrupted by short periods of

  20. The Contribution of Experimental in vivo Models to Understanding the Mechanisms of Adaptation to Mechanical Loading in Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meakin, Lee B.; Price, Joanna S.; Lanyon, Lance E.

    2014-01-01

    Changing loading regimens by natural means such as exercise, with or without interference such as osteotomy, has provided useful information on the structure:function relationship in bone tissue. However, the greatest precision in defining those aspects of the overall strain environment that influence modeling and remodeling behavior has been achieved by relating quantified changes in bone architecture to quantified changes in bones’ strain environment produced by direct, controlled artificial bone loading. Jiri Hert introduced the technique of artificial loading of bones in vivo with external devices in the 1960s using an electromechanical device to load rabbit tibiae through transfixing stainless steel pins. Quantifying natural bone strains during locomotion by attaching electrical resistance strain gages to bone surfaces was introduced by Lanyon, also in the 1960s. These studies in a variety of bones in a number of species demonstrated remarkable uniformity in the peak strains and maximum strain rates experienced. Experiments combining strain gage instrumentation with artificial loading in sheep, pigs, roosters, turkeys, rats, and mice has yielded significant insight into the control of strain-related adaptive (re)modeling. This diversity of approach has been largely superseded by non-invasive transcutaneous loading in rats and mice, which is now the model of choice for many studies. Together such studies have demonstrated that over the physiological strain range, bone’s mechanically adaptive processes are responsive to dynamic but not static strains; the size and nature of the adaptive response controlling bone mass is linearly related to the peak loads encountered; the strain-related response is preferentially sensitive to high strain rates and unresponsive to static ones; is most responsive to unusual strain distributions; is maximized by remarkably few strain cycles, and that these are most effective when interrupted by short periods of rest between them

  1. Heavy metal sorption by microalgae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandau, E.; Sandau, P.; Pulz, O.

    1996-01-01

    Viable microalgae are known to be able to accumulate heavy metals (bioaccumulation). Against a background of the increasing environmental risks caused by heavy metals, the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis and their potential for the biological removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions were taken as an example for investigation. Small-scale cultivation tests (50 l) with Cd-resistant cells of Chlorella vulgaris have shown that approx. 40% of the added 10 mg Cd/l was removed from the solution within seven days. At this heavy metal concentration sensitive cells died. Non-viable microalgae are able to eliminate heavy metal ions in a short time by biosorption in uncomplicated systems, without any toxicity problems. Compared with original biomasses, the sorption capacity of microalgal by-products changes only insignificantly. Their low price makes them economical. (orig.)

  2. Understanding the mechanism of nanotube synthesis for controlled production of specific (n,m) structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resasco, Daniel E.

    2010-02-11

    This report shows the extensive research on the mechanism responsible for the formation of single walled carbon nanotubes in order to get control over their structural parameters (diameter and chirality). Catalyst formulations, pre-treatment conditions, and reaction conditions are described in detail as well as mechanisms to produce nanotubes structures of specific arrays (vertical forest, nanotube pillars). Applications of SWNT in different fields are also described in this report. In relation to this project five students have graduated (3 PhD and 2 MS) and 35 papers have been published.

  3. Metal Sorption to Dolomite Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, P.V.; Papenguth, H.W.; Kelly, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    Potential human intrusion into the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) might release actinides into the Culebra Dolomite where sorption reactions will affect of radiotoxicity from the repository. Using a limited residence time reactor the authors have measured Ca, Mg, Nd adsorption/exchange as a function of ionic strength, P CO2 , and pH at 25 C. By the same approach, but using as input radioactive tracers, adsorption/exchange of Am, Pu, U, and Np on dolomite were measured as a function of ionic strength, P CO2 , and pH at 25 C. Metal adsorption is typically favored at high pH. Calcium and Mg adsorb in near-stoichiometric proportions except at high pH. Adsorption of Ca and Mg is diminished at high ionic strengths (e.g., 0.5M NaCl) pointing to association of Na + with the dolomite surface, and the possibility that Ca and Mg sorb as hydrated, outer-sphere complexes. Sulfate amplifies sorption of Ca and Mg, and possibly Nd as well. Exchange of Nd for surface Ca is favored at high pH, and when Ca levels are low. Exchange for Ca appears to control attachment of actinides to dolomite as well, and high levels of Ca 2+ in solution will decrease Kds. At the same time, to the extent that high P CO2 increase Ca 2+ levels, JK d s will decrease with CO 2 levels as well, but only if sorbing actinide-carbonate complexes are not observed to form (Am-carbonate complexes appear to sorb; Pu-complexes might sorb as well; U-carbonate complexation leads to desorption). This indirect CO 2 effect is observed primarily at, and above, neutral pH. High NaCl levels do not appear to affect to actinide K d s

  4. Development of JAEA sorption database (JAEA-SDB). Update of data evaluation functions and sorption/QA data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachi, Yukio; Suyama, Tadahiro; Ochs, Michael; Ganter, Charlotte

    2011-03-01

    Sorption and diffusion of radionuclides in buffer materials (bentonite) and rocks are the key processes in the safe geological disposal of radioactive waste, because migration of radionuclides in this barrier is expected to be diffusion-controlled and retarded by sorption processes. It is therefore necessary to understand the sorption and diffusion processes and develop database compiling reliable data and mechanistic/predictive models, so that reliable parameters can be set under a variety of geochemical conditions relevant to performance assessment (PA). For this purpose, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has developed databases of sorption and diffusion parameters in buffer materials (bentonite) and rocks. These sorption and diffusion databases (SDB/DDB) were firstly developed as an important basis for the H12 PA of high-level radioactive waste disposal, and have been provided through the Web. JAEA has been continuing to improve and update the SDB/DDB in view of potential future data needs, focusing on assuring the desired quality level and testing the usefulness of the databases for possible applications to PA-related parameter setting. The present report focuses on developing and updating of the sorption database (JAEA-SDB) as basis of integrated approach for PA-related K d setting. This includes an overview of database structure, contents and functions including additional data evaluation function focusing on multi-parameter dependence, operating method, PA-related applications of the web-based JAEA-SDB. K d data and their QA results are updated by focusing our recent activities on the K d setting and mechanistic model development. As a result, 4,250 K d data from 32 references are added, total K d values in the JAEA-SDB are about 28,540. The QA/classified K d data are about 39% for all K d data in JAEA-SDB. The updated JAEA-SDB is expected to make it possible to obtain quick overview of the available data, and to have suitable access to the respective data

  5. Sorption of phenanthrene and benzene on differently structural kerogen: Important role of micropore-filling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yulong; Ma, Xiaoxuan; Ran, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Shale was thermally treated to obtain a series of kerogen with varied maturation. Their chemical, structural and porous properties were related to the sorption and/or desorption behaviors of phenanthrene and benzene. As the treatment temperature increases, aliphatic and carbonyl carbon of the kerogen samples decrease, while their aromaticity and maturation increase. Meanwhile, the isothermal nonlinearity of phenanthrene and benzene increases whereas the sorption capacity and micropore adsorption volumes (V o,d ) initially increase and then decrease. The V o,d of benzene is significantly correlated with, but higher than that of phenanthrene, suggesting similar micropore filling mechanism and molecular sieve effect. The benzene desorption exhibits hysteresis, which is related to the pore deformation of the kerogen and the entrapment of solute in the kerogen matrix. The V o,d of phenanthrene and benzene on the kerogen samples accounts for 23–46% and 36–65% of the maximum sorption volumes, respectively, displaying the importance of the micropore filling. -- Highlights: • The microporosity estimated by benzene vapor differs greatly from that by N 2 . • The micropore volume changes with kerogen maturation. • The phenanthrene or benzene sorption is related to the microporosity of kerogen. • Higher adsorption volume for benzene than for phenanthrene suggests molecular sieve effect. • The pore-filling plays an important role in the sorption of phenanthrene and benzene. -- The sorption behaviors of benzene and phenanthrene are related to the microporosity of the differently matured kerogen, indicating the importance of pore-filling

  6. Effect of pH on the sorption properties of bentonite Kopernica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galambos, M.; Paucova, V.

    2009-01-01

    In this work sorption of strontium-85 on Slovak bentonites was studied. Sorption experiments that were conducted at four different values of pH = 2, 4, 6 and 8 showed that by increasing of pH in the solution an increasing of values of percentage of sorption and of distribution relationships occur. Value approaching 99% was achieved during the sorption of strontium cations from the bentonite deposits Kopernica only at pH = 8. It can be concluded that in addition to the basic mechanism of sorption, which is ion exchange, complex-forming reactions with surface groups of bentonite take place there at higher values. The increase in value attributable to R 'hydrolytic' adsorption, because there is a reaction between Sr(OH) + and OH-groups and H + ion competition is stifled. At pH = 2 in the whole studied range of concentrations low values of sorption percent, distribution ratio and adsorbed amount of strontium were observed. It can be attributed to a significant competitive impact of hydrogen ions and disruption of the structure of bentonite.

  7. Characterization of the sorption of uranium(VI) on different complexing resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesavento, Maria; Biesuz, Raffaela; Alberti, Giancarla; Sturini, Michela

    2003-01-01

    The sorption of uranium(VI) on two cationic resins containing different complexing groups, the iminodiacetic resin Chelex 100 and the weak carboxylic resin Amberlite CG-50, was investigated. The Gibbs-Donnan model was used to describe and to predict the sorption through the determination of the intrinsic complexation constants. These quantities, even though non-thermodynamic, characterize the sorption as being independent of experimental conditions. The sorption mechanism of the metal on the complexing resins was also studied by adding a competitive soluble ligand that shifts the sorption curves to higher pH values. The ligand competes with the resin for the complexation with the metal ion. Uranium is also strongly sorbed on Chelex 100 at very acid pH, through formation of two complexes in the resin phase: ML with logβ 110i =-1.16, in more acidic solution, and ML 2 with log β 120i =-5.72. Only the presence of the competitive ligand in solution makes the determination of the second complex possible. Also on Amberlite CG-50 the sorption is strong and involves the formation of the complex ML 2 , in more acidic solution, with log β 120i =-3.16. In the presence of the ligand EDTA, the complex ML 2 (OH) 2 was characterized with log β 12-2i =-5.15. In all the experiments the hydrolysis reaction in the aqueous phase was quantitatively considered. (orig.)

  8. Sorption of methylxanthines by different sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrienko, S. G.; Andreeva, E. Yu.; Tolmacheva, V. V.; Terent'eva, E. A.

    2013-05-01

    Sorption of caffeine, theophylline, theobromine, diprophylline, and pentoxyphylline on different sorbents (supercross-linked polystyrene, surface-modified copolymer of styrene and divinylbenzene Strata-X, and carbon nanomaterials Taunit and Diasorb-100-C16T) was studied in a static mode in an effort to find new sorbents suitable for sorption isolation and concentration of methylxanthines. The peculiarities of sorption of methylxanthines were explained in relation to the solution acidity, the nature of the sorbates and their concentration, the nature of the solvent, and the structural characteristics of the sorbents.

  9. Improving Student Understanding of Addition of Angular Momentum in Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guangtian; Singh, Chandralekha

    2013-01-01

    We describe the difficulties advanced undergraduate and graduate students have with concepts related to addition of angular momentum in quantum mechanics. We also describe the development and implementation of a research-based learning tool, Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorial (QuILT), to reduce these difficulties. The preliminary evaluation…

  10. Investigating and Improving Student Understanding of Quantum Mechanics in the Context of Single Photon Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshman, Emily; Singh, Chandralekha

    2017-01-01

    Single photon experiments involving a Mach-Zehnder interferometer can illustrate the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics, e.g., the wave-particle duality of a single photon, single photon interference, and the probabilistic nature of quantum measurement involving single photons. These experiments explicitly make the connection between the…

  11. Understanding the antimicrobial mechanism of TiO2-based nanocomposite films in a pathogenic bacterium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kubacka, A.; Suarez Diez, M.; Rojo, D.; Bargiela, R.; Ciordia, S.; Zapico, I.; Albar, J.P.; Barbas, C.; Martins Dos Santos, V.A.P.; Fernández-García, M.; Ferrer, M.

