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Sample records for understanding social motor

  1. Social Motor Synchronization: Insights for Understanding Social Behavior in Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Paula; Romero, Veronica; Amaral, Joseph L; Duncan, Amie; Barnard, Holly; Richardson, Michael J; Schmidt, R C

    2017-07-01

    Impairments in social interaction and communication are critical features of ASD but the underlying processes are poorly understood. An under-explored area is the social motor synchronization that happens when we coordinate our bodies with others. Here, we explored the relationships between dynamical measures of social motor synchronization and assessments of ASD traits. We found (a) spontaneous social motor synchronization was associated with responding to joint attention, cooperation, and theory of mind while intentional social motor synchronization was associated with initiating joint attention and theory of mind; and (b) social motor synchronization was associated with ASD severity but not fully explained by motor problems. Findings suggest that objective measures of social motor synchronization may provide insights into understanding ASD traits.

  2. Evaluating the importance of social motor synchronization and motor skill for understanding autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Paula; Romero, Veronica; Amaral, Joseph L; Duncan, Amie; Barnard, Holly; Richardson, Michael J; Schmidt, R C

    2017-10-01

    Impairments in social interaction and communicating with others are core features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the specific processes underlying such social competence impairments are not well understood. An important key for increasing our understanding of ASD-specific social deficits may lie with the social motor synchronization that takes place when we implicitly coordinate our bodies with others. Here, we tested whether dynamical measures of synchronization differentiate children with ASD from controls and further explored the relationships between synchronization ability and motor control problems. We found (a) that children with ASD exhibited different and less stable patterns of social synchronization ability than controls; (b) children with ASD performed motor movements that were slower and more variable in both spacing and timing; and (c) some social synchronization that involved motor timing was related to motor ability but less rhythmic synchronization was not. These findings raise the possibility that objective dynamical measures of synchronization ability and motor skill could provide new insights into understanding the social deficits in ASD that could ultimately aid clinical diagnosis and prognosis. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1687-1699. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Understanding Social Media Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José van Dijck

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, social media platforms have penetrated deeply into the mech­anics of everyday life, affecting people's informal interactions, as well as institutional structures and professional routines. Far from being neutral platforms for everyone, social media have changed the conditions and rules of social interaction. In this article, we examine the intricate dynamic between social media platforms, mass media, users, and social institutions by calling attention to social media logic—the norms, strategies, mechanisms, and economies—underpin­ning its dynamics. This logic will be considered in light of what has been identified as mass me­dia logic, which has helped spread the media's powerful discourse outside its institutional boundaries. Theorizing social media logic, we identify four grounding principles—programmabil­ity, popularity, connectivity, and datafication—and argue that these principles become increas­ingly entangled with mass media logic. The logic of social media, rooted in these grounding principles and strategies, is gradually invading all areas of public life. Besides print news and broadcasting, it also affects law and order, social activism, politics, and so forth. Therefore, its sustaining logic and widespread dissemination deserve to be scrutinized in detail in order to better understand its impact in various domains. Concentrating on the tactics and strategies at work in social media logic, we reassess the constellation of power relationships in which social practices unfold, raising questions such as: How does social media logic modify or enhance ex­isting mass media logic? And how is this new media logic exported beyond the boundaries of (social or mass media proper? The underlying principles, tactics, and strategies may be relat­ively simple to identify, but it is much harder to map the complex connections between plat­forms that distribute this logic: users that employ them, technologies that

  4. Understanding Social Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vatrapu, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    Social business” refers to the utilization of online social channels to conduct business. This chapter situates the notion of social business in the relevant macro trends in technology, business, and society and discusses the three critical aspects of social business: social business engagement......, social media analytics, and social media management. Social media engagement concerns the organization’s strategic use of social media channels to interact with its internal and external stakeholders for purposes ranging from knowledge management to corporate social responsibility and marketing. Social...... media analytics refers to the collection, storage, analysis, and reporting of social data emanating from the social media engagement of and social media conversations about the organization. Social media management focusses on the operational issues, managerial challenges, and comparative advantages...

  5. Understanding Social Entrepreneurship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    The importance of social entrepreneurship in social, cultural and economic terms is increasingly acknowledged. Drawing on data from the second Social Entrepreneurship Monitor report published by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) UK project, this article focuses on the social entrepreneurs who may grow the social enterprises of the future.…

  6. Understanding Social Media Logic

    OpenAIRE

    José van Dijck; Thomas Poell

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, social media platforms have penetrated deeply into the mech­anics of everyday life, affecting people's informal interactions, as well as institutional structures and professional routines. Far from being neutral platforms for everyone, social media have changed the conditions and rules of social interaction. In this article, we examine the intricate dynamic between social media platforms, mass media, users, and social institutions by calling attention to social media log...

  7. Understanding social media logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijck, J.; Poell, T.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, social media platforms have penetrated deeply into the mech­anics of everyday life, affecting people's informal interactions, as well as institutional structures and professional routines. Far from being neutral platforms for everyone, social media have changed the conditions

  8. Binding Action and Emotion in Social Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Francesca; Ebisch, Sjoerd J. H.; Costantini, Marcello; Salone, Anatolia; Arciero, Giampiero; Mazzola, Viridiana; Ferro, Filippo Maria; Romani, Gian Luca; Gallese, Vittorio

    2013-01-01

    In social life actions are tightly linked with emotions. The integration of affective- and action-related information has to be considered as a fundamental component of appropriate social understanding. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study aimed at investigating whether an emotion (Happiness, Anger or Neutral) dynamically expressed by an observed agent modulates brain activity underlying the perception of his grasping action. As control stimuli, participants observed the same agent either only expressing an emotion or only performing a grasping action. Our results showed that the observation of an action embedded in an emotional context (agent’s facial expression), compared with the observation of the same action embedded in a neutral context, elicits higher neural response at the level of motor frontal cortices, temporal and occipital cortices, bilaterally. Particularly, the dynamic facial expression of anger modulates the re-enactment of a motor representation of the observed action. This is supported by the evidence that observing actions embedded in the context of anger, but not happiness, compared with a neutral context, elicits stronger activity in the bilateral pre-central gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus, besides the pre-supplementary motor area, a region playing a central role in motor control. Angry faces not only seem to modulate the simulation of actions, but may also trigger motor reaction. These findings suggest that emotions exert a modulatory role on action observation in different cortical areas involved in action processing. PMID:23349792

  9. Socialization, Language, and Scenic Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling; Weber, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    is based on a transformation of the "scenic understanding" from a clinical to a text interpretation, which seeks to understand collective unconscious meaning in text, and is presented with an illustration of the interpretation procedure from social research. Then follows a brief systematic account of key...

  10. DEVELOPING STUDENT SOCIALIZATION THROUGH MOTOR ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Sabin SOPA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available : Starting from the assumption that motor activities are the perfect environment for socialization, communication and social integration of young people, this study aims to analyze the effectiveness of these activities in improving intergroup relations at the university level. In this research, the samples were composed of two groups, the experimental group (n = 25 with students from the Physical Education specialization and control group B (n = 25, composed of students from the Faculty of Sciences. The sociological survey applied on the two samples aimed to analyze the level of socialization, communication and social integration of students. The findings showed that the experimental group is more united, having a higher level of socialization and communication, compared to the control group B, proving once again the socializing effects of motor activities.

  11. Humor Style and Motor Skills: Understanding Vulnerability to Bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Plenty

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the role of humor style and motor skills in vulnerability to bullying. 729 adults responded to the Humor Style Questionnaire (HSQ and items retrospectively addressing their motor skills and bullying experiences during childhood. Consistent with recent research, poorer motor skills were associated with a greater extent of having been bullied. An association between stronger motor skills and affiliative humor was found, lending support to a shared biological basis theory underlying social and motor competency processes. Most importantly, being bullied was associated with higher self-defeating humor and lower affiliative humor. This supports earlier theoretical work by Klein and Kuiper (2006 and highlights the role that humor styles play in social interactions that can promote positive peer acceptance and wellbeing.

  12. Understanding and Treating Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Russell C.; Kimball, Amy; Stroup, Erin L.

    2004-01-01

    Social phobia, a relatively obscure disorder, is receiving increased attention due to evidence suggesting that it is more prevalent and debilitative than once thought. The purpose of this article is to help counselors better understand the nature of and treatments for this disorder. Effective behavioral and pharmacological approaches are reviewed,…

  13. Socialization, Language, and Scenic Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling; Weber, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    resumida brevemente, enfatizando el rol de los argumentos del investigador en descubrir el significado socialmente inconsciente en la interacción social. Finalmente, una mirada a los problemas epistemológicos contemporáneos. El enfoque de LORENZER para teorizar e investigar al sujeto como una entidad......The article is a guided tour to Alfred LORENZER's proposal for an "in-depth hermeneutic" cultural analysis methodology which was launched in an environment with an almost complete split between social sciences and psychology/psychoanalysis. It presents the background in his materialist...... socialization theory, which combines a social reinterpretation of the core insights in classical psychoanalysis—the unconscious, the drives—with a theory of language acquisition. His methodology is based on a transformation of the "scenic understanding" from a clinical to a text interpretation, which seeks...

  14. Social interaction enhances motor resonance for observed human actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogeveen, Jeremy; Obhi, Sukhvinder S

    2012-04-25

    Understanding the neural basis of social behavior has become an important goal for cognitive neuroscience and a key aim is to link neural processes observed in the laboratory to more naturalistic social behaviors in real-world contexts. Although it is accepted that mirror mechanisms contribute to the occurrence of motor resonance (MR) and are common to action execution, observation, and imitation, questions remain about mirror (and MR) involvement in real social behavior and in processing nonhuman actions. To determine whether social interaction primes the MR system, groups of participants engaged or did not engage in a social interaction before observing human or robotic actions. During observation, MR was assessed via motor-evoked potentials elicited with transcranial magnetic stimulation. Compared with participants who did not engage in a prior social interaction, participants who engaged in the social interaction showed a significant increase in MR for human actions. In contrast, social interaction did not increase MR for robot actions. Thus, naturalistic social interaction and laboratory action observation tasks appear to involve common MR mechanisms, and recent experience tunes the system to particular agent types.

  15. The motor way: Clinical implications of understanding and shaping actions with the motor system in autism and drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casartelli, Luca; Chiamulera, Cristiano

    2016-04-01

    To understand others' minds is crucial for survival; however, it is quite puzzling how access to others' minds can be--to some extent--direct and not necessarily mediated by conceptual reasoning. Recent advances in neuroscience have led to hypothesize a role for motor circuits not only in controlling the elementary physical features of movement (e.g., force, direction, and amplitude), but also in understanding and shaping human behavior. The concept of "motor cognition" refers to these aspects, and neurophysiological, neuroimaging, and behavioral studies in human and nonhuman primates support this view. From a clinical perspective, motor cognition represents a challenge in several domains. A thorough investigation of the neural mechanisms mediating motor action/intention understanding and automatized/compulsive behaviors seems to be a promising way to tackle a range of neurodevelopmental and drug-related disorders. On the one hand, anomalies in motor cognition may have cascade effects on social functioning in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD); on the other, motor cognition may help explain the pathophysiology of drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors in the most severe phase of drug addiction (i.e., see drug dependence, motor low-order cue reactivity). This may represent a promising approach that could improve the efficacy of rehabilitative interventions. The only way to shed light on multifactorial disorders such as ASD and drug addiction is through the investigation of their multiple factors. This motor way can promote new theoretical and experimental perspectives that would help bridge the gap between the basic neuroscience approach and clinical practice.

  16. Understanding molecular motor walking along a microtubule: a themosensitive asymmetric Brownian motor driven by bubble formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Noriyoshi; Yasuoka, Kenji; Koishi, Takahiro; Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2013-06-12

    The "asymmetric Brownian ratchet model", a variation of Feynman's ratchet and pawl system, is invoked to understand the kinesin walking behavior along a microtubule. The model system, consisting of a motor and a rail, can exhibit two distinct binding states, namely, the random Brownian state and the asymmetric potential state. When the system is transformed back and forth between the two states, the motor can be driven to "walk" in one direction. Previously, we suggested a fundamental mechanism, that is, bubble formation in a nanosized channel surrounded by hydrophobic atoms, to explain the transition between the two states. In this study, we propose a more realistic and viable switching method in our computer simulation of molecular motor walking. Specifically, we propose a thermosensitive polymer model with which the transition between the two states can be controlled by temperature pulses. Based on this new motor system, the stepping size and stepping time of the motor can be recorded. Remarkably, the "walking" behavior observed in the newly proposed model resembles that of the realistic motor protein. The bubble formation based motor not only can be highly efficient but also offers new insights into the physical mechanism of realistic biomolecule motors.

  17. Understanding Education for Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hytten, Kathy; Bettez, Silvia C.

    2011-01-01

    It has become increasingly common for education scholars to claim a social justice orientation in their work. At the same time, education programs seem to be adding statements about the importance of social justice to their mission, and a growing number of teacher education programs are fundamentally oriented around a vision of social justice.…

  18. Culture, executive function, and social understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Charlie; Koyasu, Masuo; Oh, Seungmi; Ogawa, Ayako; Short, Benjamin; Huang, Zhao

    2009-01-01

    Much of the evidence from the West has shown links between children's developing self-control (executive function), their social experiences, and their social understanding (Carpendale & Lewis, 2006, chapters 5 and 6), across a range of cultures including China. This chapter describes four studies conducted in three Oriental cultures, suggesting that the relationships among social interaction, executive function, and social understanding are different in these cultures, implying that social and executive skills are underpinned by key cultural processes.

  19. Exploring the Interaction of Motor and Social Skills With Autism Severity Using the SFARI Dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo-Dougovito, Andrew M; Reeve, Ronald E

    2017-04-01

    Social communicative deficits and stereotyped or repetitive interests or behaviors are the defining features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A growing body of research suggests that gross motor deficits are also present in most children with ASD. This study sought to understand how pediatric ASD severity is related to motor skills and social skills. A multivariate analysis of variance analysis of 483 children with autism ( N = 444) and ASD ( N = 39) revealed a nonsignificant difference between groups. Results suggest little difference between severity groups on gross motor and social skills within the limited age range of the participants (about 5.6 years of age).

  20. Understanding Social Networks: Theories, Concepts, and Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadushin, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Despite the swift spread of social network concepts and their applications and the rising use of network analysis in social science, there is no book that provides a thorough general introduction for the serious reader. "Understanding Social Networks" fills that gap by explaining the big ideas that underlie the social network phenomenon.…

  1. Understanding Mobile Social Media Usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gan, Chunmei; Tan, Chee-Wee

    2017-01-01

    Despite the increasing popularity and growing trend of mobile social media in China, factors affecting users’ continued usage behavior remains unclear and deserves further scholarly attention. Synthesizing theories of expectation confirmation as well as uses and gratification, we advance a uses...... and gratification expectancy model that depicts how confirmation, perceived usability and gratification affect users’ continuance intention towards mobile social media. Empirical findings from an online survey of 247 respondents reveal that continuance intention is determined by a range of gratifications, including...... information sharing, media appeal and perceived enjoyment. In addition, confirmation of expectations and perceptions of usefulness gleaned through prior usage of mobile social media have significant effects on gratifications of information sharing, perceived enjoyment, social interaction, passing time...

  2. The Relationship between Social and Motor Cognition in Primary School Age-Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Lorcan; Hill, Elisabeth; Hamilton, Antonia F. de C.

    2016-01-01

    There is increased interest in the relationship between motor skills and social skills in child development, with evidence that the mechanisms underlying these behaviors may be linked. We took a cognitive approach to this problem, and examined the relationship between four specific cognitive domains: theory of mind, motor skill, action understanding, and imitation. Neuroimaging and adult research suggest that action understanding and imitation are closely linked, but are somewhat independent of theory of mind and low-level motor control. Here, we test if a similar pattern is shown in child development. A sample of 101 primary school aged children with a wide ability range completed tests of IQ (Raven’s matrices), theory of mind, motor skill, action understanding, and imitation. Parents reported on their children’s social, motor and attention performance as well as developmental concerns. The results showed that action understanding and imitation correlate, with the latter having a weak link to motor control. Theory of mind was independent of the other tasks. These results imply that independent cognitive processes for social interaction (theory of mind) and for motor control can be identified in primary school age children, and challenge approaches that link all these domains together. PMID:26941685

  3. Understanding Violence Through Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/5616710/; Brendan O’Connor et al., “From Tweets to Polls: Linking Text Sentiment to Public Opinion Time Series,” in...13 Ibid. 14 Ibid. 15 Erik Cambria et al., “New Avenues in Opinion Mining and Sentiment Analysis,” IEEE Intelligent Systems 28, no. 2 (March/April...of Violence”; Meena Nagarajan, Amit Sheth, and Selvam Velmurugan, “Citizen Sensor Data Mining , Social Media Analytics and Development Centric Web

  4. Neuromechanics: an integrative approach for understanding motor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Kiisa; Biewener, Andrew A; Aerts, Peter; Ahn, Anna N; Chiel, Hillel J; Daley, Monica A; Daniel, Thomas L; Full, Robert J; Hale, Melina E; Hedrick, Tyson L; Lappin, A Kristopher; Nichols, T Richard; Quinn, Roger D; Satterlie, Richard A; Szymik, Brett

    2007-07-01

    Neuromechanics seeks to understand how muscles, sense organs, motor pattern generators, and brain interact to produce coordinated movement, not only in complex terrain but also when confronted with unexpected perturbations. Applications of neuromechanics include ameliorating human health problems (including prosthesis design and restoration of movement following brain or spinal cord injury), as well as the design, actuation and control of mobile robots. In animals, coordinated movement emerges from the interplay among descending output from the central nervous system, sensory input from body and environment, muscle dynamics, and the emergent dynamics of the whole animal. The inevitable coupling between neural information processing and the emergent mechanical behavior of animals is a central theme of neuromechanics. Fundamentally, motor control involves a series of transformations of information, from brain and spinal cord to muscles to body, and back to brain. The control problem revolves around the specific transfer functions that describe each transformation. The transfer functions depend on the rules of organization and operation that determine the dynamic behavior of each subsystem (i.e., central processing, force generation, emergent dynamics, and sensory processing). In this review, we (1) consider the contributions of muscles, (2) sensory processing, and (3) central networks to motor control, (4) provide examples to illustrate the interplay among brain, muscles, sense organs and the environment in the control of movement, and (5) describe advances in both robotics and neuromechanics that have emerged from application of biological principles in robotic design. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that (1) intrinsic properties of muscle contribute to dynamic stability and control of movement, particularly immediately after perturbations; (2) proprioceptive feedback reinforces these intrinsic self-stabilizing properties of muscle; (3) control systems

  5. Infants' Developing Understanding of Social Gaze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Jonathan S.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2012-01-01

    Young infants are sensitive to self-directed social actions, but do they appreciate the intentional, target-directed nature of such behaviors? The authors addressed this question by investigating infants' understanding of social gaze in third-party interactions (N = 104). Ten-month-old infants discriminated between 2 people in mutual versus…

  6. Psychologica and social adjustment to blindness: Understanding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psychologica and social adjustment to blindness: Understanding from two groups of blind people in Ilorin, Nigeria. ... Background: Blindness can cause psychosocial distress leading to maladjustment if not mitigated. Maladjustment is a secondary burden that further reduces quality of life of the blind. Adjustment is often ...

  7. Understanding Self-Effects in Social Media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, P.M.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to improve understanding of self-effects in social media, and to compare self-effects with reception effects. Self-effects are the effects of messages the cognitions, emotions, attitudes, and behaviors of the message creators/senders themselves. A total of 4 theories have

  8. Impression or expression? The influence of self-monitoring on the social modulation of motor contagion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James W; Bennett, Simon J; Hayes, Spencer J

    2018-04-01

    Social primes (pro-social, anti-social) can modulate mimicry behaviour. To date, these social modulation effects have been explained by the primed incentive to affiliate with another (Social Top-Down Response Modulation; STORM) and the primed active-self-concept leading to behaviour that is either consistent or inconsistent with the primed-construct (Active-Self account). This study was designed to explore the explanatory power of each of these accounts and thereby gain a greater understanding of how social modulation unfolds. To do this, we assessed social modulation of motor contagion in individuals high or low in self-monitoring. It was reasoned that high self-monitors would modulate mimicry according to the primed social incentive, whereas low self-monitors would modulate according to the primed active-self-concept. Participants were primed with a pro-social and anti-social cue in the first-person and third-person perspective. Next, they completed an interpersonal observation-execution task featuring the simultaneous observation and execution of arm movements that were either congruent or incongruent to each other. Results showed increased incongruent movement deviation (motor contagion) for the anti-social compared to the pro-social prime in the high self-monitors only. Findings support the STORM account of mimicry by showing observers modulate behaviour based on the social incentive underpinning an interpersonal exchange.

  9. The Relationship between Motor, Imitation, and Early Social Communication Skills in Children with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadgar, Hooshang; Alaghband Rad, Javad; Soleymani, Zahra; Khorammi, Anahita; McCleery, Joe; Maroufizadeh, Saman

    2017-10-01

    Objective: Development of early social skills in children is a complex process. To understand this process, it is important to assess how strengths or weaknesses in other developmental domains may be affected by these skills. The present study aimed at investigating the association of motor skills and imitation ability with early social communication skills in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Method: In this study, 20 children with ASD aged 3 to 5 years (M = 4.05, SD = 0.55) participated. All children were diagnosed as ASD based on the DSM-V criteria by an independent child psychiatrist. Additionally, Autism Diagnostic interview-Revised was used for subsequent diagnostic confirmation. Children were tested with Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2), the Motor Imitation Scale (MIS), and the Early Social Communication Scales (ESCS). All examinations were videotaped for subsequent scoring. The relationship between these skills was estimated by Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: A significant and strong correlation was obtained between TGMD total score and imitation total score (r =.776; p 0.05). A significant correlation was found between MIS and TGMD total scores with Initiating Joint Attention and Responding to Joint Attention (p≤0/025) as ESCS subscales. But MIS and TGMD total scores were not correlated with social interaction and responding to behavioral requests subscales. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that indicated both imitation ability and motor function have an association with each other and with early social communication skills.

  10. Motor unit recruitment for dynamic tasks: current understanding and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson-Tole, Emma F; Wakeling, James M

    2009-01-01

    Skeletal muscle contains many muscle fibres that are functionally grouped into motor units. For any motor task there are many possible combinations of motor units that could be recruited and it has been proposed that a simple rule, the 'size principle', governs the selection of motor units recruited for different contractions. Motor units can be characterised by their different contractile, energetic and fatigue properties and it is important that the selection of motor units recruited for given movements allows units with the appropriate properties to be activated. Here we review what is currently understood about motor unit recruitment patterns, and assess how different recruitment patterns are more or less appropriate for different movement tasks. During natural movements the motor unit recruitment patterns vary (not always holding to the size principle) and it is proposed that motor unit recruitment is likely related to the mechanical function of the muscles. Many factors such as mechanics, sensory feedback, and central control influence recruitment patterns and consequently an integrative approach (rather than reductionist) is required to understand how recruitment is controlled during different movement tasks. Currently, the best way to achieve this is through in vivo studies that relate recruitment to mechanics and behaviour. Various methods for determining motor unit recruitment patterns are discussed, in particular the recent wavelet-analysis approaches that have allowed motor unit recruitment to be assessed during natural movements. Directions for future studies into motor recruitment within and between functional task groups and muscle compartments are suggested.

  11. Corporate Social Responsibility and Corporate Social Innovation: A Conceptual Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jali Muhamad Nizam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In decades, various organizations worldwide engaged with Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR in order to show their corporate commitments and responsibilities towards societies at large. These commitments and responsibilities are coming from monetary and non-monetary resources for example cash, equipment’s and human resources whom are used for social purposes and activities that leads to a betterment of society and also to improved organization reputation. However, in today’s knowledge and innovation led economy, organizations can no longer affords to get involve in charity and community services merely to fulfil social return without having any sort of economic payoffs. This situation warrants organizations moving beyond CSR to Corporate Social Innovation. This paper explores conceptual understanding between CSR and Corporate Social Innovation. CSR is a traditional philanthropy and old paradigm which is somewhat no longer sufficient in coping with current economic situation. Hence, this paper provides an insight and suggests that corporate social innovation as an emergence new paradigm that perhaps could provide a comprehensive representation in the era of knowledge and innovation led economy that will leads to real change in improving the well-being of people’s life, enhance economic and technological growth. Furthermore, this paper also highlighted knowledge resource is the most significant resource of Corporate Social Innovation.

  12. Relationships Between Gross Motor Skills and Social Function in Young Boys With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Jamie M; Long, Toby M; Biasini, Fred

    2018-05-02

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between gross motor skills and social function in young boys with autism spectrum disorder. Twenty-one children with autism spectrum disorder participated in the study. The Peabody Developmental Motor Scales Second Edition and the Miller Function and Participation Scales were used to assess gross motor skills. The Social Skills Improvement System Rating Scales was used to assess social function. Moderately high correlations were found between overall gross motor and social skills (r = 0.644) and between the core stability motor subtest and overall social skills (r = -0.672). Specific motor impairments in stability, motor accuracy, and object manipulation scores were predictive of social function. This study suggests that motor skills and social function are related in young boys with autism. Implications for physical therapy intervention are also discussed.

  13. Social interaction is associated with changes in infants’ motor activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Scola

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In developmental research, infants are commonly assumed to be early stakeholders in interactions with their caregivers. The tools that infants can use to interact with others vary from visual contact to smiling or vocalizing, and also include motor activity. However, surprisingly few studies have explored how the nature and context of social interactions affect infants’ engagement in motor activity. Methods: We investigated the kinematic properties of foot and face movements produced by 11 infants aged between 5 and 9 months during six contrasting dyadic episodes (i.e. passive presence of a stranger or the infant's mother, weak or intense interaction with the stranger/mother as she sings a nursery play song. Results: The infants’ face and foot motor activity was significantly reduced during the interactive episodes, compared with the episodes without any interaction, in both the mother and stranger conditions. Furthermore, the level of their motor activity was significantly lower in the stranger condition than in the mother one for some parameters. Conclusion: These results are in line with those reported by previous studies and confirm the relevance of using motor activity to delineate the early forms of interactive episodes in infants.

  14. Gross Motor Profile and Its Association with Socialization Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Hardiono D. Pusponegoro; Pustika Efar; Soedjatmiko; Amanda Soebadi; Agus Firmansyah; Hui-Ju Chen; Kun-Long Hung

    2016-01-01

    While social impairment is considered to be the core deficit in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a large proportion of these children have poor gross motor ability, and gross motor deficits may influence socialization skills in children with ASD. The objectives of this study were to compare gross motor skills in children with ASD to typically developing children, to describe gross motor problems in children with ASD, and to investigate associations between gross motor and sociali...

  15. Using PDV to Understand Damage in Rocket Motor Propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tear, Gareth; Chapman, David; Ottley, Phillip; Proud, William; Gould, Peter; Cullis, Ian

    2017-06-01

    There is a continuing requirement to design and manufacture insensitive munition (IM) rocket motors for in-service use under a wide range of conditions, particularly due to shock initiation and detonation of damaged propellant spalled across the central bore of the rocket motor (XDT). High speed photography has been crucial in determining this behaviour, however attempts to model the dynamic behaviour are limited by the lack of precision particle and wave velocity data with which to validate against. In this work Photonic Doppler Velocimetery (PDV) has been combined with high speed video to give accurate point velocity and timing measurements of the rear surface of a propellant block impacted by a fragment travelling upto 1.4 km s-1. By combining traditional high speed video with PDV through a dichroic mirror, the point of velocity measurement within the debris cloud has been determined. This demonstrates a new capability to characterise the damage behaviour of a double base rocket motor propellant and hence validate the damage and fragmentation algorithms used in the numerical simulations.

  16. Developmental Pathways for Social Understanding: Linking Social Cognition to Social Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly eBrink

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary research, often with looking-time tasks, reveals that infants possess foundational understandings of their social worlds. However, few studies have examined how these early social cognitions relate to the child’s social interactions and behavior in early development. Does an early understanding of the social world relate to how an infant interacts with his or her parents? Do early social interactions along with social-cognitive understandings in infancy predict later preschool social competencies? In the current paper, we propose a theory in which children’s later social behaviors and their understanding of the social world depend on the integration of early social understanding and experiences in infancy. We review several of our studies, as well as other research, that directly examine the pathways between these competencies to support a hypothesized network of relations between social-cognitive development and social-interactive behaviors in the development from infancy to childhood. In total, these findings reveal differences in infant social competences that both track the developmental trajectory of infants’ understanding of people over the first years of life and provide external validation for the large body of social-cognitive findings emerging from laboratory looking-time paradigms.

  17. Understanding social context on TB cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyanto, Y.; Wati, D. M.

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) nowadays still becomes one of the world’s deadliest communicable disease. More than half were in South-East Asia and Western Pacific Regions, including Indonesia. As developing country, Indonesia remains classic problems in overcoming TB, that is discontinuation on treatment. Most of discontinuation on treatment among TB patients are affected by diagnostic delay that caused by patient delay. These phenomena occur in many areas, rural to suburb, coastal to plantation, and so on, and they are related with social context among community that could be social capital for each community to deal with TB. Jember as one of county in East Java is known as plantation area. It also has a high prevalence of TB. This study focused on understanding about social context among community, especially on plantation area. This cross-sectional study involved in three districts of Jember, those are Tanggul, Pakusari, and Kalisat. The data were obtained directly from the TB patients, local community, and Primary Health Care (PHC) where the patients recorded. Spatial analysis and social network analysis (SNA) were applied to obtain health seeking behavior pattern among the TB patients coincide the community. Most of TB patients had already chosen health professionals to lead the treatment, although some of them remained to choose self-medication. Meanwhile, SNA showed that religious leader was considered as main part of countermeasures of TB. But they didn’t ever become central figures. So it can be concluded that there are other parts among community who can contribute due to combatting on TB.

  18. The Errors of Our Ways: Understanding Error Representations in Cerebellar-Dependent Motor Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Laurentiu S; Streng, Martha L; Hewitt, Angela L; Ebner, Timothy J

    2016-04-01

    The cerebellum is essential for error-driven motor learning and is strongly implicated in detecting and correcting for motor errors. Therefore, elucidating how motor errors are represented in the cerebellum is essential in understanding cerebellar function, in general, and its role in motor learning, in particular. This review examines how motor errors are encoded in the cerebellar cortex in the context of a forward internal model that generates predictions about the upcoming movement and drives learning and adaptation. In this framework, sensory prediction errors, defined as the discrepancy between the predicted consequences of motor commands and the sensory feedback, are crucial for both on-line movement control and motor learning. While many studies support the dominant view that motor errors are encoded in the complex spike discharge of Purkinje cells, others have failed to relate complex spike activity with errors. Given these limitations, we review recent findings in the monkey showing that complex spike modulation is not necessarily required for motor learning or for simple spike adaptation. Also, new results demonstrate that the simple spike discharge provides continuous error signals that both lead and lag the actual movements in time, suggesting errors are encoded as both an internal prediction of motor commands and the actual sensory feedback. These dual error representations have opposing effects on simple spike discharge, consistent with the signals needed to generate sensory prediction errors used to update a forward internal model.

  19. Understanding Citizenship, Understanding Social Media? The effects of digital media on citizenship understanding and political participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohme, Jakob; Albæk, Erik

    Is there a connection between increased use of digital media and changing patterns of political participation? This study tests how use of online media for different purposes (social interaction, creative expression, online news use, social media news use) is related to three types of political...... participation. It examines whether mobilizing effects are partly indirect due to different understandings of citizenship (dutiful, optional, individual, collective) that may be fostered by digital media use. The study is based on a survey of a sample of the Danish population (n=1322), including data from two...... online survey waves and a smartphone-based media diary that documents respondents’ social media use. Results indicate support for a new pathway to participation, but the relationship depends on whether citizens are socialized in a digital media environment....

  20. EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM FOR SUPPORTING MOTOR AND SOCIAL COMPETENCE OF PRESCHOOLERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu ÖZYÜREK

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Satisfying the need of physical activity of children and promoting their social skills beginning from early childhood have importance by reason of providing a basis for following years. In this study, establishing process of the training program within the scope of “ Examination the Effects of Physical Education and Sports Activities to the Basic Psychomotor skills and Social Skills for Preschool Children ” named project supported by Karabuk University Coordinatorship of Scientific Research Projects has been mentioned. The training program has been intended to promote the motor and social competence of the children aged 48 months and older. In the study it has been given wide publicity to the stages of literature review, educational attainments and indicators fit for purpose, and taking an expert’s opinion. Commentary on practicing the training program integrated with preschool education program and their importances have been discussed.

  1. Relations among motor, social, and cognitive skills in pre-kindergarten children with developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Helyn; Carlson, Abby G; Curby, Timothy W; Winsler, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Despite the comorbidity between motor difficulties and certain disabilities, limited research has examined links between early motor, cognitive, and social skills in preschool-aged children with developmental disabilities. The present study examined the relative contributions of gross motor and fine motor skills to the prediction of improvements in children's cognitive and social skills among 2,027 pre-kindergarten children with developmental disabilities, including specific learning disorder, speech/language impairment, intellectual disability, and autism spectrum disorder. Results indicated that for pre-kindergarten children with developmental disabilities, fine motor skills, but not gross motor skills, were predictive of improvements in cognitive and social skills, even after controlling for demographic information and initial skill levels. Moreover, depending on the type of developmental disability, the pattern of prediction of gross motor and fine motor skills to improvements in children's cognitive and social skills differed. Implications are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Understanding diversity: the importance of social acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jacqueline M; Hamilton, David L

    2015-04-01

    Two studies investigated how people define and perceive diversity in the historically majority-group dominated contexts of business and academia. We hypothesized that individuals construe diversity as both the numeric representation of racial minorities and the social acceptance of racial minorities within a group. In Study 1, undergraduates' (especially minorities') perceptions of campus diversity were predicted by perceived social acceptance on a college campus, above and beyond perceived minority representation. Study 2 showed that increases in a company's representation and social acceptance independently led to increases in perceived diversity of the company among Whites. Among non-Whites, representation and social acceptance only increased perceived diversity of the company when both qualities were high. Together these findings demonstrate the importance of both representation and social acceptance to the achievement of diversity in groups and that perceiver race influences the relative importance of these two components of diversity. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  3. Relation of Student Social Position to Consumer Attitudes and Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litro, Robert Frank

    1970-01-01

    A study of Connecticut high school students from different social positions found differences in consumer attitudes and understandings of money management, credit, insurance, and savings and investments. (CH)

  4. Polymedia and Ethnography: Understanding the Social in Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirca Madianou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this essay I argue that social media need to be understood as part of complex environments of communicative opportunities which I conceptualize as polymedia. This approach shifts our attention from social media as discrete platforms to the ways users navigate environments of affordances in order to manage their social relationships. Ethnography emerges as the most appropriate method to capture the relational dynamics that underpin social media practices within polymedia.

  5. Theory of mind, emotional and social functioning, and motor severity in children and adolescents with dystonic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegboye, Dolapo; Sterr, Annette; Lin, Jean-Pierre; Owen, Tamsin J

    2017-05-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate whether children and adolescents with dystonic cerebral palsy (CP) present with emotional and social difficulties along side motor limitations. Twenty-two verbal and nonverbal children and adolescents with dystonic CP were compared with a normative sample of twenty children and adolescents on measures of theory of mind (ToM), emotion regulation (ER), and social difficulties (SD). Higher social and emotional difficulties were found in the dystonic CP group compared to the control group. Nonverbal participants with dystonic CP were found to present with greater social impairment and lower ToM ability than their verbal counterparts. Emotional regulation and hyperactivity and attentional difficulties (HAD) significantly predicted ToM ability and social difficulties. Lower Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level and IQ also contributed to differences in ToM ability. Findings support the need for greater attention to the emotional health and social development of children/adolescents with dystonic CP, along with assessments of motor difficulties in the planning and implementation of interventions and individual care plans. Further research is needed to explore links between motor disorder and mental state understanding in this clinical group. Copyright © 2017 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Understanding Social Contagion in Adoption Processes Using Dynamic Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Mauricio; Armelini, Guillermo; Salvaj, Erica

    2015-01-01

    There are many studies in the marketing and diffusion literature of the conditions in which social contagion affects adoption processes. Yet most of these studies assume that social interactions do not change over time, even though actors in social networks exhibit different likelihoods of being influenced across the diffusion period. Rooted in physics and epidemiology theories, this study proposes a Susceptible Infectious Susceptible (SIS) model to assess the role of social contagion in adoption processes, which takes changes in social dynamics over time into account. To study the adoption over a span of ten years, the authors used detailed data sets from a community of consumers and determined the importance of social contagion, as well as how the interplay of social and non-social influences from outside the community drives adoption processes. Although social contagion matters for diffusion, it is less relevant in shaping adoption when the study also includes social dynamics among members of the community. This finding is relevant for managers and entrepreneurs who trust in word-of-mouth marketing campaigns whose effect may be overestimated if marketers fail to acknowledge variations in social interactions.