    2014-01-01

    Titania (TiO2)-based nanocomposites subjected to light excitation are remarkably effective in eliciting microbial death. However, the mechanism by which these materials induce microbial death and the effects that they have on microbes are poorly understood. Here, we assess the low dose

  12. Massage therapy: understanding the mechanisms of action on blood pressure. A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Nicole L

    2015-10-01

    Massage therapy (MT) has shown potential in reducing blood pressure (BP); however, the psychophysiological pathways and structures involved in this outcome are unclear. The aims of this scoping review were twofold. (1) To summarize the current knowledge of the mechanisms of action of MT on BP. (2) To highlight the research gaps and challenges that researchers must overcome to further elucidate how MT attenuates BP. A scoping review was conducted to examine the evidence regarding the mechanisms of action of MT on BP. This review included the thematic analysis of 27 publications that considered the influence of MT on BP. Based on this analysis, six potential BP mediating pathways were identified Current theories suggest that MT exerts sympatholytic effects through physiologic and psychological mechanisms, improves hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical axis function, and increases in blood flow, which, in turn, may improve endothelial function. Future study is needed, using more scientifically rigorous methodology, to fully elucidate the mechanism of action of MT. Copyright © 2015 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Mediated MIMIC Model for Understanding the Underlying Mechanism of DIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ying; Shao, Can; Lathrop, Quinn N.

    2016-01-01

    Due to its flexibility, the multiple-indicator, multiple-causes (MIMIC) model has become an increasingly popular method for the detection of differential item functioning (DIF). In this article, we propose the mediated MIMIC model method to uncover the underlying mechanism of DIF. This method extends the usual MIMIC model by including one variable…

  14. Recent advances in understanding the reinforcing ability and mechanism of carbon nanotubes in ceramic matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estili, Mehdi; Sakka, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), commonly referred to as ultimate reinforcement, the main purpose for fabricating CNT–ceramic matrix composites has been mainly to improve the fracture toughness and strength of the ceramic matrix materials. However, there have been many studies reporting marginal improvements or even the degradation of mechanical properties. On the other hand, those studies claiming noticeable toughening measured using indentation, which is an indirect/unreliable characterization method, have not demonstrated the responsible mechanisms applicable to the nanoscale, flexible CNTs; instead, those studies proposed those classical methods applicable to microscale fiber/whisker reinforced ceramics without showing any convincing evidence of load transfer to the CNTs. Therefore, the ability of CNTs to directly improve the macroscopic mechanical properties of structural ceramics has been strongly questioned and debated in the last ten years. In order to properly discuss the reinforcing ability (and possible mechanisms) of CNTs in a ceramic host material, there are three fundamental questions to our knowledge at both the nanoscale and macroscale levels that need to be addressed: (1) does the intrinsic load-bearing ability of CNTs change when embedded in a ceramic host matrix?; (2) when there is an intimate atomic-level interface without any chemical reaction with the matrix, could one expect any load transfer to the CNTs along with effective load bearing by them during crack propagation?; and (3) considering their nanometer-scale dimensions, flexibility and radial softness, are the CNTs able to improve the mechanical properties of the host ceramic matrix at the macroscale when individually, intimately and uniformly dispersed? If so, how? Also, what is the effect of CNT concentration in such a defect-free composite system? Here, we briefly review the recent studies addressing the above fundamental questions. In particular, we discuss the new

  15. Recent advances in understanding the reinforcing ability and mechanism of carbon nanotubes in ceramic matrix composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estili, Mehdi; Sakka, Yoshio

    2014-12-01

    Since the discovery of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), commonly referred to as ultimate reinforcement, the main purpose for fabricating CNT-ceramic matrix composites has been mainly to improve the fracture toughness and strength of the ceramic matrix materials. However, there have been many studies reporting marginal improvements or even the degradation of mechanical properties. On the other hand, those studies claiming noticeable toughening measured using indentation, which is an indirect/unreliable characterization method, have not demonstrated the responsible mechanisms applicable to the nanoscale, flexible CNTs; instead, those studies proposed those classical methods applicable to microscale fiber/whisker reinforced ceramics without showing any convincing evidence of load transfer to the CNTs. Therefore, the ability of CNTs to directly improve the macroscopic mechanical properties of structural ceramics has been strongly questioned and debated in the last ten years. In order to properly discuss the reinforcing ability (and possible mechanisms) of CNTs in a ceramic host material, there are three fundamental questions to our knowledge at both the nanoscale and macroscale levels that need to be addressed: (1) does the intrinsic load-bearing ability of CNTs change when embedded in a ceramic host matrix?; (2) when there is an intimate atomic-level interface without any chemical reaction with the matrix, could one expect any load transfer to the CNTs along with effective load bearing by them during crack propagation?; and (3) considering their nanometer-scale dimensions, flexibility and radial softness, are the CNTs able to improve the mechanical properties of the host ceramic matrix at the macroscale when individually, intimately and uniformly dispersed? If so, how? Also, what is the effect of CNT concentration in such a defect-free composite system? Here, we briefly review the recent studies addressing the above fundamental questions. In particular, we discuss the new

  16. Recent advances in understanding the reinforcing ability and mechanism of carbon nanotubes in ceramic matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estili, Mehdi; Sakka, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), commonly referred to as ultimate reinforcement, the main purpose for fabricating CNT–ceramic matrix composites has been mainly to improve the fracture toughness and strength of the ceramic matrix materials. However, there have been many studies reporting marginal improvements or even the degradation of mechanical properties. On the other hand, those studies claiming noticeable toughening measured using indentation, which is an indirect/unreliable characterization method, have not demonstrated the responsible mechanisms applicable to the nanoscale, flexible CNTs; instead, those studies proposed those classical methods applicable to microscale fiber/whisker reinforced ceramics without showing any convincing evidence of load transfer to the CNTs. Therefore, the ability of CNTs to directly improve the macroscopic mechanical properties of structural ceramics has been strongly questioned and debated in the last ten years. In order to properly discuss the reinforcing ability (and possible mechanisms) of CNTs in a ceramic host material, there are three fundamental questions to our knowledge at both the nanoscale and macroscale levels that need to be addressed: (1) does the intrinsic load-bearing ability of CNTs change when embedded in a ceramic host matrix?; (2) when there is an intimate atomic-level interface without any chemical reaction with the matrix, could one expect any load transfer to the CNTs along with effective load bearing by them during crack propagation?; and (3) considering their nanometer-scale dimensions, flexibility and radial softness, are the CNTs able to improve the mechanical properties of the host ceramic matrix at the macroscale when individually, intimately and uniformly dispersed? If so, how? Also, what is the effect of CNT concentration in such a defect-free composite system? Here, we briefly review the recent studies addressing the above fundamental questions. In particular, we discuss the new

  17. Understanding NOx SCR Mechanism and Activity on Cu/Chabazite Structures throughout the Catalyst Life Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Fabio; Delgass, Nick; Gounder, Rajmani; Schneider, William F.; Miller, Jeff; Yezerets, Aleksey; McEwen, Jean-Sabin; Peden, Charles HF; Howden, Ken

    2014-12-09

    Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) compounds contribute to acid rain and photochemical smog and have been linked to respiratory ailments. NOx emissions regulations continue to tighten, driving the need for high performance, robust control strategies. The goal of this project is to develop a deep, molecular level understanding of the function of Cu-SSZ-13 and Cu-SAPO-34 materials that catalyze the SCR of NOx with NH3.

  18. Detection of tritium sorption on four soil materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng Yanguo; Zuo Rui; Wang Jinsheng; Hu Qinhong; Sun Zongjian; Zeng Ni

    2011-01-01

    In order to measure groundwater age and design nuclear waste disposal sites, it is important to understand the sorption behavior of tritium on soils. In this study, batch tests were carried out using four soils from China: silty clays from An County and Jiangyou County in Sichuan Province, both of which could be considered candidate sites for Very Low Level Waste disposal; silty sand from Beijing; and loess from Yuci County in Shanxi Province, a typical Chinese loess region. The experimental results indicated that in these soil media, the distribution coefficient of tritium is slightly influenced by adsorption time, water/solid ratio, initial tritium specific activity, pH, and the content of humic and fulvic acids. The average distribution coefficient from all of these influencing factors was about 0.1-0.2 mL/g for the four types of soil samples. This relatively modest sorption of tritium in soils needs to be considered in fate and transport studies of tritium in the environment. - Research highlights: → In this study, batch sorption tests validate the adsorption of tritium on all of the four tested soil samples collected in China, and the distribution coefficient is found to be non-zero and less than 0.4 mL/g. The experimental results indicated that in these soil media, the distribution coefficient of tritium is slightly influenced by adsorption time, water/solid ratio, initial tritium specific activity, pH, and the content of humic and fulvic acids. This relatively modest sorption of tritium in soils needs to be considered in fate and transport studies of tritium in the environment.

  19. Enriched fluoride sorption using alumina/chitosan composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, Natrayasamy, E-mail: natrayasamy_viswanathan@rediffmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Anna University Tiruchirappalli - Dindigul Campus, Dindigul 624 622, Tamil Nadu (India); Meenakshi, S., E-mail: drs_meena@rediffmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Gandhigram Rural University, Gandhigram 624 302, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2010-06-15

    Alumina possesses an appreciable defluoridation capacity (DC) of 1566 mg F{sup -}/kg. In order to improve its DC, it is aimed to prepare alumina polymeric composites using the chitosan. Alumina/chitosan (AlCs) composite was prepared by incorporating alumina particles in the chitosan polymeric matrix, which can be made into any desired form viz., beads, candles and membranes. AlCs composite displayed a maximum DC of 3809 mg F{sup -}/kg than the alumina and chitosan (52 mg F{sup -}/kg). The fluoride removal studies were carried out in batch mode to optimize the equilibrium parameters viz., contact time, pH, co-anions and temperature. The equilibrium data was fitted with Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms to find the best fit for the sorption process. The calculated values of thermodynamic parameters indicate the nature of sorption. The surface characterisation of the sorbent was performed by FTIR, AFM and SEM with EDAX analysis. A possible mechanism of fluoride sorption by AlCs composite has been proposed. Suitability of AlCs composite at field conditions was tested with a field sample taken from a nearby fluoride-endemic village. This work provides a potential platform for the development of defluoridation technology.

  20. New Insight in Understanding the mechanical responses of polymer glasses using molecular dynamic simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yexin; Wang, Shi-Qing; Tsige, Mesfin

    The Kremer-Grest bead-spring model has been the standard model in molecular dynamics simulation of polymer glasses. However, due to current computational limitations in accessing relevant time scales in polymer glasses in a reasonable amount of CPU time, simulation of mechanical response of polymer glasses in molecular dynamic simulations requires a much higher quenching rate and deformation rate than used in experiments. Despite several orders of magnitude difference in time scale between simulation and experiment, previous studies have shown that simulations can produce meaningful results that can be directly compared with experimental results. In this work we show that by tuning the quenching rate and deformation rate relative to the segmental relaxation times, a reasonable mechanical response shows up in the glassy state. Specifically, we show a younger glass prepared with a faster quenching rate shows glassy responses only when the imposed deformation rate is proportionally higher. the National Science Foundation (DMR-1444859 and DMR-1609977).

  1. An investigation and understanding of the mechanical response of Palmyrah timber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobier, Hatim; Menzemer, C.C.; Srivatsan, T.S.

    2003-01-01

    The Palmyrah tree flourishes in tropical areas around South East Asia, and particularly in Sri Lanka. Palmyrah is an important economic resource for the region, and has found use in structural applications for both residential dwellings and commercial buildings. While there is a great deal of local field experience with Palmyrah, the mechanical properties have not been well characterized or understood. In an effort to assist engineers with the design and efficient use of the timber, a study was undertaken to evaluate the mechanical response of Palmyrah and develop estimates of design allowable properties. Properties evaluated include static bending strength, modulus, compression parallel and perpendicular to the grain, shear parallel to the grain and tensile strength parallel and perpendicular to the grain. In order to gain insight into the behavior of the wood, samples were examined using standard optical microscopy techniques. In addition, available fracture surfaces were examined using scanning electron microscopy

  2. [Use of laws of interelement interactions for understanding of mechanisms of various human diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barashkov, G K; Zaĭtseva, L I

    2008-01-01

    The review considers the basic laws of interaction of elements in real physiological conditions of metabolism. The law of replacement and two it consequences have been formulated taking into account a major principle of cybernetics, the feedback principle. A rule of a fractional threshold and the law of toxicity based on the Mertz's rules have been formulated. These laws have been used here for consideration of mechanisms of occurrence and development of apoptosis and also side-effects of statins. Study of bioinorganic mechanisms of different diseases is a erspective way for search of complex connections of metals and ligands, capable to interaction with initiators of chain reactions, and for a finding of substances--inhibitors these reactions.

  3. Understanding of mechanical properties of graphite on the basis of mesoscopic microstructure (review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, M.; Shibata, T.; Takahashi, T.; Baba, S.; Hoshiya, T.

    2002-01-01

    With the aim of nuclear application of ceramics in the high-temperature engineering field, the authors have investigated the mesoscopic microstructure related to the mechanical and thermal properties of ceramics. In this paper, recent activities concerning mechanical properties, strength and Young's modulus are presented. In the strength research field, the brittle fracture model considering pore/grain mesoscopic microstructure was expanded so as to render possible an estimation of the strength under stress gradient conditions. Furthermore, the model was expanded to treat the pore/crack interaction effect. The performance of the developed model was investigated from a comparison with experimental data and the Weibull strength theory. In the field of Young's modulus research, ultrasonic wave propagation was investigated using the pore/wave interaction model. Three kinds of interaction modes are treated in the model. The model was applied to the graphite, and its applicability was investigated through comparison with experimental data. (authors)

  4. Progress in understanding the mechanical behavior of pressure-vessel materials at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindeman, R.W.; Brinkman, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    Progress during the 1970's on the production of high-temperature mechanical properties data for pressure vessel materials was reviewed. The direction of the research was toward satisfying new data requirements to implement advances in high-temperature inelastic design methods. To meet these needs, servo-controlled testing machines and high-resolution extensometry were developed to gain more information on the essential behavioral features of high-temperature alloys. The similarities and differences in the mechanical response of various pressure vessel materials were identified. High-temperature pressure vessel materials that have received the most attention included Type 304 stainless steel, Type 316 stainless steel, 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel, alloy 800H, and Hastelloy X

  5. A numerical toolkit to understand the mechanics of partially saturated granular materials

    OpenAIRE

    Roux , Jean-Noël

    2015-01-01

    ``Focus on Fluids'' section; International audience; The mechanisms by which a wetting, non-saturating liquid bestows macroscopic cohesion and strength to a granular material are usually not accessible to micromechanical investigations for saturations exceeding the pendular regime of isolated menisci, easily studied by discrete element models. The " JFM-Rapids " paper (vol. 762, R5, 2015) by Delenne, Richefeu and Radja¨ıRadja¨ı, exploiting a multiphase Lattice Boltzmann approach, pioneers the...

  6. Understanding Freshness Perception from the Cognitive Mechanisms of Flavor: The Case of Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Jérémy; Auvray, Malika; Lafraire, Jérémie

    2018-01-01

    Freshness perception has received recent consideration in the field of consumer science mainly because of its hedonic dimension, which is assumed to influence consumers’ preference and behavior. However, most studies have considered freshness as a multisensory attribute of food and beverage products without investigating the cognitive mechanisms at hand. In the present review, we endorse a slightly different perspective on freshness. We focus on (i) the multisensory integration processes that underpin freshness perception, and (ii) the top–down factors that influence the explicit attribution of freshness to a product by consumers. To do so, we exploit the recent literature on the cognitive underpinnings of flavor perception as a heuristic to better characterize the mechanisms of freshness perception in the particular case of beverages. We argue that the lack of consideration of particular instances of flavor, such as freshness, has resulted in a lack of consensus about the content and structure of different types of flavor representations. We then enrich these theoretical analyses, with a review of the cognitive mechanisms of flavor perception: from multisensory integration processes to the influence of top–down factors (e.g., attentional and semantic). We conclude that similarly to flavor, freshness perception is characterized by hybrid content, both perceptual and semantic, but that freshness has a higher-degree of specificity than flavor. In particular, contrary to flavor, freshness is characterized by specific functions (e.g., alleviation of oropharyngeal symptoms) and likely differs from flavor with respect to the weighting of each sensory contributor, as well as to its subjective location. Finally, we provide a comprehensive model of the cognitive mechanisms that underlie freshness perception. This model paves the way for further empirical research on particular instances of flavor, and will enable advances in the field of food and beverage cognition

  7. Understanding the Personality and Behavioral Mechanisms Defining Hypersexuality in Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Michael H; Romine, Rebecca Swinburne; Raymond, Nancy; Janssen, Erick; MacDonald, Angus; Coleman, Eli

    2016-09-01

    Hypersexuality has been conceptualized as sexual addiction, compulsivity, and impulsivity, among others, in the absence of strong empirical data in support of any specific conceptualization. To investigate personality factors and behavioral mechanisms that are relevant to hypersexuality in men who have sex with men. A sample of 242 men who have sex with men was recruited from various sites in a moderate-size mid-western city. Participants were assigned to a hypersexuality group or a control group using an interview similar to the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Self-report inventories were administered that measured the broad personality constructs of positive emotionality, negative emotionality, and constraint and more narrow constructs related to sexual behavioral control, behavioral activation, behavioral inhibition, sexual excitation, sexual inhibition, impulsivity, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and sexual behavior. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to determine the relation between these personality and behavioral variables and group membership. A hierarchical logistic regression controlling for age showed a significant positive relation between hypersexuality and negative emotionality and a negative relation with constraint. None of the behavioral mechanism variables entered this equation. However, a hierarchical multiple regression analysis predicting sexual behavioral control indicated that lack of such control was positively related to sexual excitation and sexual inhibition owing to the threat of performance failure and negatively related to sexual inhibition owing to the threat of performance consequences and general behavioral inhibition Hypersexuality was found to be related to two broad personality factors that are characterized by emotional reactivity, risk taking, and impulsivity. The associated lack of sexual behavior control is influenced by sexual

  8. Stress Biology and Aging Mechanisms: Toward Understanding the Deep Connection Between Adaptation to Stress and Longevity

    OpenAIRE

    Epel, Elissa S.; Lithgow, Gordon J.

    2014-01-01

    The rate of biological aging is modulated in part by genes interacting with stressor exposures. Basic research has shown that exposure to short-term stress can strengthen cellular responses to stress (“hormetic stress”). Hormetic stress promotes longevity in part through enhanced activity of molecular chaperones and other defense mechanisms. In contrast, prolonged exposure to stress can overwhelm compensatory responses (“toxic stress”) and shorten lifespan. One key question is whether the str...

  9. Understanding Freshness Perception from the Cognitive Mechanisms of Flavor: The Case of Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémy Roque

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Freshness perception has received recent consideration in the field of consumer science mainly because of its hedonic dimension, which is assumed to influence consumers’ preference and behavior. However, most studies have considered freshness as a multisensory attribute of food and beverage products without investigating the cognitive mechanisms at hand. In the present review, we endorse a slightly different perspective on freshness. We focus on (i the multisensory integration processes that underpin freshness perception, and (ii the top–down factors that influence the explicit attribution of freshness to a product by consumers. To do so, we exploit the recent literature on the cognitive underpinnings of flavor perception as a heuristic to better characterize the mechanisms of freshness perception in the particular case of beverages. We argue that the lack of consideration of particular instances of flavor, such as freshness, has resulted in a lack of consensus about the content and structure of different types of flavor representations. We then enrich these theoretical analyses, with a review of the cognitive mechanisms of flavor perception: from multisensory integration processes to the influence of top–down factors (e.g., attentional and semantic. We conclude that similarly to flavor, freshness perception is characterized by hybrid content, both perceptual and semantic, but that freshness has a higher-degree of specificity than flavor. In particular, contrary to flavor, freshness is characterized by specific functions (e.g., alleviation of oropharyngeal symptoms and likely differs from flavor with respect to the weighting of each sensory contributor, as well as to its subjective location. Finally, we provide a comprehensive model of the cognitive mechanisms that underlie freshness perception. This model paves the way for further empirical research on particular instances of flavor, and will enable advances in the field of food and

  10. Investigating and improving student understanding of quantum mechanical observables and their corresponding operators in Dirac notation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshman, Emily; Singh, Chandralekha

    2018-01-01

    In quantum mechanics, for every physical observable, there is a corresponding Hermitian operator. According to the most common interpretation of quantum mechanics, measurement of an observable collapses the quantum state into one of the possible eigenstates of the operator and the corresponding eigenvalue is measured. Since Dirac notation is an elegant notation that is commonly used in upper-level quantum mechanics, it is important that students learn to express quantum operators corresponding to observables in Dirac notation in order to apply the quantum formalism effectively in diverse situations. Here we focus on an investigation that suggests that, even though Dirac notation is used extensively, many advanced undergraduate and PhD students in physics have difficulty expressing the identity operator and other Hermitian operators corresponding to physical observables in Dirac notation. We first describe the difficulties students have with expressing the identity operator and a generic Hermitian operator corresponding to an observable in Dirac notation. We then discuss how the difficulties found via written surveys and individual interviews were used as a guide in the development of a quantum interactive learning tutorial (QuILT) to help students develop a good grasp of these concepts. The QuILT strives to help students become proficient in expressing the identity operator and a generic Hermitian operator corresponding to an observable in Dirac notation. We also discuss the effectiveness of the QuILT based on in-class evaluations.

  11. Theoretical study of chromophores for biological sensing: Understanding the mechanism of rhodol based multi-chromophoric systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Jacquez, Hector J.; Masunov, Artëm E.

    2018-06-01

    Development of two-photon fluorescent probes can aid in visualizing the cellular environment. Multi-chromophore systems display complex manifolds of electronic transitions, enabling their use for optical sensing applications. Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT) methods allow for accurate predictions of the optical properties. These properties are related to the electronic transitions in the molecules, which include two-photon absorption cross-sections. Here we use TDDFT to understand the mechanism of aza-crown based fluorescent probes for metals sensing applications. Our findings suggest changes in local excitation in the rhodol chromophore between unbound form and when bound to the metal analyte. These changes are caused by a charge transfer from the aza-crown group and pyrazol units toward the rhodol unit. Understanding this mechanism leads to an optimized design with higher two-photon excited fluorescence to be used in medical applications.

  12. Experimental methodology to study radionuclide sorption and migration in geological formations and engineered barriers of waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo Sanz, H.

    2010-01-01

    In Spain, the waste management options include either the possibility of a final storage in a deep geological repository (DGR) or the centralized temporal surface disposal (CTS). DGRs are based in a multi-barrier concept with the geological barrier and including the vitrified waste, the metal containers and engineered barriers such as compacted bentonite and cement-based materials. On the other hand, CTS mainly considers concrete and cement to confine the metal canisters containing the waste. Radionuclide migration will mainly take place by the existence of chemical concentration gradients being thus diffusion the main transport mechanism or by the existence of hydraulic gradients due to the existence of water-conductive fractures. Radionuclide sorption/retention on the materials composing the natural and engineered barriers is the fundamental process controlling contaminant migration. The evaluation of sorption parameters and the understanding of the different mechanisms leading to radionuclide retention are very important issues. The study of diffusion processes is very relevant as well. This paper describes the main experimental methodologies applied to analyse radionuclide transport in the different barriers of radioactive repositories. Particularly we focused on obtaining of retention parameters as distribution coefficients, kd, or retardation factors, Rf, and diffusion coefficients of radionuclides. (Author) 6 refs.

  13. Cs sorption to potential host rock of low-level radioactive waste repository in Taiwan: experiments and numerical fitting study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tsing-Hai; Chen, Chin-Lung; Ou, Lu-Yen; Wei, Yuan-Yaw; Chang, Fu-Lin; Teng, Shi-Ping

    2011-09-15

    A reliable performance assessment of radioactive waste repository depends on better knowledge of interactions between nuclides and geological substances. Numerical fitting of acquired experimental results by the surface complexation model enables us to interpret sorption behavior at molecular scale and thus to build a solid basis for simulation study. A lack of consensus on a standard set of assessment criteria (such as determination of sorption site concentration, reaction formula) during numerical fitting, on the other hand, makes lower case comparison between various studies difficult. In this study we explored the sorption of cesium to argillite by conducting experiments under different pH and solid/liquid ratio (s/l) with two specific initial Cs concentrations (100mg/L, 7.5 × 10(-4)mol/L and 0.01 mg/L, 7.5 × 10(-8)mol/L). After this, numerical fitting was performed, focusing on assessment criteria and their consequences. It was found that both ion exchange and electrostatic interactions governed Cs sorption on argillite. At higher initial Cs concentration the Cs sorption showed an increasing dependence on pH as the solid/liquid ratio was lowered. In contrast at trace Cs levels, the Cs sorption was neither s/l dependent nor pH sensitive. It is therefore proposed that ion exchange mechanism dominates Cs sorption when the concentration of surface sorption site exceeds that of Cs, whereas surface complexation is attributed to Cs uptake under alkaline environments. Numerical fitting was conducted using two different strategies to determine concentration of surface sorption sites: the clay model (based on the cation exchange capacity plus surface titration results) and the iron oxide model (where the concentration of sorption sites is proportional to the surface area of argillite). It was found that the clay model led to better fitting than the iron oxide model, which is attributed to more amenable sorption sites (two specific sorption sites along with larger site

  14. Carbon dioxide sorption on EDTA modified halloysite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waszczuk Patrycja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the sorption study of CO2 on EDTA surface modified halloysite was conducted. In the paper chemical modification of halloysite from the Dunino deposit (Poland and its influence on sorption of CO2 are presented. A halloysite samples were washed with water-EDTA 1% solution, centrifuged to separate liquid and impurities and dried. The samples were tested for the sorption capacity using a manometric method with pressure up to 3 MPa. A Langmuir adsorption model was fitted to the data. The results showed that EDTA had a limited effect on the increase of sorption potential at low pressure and the samples exhibited similar results to that ones treated solely with the water solution.