  7. Understanding Social Contagion in Adoption Processes Using Dynamic Social Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Herrera

    Full Text Available There are many studies in the marketing and diffusion literature of the conditions in which social contagion affects adoption processes. Yet most of these studies assume that social interactions do not change over time, even though actors in social networks exhibit different likelihoods of being influenced across the diffusion period. Rooted in physics and epidemiology theories, this study proposes a Susceptible Infectious Susceptible (SIS model to assess the role of social contagion in adoption processes, which takes changes in social dynamics over time into account. To study the adoption over a span of ten years, the authors used detailed data sets from a community of consumers and determined the importance of social contagion, as well as how the interplay of social and non-social influences from outside the community drives adoption processes. Although social contagion matters for diffusion, it is less relevant in shaping adoption when the study also includes social dynamics among members of the community. This finding is relevant for managers and entrepreneurs who trust in word-of-mouth marketing campaigns whose effect may be overestimated if marketers fail to acknowledge variations in social interactions.

  8. Understanding Social Contagion in Adoption Processes Using Dynamic Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    There are many studies in the marketing and diffusion literature of the conditions in which social contagion affects adoption processes. Yet most of these studies assume that social interactions do not change over time, even though actors in social networks exhibit different likelihoods of being influenced across the diffusion period. Rooted in physics and epidemiology theories, this study proposes a Susceptible Infectious Susceptible (SIS) model to assess the role of social contagion in adoption processes, which takes changes in social dynamics over time into account. To study the adoption over a span of ten years, the authors used detailed data sets from a community of consumers and determined the importance of social contagion, as well as how the interplay of social and non-social influences from outside the community drives adoption processes. Although social contagion matters for diffusion, it is less relevant in shaping adoption when the study also includes social dynamics among members of the community. This finding is relevant for managers and entrepreneurs who trust in word-of-mouth marketing campaigns whose effect may be overestimated if marketers fail to acknowledge variations in social interactions. PMID:26505473

  9. Understanding Members’ Attachment to Social Networking Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Eric T. K.; Cyr, Dianne; Tan, Chee-Wee

    2014-01-01

    Social Networking Sites (SNSs) are pervasive phenomena in today’s society. With greater connectivity and interactivity enabled through emerging technologies, SNSs provide communication platforms for individuals to bridge spatial and temporal differences when making friends, sharing experiences......, socializing with others and much more. This study therefore endeavors to shed light on this growing trend by decomposing members’ motives for participating within SNSs into identity-based, bondbased and comparison-based attachments. Each of these forms of attachment in turn affects members’ cooperative...

  10. The Relationship Between Fine Motor Skills and Social Development and Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Dehghan

    2017-11-01

    Discussion: According to the results, there is a significant association between fine motor skills with respect to visual-motor skills of hands and social competence and maturity in children, and it can be used as impact factor for to improve in children’s social growth.

  11. Understanding cities as social-ecological systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, C

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper builds on earlier ecological approaches to urban development, as well as more recent thinking in the fields of sustainability science, resilience thinking and complexity theory, to propose a conceptual framework for understanding cities...

  12. Using Brain Oscillations and Corticospinal Excitability to Understand and Predict Post-Stroke Motor Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Thibaut

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available What determines motor recovery in stroke is still unknown and finding markers that could predict and improve stroke recovery is a challenge. In this study, we aimed at understanding the neural mechanisms of motor function recovery after stroke using neurophysiological markers by means of cortical excitability (transcranial magnetic stimulation—TMS and brain oscillations (electroencephalography—EEG. In this cross-sectional study, 55 subjects with chronic stroke (62 ± 14 yo, 17 women, 32 ± 42 months post-stroke were recruited in two sites. We analyzed TMS measures (i.e., motor threshold—MT—of the affected and unaffected sides and EEG variables (i.e., power spectrum in different frequency bands and different brain regions of the affected and unaffected hemispheres and their correlation with motor impairment as measured by Fugl-Meyer. Multiple univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to identify the predictors of good motor function. A significant interaction effect of MT in the affected hemisphere and power in beta bandwidth over the central region for both affected and unaffected hemispheres was found. We identified that motor function positively correlates with beta rhythm over the central region of the unaffected hemisphere, while it negatively correlates with beta rhythm in the affected hemisphere. Our results suggest that cortical activity in the affected and unaffected hemisphere measured by EEG provides new insights on the association between high-frequency rhythms and motor impairment, highlighting the role of an excess of beta in the affected central cortical region in poor motor function in stroke recovery.

  13. Understanding social acceptance of electricity generation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronfman, Nicolás C.; Jiménez, Raquel B.; Arévalo, Pilar C.; Cifuentes, Luis A.

    2012-01-01

    Social acceptability is a determinant factor in the failure or success of the government's decisions about which electricity generation sources will satisfy the growing demand for energy. The main goal of this study was to validate a causal trust-acceptability model for electricity generation sources. In the model, social acceptance of an energy source is directly caused by perceived risk and benefit and also by social trust in regulatory agencies (both directly and indirectly, through perceived risk and benefit). Results from a web-based survey of Chilean university students demonstrated that data for energy sources that are controversial in Chilean society (fossil fuels, hydro, and nuclear power) fit the hypothesized model, whereas data for non conventional renewable energy sources (solar, wind, geothermal and tidal) did not. Perceived benefit had the greatest total effect on acceptability, thus emerging as a key predictive factor of social acceptability of controversial electricity generation sources. Further implications for regulatory agencies are discussed. - Highlights: ► We tested a causal trust-acceptability model for electricity generation sources in Chile. ► Data for controversial energy sources in the Chilean society (fossil fuels, hydro and nuclear power) fit the hypothesized model. ► Data for non conventional renewable energy sources did not fit the data. ► Perceived benefit showed the greatest total effect on acceptability.

  14. Understanding Social Media Use in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Salzman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El uso de las redes sociales es cada vez más común en todo el mundo. Sin embargo, poco se sabe acerca de lo que conforma el uso de las redes socia - les, especialmente en las regiones en desarrollo del mundo. Este proyecto de investigación tiene por objeto dilucidar los determinantes del uso de las redes sociales en ocho países de América Latina contiguos desde México hasta Colombia utilizando los datos de la encuesta de Opinión Pública La - tinoamericana de Proyectos 2012. El uso de las redes sociales para efectos de defender una posición política se emplea como variable dependiente con una serie de características a nivel individual incluidas como variables inde - pendientes. Los resultados del modelo de regresión multinomial explican los determinantes del uso de las redes sociales para la recolección o difu - sión de la información política como individuos más capaces e interesados en emplear esos medios de comunicación que sus contrapartes menos ca - paces o interesados. Los resultados salen desde investigaciones previas que se centraron en el uso general de Internet para la recopilación de noticias, dado que la percepción de la nueva industria de medios de comunicación domésticos no afecta el uso de las redes sociales de este tipo.

  15. Gross Motor Profile and Its Association with Socialization Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusponegoro, Hardiono D; Efar, Pustika; Soedjatmiko; Soebadi, Amanda; Firmansyah, Agus; Chen, Hui-Ju; Hung, Kun-Long

    2016-12-01

    While social impairment is considered to be the core deficit in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a large proportion of these children have poor gross motor ability, and gross motor deficits may influence socialization skills in children with ASD. The objectives of this study were to compare gross motor skills in children with ASD to typically developing children, to describe gross motor problems in children with ASD, and to investigate associations between gross motor and socialization skills in children with ASD. This was a cross-sectional study including 40 ASD children aged from 18 months to 6 years and 40 age-matched typically developing controls. Gross motor and socialization skills were scored using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, 2 nd edition (Vineland-II). Below average gross motor function was found in eight of 40 (20%) ASD children. The mean gross motor v-scale score in the ASD group was 15.1 [standard deviation (SD) 3.12], significantly lower than in the control group [18.7, SD 2.09, p = 0.0001; 95% confidence intervals (CI) from -4.725 to -2.525]. The differences were most prominent in ball throwing and catching, using stairs, jumping, and bicycling. The ASD children with gross motor impairments had a mean socialization domain score of 66.6 (SD 6.50) compared to 85.7 (SD 10.90) in those without gross motor impairments (p = 0.0001, 95% CI from -25.327 to -12.736). Children with ASD had lower gross motor skills compared to typically developing children. Gross motor impairments were found in 20% of the ASD children, and these children also had lower socialization skills than those without gross motor impairments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Beyond folk psychology? : toward an enriched account of social understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Herschbach, Mitchell Albert

    2010-01-01

    Folk psychology is the ability to interpret people's mental states (beliefs, desires, etc.) and use this information to explain and predict their behavior. While folk psychology has traditionally been seen as fundamental to human social understanding, philosophers drawing on the phenomenological tradition have recently argued that most of our everyday social interactions do not involve folk psychology. I defend the role of folk psychology in human social understanding against these phenomenol...

  17. LD, interpersonal understanding, and social behavior in the classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravetz, S; Faust, M; Lipshitz, S; Shalhav, S

    1999-01-01

    This study used Baron and Kenny's (1986) criteria for mediation to investigate the extent to which interpersonal understanding mediates the relation between learning disabilities (LD) and social adaptation in the classroom. Twenty-two children with and 22 children without a diagnosis of LD completed a semistructured developmental clinical interview measure of interpersonal understanding. They were also rated by their fourth- and fifth-grade teachers on a measure of social adaptation in the classroom. Interpersonal understanding and social adaptation in the classroom were found to be positively correlated. Children with LD exhibited less interpersonal understanding and social adaptation. Although this group difference on social adaptation was greatly reduced when interpersonal understanding was statistically controlled, it remained statistically significant. These results suggest that reduced social adaptation in the classroom and lower interpersonal understanding are both associated with a diagnosis of LD. However, they do not conclusively support the claim that interpersonal understanding mediates the relation between LD and social adaptation. Thus, whether the social difficulties of people with LD stem from the same complex phenomena that produce these people's learning problems remains an open question.

  18. Understanding Self-Controlled Motor Learning Protocols through the Self-Determination Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanli, Elizabeth A; Patterson, Jae T; Bray, Steven R; Lee, Timothy D

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present review was to provide a theoretical understanding of the learning advantages underlying a self-controlled practice context through the tenets of the self-determination theory (SDT). Three micro-theories within the macro-theory of SDT (Basic psychological needs theory, Cognitive Evaluation Theory, and Organismic Integration Theory) are used as a framework for examining the current self-controlled motor learning literature. A review of 26 peer-reviewed, empirical studies from the motor learning and medical training literature revealed an important limitation of the self-controlled research in motor learning: that the effects of motivation have been assumed rather than quantified. The SDT offers a basis from which to include measurements of motivation into explanations of changes in behavior. This review suggests that a self-controlled practice context can facilitate such factors as feelings of autonomy and competence of the learner, thereby supporting the psychological needs of the learner, leading to long term changes to behavior. Possible tools for the measurement of motivation and regulation in future studies are discussed. The SDT not only allows for a theoretical reinterpretation of the extant motor learning research supporting self-control as a learning variable, but also can help to better understand and measure the changes occurring between the practice environment and the observed behavioral outcomes.

  19. Understanding self-controlled motor learning protocols through the self determination theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ann Sanli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present review was to provide a theoretical understanding of the learning advantages underlying a self-controlled practice context through the tenets of the self-determination theory (SDT. Three micro theories within the macro theory of SDT (Basic psychological needs theory, Cognitive Evaluation Theory & Organismic Integration Theory are used as a framework for examining the current self-controlled motor learning literature. A review of 26 peer-reviewed, empirical studies from the motor learning and medical training literature revealed an important limitation of the self-controlled research in motor learning: that the effects of motivation have been assumed rather than quantified. The SDT offers a basis from which to include measurements of motivation into explanations of changes in behavior. This review suggests that a self-controlled practice context can facilitate such factors as feelings of autonomy and competence of the learner, thereby supporting the psychological needs of the learner, leading to long term changes to behavior. Possible tools for the measurement of motivation and regulation in future studies are discussed. The SDT not only allows for a theoretical reinterpretation of the extant motor learning research supporting self-control as a learning variable, but also can help to better understand and measure the changes occurring between the practice environment and the observed behavioral outcomes.

  20. Societal Dynamics Understanding Social Knowledge and Wisdom

    CERN Document Server

    Betz, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    At both a micro-information level and a macro-societal level, the concepts of “knowledge” and “wisdom” are complementary – in both decisions and in social structures and institutions.  At the decision level, knowledge is concerned with how to make a proper choice of means, where “best” is measured as the efficiency toward achieving an end.  Wisdom is concerned with how to make a proper choice of ends  that attain “best” values. At a societal level, knowledge is managed through science/technology and innovation.  And while science/technology is society's way to create new means with high efficiencies, they reveal nothing about values.  Technology can be used for good or for evil, to make the world into a garden or to destroy all life.  It is societal wisdom which should influence the choice of proper ends -- ends to make the world a garden. How can society make progress in wisdom as well as knowledge?  Historically, the disciplines of the physical sciences and biology have provided sci...

  1. Project Me: Understanding Social Identities through Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwinyattichaiporn, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Courses: Intercultural Communication, Communication and Identity, Interpersonal Communication. Objectives: After completing this semester-long activity, students should be able to (1) discuss and apply the concepts of social identities; (2) analyze the influence of self-identities on online communication practices of self to others and others to…

  2. Understanding social media usage by females in Saudi Arabia: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Understanding social media usage by females in Saudi Arabia: a descriptive finding. ... This study was conducted to determine the effects of SM on Saudi females. ... hence more effort should be undertaken to encourage more uptake of SM for ...

  3. Developmental Patterns in the Understanding of Social and Physical Transitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovits, Henry; Dumas, Claude

    1999-01-01

    Two studies examined developmental patterns in understanding physical and social transitivity in 6- to 11-year olds. Findings revealed no significant correlations between social judgments and judgments concerning length. Results suggested that children possess two distinct strategies for making transitive judgments that correspond to the logical…

  4. Understanding social media program usage in public transit agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Jenny H. Liu; Wei Shi; O.A. (Sam) Elrahman; Xuegang (Jeff) Ban; Jack M. Reilly

    2016-01-01

    Social media has been gaining prominence in public transit agencies in their communication strategies and daily management. This study aims to better understand recent trends in social media usage in public transit agencies, to examine which agencies use what kind of social media programs for what purposes, and how they measure their programs. A survey was conducted of the top transit agencies in the nation, and results are examined through descriptive statistical analysis, correlation analys...

  5. Contribution of transcranial magnetic stimulation to the understanding of cortical mechanisms involved in motor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Janine; Swayne, Orlando B; Vandermeeren, Yves; Camus, Mickael; Dimyan, Michael A; Harris-Love, Michelle; Perez, Monica A; Ragert, Patrick; Rothwell, John C; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2008-01-15

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was initially used to evaluate the integrity of the corticospinal tract in humans non-invasively. Since these early studies, the development of paired-pulse and repetitive TMS protocols allowed investigators to explore inhibitory and excitatory interactions of various motor and non-motor cortical regions within and across cerebral hemispheres. These applications have provided insight into the intracortical physiological processes underlying the functional role of different brain regions in various cognitive processes, motor control in health and disease and neuroplastic changes during recovery of function after brain lesions. Used in combination with neuroimaging tools, TMS provides valuable information on functional connectivity between different brain regions, and on the relationship between physiological processes and the anatomical configuration of specific brain areas and connected pathways. More recently, there has been increasing interest in the extent to which these physiological processes are modulated depending on the behavioural setting. The purpose of this paper is (a) to present an up-to-date review of the available electrophysiological data and the impact on our understanding of human motor behaviour and (b) to discuss some of the gaps in our present knowledge as well as future directions of research in a format accessible to new students and/or investigators. Finally, areas of uncertainty and limitations in the interpretation of TMS studies are discussed in some detail.

  6. Understanding the role of social media in online health: A global perspective on online social support

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Roderick Lamar; Kvasny, Lynette M.

    2013-01-01

    Around the globe, people are increasingly using social media for the provision of online social support. Online social support may be especially relevant for parents who have children that are afflicted with rare chronic diseases such as MECP2 Duplication Syndrome. Despite increasing evidence that online social support enhances a person’s psychological well-being, there is little research that seeks to understand how and why various forms of social media facilitate social support. This study ...

  7. Statistical Learning as a Basis for Social Understanding in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffman, Ted; Taumoepeau, Mele; Perkins, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Many authors have argued that infants understand goals, intentions, and beliefs. We posit that infants' success on such tasks might instead reveal an understanding of behaviour, that infants' proficient statistical learning abilities might enable such insights, and that maternal talk scaffolds children's learning about the social world as well. We…

  8. Motor Cognition and Its Role in the Phylogeny and Ontogeny of Action Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallese, Vittorio; Rochat, Magali; Cossu, Giuseppe; Sinigaglia, Corrado

    2009-01-01

    Social life rests in large part on the capacity to understand the intentions behind the behavior of others. What are the origins of this capacity? How is one to construe its development in ontogenesis? By assuming that action understanding can be explained only in terms of the ability to read the minds of others--that is, to represent mental…

  9. Assessing social isolation in motor neurone disease: a Rasch analysis of the MND Social Withdrawal Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Chris J; Thornton, Everard W; Ealing, John; Shaw, Pamela J; Talbot, Kevin; Tennant, Alan; Young, Carolyn A

    2013-11-15

    Social withdrawal is described as the condition in which an individual experiences a desire to make social contact, but is unable to satisfy that desire. It is an important issue for patients with motor neurone disease who are likely to experience severe physical impairment. This study aims to reassess the psychometric and scaling properties of the MND Social Withdrawal Scale (MND-SWS) domains and examine the feasibility of a summary scale, by applying scale data to the Rasch model. The MND Social Withdrawal Scale was administered to 298 patients with a diagnosis of MND, alongside the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The factor structure of the MND Social Withdrawal Scale was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis. Model fit, category threshold analysis, differential item functioning (DIF), dimensionality and local dependency were evaluated. Factor analysis confirmed the suitability of the four-factor solution suggested by the original authors. Mokken scale analysis suggested the removal of item five. Rasch analysis removed a further three items; from the Community (one item) and Emotional (two items) withdrawal subscales. Following item reduction, each scale exhibited excellent fit to the Rasch model. A 14-item Summary scale was shown to fit the Rasch model after subtesting the items into three subtests corresponding to the Community, Family and Emotional subscales, indicating that items from these three subscales could be summed together to create a total measure for social withdrawal. Removal of four items from the Social Withdrawal Scale led to a four factor solution with a 14-item hierarchical Summary scale that were all unidimensional, free for DIF and well fitted to the Rasch model. The scale is reliable and allows clinicians and researchers to measure social withdrawal in MND along a unidimensional construct. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Boot Camp for Occupational Health Nurses: Understanding Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Debra M; Olszewski, Kimberly

    2015-08-01

    Social media is a buzzword frequently referred to in marketing materials, general media, and personal conversations. Although many refer to the term social media, some individuals do not understand its meaning or how it affects their daily lives at work and home. Since the expansion of the Internet to web 2.0, multiple platforms of communication occur virtually through various social media. Understanding and learning how to use these platforms are essential to stay connected with friends, family, and colleagues; advance connections to professional organizations; and extend educational opportunities. This article presents basic information for occupational health nurses to improve their understanding of social media and how to communicate virtually using different platforms safely and securely. © 2015 The Author(s).

  11. The Relationship between Motor Skills, Perceived Social Support, and Internalizing Problems in a Community Adolescent Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Vincent O; Rigoli, Daniela; Heritage, Brody; Roberts, Lynne D; Piek, Jan P

    2016-01-01

    Poor motor skills are associated with a range of psychosocial consequences, including internalizing (anxious and depressive) symptoms. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis provides a causal framework to explain this association. The framework posits that motor skills impact internalizing problems through an indirect effect via perceived social support. However, empirical evaluation is required. We examined whether motor skills had an indirect effect on anxious and depressive symptoms via perceived family support domains. This study used a community sample of 93 adolescents (12-16 years). Participants completed measures of motor skills, perceived social support across three dimensions (family, friend, and significant other), depressive symptoms, and anxious symptoms. Age, gender, verbal IQ, and ADHD symptoms were included as control variables. Regression analysis using PROCESS revealed that motor skills had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived family support, but not by perceived friend support or significant other support. The negative association between motor skills and anxious symptoms was not mediated by any perceived social support domain. Findings are consistent with previous literature indicating an association between motor skills and internalizing problems. However, we identified a different pattern of relationships across anxious and depressive symptoms. While anxiety and depressive symptoms were highly correlated, motor skills had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived family support only. Our findings highlight the importance of family support as a potential protective factor in the onset of depressive symptoms. This study provides partial support for the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis, however further research is required.

  12. A guide to understanding social science research for natural scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Katie; Blackman, Deborah

    2014-10-01

    Natural scientists are increasingly interested in social research because they recognize that conservation problems are commonly social problems. Interpreting social research, however, requires at least a basic understanding of the philosophical principles and theoretical assumptions of the discipline, which are embedded in the design of social research. Natural scientists who engage in social science but are unfamiliar with these principles and assumptions can misinterpret their results. We developed a guide to assist natural scientists in understanding the philosophical basis of social science to support the meaningful interpretation of social research outcomes. The 3 fundamental elements of research are ontology, what exists in the human world that researchers can acquire knowledge about; epistemology, how knowledge is created; and philosophical perspective, the philosophical orientation of the researcher that guides her or his action. Many elements of the guide also apply to the natural sciences. Natural scientists can use the guide to assist them in interpreting social science research to determine how the ontological position of the researcher can influence the nature of the research; how the epistemological position can be used to support the legitimacy of different types of knowledge; and how philosophical perspective can shape the researcher's choice of methods and affect interpretation, communication, and application of results. The use of this guide can also support and promote the effective integration of the natural and social sciences to generate more insightful and relevant conservation research outcomes. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  13. A Social Identity Approach to Understanding and Promoting Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Mark; Rees, Tim; Coffee, Pete; Steffens, Niklas K; Haslam, S Alexander; Polman, Remco

    2017-10-01

    Against the backdrop of a global physical inactivity crisis, attempts to both understand and positively influence physical activity behaviours are characterized by a focus on individual-level factors (e.g. cognitions, attitudes, motivation). We outline a new perspective, drawn from an emerging body of work exploring the applicability of social identity and self-categorization theories to domains of sport and health, from which to understand and address this pervasive problem. This social identity approach suggests that the groups to which people belong can be, and often are, incorporated into their sense of self and, through this, are powerful determinants of physical activity-related behaviour. We start by reviewing the current state of physical activity research and highlighting the potential for the social identity approach to help understand how social factors influence these behaviours. Next, we outline the theoretical underpinnings of the social identity approach and provide three key examples that speak to the analytical and practical value of the social identity approach in physical activity settings. Specifically, we argue that social identity (1) can be harnessed to promote engagement in physical activity, (2) underpins exercise group behaviour, and (3) underpins effective leadership in exercise settings. We conclude by identifying prospects for a range of theory-informed research developments.

  14. Motor competency and social communication skills in preschool children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Francesco; Lorenzo, Alessandro; Lucarelli, Elisabetta; Russo, Luigi; Fanizza, Isabella; Trabacca, Antonio

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between motor competency and social communication in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) compared with children with Intellectual Disabilities (ID) and typically developing (TD) children. Motor competency, ASD symptoms, and nonverbal Intelligent Quotient (IQ) were investigated through the following tests: Movement Assessment Battery for Children, second edition (MABC-2), Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ), Autism Classification System of Functioning: Social Communication (ACSF:SC) and Leiter International Performances Scale Revised (Leiter-R). The ASD + ID and ID groups had lower MABC-2-manual dexterity mean scores, MABC-2-aiming and catching mean scores, MABC-2-static and dynamic balance mean scores and MABC-2-TTS compared with the TD group (P < 0.05). In addition, the ASD + ID group had lower MABC-2-aiming and catching mean scores compared with the ID group. In the ASD + ID group, we found a significant negative correlation (P < 0.001) between MABC-2-aiming and catching scores with SCQ scores, nonverbal IQ and ACSF:SC levels. Our findings provide new insight into the common neuropsychological mechanisms underlying social communication and motor deficits in ASD. Multiple deficits in motor functioning may be present in ASD and ID, however deficits involving the ability to integrate motor and social cues are somewhat specific to ASD. Autism Res 2018. © 2018 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. This study highlighted the specificity of motor impairment in ASD comparing performances on a frequently used measure of motor impairment between clinical groups (ASD + ID and ID) and a non-clinical group. While previous research has suggested that multiple deficits in motor functioning may be present in ASD, our findings suggest that deficits in tasks involving the ability to integrate visual and motor cues (aiming and catching task) are somewhat specific to

  15. Integration of the social environment in a mobility ontology for people with motor disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharebaghi, Amin; Mostafavi, Mir-Abolfazl; Edwards, Geoffrey; Fougeyrollas, Patrick; Gamache, Stéphanie; Grenier, Yan

    2017-07-07

    Our contemporary understanding of disability is rooted in the idea that disability is the product of human-environment interaction processes. People may be functionally limited, but this becomes a disability only when they engage with their immediate social and physical environments. Any attempt to address issues of mobility in relation to people with disabilities should be grounded in an ontology that encompasses this understanding. The objective of this study is to provide a methodology to integrate the social and physical environments in the development of a mobility ontology for people with motor disabilities (PWMD). We propose to create subclasses of concepts based on a Nature-Development distinction rather than creating separate social and physical subclasses. This allows the relationships between social and physical elements to be modelled in a more compact and efficient way by specifying them locally within each entity, and better accommodates the complexities of the human-environment interaction as well. Based on this approach, an ontology for mobility of PWMD considering four main elements - the social and physical environmental factors, human factors, life habits related to mobility and possible goals of mobility - is presented. We demonstrate that employing the Nature-Development perspective facilitates the process of developing useful ontologies, especially for defining the relationships between the social and physical parts of the environment. This is a fundamental issue for modelling the interaction between humans and their social and physical environments for a broad range of applications, including the development of geospatial assistive technologies for navigation of PWMD. Implications for rehabilitation The proposed perspective may actually have much broader interests beyond the issue of disability - much of the interesting dynamics in city development arises from the interaction between human-developed components - the built environment and its

  16. Understanding social media program usage in public transit agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny H. Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Social media has been gaining prominence in public transit agencies in their communication strategies and daily management. This study aims to better understand recent trends in social media usage in public transit agencies, to examine which agencies use what kind of social media programs for what purposes, and how they measure their programs. A survey was conducted of the top transit agencies in the nation, and results are examined through descriptive statistical analysis, correlation analysis and regression modeling. We found that while most agencies still lack clearly-defined goals and performance metrics to guide their social media development, many are increasing their social media capacity with more structural components. Public transit service usage and the level of transit service provision are the most significant determinants of agencies’ social media programming and resource investments. In contrast, the measurement of social media usage and outcomes is more significantly related to city attributes and demographic characteristics. We anticipate an increase in the usage of social media to convey transit related stories and livability benefits, such as environmental sensitivity or safety improvements, as these programs expand. Public transit agencies’ commitment to measuring social media outcomes underscores the future research need to develop best practices for measuring the impacts and performance of social media communications and investments.

  17. Social media and social work education: understanding and dealing with the new digital world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lin; Mishna, Faye; Zhang, Vivian F; Van Wert, Melissa; Bogo, Marion

    2014-10-01

    Accompanying the multiple benefits and innovations of social media are the complex ethical and pedagogical issues that challenge social work educators. Without a clear understanding of the blurred boundaries between public and private, the potentially limitless and unintended audiences, as well as the permanency of the information shared online, social work students who use social media can find themselves in difficult situations in their personal and professional lives. In this article, we present three scenarios that illustrate issues and complexities involving social media use by social work students, followed by a discussion and recommendations for social work educators.

  18. Motor and verbal perspective taking in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Changes in social interaction with people and tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studenka, Breanna E; Gillam, Sandra L; Hartzheim, Daphne; Gillam, Ronald B

    2017-07-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have difficulty communicating with others nonverbally, via mechanisms such as hand gestures, eye contact and facial expression. Individuals with ASD also have marked deficits in planning future actions (Hughes, 1996), which might contribute to impairments in non-verbal communication. Perspective taking is typically assessed using verbal scenarios whereby the participant imagines how an actor would interact in a social situation (e.g., Sally Anne task; Baron-Cohen, Leslie, & Frith, 1985). The current project evaluated motor perspective taking in five children with ASD (8-11 years old) as they participated in a narrative intervention program over the course of about 16 weeks. The goal of the motor perspective-taking task was to facilitate the action of an experimenter either hammering with a tool or putting it away. Initially, children with ASD facilitated the experimenter's action less than neurotypical control children. As the narrative intervention progressed, children with ASD exhibited increased motor facilitation that paralleled their increased use of mental state and causal language, indicating a link between verbal and motor perspective taking. Motoric perspective taking provides an additional way to assess understanding and communication in children with ASD and may be a valuable tool for both early assessment and diagnosis of children with ASD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Social Studies Student Teachers' Levels of Understanding Sociology Concepts within Social Studies Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatekin, Kadir

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at investigating social studies student teachers' levels of understanding sociology concepts within social studies curriculum. Study group of the research consists of 266 teacher candidates attending the Department of Social Studies, Faculty of Education, Kastamonu University during 2012 to 2013 education year. A semi-structured…

  20. Matriculating Masculinity: Understanding Undergraduate Men's Precollege Gender Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Frank, III; Harper, Shaun R.

    2015-01-01

    Social scientists, educational researchers, postsecondary educators (including student affairs professionals), and others have attempted to understand problematic behavioral trends and developmental outcomes among undergraduate men. Little attention has been devoted to examining the masculine identities and ideals about manhood that these students…

  1. Captured by Motion: Dance, Action Understanding, and Social Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevdalis, Vassilis; Keller, Peter E.

    2011-01-01

    In this review article, we summarize the main findings from empirical studies that used dance-related forms of rhythmical full body movement as a research tool for investigating action understanding and social cognition. This work has proven to be informative about behavioral and brain mechanisms that mediate links between perceptual and motor…

  2. A social ecology approach to understanding urban ecosystems and landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Morgan Grove; Karen E. Hinson; Robert J. Northrop

    2003-01-01

    The shape and dynamics of cities are the result of physical, biological, and social forces. We include the term dynamic to emphasize that cities change over time and are the result of both idiosyncratic events and dominant trends. To begin to understand the patterns and processes of cities, we approach the idiosyncratic and dominant - whether it is physical, biological...

  3. Using Social Media Sentiment Analysis to Understand Audiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGuire, Mark; Kampf, Constance Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    approach for contextually understanding social media posts. The human interaction step in ad-hoc corpus analysis is central to this methodology as it provides a means to ask critical questions of the content curated through the ad-hoc corpus directly. Results of ad-hoc corpus analysis from this critical......Social media communication is changing the opportunities for technical communicators to really understand audiences when these audiences are active about issues on social media platforms. Through applying ad-hoc corpus building processes to create word lists relevant to specific organizational...... projects, technical communicators can listen to their external users and identify areas of importance with greater accuracy. While other methods of sentiment analysis look for a solution that leads to artificial intelligence in the program, this paper identifies the present needs of a human interaction...

  4. Integrating the social sciences to understand human-water dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, G.; Kuil, L., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Many interesting and exciting socio-hydrological models have been developed in recent years. Such models often aim to capture the dynamic interplay between people and water for a variety of hydrological settings. As such, peoples' behaviours and decisions are brought into the models as drivers of and/or respondents to the hydrological system. To develop and run such models over a sufficiently long time duration to observe how the water-human system evolves the human component is often simplified according to one or two key behaviours, characteristics or decisions (e.g. a decision to move away from a drought or flood area; a decision to pump groundwater, or a decision to plant a less water demanding crop). To simplify the social component, socio-hydrological modellers often pull knowledge and understanding from existing social science theories. This requires them to negotiate complex territory, where social theories may be underdeveloped, contested, dynamically evolving, or case specific and difficult to generalise or upscale. A key question is therefore, how can this process be supported so that the resulting socio-hydrological models adequately describe the system and lead to meaningful understanding of how and why it behaves as it does? Collaborative interdisciplinary research teams that bring together social and natural scientists are likely to be critical. Joint development of the model framework requires specific attention to clarification to expose all underlying assumptions, constructive discussion and negotiation to reach agreement on the modelled system and its boundaries. Mutual benefits to social scientists can be highlighted, i.e. socio-hydrological work can provide insights for further exploring and testing social theories. Collaborative work will also help ensure underlying social theory is made explicit, and may identify ways to include and compare multiple theories. As socio-hydrology progresses towards supporting policy development, approaches that

  5. Motor, linguistic, personal and social aspects of children with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Tragueta FERREIRA-VASQUES

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractA global developmental delay is expected from Down syndrome, affecting motor, cognitive, linguistic and personal-social skills. However, not always these delays are proportional; different conditions occur due to several intrinsic and extrinsic variables that must be controlled to form groups of greater homogeneity.Objective To enhance personal-social, fine motor-adaptive, gross motor and linguistic skills among children with Down syndrome and compare them with typically developing children, matched for gender, socioeconomic status and mental age, while controlling some variables that interfere with the global development.Methods The ethical aspects were fulfilled (Case No. 040/2009. The following inclusion criteria were considered: participants without a history of prematurity, very low birth weight, congenital hypothyroidism, significant hearing and vision problems, and signs of Autism Spectrum Disorder. After the inclusion criteria were considered, 40 children participated in the study, of which 20 had Down syndrome (experimental group - EG, these being of both genders and with chronological ages ranging from 38 to 63 months, and the other 20 being typically developing children (control group - CG, matching the EG in terms of gender, socioeconomic status and mental age, with this age ranging from 13 to 50 months. The evaluation consisted in applying the Denver Developmental Screening Test II, a test that assesses areas such as personal-social, fine motor-adaptive, linguistic and gross motor development. The results were subjected to statistical analysis using Student’s t-test.Results A statistically significant difference was verified between the groups for the language and fine motor-adaptive areas.Conclusion Children with Down syndrome showed lower performance in language and fine motor skills when compared with typically developing children. There was no statistically significant difference in gross motor and personal-social

  6. Understanding Islamist political violence through computational social simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, Jennifer H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mackerrow, Edward P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patelli, Paolo G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eberhardt, Ariane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stradling, Seth G [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the process that enables political violence is of great value in reducing the future demand for and support of violent opposition groups. Methods are needed that allow alternative scenarios and counterfactuals to be scientifically researched. Computational social simulation shows promise in developing 'computer experiments' that would be unfeasible or unethical in the real world. Additionally, the process of modeling and simulation reveals and challenges assumptions that may not be noted in theories, exposes areas where data is not available, and provides a rigorous, repeatable, and transparent framework for analyzing the complex dynamics of political violence. This paper demonstrates the computational modeling process using two simulation techniques: system dynamics and agent-based modeling. The benefits and drawbacks of both techniques are discussed. In developing these social simulations, we discovered that the social science concepts and theories needed to accurately simulate the associated psychological and social phenomena were lacking.

  7. Understanding the process of social network evolution: Online-offline integrated analysis of social tie formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Doyeon; Kim, Wonjoon

    2017-01-01

    It is important to consider the interweaving nature of online and offline social networks when we examine social network evolution. However, it is difficult to find any research that examines the process of social tie formation from an integrated perspective. In our study, we quantitatively measure offline interactions and examine the corresponding evolution of online social network in order to understand the significance of interrelationship between online and offline social factors in generating social ties. We analyze the radio signal strength indicator sensor data from a series of social events to understand offline interactions among the participants and measure the structural attributes of their existing online Facebook social networks. By monitoring the changes in their online social networks before and after offline interactions in a series of social events, we verify that the ability to develop an offline interaction into an online friendship is tied to the number of social connections that participants previously had, while the presence of shared mutual friends between a pair of participants disrupts potential new connections within the pre-designed offline social events. Thus, while our integrative approach enables us to confirm the theory of preferential attachment in the process of network formation, the common neighbor theory is not supported. Our dual-dimensional network analysis allows us to observe the actual process of social network evolution rather than to make predictions based on the assumption of self-organizing networks.