  15. Sorption of metaldehyde using granular activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Salvestrini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the ability of granular activated carbon (GAC to sorb metaldehyde was evaluated. The kinetic data could be described by an intra-particle diffusion model, which indicated that the porosity of the sorbent strongly influenced the rate of sorption. The analysis of the equilibrium sorption data revealed that ionic strength and temperature did not play any significant role in the metaldehyde uptake. The sorption isotherms were successfully predicted by the Freundlich model. The GAC used in this paper exhibited a higher affinity and sorption capacity for metaldehyde with respect to other GACs studied in previous works, probably as a result of its higher specific surface area and high point of zero charge.

  16. Study of sorption of technetium on pyrrhotine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Dong; Fan Xianhua; Su Xiguang; Zeng Jishu

    2001-01-01

    The sorption behaviors of technetium on pyrrhotine are studied with batch experiment and dilute sulfuric acid is used to dissolve the technetium adsorbed on pyrrhotine. Sorption and desorption experiment are performed under aerobic and anaerobic conditions (inert gas box). The results show that a significant sorption of technetium on pyrrhotine is found under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and the sorption on the mineral is supposed to be due to the reduction of TcO 4 - to insoluble TcO 2 ·nH 2 O. Desorption process of the sorbed technetium into dilute sulfuric acid is found to be different under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. On addition of H 2 O 2 to the leach solution a sudden increase of the technetium concentration is observed

  17. Radionuclide sorption on granitic drill core material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, T.E.; Locklund, B.

    1987-11-01

    Distribution ratios were determined for Sr-85, Cs-134 and Eu-152 on crushed granite and fissure coating/filling material from Stripa mines. Measurements were also carried out on intact fissure surfaces. The experimental data for Sr-85, Cs-134 on crushed material can be accomodated by a sorption model based on the assumption that the crushed material consists of porous spheres with outer and inner surfaces available for sorption. In the case of Eu-152 only sorption on the outer surfaces of the crushed material was observed. The absence of sorption on inner surfaces is most probably due to high depletion of the more strongly sorbed Eu-152 in the water phase and very low diffusivity of Eu-152 in the sorbed state. (orig./HP)

  18. The effects of students' reasoning abilities on conceptual understandings and problem-solving skills in introductory mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ates, S; Cataloglu, E

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there are relationships among freshmen/first year students' reasoning abilities, conceptual understandings and problem-solving skills in introductory mechanics. The sample consisted of 165 freshmen science education prospective teachers (female = 86, male = 79; age range 17-21) who were enrolled in an introductory physics course. Data collection was done during the fall semesters in two successive years. At the beginning of each semester, the force concept inventory (FCI) and the classroom test of scientific reasoning (CTSR) were administered to assess students' initial understanding of basic concepts in mechanics and reasoning levels. After completing the course, the FCI and the mechanics baseline test (MBT) were administered. The results indicated that there was a significant difference in problem-solving skill test mean scores, as measured by the MBT, among concrete, formal and postformal reasoners. There were no significant differences in conceptual understanding levels of pre- and post-test mean scores, as measured by FCI, among the groups. The Benferroni post hoc comparison test revealed which set of reasoning levels showed significant difference for the MBT scores. No statistical difference between formal and postformal reasoners' mean scores was observed, while the mean scores between concrete and formal reasoners and concrete and postformal reasoners were statistically significantly different

  19. Understanding mobility degeneration mechanism in organic thin-film transistors (OTFT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Long; Xu, Guangwei; Gao, Nan; Wang, Lingfei; Ji, Zhuoyu; Lu, Congyan; Lu, Nianduan; Li, Ling; Liu, Miwng

    2017-08-01

    Mobility degradation at high gate bias is often observed in organic thin film transistors. We propose a mechanism for this confusing phenomenon, based on the percolation theory with the presence of disordered energy landscape with an exponential density of states. Within a simple model we show how the surface states at insulator/organic interface trap a portion of channel carriers, and result in decrease of mobility as well as source/drain current with gate voltage. Depending on the competition between the carrier accumulation and surface trapping effect, two different carrier density dependences of mobility are obtained, in excellent agreement with experiment data.

  20. Understanding organometallic reaction mechanisms and catalysis experimental and computational tools computational and experimental tools

    CERN Document Server

    Ananikov, Valentin P

    2014-01-01

    Exploring and highlighting the new horizons in the studies of reaction mechanisms that open joint application of experimental studies and theoretical calculations is the goal of this book. The latest insights and developments in the mechanistic studies of organometallic reactions and catalytic processes are presented and reviewed. The book adopts a unique approach, exemplifying how to use experiments, spectroscopy measurements, and computational methods to reveal reaction pathways and molecular structures of catalysts, rather than concentrating solely on one discipline. The result is a deeper

  1. Understanding flocculation mechanism of graphene oxide for organic dyes from water: Experimental and molecular dynamics simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Flocculation treatment processes play an important role in water and wastewater pretreatment. Here we investigate experimentally and theoretically the possibility of using graphene oxide (GO as a flocculant to remove methylene blue (MB from water. Experimental results show that GO can remove almost all MB from aqueous solutions at its optimal dosages and molecular dynamics simulations indicate that MB cations quickly congregate around GO in water. Furthermore, PIXEL energy contribution analysis reveals that most of the strong interactions between GO and MB are of a van der Waals (London dispersion character. These results offer new insights for shedding light on the molecular mechanism of interaction between GO and organic pollutants.

  2. Understanding the Mechanical forces of Self-Expandable Metal Stents in the Biliary Ducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isayama, Hiroyuki; Nakai, Yousuke; Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Matsubara, Saburo; Kogure, Hirofumi; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2016-12-01

    Self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) was an effective biliary endoprosthesis. Mechanical properties of SEMS, radial and axial force (RF, AF), may play important roles in the bile duct after placement. RF was well known dilation force and influenced on the occurrence of migration. AF, newly proposed by this author, was defined as the recovery force when the SEMS vended. AF was related with the cause of bile duct kinking, pancreatitis, and cholecystitis due to the compression of the bile duct, orifice of the cystic duct, and pancreatic orifice. Ideal SEMS may show high RF and low AF.

  3. Sorption of heteropoly acids by polyurethane foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitreinko, S.G.; Goncharova, L.V.; Runov, V.K.; Zakharov, V.N.; Aslanova, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    Sorption of oxidized and reduced forms of molybdosilicic, molybdophosphoric and molybdovanadophosphoric acids by polyurethane foam based on ethers and esters is studied. On the basis of sorption dependence on solution pH, polyurethane foam type and spectral characteristics of sorbates the suggestion has been made that in the polyurethane foam phase there are two main types of sorbent-sorbate interaction: electrostatic (ion-ion) and with hydrogen bond formation: and it is impossible to determine the contribution of every interaction

  4. Sorption of cesium and uranium to Feldspar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijland, G.C.; Pennders, R.M.J.

    1990-07-01

    Within safety assessment studies, for nuclear waste disposal in deep geologic formations, calculation for the migration of radionuclides through the geosphere are often carried out with models taking sorption into account. In the past 8 years the insight grew that other physico-chemical processes, besides sorption, could affect migration behaviour. While the currently used transport models were being improved taking either linear or non-linear sorption into account, the coupling of geochemical and transport models came into scope. In spite of these developments models which are still based on the sorption theory are frequently applied in studying migration behaviour of radionuclides. This is caused by the necessity of making preliminary pronouncements, while coupled models are still in stage of development and thermodynamic data are very limited available. Therefore one has to obtain insight in the reliability of the models based on the sorption theory. within the sorption database there is a lack of knowledge about mineralogy, composition of the fluid and the experimental conditions underlying the data. Therefore the Expert Group on geochemical Modelling supported by the Finnish proposal in order to obtain insight in the possible deviation of the sorption coefficients that can be estimated from experiments performed with standard samples, fluid composition and experimental conditions. Nine laboratories from OECD membership countries took part in this intercalibration study. In the framework of the Dutch safety assessment studies the Dutch National Institute of Public health and Environmental protection (RIVM) has decided to participate in this exercise. In this report the results are presented of sorption experiments for cesium and natural Uranium to Feldspar. (H.W.). 4 refs.; 1 fig.; 7 tabs

  5. Sorption of fomesafen in Brazilian soils

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,G.R.; D'Antonino,L.; Faustino,L.A.; Silva,A.A.; Ferreira,F.A.; Texeira,C.C.

    2013-01-01

    The study of the dynamics of a herbicide in the soil focus on the interactions with environmental components to obtain agronomic efficiency, ensuring selectivity to the culture and risk reduction of environmental impact. This study evaluated the sorption process of fomesafen in the Brazilian soils Ultisol, Cambisol, and Organosol. Besides soil, washed sand was used as an inert material for determination of the sorption ratio of fomesafen in the soil. The bioassay method was applied, using Sor...

  6. Kinetics of strontium sorption in calcium phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacic, S.; Komarov, V.F.; Vukovic, Z.

    1989-01-01

    Kinetics of strontium sorption by highly dispersed solids: tricalcium phosphate (Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 , TCP) and hydroxyapatite (Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 )H, HAP) were investigated. Analysis of sorption data was made taking into consideration composition and morphology of ultra micro particles. Conclusion is that the isomorphous strontium impurity is structurally sensitive element for calcium phosphate. It was determined that the beginning of strontium desorption corresponds to the beginning of transformation of the TCP - HAP (author)

  7. Sorption and Transport of Sildenafil in Natural Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudinot, F. G.; Vulava, V. M.

    2013-12-01

    glass chromatography columns, homogenously packed with soil, saturated with 5 mM CaCl2 solution, and injected with 100 mg/L sildenafil. The effluent solution concentrations were plotted as a function of time to plot breakthrough curves. Sildenafil was significantly retarded in clay-rich soil column experiments confirming trends observed in sorption experiments. Overall data indicate very strong sorption of sildenafil to both organic- rich and clay-rich soils, but stronger sorption to clay-rich soils. Strong soil sorption acts as a filter for water, leaving the PC behind in the soils. These results suggest that little sildenafil will reside in groundwater once exposed to natural soils. Further research is needed to better understand how sildenafil's metabolites respond in ecosystems. Given the high metabolic rate and long shelf life of sildenafil, these metabolites may be more prevalent in natural soils.

  8. Understanding of carbon-based supercapacitors ageing mechanisms by electrochemical and analytical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yinghui; Soucaze-Guillous, Benoît; Taberna, Pierre-Louis; Simon, Patrice

    2017-10-01

    In order to shed light on ageing mechanisms of Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitor (EDLC), two kinds of activated carbons are studied in tetraethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate (Et4NBF4) in acetonitrile. In floating mode, it turns out that two different ageing mechanisms are observed, depending on the activated carbon electrode materials used. On one hand, carbon A exhibits a continuous capacitance and series resistance fall-off; on the other hand, for carbon B, only the series resistance degrades after ageing while the capacitance keeps unchanged. Additional electrochemical characterizations (Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy - EIS - and diffusion coefficient calculations) were carried out showing that carbon A's ageing behavior is suspected to be primarily related to the carbon degradation while for carbon B a passivation occurs leading to the formation of a Solid Electrolyte Interphase-Like (SEI-L) film. These hypotheses are supported by TG-IR and Raman spectroscopy analysis. The outcome forms the latter is an increase of carbon defects on carbon A on positive electrode.

  9. Understanding the Cognitive and Affective Mechanisms that Underlie Proxy Risk Perceptions among Caregivers of Asthmatic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepperd, James A; Lipsey, Nikolette P; Pachur, Thorsten; Waters, Erika A

    2018-07-01

    Medical decisions made on behalf of another person-particularly those made by adult caregivers for their minor children-are often informed by the decision maker's beliefs about the treatment's risks and benefits. However, we know little about the cognitive and affective mechanisms influencing such "proxy" risk perceptions and about how proxy risk perceptions are related to prominent judgment phenomena. Adult caregivers of minor children with asthma ( N = 132) completed an online, cross-sectional survey assessing 1) cognitions and affects that form the basis of the availability, representativeness, and affect heuristics; 2) endorsement of the absent-exempt and the better-than-average effect; and 3) proxy perceived risk and unrealistic comparative optimism of an asthma exacerbation. We used the Pediatric Asthma Control and Communication Instrument (PACCI) to assess asthma severity. Respondents with higher scores on availability, representativeness, and negative affect indicated higher proxy risk perceptions and (for representativeness only) lower unrealistic optimism, irrespective of asthma severity. Conversely, respondents who showed a stronger display of the better-than-average effect indicated lower proxy risk perceptions but did not differ in unrealistic optimism. The absent-exempt effect was unrelated to proxy risk perceptions and unrealistic optimism. Heuristic judgment processes appear to contribute to caregivers' proxy risk perceptions of their child's asthma exacerbation risk. Moreover, the display of other, possibly erroneous, judgment phenomena is associated with lower caregiver risk perceptions. Designing interventions that target these mechanisms may help caregivers work with their children to reduce exacerbation risk.

  10. A Multiscale Understanding of the Thermodynamic and Kinetic Mechanisms of Laser Additive Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Gu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Selective laser melting (SLM additive manufacturing (AM technology has become an important option for the precise manufacturing of complex-shaped metallic parts with high performance. The SLM AM process involves complicated physicochemical phenomena, thermodynamic behavior, and phase transformation as a high-energy laser beam melts loose powder particles. This paper provides multiscale modeling and coordinated control for the SLM of metallic materials including an aluminum (Al-based alloy (AlSi10Mg, a nickel (Ni-based super-alloy (Inconel 718, and ceramic particle-reinforced Al-based and Ni-based composites. The migration and distribution mechanisms of aluminium nitride (AlN particles in SLM-processed Al-based nanocomposites and the in situ formation of a gradient interface between the reinforcement and the matrix in SLM-processed tungsten carbide (WC/Inconel 718 composites were studied in the microscale. The laser absorption and melting/densification behaviors of AlSi10Mg and Inconel 718 alloy powder were disclosed in the mesoscale. Finally, the stress development during line-by-line localized laser scanning and the parameter-dependent control methods for the deformation of SLM-processed composites were proposed in the macroscale. Multiscale numerical simulation and experimental verification methods are beneficial in monitoring the complicated powder-laser interaction, heat and mass transfer behavior, and microstructural and mechanical properties development during the SLM AM process.

  11. Understanding the differing governance of EU emissions trading and renewable: feedback mechanisms and policy entrepreneurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boasson, Elin Lerum; Wettestad, Joergen

    2010-04-15

    This paper presents a comparative study of two central EU climate policies: the revised Emissions Trading System (ETS), and the revised Renewable Energy Directive (RES). Both were originally developed in the early 2000s and revised policies were adopted in December 2008. While the ETS from 2013 on will have a quite centralized and market-streamlined design, the revised RES stands forward as a more decentralized and technology-focused policy. Differing institutional feed-back mechanisms and related roles of policy entrepreneurs can shed considerable light on these policy differences. Due to member states' cautiousness and contrary to the preferences of the Commission, the initial ETS was designed as a rather decentralized and 'politicized' market system, creating a malfunctioning institutional dynamic. In the revision process, the Commission skillfully highlighted this ineffective dynamic to win support for a much more centralized and market-streamlined approach. In the case of RES, national technology-specific support schemes and the strong links between the renewable industry and member states promoted the converse outcome: decentralization and technology development. Members of the European Parliament utilized these mechanisms through policy networking, while the Commission successfully used developments within the global climate regime to induce some degree of centralization. (Author)

  12. Biomineralization of gold by Mucor plumbeus: The progress in understanding the mechanism of nanoparticles' formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliszewska, Irena; Tylus, Włodzimierz; Chęcmanowski, Jacek; Szczygieł, Bogdan; Pawlaczyk-Graja, Izabela; Pusz, Wojciech; Baturo-Cieśniewska, Anna

    2017-09-01

    This contribution describes the deposition of gold nanoparticles by microbial reduction of Au(III) ions using the mycelium of Mucor plumbeus. Biosorption as the major mechanism of Au(III) ions binding by the fungal cells and the reduction of them to the form of Au(0) on/in the cell wall, followed by the transportation of the synthesized gold nanoparticles to the cytoplasm, is postulated. The probable mechanism behind the reduction of Au(III) ions is discussed, leading to the conclusion that this process is nonenzymatic one. Chitosan of the fungal cell wall is most likely to be the major molecule involved in biomineralization of gold by the mycelium of M. plumbeus. Separation of gold nanoparticles from the cells has been carried out by the ultrasonic disintegration and the obtained nanostructures were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy and transmission electron micrograph analysis. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:1381-1392, 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  13. A New Alkali-Stable Phosphonium Cation Based on Fundamental Understanding of Degradation Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bingzi; Kaspar, Robert B; Gu, Shuang; Wang, Junhua; Zhuang, Zhongbin; Yan, Yushan

    2016-09-08

    Highly alkali-stable cationic groups are a critical component of hydroxide exchange membranes (HEMs). To search for such cations, we studied the degradation kinetics and mechanisms of a series of quaternary phosphonium (QP) cations. Benzyl tris(2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl)phosphonium [BTPP-(2,4,6-MeO)] was determined to have higher alkaline stability than the benchmark cation, benzyl trimethylammonium (BTMA). A multi-step methoxy-triggered degradation mechanism for BTPP-(2,4,6-MeO) was proposed and verified. By replacing methoxy substituents with methyl groups, a superior QP cation, methyl tris(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)phosphonium [MTPP-(2,4,6-Me)] was developed. MTPP-(2,4,6-Me) is one of the most stable cations reported to date, with <20 % degradation after 5000 h at 80 °C in a 1 m KOD in CD3 OD/D2 O (5:1 v/v) solution. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Getting the phenotypes right: an essential ingredient for understanding aetiological mechanisms underlying persistent violence and developing effective treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheilagh Hodgins

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce societal levels of violence, it is essential to advance understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms involved in initiating and maintaining individual patterns of physical aggression. New technologies such as Magnetic Resonance Imagining and analyses of DNA provide tools for identifying these mechanisms. The reliability and validity of the results of studies using these tools depend not only on aspects of the technology, but also on the methodological rigour with which the studies are conducted, particularly with respect to characterizing the phenotype. The present article discusses five challenges confronting scientists who aim to advance understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms associated with persistent violence. These challenges are: (1 to develop evidence-based hypotheses and to design studies that test alternate hypotheses; (2 to recruit samples that are homogeneous with respect to variables that may be linked to neurobiological mechanisms underpinning violent behaviour; (3 to use reliable and valid measures in order to fully characterize participants so that the external validity of the results is evident; (4 to restrict the range of age of participants so as not to confuse developmental change with group differences; and (5 to take account of sex. Our goal is to contribute to elevating methodological standards in this new field of research and to thereby improve the validity of results and move closer to finding effective ways to reduce violence

  15. Iodine sorption by microwave irradiated hydrotalcites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes, S.P. [Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, C.P. 72570, Puebla, Pue (Mexico); Instituto Politecnico Nacional, ESIQIE, C.P. 07738, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Fetter, G. [Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, C.P. 72570, Puebla, Pue (Mexico)]. E-mail: geolarfetter@yahoo.com.mx; Bosch, P. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, C.P. 04510, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Bulbulian, S. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, C.P. 11801, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-12-15

    Mg-Al hydrotalcite-like compounds (HT) were prepared by the microwave method on the one hand with ethoxide-acetylacetonate and on the other with acetylacetonate as precursors. They presented a maximum sorption capacity of 2.179 and 1.517 meq of {sup 131}I{sup -}/g of hydrotalcite respectively. When the hydrotalcites were calcined and rehydrated in a {sup 131}I{sup -} solution, iodine sorption decreased in both samples to 1.515 and 1.446, respectively. The corresponding value for nitrated hydrotalcite which was prepared by the conventional method for comparison purposes, was 0.570. The radionuclide content in hydrotalcites was determined by {gamma}-spectrometry. {sup 131}I{sup -} sorption is dependent on two main parameters: one is the type of the interlayer organic material and the second the surface area. It was found that hydrotalcites prepared with ethoxide-acetylacetonate were better sorbents for {sup 131}I{sup -} than those with acetylacetonate. Still, if the specific surface area increased, {sup 131}I{sup -}sorption increased as well; nitrated HT resulted in low specific surface area and a low sorption capacity. It is, therefore, concluded that organic residues present in the samples prepared by the microwave method favor the sorption of radioactive anions, in particular {sup 131}I{sup -} if compared with nitrated and/or carbonate interlayered hydrotalcites.

  16. Migration and sorption phenomena in packaged foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanasekharan, V; Floros, J D

    1997-10-01

    Rapidly developing analytical capabilities and continuously evolving stringent regulations have made food/package interactions a subject of intense research. This article focuses on: (1) the migration of package components such as oligomers and monomers, processing aids, additives, and residual reactants in to packaged foods, and (2) sorption of food components such as flavors, lipids, and moisture into packages. Principles of diffusion and thermodynamics are utilized to describe the mathematics of migration and sorption. Mathematical models are developed from first principles, and their applicability is illustrated using numerical simulations and published data. Simulations indicate that available models are system (polymer-penetrant) specific. Furthermore, some models best describe the early stages of migration/sorption, whereas others should be used for the late stages of these phenomena. Migration- and/or sorption-related problems with respect to glass, metal, paper-based and polymeric packaging materials are discussed, and their importance is illustrated using published examples. The effects of migrating and absorbed components on food safety, quality, and the environment are presented for various foods and packaging materials. The impact of currently popular packaging techniques such as microwavable, ovenable, and retortable packaging on migration and sorption are discussed with examples. Analytical techniques for investigating migration and sorption phenomena in food packaging are critically reviewed, with special emphasis on the use and characteristics of food-simulating liquids (FSLs). Finally, domestic and international regulations concerning migration in packaged foods, and their impact on food packaging is briefly presented.

  17. Understanding the crystallization mechanism of delafossite CuGaO2 for controlled hydrothermal synthesis of nanoparticles and nanoplates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mingzhe; Draskovic, Thomas I; Wu, Yiying

    2014-06-02

    The delafossite CuGaO2 is an important p-type transparent conducting oxide for both fundamental science and industrial applications. An emerging application is for p-type dye-sensitized solar cells. Obtaining delafossite CuGaO2 nanoparticles is challenging but desirable for efficient dye loading. In this work, the phase formation and crystal growth mechanism of delafossite CuGaO2 under low-temperature (mechanism to explain the formation of large CuGaO2 nanoplates. Importantly, by suppressing this OA process, delafossite CuGaO2 nanoparticles that are 20 nm in size were successfully synthesized for the first time. Moreover, considering the structural and chemical similarities between the Cu-based delafossite series compounds, the understanding of the hydrothermal chemistry and crystallization mechanism of CuGaO2 should also benefit syntheses of other similar delafossites such as CuAlO2 and CuScO2.

  18. Marine phospholipids: The current understanding of their oxidation mechanisms and potential uses for food fortification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Baron, Caroline P.

    2017-01-01

    reactions, namely, Strecker aldehydes, pyrroles, oxypolymers, and other impurities that may positively or negatively affect the oxidative stability and quality of marine PL. This review was undertaken to provide the industry and academia with an overview of the current understanding of the quality changes......There is a growing interest in using marine phospholipids (PL) as ingredient for food fortification due to their numerous health benefits. However, the use of marine PL for food fortification is a challenge due to the complex nature of the degradation products that are formed during the handling...... and storage of marine PL. For example, nonenzymatic browning reactions may occur between lipid oxidation products and primary amine group from phosphatidylethanolamine or amino acid residues that are present inmarine PL. Therefore, marine PL contain products from nonenzymatic browning and lipid oxidation...

  19. Understanding mechanisms of solid-state phase transformations by probing nuclear materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Srikumar; Donthula, Harish

    2018-04-01

    In this review a few examples will be cited to illustrate that a study on a specific nuclear material sometimes lead to a better understanding of scientific phenomena of broader interests. Zirconium alloys offer some unique opportunities in addressing fundamental issues such as (i) distinctive features between displacive and diffusional transformations, (ii) characteristics of shuffle and shear dominated displacive transformations and (iii) nature of mixed-mode transformations. Whether a transformation is of first or higher order?" is often raised while classifying it. There are rare examples, such as Ni-Mo alloys, in which during early stages of ordering the system experiences tendencies for both first order and second order transitions. Studies on the order-disorder transitions under a radiation environment have established the pathway for the evolution of ordering. These studies have also identified the temperature range over which the chemically ordered state remains stable in steady state under radiation.

  20. Integrated Approach for Understanding Impurity Adsorption on Calcite: Mechanisms for Micro-scale Surface Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, M. D.; Arvidson, R. S.; Luttge, A.