  8. Understanding the process of social network evolution: Online-offline integrated analysis of social tie formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doyeon Kwak

    Full Text Available It is important to consider the interweaving nature of online and offline social networks when we examine social network evolution. However, it is difficult to find any research that examines the process of social tie formation from an integrated perspective. In our study, we quantitatively measure offline interactions and examine the corresponding evolution of online social network in order to understand the significance of interrelationship between online and offline social factors in generating social ties. We analyze the radio signal strength indicator sensor data from a series of social events to understand offline interactions among the participants and measure the structural attributes of their existing online Facebook social networks. By monitoring the changes in their online social networks before and after offline interactions in a series of social events, we verify that the ability to develop an offline interaction into an online friendship is tied to the number of social connections that participants previously had, while the presence of shared mutual friends between a pair of participants disrupts potential new connections within the pre-designed offline social events. Thus, while our integrative approach enables us to confirm the theory of preferential attachment in the process of network formation, the common neighbor theory is not supported. Our dual-dimensional network analysis allows us to observe the actual process of social network evolution rather than to make predictions based on the assumption of self-organizing networks.

  9. Motor Cortex and Motor Cortical Interhemispheric Communication in Walking After Stroke: The Roles of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and Animal Models in Our Current and Future Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalambous, Charalambos C; Bowden, Mark G; Adkins, DeAnna L

    2016-01-01

    Despite the plethora of human neurophysiological research, the bilateral involvement of the leg motor cortical areas and their interhemispheric interaction during both normal and impaired human walking is poorly understood. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), we have expanded our understanding of the role upper-extremity motor cortical areas play in normal movements and how stroke alters this role, and probed the efficacy of interventions to improve post-stroke arm function. However, similar investigations of the legs have lagged behind, in part, due to the anatomical difficulty in using TMS to stimulate the leg motor cortical areas. Additionally, leg movements are predominately bilaterally controlled and require interlimb coordination that may involve both hemispheres. The sensitive, but invasive, tools used in animal models of locomotion hold great potential for increasing our understanding of the bihemispheric motor cortical control of walking. In this review, we discuss 3 themes associated with the bihemispheric motor cortical control of walking after stroke: (a) what is known about the role of the bihemispheric motor cortical control in healthy and poststroke leg movements, (b) how the neural remodeling of the contralesional hemisphere can affect walking recovery after a stroke, and (c) what is the effect of behavioral rehabilitation training of walking on the neural remodeling of the motor cortical areas bilaterally. For each theme, we discuss how rodent models can enhance the present knowledge on human walking by testing hypotheses that cannot be investigated in humans, and how these findings can then be back-translated into the neurorehabilitation of poststroke walking. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Embodied artificial agents for understanding human social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wykowska, Agnieszka; Chaminade, Thierry; Cheng, Gordon

    2016-05-05

    In this paper, we propose that experimental protocols involving artificial agents, in particular the embodied humanoid robots, provide insightful information regarding social cognitive mechanisms in the human brain. Using artificial agents allows for manipulation and control of various parameters of behaviour, appearance and expressiveness in one of the interaction partners (the artificial agent), and for examining effect of these parameters on the other interaction partner (the human). At the same time, using artificial agents means introducing the presence of artificial, yet human-like, systems into the human social sphere. This allows for testing in a controlled, but ecologically valid, manner human fundamental mechanisms of social cognition both at the behavioural and at the neural level. This paper will review existing literature that reports studies in which artificial embodied agents have been used to study social cognition and will address the question of whether various mechanisms of social cognition (ranging from lower- to higher-order cognitive processes) are evoked by artificial agents to the same extent as by natural agents, humans in particular. Increasing the understanding of how behavioural and neural mechanisms of social cognition respond to artificial anthropomorphic agents provides empirical answers to the conundrum 'What is a social agent?' © 2016 The Authors.

  11. Understanding Poverty: Teaching Social Justice in Undergraduate Nursing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, Ann N; Cass, Cary; Cathey, Heather; Smith, Sarah L; Hurley, Shelia

    This article presents results of an exploratory qualitative study examining gains in empathy and social justice beliefs among undergraduate nursing students. As undergraduate nursing education provides the foundation for future forensic nurses, developing successful methods to increase beliefs and behaviors of social empathy and social justice among nursing students will have a beneficial effect on the specialty of forensic nursing. As such, a team of nursing researchers explored the effects of a poverty simulation on the social empathy and social justice beliefs held by undergraduate students. The research team conducted an exploratory qualitative study of student reflective journals. Using an inductive interpretive process, the researchers performed a content analysis of student responses. The researchers identified three constitutive patterns and eight supporting themes as reflected in the students' reflective journals after participation in poverty simulation sessions. This research study found that, when nursing students participate in poverty simulation experiences, they gain an increased understanding of the vulnerability and complexities of living in poverty and are motivated to both advocate for patients and become change agents. Such increases in social empathy and promotion of social justice will inevitably positively affect their future practice and inform their development as forensic nurses.

  12. Biological and social understanding of human nature: biopolitical dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Kostiuchkov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the position of the biopolitical nature of man as a biosocial being given supplies of both the two spheres of life – natural, biological and social. The necessity of understanding of human nature, which by definition are bio-social importance of the approach to the definition of man as an integral, binary-konnotovanoyi of the «social individual – a species» which is characterized by symmetrical opposition – upposition social and biological. It was found that the main task of modern political science, and in particular bio-political studies presented appeals to rethink the political picture of the world in order to predict the development of a new order or a new chaos. Understanding the formation of a new global civilization worldview is today one of the most important problems, which is connected with the main problem of the modern world – the task of preserving life on the planet. It is concluded that the contradictions of human nature – between the biological and the social, physical and spiritual, universal and the particular, natural and artificial, rational and emotional – in today’s conditions are extremely sharp. The said situation requires more in-depth scientific analysis of human nature, the study of the structural level as human biosocial system.

  13. Relationship between motor, imitation and, early social communication skills in children with autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hooshang Dadgar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was investigation the association of motor skills and imitation ability with early social communication skills in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD.Method: Twenty children with ASD aged 3-5 years (M=4.05, SD=0.55 were tested with Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2, the Motor Imitation Scale (MIS and, the Early Social Communication Scales (ESCS.Results: There was significant and strong correlation between TGMD total score and imitation total score(r =.776; p <0.001.However, the relationship between MIS subscales and TGMD-2 locomotor subtest scores was not significant (P>0.05. A significant correlation was found between MIS and TGMD total scores with ESCS subscales except social interaction and responding to behavioral requests subscales.Conclusion: The results support previous studies that indicated both imitation ability and motor function have association with some early social communication skills. However, these results showed the needs for clinicians to target imitation and motor skills in early intervention programs in ASD.

  14. The Relationship between Motor Skills, Perceived Social Support, and Internalizing Problems in a Community Adolescent Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Oreste Mancini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Poor motor skills are associated with a range of psychosocial consequences, including internalizing (anxious and depressive symptoms. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis provides a causal framework to explain this association. The framework posits that motor skills impact internalizing problems through an indirect effect via perceived social support. However, empirical evaluation is required. We examined whether motor skills has an indirect effect on anxious and depressive symptoms via perceived family support domains. Methods: This study used a community sample of 93 adolescents (12-16 years. Participants completed measures of motor skills, perceived social support across three dimensions (family, friend, and significant other, depressive symptoms, and anxious symptoms. Age, gender, verbal IQ, and ADHD symptoms were included as control variables.Results: Regression analysis using PROCESS revealed that motor skills had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived family support, but not by perceived friend support or significant other support. The negative association between motor skills and anxious symptoms was not mediated by any perceived social support domain. Conclusions: Findings are consistent with previous literature indicating an association between motor skills and internalizing problems. However, we identified a different pattern of relationships across anxious and depressive symptoms. While anxiety and depressive symptoms were highly correlated, motor skills had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived family support only. Our findings highlight the importance of family support as a potential protective factor in the onset of depressive symptoms. This study provides partial support for the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis, however further research is required.

  15. Understanding Team Communication Characteristics using Social Network Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ar Ryum; Lee, Seung Woo; Seong, Poong Hyun; Park, Jin Kyun

    2011-01-01

    An important aspect of human behavior in nuclear power plants (NPPs) is team interaction since operating NPPs involves the coordination of several team members among and within workplaces. Since operators in main control room (MCR) get a great deal of information through communication to perform a task, communication is one of the important characteristics for team characteristics. Many researchers have been studying how to understand the characteristics of communication. Social network analysis (SNA) which is considered as an objective and easily applicable method has been already applied in many fields to investigate characteristics of team communication. Henttonen (2010) has struggled to perform the research on the impact of social networks in a team and he found some team communication characteristics could be obtained using some properties of SNA. In this paper, SNA is used to understand communication characteristics within operators in NPPs

  16. Applying social theory to understand health-related behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Daniel; Borgstrom, Erica

    2016-06-01

    Health-related behaviours are a concern for contemporary health policy and practice given their association with a range of illness outcomes. Many of the policies and interventions aimed at changing health-related behaviours assume that people are more or less free to choose their behaviour and how they experience health. Within sociology and anthropology, these behaviours are viewed not as acts of choice but as actions and practices situated within a larger sociocultural context. In this paper, we outline three theoretical perspectives useful in understanding behaviours that may influence one's health in this wider context: theories of social practice, social networks and interactionism. We argue that by better understanding how health-related behaviours are performed in people's everyday lives, more suitable interventions and clinical management can be developed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Understanding Classrooms through Social Network Analysis: A Primer for Social Network Analysis in Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunspan, Daniel Z.; Wiggins, Benjamin L.; Goodreau, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Social interactions between students are a major and underexplored part of undergraduate education. Understanding how learning relationships form in undergraduate classrooms, as well as the impacts these relationships have on learning outcomes, can inform educators in unique ways and improve educational reform. Social network analysis (SNA)…

  18. Relations of Preschoolers' Visual-Motor and Object Manipulation Skills With Executive Function and Social Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Megan; Lipscomb, Shannon; McClelland, Megan M; Duncan, Rob; Becker, Derek; Anderson, Kim; Kile, Molly

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine specific linkages between early visual-motor integration skills and executive function, as well as between early object manipulation skills and social behaviors in the classroom during the preschool year. Ninety-two children aged 3 to 5 years old (M age  = 4.31 years) were recruited to participate. Comprehensive measures of visual-motor integration skills, object manipulation skills, executive function, and social behaviors were administered in the fall and spring of the preschool year. Our findings indicated that children who had better visual-motor integration skills in the fall had better executive function scores (B = 0.47 [0.20], p gender, Head Start status, and site location, but not after controlling for children's baseline levels of executive function. In addition, children who demonstrated better object manipulation skills in the fall showed significantly stronger social behavior in their classrooms (as rated by teachers) in the spring, including more self-control (B - 0.03 [0.00], p social behavior in the fall and other covariates. Children's visual-motor integration and object manipulation skills in the fall have modest to moderate relations with executive function and social behaviors later in the preschool year. These findings have implications for early learning initiatives and school readiness.

  19. How can the study of action kinematics inform our understanding of human social interaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan-Barman, Sujatha; Forbes, Paul A G; Hamilton, Antonia F de C

    2017-10-01

    The kinematics of human actions are influenced by the social context in which they are performed. Motion-capture technology has allowed researchers to build up a detailed and complex picture of how action kinematics vary across different social contexts. Here we review three task domains-point-to-point imitation tasks, motor interference tasks and reach-to-grasp tasks-to critically evaluate how these tasks can inform our understanding of social interactions. First, we consider how actions within these task domains are performed in a non-social context, before highlighting how a plethora of social cues can perturb the baseline kinematics. We show that there is considerable overlap in the findings from these different tasks domains but also highlight the inconsistencies in the literature and the possible reasons for this. Specifically, we draw attention to the pitfalls of dealing with rich, kinematic data. As a way to avoid these pitfalls, we call for greater standardisation and clarity in the reporting of kinematic measures and suggest the field would benefit from a move towards more naturalistic tasks. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Rethinking conformity and imitation: divergence, convergence, and social understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert eHodges

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Social and developmental psychologists have stressed the pervasiveness and strength of humans’ tendencies to conform and to imitate, and social anthropologists have argued that these tendencies are crucial to the formation of cultures. Research from four domains is reviewed and elaborated to show that divergence is also pervasive and potent, and is interwoven with convergence in a complex set of dynamics that is often unnoticed or minimized. First, classic research in social conformity is reinterpreted in terms of truth, trust, and social solidarity, revealing that dissent is its most salient feature. Second, recent studies of children’s use of testimony to guide action reveal a surprisingly sophisticated balance of trust and prudence, and a concern for truth and charity. Third, new experiments indicate that people diverge from others even under conditions where conformity seems assured. Fourth, current studies of imitation provide strong evidence that children are both selective and faithful in who, what, and why they follow others. All of the evidence reviewed points toward children and adults as being engaged, embodied partners with others, motivated to learn and understand the world, others, and themselves in ways that go beyond goals and rules, prediction and control. Even young children act as if they are in a dialogical relationship with others and the world, rather than acting as if they are solo explorers or blind followers. Overall, the evidence supports the hypothesis that social understanding cannot be reduced to convergence or divergence, but includes ongoing activities that seek greater comprehensiveness and complexity in the ability to act and interact effectively, appropriately, and with integrity.

  1. Rethinking conformity and imitation: divergence, convergence, and social understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Bert H

    2014-01-01

    Social and developmental psychologists have stressed the pervasiveness and strength of humans' tendencies to conform and to imitate, and social anthropologists have argued that these tendencies are crucial to the formation of cultures. Research from four domains is reviewed and elaborated to show that divergence is also pervasive and potent, and it is interwoven with convergence in a complex set of dynamics that is often unnoticed or minimized. First, classic research in social conformity is reinterpreted in terms of truth, trust, and social solidarity, revealing that dissent is its most salient feature. Second, recent studies of children's use of testimony to guide action reveal a surprisingly sophisticated balance of trust and prudence, and a concern for truth and charity. Third, new experiments indicate that people diverge from others even under conditions where conformity seems assured. Fourth, current studies of imitation provide strong evidence that children are both selective and faithful in who, what, and why they follow others. All of the evidence reviewed points toward children and adults as being engaged, embodied partners with others, motivated to learn and understand the world, others, and themselves in ways that go beyond goals and rules, prediction and control. Even young children act as if they are in a dialogical relationship with others and the world, rather than acting as if they are solo explorers or blind followers. Overall, the evidence supports the hypothesis that social understanding cannot be reduced to convergence or divergence, but includes ongoing activities that seek greater comprehensiveness and complexity in the ability to act and interact effectively, appropriately, and with integrity.

  2. Relations of Preschoolers' Visual-Motor and Object Manipulation Skills with Executive Function and Social Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Megan; Lipscomb, Shannon; McClelland, Megan M.; Duncan, Rob; Becker, Derek; Anderson, Kim; Kile, Molly

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article was to examine specific linkages between early visual-motor integration skills and executive function, as well as between early object manipulation skills and social behaviors in the classroom during the preschool year. Method: Ninety-two children aged 3 to 5 years old (M[subscript age] = 4.31 years) were…

  3. Narrativity and enaction: the social nature of literary narrative understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Yanna B

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an understanding of literary narrative as a form of social cognition and situates the study of such narratives in relation to the new comprehensive approach to human cognition, enaction. The particular form of enactive cognition that narrative understanding is proposed to depend on is that of participatory sense-making, as developed in the work of Di Paolo and De Jaegher. Currently there is no consensus as to what makes a good literary narrative, how it is understood, and why it plays such an irreplaceable role in human experience. The proposal thus identifies a gap in the existing research on narrative by describing narrative as a form of intersubjective process of sense-making between two agents, a teller and a reader. It argues that making sense of narrative literature is an interactional process of co-constructing a story-world with a narrator. Such an understanding of narrative makes a decisive break with both text-centered approaches that have dominated both structuralist and early cognitivist study of narrative, as well as pragmatic communicative ones that view narrative as a form of linguistic implicature. The interactive experience that narrative affords and necessitates at the same time, I argue, serves to highlight the active yet cooperative and communal nature of human sociality, expressed in the many forms than human beings interact in, including literary ones.

  4. Narrativity and Enaction: The Social Nature of Literary Narrative Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanna B. Popova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an understanding of literary narrative as a form of social cognition and situates the study of such narratives in relation to the new comprehensive approach to human cognition, enaction. The particular form of enactive cognition that narrative understanding is proposed to depend on is that of participatory sense-making, as developed in the work of Di Paolo and De Jaegher. Currently there is no consensus as to what makes a good literary narrative, how it is understood, and why it plays such an irreplaceable role in human experience. The proposal thus identifies a gap in the existing research on narrative by describing narrative as a form of intersubjective process of sense-making between two agents, a teller and a reader. It argues that making sense of narrative literature is an interactional process of co-constructing a story-world with a narrator. Such an understanding of narrative makes a decisive break with both text-centered approaches that have dominated both structuralist and early cognitivist study of narrative, as well as pragmatic communicative ones that view narrative as a form of linguistic implicature. The interactive experience that narrative affords and necessitates at the same time, I argue, serves to highlight the active yet cooperative and communal nature of human sociality, expressed in the many forms than human beings interact in, including literary ones.

  5. Understanding Social Learning Behaviors via a Virtual Field Trip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Bai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a multidisciplinary study investigating how a virtual rather than face-to-face field trip can be conducted in a real-world setting and how students respond to such a social learning opportunity. Our participants followed a story of a stroke patient at her virtual home and in a virtual hospital via a teaching vignette. They were then given a new case and got on a virtual trip via a multiuser virtual environment. They played the roles of patients, relatives, doctors, or nurses, experiencing the emotional, physical, or social impacts those stakeholders may go through. Our study finds the overall participation of the Virtual Group is 50% more than the Text Group. Although the Virtual Group generates much more nodes in total, they focused much less on knowledge sharing and comparing than the Text Group (46 vs. 67, but more on other higher-level aspects of social interactions, such as knowledge discovery (57 vs. 42, co-construction (66 vs. 39, testing and modification (58 vs. 24 and application of newly constructed meaning (60 vs. 16. Analysis of students’ virtual field activities and in-depth discussions of important issues implied are included to help understand social learning behaviors during a virtual field trip. Sustainability of such systems is discussed.

  6. Leveraging social networks for understanding the evolution of epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background To understand how infectious agents disseminate throughout a population it is essential to capture the social model in a realistic manner. This paper presents a novel approach to modeling the propagation of the influenza virus throughout a realistic interconnection network based on actual individual interactions which we extract from online social networks. The advantage is that these networks can be extracted from existing sources which faithfully record interactions between people in their natural environment. We additionally allow modeling the characteristics of each individual as well as customizing his daily interaction patterns by making them time-dependent. Our purpose is to understand how the infection spreads depending on the structure of the contact network and the individuals who introduce the infection in the population. This would help public health authorities to respond more efficiently to epidemics. Results We implement a scalable, fully distributed simulator and validate the epidemic model by comparing the simulation results against the data in the 2004-2005 New York State Department of Health Report (NYSDOH), with similar temporal distribution results for the number of infected individuals. We analyze the impact of different types of connection models on the virus propagation. Lastly, we analyze and compare the effects of adopting several different vaccination policies, some of them based on individual characteristics -such as age- while others targeting the super-connectors in the social model. Conclusions This paper presents an approach to modeling the propagation of the influenza virus via a realistic social model based on actual individual interactions extracted from online social networks. We implemented a scalable, fully distributed simulator and we analyzed both the dissemination of the infection and the effect of different vaccination policies on the progress of the epidemics. The epidemic values predicted by our simulator match

  7. Leveraging social networks for understanding the evolution of epidemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Gonzalo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To understand how infectious agents disseminate throughout a population it is essential to capture the social model in a realistic manner. This paper presents a novel approach to modeling the propagation of the influenza virus throughout a realistic interconnection network based on actual individual interactions which we extract from online social networks. The advantage is that these networks can be extracted from existing sources which faithfully record interactions between people in their natural environment. We additionally allow modeling the characteristics of each individual as well as customizing his daily interaction patterns by making them time-dependent. Our purpose is to understand how the infection spreads depending on the structure of the contact network and the individuals who introduce the infection in the population. This would help public health authorities to respond more efficiently to epidemics. Results We implement a scalable, fully distributed simulator and validate the epidemic model by comparing the simulation results against the data in the 2004-2005 New York State Department of Health Report (NYSDOH, with similar temporal distribution results for the number of infected individuals. We analyze the impact of different types of connection models on the virus propagation. Lastly, we analyze and compare the effects of adopting several different vaccination policies, some of them based on individual characteristics -such as age- while others targeting the super-connectors in the social model. Conclusions This paper presents an approach to modeling the propagation of the influenza virus via a realistic social model based on actual individual interactions extracted from online social networks. We implemented a scalable, fully distributed simulator and we analyzed both the dissemination of the infection and the effect of different vaccination policies on the progress of the epidemics. The epidemic values

  8. Motor skills, haptic perception and social abilities in children with mild speech disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müürsepp, Iti; Aibast, Herje; Gapeyeva, Helena; Pääsuke, Mati

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate motor skills, haptic object recognition and social interaction in 5-year-old children with mild specific expressive language impairment (expressive-SLI) and articulation disorder (AD) in comparison of age- and gender matched healthy children. Twenty nine children (23 boys and 6 girls) with expressive-SLI, 27 children (20 boys and 7 girls) with AD and 30 children (23 boys and 7 girls) with typically developing language as controls participated in our study. The children were examined for manual dexterity, ball skills, static and dynamic balance by M-ABC test, haptic object recognition and for social interaction by questionnaire completed by teachers. Children with mild expressive-SLI demonstrated significantly poorer results in all subtests of motor skills (psocial interaction (p0.05) in measured parameters between children with AD and controls. Children with expressive-SLI performed considerably poorer compared to AD group in balance subtest (psocial interaction are considerably more affected than in children with AD. Although motor difficulties in speech production are prevalent in AD, it is localised and does not involve children's general motor skills, haptic perception or social interaction. Copyright © 2011 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Relationship Between Motor Skills, Social Problems, and ADHD Symptomatology: Does It Vary According to Parent and Teacher Report?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulardins, Juliana B; Rigoli, Daniela; Loh, Pek Ru; Kane, Robert; Licari, Melissa; Hands, Beth; Oliveira, Jorge A; Piek, Jan

    2018-06-01

    This study investigated the relationship between motor performance; attentional, hyperactive, and impulsive symptoms; and social problems. Correlations between parents' versus teachers' ratings of social problems and ADHD symptomatology were also examined. A total of 129 children aged 9 to 12 years were included. ADHD symptoms and social problems were identified based on Conners' Rating Scales-Revised: L, and the McCarron Assessment of Neuromuscular Development was used to assess motor skills. After controlling for ADHD symptomatology, motor skills remained a significant predictor of social problems in the teacher model but not in the parent model. After controlling for motor skills, inattentive (not hyperactive-impulsive) symptoms were a significant predictor of social problems in the parent model, whereas hyperactive-impulsive (not inattentive) symptoms were a significant predictor of social problems in the teacher model. The findings suggested that intervention strategies should consider the interaction between symptoms and environmental contexts.

  10. Understanding social stigma in women with hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, Gillian; Beeching, Nicholas

    The aim of this research is to gain a more complete understanding of the impact of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) on women. This research used qualitative methods. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with eight HCV-positive women. The interviews explored counselling and testing, social stigma, treatment options, transmission and gender roles, and the influence of reductionism on the experience of HCV-positive women attending services. All the women experienced significant difficulties coming to terms with the diagnosis. Many had worries about transmission and stigma--these worries affected their relationships, including those with sexual partners, family members and children. Most of the women had mixed feelings about knowing their diagnosis and varying levels of satisfaction with treatments and services provided. Women appear to have individual anxieties related to the transmission of HCV and their ability to carry out their social roles. They were particularly concerned about social stigma, sexual transmission, pregnancy and childcare. These worries affected their close relationships and resulted in concerns about their ability to fulfil expected gender roles.

  11. Analysis of Online Social Networks to Understand Information Sharing Behaviors Through Social Cognitive Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hong-Jun; Tourassi, Georgia

    2014-05-01

    Analyzing the contents of online social networks is an effective process for monitoring and understanding peoples' behaviors. Since the nature of conversation and information propagation is similar to traditional conversation and learning, one of the popular socio-cognitive methods, social cognitive theory was applied to online social networks to. Two major news topics about colon cancer were chosen to monitor traffic of Twitter messages. The activity of "leaders" on the issue (i.e., news companies or people will prior Twitter activity on topics related to colon cancer) was monitored. In addition, the activity of "followers", people who never discussed the topics before, but replied to the discussions was also monitored. Topics that produce tangible benefits such as positive outcomes from appropriate preventive actions received dramatically more attention and online social media traffic. Such characteristics can be explained with social cognitive theory and thus present opportunities for effective health campaigns.

  12. Age-specific neural strategies to maintain motor performance after an acute social stress bout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Ranjana K; Rhee, Joohyun

    2017-07-01

    Stress due to cognitive demands and fatigue have shown to impair motor performance in older adults; however, the effect of social stress and its influence on prefrontal cortex (PFC) functioning in older adults during upper extremity motor performance tasks is not known. The present study explored the after-effects of an acute social stress bout on neural strategies, measured using PFC and hand/arm muscle activation, and adopted by younger and older adults to maintain handgrip force control. Nine older [74.1 (6.5) years; three men, six women] and ten younger [24.2 (5.0) years, four men, six women] adults performed handgrip force control trials at 30% maximum voluntary contractions before and after the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). PFC activity was measured using functional near infrared spectroscopy and muscle activity from the flexor and extensor carpi radialis (FCR/ECR) was measured using electromyography. In general, aging was associated with decreased force steadiness and force complexity with a concomitant increase in bilateral PFC activity. While motor performance remained comparable before and after the TSST stress session in both age groups, the associated neural strategies differed between groups. While the stress condition was associated with lower FCR and ECR activity in younger adults despite no change in the PFC activation, stress was associated with increases in FCR activity in older adults. This stress-related compensatory neural strategy of increasing hand/arm muscle activation, potentially via the additional recruitment of the stress-motor neural circuitry, may have played a role in maintaining motor performance in older adults.

  13. Neural mirroring and social interaction: Motor system involvement during action observation relates to early peer cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endedijk, H M; Meyer, M; Bekkering, H; Cillessen, A H N; Hunnius, S

    2017-04-01

    Whether we hand over objects to someone, play a team sport, or make music together, social interaction often involves interpersonal action coordination, both during instances of cooperation and entrainment. Neural mirroring is thought to play a crucial role in processing other's actions and is therefore considered important for social interaction. Still, to date, it is unknown whether interindividual differences in neural mirroring play a role in interpersonal coordination during different instances of social interaction. A relation between neural mirroring and interpersonal coordination has particularly relevant implications for early childhood, since successful early interaction with peers is predictive of a more favorable social development. We examined the relation between neural mirroring and children's interpersonal coordination during peer interaction using EEG and longitudinal behavioral data. Results showed that 4-year-old children with higher levels of motor system involvement during action observation (as indicated by lower beta-power) were more successful in early peer cooperation. This is the first evidence for a relation between motor system involvement during action observation and interpersonal coordination during other instances of social interaction. The findings suggest that interindividual differences in neural mirroring are related to interpersonal coordination and thus successful social interaction. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. The Role of Social Factors in the Accessibility of Urban Areas for People with Motor Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Gharebaghi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities recognizes the right of people with disabilities to attain full social participation without discrimination on the basis of disability. Furthermore, mobility is one of the most important life habits for achieving such participation. Providing people with disabilities with information regarding accessible paths and accessible urban places therefore plays a vital role in achieving these goals. The accessibility of urban places and pedestrian networks depends, however, on the interaction between human capabilities and environmental factors, and may be subdivided into physical or social factors. An optimal analysis of accessibility requires both kinds of factors, social as well as physical. Although there has been considerable work concerning the physical aspects of the environment, social aspects have been largely neglected. In this paper, we highlight the importance of the social dimension of environments and consider a more integrated approach for accessibility assessment. We highlight the ways by which social factors such as policies can be incorporated into accessibility assessment of pedestrian networks for people with motor disabilities. Furthermore, we propose a framework to assess the accessibility of pedestrian network segments that incorporates the confidence level of people with motor disabilities. This framework is then used as a tool to investigate the influence of different policies on accessibility conditions of pedestrian networks. The methodology is implemented in the Saint-Roch neighborhood in Quebec City and the effectiveness of three policy actions is examined by way of illustration.

  15. Socializing infants towards a cultural understanding of expressing negative affect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the socialization of emotion expression in infancy. It argues that in order to adequately understand emotion development we need to consider the appraisal of emotion expression through caregivers in mundane, everyday interactions. Drawing on sociocultural and Bakhtinian...... theorizing, it claims that caregivers’ appraisals of infants’ emotion expression are dialogically intertwined with broader speech genres or “communicative genres” of a community and the emotional-volitional tone and normative orientations embedded in them. It aims to investigate how communicative genres......’ expression of negative affect. We found distinct patterns of coconstructing the interaction that point to different normative ori- entations and communicative genres that can be considered to be specific to the two sociocultural contexts. These communicative genres were found to be in line with broader...

  16. Higher Levels of Psychopathy Predict Poorer Motor Control: Implications for Understanding the Psychopathy Construct

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Michael D.; Bresin, Konrad

    2014-01-01

    A review of the literature suggests that higher levels of psychopathy may be linked to less effective behavioral control. However, several commentators have urged caution in making statements of this type in the absence of direct evidence. In two studies (total N = 142), moment-to-moment accuracy in a motor control task was examined as a function of dimensional variations in psychopathy in an undergraduate population. As hypothesized, motor control was distinctively worse at higher levels of ...

  17. Understanding Interorganizational Learning Based on Social Spaces and Learning Episodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Rebelato Mozzato

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Different organizational settings have been gaining ground in the world economy, resulting in a proliferation of different forms of strategic alliances that translate into a growth in the number of organizations that have started to deal with interorganizational relationships with different actors. These circumstances reinforce Crossan, Lane, White and Djurfeldt (1995 and Crossan, Mauer and White (2011 in exploring what authors refer to as the fourth, interorganizational, level of learning. These authors, amongst others, suggest that the process of interorganizational learning (IOL warrants investigation, as its scope of analysis needs widening and deepening. Therefore, this theoretical essay is an attempt to understand IOL as a dynamic process found in interorganizational cooperative relationships that can take place in different structured and unstructured social spaces and that can generate learning episodes. According to this view, IOL is understood as part of an organizational learning continuum and is analyzed within the framework of practical rationality in an approach that is less cognitive and more social-behavioral.

  18. The effects of yoga practice in school physical education on children's motor abilities and social behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Folleto, J?lia C; Pereira, Keila RG; Valentini, Nadia Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Background: In recent years, yoga programs in childhood have been implemented in schools, to promote the development for children. Aim: To investigate the effects of yoga program in physical education classes on the motor abilities and social behavior parameters of 6–8-year-old children. Methods: The study included 16 children from the 1st grade of a public elementary school in the South of Brazil. The children participated in a 12-week intervention, twice weekly, with 45 min each sessi...

  19. The effects of yoga practice in school physical education on children's motor abilities and social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folleto, Júlia C; Pereira, Keila Rg; Valentini, Nadia Cristina

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, yoga programs in childhood have been implemented in schools, to promote the development for children. To investigate the effects of yoga program in physical education classes on the motor abilities and social behavior parameters of 6-8-year-old children. The study included 16 children from the 1(st) grade of a public elementary school in the South of Brazil. The children participated in a 12-week intervention, twice weekly, with 45 min each session. To assess children's performance, we used the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency - Second Edition, the flexibility test (sit and reach - Eurofit, 1988), the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children and semi-structured interviews with children, parents, and classroom' teacher. Data were analyzed with Wilcoxon test and level of significance was 5%. The yoga program was well accepted by children, children also demonstrated significant and positive changes in overall motor abilities scores (balance, strength, and flexibility). In addition, the interviews reported changing in social behavior and the use of the knowledge learned in the program in contexts outside of school. These findings suggest that the implementation of yoga practice in physical education lessons contributed to children's development.

  20. Motor Skills and Social Impairments in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shogo Hirata

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the Japanese version of the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ-J and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS in Japanese children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. The participants were 19 children with ASD. The DCDQ-J is a parent questionnaire that can assess the degree of motor skill impairments, and the SRS assesses the severity of social impairments. To check the criterion-related validity of the DCDQ-J in children with ASD, the Japanese version of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 (MABC2-J was also conducted. The total score of the DCDQ-J was significantly negatively correlated with the SRS score in the same way as the MABC2-J total score. These results indicate that the severity of social impairments in children with ASD is related not only to the child’s fundamental motor abilities but also to practical motor skills in everyday life.

  1. The functional implications of motor, cognitive, psychiatric, and social problem-solving states in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Liew, Charles; Gluhm, Shea; Goldstein, Jody; Cronan, Terry A; Corey-Bloom, Jody

    2013-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a genetic, neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor, cognitive, and psychiatric dysfunction. In HD, the inability to solve problems successfully affects not only disease coping, but also interpersonal relationships, judgment, and independent living. The aim of the present study was to examine social problem-solving (SPS) in well-characterized HD and at-risk (AR) individuals and to examine its unique and conjoint effects with motor, cognitive, and psychiatric states on functional ratings. Sixty-three participants, 31 HD and 32 gene-positive AR, were included in the study. Participants completed the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised: Long (SPSI-R:L), a 52-item, reliable, standardized measure of SPS. Items are aggregated under five scales (Positive, Negative, and Rational Problem-Solving; Impulsivity/Carelessness and Avoidance Styles). Participants also completed the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale functional, behavioral, and cognitive assessments, as well as additional neuropsychological examinations and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90R). A structural equation model was used to examine the effects of motor, cognitive, psychiatric, and SPS states on functionality. The multifactor structural model fit well descriptively. Cognitive and motor states uniquely and significantly predicted function in HD; however, neither psychiatric nor SPS states did. SPS was, however, significantly related to motor, cognitive, and psychiatric states, suggesting that it may bridge the correlative gap between psychiatric and cognitive states in HD. SPS may be worth assessing in conjunction with the standard gamut of clinical assessments in HD. Suggestions for future research and implications for patients, families, caregivers, and clinicians are discussed.

  2. Object-directed imitation in autism spectrum disorder is differentially influenced by motoric task complexity, but not social contextual cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetcuti, Lacey; Hudry, Kristelle; Grant, Megan; Vivanti, Giacomo

    2017-11-01

    We examined the role of social motivation and motor execution factors in object-directed imitation difficulties in autism spectrum disorder. A series of to-be-imitated actions was presented to 35 children with autism spectrum disorder and 20 typically developing children on an Apple ® iPad ® by a socially responsive or aloof model, under conditions of low and high motor demand. There were no differences in imitation performance (i.e. the number of actions reproduced within a fixed sequence), for either group, in response to a model who acted socially responsive or aloof. Children with autism spectrum disorder imitated the high motor demand task more poorly than the low motor demand task, while imitation performance for typically developing children was equivalent across the low and high motor demand conditions. Furthermore, imitative performance in the autism spectrum disorder group was unrelated to social reciprocity, though positively associated with fine motor coordination. These results suggest that difficulties in object-directed imitation in autism spectrum disorder are the result of motor execution difficulties, not reduced social motivation.

  3. Research Paper: Effects of Social Skills Training on Social Participation Among Physical and Motor Disabled People in Educational Complex Charity, Raad Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paria Pourhossein Hendabad

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion According to the results of this study, holding training sessions on social skills can be effective for the physical and motor disabled people. So, it is likely that the widespread use of this intervention by professionals can relieve the limitations of participation of people with physical and motor disability.

  4. The effects of an early motor skill intervention on motor skills, levels of physical activity, and socialization in young children with autism spectrum disorder: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketcheson, Leah; Hauck, Janet; Ulrich, Dale

    2017-05-01

    Despite evidence suggesting one of the earliest indicators of an eventual autism spectrum disorder diagnoses is an early motor delay, there remain very few interventions targeting motor behavior as the primary outcome for young children with autism spectrum disorder. The aim of this pilot study was to measure the efficacy of an intensive motor skill intervention on motor skills (Test of Gross Motor Development-2), physical activity (accelerometers), and socialization (Playground Observation of Peer Engagement) in young children with autism spectrum disorder. A total of 20 children with autism spectrum disorder aged 4-6 years participated. The experimental group ( n = 11) participated in an 8-week intervention consisting of motor skill instruction for 4 h/day, 5 days/week. The control group ( n = 9) did not receive the intervention. A repeated-measures analysis of covariance revealed statistically significant differences between groups in all three motor outcomes, locomotor ( F(1, 14) = 10.07, p intervention services delivered to young children with autism spectrum disorder.

  5. The Associations among Motor Ability, Social-Communication Skills, and Participation in Daily Life Activities in Children with Low-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Limor; Moran, Adva; Bart, Orit

    2017-01-01

    Decreased motor ability is a common feature in autism, leading to the proposal of a motor-social link in autism. The purpose of the study was to assess the contribution of motor abilities and social-communication skills to children's participation in daily activities, among children with low-functioning autism spectrum disorder (LFASD).…

  6. Towards a molecular understanding of the apicomplexan actin motor: on a road to novel targets for malaria remedies?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumpula, Esa-Pekka [University of Oulu, PO Box 3000, 90014 Oulu (Finland); Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); German Electron Synchrotron, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Kursula, Inari, E-mail: inari.kursula@helmholtz-hzi.de [University of Oulu, PO Box 3000, 90014 Oulu (Finland); Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); German Electron Synchrotron, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); University of Bergen, Jonas Lies vei 91, 5009 Bergen (Norway)

    2015-04-16

    In this review, current structural understanding of the apicomplexan glideosome and actin regulation is described. Apicomplexan parasites are the causative agents of notorious human and animal diseases that give rise to considerable human suffering and economic losses worldwide. The most prominent parasites of this phylum are the malaria-causing Plasmodium species, which are widespread in tropical and subtropical regions, and Toxoplasma gondii, which infects one third of the world’s population. These parasites share a common form of gliding motility which relies on an actin–myosin motor. The components of this motor and the actin-regulatory proteins in Apicomplexa have unique features compared with all other eukaryotes. This, together with the crucial roles of these proteins, makes them attractive targets for structure-based drug design. In recent years, several structures of glideosome components, in particular of actins and actin regulators from apicomplexan parasites, have been determined, which will hopefully soon allow the creation of a complete molecular picture of the parasite actin–myosin motor and its regulatory machinery. Here, current knowledge of the function of this motor is reviewed from a structural perspective.

  7. Understanding intentional actions from observers' viewpoints: A social neuroscience perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoda, Masaki

    2016-11-01

    When we see others, we also try to 'see' their unobservable states of minds, such as beliefs, desires, and intentions. We carefully monitor others' actions, as we assume that those actions are outward manifestations of their internal states. Actors and observers can have divergent views on the cause of the same actions. Critically, it is often the observers' view that affects important decisions in social life, from deciding the optimal level of cooperation to judging moral responsibility and court's decisions. Thus, the judgment about intentionality and agency in others' actions determines the way in which the observer deals with the actor. The primate brain has two separate neural systems that function in understanding others' actions and intentions. The mirror system is activated by others' visible actions and predicts their physical consequences in goal terms, whereas the mentalizing system is primarily involved in the prediction of others' intentions and upcoming actions regardless of whether others' actions are directly observable or not. The functional roles of the two systems have sometimes been described as mutually independent or even oppositional. I propose a hypothesis that the two systems may collaborate closely for judging the sense of other-agency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  8. University students' understanding of social anxiety disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Miyake, Yoshie; Okamoto, Yuri; Jinnin, Ran; Yashiki, Hisako; Uchino, Teiji; Isobe, Noriko; Takata, Jun; Kojima, Nanae; Nihonmatsu, Misato; Yokosaki, Yasuyuki; Hiyama, Toru; Yoshihara, Masaharu

    2014-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder is an important cause of psychosocial morbidity in adolescents and young adults. Problems in adolescents and young adults with social anxiety disorder would be a topic in recent years in campus mental health. We examined the opinion of social anxiety disorder on university students. We found that many students felt anxiety in various social scenes, and some students were worried about their anxiety. Most of the students understood the importance of mental treatment for...

  9. An imaging genetics approach to understanding social influence

    OpenAIRE

    Emily eFalk; Emily eFalk; Baldwin eWay; Agnes eJasinska

    2012-01-01

    Normative social influences shape nearly every aspect of our lives, yet the biological processes mediating the impact of these social influences on behavior remain incompletely understood. In this Hypothesis, we outline a theoretical framework and an integrative research approach to the study of social influences on the brain and genetic moderators of such effects. First, we review neuroimaging evidence linking social influence and conformity to the brain’s reward system. We next review neur...

  10. An imaging genetics approach to understanding social influence

    OpenAIRE

    Falk, Emily B.; Way, Baldwin M.; Jasinska, Agnes J.

    2012-01-01

    Normative social influences shape nearly every aspect of our lives, yet the biological processes mediating the impact of these social influences on behavior remain incompletely understood. In this Hypothesis, we outline a theoretical framework and an integrative research approach to the study of social influences on the brain and genetic moderators of such effects. First, we review neuroimaging evidence linking social influence and conformity to the brain's reward system. We next review neuro...

  11. A developmental social neuroscience model for understanding loneliness in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Nichol M L; Yeung, Patcy P S; Lee, Tatia M C

    2018-02-01

    Loneliness is prevalent in adolescents. Although it can be a normative experience, children and adolescents who experience loneliness are often at risk for anxiety, depression, and suicide. Research efforts have been made to identify the neurobiological basis of such distressful feelings in our social brain. In adolescents, the social brain is still undergoing significant development, which may contribute to their increased and differential sensitivity to the social environment. Many behavioral studies have shown the significance of attachment security and social skills in adolescents' interactions with the social world. In this review, we propose a developmental social neuroscience model that extends from the social neuroscience model of loneliness. In particular, we argue that the social brain and social skills are both important for the development of adolescents' perceived loneliness and that adolescents' familial attachment sets the baseline for neurobiological development. By reviewing the related behavioral and neuroimaging literature, we propose a developmental social neuroscience model to explain the heightened perception of loneliness in adolescents using social skills and attachment style as neurobiological moderators. We encourage future researchers to investigate adolescents' perceived social connectedness from the developmental neuroscience perspective.

  12. Understanding Social Cohesion Differences in Common Interest Housing Developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van R.I.; Eshuis, J.; Twist, van M.J.W.; Anquetil, V.

    2014-01-01

    The worldwide upsurge of common interest housing developments (CIDs) has stirred up debates regarding community development and social cohesion. Critics have argued that CIDs lack social cohesion because people regulate the community via rules and contracts rather than through social relationships

  13. Understanding willingness to pay for social network sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vock, M.; van Dolen, W.; de Ruyter, K.

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigate how perceived customer value can be translated into economic returns for online social network sites (SNS). The (joint) impact of two value propositions, social capital and entitativity, is assessed. Perceived economic and social customer value are investigated as outcomes of

  14. Understanding Social Media Use as Alienation: A Review and Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, James

    2013-01-01

    The opportunities social media provide for agential expressions of subjectivity and experiential learning, relative to social media's role in reproducing digital-era capitalism, are the subject of keen debate. There is now a burgeoning academic literature which suggests that social media users are, to a greater or lesser degree, alienated by…

  15. Understanding how social networking influences perceived satisfaction with conference experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riper, Carena J.; van Riper, Charles; Kyle, Gerard T.; Lee, Martha E.

    2013-01-01

    Social networking is a key benefit derived from participation in conferences that bind the ties of a professional community. Building social networks can lead to satisfactory experiences while furthering participants' long- and short-term career goals. Although investigations of social networking can lend insight into how to effectively engage individuals and groups within a professional cohort, this area has been largely overlooked in past research. The present study investigates the relationship between social networking and satisfaction with the 10th Biennial Conference of Research on the Colorado Plateau using structural equation modelling. Results partially support the hypothesis that three dimensions of social networking – interpersonal connections, social cohesion, and secondary associations – positively contribute to the performance of various conference attributes identified in two focus group sessions. The theoretical and applied contributions of this paper shed light on the social systems formed within professional communities and resource allocation among service providers.

  16. Social media for intelligence: practical examples of analysis for understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhlin, Jonas A.; Richardson, John

    2016-05-01

    Social media has become a dominating feature in modern life. Platforms like Facebook, Twitter, and Google have users all over the world. People from all walks of life use social media. For the intelligence services, social media is an element that cannot be ignored. It holds immense amount of information, and the potential to extract useful intelligence cannot be ignored. Social media has been around for sufficient time that most intelligence services recognize the fact that social media needs some form of attention. However, for the intelligence collector and analyst several aspects must be uncovered in order to fully exploit social media for intelligence purposes. This paper will present Project Avatar, an experiment in obtaining effective intelligence from social media sources, and several emerging analytic techniques to expand the intelligence gathered from these sources.

  17. Social Media for Intelligence: Practical Examples of Analysis for Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhlin, Jonas Alastair

    2016-01-01

    be uncovered in order to fully exploit social media for intelligence purposes. This paper will present Project Avatar, an experiment in obtaining effective intelligence from social media sources, and several emerging analytic techniques to expand the intelligence gathered from these sources.......Social media has become a dominating feature in modern life. Platforms like Facebook, Twitter, and Google have users all over the world. People from all walks of life use social media. For the intelligence services, social media is an element that cannot be ignored. It holds immense amount...... of information, and the potential to extract useful intelligence cannot be ignored. Social media has been around for sufficient time that most intelligence services recognize the fact that social media needs some form of attention. However, for the intelligence collector and analyst several aspects must...

  18. Autism spectrum disorders and motor skills: the effect on socialization as measured by the Baby And Infant Screen For Children with aUtIsm Traits (BISCUIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipes, Megan; Matson, Johnny L; Horovitz, Max

    2011-01-01

    To examine the effects of ASD diagnosis and motor skills on socialization in young children. Two samples were used: gross motor skills sample (n = 408) and fine motor skills sample (n = 402). The Battelle Developmental Inventory-Second Edition assessed motor skills, while the Baby and Infant Screen for Children with aUtIsm Traits, Part 1 assessed socialization. A main effect of diagnosis was found for both samples on socialization such that those with autism exhibited the most severe deficits followed by those with PDD-NOS and then atypically developing children. There was a main effect for gross motor skills, with high gross motor skills showing less social impairment. The interaction term was only significant in regards to fine motor skills. The individual effects of ASD diagnosis and motor impairment as well as the interaction have implications for the assessment and treatment in these individuals.

  19. Perspectives on Early Power Mobility Training, Motivation, and Social Participation in Young Children with Motor Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang-Han Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of traditional training programs (e.g., neurodevelopmental therapy in promoting independent mobility and early child development across all three International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health levels lacks rigorous research support. Therefore, early power mobility training needs to be considered as a feasible intervention for very young children who are unlikely to achieve independent mobility. This perspective article has three aims: (1 to provide empirical evidence of differences in early independent mobility, motivation, daily life activities, and social participation between young children with typical development and motor disabilities; (2 to discuss the contemporary concepts of and approaches to early power mobility training for young children with motor disabilities and the current need for changes to such training; and (3 to provide recommendations for early power mobility training in pediatric rehabilitation. Independent mobility is critical for social participation; therefore, power mobility can be accessible and implemented as early as possible, specifically for infants who are at risk for mobility or developmental delay. To maximize the positive effects of independent mobility on children’s social participation, early power mobility training must consider their levels of functioning, the amount of exploration and contextual factors, including individual and environmental factors.

  20. An imaging genetics approach to understanding social influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily eFalk

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Normative social influences shape nearly every aspect of our lives, yet the biological processes mediating the impact of these social influences on behavior remain incompletely understood. In this Hypothesis, we outline a theoretical framework and an integrative research approach to the study of social influences on the brain and genetic moderators of such effects. First, we review neuroimaging evidence linking social influence and conformity to the brain’s reward system. We next review neuroimaging evidence linking social punishment (exclusion to brain systems involved in the experience of pain, as well as evidence linking exclusion to conformity. We suggest that genetic variants that increase sensitivity to social cues may predispose individuals to be more sensitive to either social rewards or punishments (or potentially both, which in turn increases conformity and susceptibility to normative social influences more broadly. To this end, we review evidence for genetic moderators of neurochemical responses in the brain, and suggest ways in which genes and pharmacology may modulate sensitivity to social influences. We conclude by proposing an integrative imaging genetics approach to the study of brain mediators and genetic modulators of a variety of social influences on human attitudes, beliefs, and actions.

  1. An imaging genetics approach to understanding social influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Emily B; Way, Baldwin M; Jasinska, Agnes J

    2012-01-01

    Normative social influences shape nearly every aspect of our lives, yet the biological processes mediating the impact of these social influences on behavior remain incompletely understood. In this Hypothesis, we outline a theoretical framework and an integrative research approach to the study of social influences on the brain and genetic moderators of such effects. First, we review neuroimaging evidence linking social influence and conformity to the brain's reward system. We next review neuroimaging evidence linking social punishment (exclusion) to brain systems involved in the experience of pain, as well as evidence linking exclusion to conformity. We suggest that genetic variants that increase sensitivity to social cues may predispose individuals to be more sensitive to either social rewards or punishments (or potentially both), which in turn increases conformity and susceptibility to normative social influences more broadly. To this end, we review evidence for genetic moderators of neurochemical responses in the brain, and suggest ways in which genes and pharmacology may modulate sensitivity to social influences. We conclude by proposing an integrative imaging genetics approach to the study of brain mediators and genetic modulators of a variety of social influences on human attitudes, beliefs, and actions.

  2. Intestinal crosstalk: a new paradigm for understanding the gut as the "motor" of critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jessica A; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2007-10-01

    For more than 20 years, the gut has been hypothesized to be the "motor" of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. As critical care research has evolved, there have been multiple mechanisms by which the gastrointestinal tract has been proposed to drive systemic inflammation. Many of these disparate mechanisms have proved to be important in the origin and propagation of critical illness. However, this has led to an unusual situation where investigators describing the gut as a "motor" revving the systemic inflammatory response syndrome are frequently describing wholly different processes to support their claim (i.e., increased apoptosis, altered tight junctions, translocation, cytokine production, crosstalk with commensal bacteria, etc). The purpose of this review is to present a unifying theory as to how the gut drives critical illness. Although the gastrointestinal tract is frequently described simply as "the gut," it is actually made up of (1) an epithelium; (2) a diverse and robust immune arm, which contains most of the immune cells in the body; and (3) the commensal bacteria, which contain more cells than are present in the entire host organism. We propose that the intestinal epithelium, the intestinal immune system, and the intestine's endogenous bacteria all play vital roles driving multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, and the complex crosstalk between these three interrelated portions of the gastrointestinal tract is what cumulatively makes the gut a "motor" of critical illness.

  3. Social understanding of high-ability children in middle and late childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boor-Klip, H.J.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Hell, J.G. van

    2014-01-01

    Despite its importance in social development, social understanding has hardly been studied in high-ability children. This study explores differences in social understanding between children in high-ability and regular classrooms, specifically theory of mind (ToM) and perception accuracy, as well as

  4. An Investigation of High School Social Studies Teachers' Understandings of Vocabulary Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Janis; Antuna, Marcos; Juarez, Lucinda; Wood, Karen D.; Vintinner, Jean

    2018-01-01

    This qualitative study focused on high school social studies teachers' understandings of and perspectives about vocabulary acquisition and instruction. The research questions were the following: (1) What do high school social studies teachers understand about vocabulary instruction? and (2) How do high school social studies teachers support…

  5. Social Understanding of High-Ability Children in Middle and Late Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boor-Klip, Henrike J.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; van Hell, Janet G.

    2014-01-01

    Despite its importance in social development, social understanding has hardly been studied in high-ability children. This study explores differences in social understanding between children in high-ability and regular classrooms, specifically theory of mind (ToM) and perception accuracy, as well as associations between individual characteristics…

  6. Understanding Social Media Entrepreneurship to promote innovation within SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Beckinsale, M. J. J.; Romano, S.

    2017-01-01

    TOPIC Social media has transformed the delivery, structure and availability of information, putting the once capital-intensive role of broadcasting (Simmons et al., 2011) within the reach of individuals. New interactions are generated by social media technologies (Hanse et al., 2010); connectivity is enhanced by human networks (Hwang and Kim, 2015). Blackshaw & Nazaro (2006, cited in Xiang and Gretzel 2010) define Social Media as Internet-based applications that carry consumer-generated co...

  7. Fast social-like learning of complex behaviors based on motor motifs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo Tapia, Carlos; Tyukin, Ivan Y.; Makarov, Valeri A.

    2018-05-01

    Social learning is widely observed in many species. Less experienced agents copy successful behaviors exhibited by more experienced individuals. Nevertheless, the dynamical mechanisms behind this process remain largely unknown. Here we assume that a complex behavior can be decomposed into a sequence of n motor motifs. Then a neural network capable of activating motor motifs in a given sequence can drive an agent. To account for (n -1 )! possible sequences of motifs in a neural network, we employ the winnerless competition approach. We then consider a teacher-learner situation: one agent exhibits a complex movement, while another one aims at mimicking the teacher's behavior. Despite the huge variety of possible motif sequences we show that the learner, equipped with the provided learning model, can rewire "on the fly" its synaptic couplings in no more than (n -1 ) learning cycles and converge exponentially to the durations of the teacher's motifs. We validate the learning model on mobile robots. Experimental results show that the learner is indeed capable of copying the teacher's behavior composed of six motor motifs in a few learning cycles. The reported mechanism of learning is general and can be used for replicating different functions, including, for example, sound patterns or speech.

  8. Understanding the role of social capital in adoption decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunecke, Claudia; Engler, Alejandra; Jara-Rojas, Roberto; Poortvliet, Marijn

    2017-01-01

    Recently, social capital has gained importance in explaining technology adoption decisions by farmers. In this paper, we examine the impact of social capital on the adoption of irrigation technology and irrigation scheduling among wine producers in Central Chile. We propose three hypotheses: that

  9. Observing and Understanding Children's Social Interactions. An Impression Management Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, J. Amos

    1994-01-01

    Describes ways of observing and interpreting children's peer social behavior based on the impression management perspective, which focuses on the social construction of a child's individual self-concept. Suggests that teachers and caregivers can use impression management strategies to observe and promote prosocial development in young children.…

  10. Understanding Social Work in the History of Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soydan, Haluk

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this article is to present a theoretical frame of reference for the study and assessment of social work from the perspective of a history of ideas. Method: The study employed an analysis of primary and secondary historical sources. Results: Social work as a practice and research field is embedded in the genesis of modern…

  11. Understanding social media governance: seizing opportunities, staying out of trouble

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, A.C.; Verhoeven, J.W.M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – The rise of social media such as Facebook and Twitter has provided employees with means to share work-related information. Increasingly, social media governance policies are implemented to negotiate the risks and opportunities of such behaviors. The purpose of this paper is to unveil the

  12. Understanding and Accommodating Online Social Communities: A Common Sense Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Sean M.

    2013-01-01

    Online social networks such as Facebook have changed the context and definitions of socialization. Focusing on teacher use, this article considers the size and impact of these forums and the importance many young professionals feel toward them. Themed as a common sense approach, the author uses anecdotal points and discussions with…

  13. Understanding social media use for work : Content, causes, and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zoonen, W.

    2017-01-01

    The multivalent involvement of public social media platforms (e.g., Facebook, Twitter, etc.) in both social and organizational life has raised a number of questions about how, and to what extent and effects organizational members use these technologies for work-related purposes. Yet research has

  14. Understanding Green Purchase Behavior: College Students and Socialization Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ruoh-Nan; Xu, Huimin

    2010-01-01

    Taking the perspective of consumer socialization theory, this study examined the influences of different socialization agents on consumers' purchases of green products. A total of 224 surveys were distributed to students enrolled in a business-related course at a major university in the northeastern United States. The objectives were twofold. The…

  15. Socially intelligent robots that understand and respond to human touch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, Merel Madeleine

    Touch is an important nonverbal form of interpersonal interaction which is used to communicate emotions and other social messages. As interactions with social robots are likely to become more common in the near future these robots should also be able to engage in tactile interaction with humans.

  16. Does early communication mediate the relationship between motor ability and social function in children with cerebral palsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscombe, Belinda; Boyd, Roslyn N; Coleman, Andrea; Fahey, Michael; Rawicki, Barry; Whittingham, Koa

    2016-01-01

    Children diagnosed with neurodevelopmental conditions such as cerebral palsy (CP) are at risk of experiencing restrictions in social activities negatively impacting their subsequent social functioning. Research has identified motor and communication ability as being unique determinants of social function capabilities in children with CP, to date, no research has investigated whether communication is a mediator of the relationship between motor ability and social functioning. To investigate whether early communication ability at 24 months corrected age (ca.) mediates the relationship between early motor ability at 24 months ca. and later social development at 60 months ca. in a cohort of children diagnosed with cerebral palsy (CP). A cohort of 71 children (43 male) diagnosed with CP (GMFCS I=24, 33.8%, II=9, 12.7%, III=12, 16.9%, IV=10, 14.1%, V=16, 22.5%) were assessed at 24 and 60 months ca. Assessments included the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), the Communication and Symbolic Behaviour Scales-Developmental Profile (CSBS-DP) Infant-Toddler Checklist and the Paediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI). A mediation model was examined using bootstrapping. Early communication skills mediated the relationship between early motor abilities and later social functioning, b=0.24 (95% CI=0.08-0.43 and the mediation model was significant, F (2, 68)=32.77, pcommunication ability partially mediates the relationship between early motor ability and later social function in children with CP. This demonstrates the important role of early communication in ongoing social development. Early identification of communication delay and enriched language exposure is crucial in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Relations of Early Motor Skills on Age and Socialization, Communication, and Daily Living in Young Children With Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Megan; Ross, Samantha; McIntyre, Laura Lee; Tepfer, Amanda

    2017-04-01

    Young children with developmental disabilities experience known deficits in salient child behaviors, such as social behaviors, communication, and aspects of daily living, behaviors that generally improve with chronological age. The purpose of this study was to examine the mediating effects of motor skills on relations of age and salient child behaviors in a group of young children with developmental disabilities, thus tapping into the potential influences of motor skills in the development of salient child behaviors. One hundred thirteen young children with developmental disabilities participated in this study. Independent mediation analysis, with gender as a moderator between the mediating and outcome variable, indicated that motor skills meditated relations between age and socialization, communication, and daily living skills in young male children with developmental disabilities, but not female participants. Findings suggest motor skill content needs to be considered in combination with other child behaviors commonly focused on in early intervention.

  18. Understanding the Dynamics of Learning across social worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengiste, Shegaw Anagaw; Aanestad, Margunn

    2013-01-01

    participation, politics and learning in IS implementation and use. We consider learning to be an integral part of the social practice, and it occurs mainly through encounters and negotiations between actors from different social worlds who might have competing interests and values. The paper also analysed how......This paper adopts a novel learning perspective on information systems development. Building on the works of Anselm Strauss we conceptualize development processes as “negotiated orders” where members from different “social worlds” encounter and negotiate differences and tensions. We argue...

  19. The relationship of motor skills and social communicative skills in school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Megan; Lord, Catherine; Ulrich, Dale A

    2013-07-01

    Motor skill deficits are present and persist in school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; Staples & Reid, 2010). Yet the focus of intervention is on core impairments, which are part of the diagnostic criteria for ASD, deficits in social communication skills. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the functional motor skills, of 6- to 15-year-old children with high-functioning ASD, predict success in standardized social communicative skills. It is hypothesized that children with better motor skills will have better social communicative skills. A total of 35 children with ASD between the ages of 6-15 years participated in this study. The univariate GLM (general linear model) tested the relationship of motor skills on social communicative skills holding constant age, IQ, ethnicity, gender, and clinical ASD diagnosis. Object-control motor skills significantly predicted calibrated ASD severity (p skills have greater social communicative skill deficits. How this relationship exists behaviorally, needs to be explored further.

  20. Mechanistic understanding of time-dependent oral absorption based on gastric motor activity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higaki, Kazutaka; Choe, Sally Y; Löbenberg, Raimar; Welage, Lynda S; Amidon, Gordon L

    2008-09-01

    The relationship of gastric motor activity and gastric emptying of 0.7 mm caffeine pellets with their absorption was investigated in the fed state in healthy human subjects by simultaneous monitoring of antral motility and plasma concentrations. A kinetic model for gastric emptying-dependent absorption yielded multiple phases of gastric emptying and rate constants (k(g)) with large inter-individual differences and large variability in onset of gastric emptying (50-175 min). The model suggests that 50% of the dose is emptied in 1-2h and over 90% emptied by 3.5h following dosing, in all subjects. The maximum values of k(g) (k(g)(max)) were much greater than those reported for emptying of liquids in the fasted state and were comparable to k(g) values in the late Phase II/III of the migrating motor complex (MMC). The model described the observed irregular absorption rate-time and plasma concentration-time profiles adequately but not in detail. The model was more successful at simulating double-peak phenomena in absorption rate profiles and onset of caffeine absorption. The results suggest that gastric emptying regulates drug absorption of small particles in the fed state. Further, estimates of k(a) derived using the time-dependent absorption model were closer to the intrinsic absorption rate constant for caffeine.

  1. The Faces of Bureaucracy: Understanding Enterprise Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansour, Osama; Ghazawneh, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    these media relative to their formal structures and characteristics is a question in focus for the current paper. Drawing on classical concepts of organizational bureaucracy from Weber (1978) and Eisenstadt (1959), we present a qualitative analysis of empirical data obtained from two large organizations......The social media are often perceived as tools that support openness and flexible participation among individuals and communities. This might explain the reason why social media have become indispensible for many daily practices in organizations. But how do these organizations appropriate and use...... wikis might allow for self-organizing, there is still a possibility for enacting social structures that limit openness and flexibility. As such, the paper contributes novel insights into how social media might be used in bureaucracies and soft bureaucracies....

  2. Understanding handwriting difficulties: A comparison of children with and without motor impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunty, Mellissa; Barnett, Anna L

    The nature of handwriting difficulties have been explored in children with specific developmental disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the nature of handwriting difficulties in children with dysgraphia, a less studied group who have significant handwriting difficulties in the absence of motor control or cognitive difficulties. The performance of a dysgraphia group aged 8-14 years was compared to a group with Developmental Coordination Disorder and to typically developing (TD) controls. Participants completed two handwriting tasks on a digitizing writing tablet. The amount and accuracy of the handwriting product was measured, plus various temporal and spatial features of the writing process. There were no significant differences in performance between the two groups with handwriting difficulties but both performed more poorly than the TD group. Individual differences in the type and severity of handwriting impairments suggest the need for a range of classroom assessments to tailor intervention appropriately.

  3. A Geovisual Analytic Approach to Understanding Geo-Social Relationships in the International Trade Network

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Wei; Yin, Peifeng; Di, Qian; Hardisty, Frank; MacEachren, Alan M.

    2014-01-01

    The world has become a complex set of geo-social systems interconnected by networks, including transportation networks, telecommunications, and the internet. Understanding the interactions between spatial and social relationships within such geo-social systems is a challenge. This research aims to address this challenge through the framework of geovisual analytics. We present the GeoSocialApp which implements traditional network analysis methods in the context of explicitly spatial and social...

  4. Understanding and applying principles of social cognition and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental governance systems are under greater pressure to adapt and to cope with increased social and ecological uncertainty from stressors like climate change. We review principles of social cognition and decision making that shape and constrain how environmental governance systems adapt. We focus primarily on the interplay between key decision makers in society and legal systems. We argue that adaptive governance must overcome three cooperative dilemmas to facilitate adaptation: (1) encouraging collaborative problem solving, (2) garnering social acceptance and commitment, and (3) cultivating a culture of trust and tolerance for change and uncertainty. However, to do so governance systems must cope with biases in people’s decision making that cloud their judgment and create conflict. These systems must also satisfy people’s fundamental needs for self-determination, fairness, and security, ensuring that changes to environmental governance are perceived as legitimate, trustworthy, and acceptable. We discuss the implications of these principles for common governance solutions (e.g., public participation, enforcement) and conclude with methodological recommendations. We outline how scholars can investigate the social cognitive principles involved in cases of adaptive governance. Social-ecological stressors place significant pressure on major societal systems, triggering adaptive reforms in human governance and environmental law. Though potentially benefici

  5. Social Justice as a Lens for Understanding Workplace Mistreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffa, Christine; Longo, Joy

    2016-01-01

    Workplace mistreatment can be viewed as a social injustice that prohibits one from achieving optimal well-being. Cognitive and interpersonal skills required of nurses can be impacted by workplace mistreatment, thus extending injustices by violating the rights of patients to optimal care. The purpose of this article is to view workplace mistreatment through the lens of Powers and Faden's theory of social justice. Workplace mistreatment is explored through the 6 dimensions of well-being, including health, personal security, reasoning, respect, attachment, and self-determination, identified in the theory. The implications for practice and policy are discussed and recommendations for research made.

  6. Alternative for Understanding Poverty: Households and Social Capital in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Portales

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, social capital has been a key element within academic discourses and social policy programs. However, the operationalization of the concept varies from one place to another, thus generating debates regarding its likely contributions —both theoretical and empirical—. The paper argues that a contextual definition of the term contributes to the construction of a more sophisticated idea regarding poverty alleviation, supporting other academic work, which questionstraditional approaches. The latter is shown through the results of ethnographic fieldwork in Monterrey, Nuevo León, México, which included in depth interviews to household members defined as representatives of different poverty levels by a previous survey.

  7. Understanding the impact of online social networks on disruptive innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cizel, A; Boonstra, A.; Langley, D.J.; Tan, C.W.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we explore the state of current knowledge about online social networks (OSNs), and their role in precipitating changes in existing market structures. We do so by reviewing more than 30 recent papers from top-ranked journals in the relevant fields of study. We begin by providing a

  8. Understanding Groups in Outdoor Adventure Education through Social Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jostad, Jeremy; Sibthorp, Jim; Paisley, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Relationships are a critical component to the experience of an outdoor adventure education (OAE) program, therefore, more fruitful ways of investigating groups is needed. Social network analysis (SNA) is an effective tool to study the relationship structure of small groups. This paper provides an explanation of SNA and shows how it was used by the…

  9. Understanding MOOCs Through Connectivist and Social Constructivist Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Lars Birch; Buhl, Mie

    2015-01-01

    During only a few years, MOOCs have been widespread adopted and accepted as part of the educational agenda. The massive aspect, the social networking, and the idea of new student roles where the student is the main responsible for selforganizing her or his participation are main drivers in the le...

  10. Understanding the social dimension of knowledge through complex network analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mas Tur, E.M.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis presents five studies on the social dimension of knowledge, with a focus on its creation and diffusion processes. Broadly speaking, the creation and diffusion of knowledge are phenomena inherent to human society as a whole. In this sense, the results of the works in this thesis can be

  11. Understanding Social Media Mindset of Consumers: An Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sita Mishra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Social media play increasingly important roles as a marketing platform. In today’s world, more and more retailers’ use social media to target teenagers and young adults as a result importance of bringing social networking sites (SNSs as a part of daily life transactions cannot be underplayed. In the present paper the emphasis is upon the analyses of the social media mindset of consumers in India, and examining the impact of various variables of extended TAM in order to explain the variables that influence level of acceptance of SNS by Indian consumers. Results indicated positive and significant effects of perceived usefulness while perceived risk influenced negatively. Further, perceived ease of use and personal fit with brands both found to have a positive effect on marketing through SNS but were not significant. The results of present study in India pointed out that establishing personal fit with consumers and providing user-friendly web sites, and reducing the perceived risk has impact on developing positive attitudes.

  12. Developing Social Interaction and Understanding in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Groupwork Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, Tommy; Knott, Fiona; Dunlop, Aline-Wendy

    2007-01-01

    Background: Difficulties with social interaction and understanding lie at the heart of the communication disorder that characterises the autism spectrum. This study sought to improve social communication for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) by means of a groupwork intervention focusing on social and emotional perspective-taking,…

  13. Like, Comment, Retweet: Understanding Student Social Media Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Dee Winn; Michael Groenendyk; Melissa Rivosecchi

    2016-01-01

    The majority of academic libraries currently use one or more social media websites in their efforts to communicate and engage with students. Some of the most widely used sites are Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and Instagram. Education students at the University of British Columbia were surveyed and asked to rank whether they preferred receiving Library communications from Facebook, Twitter or WordPress (blogs). The results indicate that students ranked Facebook first, WordPress second and Twitte...

  14. Understanding Situated Social Interactions: A Case Study of Public Places in the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paay, Jeni; Kjeldskov, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    these and their situated interactions. In response, this paper addresses the challenge of informing design of mobile services for fostering social connections by using the concept of place for studying and understanding peoples’ social activities in a public built environment. We present a case study of social experience...... of a physical place providing an understanding of peoples’ situated social interactions in public places of the city derived through a grounded analysis of small groups of friends socialising out on the town. Informed by this, we describe the design and evaluation of a mobile prototype system facilitating......Ubiquitous and mobile computer technologies are increasingly being appropriated to facilitate people’s social life outside the work domain. Designing such social and collaborative technologies requires an understanding of peoples’ physical and social context, and the interplay between...

  15. ECONOMIC DESIGN IN SOCIALISM: MODERN UNDERSTANDING OF DISCUSSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kovalev

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Necessity of improvement of the system pertaining to distribution of limited resources obligatory leads to reduction of state interference in these processes. While discussing the economic design in socialism in the period of 1920–1930 the Austrian school presented significant arguments against any interference in resource distribution. Socialists’ objections (initial idea of socialism as money-free economy; possibility to determine price structure that excludes deficit and glut in the market fail to pass theoretical and time testing. The existing opinion that the Austrians are losers in this discussion is related to their permanent additional arguments without acknowledging their own mistakes that had been made in their previous discussions and declaring that their opponents occupy positions at the second line of the defense. Last works of Austrian representatives re-consider final results of the discussion about the possibility of economic design in socialism taking into account changes in general approach to evaluation of the results of scientific discussion. 

  16. A Conceptual Understanding of Organizational Identity in the Social Media Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Jimmy Young

    2013-01-01

    Nonprofit organizations have increasingly adopted the use of social media over the last several years. This presents a myriad of challenges and opportunities in regards to organizational identity. This paper provides a conceptual understanding of identity as an entry point for nonprofit organizations to deliberate their own use of social media and the relative impact on organizational identity. A theoretical understanding of the formation of social identity situates the development of organiz...

  17. Conceptual Understanding in Social Education. ACER Research Monograph No. 45.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doig, Brian; And Others

    This report describes the results of a 1992 survey of students' economic, geographical, cultural, historical, and political understandings in the state of Victoria (Australia). The conception of some 2,900 students in Years 5 and 9 in government, Catholic and independent schools are investigated and described. The survey is one of a series of…

  18. Understanding heterogeneity of social preferences for fire prevention management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varela, Elsa; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Soliño, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The forest area burnt annually in the European Mediterranean region has more than doubled since the 1970s. In these forests, the main preventive action consists of forest compartmentalization by fuel break networks, which entail high costs and sometimes significant negative impacts. While many...... studies look at public preferences for fire suppression, this study analyses the heterogeneity of social preferences for fire prevention. The visual characteristics of fire prevention structures are very familiar to respondents, but their management is unfamiliar, which raises specific attention in terms...... for the density of fuel breaks. These results are important for designing fire prevention policies that are efficient and acceptable by the population....

  19. Understanding urban practitioners' perspectives on social-mix policies in Amsterdam: the importance of design and social space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawton, P.

    2013-01-01

    Throughout recent decades, socially-mixed neighbourhoods have become a key element of urban policy and debate. This paper argues, with Amsterdam as an empirical case, that the design, layout and everyday use of social space—including public and private space—is of key importance in understanding the

  20. Can genetics help us understand Indian social history?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapar, Romila

    2014-06-26

    Attempts have been made recently to determine the identity of the so-called "Aryans" as components of the Indian population by using DNA analysis. This is largely to ascertain whether they were indigenous to India or were foreign arrivals. Similar attempts have been made to trace the origins of caste groups on the basis of varna identities and record their distribution. The results so far have been contradictory and, therefore, not of much help to social historians. There are problems in the defining of categories and the techniques of analysis. Aryan is a linguistic and cultural category and not a biological one. Caste groups have no well-defined and invariable boundaries despite marriage codes. Various other categories have been assimilated into particular castes as part of the evolution of social history on the subcontinent. A few examples of these are discussed. The problems with using DNA analysis are also touched on. Copyright © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  1. Mother-Child Conversation and Children's Social Understanding During Middle Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, RaeAnne M; Pillow, Bradford H

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between mother-child conversation and children's social understanding during middle childhood. Thirty-eight mother-child pairs participated, including a younger group (5-7 years old) and an older group (8-10 years old). Children completed 2 measures of social understanding and mothers and children discussed 4 stories involving social dilemmas. Results indicated that compared to the younger group, the older group (a) performed better on both measures of social understanding and (b) produced more basic mental talk (i.e., talk about beliefs, emotions, personality traits, and desires), and more advanced mental talk (i.e., talk about contrasting perspectives, recursion and relationship between mental states, and advanced emotions). Mothers of older children also produced more basic and advanced mental talk. Mothers' advanced mental talk predicted both children's social understanding and children's advanced mental talk.