    2004-12-01

    A longstanding goal within the field of environmental geochemistry has been the development of a fundamental understanding of the kinetics that governs the interactions of solution-borne impurities with the calcite mineral surface. Recent dissolution experiments using Mg2+, Mn2+, and Sr2+ have shown distinct differences in the interaction of these three impurity ions with the calcite crystal surface. Because the dissolution of carbonate minerals in soils and sediments influences the uptake and migration of groundwater contaminants, a rigorous understanding of the basic processes that occur at the mineral-fluid interface is necessary. We have used vertical scanning interferometry (VSI) coupled with scanning probe microscopy (SPM) to examine calcite crystal dissolution in the presence of Mg2+, Mn2+, and Sr2+, all known dissolution inhibitors and possible groundwater contaminants. We have studied the kinetics of impurity-crystal interactions at a pH 8.8, and in the presence or absence of dissolved inorganic carbon. Our data show that, when individually introduced into undersaturated solutions, Mg2+ and Mn2+ are shown to activate the calcite crystal surface, resulting in enhanced etch pit nucleation rates and step density. Conversely, Sr2+ is shown to cause passivation of the calcite surface. The effect is intensified when solutions are saturated with respect to atmospheric CO2. Results indicate that aqueous CO32- (or HCO3-) may influence how aqueous metal ionic complexes interact with the crystal surface. Furthermore, the influence is differently exhibited, and passivation or activation ultimately depends on the properties of the diffusing metal ion or metal-hydroxide complex. These properties include for example, differences in hydration enthalpy, the effective ionic radius, and electron shell configuration.

  1. Interaction mechanisms of europium and nickel with calcite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabau, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In the context of the safety assessment of an underground repository for nuclear waste, sorption reactions are one of the main processes to take into account to predict the migration of the radionuclides which might be transferred from the waste canisters to underground waters over geological time scales. Sorption of aqueous species on minerals can include adsorption processes, surface (co)-precipitation, and even incorporation in the bulk of the material, which can lead to the irreversibility of some sorption reactions. This work is focused on two elements: Eu(III) as an analogue of trivalent actinides and Ni(II) as activation product. Calcite was chosen as adsorbent due to its presence in Callovian-Oxfordian clay rocks. Our study combines batch experiments with spectroscopic techniques (TRLFS, RBS and SEM-EDXS) to elucidate the mechanisms occurring at Eu(III)/Ni(II) calcite interface. To obtain a better understanding on the systems, before starting sorption experiments, aqueous chemistry of Eu(III) and Ni(II) was carefully investigated. Macroscopic results showed a strong retention of Eu(III) on calcite, no matter the initial concentration, contact time and CO 2 partial pressure. Ni(II) was also readily sorbed by calcite, but the retention was influenced by contact time and concentration. Time-dependent sorption experiments showed a marked and slow increase of retention upon a long time range (up to 4 months).Desorption results indicated a partly reversible sorption for Ni(II). TRLFS highlighted the influence of initial concentration and contact time on the interaction of Eu(III) with calcite. With the help of RBS and SEM-EDXS, it enabled to discriminate between different mechanisms like surface precipitation, inner-sphere complexation and incorporation. RBS showed incorporation of Eu(III) into calcite up to 250 nm, contrary to Ni(II) which was located at the surface. (author) [fr

  2. Understanding the ordering mechanisms of self-assembled nanostructures of block copolymers during zone annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cong, Zhinan; Zhang, Liangshun, E-mail: zhangls@ecust.edu.cn, E-mail: jlin@ecust.edu.cn; Wang, Liquan; Lin, Jiaping, E-mail: zhangls@ecust.edu.cn, E-mail: jlin@ecust.edu.cn [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Polymeric Materials, State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2016-03-21

    A theoretical method based on dynamic version of self-consistent field theory is extended to investigate directed self-assembly behaviors of block copolymers subjected to zone annealing. The ordering mechanisms and orientation modulation of microphase-separated nanostructures of block copolymers are discussed in terms of sweep velocity, wall preference, and Flory-Huggins interaction parameter. The simulated results demonstrate that the long-range ordered nanopatterns are achieved by lowering the sweep velocity of zone annealing due to the incorporation of templated ordering of block copolymers. The surface enrichment by one of the two polymer species induces the orientation modulation of defect-free nanostructures through finely tuning the composition of block copolymers and the preference of walls. Additionally, the Flory-Huggins interaction parameters of block copolymers in the distinct regions are main factors to design the zone annealing process for creating the highly ordered nanostructures with single orientation.

  3. Heat and mass transfer models to understand the drying mechanisms of a porous substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songok, Joel; Bousfield, Douglas W; Gane, Patrick A C; Toivakka, Martti

    2016-02-01

    While drying of paper and paper coatings is expensive, with significant energy requirements, the rate controlling mechanisms are not currently fully understood. Two two-dimensional models are used as a first approximation to predict the heat transfer during hot air drying and to evaluate the role of various parameters on the drying rates of porous coatings. The models help determine the structural limiting factors during the drying process, while applying for the first time the recently known values of coating thermal diffusivity. The results indicate that the thermal conductivity of the coating structure is not the controlling factor, but the drying rate is rather determined by the thermal transfer process at the structure surface. This underlines the need for ensuring an efficient thermal transfer from hot air to coating surface during drying, before considering further measures to increase the thermal conductivity of porous coatings.

  4. Oxide Nanoparticle EUV (ONE) Photoresists: Current Understanding of the Unusual Patterning Mechanism

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Jing; Zhang, Ben; Yu, Mufei; Li, Li; Neisser, Mark; Sung Chun, Jun; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.; Ober, Christopher K.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 SPST. In the past few years, industry has made significant progress to deliver a stable high power EUV scanner and a 100 W light source is now being tested on the manufacuring scale. The success of a high power EUV source demands a fast and high resolution EUV resist. However, chemcially amplied resists encounter unprecedented challenges beyond the 22 nm node due to resolution, roughness and sensitivity tradeoffs. Unless novel solutions for EUV resists are proposed and further optimzed, breakthroughs can hardly be achieved. Oxide nanoparticle EUV (ONE) resists stablized by organic ligands were originally proposed by Ober et al. Recently this work attracts more and more attention due to its extraordinanry EUV sensitivity. This new class of photoresist utilizes ligand cleavage with a ligand exchange mechanism to switch its solubilty for dual-tone patterning. Therefore, ligand selection of the nanoparticles is extremely important to its EUV performance.

  5. Metal Oxide Nanomaterial QNAR Models: Available Structural Descriptors and Understanding of Toxicity Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiali Ying

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Metal oxide nanomaterials are widely used in various areas; however, the divergent published toxicology data makes it difficult to determine whether there is a risk associated with exposure to metal oxide nanomaterials. The application of quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR modeling in metal oxide nanomaterials toxicity studies can reduce the need for time-consuming and resource-intensive nanotoxicity tests. The nanostructure and inorganic composition of metal oxide nanomaterials makes this approach different from classical QSAR study; this review lists and classifies some structural descriptors, such as size, cation charge, and band gap energy, in recent metal oxide nanomaterials quantitative nanostructure activity relationship (QNAR studies and discusses the mechanism of metal oxide nanomaterials toxicity based on these descriptors and traditional nanotoxicity tests.

  6. Fundamental mechanisms of telomerase action in yeasts and mammals: understanding telomeres and telomerase in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Christine A; Tomita, Kazunori

    2017-03-01

    Aberrant activation of telomerase occurs in 85-90% of all cancers and underpins the ability of cancer cells to bypass their proliferative limit, rendering them immortal. The activity of telomerase is tightly controlled at multiple levels, from transcriptional regulation of the telomerase components to holoenzyme biogenesis and recruitment to the telomere, and finally activation and processivity. However, studies using cancer cell lines and other model systems have begun to reveal features of telomeres and telomerase that are unique to cancer. This review summarizes our current knowledge on the mechanisms of telomerase recruitment and activation using insights from studies in mammals and budding and fission yeasts. Finally, we discuss the differences in telomere homeostasis between normal cells and cancer cells, which may provide a foundation for telomere/telomerase targeted cancer treatments. © 2017 The Authors.

  7. The effects of bariatric surgery: will understanding its mechanism render the knife unnecessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Kirsteen N; Hajnal, Andras

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of obesity is increasing worldwide at a dramatic rate, accompanied by an associated increase in comorbid conditions. Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for morbid obesity with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass being the most commonly performed procedure, yet the underlying mechanisms by which it induces a wide-array of beneficial effects remains obscure. From basic science as well as clinical standpoints, there are several areas of current interest that warrant continued investigation. Several major focus areas have also emerged in current research that may guide future efforts in this field, particularly with regards to using novel, non-surgical approaches to mimic the success of bariatric surgery while minimizing its adverse side effects.

  8. Understanding Central Mechanisms of Acupuncture Analgesia Using Dynamic Quantitative Sensory Testing: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Ti Kong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the emerging translational tools for the study of acupuncture analgesia with a focus on psychophysical methods. The gap between animal mechanistic studies and human clinical trials of acupuncture analgesia calls for effective translational tools that bridge neurophysiological data with meaningful clinical outcomes. Temporal summation (TS and conditioned pain modulation (CPM are two promising tools yet to be widely utilized. These psychophysical measures capture the state of the ascending facilitation and the descending inhibition of nociceptive transmission, respectively. We review the basic concepts and current methodologies underlying these measures in clinical pain research, and illustrate their application to research on acupuncture analgesia. Finally, we highlight the strengths and limitations of these research methods and make recommendations on future directions. The appropriate addition of TS and CPM to our current research armamentarium will facilitate our efforts to elucidate the central analgesic mechanisms of acupuncture in clinical populations.

  9. Toward an understanding of mechanism of aging-induced oxidative stress in human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benameur, Laila; Charif, Naceur; Li, Yueying; Stoltz, Jean-François; de Isla, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    Under physiological conditions, there is a production of limited range of free radicals. However, when the cellular antioxidant defence systems, overwhelm and fail to reverse back the free radicals to their normal basal levels, there is a creation of a condition of redox disequilibrium termed "oxidative stress", which is implicated in a very wide spectrum of genetic, metabolic, and cellular responses. The excess of free radicals can, cause unfavourable molecular alterations to biomolecules through oxidation of lipids, proteins, RNA and DNA, that can in turn lead to mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, and aging. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been proven to be a promising source of cells for regenerative medicine, and to be useful in the treatment of pathologies in which tissue damage is linked to oxidative stress. Moreover, MSCs appeared to efficiently manage oxidative stress and to be more resistant to oxidative insult than normal somatic cells, making them an interesting and testable model for the role of oxidative stress in the aging process. In addition, aging is accompanied by a progressive decline in stem cell function, resulting in less effective tissue homeostasis and repair. Also, there is an obvious link between intracellular reactive oxygen species levels and cellular senescence. To date, few studies have investigated the promotion of aging by oxidative stress on human MSCs, and the mechanism by which oxidative stress induce stem cell aging is poorly understood. In this context, the aim of this review is to gain insight the current knowledge about the molecular mechanisms of aging-induced oxidative stress in human MSCs.

  10. Understanding the Broad Substrate Repertoire of Nitroreductase Based on Its Kinetic Mechanism*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitsawong, Warintra; Hoben, John P.; Miller, Anne-Frances

    2014-01-01

    The oxygen-insensitive nitroreductase from Enterobacter cloacae (NR) catalyzes two-electron reduction of nitroaromatics to the corresponding nitroso compounds and, subsequently, to hydroxylamine products. NR has an unusually broad substrate repertoire, which may be related to protein dynamics (flexibility) and/or a simple non-selective kinetic mechanism. To investigate the possible role of mechanism in the broad substrate repertoire of NR, the kinetics of oxidation of NR by para-nitrobenzoic acid (p-NBA) were investigated using stopped-flow techniques at 4 °C. The results revealed a hyperbolic dependence on the p-NBA concentration with a limiting rate of 1.90 ± 0.09 s−1, indicating one-step binding before the flavin oxidation step. There is no evidence for a distinct binding step in which specificity might be enforced. The reduction of p-NBA is rate-limiting in steady-state turnover (1.7 ± 0.3 s−1). The pre-steady-state reduction kinetics of NR by NADH indicate that NADH reduces the enzyme with a rate constant of 700 ± 20 s−1 and a dissociation constant of 0.51 ± 0.04 mm. Thus, we demonstrate simple transient kinetics in both the reductive and oxidative half-reactions that help to explain the broad substrate repertoire of NR. Finally, we tested the ability of NR to reduce para-hydroxylaminobenzoic acid, demonstrating that the corresponding amine does not accumulate to significant levels even under anaerobic conditions. Thus E. cloacae NR is not a good candidate for enzymatic production of aromatic amines. PMID:24706760

  11. Cesium and strontium sorption by selected tropical and subtropical soils around nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, P.N.; Wang, M. K.; Huang, P.M.; Wang, J.J.; Chiu, C.Y.