  2. Overlapping Phenotypes in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Cross-Syndrome Comparison of Motor and Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Emma; Leonard, Hayley C.; Hill, Elisabeth L.

    2016-01-01

    Motor and social difficulties are often found in children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and with developmental coordination disorder (DCD), to varying degrees. This study investigated the extent of overlap of these problems in children aged 7-10 years who had a diagnosis of either ASD or DCD, compared to typically-developing controls.…

  3. Children's Interpretive Understanding, Moral Judgments, and Emotion Attributions: Relations to Social Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; Gasser, Luciano; Gutzwiller-Helfenfinger, Eveline

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated interpretive understanding, moral judgments, and emotion attributions in relation to social behaviour in a sample of 59 5-year-old, 123 7-year-old, and 130 9-year-old children. Interpretive understanding was assessed by two tasks measuring children's understanding of ambiguous situations. Moral judgments and emotion…

  4. Understanding large social-ecological systems: introducing the SESMAD project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Cox

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces the Social-ecological systems meta-analysis database (SESMAD project, which is the project behind the case studies and synthetic articles contained in this special issue of the International Journal of the Commons. SESMAD is an internationally collaborative meta-analysis project that builds on previous seminally synthetic work on small-scale common-pool resource systems conducted at the Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis at Indiana University. This project is guided by the following research question: can the variables found to be important in explaining outcomes on small-scale systems be scaled up to explain outcomes in large-scale environmental governance? In this special issue we report on our findings thus far through a set of case studies of large-scale environmental governance, a paper that describes our conceptual advances, and a paper that compares these five case studies to further examine our central research question.

  5. STUDY OF SECONDARY SCHOOL SOCIAL STUDIES TEACHER UNDERSTANDING ABOUT GEOGRAPHY LITERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiyanto Sugiyanto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to: (1 know the teacher's understanding about the concept of Geography as a platform in Social Studies learning; (2 know the teacher's understanding about geography literacy as a platform in Social Studies learning; and (3 study the right literacy concept as platform for Social Studies lesson. This research uses survey method. The subjects of the study were Social Studies teachers in Surakarta City. Sampling using startified random sampling. The results showed: 1 76% of respondents do not understand about Geography as a platform in Social Studies learning; 2 80% of respondents have not understood geography literacy; 3 Edelson's geography literature which consist of interaction, interconnection, and implication components can be used as an alternative to the implementation of Geography policy as a Platform in Social Studies.

  6. Age and Social Support Seeking: Understanding the Role of Perceived Social Costs to Others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Drolet, Aimee; Kim, Heejung S

    2018-07-01

    We examined age differences in the use of different types of social support and the reasons for these differences. We found that older adults (age 60+) seek explicit social support less compared with young adults (age 18-25), but there is no difference in implicit social support seeking. Concerns about the potential social costs of seeking explicit support mediate the age differences in explicit social support seeking. Whereas young adults view this strategy as conferring more benefits than costs, older adults have a more balanced view of the costs and benefits of explicit social support seeking. Older and young adults do not differ in perceptions of the relative costs versus benefits of implicit social support seeking. Finally, we found older adults benefit more from implicit (vs. explicit) social support emotionally than young adults, which further explains why age groups differ in their use of explicit versus implicit social support.

  7. Metacognition and action: A new pathway to understanding social and cognitive aspects of expertise in sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadhg Eoghan Macintyre

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available For over a century, psychologists have investigated the mental processes of expert performers - people who display exceptional knowledge and/or skills in specific fields of human achievement. Since the 1960s, expertise researchers have made considerable progress in understanding the cognitive and neural mechanisms that underlie such exceptional performance. Whereas the first modern studies of expertise were conducted in relatively formal knowledge domains such as chess, more recent investigations have explored elite performance in dynamic perceptual-motor activities such as sport. Unfortunately, although these studies have led to the identification of certain domain-free generalizations about expert-novice differences, they shed little light on an important issue: namely, experts’ metacognitive activities or their insights into, and regulation of, their own mental processes. In an effort to rectify this oversight, the present paper argues that metacognitive processes and inferences play an important if neglected role in expertise. In particular, we suggest that metacognition (including such processes as ‘meta-attention’, ‘meta-imagery’ and ‘meta-memory’, as well as social aspects of this construct provides a window on the genesis of expert performance. Following a critique of the standard empirical approach to expertise, we explore some research on ‘metacognition’ and ‘metacognitive inference’ among experts in sport. After that, we provide a brief evaluation of the relationship between psychological skills training and metacognition and comment on the measurement of metacognitive processes. Finally, we summarize our conclusions and outline some potentially new directions for research on metacognition in action.

  8. How to understand architectural quality when working with social housing areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kirstine Brøgger

    2015-01-01

    This paper debates how to understand architectural quality when working with social housing areas. The concept is discussed through three approaches: 1) Social housing is debated in relation to societal and historical contributions. 2) Well known definitions (from the old-timer Vitruvius...... to the current sustainability agenda) are outlined according to their pros´n cons when working with social housing areas. 3) On the ground of interviews with practitioners the everyday use and understanding of the concept is scrutinized In this vein the paper agitates that architectural quality in social housing...

  9. Like, Comment, Retweet: Understanding Student Social Media Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dee Winn

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of academic libraries currently use one or more social media websites in their efforts to communicate and engage with students. Some of the most widely used sites are Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and Instagram. Education students at the University of British Columbia were surveyed and asked to rank whether they preferred receiving Library communications from Facebook, Twitter or WordPress (blogs. The results indicate that students ranked Facebook first, WordPress second and Twitter third. Students also provided explanations for their rankings, and Facebook was the top choice because it is the most widely used as well as the most convenient way to access Library information. Additional research in this area should be conducted at other academic libraries. La plupart des bibliothèques utilisent actuellement un ou plusieurs sites web des médias sociaux en essayant de communiquer et d’interagir avec les étudiants. Certains des sites les plus utilisés sont Facebook, Twitter, YouTube et Instagram. Un sondage a demandé aux utilisateurs de la bibliothèque éducative de l’Université de Colombie-Britannique s’ils préféraient recevoir les communications via Facebook, Twitter, ou WordPress (les blogs. Les résultats indiquent que les étudiants ont classé Facebook au premier rang, suivi de WordPress et Twitter au troisième rang. Les étudiants ont aussi expliqué leurs classements: Facebook est le premier choix, car il est le plus utilisé et aussi le moyen le plus pratique pour accéder aux informations de la bibliothèque. Les recherches supplémentaires traitant cette question devraient être menées par d’autres bibliothèques académiques.

  10. Vitamin B12 and folate during pregnancy and offspring motor, mental and social development at 2 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhate, V K; Joshi, S M; Ladkat, R S; Deshmukh, U S; Lubree, H G; Katre, P A; Bhat, D S; Rush, E C; Yajnik, C S

    2012-04-01

    Insufficiency of vitamin B12 (B12) and folate during pregnancy can result in low concentrations in the fetus and have adverse effects on brain development. We investigated the relationship between maternal B12 and folate nutrition during pregnancy and offspring motor, mental and social development at two years of age (2 y). Mothers (n = 123) and their offspring (62 girls, 61 boys) from rural and middle-class urban communities in and around Pune city were followed through pregnancy up to 2 y. Maternal B12 and folate concentrations were measured at 28 and 34 weeks of gestation. At 2 y, the Developmental Assessment Scale for Indian Infants was used to determine motor and mental developmental quotients and the Vineland Social Maturity Scale for the social developmental quotient. Overall, 62% of the mothers had low B12 levels (development was associated with maternal folate at 28 and 34 weeks of gestation. Mental and social development quotients were associated positively with head circumference and negatively with birth weight. In addition, pregnancy B12 and folate were positively associated with mental and social development quotients. Maternal B12 and folate during intrauterine life may favorably influence brain development and function. Pregnancy provides a window of opportunity to enhance fetal psychomotor (motor and mental) development.

  11. Understanding social capital in sports clubs: participation, duration and social trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmose-Østerlund, Karsten; Van der Roest, Jan-Willem

    2017-01-01

    A central claim in Robert Putnam’s theory of social capital is that participation in voluntary organizations can foster social trust among members that are active and engaged. Based on this claim, this article examines how duration of membership and member participation impacts upon levels...... of social trust among sports club members. The results show that neither participation nor duration impacts on levels of social trust – a result found in survey studies conducted in Denmark and the Netherlands. Sophisticated participation measures and the inclusion of duration of membership set this study...... apart from previous studies on social capital. The fact that no correlation can be identified between participation and duration on one side and social trust on the other adds weight to the claim that, even though numerous studies find higher levels of social trust among members of voluntary...

  12. A influência do desempenho motor no “status” social percebido por crianças

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmella MEDEIROS

    Full Text Available Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivos descrever o desempenho motor de crianças e adolescentes em relação ao “status” social dos mesmos segundo a percepção dos colegas nos diferentes sexos, além de verificar se há o efeito sexo nessa possível associação. Participaram desta pesquisa 300 crianças e adolescentes do 3º ao 5º ano e da 4a a 6a série do Ensino Fundamental de duas escolas públicas, com idades entre oito e 14 anos. Os instrumentos utilizados foram a Bateria motora TGMD-2 e a Escala Subjetiva de Status Social. As meninas apresentaram melhor desempenho motor que os meninos, no entanto, apenas os meninos com melhor desempenho motor também apresentaram maior “status” social percebido. Tal situação nos indica que os meninos estão mais suscetíveis a avaliações sociais positivas pautadas em competências físicas que as meninas, podendo fazer uso do seu melhor nível de desempenho motor para elevar a sua popularidade na escola através de práticas esportivas.

  13. Model of competence: a conceptual framework for understanding the person-environment interaction for persons with motor disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Jacqueline; Potvin, Louise; Dutil, Elisabeth; Falta, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    The "Model of Competence" has been recently elaborated to help expand our understanding relating to a person's interaction with the environment. Specifically, it seeks to deal with the issues related to the home adaptation (the home layout and equipment) for a person living with motor disabilities. This theoretical model takes into account various characteristics of the person as well as of the environment, by re-grouping six concepts: person, environment, activity, role, competence and handicap situation. The "Model of Competence" is distinct because it includes: (1) both the human and the nonhuman dimension of the environment; (2) personal characteristics other than the strictly physical ones; (3) a clear identification of the interaction between the person and the environment; and (4) a means of operationalizing it via an assessment instrument. This model proposes an innovative approach to the person-environment relation in terms of personalizing accessibility, and thereby offers a new approach to understanding the concept of universal access. It has been developed for research and application, and addresses several disciplines.

  14. The impact of non-motor manifestations of Parkinson's disease on partners: understanding and application of chronic sorrow theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Christine J

    2015-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) can cause many emotions, including grief and a sense of isolation for both the person with PD (referred to as Parkinsonian) and their partner. Such ongoing grief and emotional turmoil can be termed chronic sorrow. The aim of this research is to present accounts of partners' perspectives, analysed in the context of chronic sorrow theory, to offer health professionals an insight into the impact of non-motor PD symptoms on partners. A group of partners of Parkinsonians provided the data through individual stories. These stories were subjected to thematic analysis, using a seven-step process leading to the establishment of themes. Caregiver burden and chronic sorrow is not related to providing physical care, but the emotional care of attempting to minimise the effect of PD, coping with disturbance to sleep, and helping the Parkinsonian to maintain as much independence as possible. Contributors to this article found chronic sorrow theory provided a framework for understanding their emotions. Sharing their experiences with others provided an opportunity to be heard, and enabled them to make sense of individual situations. Chronic sorrow theory provides a useful framework for both partners of Parkinsonians in understanding their emotional responses, and for health professionals in considering the challenges partners face in coping with living with a person with PD.

  15. Towards a deep understanding of malware propagation in online social networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Guanhua [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eidenbenz, Stephan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Guanling [U OF MASSACHUSETTS LOWELL; Li, Nan [U OF MASSACHUSETTS LOWELL

    2009-01-01

    Online social networks, which have been expanding at a blistering speed in the recent years, have emerged as a popular communication infrastructure for Internet users. Meanwhile, malware that specifically targets these online social networks are also on the rise. In this work, we aim to investigate the characteristics of malware propagation in online social networks. Our study is based on a dataset collected from a real-world location-based online social network. We analyze the social structure and user activity patterns of this network. We further use extensive trace-driven simulation to study the impact of initial infection, user click probability, social structure, and activity patterns on malware propagation in online social networks. The results from this work has greatly deepened our understanding of the nature of online social network malware and also shed light on how to defend against them effectively.

  16. A Tale Begun in Other Days: Understanding Caste as Social Exclusion in India

    OpenAIRE

    Negi, Prashant

    2011-01-01

    Caste has remained a subject of intense academic inquiry. Lately, new discourses have emerged under the thematic of ‘social exclusion’ that simply extend the scope of academic discussion on caste. This paper assumes that such discourses are relatively less applied to understanding the caste system and for the same attempts to juxtapose thinking on social exclusion to understanding caste in India. Thematically, these methodological issues are dealt with by firstly, presenting a brief backgrou...

  17. Using social science to understand and improve wildland fire organizations: an annotated reading list

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory Larson; Vita Wright; Cade Spaulding; Kelly Rossetto; Georgi Rausch; Andrea Richards; Stephanie Durnford

    2007-01-01

    The wildland fire community has spent the past decade trying to understand and account for the role of human factors in wildland fire organizations. Social research that is relevant to managing fire organizations can be found in disciplines such as social psychology, management, and communication. However, such research has been published primarily for scientific and...

  18. Keeping conceptual boundaries distinct between decision making and learning is necessary to understand social influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Mens, Gaël

    2014-02-01

    Bentley et al. make the deliberate choice to blur the distinction between learning and decision making. This obscures the social influence mechanisms that operate in the various empirical settings that their map aims to categorize. Useful policy prescriptions, however, require an accurate understanding of the social influence mechanisms that underlie the dynamics of popularity.

  19. Understanding a Successful Implementation of Organizational Social Media: A Multi-Site Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahman, Caroline D.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to examine the successful implementation of social media strategies in multiple organizations. Examining the factors an organization used to implement social media can provide the understanding of the benefits and risks associated with this technology. Some businesses are considered successful using social…

  20. Understanding Knowledge Sharing between IT Professionals--An Integration of Social Cognitive and Social Exchange Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Tien; Cheng, Nai-Chang

    2012-01-01

    The research includes various constructs based on social exchange theory and social cognitive theory. This study mainly explored the relationships among organisational justice, trust, commitment and knowledge-sharing cognition and verified their mediating effects through two variables of trust and commitment. A survey utilising a questionnaire was…

  1. Embeddedness and Empathy: How the Social Network Shapes Adolescents' Social Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfer, Ralf; Cortina, Kai S.; Baumert, Jurgen

    2012-01-01

    Based on theories of social-cognitive development, the present study investigated the yet unknown social structure that underlies the concept of empathy in adolescence. A total of 3.159 seventh graders (13.67 years, 56% girls) from 166 school classes participated by providing information on empathy, related psychosocial factors, and friendship…

  2. Social aggravation: Understanding the complex role of social relationships on stress and health-relevant physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmingham, Wendy C; Holt-Lunstad, Julianne

    2018-04-05

    There is a rich literature on social support and physical health, but research has focused primarily on the protective effects of social relationship. The stress buffering model asserts that relationships may be protective by being a source of support when coping with stress, thereby blunting health relevant physiological responses. Research also indicates relationships can be a source of stress, also influencing health. In other words, the social buffering influence may have a counterpart, a social aggravating influence that has an opposite or opposing effect. Drawing upon existing conceptual models, we expand these to delineate how social relationships may influence stress processes and ultimately health. This review summarizes the existing literature that points to the potential deleterious physiological effects of our relationships when they are sources of stress or exacerbate stress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Improving Social Understanding of Preschool Children: Evaluation of a Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Moises; Sidera, Francesc; Serrano, Jessica; Amado, Anna; Rostan, Carles

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: This study tested the effects of a training program intending to foster social understanding or the capacity which enables them to understand themselves and others in terms of intentions, beliefs, desires, and emotions in children at preschool age. A number of studies have shown that in the context of shared narratives, children are…

  4. Virtual Reality Rehabilitation from Social Cognitive and Motor Learning Theoretical Perspectives in Stroke Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Imam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To identify the virtual reality (VR interventions used for the lower extremity rehabilitation in stroke population and to explain their underlying training mechanisms using Social Cognitive (SCT and Motor Learning (MLT theoretical frameworks. Methods. Medline, Embase, Cinahl, and Cochrane databases were searched up to July 11, 2013. Randomized controlled trials that included a VR intervention for lower extremity rehabilitation in stroke population were included. The Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro scale was used to assess the quality of the included studies. The underlying training mechanisms involved in each VR intervention were explained according to the principles of SCT (vicarious learning, performance accomplishment, and verbal persuasion and MLT (focus of attention, order and predictability of practice, augmented feedback, and feedback fading. Results. Eleven studies were included. PEDro scores varied from 3 to 7/10. All studies but one showed significant improvement in outcomes in favour of the VR group (P<0.05. Ten VR interventions followed the principle of performance accomplishment. All the eleven VR interventions directed subject’s attention externally, whereas nine provided training in an unpredictable and variable fashion. Conclusions. The results of this review suggest that VR applications used for lower extremity rehabilitation in stroke population predominantly mediate learning through providing a task-oriented and graduated learning under a variable and unpredictable practice.

  5. Virtual reality rehabilitation from social cognitive and motor learning theoretical perspectives in stroke population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Bita; Jarus, Tal

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To identify the virtual reality (VR) interventions used for the lower extremity rehabilitation in stroke population and to explain their underlying training mechanisms using Social Cognitive (SCT) and Motor Learning (MLT) theoretical frameworks. Methods. Medline, Embase, Cinahl, and Cochrane databases were searched up to July 11, 2013. Randomized controlled trials that included a VR intervention for lower extremity rehabilitation in stroke population were included. The Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale was used to assess the quality of the included studies. The underlying training mechanisms involved in each VR intervention were explained according to the principles of SCT (vicarious learning, performance accomplishment, and verbal persuasion) and MLT (focus of attention, order and predictability of practice, augmented feedback, and feedback fading). Results. Eleven studies were included. PEDro scores varied from 3 to 7/10. All studies but one showed significant improvement in outcomes in favour of the VR group (P learning through providing a task-oriented and graduated learning under a variable and unpredictable practice.

  6. Hearing, language, motor and social skills in the child development: a screening proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Cabral de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: to analyze the hearing, language, motor and social skills of children and propose a screening of child development. Methods: 129 preschool children of both sexes, aged between three and six years old, enrolled in educational institutions and 25 teachers of kindergarten from public and private institutions, with no history of hearing disorders, with type A tympanometric curves and the presence of acoustic reflexes participated. For the children, the neuropsychomotor test, Denver II, and the evaluation of sound localization and temporal ordination of three verbal and non-verbal sounds were applied. For the educators responsible for the children, the Scale of Auditory Behaviors (SAB, was used. Results: most participants with normal SAB presented hearing abilities or standard Denver II; while in the amended SAB group, most participants presented alterations in Denver II or in the auditory abilities tests. It was found, also, that part of the children with standard Denver II were pointed, by the educators, as misbehaving in SAB. Conclusion: the combination of the findings of the Denver II, hearing tests of sound localization and temporal ordination and the SAB Scale is useful in the characterization of child development and, thus, the use of these three instruments for screening in this age group is recommended.

  7. Emotion Understanding, Social Competence and School Achievement in Children from Primary School in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Glória Franco

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the relationship between emotion understanding and school achievement in children of primary school, considering age, gender, fluid intelligence, mother’s educational level and social competence. In this study participated 406 children of primary school. The instruments used were the Test of Emotion Comprehension, Colored Progressive Matrices of Raven, Socially Action and Interpersonal Problem Solving Scale. The structural equation model showed the relationship between the emotion understanding and school performance depends on a mediator variable that in the context of the study was designated social competence. Age appear as an explanatory factor of the differences found, the mother’s educational level only predicts significantly social emotional competence, fluid intelligence is a predictor of emotion understanding, school achievement and social emotional competence. Regarding the influence of sex, emotional understanding does not emerge as a significant predictor of social emotional competence in girls or boys. Multiple relationships between the various factors associated with school achievement and social emotional competence are discussed as well as their implications in promoting child development and school success.

  8. A complementary marriage of perspectives: understanding organizational social context using mixed methods

    OpenAIRE

    Beidas, Rinad S; Wolk, Courtney L Benjamin; Walsh, Lucia M; Evans, Arthur C; Hurford, Matthew O; Barg, Frances K

    2014-01-01

    Background Organizational factors impact the delivery of mental health services in community settings. Mixed-methods analytic approaches have been recommended, though little research within implementation science has explicitly compared inductive and deductive perspectives to understand their relative value in understanding the same constructs. The purpose of our study is to use two different paradigmatic approaches to deepen our understanding of organizational social context. We accomplish t...

  9. Scientific thinking in elementary school: Children's social cognition and their epistemological understanding promote experimentation skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterhaus, Christopher; Koerber, Susanne; Sodian, Beate

    2017-03-01

    Do social cognition and epistemological understanding promote elementary school children's experimentation skills? To investigate this question, 402 children (ages 8, 9, and 10) in 2nd, 3rd, and 4th grades were assessed for their experimentation skills, social cognition (advanced theory of mind [AToM]), epistemological understanding (understanding the nature of science), and general information-processing skills (inhibition, intelligence, and language abilities) in a whole-class testing procedure. A multiple indicators multiple causes model revealed a significant influence of social cognition (AToM) on epistemological understanding, and a McNemar test suggested that children's development of AToM is an important precursor for the emergence of an advanced, mature epistemological understanding. Children's epistemological understanding, in turn, predicted their experimentation skills. Importantly, this relation was independent of the common influences of general information processing. Significant relations between experimentation skills and inhibition, and between epistemological understanding, intelligence, and language abilities emerged, suggesting that general information processing contributes to the conceptual development that is involved in scientific thinking. The model of scientific thinking that was tested in this study (social cognition and epistemological understanding promote experimentation skills) fitted the data significantly better than 2 alternative models, which assumed nonspecific, equally strong relations between all constructs under investigation. Our results support the conclusion that social cognition plays a foundational role in the emergence of children's epistemological understanding, which in turn is closely related to the development of experimentation skills. Our findings have significant implications for the teaching of scientific thinking in elementary school and they stress the importance of children's epistemological understanding in

  10. Ventromedial prefrontal volume predicts understanding of others and social network size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Penelope A; Rezaie, Roozbeh; Brown, Rachel; Roberts, Neil; Dunbar, R I M

    2011-08-15

    Cognitive abilities such as Theory of Mind (ToM), and more generally mentalizing competences, are central to human sociality. Neuroimaging has associated these abilities with specific brain regions including temporo-parietal junction, superior temporal sulcus, frontal pole, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Previous studies have shown both that mentalizing competence, indexed as the ability to correctly understand others' belief states, is associated with social network size and that social group size is correlated with frontal lobe volume across primate species (the social brain hypothesis). Given this, we predicted that both mentalizing competences and the number of social relationships a person can maintain simultaneously will be a function of gray matter volume in these regions associated with conventional Theory of Mind. We used voxel-based morphometry of Magnetic Resonance Images (MRIs) to test this hypothesis in humans. Specifically, we regressed individuals' mentalizing competences and social network sizes against gray matter volume. This revealed that gray matter volume in bilateral posterior frontal pole and left temporoparietal junction and superior temporal sucus varies parametrically with mentalizing competence. Furthermore, gray matter volume in the medial orbitofrontal cortex and the ventral portion of medial frontal gyrus, varied parametrically with both mentalizing competence and social network size, demonstrating a shared neural basis for these very different facets of sociality. These findings provide the first fine-grained anatomical support for the social brain hypothesis. As such, they have important implications for our understanding of the constraints limiting social cognition and social network size in humans, as well as for our understanding of how such abilities evolved across primates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Understanding social support in reunification: the views of foster children, birth families and social workers

    OpenAIRE

    Balsells, M. Àngels; Pastor Vicente, Crescencia; Molina, María Cruz; Fuentes-Peláez, Núria; Vázquez, Noelia

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that the social support received from fathers and mothers is a key factor in the reunification process, particularly on a foster child’s return home. However, little is known regarding the nature of this support, its sources and the aspects on which such support should be focused. The aim of this study is to describe the social support that families require at the time of a child’s return to successfully re-establish the family positive dynamics, functioning and routines. Th...

  12. Understanding physical (in-) activity, overweight, and obesity in childhood: Effects of congruence between physical self-concept and motor competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utesch, T; Dreiskämper, D; Naul, R; Geukes, K

    2018-04-12

    Both the physical self-concept and actual motor competence are important for healthy future physical activity levels and consequently decrease overweight and obesity in childhood. However, children scoring high on motor competence do not necessarily report high levels of physical self-concept and vice versa, resulting in respective (in-) accuracy also referred to as (non-) veridicality. This study examines whether children's accuracy of physical self-concept is a meaningful predictive factor for their future physical activity. Motor competence, physical self-concept and physical activity were assessed in 3 rd grade and one year later in 4 th grade. Children's weight status was categorized based on WHO recommendations. Polynomial regression with Response surface analyses were conducted with a quasi-DIF approach examining moderating weight status effects. Analyses revealed that children with higher motor competence levels and higher self-perceptions show greater physical activity. Importantly, children who perceive their motor competence more accurately (compared to less) show more future physical activity. This effect is strong for underweight and overweight/obese children, but weak for normal weight children. This study indicates that an accurate self-perception of motor competence fosters future physical activity beyond single main effects, respectively. Hence, the promotion of actual motor competence should be linked with the respective development of accurate self-knowledge.

  13. Growth, motor, and social development in breast- and formula-fed infants of metformin-treated women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glueck, Charles J; Salehi, Marzieh; Sieve, Luann; Wang, Ping

    2006-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that metformin during lactation versus formula feeding would have no adverse effects on infants' growth, motor-social development, or intercurrent illness. Growth, motor-social development, and illness requiring a pediatrician visit were assessed in 61 nursing infants (21 male, 40 female) and 50 formula-fed infants (19 male, 31 female) born to 92 mothers with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) taking a median of 2.55 g metformin per day throughout pregnancy and lactation. Within sex, at 3 and 6 months of age, weight, height, and motor-social development did not differ (p > or = .06) between breast- and formula-fed infants. No infants had retardation of growth, motor, or social development. Intercurrent illnesses did not differ. Metformin during lactation appears to be safe and effective in the first 6 months of infancy.

  14. Associations between social understanding, sibling relationship quality, and siblings' conflict strategies and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Holly E; Howe, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Sibling relationship quality and social understanding (second-order false belief, conflict interpretation, and narrative conflict perspective references) were examined as unique and interactive correlates of sibling conflict behavior in 62 dyads (older M age = 8.39 years and younger M age = 6.06 years). High-quality relationships were associated with positive conflict processes. Younger siblings' second-order false belief scores were negatively associated with constructive conflict strategies, and older siblings' narrative self-referential focus was negatively associated with compromise. Associations between younger children's social understanding (conflict interpretation and narrative perspective references) and siblings' dyadic conflict behavior were moderated by relationship quality. Results suggest that links between social understanding and conflict behavior should be considered in conjunction with the quality of children's relationships.

  15. Understanding suffering and giving compassion: the reach of socially engaged Buddhism into China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuah-Pearce, Khun Eng

    2014-01-01

    This paper will explore the social engagement of Buddhists through their active voluntary works - works that result in the development of a religious philanthropic culture. Through three case examples, this paper will examine how the sangha and individual Buddhists understand social suffering and compassion and attempt to integrate their understanding of Buddhist virtues and values in their daily life where the performance of voluntary works is seen as Buddhist spiritualism. In this process, the individuals seek to understand the key principles of Buddhism that are of direct relevance to their daily existence and their quest to be a compassionate self. Foremost are two notions of yebao (karma) and gan-en (gratitude) and how through compassionate practices and gratitude for those who accepted compassionate acts, they would be rewarded with good karma. Here, pursuing compassionate acts and the alleviation of social suffering is the pursuit of this-worldly spiritualism.

  16. Evolving social responsibility understandings, motivations, and career goals of undergraduate students initially pursuing engineering degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulifson, Gregory A.

    Engineers impact the lives of every person every day, and need to have a strong sense of social responsibility. Understanding what students think about social responsibility in engineering and their futures is very important. Further, by identifying influences that change these ideas and shape their conceptualizations, we can intervene to help prepare students for their responsibilities as part of the profession in the future. This thesis presents the experiences, in their own words, of 34 students who started in engineering. The study is composed of three parts: (i) engineering students' ideas about socially responsible engineering and what influenced these ideas, (ii) how students see themselves as future socially responsible engineers and how this idea changes over their first three years of college, and (iii) what social responsibility-related reasons students who leave engineering have for choosing a new major. Results show that students are complicated and have varied paths through and out of engineering studies. Students came up with their own ideas about socially responsible engineering that converged over the years on legal and safety related aspects of the profession. Relatedly, students identified with the engineering profession through internships and engineering courses, and rarely described socially responsible aspirations that could be accomplished with engineering. More often, those students who desired to help the disadvantaged through their engineering work left engineering. Their choice to leave was a combination of an unsupportive climate, disinterest in their classes, and a desire to combine their personal and professional social responsibility ambitions. If we want engineering students to push the engineering profession forward to be more socially responsible, we can identify the effective influences and develop a curriculum that encourages critical thinking about the social context and impacts of engineering. Additionally, a social

  17. Applying a social network analysis (SNA) approach to understanding radiologists' performance in reading mammograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli Taba, Seyedamir; Hossain, Liaquat; Heard, Robert; Brennan, Patrick; Lee, Warwick; Lewis, Sarah

    2017-03-01

    Rationale and objectives: Observer performance has been widely studied through examining the characteristics of individuals. Applying a systems perspective, while understanding of the system's output, requires a study of the interactions between observers. This research explains a mixed methods approach to applying a social network analysis (SNA), together with a more traditional approach of examining personal/ individual characteristics in understanding observer performance in mammography. Materials and Methods: Using social networks theories and measures in order to understand observer performance, we designed a social networks survey instrument for collecting personal and network data about observers involved in mammography performance studies. We present the results of a study by our group where 31 Australian breast radiologists originally reviewed 60 mammographic cases (comprising of 20 abnormal and 40 normal cases) and then completed an online questionnaire about their social networks and personal characteristics. A jackknife free response operating characteristic (JAFROC) method was used to measure performance of radiologists. JAFROC was tested against various personal and network measures to verify the theoretical model. Results: The results from this study suggest a strong association between social networks and observer performance for Australian radiologists. Network factors accounted for 48% of variance in observer performance, in comparison to 15.5% for the personal characteristics for this study group. Conclusion: This study suggest a strong new direction for research into improving observer performance. Future studies in observer performance should consider social networks' influence as part of their research paradigm, with equal or greater vigour than traditional constructs of personal characteristics.

  18. Network approaches for understanding rainwater management from a social-ecological systems perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven D. Prager

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The premise of this research is to better understand how approaches to implementing rainwater management practices can be informed by understanding how the people living and working in agroecosystems are connected to one another. Because these connections are via both social interactions and functional characteristics of the landscape, a social-ecological network emerges. Using social-ecological network theory, we ask how understanding the structure of interactions can lead to improved rainwater management interventions. Using a case study situated within a small sub-basin in the Fogera area of the Blue Nile Basin of Ethiopia, we build networks of smallholders based both on the biophysical and social-institutional landscapes present in the study site, with the smallholders themselves as the common element between the networks. In turn we explore how structures present in the networks may serve to guide decision making regarding both where and with whom rainwater management interventions could be developed. This research thus illustrates an approach for constructing a social-ecological network and demonstrates how the structures of the network yield insights for tailoring the implementation of rainwater management practices to the social and ecological setting.

  19. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis as a Framework for Understanding the Association between Motor Skills and Internalizing Problems: A mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Oreste Mancini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Poor motor skills have been shown to be associated with a range of psychosocial issues, including internalizing problems (anxiety and depression. While well-documented empirically, our understanding of why this relationship occurs remains theoretically underdeveloped. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis by Cairney, Rigoli, and Piek (2013 provides a promising framework that seeks to explain the association between motor skills and internalizing problems, specifically in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD. The framework posits that poor motor skills predispose the development of internalizing problems via interactions with intermediary environmental stressors. At the time the model was proposed, limited direct evidence was available to support or refute the framework. Several studies and developments related to the framework have since been published. This mini-review seeks to provide an up-to-date overview of recent developments related to the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis. We briefly discuss the past research that led to its development, before moving to studies that have investigated the framework since it was proposed. While originally developed within the context of DCD in childhood, recent developments have found support for the model in community samples. Through the reviewed literature, this article provides support for the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis as a promising theoretical framework that explains the psychosocial correlates across the broader spectrum of motor ability. This evidence promotes the external validity of the framework for use across the broader spectrum of motor ability. However, given its recent conceptualisation, ongoing evaluation of the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis is recommended.

  20. Religiosity as identity: toward an understanding of religion from a social identity perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ysseldyk, Renate; Matheson, Kimberly; Anisman, Hymie

    2010-02-01

    As a social identity anchored in a system of guiding beliefs and symbols, religion ought to serve a uniquely powerful function in shaping psychological and social processes. Religious identification offers a distinctive "sacred" worldview and "eternal" group membership, unmatched by identification with other social groups. Thus, religiosity might be explained, at least partially, by the marked cognitive and emotional value that religious group membership provides. The uniqueness of a positive social group, grounded in a belief system that offers epistemological and ontological certainty, lends religious identity a twofold advantage for the promotion of well-being. However, that uniqueness may have equally negative impacts when religious identity itself is threatened through intergroup conflict. Such consequences are illustrated by an examination of identities ranging from religious fundamentalism to atheism. Consideration of religion's dual function as a social identity and a belief system may facilitate greater understanding of the variability in its importance across individuals and groups.

  1. What Social Workers Should Know About Ethics: Understanding and Resolving Ethical Dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine P. Congress

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing ethical issues and dilemmas that arise in professional practice is crucial for social work practitioners, educators, and students. After a discussion about the limited, although growing, literature on social work ethics, the ten main tenets form the most current NASW Code of Ethics are presented. These topics include limits to confidentiality, confidentiality and technology, confidentiality in family and group work, managed care, cultural competence, dual relationships, sexual relationships, impairment and incompetence of colleagues, application to administrators and relevance to social work educators. In addition to understanding the Code of Ethics, social workers can use the ETHIC model of decision making for resolving ethical dilemmas. This easy to use five step process includes examining personal, agency, client, and professional values, thinking about ethical standards and relevant laws, hypothesizing about consequences, identifying the most vulnerable, and consulting with supervisors and colleagues. A case example involving confidentiality, HIV/AIDS and family therapy demonstrates how social workers can use the ETHIC model.