    2010-01-01

    The dynamics of Cs and Sr sorption by soils, especially in the subtropics and tropics, as influenced by soil components are not fully understood. The rates and capacities of Cs and Sr sorption by selected subtropical and tropical soils in Taiwan were investigated to facilitate our understanding of the transformation and dynamics of Cs and Sr in soils developed under highly weathering intensity. The Langmuir isotherms and kinetic rates of Cs and Sr sorption on the Ap1 and Bt1 horizons of the Long-Tan (Lt) and the A and Bt1 horizons of the Kuan-Shan (Kt), Mao-Lin (Tml) and Chi-Lo (Cl) soils were selected for this study. Air-dried soil ( -5 to 1.88 x 10 -3 M of CsCl (pH 4.0) or 1.14 x 10 -4 to 2.85 x 10 -3 M of SrCl 2 (pH 4.0) solutions at 25 deg. C. The sorption maximum capacity (q m ) of Cs by the Ap1 and Bt1 horizons of the Lt soil (62.24 and 70.70 mmol Cs kg -1 soil) were significantly (p -1 soil in Kt soil and 34.83 and 29.96 mmol Cs kg -1 soil in Cl soil, respectively), however, the sorption maximum capacity values of the Lt and Tml soils did not show significant differences. The amounts of pyrophosphate extractable Fe (Fe p ) were correlated significantly with the Cs and Sr sorption capacities (for Cs sorption, r 2 = 0.97, p -4 ; for Sr sorption, r 2 = 0.82, p -3 ). The partition coefficient of radiocesium sorbed on soil showed the following order: Cl soil >> Kt soil > Tml soil > Lt soil. It was due to clay minerals. The second-order kinetic model was applied to the Cs and Sr sorption data. The rate constant of Cs or Sr sorption on the four soils was substantiality increased with increasing temperature. This is attributable to the availability of more energy for bond breaking and bond formation brought about by the higher temperatures. The rate constant of Cs sorption at 308 K was 1.39-2.09 times higher than that at 278 K in the four soils. The activation energy of Cs and Sr sorbed by the four soils ranged from 7.2 to 16.7 kJ mol -1 and from 15.2 to 22.4 kJ mol

  12. Engagement in Training as a Mechanism to Understanding Fidelity of Implementation of the Responsive Classroom Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanless, Shannon B; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E; Abry, Tashia; Larsen, Ross A; Patton, Christine L

    2015-11-01

    Fidelity of implementation of classroom interventions varies greatly, a reality that is concerning because higher fidelity of implementation relates to greater effectiveness of the intervention. We analyzed 126 fourth and fifth grade teachers from the treatment group of a randomized controlled trial of the Responsive Classroom® (RC) approach. Prior to training in the intervention, we assessed factors that had the potential to represent a teacher's readiness to implement with fidelity. These included teachers' observed emotional support, teacher-rated use of intervention practices, teacher-rated self-efficacy, teacher-rated collective responsibility, education level, and years of experience, and they were not directly related to observed fidelity of implementation 2 years later. Further analyses indicated, however, that RC trainers' ratings of teachers' engagement in the initial weeklong RC training mediated the relation between initial observed emotional support and later observed fidelity of implementation. We discuss these findings as a way to advance understanding of teachers' readiness to implement new interventions with fidelity.

  13. Accelerating Our Understanding of Supernova Explosion Mechanism via Simulations and Visualizations with GenASiS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budiardja, R. D. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Cardall, Christian Y [ORNL; Endeve, Eirik [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Core-collapse supernovae are among the most powerful explosions in the Universe, releasing about 1053 erg of energy on timescales of a few tens of seconds. These explosion events are also responsible for the production and dissemination of most of the heavy elements, making life as we know it possible. Yet exactly how they work is still unresolved. One reason for this is the sheer complexity and cost of a self-consistent, multi-physics, and multi-dimensional core-collapse supernova simulation, which is impractical, and often impossible, even on the largest supercomputers we have available today. To advance our understanding we instead must often use simplified models, teasing out the most important ingredients for successful explosions, while helping us to interpret results from higher fidelity multi-physics models. In this paper we investigate the role of instabilities in the core-collapse supernova environment. We present here simulation and visualization results produced by our code GenASiS.

  14. Contribution of transcranial magnetic stimulation to the understanding of cortical mechanisms involved in motor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Janine; Swayne, Orlando B; Vandermeeren, Yves; Camus, Mickael; Dimyan, Michael A; Harris-Love, Michelle; Perez, Monica A; Ragert, Patrick; Rothwell, John C; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2008-01-15

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was initially used to evaluate the integrity of the corticospinal tract in humans non-invasively. Since these early studies, the development of paired-pulse and repetitive TMS protocols allowed investigators to explore inhibitory and excitatory interactions of various motor and non-motor cortical regions within and across cerebral hemispheres. These applications have provided insight into the intracortical physiological processes underlying the functional role of different brain regions in various cognitive processes, motor control in health and disease and neuroplastic changes during recovery of function after brain lesions. Used in combination with neuroimaging tools, TMS provides valuable information on functional connectivity between different brain regions, and on the relationship between physiological processes and the anatomical configuration of specific brain areas and connected pathways. More recently, there has been increasing interest in the extent to which these physiological processes are modulated depending on the behavioural setting. The purpose of this paper is (a) to present an up-to-date review of the available electrophysiological data and the impact on our understanding of human motor behaviour and (b) to discuss some of the gaps in our present knowledge as well as future directions of research in a format accessible to new students and/or investigators. Finally, areas of uncertainty and limitations in the interpretation of TMS studies are discussed in some detail.

  15. Modeling TH 2 responses and airway inflammation to understand fundamental mechanisms regulating the pathogenesis of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Paul S; Maltby, Steven; Rosenberg, Helene F; Tay, Hock L; Hogan, Simon P; Collison, Adam M; Yang, Ming; Kaiko, Gerard E; Hansbro, Philip M; Kumar, Rakesh K; Mattes, Joerg

    2017-07-01

    In this review, we highlight experiments conducted in our laboratories that have elucidated functional roles for CD4 + T-helper type-2 lymphocytes (T H 2 cells), their associated cytokines, and eosinophils in the regulation of hallmark features of allergic asthma. Notably, we consider the complexity of type-2 responses and studies that have explored integrated signaling among classical T H 2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13), which together with CCL11 (eotaxin-1) regulate critical aspects of eosinophil recruitment, allergic inflammation, and airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR). Among our most important findings, we have provided evidence that the initiation of T H 2 responses is regulated by airway epithelial cell-derived factors, including TRAIL and MID1, which promote T H 2 cell development via STAT6-dependent pathways. Further, we highlight studies demonstrating that microRNAs are key regulators of allergic inflammation and potential targets for anti-inflammatory therapy. On the background of T H 2 inflammation, we have demonstrated that innate immune cells (notably, airway macrophages) play essential roles in the generation of steroid-resistant inflammation and AHR secondary to allergen- and pathogen-induced exacerbations. Our work clearly indicates that understanding the diversity and spatiotemporal role of the inflammatory response and its interactions with resident airway cells is critical to advancing knowledge on asthma pathogenesis and the development of new therapeutic approaches. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Radionuclides sorption in clay soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siraky, G.; Lewis, C.; Hamlat, S.; Nollmann, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    The sorption behaviour of clay soils is examined through a parametric study of the distribution coefficient (Kd) for the radionuclides of interest, Cs and Sr. This work is a preliminary stage of the migration studies of these nuclides in a porous medium (ground of Ezeiza, Argentina) and the evaluation of radiologic impact of the removal of low and intermediate activity wastes in shallow trenches. The determination of Kd is performed by a static technique or batch. The phases are separated by centrifugation at 20000 g during 1 hour. The activity of supernatant solution of Cs-137 and Sr-85 is measured in a detecting system of I Na(Tl) well-type. Two types of parameters were changed: a) those related to the determination method: phase separation (centrifugation vs. centrifugation plus filtration); equilibrium period, ratio solid/liquid; b) those related to the geochemical system: pH of contact solution, carrier concentration, competitive ions, ionic strength, desorption. It was observed that the modification of parameters in the Kd-measurement does not change the order of magnitude of results. (Author)

  17. Neptunium(V) sorption on kaolinite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amayri, S.; Jermolajev, A.; Reich, T. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry

    2011-07-01

    The sorption behavior of neptunium(V) onto the clay mineral kaolinite was studied in batch experiments under different experimental conditions: [Np(V)] = 7 x 10{sup -12}-8 x 10{sup -6} M, solid-to-liquid ratio 2-20 g L{sup -1}, I = 0.1 and 0.01 M NaClO{sub 4}, pH = 6-10, ambient air and Ar atmosphere. The short-lived isotope {sup 239}Np (T{sub 1/2} = 2.36 d) was used instead of {sup 237}Np (T{sub 1/2} = 2.14 x 10{sup 6} a) to study the sorption behavior of Np(V) at environmentally-relevant concentrations, i.e., 7 x 10{sup -12} M Np. In addition, {sup 239}Np(V) served as tracer to measure sorption isotherms over six orders of magnitude in Np concentration (4.8 x 10{sup -12}-1.0 x 10{sup -4} M). The results show that Np(V) sorption on kaolinite is strongly influenced by pH, CO{sub 2}, and ionic strength. The sorption of 8 x 10{sup -6} M Np(V) at pH 9.0, and ionic strength of 0.1 M NaClO{sub 4} was proportional to the solid-to-liquid ratio of kaolinite in the range of 2-10 g L{sup -1}. In the absence of CO{sub 2}, the Np(V) uptake increased continuously with increasing pH value up to 97% at pH 10. Under ambient CO{sub 2}, the sorption of Np decreased above pH 8 up to zero at pH 10. An increase of Np(V) concentration from 7 x 10{sup -12} to 8 x 10{sup -6} M resulted in a shift of the sorption pH edge by up to one pH unit to higher pH values. The ionic strength influenced the Np(V) sorption onto kaolinite only in the presence of ambient CO{sub 2}. Under Ar atmosphere the sorption of Np(V) was independent from ionic strength, indicating the formation of inner-sphere complexes of Np(V) with kaolinite. Time-dependent batch experiments at pH 9.0 under ambient CO{sub 2} showed that the sorption of Np(V) on kaolinite is fast and fully reversible over six orders in Np(V) concentration. (orig.)

  18. Sorption of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) to synthetic resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Erping; Haderlein, Stefan B; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2005-10-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a widely used gasoline oxygenate. Contamination of MTBE and its major degradation product tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) in groundwater and surface water has received great attention. However, sorption affinity and sorption mechanisms of MTBE and TBA to synthetic resins, which can be potentially used in removal of these contaminants from water, in passive sampling, or in enrichment of bacteria, have not been studied systemically. In this study, kinetic and equilibrium sorption experiments (single solute and binary mixtures) on four synthetic resins were conducted. The sorption affinity of the investigated sorbents for MTBE and TBA decreases in the order Ambersorb 563>Optipore L493>Amberlite XAD4>Amberlite XAD7, and all show higher sorption affinity for MTBE than for TBA. Binary experiments with o-xylene, a major compound of gasoline as co-contaminant, imply that all resins preferentially sorb o-xylene over MTBE or TBA, i.e., there is sorption competition. In the equilibrium aqueous concentration (Ceq) range (0.1-139.0 mg/L for MTBE, and 0.01-48.4 mg/L for TBA), experimental and modeling results as well as sorbent characteristics indicate that micropore filling and/or some other type of adsorption process (e.g., adsorption to specific sites of high sorption potential at low concentrations) rather than partitioning were the dominant sorption mechanisms. Optipore L493 has favourable sorption and desorption characteristics, and is a suitable sorbent, e.g., in bacteria enrichment or passive sampling for moderately polar compounds. However, for highly polar compounds such as TBA, Ambersorb 563 might be a better choice, especially in water treatment.

  19. Differences in sorption behavior of the herbicide 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid on artificial soils as a function of soil pre-aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, Georg; Friesl-Hanl, Wolfgang; Haberhauer, Georg; Gerzabek, Martin H

    The sorption behavior of the herbicide 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) to three different artificial soil mixtures was investigated. Artificial soils serve as model systems for improving understanding of sorption phenomena. The soils consisted of quartz, ferrihydrite, illite, montmorillonite, and charcoal. In a previous study, several selected mixtures had been inoculated with organic matter, and microbial aging (incubation) had been performed for different periods of time (3, 12, and 18 months) before conducting the sorption experiments. The effect of this pre-incubation time on the sorption behavior was determined. Interaction of MCPA with soil surfaces was monitored by aqueous phase sorption experiments, using high-performance liquid chromatography/ultraviolet and in selected cases Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy. The sorption behavior showed large differences between differently aged soils; Freundlich and linear sorption model fits (with sorption constants K f , 1/ n exponents, and K d values, respectively) were given for pH = 3 and the unbuffered pH of ∼7. The largest extent of sorption from diluted solutions was found on the surfaces with a pre-incubation time of 3 months. Sorption increased at acidic pH values. Regarding the influence of aging of artificial soils, the following conclusions were drawn: young artificial soils exhibit stronger sorption at lower concentrations, with a larger K f value than aged soils. A correlation with organic carbon content was not confirmed. Thus, the sorption characteristics of the soils are more influenced by the aging of the organic carbon than by the organic carbon content itself.