  2. Understanding health through social practices: performance and materiality in everyday life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maller, Cecily Jane

    2015-01-01

    The importance of recognising structure and agency in health research to move beyond methodological individualism is well documented. To progress incorporating social theory into health, researchers have used Giddens' and Bourdieu's conceptualisations of social practice to understand relationships between agency, structure and health. However, social practice theories have more to offer than has currently been capitalised upon. This article delves into contemporary theories of social practice as used in consumption and sustainability research to provide an alternative, and more contextualised means, of understanding and explaining human action in relation to health and wellbeing. Two key observations are made. Firstly, the latest formulations of social practice theory distinguish moments of practice performance from practices as persistent entities across time and space, allowing empirical application to explain practice histories and future trajectories. Secondly, they emphasise the materiality of everyday life, foregrounding things, technologies and other non-humans that cannot be ignored in a technologically dependent social world. In concluding, I argue the value of using contemporary social practice theories in health research is that they reframe the way in which health outcomes can be understood and could inform more effective interventions that move beyond attitudes, behaviour and choices. © 2015 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The Default Mode Network and Social Understanding of Others: What do Brain Connectivity Studies Tell Us

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanqing eLi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Default Mode Network (DMN has been found to be involved in various domains of cognitive and social processing. The present article will review brain connectivity results related to the DMN in the fields of social understanding of others: emotion perception, empathy, theory of mind, and morality. Most of the reviewed studies focused on healthy subjects with no neurological and psychiatric disease, but some studies on patients with autism and psychopathy will also be discussed. Common results show that the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC plays a key role in the social understanding of others, and the subregions of the MPFC contribute differently to this function according to their roles in different subsystems of the DMN. At the bottom, the ventral MPFC in the medial temporal lobe subsystem and its connections with emotion regions are mainly associated with emotion engagement during social interactions. Above, the anterior MPFC (aMPFC in the cortical midline structures and its connections with posterior and anterior cingulate cortex contribute mostly to making self-other distinctions. At the top, the dorsal MPFC (dMPFC in the dMPFC subsystem and its connection with the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ are primarily related to the understanding of other’s mental states. As behaviors become more complex, the related regions in frontal cortex are located higher. This reflects the transfer of information processing from automatic to cognitive processes with the increase of the complexity of social interaction. Besides the MPFC and TPJ, the connectivities of posterior cingulate cortex also show some changes during tasks from the four social fields. These results indicate that the DMN is indispensable in the social understanding of others.

  4. Fundamental motor skills, nutritional status, perceived competence, and school performance of Brazilian children in social vulnerability: Gender comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Glauber Carvalho; Valentini, Nadia Cristina; Nobre, Francisco Salviano Sales

    2018-06-01

    Being at risk or in social vulnerability situations can affect important aspects of child development. The aim of this study was to investigate fundamental motor skills (locomotor and object control) and school (writing, arithmetic, reading) performances, the perceived competence and the nutritional status of girls and boys living in social vulnerability in the poorest regions of Brazil. Two hundred eleven (211) children (87 girls, 41%), 7-10-year-old (M = 8.3, SD = 0.9), from public schools in Ceará (Brazil), living in social vulnerability, participated in the study. Children were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development - 2, the Body Mass Index (BMI), the Self-Perception Profile for Children, and the School Performance Test. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), adjusted for age, did not show any significant effect for locomotion. There was an effect of gender on the object control. Boys showed higher scores in striking, kicking, throwing, and rolling a ball. Quade's nonparametric analysis showed no difference in BMI between the genders. Most children presented healthy weight. The MANCOVA showed no effect of gender on children's scores on perceived competence on the subscales; moderate scores were found for most children. There were no gender effects on school performance; both boys and girls demonstrated inferior performance. Boys and girls in social vulnerability showed inferior performance in most motor skills, moderate perceived competence and inferior school performance. These results reveal that the appropriate development of these children is at risk and that intervention strategies should be implemented to compensate the difficulties presented. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A geovisual analytic approach to understanding geo-social relationships in the international trade network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Yin, Peifeng; Di, Qian; Hardisty, Frank; MacEachren, Alan M

    2014-01-01

    The world has become a complex set of geo-social systems interconnected by networks, including transportation networks, telecommunications, and the internet. Understanding the interactions between spatial and social relationships within such geo-social systems is a challenge. This research aims to address this challenge through the framework of geovisual analytics. We present the GeoSocialApp which implements traditional network analysis methods in the context of explicitly spatial and social representations. We then apply it to an exploration of international trade networks in terms of the complex interactions between spatial and social relationships. This exploration using the GeoSocialApp helps us develop a two-part hypothesis: international trade network clusters with structural equivalence are strongly 'balkanized' (fragmented) according to the geography of trading partners, and the geographical distance weighted by population within each network cluster has a positive relationship with the development level of countries. In addition to demonstrating the potential of visual analytics to provide insight concerning complex geo-social relationships at a global scale, the research also addresses the challenge of validating insights derived through interactive geovisual analytics. We develop two indicators to quantify the observed patterns, and then use a Monte-Carlo approach to support the hypothesis developed above.

  6. Mexican American Children's Ethnic Identity, Understanding of Ethnic Prejudice, and Parental Ethnic Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Stephen M.; Vera, Elizabeth M.

    1999-01-01

    Interviews with 47 Mexican-American children in grades 2 and 6 and their parents revealed that parental ethnic socialization about ethnic discrimination was associated with children's development of ethnic knowledge. Children's understanding of ethnic prejudice was related to their ethnic knowledge but not their ethnic behaviors. Contains 24…

  7. A social network approach to understanding science communication among fire professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita Wright

    2012-01-01

    Studies of science communication and use in the fire management community suggest manager's access research via informal information networks and that these networks vary by both agency and position. We used a phone survey followed by traditional statistical analyses to understand the informal social networks of fire professionals in two western regions of the...

  8. A social network approach to understanding science communication among fire professionals (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita Wright; Andrea Thode; Anne Mottek-Lucas; Jacklynn Fallon; Megan Matonis

    2012-01-01

    Studies of science communication and use in the fire management community suggest manager's access research via informal information networks and that these networks vary by both agency and position. We used a phone survey followed by traditional statistical analyses to understand the informal social networks of fire professionals in two western regions of the...

  9. Understanding the connection between historic range of variation, current social values and developing desired conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larry Blocker; Susan K. Hagle; Rick Lasko; Robert Keane; Barry Bollenbacher; Bruce Fox; Fred Samson; Randy Gay; Cynthia Manning

    2001-01-01

    Relationships between the development of desired conditions based on today’s social values, and an understanding of the historic range of variability (HRV) are key to the implementation of ecosystem management. Relevant to the discussion are wildlife habitat values, forage production, economics related to wood resources, aesthetics and visual quality, changes in...

  10. Automatic Understanding of Affective and Social Signals by Multimodal Mimicry Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, X.; Truong, Khiet Phuong; Nijholt, Antinus; Pantic, Maja; D' Mello, S.; Graesser, A.; Schuller, B.; Martin, J-C.

    2011-01-01

    Human mimicry is one of the important behavioral cues displayed during social interaction that inform us about the interlocutors' interpersonal states and attitudes. For example, the absence of mimicry is usually associated with negative attitudes. A system capable of analyzing and understanding

  11. Leveraging Social Media Data to Understand Disaster Resilience: A Case Study of Hurricane Isaac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, L.; Lam, N.; Cai, H.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal communities are facing multiple threats from natural hazards, such as hurricanes, flooding, and storm surge, and show uneven response and recovery behaviors. To build a sustainable coast, it is critical to understand how coastal hazards affect humans and how to enhance disaster resilience. However, understanding community resilience remains challenging, due to the lack of real-time data describing community's response and recovery behaviors during disasters. Public discussion through social media platforms provides an opportunity to understand these behaviors by categorizing real-time social media data into three main phases of emergency management - preparedness, response, and recovery. This study analyzes the spatial-temporal patterns of Twitter use and content during Hurricane Isaac, which struck coastal Louisiana on August 29, 2012. The study area includes counties affected by Hurricane Isaac in Louisiana and Mississippi. The objectives are three-fold. First, we will compute a set of Twitter indices to quantify the Twitter activities during Hurricane Issac and the results will be compared with those of Hurricane Sandy to gain a better understanding of human response in extreme events. Second, county-level disaster resilience in the affected region will be computed and evaluated using the Resilience Inference Measurement (RIM) model. Third, we will examine the relationship between the geographical and social disparities in Twitter use and the disparities in disaster resilience and evaluate the role of Twitter use in disaster resilience. Knowledge gained from this study could provide valuable insights into strategies for utilizing social media data to increase resilience to disasters.

  12. Socializing Infants toward a Cultural Understanding of Expressing Negative Affect: A Bakhtinian Informed Discursive Psychology Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuth, Carolin

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the socialization of emotion expression in infancy. It argues that in order to adequately understand emotion development we need to consider the appraisal of emotion expression through caregivers in mundane, everyday interactions. Drawing on sociocultural and Bakhtinian theorizing, it claims that caregivers' appraisals of…

  13. Social Media in Higher Education: Understanding How Colleges and Universities Use Facebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peruta, Adam; Shields, Alison B.

    2017-01-01

    This study provides an understanding of the current social media landscape for higher education institutions. While it is recognized that consistency in school branding across all communications with stakeholders is important to attract and retain students, relatively little work has been done to determine specifically what type of content should…

  14. Associations between Social Understanding, Sibling Relationship Quality, and Siblings' Conflict Strategies and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Holly E.; Howe, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Sibling relationship quality and social understanding (second-order false belief, conflict interpretation, and narrative conflict perspective references) were examined as unique and interactive correlates of sibling conflict behavior in 62 dyads (older M age = 8.39 years and younger M age = 6.06 years). High-quality relationships were associated…

  15. Understanding social complexity within the wildland urban interface: A new species of human habitation? Environmental Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis B. Paveglio; Pamela J. Jakes; Matthew S. Carroll; Daniel R. Williams

    2009-01-01

    The lack of knowledge regarding social diversity in the Wildland Urban Interface (WUI) or an in-depth understanding of the ways people living there interact to address common problems is concerning, perhaps even dangerous, given that community action is necessary for successful wildland fire preparedness and natural resource management activities. In this article, we...

  16. A Phenomenological Study: Understanding the Management of Social Categorization Diversity Issues Associated with College Athletic Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickelman, Eric

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological research study explored the social categorization diversity management experiences of NCAA Division I, II and III athletic coaches. The research study used a combination of questionnaire, observation and coaching interviews to obtain an understanding of the skills, tools and techniques that these coaches used to…

  17. Increasing Understanding and Social Acceptance of Individuals with Disabilities through Exploration of Comics Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrail, Ewa; Rieger, Alicja

    2016-01-01

    Research supports the inclusion of children with disabilities in general education classrooms as a way to boost academic and social development, not only for children with disabilities, but also for typically developing children. A wide variety of perspectives and abilities in the classroom builds empathy, understanding, and creativity--all…

  18. A First Step toward the Automatic Understanding of Social Touch for Naturalistic Human–Robot Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, Merel Madeleine; Poel, Mannes; Reidsma, Dennis; Heylen, Dirk K.J.

    2017-01-01

    Social robots should be able to automatically understand and respond to human touch. The meaning of touch does not only depend on the form of touch but also on the context in which the touch takes place. To gain more insight into the factors that are relevant to interpret the meaning of touch within

  19. Human infants' understanding of social imitation: Inferences of affiliation from third party observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lindsey J; Spelke, Elizabeth S

    2018-01-01

    Imitation is ubiquitous in positive social interactions. For adult and child observers, it also supports inferences about the participants in such interactions and their social relationships, but the origins of these inferences are obscure. Do infants attach social significance to this form of interaction? Here we test 4- to 5.5-month-old infants' interpretation of imitation, asking if the imitative interactions they observe support inferences of social affiliation, across 10 experimental conditions that varied the modality of the imitation (movement vs. sound), the roles of specific characters (imitators vs. targets), the number of characters in the displays (3 vs. 5), and the number of parties initiating affiliative test events (1 vs. 2). These experiments, together with one experiment conducted with 12-month-old infants, yielded three main findings. First, infants expect that characters who engaged in imitation will approach and affiliate with the characters whom they imitated. Second, infants show no evidence of expecting that characters who were targets of imitation will approach and affiliate with their imitators. Third, analyzing imitative interactions is difficult for young infants, whose expectations vary in strength depending on the number of characters to be tracked and the number of affiliative actors to be compared. These findings have implications for our understanding of social imitation, and they provide methods for advancing understanding of other aspects of early social cognitive development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A complementary marriage of perspectives: understanding organizational social context using mixed methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beidas, Rinad S; Wolk, Courtney L Benjamin; Walsh, Lucia M; Evans, Arthur C; Hurford, Matthew O; Barg, Frances K

    2014-11-23

    Organizational factors impact the delivery of mental health services in community settings. Mixed-methods analytic approaches have been recommended, though little research within implementation science has explicitly compared inductive and deductive perspectives to understand their relative value in understanding the same constructs. The purpose of our study is to use two different paradigmatic approaches to deepen our understanding of organizational social context. We accomplish this by using a mixed-methods approach in an investigation of organizational social context in community mental health clinics. Nineteen agencies, representing 23 sites, participated. Enrolled participants included 130 therapists, 36 supervisors, and 22 executive administrators. Quantitative data was obtained via the Organizational Social Context (OSC) measure. Qualitative data, comprised of direct observation with spot sampling generated from agency visits, was coded using content analysis and grounded theory. The present study examined elements of organizational social context that would have been missed if only quantitative data had been obtained and utilized mixed methods to investigate if stratifying observations based on quantitative ratings from the OSC resulted in the emergence of differential themes. Four of the six OSC constructs were commonly observed in field observations (i.e., proficiency, rigidity, functionality, stress), while the remaining two constructs were not frequently observed (i.e., resistance, engagement). Constructs emerged related to organizational social context that may have been missed if only quantitative measurement was employed, including those around the physical environment, commentary about evidence-based practice initiatives, leadership, cultural diversity, distrust, and affect. Stratifying agencies by "best," "average," and "worst" organizational social context impacted interpretation for three constructs (affect, stress, and leadership). Results

  1. Enactive cinema paves way towards understanding complex real-time social interaction in neuroimaging experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia eTikka

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We outline general theoretical and practical implications of what we promote as enactive cinema for the neuroscientific study of online socio-emotional interaction. In a real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI setting, participants are immersed in cinematic experiences that simulate social situations. While viewing, their physiological reactions - including brain responses - are tracked, representing implicit and unconscious experiences of the on-going social situations. These reactions, in turn, are analysed in real-time and fed back to modify the cinematic sequences they are viewing while being scanned. Due to the engaging cinematic content, the proposed setting focuses on living-by in terms of shared psycho-physiological epiphenomena of experience rather than active coping in terms of goal-oriented motor actions. It constitutes a means to parametrically modify stimuli that depict social situations and their broader environmental contexts. As an alternative to studying the variation of brain responses as a function of a priori fixed stimuli, this method can be applied to survey the range of stimuli that evoke similar responses across participants at particular brain regions of interest.

  2. Enactive cinema paves way for understanding complex real-time social interaction in neuroimaging experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikka, Pia; Väljamäe, Aleksander; de Borst, Aline W; Pugliese, Roberto; Ravaja, Niklas; Kaipainen, Mauri; Takala, Tapio

    2012-01-01

    We outline general theoretical and practical implications of what we promote as enactive cinema for the neuroscientific study of online socio-emotional interaction. In a real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) setting, participants are immersed in cinematic experiences that simulate social situations. While viewing, their physiological reactions-including brain responses-are tracked, representing implicit and unconscious experiences of the on-going social situations. These reactions, in turn, are analyzed in real-time and fed back to modify the cinematic sequences they are viewing while being scanned. Due to the engaging cinematic content, the proposed setting focuses on living-by in terms of shared psycho-physiological epiphenomena of experience rather than active coping in terms of goal-oriented motor actions. It constitutes a means to parametrically modify stimuli that depict social situations and their broader environmental contexts. As an alternative to studying the variation of brain responses as a function of a priori fixed stimuli, this method can be applied to survey the range of stimuli that evoke similar responses across participants at particular brain regions of interest.

  3. Understanding the information and resource needs of UK health and social care placement students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Lynne; Doherty, Alan; Lea, Susan J; Webster, Daniel

    2008-12-01

    Students on health and social care degree programmes spend 50% of their time on practice placements. Because of the diversity of settings and the need to evidence their work, it is vital to understand the information and resource needs of placement students. The aim of this investigation was to understand the needs of placement students in terms of accessing resources whilst they are in the field in order to inform a guide to meet these needs. Focus groups were conducted with students on midwifery, social work and post-registration health professions degree programmes on three different sites across the region. Data were analysed using Thematic Content Analysis. Three themes emerged from the data: inequality, user education needs and students' solutions and strategies. It is essential to speak to placement students in order to understand their needs in terms of accessing and using library resources. The timing and content of information skills training is key to meeting student needs while on placement.

  4. Crying in Context: Understanding Associations With Interpersonal Dependency and Social Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine L. Fiori

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the associations among interpersonal dependency, social support, and crying proneness, since crying is a behavior that is particularly relevant to the affiliative interpersonal goals characterizing maladaptive forms of dependency (Keltner & Kring, 1998. Data were collected from 305 first-year university students (M age = 18 years. A series of hierarchical linear regressions, controlling for gender, commuting status, romantic relationship status, stress, loneliness, and depressive symptoms, partially supported our hypotheses. That is, we found that a measure of maladaptive dependency (destructive overdependence, or DO and crying proneness were positively correlated, and that DO moderated the associations between social support and crying proneness. Specifically, we found that social support and crying were more closely positively associated among individuals high on DO compared to individuals low on DO. Our findings imply that interpersonal dependency may be an important factor in understanding individual differences in crying, and in determining whether crying is a successful elicitor of social support.

  5. Between individual agency and structure in HIV prevention: understanding the middle ground of social practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippax, Susan; Stephenson, Niamh; Parker, Richard G; Aggleton, Peter

    2013-08-01

    When HIV prevention targets risk and vulnerability, it focuses on individual agency and social structures, ignoring the centrality of community in effective HIV prevention. The neoliberal concept of risk assumes individuals are rational agents who act on information provided to them regarding HIV transmission. This individualistic framework does not recognize the communities in which people act and connect. The concept of vulnerability on the other hand acknowledges the social world, but mainly as social barriers that make it difficult for individuals to act. Neither approach to HIV prevention offers understanding of community practices or collective agency, both central to success in HIV prevention to date. Drawing on examples of the social transformation achieved by community action in Australia and Brazil, this article focuses on this middle ground and its role in effective HIV prevention.

  6. The Perspectives to Understand Social Marketing as an Approach in Influencing Consumer Behavior for Good

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iin Mayasari

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is a conceptual paper and highlights perspectives to understand social marketing as an approach to bring about voluntary and socially desirable consumer behavior. The perspective is considered as an alternative way to comprehend consumer behavior change for good as a multi-factor driven action. Hence, social marketing is also considered as a discipline that can be analyzed from multiple perspectives including a behavioral change perspective and a relationship perspective. Each perspective is elaborated by doing a review of existing literature and research. This study shows that social marketing is not only the application of marketing programs to shape consumer behavior, but also a process involving individual, society, and government to make a better life of society.

  7. Social networks as the context for understanding employment services utilization among homeless youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman-Adhikari, Anamika; Rice, Eric

    2014-08-01

    Little is known about the factors associated with use of employment services among homeless youth. Social network characteristics have been known to be influential in motivating people's decision to seek services. Traditional theoretical frameworks applied to studies of service use emphasize individual factors over social contexts and interactions. Using key social network, social capital, and social influence theories, this paper developed an integrated theoretical framework that capture the social network processes that act as barriers or facilitators of use of employment services by homeless youth, and understand empirically, the salience of each of these constructs in influencing the use of employment services among homeless youth. We used the "Event based-approach" strategy to recruit a sample of 136 homeless youth at one drop-in agency serving homeless youth in Los Angeles, California in 2008. The participants were queried regarding their individual and network characteristics. Data were entered into NetDraw 2.090 and the spring embedder routine was used to generate the network visualizations. Logistic regression was used to assess the influence of the network characteristics on use of employment services. The study findings suggest that social capital is more significant in understanding why homeless youth use employment services, relative to network structure and network influence. In particular, bonding and bridging social capital were found to have differential effects on use of employment services among this population. The results from this study provide specific directions for interventions aimed to increase use of employment services among homeless youth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evidence of social understanding impairment in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Cavallo

    Full Text Available The present study aims at clarifying the nature of the Theory of Mind (ToM deficits associated with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS. ToM is the ability to attribute mental states such as intentions and beliefs to others in order to understand and predict their behaviour and to behave accordingly. Several neuroimaging studies reported the prefrontal cortices as the brain region underlying a key ToM ability, i.e. the comprehension of social intentions. Dysfunction of the prefrontal cortices in patients with ALS has been indicated by a range of neuroimaging studies. The frontal syndrome that appears to characterize up to 50% of ALS has been noted to be similar to the profile that characterizes patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD, a neurodegenerative condition characterised by ToM deficits. In the present paper, we hypothesize that the performance of patients with ALS is significantly worse than healthy controls' performance on tasks requiring the comprehension of social contexts, whereas patients' performance is comparable to healthy controls' performance on tasks not requiring the comprehension of social contexts. To this end, we tested 15 patients with ALS with an experimental protocol that distinguishes between private (non-social intentions and social intentions. The pattern of results followed the experimental hypothesis: the performance of patients with ALS and healthy controls significantly differed on the comprehension of social context only, with an impairment in patients with ALS. Single case analysis confirmed the findings at an individual level. The present study is the first which has examined and compared the understanding of social and non-social contexts in patients with ALS and shown a specific and selective deficit in the former only. The current findings further support the notion of a continuum of cognitive dysfunction ranging from ALS to FTD, with parallel cognitive profiles in both disorders.

  9. Evidence of social understanding impairment in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Marco; Adenzato, Mauro; Macpherson, Sarah E; Karwig, Gillian; Enrici, Ivan; Abrahams, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims at clarifying the nature of the Theory of Mind (ToM) deficits associated with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). ToM is the ability to attribute mental states such as intentions and beliefs to others in order to understand and predict their behaviour and to behave accordingly. Several neuroimaging studies reported the prefrontal cortices as the brain region underlying a key ToM ability, i.e. the comprehension of social intentions. Dysfunction of the prefrontal cortices in patients with ALS has been indicated by a range of neuroimaging studies. The frontal syndrome that appears to characterize up to 50% of ALS has been noted to be similar to the profile that characterizes patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD), a neurodegenerative condition characterised by ToM deficits. In the present paper, we hypothesize that the performance of patients with ALS is significantly worse than healthy controls' performance on tasks requiring the comprehension of social contexts, whereas patients' performance is comparable to healthy controls' performance on tasks not requiring the comprehension of social contexts. To this end, we tested 15 patients with ALS with an experimental protocol that distinguishes between private (non-social) intentions and social intentions. The pattern of results followed the experimental hypothesis: the performance of patients with ALS and healthy controls significantly differed on the comprehension of social context only, with an impairment in patients with ALS. Single case analysis confirmed the findings at an individual level. The present study is the first which has examined and compared the understanding of social and non-social contexts in patients with ALS and shown a specific and selective deficit in the former only. The current findings further support the notion of a continuum of cognitive dysfunction ranging from ALS to FTD, with parallel cognitive profiles in both disorders.

  10. Mirror neurons and motor intentionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Sinigaglia, Corrado

    2007-01-01

    Our social life rests to a large extent on our ability to understand the intentions of others. What are the bases of this ability? A very influential view is that we understand the intentions of others because we are able to represent them as having mental states. Without this meta-representational (mind-reading) ability their behavior would be meaningless to us. Over the past few years this view has been challenged by neurophysiological findings and, in particular, by the discovery of mirror neurons. The functional properties of these neurons indicate that intentional understanding is based primarily on a mechanism that directly matches the sensory representation of the observed actions with one's own motor representation of those same actions. These findings reveal how deeply motor and intentional components of action are intertwined, suggesting that both can be fully comprehended only starting from a motor approach to intentionality.

  11. Studying the complexity of change: toward an analytical framework for understanding deliberate social-ecological transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele-Lee Moore

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Faced with numerous seemingly intractable social and environmental challenges, many scholars and practitioners are increasingly interested in understanding how to actively engage and transform the existing systems holding such problems in place. Although a variety of analytical models have emerged in recent years, most emphasize either the social or ecological elements of such transformations rather than their coupled nature. To address this, first we have presented a definition of the core elements of a social-ecological system (SES that could potentially be altered in a transformation. Second, we drew on insights about transformation from three branches of literature focused on radical change, i.e., social movements, socio-technical transitions, and social innovation, and gave consideration to the similarities and differences with the current studies by resilience scholars. Drawing on these findings, we have proposed a framework that outlines the process and phases of transformative change in an SES. Future research will be able to utilize the framework as a tool for analyzing the alteration of social-ecological feedbacks, identifying critical barriers and leverage points and assessing the outcome of social-ecological transformations.

  12. Electromyographic activity of hand muscles in a motor coordination game: effect of incentive scheme and its relation with social capital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Censolo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A vast body of social and cognitive psychology studies in humans reports evidence that external rewards, typically monetary ones, undermine intrinsic motivation. These findings challenge the standard selfish-rationality assumption at the core of economic reasoning. In the present work we aimed at investigating whether the different modulation of a given monetary reward automatically and unconsciously affects effort and performance of participants involved in a game devoid of visual and verbal interaction and without any perspective-taking activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twelve pairs of participants were submitted to a simple motor coordination game while recording the electromyographic activity of First Dorsal Interosseus (FDI, the muscle mainly involved in the task. EMG data show a clear effect of alternative rewards strategies on subjects' motor behavior. Moreover, participants' stock of relevant past social experiences, measured by a specifically designed questionnaire, was significantly correlated with EMG activity, showing that only low social capital subjects responded to monetary incentives consistently with a standard rationality prediction. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings show that the effect of extrinsic motivations on performance may arise outside social contexts involving complex cognitive processes due to conscious perspective-taking activity. More importantly, the peculiar performance of low social capital individuals, in agreement with standard economic reasoning, adds to the knowledge of the circumstances that makes the crowding out/in of intrinsic motivation likely to occur. This may help in improving the prediction and accuracy of economic models and reconcile this puzzling effect of external incentives with economic theory.

  13. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis as a Framework for Understanding the Association Between Motor Skills and Internalizing Problems: A Mini-Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Vincent O.; Rigoli, Daniela; Cairney, John; Roberts, Lynne D.; Piek, Jan P.

    2016-01-01

    Poor motor skills have been shown to be associated with a range of psychosocial issues, including internalizing problems (anxiety and depression). While well-documented empirically, our understanding of why this relationship occurs remains theoretically underdeveloped. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis by Cairney et al. (2013) provides a promising framework that seeks to explain the association between motor skills and internalizing problems, specifically in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The framework posits that poor motor skills predispose the development of internalizing problems via interactions with intermediary environmental stressors. At the time the model was proposed, limited direct evidence was available to support or refute the framework. Several studies and developments related to the framework have since been published. This mini-review seeks to provide an up-to-date overview of recent developments related to the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis. We briefly discuss the past research that led to its development, before moving to studies that have investigated the framework since it was proposed. While originally developed within the context of DCD in childhood, recent developments have found support for the model in community samples. Through the reviewed literature, this article provides support for the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis as a promising theoretical framework that explains the psychosocial correlates across the broader spectrum of motor ability. However, given its recent conceptualization, ongoing evaluation of the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis is recommended. PMID:26941690

  14. Understanding the relationship between brain and upper limb function in children with unilateral motor impairments: A multimodal approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinstein, M.; Green, D.; Rudisch, J.; Zielinski, I.M.; Benthem-Muñiz, M.; Jongsma, M.L.A.; McLellend, V.; Steenbergen, B.; Shiran, S.I.; Ben Bashat, D.; Barker, G.J.

    2018-01-01

    Atypical brain development and early brain injury have profound and long lasting impact on the development, skill acquisition, and subsequent independence of a child. Heterogeneity is present at the brain level and at the motor level; particularly with respect to phenomena of bilateral activation

  15. Teaching Motor Skills to Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Teri

    2012-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are commonly characterized by deficits in the social and communication domains. However, up to 80 percent of this population also have poor motor skills. Individuals with an ASD experience difficulties in motor planning, imitation, and postural stability. A better understanding of these deficits and of strategies…

  16. The social competence of Latino kindergartners and growth in mathematical understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, Claudia; Fuller, Bruce

    2010-05-01

    We know that social competence contributes to young children's adaptation to, and cognitive learning within, classroom settings. Yet initial evidence is mixed on the social competencies that Latino children bring to kindergarten and the extent to which these skills advance cognitive growth. Building from ecocultural and developmental-risk theory, this paper shows children's social competence to be adaptive to the normative expectations and cognitive requirements of culturally bounded settings in both the home and classroom. Latino socialization in the home may yield social competencies that teachers value rather than reflect "risk factors" that constrain children's school readiness. We draw on the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, kindergarten cohort (N = 19,590) to detail 5 social competencies at entry to school--self-control, interpersonal skills, approaches to learning, internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors--and to examine variability among Latino subgroups. We then test the extent to which baseline variation in social competence accounts for children's cognitive growth during the kindergarten year. We find that Latino children from poor, but not middle-class, families display weaker social competencies vis-à-vis White children (all relationships p cognitive growth, which is shaped most strongly by positive approaches to learning. The disparities in competencies observed for Latino children from poor families, relative to White children, are significant yet much smaller than gaps in baseline levels of mathematical understanding. We discuss how the consonance or mismatch between competencies acquired at home and those valued by teachers must consider cultural differences, social-class position, and variation among diverse Latino subgroups. 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  17. The social accountability of doctors: a relationship based framework for understanding emergent community concepts of caring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green-Thompson, Lionel P; McInerney, Patricia; Woollard, Bob

    2017-04-12

    Social accountability is defined as the responsibility of institutions to respond to the health priorities of a community. There is an international movement towards the education of health professionals who are accountable to communities. There is little evidence of how communities experience or articulate this accountability. In this grounded theory study eight community based focus group discussions were conducted in rural and urban South Africa to explore community members' perceptions of the social accountability of doctors. The discussions were conducted across one urban and two rural provinces. Group discussions were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Initial coding was done and three main themes emerged following data analysis: the consultation as a place of love and respect (participants have an expectation of care yet are often engaged with disregard); relationships of people and systems (participants reflect on their health priorities and the links with the social determinants of health) and Ubuntu as engagement of the community (reflected in their expectation of Ubuntu based relationships as well as part of the education system). These themes were related through a framework which integrates three levels of relationship: a central community of reciprocal relationships with the doctor-patient relationship as core; a level in which the systems of health and education interact and together with social determinants of health mediate the insertion of communities into a broader discourse. An ubuntu framing in which the tensions between vulnerability and power interact and reflect rights and responsibility. The space between these concepts is important for social accountability. Social accountability has been a concept better articulated by academics and centralized agencies. Communities bring a richer dimension to social accountability through their understanding of being human and caring. This study also creates the connection between ubuntu and social

  18. Understanding protected area resilience: a multi-scale, social-ecological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Graeme S.; Allen, Craig R.; Ban, Natalie C.; Biggs, Duan; Biggs, Harry C.; Cumming, David H.M; De Vos, Alta; Epstein, Graham; Etienne, Michel; Maciejewski, Kristine; Mathevet, Raphael; Moore, Christine; Nenadovic, Mateja; Schoon, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) remain central to the conservation of biodiversity. Classical PAs were conceived as areas that would be set aside to maintain a natural state with minimal human influence. However, global environmental change and growing cross-scale anthropogenic influences mean that PAs can no longer be thought of as ecological islands that function independently of the broader social-ecological system in which they are located. For PAs to be resilient (and to contribute to broader social-ecological resilience), they must be able to adapt to changing social and ecological conditions over time in a way that supports the long-term persistence of populations, communities, and ecosystems of conservation concern. We extend Ostrom's social-ecological systems framework to consider the long-term persistence of PAs, as a form of land use embedded in social-ecological systems, with important cross-scale feedbacks. Most notably, we highlight the cross-scale influences and feedbacks on PAs that exist from the local to the global scale, contextualizing PAs within multi-scale social-ecological functional landscapes. Such functional landscapes are integral to understand and manage individual PAs for long-term sustainability. We illustrate our conceptual contribution with three case studies that highlight cross-scale feedbacks and social-ecological interactions in the functioning of PAs and in relation to regional resilience. Our analysis suggests that while ecological, economic, and social processes are often directly relevant to PAs at finer scales, at broader scales, the dominant processes that shape and alter PA resilience are primarily social and economic.

  19. Motorized Transportation, Social Status, and Adiposity The China Health and Nutrition Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Li; Stolk, Ronald P.; Corpeleijn, Eva

    Background: Increased dependence on motorized transportation may contribute to obesity. Countries in rapid socioeconomic transitions, such as China, provide an opportunity to investigate such an association. Purpose: The aim of the study was to examine the hypotheses that increased dependence on

  20. Using a social-ecological systems perspective to understand tourism and landscape interactions in coastal areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasper Hessel Heslinga

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to look at the potential synergies between tourism and landscapes and examine the potential contribution of tourism to build social-ecological resilience in the Dutch Wadden. Design/methodology/approach – The authors reveal how a social-ecological systems perspective can be used to conceptualize the Wadden as a coupled and dynamic system. This paper is a conceptual analysis that applies this approach to the Dutch Wadden. The data used for the inquiry primarily comes from a literature review. Findings – The authors argue that the social-ecological systems perspective is a useful approach and could be used to improve the governance of multi-functional socio-ecological systems in coastal areas. Opportunities for synergies between tourism and landscapes have been overlooked. The authors consider that tourism and nature protection are potentially compatible and that the synergies should be identified. Research limitations/implications – This paper is only a conceptual application rather than an empirical case study. Further research to actually apply the methodology is needed. Practical implications – Managers of protected areas should consider applying a social-ecological systems approach. Social implications – The views of a wide variety of stakeholders should be considered in landscape planning. Originality/value – The value of this paper lies in the articulation of the social-ecological systems perspective as a way to identify and understand the complex interactions between tourism and landscape, and the potential synergies between them.

  1. Understanding the Context of Learning in an Online Social Network for Health Professionals' Informal Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Gray, Kathleen; Verspoor, Karin; Barnett, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Online social networks (OSN) enable health professionals to learn informally, for example by sharing medical knowledge, or discussing practice management challenges and clinical issues. Understanding the learning context in OSN is necessary to get a complete picture of the learning process, in order to better support this type of learning. This study proposes critical contextual factors for understanding the learning context in OSN for health professionals, and demonstrates how these contextual factors can be used to analyse the learning context in a designated online learning environment for health professionals.

  2. Tacit coordination in social dilemmas: the importance of having a common understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Eric; de Kwaadsteniet, Erik W; De Cremer, David

    2009-03-01

    Previous research has indicated that in social dilemmas, people tacitly coordinate their decisions by using the equal division rule. In 3 experimental studies, the authors investigated the extent to which a common understanding about task and behavioral requirements is essential for the tacit coordination process. The results show that people are less likely to coordinate on the equal division rule when collective feedback on past performance (Study 1), the distribution of information within the group (Study 2), or expected behavioral variance (Study 3) suggests that a common understanding in the group is lacking. Moreover, the results indicate that under these conditions, rather than adhering to the equal division rule, people base their decisions on their own social value orientations. The findings support the view that if situations provide insufficient cues for tacit coordination, people are more likely to decide on the basis of their personal characteristics.

  3. Understanding and effectively addressing breast cancer in African American women: Unpacking the social context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David R; Mohammed, Selina A; Shields, Alexandra E

    2016-07-15

    Black women have a higher incidence of breast cancer before the age of 40 years, more severe disease at all ages, and an elevated mortality risk in comparison with white women. There is limited understanding of the contribution of social factors to these patterns. Elucidating the role of the social determinants of health in breast cancer disparities requires greater attention to how risk factors for breast cancer unfold over the lifecourse and to the complex ways in which socioeconomic status and racism shape exposure to psychosocial, physical, chemical, and other individual and community-level assaults that increase the risk of breast cancer. Research that takes seriously the social context in which black women live is also needed to maximize the opportunities to prevent breast cancer in this underserved group. Cancer 2016;122:2138-49. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  4. What can alienation theory contribute to an understanding of social inequalities in health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinson, Iain; Yuill, Chris

    2008-01-01

    This article examines both the contribution and the limitations of research that has sought to develop a causal understanding of the psychosocial dimension of inequalities in health. The article seeks to revive interest in Marx's theory of alienation in developing the case for an alternative materialist conceptualization that is able to postulate the pathways from alienation as a psychosocial generative structure to social inequalities in health outcomes within late modern societies.

  5. Are you disabled? Social and cultural factors in understanding disability in Trinidad and Tobago

    OpenAIRE

    Rolston, Yansie

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is an analysis of the under-researched subject of disability in Trinidad and Tobago and presents an understanding of the concepts and contestations of disability as it is lived and experienced by disabled people in T&T. In it disability is explored in the context of identity construction, power relations and self-empowerment, and takes into account the ways in which that identity is shaped by historical events, cultural relations, social interactions and political structures.\\ud \\...