  20. Experimental study of Pb (II) solution sorption behavior onto Coffee Husk Bioactivated Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fona, Z.; Habibah, U.

    2018-04-01

    Coffee husk which is abundantly produced in the coffee plantations is potential to be a challenging adsorbent. The fate of Pb (II) solution in the sorption mechanism onto the adsorbent has been investigated. This paper aimed to study the efficiency of Pb (II) aqueous solution removal using activated carbon from coffee husk (CAC). The sorption characteristics were using two isotherm models, Langmuir and Freundlich, were also reported. The coffee husk from local plantations in Middle Aceh was carbonized and sieved to 120/140 mesh. The charcoal was activated using hydrochloric acid before contacted with the different initial concentrations of Pb (II) solution. The remaining concentrations of the metal in the specified contact times were determined using Atomic Adsorption Spectrophotometer at 283.3 wavelength. The result showed that the equilibrium concentrations were obtained in about 30 minutes which depended on the initial concentration. The sorption mechanism followed Freundlich isotherm model where the adsorption constant and capacity were accordingly 1.353 and 1.195 mgg‑1. The iodine sorption was up to 1,053 mgg‑1. Based on the ash and moisture content, as well as iodine sorption, the activated carbon met the national standard.

  1. Comprehensive Understanding of Ductility Loss Mechanisms in Various Steels with External and Internal Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakuwa, Osamu; Yamabe, Junichiro; Matsunaga, Hisao; Furuya, Yoshiyuki; Matsuoka, Saburo

    2017-11-01

    Hydrogen-induced ductility loss and related fracture morphologies are comprehensively discussed in consideration of the hydrogen distribution in a specimen with external and internal hydrogen by using 300-series austenitic stainless steels (Types 304, 316, 316L), high-strength austenitic stainless steels (HP160, XM-19), precipitation-hardened iron-based super alloy (A286), low-alloy Cr-Mo steel (JIS-SCM435), and low-carbon steel (JIS-SM490B). External hydrogen is realized by a non-charged specimen tested in high-pressure gaseous hydrogen, and internal hydrogen is realized by a hydrogen-charged specimen tested in air or inert gas. Fracture morphologies obtained by slow-strain-rate tensile tests (SSRT) of the materials with external or internal hydrogen could be comprehensively categorized into five types: hydrogen-induced successive crack growth, ordinary void formation, small-sized void formation related to the void sheet, large-sized void formation, and facet formation. The mechanisms of hydrogen embrittlement are broadly classified into hydrogen-enhanced decohesion (HEDE) and hydrogen-enhanced localized plasticity (HELP). In the HEDE model, hydrogen weakens interatomic bonds, whereas in the HELP model, hydrogen enhances localized slip deformations. Although various fracture morphologies are produced by external or internal hydrogen, these morphologies can be explained by the HELP model rather than by the HEDE model.

  2. Structural Understanding of the Glutathione-dependent Reduction Mechanism of Glutathionyl-Hydroquinone Reductases*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Abigail R.; Hayes, Robert P.; Xun, Luying; Kang, ChulHee

    2012-01-01

    Glutathionyl-hydroquinone reductases (GS- HQRs) are a newly identified group of glutathione transferases, and they are widely distributed in bacteria, halobacteria, fungi, and plants. GS-HQRs catalyze glutathione (GSH)-dependent reduction of glutathionyl-hydroquinones (GS-hydroquinones) to hydroquinones. GS-hydroquinones can be spontaneously formed from benzoquinones reacting with reduced GSH via Michael addition, and GS-HQRs convert the conjugates to hydroquinones. In this report we have determined the structures of two bacterial GS-HQRs, PcpF of Sphingobium chlorophenolicum and YqjG of Escherichia coli. The two structures and the previously reported structure of a fungal GS-HQR shared many features and displayed complete conservation for all the critical residues. Furthermore, we obtained the binary complex structures with GS-menadione, which in its reduced form, GS-menadiol, is a substrate. The structure revealed a large H-site that could accommodate various substituted hydroquinones and a hydrogen network of three Tyr residues that could provide the proton for reductive deglutathionylation. Mutation of the Tyr residues and the position of two GSH molecules confirmed the proposed mechanism of GS-HQRs. The conservation of GS-HQRs across bacteria, halobacteria, fungi, and plants potentiates the physiological role of these enzymes in quinone metabolism. PMID:22955277

  3. Understanding the growth mechanism of graphene on Ge/Si(001) surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowski, J; Lippert, G; Avila, J; Baringhaus, J; Colambo, I; Dedkov, Yu S; Herziger, F; Lupina, G; Maultzsch, J; Schaffus, T; Schroeder, T; Kot, M; Tegenkamp, C; Vignaud, D; Asensio, M-C

    2016-08-17

    The practical difficulties to use graphene in microelectronics and optoelectronics is that the available methods to grow graphene are not easily integrated in the mainstream technologies. A growth method that could overcome at least some of these problems is chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of graphene directly on semiconducting (Si or Ge) substrates. Here we report on the comparison of the CVD and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth of graphene on the technologically relevant Ge(001)/Si(001) substrate from ethene (C2H4) precursor and describe the physical properties of the films as well as we discuss the surface reaction and diffusion processes that may be responsible for the observed behavior. Using nano angle resolved photoemission (nanoARPES) complemented by transport studies and Raman spectroscopy as well as density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we report the direct observation of massless Dirac particles in monolayer graphene, providing a comprehensive mapping of their low-hole doped Dirac electron bands. The micrometric graphene flakes are oriented along two predominant directions rotated by 30° with respect to each other. The growth mode is attributed to the mechanism when small graphene "molecules" nucleate on the Ge(001) surface and it is found that hydrogen plays a significant role in this process.

  4. Towards a Better Understanding of the Molecular Mechanisms Involved in Sunlight-Induced Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Mandy

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Although much less prevalent than its nonmelanoma skin cancer counterparts, cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM is the most lethal human skin cancer. Epidemiological and biological studies have established a strong link between lifetime exposure to ultraviolet (UV light, particularly sunburn in childhood, and the development of melanoma. However, the specific molecular targets of this environmental carcinogen are not known. Data obtained from genetic and molecular studies over the last few years have identified the INK4a/ARF locus as the “gatekeeper” melanoma suppressor, encoding two tumour suppressor proteins in human, p16 INK4a and p14 ARF . Recent developments in molecular biotechnology and research using laboratory animals have made a significant gene breakthrough identifying the components of the p16 INK4a /Rb pathway as the principal and rate-limiting targets of UV radiation actions in melanoma formation. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved in melanoma development and its relationship to sunlight UV radiation.

  5. Investigating and improving student understanding of the probability distributions for measuring physical observables in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshman, Emily; Singh, Chandralekha

    2017-01-01

    A solid grasp of the probability distributions for measuring physical observables is central to connecting the quantum formalism to measurements. However, students often struggle with the probability distributions of measurement outcomes for an observable and have difficulty expressing this concept in different representations. Here we first describe the difficulties that upper-level undergraduate and PhD students have with the probability distributions for measuring physical observables in quantum mechanics. We then discuss how student difficulties found in written surveys and individual interviews were used as a guide in the development of a quantum interactive learning tutorial (QuILT) to help students develop a good grasp of the probability distributions of measurement outcomes for physical observables. The QuILT strives to help students become proficient in expressing the probability distributions for the measurement of physical observables in Dirac notation and in the position representation and be able to convert from Dirac notation to position representation and vice versa. We describe the development and evaluation of the QuILT and findings about the effectiveness of the QuILT from in-class evaluations. (paper)

  6. Study and understanding of the ageing mechanisms in lead-calcium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, F.

    2006-12-01

    The data available in the literature about ageing and over-ageing of lead-calcium alloys are often incomplete and inconsistent. It is undoubtedly due to the experimental difficulties encountered to observe the structure transformations which are numerous. As a result there is a certain confusion among the results of the different authors. Moreover, small variations in the process parameters and chemical composition may have some influence on the alloy behaviour. This work enabled us to obtain a set of TTT diagrams, more realistic and accurate than the ones available in the literature. Experimental techniques developed (particularly the preservation of the cold chain with is essential for the guaranty of the results repeatability), enabled particularly the study of the first transformations and better control the five stages of ageing and over-ageing. Our work have enabled to determine precisely the kinetics and the mechanisms of the transformations. This work constitutes a thorough analysis of the ageing and over-ageing of theses alloys. (author)

  7. GABA neurons and the mechanisms of network oscillations: implications for understanding cortical dysfunction in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Burgos, Guillermo; Lewis, David A

    2008-09-01

    Synchronization of neuronal activity in the neocortex may underlie the coordination of neural representations and thus is critical for optimal cognitive function. Because cognitive deficits are the major determinant of functional outcome in schizophrenia, identifying their neural basis is important for the development of new therapeutic interventions. Here we review the data suggesting that phasic synaptic inhibition mediated by specific subtypes of cortical gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons is essential for the production of synchronized network oscillations. We also discuss evidence indicating that GABA neurotransmission is altered in schizophrenia and propose mechanisms by which such alterations can decrease the strength of inhibitory connections in a cell-type-specific manner. We suggest that some alterations observed in the neocortex of schizophrenia subjects may be compensatory responses that partially restore inhibitory synaptic efficacy. The findings of altered neural synchrony and impaired cognitive function in schizophrenia suggest that such compensatory responses are insufficient and that interventions aimed at augmenting the efficacy of GABA neurotransmission might be of therapeutic value.

  8. Understanding Physiological and Degenerative Natural Vision Mechanisms to Define Contrast and Contour Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demongeot, Jacques; Fouquet, Yannick; Tayyab, Muhammad; Vuillerme, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    Background Dynamical systems like neural networks based on lateral inhibition have a large field of applications in image processing, robotics and morphogenesis modeling. In this paper, we will propose some examples of dynamical flows used in image contrasting and contouring. Methodology First we present the physiological basis of the retina function by showing the role of the lateral inhibition in the optical illusions and pathologic processes generation. Then, based on these biological considerations about the real vision mechanisms, we study an enhancement method for contrasting medical images, using either a discrete neural network approach, or its continuous version, i.e. a non-isotropic diffusion reaction partial differential system. Following this, we introduce other continuous operators based on similar biomimetic approaches: a chemotactic contrasting method, a viability contouring algorithm and an attentional focus operator. Then, we introduce the new notion of mixed potential Hamiltonian flows; we compare it with the watershed method and we use it for contouring. Conclusions We conclude by showing the utility of these biomimetic methods with some examples of application in medical imaging and computed assisted surgery. PMID:19547712

  9. Understanding physiological and degenerative natural vision mechanisms to define contrast and contour operators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Demongeot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dynamical systems like neural networks based on lateral inhibition have a large field of applications in image processing, robotics and morphogenesis modeling. In this paper, we will propose some examples of dynamical flows used in image contrasting and contouring. METHODOLOGY: First we present the physiological basis of the retina function by showing the role of the lateral inhibition in the optical illusions and pathologic processes generation. Then, based on these biological considerations about the real vision mechanisms, we study an enhancement method for contrasting medical images, using either a discrete neural network approach, or its continuous version, i.e. a non-isotropic diffusion reaction partial differential system. Following this, we introduce other continuous operators based on similar biomimetic approaches: a chemotactic contrasting method, a viability contouring algorithm and an attentional focus operator. Then, we introduce the new notion of mixed potential Hamiltonian flows; we compare it with the watershed method and we use it for contouring. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude by showing the utility of these biomimetic methods with some examples of application in medical imaging and computed assisted surgery.

  10. Toward understanding the mechanics of hovering in insects, hummingbirds and bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejdani, Hamid; Boerma, David; Swartz, Sharon; Breuer, Kenneth

    2016-11-01

    We present results on the dynamical characteristics of two different mechanisms of hovering, corresponding to the behavior of hummingbirds and bats. Using a Lagrangian formulation, we have developed a dynamical model of a body (trunk) and two rectangular wings. The trunk has 3 degrees of freedom (x, z and pitch angle) and each wing has 3 modes of actuation: flapping, pronation/supination, and wingspan extension/flexion (only present for bats). Wings can be effectively massless (hummingbird and insect wings) or relatively massive (important in the case of bats). The aerodynamic drag and lift forces are calculated using a quasi-steady blade-element model. The regions of state space in which