  6. Understanding social and behavioral drivers and impacts of air quality sensor use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbell, Bryan J; Kaufman, Amanda; Rivers, Louie; Schulte, Kayla; Hagler, Gayle; Clougherty, Jane; Cascio, Wayne; Costa, Dan

    2018-04-15

    Lower-cost air quality sensors (hundreds to thousands of dollars) are now available to individuals and communities. This technology is undergoing a rapid and fragmented evolution, resulting in sensors that have uncertain data quality, measure different air pollutants and possess a variety of design attributes. Why and how individuals and communities choose to use sensors is arguably influenced by social context. For example, community experiences with environmental exposures and health effects and related interactions with industry and government can affect trust in traditional air quality monitoring. To date, little social science research has been conducted to evaluate why or how sensors, and sensor data, are used by individuals and communities, or how the introduction of sensors changes the relationship between communities and air quality managers. This commentary uses a risk governance/responsible innovation framework to identify opportunities for interdisciplinary research that brings together social scientists with air quality researchers involved in developing, testing, and deploying sensors in communities. Potential areas for social science research include communities of sensor users; drivers for use of sensors and sensor data; behavioral, socio-political, and ethical implications of introducing sensors into communities; assessing methods for communicating sensor data; and harnessing crowdsourcing capabilities to analyze sensor data. Social sciences can enhance understanding of perceptions, attitudes, behaviors, and other human factors that drive levels of engagement with and trust in different types of air quality data. New transdisciplinary research bridging social sciences, natural sciences, engineering, and design fields of study, and involving citizen scientists working with professionals from a variety of backgrounds, can increase our understanding of air sensor technology use and its impacts on air quality and public health. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Understanding infants' and children's social learning about foods: previous research and new prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D; DeJesus, Jasmine M

    2013-03-01

    Developmental psychologists have devoted significant attention to investigating how children learn from others' actions, emotions, and testimony. Yet most of this research has examined children's socially guided learning about artifacts. The present article focuses on a domain that has received limited attention from those interested in the development of social cognition: food. We begin by reviewing the available literature on infants' and children's development in the food domain and identify situations in which children evidence both successes and failures in their interactions with foods. We focus specifically on the role that other people play in guiding what children eat and argue that understanding patterns of successes and failures in the food domain requires an appreciation of eating as a social phenomenon. We next propose a series of questions for future research and suggest that examining food selection as a social phenomenon can shed light on mechanisms underlying children's learning from others and provide ideas for promoting healthy social relationships and eating behaviors early in development.

  8. Atomism and holism in the understanding of society and social systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F.M. Strauss

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Throughout its history, reflection on human society has been torn apart by the opposing views of atomism and holism. Traditional societies, the city state of ancient Greece as well as the medieval perfect society apparently resemble a whole with its parts. Early modernity continued this holistic inclination for a while, but soon reverted to atomistic theories of the (hypothetical social contract. Modern humanism dominated the subsequent views articulated in terms of the dialectical tension between nature and freedom (science ideal and personality ideal – including mechanistic and vitalistic approaches as well as the more recent acknowledgment of irreducibly complex systems (Behe, 2003. In Wiener’s (1954; 1956 “technologicism” human responsibility and freedom are sacrificed. An alternative view is advanced in terms of the normativity of societal life as well as its many-sidedness. It is shown that theories of social systems increasingly tend to explore avenues transcending the limitations of the atomistic additive approach and the boundary-leveling whole-parts scheme entailed in social systems theory. This development is used as a starting point for the classification of social interaction and for underscoring the scope of the principle of sphere-sovereignty for a multidisciplinary understanding of social systems.

  9. Why should I care? Engaging students in conceptual understanding using global context to develop social attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forder, S. E.; Welstead, C.; Pritchard, M.

    2014-12-01

    A glance through the Harvard Business Review reveals many suggestions and research pieces reviewing sales and marketing techniques. Most educators will be familiar with the notion that making accurate first impressions and being responsive, whilst maintaining pace is critical to engaging an audience. There are lessons to be learnt from industry that can significantly impact upon our teaching. Eisenkraft, in his address to the NSTA, proposed four essential questions. This presentation explores one of those questions: 'Why should I care?', and discusses why this question is crucial for engaging students by giving a clear purpose for developing their scientific understanding. Additionally, this presentation explores how The ISF Academy has adapted the NGSS, using the 14 Grand Engineering Challenges and the IB MYP, to provide current, authentic global contexts, in order to give credibility to the concepts, understandings and skills being learnt. The provision of global contexts across units and within lessons supports a platform for students to have the freedom to explore their own sense of social responsibility. The Science Department believes that planning lessons with tasks that elaborate on the student's new conceptualisations, has helped to transfer the student's new understanding into social behavior beyond the classroom. Furthermore, extension tasks have been used to transfer conceptual understanding between different global contexts.

  10. Changing behaviours, pushing social practices towards more sustainability. The contribution of human and social sciences to understand and act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Solange; Gaspard, Albane

    2016-09-01

    Beyond broad policy declarations, the implementation of ecological transition - which consists mainly in curbing consumption of energy and raw materials in our societies - requires substantial behavioural change at the collective, but also, quite obviously, the individual level. Yet, though there is general consensus around the principle of embarking on the path to transition, things get more complicated when it comes to changing our practices and habits. Can we act on individual behaviour and collective dynamics in respect of this particular aim of ecological transition, and, if so, how are we to go about it? Solange Martin and Albane Gaspard have examined this question for the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME) and offer us the fruit of their labours here. They show, for example, how the social and human sciences help to understand behaviour both at the individual level and in its collective dimensions, and they outline different possible lines of action to modify it. But, given the entanglement between various levels, it is essential, if we are to act effectively on behaviour, to combine approaches, tools and actors, and to analyse and understand social practices thoroughly before implementing political projects or measures

  11. Conduct of everyday life and social self-understanding after depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybholt, Lisbeth; Mørck, Line Lerche

    2015-01-01

    This paper theoretically and empirically explores critical psychological conceptualisations of conduct of everyday life and social self-understanding. The analysis of conduct of everyday life for people who have been hospitalized with depression shows experiences of doubleness. We understand...... doubleness as dilemmas, conflicts and contradictions in the conduct of everyday life. The case analysis of Steven serves to illustrate how cyclic routines can matter, fulfilling meaning in life and being both in conflict and contradiction to other concerns and aspects of meaning that vary over time....... The paper empirically how these kind of conflicts, dilemmas and contradictions are much more complex, than what is possible to grasp in Holzkamp's understanding of conduct of everyday life (Holzkamp, 1998), which tends to produce dualistic opposition between cyclic everyday conduct (such as everyday life...

  12. Contemporary understanding of riots: Classical crowd psychology, ideology and the social identity approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, Clifford; Drury, John

    2016-04-01

    This article explores the origins and ideology of classical crowd psychology, a body of theory reflected in contemporary popularised understandings such as of the 2011 English 'riots'. This article argues that during the nineteenth century, the crowd came to symbolise a fear of 'mass society' and that 'classical' crowd psychology was a product of these fears. Classical crowd psychology pathologised, reified and decontextualised the crowd, offering the ruling elites a perceived opportunity to control it. We contend that classical theory misrepresents crowd psychology and survives in contemporary understanding because it is ideological. We conclude by discussing how classical theory has been supplanted in academic contexts by an identity-based crowd psychology that restores the meaning to crowd action, replaces it in its social context and in so doing transforms theoretical understanding of 'riots' and the nature of the self. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Enhancing Social Skills in Adolescents with High Functioning Autism using Motor-based Role-play Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon A. Gutman PhD, OTR, FAOTA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this pilot study was to collect pilot data evaluating whether a motor-based role-play intervention using a canine animal assistant can enhance social skill use in two adolescents with HFA. A single subject ABA design across two participants was used. The intervention consisted of four 1-hour sessions over 4 weeks. The quality of social interaction was measured by the Evaluation of Social Interaction (ESIadministered at baseline and the 3-month probe. Frequency of targeted social skill use was measured duringbaseline, intervention, and probe phases. Participant 1 experienced statistically significant increases in both ESI scores (p = .012, t = -5.488 from baseline to the 3-month probe. Participant 2 also experienced a statistically significant increase in ESI scores from baseline to probe (p = .002, t = -10.167, but he was unable to fully maintain these gains at the 3-month probe. This pilot study’s findings suggest that the intervention produced positive effects in both participants and warrant further investigation.

  14. Estratégias para o desenvolvimento motor, intelectual e social para beneficiários de APAES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byanca Eugênia Duarte Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A APAE é uma entidade filantrópica que desenvolve atividades de sensibilização, conscientização, prevenção, habilitação, reabilitação e inserção no mercado de trabalho. Dentro dessa perspectiva as atividades lúdicas são recurso pedagógico bastante importante, uma vez que além desenvolver as regras de comportamento pode desenvolver sua coordenação motora, suas habilidades visuais e auditivas, e seu raciocínio criativo e cognitivo.  Logo, o estudo objetivou evidenciar a importância das atividades lúdicas pedagógicas para o desenvolvimento da pessoa com deficiência, apresentando sugestões que propiciam este desenvolvimento em diferentes esferas. O presente estudo trata-se de um relato de experiência a partir do estágio realizado na Associação de Pais e Amigos dos Excepcionais (APAE da cidade de Cajazeiras-PB, em detrimento de um trabalho psicoterapêutico realizado com cinco adolescentes beneficiários, no período de outubro à novembro de 2015. Para este trabalho psicoterapêutico utilizou-se da sugestão de 10 atividades lúdicas pedagógicas que trabalham aspectos motores, cognitivos e sociais dos beneficiários. Este leque de atividades mostra as várias formas de possibilidades para que a pessoa com deficiência aperfeiçoe e/ou desenvolva sua capacidade intelectual, motora e social. Como também aumente sua apropriação do real através do simbólico, que são os objetos. Portanto as atividades lúdicas pedagógicas é um valioso recurso para impulsionar o desenvolvimento das pessoas com deficiência.Strategies for motor development, intellectual and social for beneficiaries of APAESAbstract: APAE is a philanthropic organization that develops awareness activities, awareness, prevention, habilitation, rehabilitation and integration into the labor market. Within this perspective the play activities are very important educational resource, as well develop the rules of behavior can develop their motor skills

  15. Using Memes and Memetic Processes to Explain Social and Conceptual Influences on Student Understanding about Complex Socio-Scientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated seventh grade learners' decision making about genetic engineering concepts and applications. A social network analyses supported by technology tracked changes in student understanding with a focus on social and conceptual influences. Results indicated that several social and conceptual mechanisms potentially affected how…

  16. The Effects of an Early Motor Skill Intervention on Motor Skills, Levels of Physical Activity, and Socialization in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketcheson, Leah; Hauck, Janet; Ulrich, Dale

    2017-01-01

    Despite evidence suggesting one of the earliest indicators of an eventual autism spectrum disorder diagnoses is an early motor delay, there remain very few interventions targeting motor behavior as the primary outcome for young children with autism spectrum disorder. The aim of this pilot study was to measure the efficacy of an intensive motor…

  17. Understanding Online Health Groups for Depression: Social Network and Linguistic Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ronghua; Zhang, Qingpeng

    2016-03-10

    Mental health problems have become increasingly prevalent in the past decade. With the advance of Web 2.0 technologies, social media present a novel platform for Web users to form online health groups. Members of online health groups discuss health-related issues and mutually help one another by anonymously revealing their mental conditions, sharing personal experiences, exchanging health information, and providing suggestions and support. The conversations in online health groups contain valuable information to facilitate the understanding of their mutual help behaviors and their mental health problems. We aimed to characterize the conversations in a major online health group for major depressive disorder (MDD) patients in a popular Chinese social media platform. In particular, we intended to explain how Web users discuss depression-related issues from the perspective of the social networks and linguistic patterns revealed by the members' conversations. Social network analysis and linguistic analysis were employed to characterize the social structure and linguistic patterns, respectively. Furthermore, we integrated both perspectives to exploit the hidden relations between them. We found an intensive use of self-focus words and negative affect words. In general, group members used a higher proportion of negative affect words than positive affect words. The social network of the MDD group for depression possessed small-world and scale-free properties, with a much higher reciprocity ratio and clustering coefficient value as compared to the networks of other social media platforms and classic network models. We observed a number of interesting relationships, either strong correlations or convergent trends, between the topological properties and linguistic properties of the MDD group members. (1) The MDD group members have the characteristics of self-preoccupation and negative thought content, according to Beck's cognitive theory of depression; (2) the social structure

  18. Understanding the social context of fatal road traffic collisions among young people: a qualitative analysis of narrative text in coroners' records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, Paul; Bird, Emma; Gray, Selena; Towner, Elizabeth; Weld, Sarah; McKibben, Mary-Ann

    2014-01-24

    Deaths and injuries on the road remain a major cause of premature death among young people across the world. Routinely collected data usually focuses on the mechanism of road traffic collisions and basic demographic data of those involved. This study aimed to supplement these routine sources with a thematic analysis of narrative text contained in coroners' records, to explore the wider social context in which collisions occur. Thematic analysis of narrative text from Coroners' records, retrieved from thirty-four fatalities among young people (16-24 year olds) occurring as a result of thirty road traffic collisions in a rural county in the south of England over the period 2005-2010. Six key themes emerged: social driving, driving experience, interest in motor vehicles, driving behaviour, perception of driving ability, and emotional distress. Social driving (defined as a group of related behaviours including: driving as a social event in itself (i.e. without a pre-specified destination); driving to or from a social event; driving with accompanying passengers; driving late at night; driving where alcohol or drugs were a feature of the journey) was identified as a common feature across cases. Analysis of the wider social context in which road traffic collisions occur in young people can provide important information for understanding why collisions happen and developing targeted interventions to prevent them. It can complement routinely collected data, which often focuses on events immediately preceding a collision. Qualitative analysis of narrative text in coroner's records may provide a way of providing this type of information. These findings provide additional support for the case for Graduated Driver Licensing programmes to reduce collisions involving young people, and also suggest that road safety interventions need to take a more community development approach, recognising the importance of social context and focusing on social networks of young people.

  19. Benefit Perception About the Understanding of Corporate Social Responsibility in Pprivate Sector in Turkey: Using Web Sites for Announcing of Corporate Social Responsibility Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Nuray YILMAZ SERT

    2012-01-01

    As a consept that adds value to both the society and the corporation, understanding of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), contributes to the development of social welfare on the one hand and also forms a basis for sustaining the existence of corporations in a society on the other hand. Consequently as distinct from philanthropy, two-sided benefits including institutional and social taken into account in Corporate Social Responsibility activities. Therefore especially in order to ensure th...

  20. Social stigma in diabetes : a framework to understand a growing problem for an increasing epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schabert, Jasmin; Browne, Jessica L; Mosely, Kylie; Speight, Jane

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the social and psychological impact of diabetes mellitus is important for informing policy and practice. One potentially significant, yet under-researched, issue is the social stigma surrounding diabetes. This narrative review draws on literature about health-related stigma in diabetes and other chronic conditions in order to develop a framework for understanding diabetes-related stigma. Our review of the literature found that people who do not have diabetes assume that diabetes is not a stigmatized condition. In contrast, people with diabetes report that stigma is a significant concern to them, experienced across many life domains, e.g., in the workplace, in relationships. The experience of diabetes-related stigma has a significant negative impact on many aspects of psychological well-being and may also result in sub-optimal clinical outcomes for people with diabetes. We propose a framework that highlights the causes (attitudes of blame, feelings of fear and disgust, and the felt need to enforce social norms and avoid disease), experiences (being judged, rejected, and discriminated against), and consequences (e.g., distress, poorer psychological well-being, and sub-optimal self-care) of diabetes-related stigma and also identifies potential mitigating strategies to reduce diabetes-related stigma and/or enhance coping and resilience amongst people with diabetes. The systematic investigation of the experiences, causes, and consequences of diabetes-related stigma is an urgent research priority.

  1. Talking about your health to strangers: understanding the use of online social networks by patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colineau, Nathalie; Paris, Cécile

    2010-04-01

    The internet has become a participatory place where everyone can contribute and interact with others. In health in particular, social media have changed traditional patient-physician relationships. Patients are organising themselves in groups, sharing observations and helping each other, although there is still little evidence of the effectiveness of these online communities on people's health. To understand why and how people use health-related sites, we studied these sites and identified three dimensions characterising most of them: informational/supportive; general/focused; and new relationships/existing ones. We conducted an online survey about the use of health-related social networking (SN) sites and learnt that, consistent with previous research, most patients were seeking information about their medical condition online, while, at the same time, still interacting with health professionals to talk about sensitive information and complex issues. We also found that, while people's natural social network played an important role for emotional support, sometimes, people chose to not involve their family, but instead interact with peers online because of their perceived support and ability to understand someone's experience, and also to maintain a comfortable emotional distance. Finally, our results show that people using general SN sites do not necessarily use health-related sites and vice versa.

  2. Understanding and accounting for relational context is critical for social neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark-Polner, Elizabeth; Clark, Margaret S

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have increasingly turned to the brain and to neuroscience more generally to further an understanding of social and emotional judgments and behavior. Yet, many neuroscientists (certainly not all) do not consider the role of relational context. Moreover, most have not examined the impact of relational context in a manner that takes advantage of conceptual and empirical advances in relationship science. Here we emphasize that: (1) all social behavior takes place, by definition, within the context of a relationship (even if that relationship is a new one with a stranger), and (2) relational context shapes not only social thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, but also some seemingly non-social thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in profound ways. We define relational context and suggest that accounting for it in the design and interpretation of neuroscience research is essential to the development of a coherent, generalizable neuroscience of social behavior. We make our case in two ways: (a) we describe some existing neuroscience research in three substantive areas (perceiving and reacting to others' emotions, providing help, and receiving help) that already has documented the powerful impact of relational context. (b) We describe some other neuroscience research from these same areas that has not taken relational context into account. Then, using findings from social and personality psychology, we make a case that different results almost certainly would have been found had the research been conducted in a different relational context. We neither attempt to review all evidence that relational context shapes neuroscience findings nor to put forward a theoretical analysis of all the ways relational context ought to shape neuroscience findings. Our goal is simply to urge greater and more systematic consideration of relational context in neuroscientific research.

  3. Understanding India, globalisation and health care systems: a mapping of research in the social sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    National and transnational health care systems are rapidly evolving with current processes of globalisation. What is the contribution of the social sciences to an understanding of this field? A structured scoping exercise was conducted to identify relevant literature using the lens of India – a ‘rising power’ with a rapidly expanding healthcare economy. A five step search and analysis method was employed in order to capture as wide a range of material as possible. Documents published in English that met criteria for a social science contribution were included for review. Via electronic bibliographic databases, websites and hand searches conducted in India, 113 relevant articles, books and reports were identified. These were classified according to topic area, publication date, disciplinary perspective, genre, and theoretical and methodological approaches. Topic areas were identified initially through an inductive approach, then rationalised into seven broad themes. Transnational consumption of health services; the transnational healthcare workforce; the production, consumption and trade in specific health-related commodities, and transnational diffusion of ideas and knowledge have all received attention from social scientists in work related to India. Other themes with smaller volumes of work include new global health governance issues and structures; transnational delivery of health services and the transnational movement of capital. Thirteen disciplines were found represented in our review, with social policy being a clear leader, followed by economics and management studies. Overall this survey of India-related work suggests a young and expanding literature, although hampered by inadequacies in global comparative data, and by difficulties in accessing commercially sensitive information. The field would benefit from further cross-fertilisation between disciplines and greater application of explanatory theory. Literatures around stem cell research and health

  4. Understanding India, globalisation and health care systems: a mapping of research in the social sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Ramila; Pitchforth, Emma; Murray, Susan F

    2012-09-10

    National and transnational health care systems are rapidly evolving with current processes of globalisation. What is the contribution of the social sciences to an understanding of this field? A structured scoping exercise was conducted to identify relevant literature using the lens of India - a 'rising power' with a rapidly expanding healthcare economy. A five step search and analysis method was employed in order to capture as wide a range of material as possible. Documents published in English that met criteria for a social science contribution were included for review. Via electronic bibliographic databases, websites and hand searches conducted in India, 113 relevant articles, books and reports were identified. These were classified according to topic area, publication date, disciplinary perspective, genre, and theoretical and methodological approaches. Topic areas were identified initially through an inductive approach, then rationalised into seven broad themes. Transnational consumption of health services; the transnational healthcare workforce; the production, consumption and trade in specific health-related commodities, and transnational diffusion of ideas and knowledge have all received attention from social scientists in work related to India. Other themes with smaller volumes of work include new global health governance issues and structures; transnational delivery of health services and the transnational movement of capital. Thirteen disciplines were found represented in our review, with social policy being a clear leader, followed by economics and management studies. Overall this survey of India-related work suggests a young and expanding literature, although hampered by inadequacies in global comparative data, and by difficulties in accessing commercially sensitive information. The field would benefit from further cross-fertilisation between disciplines and greater application of explanatory theory. Literatures around stem cell research and health

  5. Understanding and taking relational context into account is critical for social neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth eClark-Polner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Scientists have increasingly turned to the brain and to neuroscience more generally to further an understanding of social and emotional judgments and behavior. Yet, many neuroscientists (certainly not all do not consider the role of relational context. Moreover, most have not examined the impact of relational context in a manner that takes advantage of conceptual and empirical advances in relationship science. Here we emphasize that: (1 all social behavior takes place, by definition, within the context of a relationship (even if that relationship is a new one with a stranger, and (2 relational context shapes not only social thoughts, feelings and behaviors, but also some seemingly non-social thoughts, feelings and behaviors in profound ways. We define relational context and suggest that accounting for it in the design and interpretation of neuroscience research is essential to the development of a coherent, generalizable neuroscience of social behavior. We make our case in two ways: a We describe some existing neuroscience research in three substantive areas (perceiving and reacting to others’ emotions, providing help and receiving help that already has documented the powerful impact of relational context. b We describe some other neuroscience research from these same areas that has not taken relational context into account. Then, using findings from social and personality psychology, we make a case that different results almost certainly would have been found had the research been conducted in a different relational context. We neither attempt to review all evidence that relational context shapes neuroscience findings nor to put forward a theoretical analysis of all the ways relational context ought to shape neuroscience findings. Our goal is simply to urge greater and more systematic consideration of relational context in neuroscientific research.

  6. Students’ Understanding of the Concept of Democracy and Implications for Teacher Education in Social Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Elise Hesby Mathé

    2016-04-01

    be actively encouraged and maintained also in successful democracies. Little is known, however, about how students understand and explain democracy as a subject-specific concept. Such knowledge may be valuable for social studies teachers and teacher educators to fulfil the purpose of the social studies curriculum. The present article investigates 16-year-old students’ understanding of the concept of democracy. In social studies, the concept of democracy is essential not only for disciplinary understanding and discourse, but also for students’ out-of-school democratic participation. To investigate students’ understanding of this concept, semi-structured group interviews were conducted with a total of 23 students at three different Norwegian upper secondary schools. A central finding is that students primarily expressed a liberal understanding of democracy focusing on voting in elections as the main political activity. Students also demonstrated more or less limited or elaborate understanding. In addition to presenting and discussing students’ understandings of the concept of democracy, this article considers implications for teacher education in social studies. One implication is that teacher educators need to engage actively in discussing and defining core concepts with their students. This is related to supporting student teachers’ professional development and in turn developing adolescents’ opportunities for democratic participation. Such a dual focus can provide a knowledge base to help student teachers in their professional development in their first years as practicing teachers.Keywords: democracy, concepts, understanding, teacher education, social studies, democratic theory

  7. Understanding and Predicting Social Media Use Among Community Health Center Patients: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of social media by health care organizations is growing and provides Web-based tools to connect patients, caregivers, and providers. Objective The aim was to determine the use and factors predicting the use of social media for health care–related purposes among medically underserved primary care patients. Methods A cross-sectional survey was administered to 444 patients of a federally qualified community health center. Results Community health center patients preferred that their providers use email, cell phones for texting, and Facebook and cell phone apps for sharing health information. Significantly more Hispanic than white patients believed their providers should use Facebook (P=.001), YouTube (P=.01), and Twitter (P=.04) for sharing health information. Use and intentions to use social media for health-related purposes were significantly higher for those patients with higher subjective norm scores. Conclusions Understanding use and factors predicting use can increase adoption and utilization of social media for health care–related purposes among underserved patients in community health centers. PMID:25427823

  8. Understanding the Social Networks That Form within the Context of an Obesity Prevention Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina B. Gesell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Antiobesity interventions have generally failed. Research now suggests that interventions must be informed by an understanding of the social environment. Objective. To examine if new social networks form between families participating in a group-level pediatric obesity prevention trial. Methods. Latino parent-preschool child dyads (N=79 completed the 3-month trial. The intervention met weekly in consistent groups to practice healthy lifestyles. The control met monthly in inconsistent groups to learn about school readiness. UCINET and SIENA were used to examine network dynamics. Results. Children’s mean age was 4.2 years (SD=0.9, and 44% were overweight/obese (BMI≥85th percentile. Parents were predominantly mothers (97%, with a mean age of 31.4 years (SD=5.4, and 81% were overweight/obese (BMI≥25. Over the study, a new social network evolved among participating families. Parents selectively formed friendship ties based on child BMI z-score, (t=2.08; P<.05. This reveals the tendency for mothers to form new friendships with mothers whose children have similar body types. Discussion. Participating in a group-level intervention resulted in new social network formation. New ties were greatest with mothers who had children of similar body types. This finding might contribute to the known inability of parents to recognize child overweight.

  9. Can the sociology of social problems help us to understand and manage 'lifestyle drift'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Gemma; Malbon, Eleanor; Crammond, Brad; Pescud, Melanie; Baker, Philip

    2017-08-01

    Lifestyle drift is increasingly seen as a barrier to broad action on the social determinants of health. The term is currently used in the population health literature to describe how broad policy initiatives for tackling inequalities in health that start off with social determinants (upstream) approach drift downstream to largely individual lifestyle factors, as well as the general trend of investing a the individual level. Lifestyle drift occurs despite the on-going efforts of public health advocates, such as anti-obesity campaigners, to draw attention to the social factors which shape health behavior and outcomes. In this article, we explore whether the sociology of social problems can help understand lifestyle drift in the context of obesity. Specifically, we apply Jamrozik and Nocella's residualist conversion model to the problem of obesity in order to explore whether such an approach can provide greater insight into the processes that underpin lifestyle drift and inform our attempts to mitigate it. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Social Return on Investment: A New Approach to Understanding and Advocating for Value in Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, Catherine M; Moules, Nancy J

    2017-12-01

    To determine whether the methodology of social return on investment (SROI) could be a way in which the value of a healthcare-related program (children's cancer camp) could be captured, evaluated, and communicated. The value of healthcare goes beyond what can be captured in financial terms; however, this is the most common type of value that is measured. The SROI methodology accounts for a broader concept of value by measuring social, environmental, and economic outcomes and uses monetary values to represent them. The steps/stages of an SROI analysis were applied to the context of a children's camp for this article. Applying the SROI methodology to this healthcare-related program was feasible and provided insight and understanding related to the impacts of this program. Because of SROI's flexibility, it is a tool that has great potential in a healthcare environment and for leaders to evaluate programmatic return on investment.

  11. A Social-constructionist, narrative understanding of the Church�s morality on sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J C M�ller

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This� article can be described as� a social constructionist, narrative understanding of a group of selected South African white Christians� experience and perceptions regarding sexual morality in the context of heterosexual couples. In this article we will encounter alternative descriptions of sex, sexuality and marriage. The assertion is made that sexual morality should be understood within a relational contextual view of human interaction. This entails a shift away from act-centred, universally right or wrong sexually moral behaviour. These contentions are grounded in a thickened description of sex, sexuality and marriage,through which the thin, act-centred discourse of sex as coitus and marriage as ceremonial consent is deconstructed. A few guidelines are also being made in view of the church and parents. The authors use the metaphor of the board game �snakes and ladders� to enlighten the underlying worldview� and findings, thereby situating sexual morality within the sphere of human social interaction and reality.

  12. Tackling complexities in understanding the social determinants of health: the contribution of ethnographic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Mridula

    2011-11-25

    The complexities inherent in understanding the social determinants of health are often not well-served by quantitative approaches. My aim is to show that well-designed and well-conducted ethnographic studies have an important contribution to make in this regard. Ethnographic research designs are a difficult but rigorous approach to research questions that require us to understand the complexity of people's social and cultural lives. I draw on an ethnographic study to describe the complexities of studying maternal health in a rural area in India. I then show how the lessons learnt in that setting and context can be applied to studies done in very different settings. I show how ethnographic research depends for rigour on a theoretical framework for sample selection; why immersion in the community under study, and rapport building with research participants, is important to ensure rich and meaningful data; and how flexible approaches to data collection lead to the gradual emergence of an analysis based on intense cross-referencing with community views and thus a conclusion that explains the similarities and differences observed. When using ethnographic research design it can be difficult to specify in advance the exact details of the study design. Researchers can encounter issues in the field that require them to change what they planned on doing. In rigorous ethnographic studies, the researcher in the field is the research instrument and needs to be well trained in the method. Ethnographic research is challenging, but nevertheless provides a rewarding way of researching complex health problems that require an understanding of the social and cultural determinants of health.

  13. School environments and social risk factors for child pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Linda; Howard, Andrew; Buliung, Ron; Macarthur, Colin; Richmond, Sarah A; Macpherson, Alison

    2017-01-01

    Child pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions (PMVCs) have decreased in Canada in the past 20 years. Many believe this trend is explained by the rise in automobile use for all travel. Initiatives to increase walking to school need to consider PMVC risk. Potential risk factors related to walking to school, the built environment and social factors were examined for schools with historically high child PMVC rates. Child PMVCs (age 4-12 years) from 2000 to 2013 and built environment features were mapped within school attendance boundaries in the City of Toronto, Canada. Case and control schools were in the highest and lowest PMVC quartiles respectively. Observational counts of travel mode to school were conducted. Logistic regression evaluated walking to school, built environment and social risk factors for higher PMVC rates, stratified by geographic location (downtown vs. inner suburbs). The mean PMVC rates were 18.8/10,000/year (cases) and 2.5/10,000/year (controls). One-way street density (OR=4.00), school crossing guard presence (OR=3.65) and higher social disadvantage (OR=1.37) were associated with higher PMVCs. Higher residential land use density had a protective effect (OR=0.56). More walking was not a risk factor. While several built environment risk factors were identified for the inner suburbs; only social disadvantage was a risk factor within older urban neighbourhoods. Several modifiable environmental risk factors were identified for child PMVCs. More walking to school was not associated with increased PMVCs after controlling for the environment. School social disadvantage was associated with higher PMVCs with differences by geographic location. These results have important implications for the design of roadways around schools. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Supporting wellbeing in motor neurone disease for patients, carers, social networks, and health professionals: A scoping review and synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Melanie; Thomas, Geoff; Thomas, Mary; Cafarella, Paul; Stocks, Allegra; Greig, Julia; McEvoy, R Doug

    2018-04-01

    ABSTRACTObjective:Disease management in motor neurone disease (MND) is focused on preserving quality of life. However, the emphasis has so far been on physical symptoms and functioning and not psychosocial wellbeing. MND affects the wellbeing of carers, of family and social network members, and of healthcare providers, as well as of the patients. We therefore aimed to assess and synthesize the knowledge about maximizing MND-related psychosocial wellbeing across all these groups. We used a systematic search and selection process to assess the scope of the literature along with a narrative synthesis of recent high-quality reviews. The original studies were mainly observational studies of patients and, to a lesser extent, of carers. There were few interventional studies, mainly of patients. There were very few studies of any type on wellbeing in their wider social network or in healthcare professionals. All the review literature looked at MND patient or carer wellbeing, with some covering both. No reviews were found of wellbeing in other family members, patients' social networks, or their healthcare professionals. The reviews demonstrated wellbeing problems for patients linked to psychosocial issues. Carer wellbeing is also compromised. Psychotherapies, social supports, improved decision supports, and changes to healthcare delivery are among the suggested strategies for improved patient and carer wellbeing, but no proven interventions were identified for either. Early access to palliative care, also not well-tested but recommended, is poorly implemented. Work on interventions to deal with well-established wellbeing problems for patients and carers is now a research priority. Explicit use of current methods for patient and public involvement and for design and testing of interventions provide a toolkit for this research. Observational research is needed in other groups. There is a potential in considering needs across patients' social networks rather than looking

  15. Exploring potentials of sense-making theory for understanding social processes in public hearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Ivar

    authorities and the public in such planning often characterised by conflict. A sense-making framework is developed based on Karl Weick's theory to investigate how participants at the meeting change their understanding aspects like other actors' opinions and the infrastructure project. Through interviews...... and observations it is shown that participants' senses do not change except from a few aspects. The participants at the meeting thus seem stuck in their positions without interest in being open for other interpretations or arguments. The investigation leads to considerations about the benefit and role...... of such a public meeting and the importance of trust and openness in the social processes in a public hearing....

  16. Understanding comfort and senses in social practices: Insights from a Danish field study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Line Valdorff; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    Thermal comfort is central to energy consumption in housing and one of the main drivers behind worldwide GHG emissions. Research on residential energy consumption has therefore addressed comfort in relation to indoor temperatures. This paper argues that by widening the focus of comfort to include...... other aspects such as air, light and materials, more sustainable ideas of residential comfort might be developed. The paper takes a practice theoretical perspective but argues that the senses should be better incorporated into the approach to understand different aspects of comfort. The paper...... investigates how comfort can be understood as sensorial within theories of practice. This implies understanding how the senses are incorporated in embodied and routinised social practices, through which comfort is sensed and interpreted. Comfort is related to a range of everyday practices in the home...

  17. A social ecological conceptual framework for understanding adolescent health literacy in the health education classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharf Higgins, Joan; Begoray, Deborah; MacDonald, Marjorie

    2009-12-01

    With the rising concern over chronic health conditions and their prevention and management, health literacy is emerging as an important public health issue. As with the development of other forms of literacy, the ability for students to be able to access, understand, evaluate and communicate health information is a skill best developed during their years of public schooling. Health education curricula offer one approach to develop health literacy, yet little is known about its influence on neither students nor their experiences within an educational context. In this article, we describe our experience applying a social ecological model to investigating the implementation of a health education curriculum in four high schools in British Columbia, Canada. We used the model to guide a conceptual understanding of health literacy, develop research questions, select data collection strategies, and interpret the findings. Reflections and recommendations for using the model are offered.

  18. A Diagrammatic Approach to Understanding Complex Eco-Social Interactions in Kathmandu, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cynthia. Neudoerffer

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of developing an international network of community-based ecosystem approaches to health, a project was undertaken in a densely populated and socio-economically diverse area of Kathmandu, Nepal. Drawing on hundreds of pages of narrative reports based on surveys, interviews, secondary data, and focus groups by trained Nepalese facilitators, the authors created systemic depictions of relationships between multiple stakeholder groups, ecosystem health, and human health. These were then combined to examine interactions among stakeholders, activities, concerns, perceived needs, and resource states (ecosystem health indicators. These qualitative models have provided useful heuristics for both community members and research scholars to understand the eco-social systems in which they live; many of the strategies developed by the communities and researchers to improve health intuitively drew on this systemic understanding. The diagrams enabled researchers and community participants to explicitly examine relationships and conflicts related to health and environmental issues in their community.

  19. Why Social Relationships Are Important for Physical Health: A Systems Approach to Understanding and Modifying Risk and Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt-Lunstad, Julianne

    2018-01-04

    Social relationships are adaptive and crucial for survival. This review presents existing evidence indicating that our social connections to others have powerful influences on health and longevity and that lacking social connection qualifies as a risk factor for premature mortality. A systems perspective is presented as a framework by which to move social connection into the realm of public health. Individuals, and health-relevant biological processes, exist within larger social contexts including the family, neighborhood and community, and society and culture. Applying the social ecological model, this review highlights the interrelationships of individuals within groups in terms of understanding both the causal mechanisms by which social connection influences physical health and the ways in which this influence can inform potential intervention strategies. A systems approach also helps identify gaps in our current understanding that may guide future research.

  20. Understanding social capital and HIV risk in rural African American communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cené, Crystal W; Akers, Aletha Y; Lloyd, Stacey W; Albritton, Tashuna; Powell Hammond, Wizdom; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2011-07-01

    African Americans (AA) and rural communities often suffer disproportionately from poorer health. Theory-guided research examining how individual- and community-level factors influence health behaviors and contribute to disparities is needed. To understand how a social network model that captures the interplay between individual and community factors might inform community-based interventions to reduce HIV risk in rural AA communities. Qualitative study. Eleven focus groups with 38 AA 16-24 year olds, 42 adults over age 25, and 13 formerly incarcerated individuals held in community settings in two rural, predominantly AA counties in North Carolina. Thirty-seven semi-structured interviews with multiethnic key informants. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups with open-ended questions assessed a) perceptions of multi-level HIV risk determinants from a social network model (individual, interpersonal, social, economic, political and structural) identified through literature review and b) community needs and assets affecting local HIV rates. Qualitative data was analyzed using directive content analysis guided by a social network model. We identified four themes regarding the interaction between individuals and their communities that mediate HIV risk: interpersonal processes, community structural environment, social disorder, and civic engagement. Communities were characterized as having a high degree of cohesiveness, tension, and HIV-related stigma. The community structural environment-characterized by neighborhood poverty, lack of skilled jobs, segregation, political disenfranchisement and institutional racism-was felt to reduce the availability and accessibility of resources to combat HIV. Adults noted an inability to combat social problems due to social disorder, which fuels HIV risk behaviors. Civic engagement as a means of identifying community concerns and developing solutions is limited by churches' reluctance to address HIV-related issues. To combat HIV

  1. Understanding adolescent mental health: the influence of social processes, doing gender and gendered power relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landstedt, Evelina; Asplund, Kenneth; Gillander Gådin, Katja

    2009-11-01

    Despite a well-documented gender pattern in adolescent mental health, research investigating possible explanatory factors from a gender-theoretical approach is scarce. This paper reports a grounded theory study based on 29 focus groups. The aim was to explore 16- to 19-year-old students' perceptions of what is significant for mental health, and to apply a gender analysis to the findings in order to advance understanding of the gender pattern in adolescent mental health. Significant factors were identified in three social processes categories, including both positive and negative aspects: (1) social interactions, (2) performance and (3) responsibility. Girls more often experienced negative aspects of these processes, placing them at greater risk for mental health problems. Boys' more positive mental health appeared to be associated with their low degree of responsibility-taking and beneficial positions relative to girls. Negotiating cultural norms of femininity and masculinity seemed to be more strenuous for girls, which could place them at a disadvantage with regard to mental health. Social factors and processes (particularly responsibility), gendered power relations and constructions of masculinities and femininities should be acknowledged as important for adolescent mental health.

  2. Understanding the psychology of bullying: Moving toward a social-ecological diathesis-stress model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swearer, Susan M; Hymel, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    With growing recognition that bullying is a complex phenomenon, influenced by multiple factors, research findings to date have been understood within a social-ecological framework. Consistent with this model, we review research on the known correlates and contributing factors in bullying/victimization within the individual, family, peer group, school and community. Recognizing the fluid and dynamic nature of involvement in bullying, we then expand on this model and consider research on the consequences of bullying involvement, as either victim or bully or both, and propose a social-ecological, diathesis-stress model for understanding the bullying dynamic and its impact. Specifically, we frame involvement in bullying as a stressful life event for both children who bully and those who are victimized, serving as a catalyst for a diathesis-stress connection between bullying, victimization, and psychosocial difficulties. Against this backdrop, we suggest that effective bullying prevention and intervention efforts must take into account the complexities of the human experience, addressing both individual characteristics and history of involvement in bullying, risk and protective factors, and the contexts in which bullying occurs, in order to promote healthier social relationships. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. 'All in the same boat'? Patient and carer attitudes to peer support and social comparison in Motor Neurone Disease (MND).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locock, Louise; Brown, Janice B

    2010-10-01

    This paper explores attitudes to peer support among people with Motor Neurone Disease (MND) and their family carers. It reports findings from a secondary analysis of data from two UK interview studies conducted by the authors. The process of secondary analysis is reported in detail. 48 people with MND and 22 carers were interviewed in 2005-2007. The authors identified narrative extracts on peer support from their own datasets and exchanged them for independent thematic analysis. Subsequent discussion, drawing on literature on support groups and social comparison, led to an exploration of two overarching themes: valuing camaraderie and comparison, and choosing isolation. Findings suggest that social comparison theory is a useful framework for analysing attitudes to MND support groups, but that on its own it is insufficient. 'Valuing camaraderie and comparison' explains how support groups offer practical and social support, as well as beneficial opportunities for social comparison. Seeing others coping well with the condition can provide hope, while downward comparison with those worse off can also make people feel better about their own situation. However, most people are also shocked and saddened by seeing others with the condition. Tension of identity can occur when group membership starts to define the individual as 'a person with MND, rather than the person I am that happens to have MND'. Choosing isolation can be a deliberate defensive strategy, to protect oneself from witnessing one's possible future. Levels of involvement may change over time as people struggle with their changing needs and fears. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Biofuels Revolution: Understanding the Social, Cultural and Economic Impacts of Biofuels Development on Rural Communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selfa, Theresa L; Goe, Richard; Kulcsar, Laszlo; Middendorf, Gerad; Bain, Carmen

    2013-02-11

    The aim of this research was an in-depth analysis of the impacts of biofuels industry and ethanol plants on six rural communities in the Midwestern states of Kansas and Iowa. The goal was to provide a better understanding of the social, cultural, and economic implications of biofuels development, and to contribute to more informed policy development regarding bioenergy.Specific project objectives were: 1. To understand how the growth of biofuel production has affected and will affect Midwestern farmers and rural communities in terms of economic, demographic, and socio-cultural impacts; 2. To determine how state agencies, groundwater management districts, local governments and policy makers evaluate or manage bioenergy development in relation to competing demands for economic growth, diminishing water resources, and social considerations; 3. To determine the factors that influence the water management practices of agricultural producers in Kansas and Iowa (e.g. geographic setting, water management institutions, competing water-use demands as well as producers attitudes, beliefs, and values) and how these influences relate to bioenergy feedstock production and biofuel processing; 4. To determine the relative importance of social-cultural, environmental and/or economic factors in the promotion of biofuels development and expansion in rural communities; The research objectives were met through the completion of six detailed case studies of rural communities that are current or planned locations for ethanol biorefineries. Of the six case studies, two will be conducted on rural communities in Iowa and four will be conducted on rural communities in Kansas. A multi-method or mixed method research methodology was employed for each case study.

  5. Maternal Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy and Infant Social, Mental, and Motor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Carole Williams; Olson, Heather Carmichael; Croninger, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a significant social problem associated with developmental difficulties in young children. Child developmental and behavioral characteristics were examined from the 9-month data point of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Studies-Birth Cohort, a prospective nationally representative study. Several…

  6. BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF SOCIAL INTEGRATION AND SOLIDARITY AS PARAMETERS FOR POSTGRADUATE PROGRAM EVALUATION OF MEDICINE III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, Jorge Eduardo Fouto

    2015-01-01

    To provide information in the maturation process of the general conception of social inclusion and solidarity. The following official CAPES sources were consulted: resolutions of the Technical-Scientific Council; models of evaluation forms; current legislation and ordinances; relationship with the Great Area courses; Dinter and Minter evaluation projects; and the assessment application. Social inclusion and solidarity are recent and innovative parameters to be developed by postgraduate programs and evaluated by area committees organized by Capes. There is need for better understanding by the postgraduate faculty of Medicine III the characteristics of relevant actions on social inclusion. The basic theme of life support help in understanding how ​​Medicine III can expand its operations in basic education without compromising the innovative and transformer character of postgraduate. Postgraduate must innovate its insertion in teaching processes, managed care or any other field. What is sought is the power of social transformation, inherent to its spirit and exercise. Proporcionar informações que sejam de auxílio no amadurecimento da concepção geral sobre inserção social e solidariedade. Foram consultadas as seguintes fontes oficiais da CAPES: resoluções do Conselho Técnico-Científico; modelos das fichas de avaliação; legislação e portarias vigentes; relação dos cursos da Grande Área; avaliação de projetos Dinter e Minter; e o aplicativo de avaliação. Inserção social e solidariedade são parâmetros recentes e inovadores como ações a serem desenvolvidas por programas de pós-graduação e avaliadas pelos comitês de áreas organizados pela Capes. Há necessidade de melhor compreensão por parte dos professores de pós-graduação da Medicina III das características de ações relevantes de inserção social. O tema de suporte básico de vida ajuda na compreensão de como a área da Medicina III pode ampliar sua atuação em educação b

  7. Understanding the Correlations between Social Attention and Topic Trends of Scientific Publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianlei Dong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We propose and apply a simplified nowcasting model to understand the correlations between social attention and topic trends of scientific publications. Design/methodology/approach: First, topics are generated from the obesity corpus by using the latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA algorithm and time series of keyword search trends in Google Trends are obtained. We then establish the structural time series model using data from January 2004 to December 2012, and evaluate the model using data from January 2013. We employ a state-space model to separate different non-regression components in an observational time series (i.e. the tendency and the seasonality and apply the “spike and slab prior” and stepwise regression to analyze the correlations between the regression component and the social media attention. The two parts are combined using Markov-chain Monte Carlo sampling techniques to obtain our results. Findings: The results of our study show that (1 the number of publications on child obesity increases at a lower rate than that of diabetes publications; (2 the number of publication on a given topic may exhibit a relationship with the season or time of year; and (3 there exists a correlation between the number of publications on a given topic and its social media attention, i.e. the search frequency related to that topic as identified by Google Trends. We found that our model is also able to predict the number of publications related to a given topic. Research limitations: First, we study a correlation rather than causality between topics' trends and social media. As a result, the relationships might not be robust, so we cannot predict the future in the long run. Second, we cannot identify the reasons or conditions that are driving obesity topics to present such tendencies and seasonal patterns, so we might need to do “field” study in the future. Third, we need to improve the efficiency of our model by finding more efficient

  8. The Effect of Montessori Method Supported by Social Skills Training Program on Turkish Kindergarten Children's Skills of Understanding Feelings and Social Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayili, Gökhan; Ari, Ramazan

    2016-01-01

    The current research was conducted with the purpose of analyzing the effect of Montessori method supported by Social Skills Training Program on kindergarten children's skills of understanding feelings and social problem solving. 53 children attending Ihsan Dogramaci Applied Nursery School affiliated to Selcuk University, Faculty of Health Sciences…

  9. Cognitive Shifting as a Predictor of Progress in Social Understanding in High-Functioning Adolescents with Autism: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Hans J. C.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This prospective study of 17 high-functioning residentially treated adolescents with autism found that cognitive shifting, as measured by card sorting tests, was the only significant factor in predicting progress in social understanding. (Author/JDD)

  10. The Social Construction of Breast Cancer in Mass Media and Its Influence on Public Understanding and Citizen Decision-Making

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sharf, Barbara

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the ways in which mass media play a significant role in constructing the public's understanding of breast cancer as a social problem, a disease, and personal illness experience...

  11. The Social Construction of Breast Cancer in Mass Media and its Influence on Public Understanding and Citizen Decision-Making

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sharf, Barbara

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the ways in which mass media play a significant role in constructing the public's understanding of breast cancer as a social problem, a disease, and personal illness experience...

  12. The Sociality of Gaming : A mixed methods approach to understanding digital gaming as a social leisure activity

    OpenAIRE

    Eklund, Lina

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is an exploration of the practice of social digital gaming, using a mixed methods approach with complementary data and analytical methods. The main themes are the prevalence and meaning of gamers’ experiences of social gaming and the underlying structures limiting or assisting social gaming, both material and social. Applying an everyday perspective, focus is on gamers’ day-to-day practices and experiences. Studies I and II enquire into relational aspects of social gaming ba...

  13. Electric Motor Thermal Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, Kevin S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Thermal management enables more efficient and cost-effective motors. This Annual Merit Review presentation describes the technical accomplishments and progress in electric motor thermal management R&D over the last year. This project supports a broad industry demand for data, analysis methods, and experimental techniques to improve and better understand motor thermal management.

  14. Understanding Student Learning in Context: Relationships between University Students' Social Identity, Approaches to Learning, and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliuc, Ana-Maria; Ellis, Robert A.; Goodyear, Peter; Hendres, Daniela Muntele

    2011-01-01

    This research focuses on understanding how socio-psychological dimensions such as student social identity and student perceptions of their learning community affect learning at university. To do this, it integrates ideas from phenomenographic research into student learning with ideas from research on social identity. In two studies (N = 110, and N…

  15. The Relationship between Second-Order False Belief and Display Rules Reasoning: The Integration of Cognitive and Affective Social Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Mika; Seki, Yoshimi

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the relation between cognitive and affective social understanding, Japanese 4- to 8-year-olds received tasks of first- and second-order false beliefs and prosocial and self-presentational display rules. From 6 to 8 years, children comprehended display rules, as well as second-order false belief, using social pressures justifications…

  16. Understanding “Baby Boomers” and “Millennials” motivations to interact with brands on Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Rute Sofia Matos de

    2017-01-01

    The emergence and importance of social media and, in particular, social networking sites (SNS), has made it possible for an accessible integration between consumers and brands, by providing unlimited reasons for users to express, share and create content. The aim of this dissertation is to explore what motivates consumers to interact with brands on social media and to understand the relevance of those variables in explaining consumers’ loyalty toward a brand. Members of two distinct genera...

  17. Understanding why an active video game intervention did not improve motor skill and physical activity in children with developmental coordination disorder: A quantity or quality issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howie, Erin K; Campbell, Amity C; Abbott, Rebecca A; Straker, Leon M

    2017-01-01

    Active video games (AVGs) have been identified as a novel strategy to improve motor skill and physical activity in clinical populations. A recent cross-over randomized trial found AVGs to be ineffective at improving motor skill and physical activity in the home-environment for children with or at-risk for developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The study purpose was to better understand why the intervention had been ineffective by examining the quantity and quality of AVG play during an AVG intervention for children with or at-risk for DCD. Participants (n=21, ages 9-12) completed the 16 week AVG intervention. Detailed quantitative and qualitative data were systematically triangulated to obtain the quantity of exposure (AVG exposure over time, patterns of exposure) and quality of use (game selection, facilitators and barriers to play). The median AVG dose (range 30-35min/day) remained relatively stable across the intervention and met the prescribed dose. Play quality was impacted by game selection, difficulty playing games, lack of time, illness, technical difficulties and boredom. The ineffectiveness of a home-based AVG intervention may be due to quality of play. Strategies to improve the quality of game play may help realize the potential benefits of AVGs as a clinical tool for children with DCD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Understanding the impact of political violence in childhood: a theoretical review using a social identity approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muldoon, Orla T

    2013-12-01

    The present paper reviews the literature that has assessed the psychological impact of political violence on children. Concern for those growing up in situations of political violence has resulted in two areas of research within psychology: the first considers children as victims of conflict and considers the mental health consequences of political violence. The second considers children as protagonists or aggressors in conflict and considers related moral and attitudinal consequences of exposure to political violence. These two literatures are most often considered separately. Here the two strands of research are brought together using a social identity framework, allowing apparently divergent findings to be integrated into a more coherent understanding of the totality of consequences for children and young people growing up in situations of armed conflict. © 2013.

  19. Social capital and health: measuring and understanding social capital at a local level could help to tackle health inequalities more effectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, Paul

    2002-09-01

    This paper examines whether an understanding of the concept of social capital and its local measurement can help to tackle inequalities in health within and across communities. The paper concludes that the concept of social capital offers a valuable opportunity to help public health professionals understand how to approach inequalities in health with a greater awareness of the social processes affecting the health of communities. The measurement of social capital has been problematic. However, new guidance from the Health Development Agency (HDA) provides a useful tool for developing social capital research. A greater understanding of whether, and how social capital relates to health will help to improve strategies to reduce health inequalities at the community level. Public health professionals contributing to community development strategies such as Neighbourhood Renewal Projects, Community Safety Partnerships, Health Action Zones and Health Improvement Programmes (HImPs) should encourage thought to be given about the role that an understanding of social capital could play in making these strategies more effective. Using the HDA measurement tool locally could be one way of doing this.

  20. Networked Community Change: Understanding Community Systems Change through the Lens of Social Network Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, Jennifer A; Neal, Zachary P

    2016-06-01

    Addressing complex problems in communities has become a key area of focus in recent years (Kania & Kramer, 2013, Stanford Social Innovation Review). Building on existing approaches to understanding and addressing problems, such as action research, several new approaches have emerged that shift the way communities solve problems (e.g., Burns, 2007, Systemic Action Research; Foth, 2006, Action Research, 4, 205; Kania & Kramer, 2011, Stanford Social Innovation Review, 1, 36). Seeking to bring clarity to the emerging literature on community change strategies, this article identifies the common features of the most widespread community change strategies and explores the conditions under which such strategies have the potential to be effective. We identify and describe five common features among the approaches to change. Then, using an agent-based model, we simulate network-building behavior among stakeholders participating in community change efforts using these approaches. We find that the emergent stakeholder networks are efficient when the processes are implemented under ideal conditions. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  1. How does money memorize social interactions? Understanding time-homogeneity in monetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Dieter; Schmitt, Matthias; Schacker, Andreas

    2013-03-01

    Understanding how money shapes and memorizes our social interactions is central to modern life. There are many schools of thought on as to how monetary systems contribute to crises or boom/bust cycles and how monetary policy can try to avert them. We find that statistical physics gives a refreshing perspective. We analyze how credit mechanisms introduce non-locality and time-heterogeneity to the monetary memory. Motivated by an analogy to particle physics, locality and time-homogeneity can be imposed to monetary systems. As a result, a full reserve banking system is complemented with a bi-currency system of non-bank assets (``money'') and bank assets (``antimoney''). Payment can either be made by passing on money or by receiving antimoney. As a result, a free floating exchange rate between non-bank assets and bank assets is established. Interestingly, this monetary memory allows for credit creation by the simultaneous transfer of money and antimoney at a negotiated exchange rate. We analyze this novel mechanism of liquidity transfer in a model of random social interactions, yielding analytical results for all relevant distributions and the price of liquidity under the conditions of a fully transparent credit market.

  2. Understanding Farmers’ Forecast Use from Their Beliefs, Values, Social Norms, and Perceived Obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qi; Pytlik Zillig, Lisa M.; Lynne, Gary D.; Tomkins, Alan J.; Waltman, William J.; Hayes, Michael J.; Hubbard, Kenneth G.; Artikov, Ikrom; Hoffman, Stacey J.; Wilhite, Donald A.

    2006-09-01

    Although the accuracy of weather and climate forecasts is continuously improving and new information retrieved from climate data is adding to the understanding of climate variation, use of the forecasts and climate information by farmers in farming decisions has changed little. This lack of change may result from knowledge barriers and psychological, social, and economic factors that undermine farmer motivation to use forecasts and climate information. According to the theory of planned behavior (TPB), the motivation to use forecasts may arise from personal attitudes, social norms, and perceived control or ability to use forecasts in specific decisions. These attributes are examined using data from a survey designed around the TPB and conducted among farming communities in the region of eastern Nebraska and the western U.S. Corn Belt. There were three major findings: 1) the utility and value of the forecasts for farming decisions as perceived by farmers are, on average, around 3.0 on a 0 7 scale, indicating much room to improve attitudes toward the forecast value. 2) The use of forecasts by farmers to influence decisions is likely affected by several social groups that can provide “expert viewpoints” on forecast use. 3) A major obstacle, next to forecast accuracy, is the perceived identity and reliability of the forecast makers. Given the rapidly increasing number of forecasts in this growing service business, the ambiguous identity of forecast providers may have left farmers confused and may have prevented them from developing both trust in forecasts and skills to use them. These findings shed light on productive avenues for increasing the influence of forecasts, which may lead to greater farming productivity. In addition, this study establishes a set of reference points that can be used for comparisons with future studies to quantify changes in forecast use and influence.

  3. Community engagement as conflict prevention: Understanding the social license to operate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knih, Dejana

    This thesis examines community engagement as a form of conflict prevention in order to obtain the social license to operate (SLO) in Alberta's oil and gas industry. It does this by answering the question: what are the key elements of the Social License to Operate and how can these elements be applied to community engagement/consultation in a way that prevents conflicts in Alberta's oil and gas industry? The underlying assumption of this thesis is that building good relationships and working collaboratively functions as a form of conflict prevention and that this in turn leads to the SLO. This thesis outlines the key features of both successful community engagement and of the SLO, to provide a guideline for what is needed to obtain the SLO. Data was collected from semi-structured interviews and through a literature review. The data analysis concluded that there are direct parallels between the key elements of effective community engagement and the key elements of the SLO as identified in the interviews. These parallels are: knowing the community, addressing community needs, corporate social responsibility, relationship building, follow through and evidence for what has been done, executive buy-in, excellent communication, and open dialogue, all within a process which is principled (there is trust, understanding, transparency and respect), inclusive, dynamic, flexible, ongoing, and long-term. Moreover, the key elements of effective community engagement and of the SLO identified in the interviews also overlapped with those found in the literature review, with only one exception. The literature review explicitly named early involvement as a key element of both effective community engagement and the SLO, whereas the interview participants only explicitly indicated it as a key factor of community engagement and implied it to be a key element of the SLO.

  4. Corporate Social Responsibility, social contract, corporate personhood and human rights law: Understanding the emerging responsibilities of modern corporations

    OpenAIRE

    Amao, O

    2008-01-01

    Copyright @ 2008 Olufemi Amao. The social contract theory has been advanced as a theoretical basis for explaining the emerging practice of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) by corporations. Since the 17th century the social contract concept has also been used to justify human rights. The concept is the constitutional foundation of many western states starting with England, US and France. Business ethicists and philosophers have tried to construct and analyse the social responsibility o...

  5. Understanding how social enterprises can benefit from supportive legal frameworks : a case study report on social enterpreneurial models in Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Argyrou, A.a; Blomme, R.J.; Lambooy, T.E.; Kievit, H.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to test how legal factors affect the corporate structure of a social enterprise. The current article focuses on the legal factor of governance as the decision-making power of stakeholders within the social enterprise. The authors conducted a case study and examined a major social

  6. Modulating mimicry: Exploring the roles of inhibitory control and social understanding in 5-year-olds' behavioral mimicry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, Johanna E; Hunnius, Sabine

    2018-01-01

    During adult interactions, behavioral mimicry, the implicit copying of an interaction partner's postures and mannerisms, communicates liking and affiliation. While this social behavior likely develops during early childhood, it is unclear which factors contribute to its emergence. Here, the roles of inhibitory control and social understanding on 5-year-olds' behavioral mimicry were investigated. Following a social manipulation in which one experimenter shared a sticker with the child and the other experimenter kept two stickers for herself, children watched a video in which these experimenters each told a story. During this story session, children in the experimental group (n = 28) observed the experimenters perform face and hand rubbing behaviors whereas the control group (n = 23) did not see these behaviors. Children's inhibitory control was assessed using the day-night task and their social understanding was measured through a parental questionnaire. Surprisingly, group-level analyses revealed that the experimental group performed the behaviors significantly less than the control group (i.e. a negative mimicry effect) for both the sticker-sharer and sticker-keeper. Yet, the hypothesized effects of inhibitory control and social understanding were found. Inhibitory control predicted children's selective mimicry of the sticker-keeper versus sticker-sharer and children's overall mimicry was correlated with social understanding. These results provide the first indications to suggest that factors of social and cognitive development dynamically influence the emergence and specificity of behavioral mimicry during early childhood.

  7. Social support, acculturation, and optimism: understanding positive health practices in Asian American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Cynthia G; Mahat, Ganga

    2012-07-01

    This study developed and tested a theory to better understand positive health practices (PHP) among Asian Americans aged 18 to 21 years. It tested theoretical relationships postulated between PHP and (a) social support (SS), (b) optimism, and (c) acculturation, and between SS and optimism and acculturation. Optimism and acculturation were also tested as possible mediators in the relationship between SS and PHP. A correlational study design was used. A convenience sample of 163 Asian college students in an urban setting completed four questionnaires assessing SS, PHP, optimism, and acculturation and one demographic questionnaire. There were statistically significant positive relationships between SS and optimism with PHP, between acculturation and PHP, and between optimism and SS. Optimism mediated the relationship between SS and PHP, whereas acculturation did not. Findings extend knowledge regarding these relationships to a defined population of Asian Americans aged 18 to 21 years. Findings contribute to a more comprehensive knowledge base regarding health practices among Asian Americans. The theoretical and empirical findings of this study provide the direction for future research as well. Further studies need to be conducted to identify and test other mediators in order to better understand the relationship between these two variables.

  8. Understanding physical activity in individuals with prediabetes: an application of social cognitive theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lorian M; Raine, Kim D; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Vallance, Jeff K; Sharma, Arya M; Spence, John C

    2016-01-01

    Despite well-documented evidence implicating physical activity (PA) in the prevention of type 2 diabetes, the overwhelming majority of individuals with prediabetes are not physically active enough. The purpose of this study was to investigate the applicability of the social cognitive theory (SCT) in understanding PA behaviour in individuals with prediabetes. Individuals with prediabetes (N = 232) completed a mailed questionnaire assessing demographics, self-reported PA (MET.min/wk) and SCT constructs for PA MET.min/wk. For PA MET.min/wk, scheduling and task efficacy both had significant effects on PA (β = .30 and .22, respectively). Goal formation also had a direct effect on PA for scheduling, coping and task efficacy (β = .20, .34 and .30, respectively). Task, coping and scheduling efficacy explained a significant portion of the variance in PA behaviour. Overall, SCT appears to have merit as a model for understanding PA in individuals with prediabetes. Further evaluative inquiry is needed to establish support for the use of the SCT as a framework for developing, implementing and evaluating PA behaviour change interventions in this population.

  9. Musical outgroups and the paradox of social bonding. Comment on "Music, empathy and cultural understanding" by E. Clark et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overy, Katie

    2015-12-01

    Clarke, DeNora and Vuoskoski's valuable review paper [2] raises the proposition that passive musical listening experiences can increase 'dispositional empathy' in individuals and consequently lead to increased positive feeling towards other cultural groups. The challenge of integrating relevant ideas and evidence from neuroscience, philosophy, psychology, sociology and community music is met convincingly, alongside the presentation of empirical data and a new model of empathic music listening. The resulting discussion brings social, motor and emotional aspects of musical behavior to the forefront and sparks a number of ideas and questions.

  10. Tool-use training in a species of rodent: the emergence of an optimal motor strategy and functional understanding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Okanoya

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tool use is defined as the manipulation of an inanimate object to change the position or form of a separate object. The expansion of cognitive niches and tool-use capabilities probably stimulated each other in hominid evolution. To understand the causes of cognitive expansion in humans, we need to know the behavioral and neural basis of tool use. Although a wide range of animals exhibit tool use in nature, most studies have focused on primates and birds on behavioral or psychological levels and did not directly address questions of which neural modifications contributed to the emergence of tool use. To investigate such questions, an animal model suitable for cellular and molecular manipulations is needed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrated for the first time that rodents can be trained to use tools. Through a step-by-step training procedure, we trained degus (Octodon degus to use a rake-like tool with their forelimbs to retrieve otherwise out-of-reach rewards. Eventually, they mastered effective use of the tool, moving it in an elegant trajectory. After the degus were well trained, probe tests that examined whether they showed functional understanding of the tool were performed. Degus did not hesitate to use tools of different size, colors, and shapes, but were reluctant to use the tool with a raised nonfunctional blade. Thus, degus understood the functional and physical properties of the tool after extensive training. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that tool use is not a specific faculty resulting from higher intelligence, but is a specific combination of more general cognitive faculties. Studying the brains and behaviors of trained rodents can provide insights into how higher cognitive functions might be broken down into more general faculties, and also what cellular and molecular mechanisms are involved in the emergence of such cognitive functions.

  11. Predictors of children's prosocial lie-telling: Motivation, socialization variables, and moral understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popliger, Mina; Talwar, Victoria; Crossman, Angela

    2011-11-01

    Children tell prosocial lies for self- and other-oriented reasons. However, it is unclear how motivational and socialization factors affect their lying. Furthermore, it is unclear whether children's moral understanding and evaluations of prosocial lie scenarios (including perceptions of vignette characters' feelings) predict their actual prosocial behaviors. These were explored in two studies. In Study 1, 72 children (36 second graders and 36 fourth graders) participated in a disappointing gift paradigm in either a high-cost condition (lost a good gift for a disappointing one) or a low-cost condition (received a disappointing gift). More children lied in the low-cost condition (94%) than in the high-cost condition (72%), with no age difference. In Study 2, 117 children (42 preschoolers, 41 early elementary school age, and 34 late elementary school age) participated in either a high- or low-cost disappointing gift paradigm and responded to prosocial vignette scenarios. Parents reported on their parenting practices and family emotional expressivity. Again, more children lied in the low-cost condition (68%) than in the high-cost condition (40%); however, there was an age effect among children in the high-cost condition. Preschoolers were less likely than older children to lie when there was a high personal cost. In addition, compared with truth-tellers, prosocial liars had parents who were more authoritative but expressed less positive emotion within the family. Finally, there was an interaction between children's prosocial lie-telling behavior and their evaluations of the protagonist's and recipient's feelings. Findings contribute to understanding the trajectory of children's prosocial lie-telling, their reasons for telling such lies, and their knowledge about interpersonal communication. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Understanding Social Isolation Among Urban Aging Adults: Informing Occupation-Based Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Carri; Retrum, Jessica; Ware, George; Iwasaki, Patricia; Moaalii, Gabe; Main, Deborah S

    2017-10-01

    Socially isolated aging adults are at risk of poor health and well-being. Occupational therapy can help address this issue; however, information is needed to guide such work. National surveys characterize social isolation in populations of aging adults but fail to provide meaningful information at a community level. The objective of this study is to describe multiple dimensions of social isolation and related factors among aging adults in diverse urban neighborhoods. Community-based participatory research involving a door-to-door survey of adults 50 years and older was used. Participants ( N = 161) reported social isolation in terms of small social networks (24%) and wanting more social engagement (43%). Participants aged 50 to 64 years reported the highest levels of isolation in most dimensions. Low income, poor health, lack of transportation, and infrequent information access appeared linked to social isolation. Occupational therapists can address social isolation in similar urban communities through policy and practice that facilitate social engagement and network building.

  13. THE CONGENITAL MOTOR DISABILITY EXPERIENCED AS COMMONSENSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolita Viluckienė

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article applies Alfred Schutz’s phenomenologically grounded sociological perspective to explore how persons with a congenital motor disability or having a disability ever since their childhood construct and maintain their significant social reality through subjective meanings and how they interpret their disabled bodies. Their personal narratives are based on qualitative in-depth interviews and suggest that these persons face the disability only during secondary socialization, after internalization of social typifications of disabled body of negative meaning, the overcoming of which and successful socialization requires the involvement into new social group or community, i.e., into a positive social structure, confirming their identity. This article performs cognitive function and contributes to the social workers‘ understanding and knowledge building in order to get a re-evaluating the social needs of people with congenital physical disability.

  14. Understanding the interactions between Social Capital, climate change, and community resilience in Gulf of Mexico coastal counties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, C.; Blomberg, B.; Kolker, A.; Nguyen, U.; Page, C. M.; Sherchan, S. P.; Tobias, V. D.; Wu, H.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal communities in the Gulf of Mexico are facing new and complex challenges as their physical environment is altered by climate warming and sea level rise. To effectively prepare for environmental changes, coastal communities must build resilience in both physical structures and social structures. One measure of social structure resilience is how much social capital a community possesses. Social capital is defined as the connections among individuals which result in networks with shared norms, values and understandings that facilitate cooperation within or among groups. Social capital exists in three levels; bonding, bridging and linking. Bonding social capital is a measure of the strength of relationships amongst members of a network who are similar in some form. Bridging social capital is a measure of relationships amongst people who are dissimilar in some way, such as age, education, or race/ethnicity. Finally Linking social capital measures the extent to which individuals build relationships with institutions and individuals who have relative power over them (e.g local government, educational institutions). Using census and American Community Survey data, we calculated a Social Capital index value for bonding, bridging and linking for 60 Gulf of Mexico coastal counties for the years 2000, and 2010 to 2015. To investigate the impact of social capital on community resilience we coupled social capital index values with physical datasets of land-use/land cover, sea level change, climate, elevation and surface water quality for each coastal county in each year. Preliminary results indicate that in Gulf of Mexico coastal counties, increased bonding social capital results in decreased population change. In addition, we observed a multi-year time lag in the effect of increased bridging social capital on population stability, potentially suggesting key linkages between the physical and social environment in this complex coupled-natural human system. This

  15. Understanding the Role of Negative Emotions in Adult Learning and Achievement: A Social Functional Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Anna D; Fitness, Julie

    2018-02-20

    The role of emotions in adult learning and achievement has received increasing attention in recent years. However, much of the emphasis has been on test anxiety, rather than the wider spectrum of negative emotions such as sadness, grief, boredom and anger. This paper reports findings of a qualitative study exploring the experience and functionality of negative emotions at university. Thirty-six academic staff and students from an Australian university were interviewed about emotional responses to a range of learning events. Data analysis was informed by a prototype approach to emotion research. Four categories of discrete negative emotions (anger, sadness, fear, boredom) were considered by teachers and students to be especially salient in learning, with self-conscious emotions (guilt, embarrassment, shame) mentioned by more students than staff. While negative emotions were frequently viewed as detrimental to motivation, performance and learning, they were also construed under some circumstances as beneficial. The findings are discussed in relation to the value of social functional approaches for a better understanding of the diverse roles of negative emotions in learning and achievement.

  16. Understanding the Role of Negative Emotions in Adult Learning and Achievement: A Social Functional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna D. Rowe

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of emotions in adult learning and achievement has received increasing attention in recent years. However, much of the emphasis has been on test anxiety, rather than the wider spectrum of negative emotions such as sadness, grief, boredom and anger. This paper reports findings of a qualitative study exploring the experience and functionality of negative emotions at university. Thirty-six academic staff and students from an Australian university were interviewed about emotional responses to a range of learning events. Data analysis was informed by a prototype approach to emotion research. Four categories of discrete negative emotions (anger, sadness, fear, boredom were considered by teachers and students to be especially salient in learning, with self-conscious emotions (guilt, embarrassment, shame mentioned by more students than staff. While negative emotions were frequently viewed as detrimental to motivation, performance and learning, they were also construed under some circumstances as beneficial. The findings are discussed in relation to the value of social functional approaches for a better understanding of the diverse roles of negative emotions in learning and achievement.

  17. Using travel socialization and underlying motivations to better understand motorcycle usage in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsin-Li; Lai, Chi-Yen

    2015-06-01

    This study introduces self-determination theory (SDT) to refine previous models of vehicle usage motivation. We add travel socialization theory regarding parental influence on vehicle usage to enhance previous structural models describing motorcycle usage behavior. Our newly developed model was empirically verified in a sample of 721 motorcycle users in Taiwan. In addition to instrumental, symbolic, and affective motivations, perceived parental attitudes (PPAs) towards motorcycle riding were found to have a significant effect on individuals' motorcycle use habits. Additionally, participants who perceived their parents to have more positive attitudes toward motorcycles were found to have more experience being chauffeured on motorcycles by their parents. Based on these results, we suggest means to confront the challenges brought on by the rapid growth of motorcycle usage, especially serious motorcycle traffic accidents. These results improve our understanding motorcycle usage in Taiwan and can be used by transportation professionals who are seeking solutions to the rapid growth of motorcycle usage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Understanding the Role of Negative Emotions in Adult Learning and Achievement: A Social Functional Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitness, Julie

    2018-01-01

    The role of emotions in adult learning and achievement has received increasing attention in recent years. However, much of the emphasis has been on test anxiety, rather than the wider spectrum of negative emotions such as sadness, grief, boredom and anger. This paper reports findings of a qualitative study exploring the experience and functionality of negative emotions at university. Thirty-six academic staff and students from an Australian university were interviewed about emotional responses to a range of learning events. Data analysis was informed by a prototype approach to emotion research. Four categories of discrete negative emotions (anger, sadness, fear, boredom) were considered by teachers and students to be especially salient in learning, with self-conscious emotions (guilt, embarrassment, shame) mentioned by more students than staff. While negative emotions were frequently viewed as detrimental to motivation, performance and learning, they were also construed under some circumstances as beneficial. The findings are discussed in relation to the value of social functional approaches for a better understanding of the diverse roles of negative emotions in learning and achievement. PMID:29461487

  19. The effect of a motor-based, social skills intervention for adolescents with high-functioning autism: two single-subject design cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutman, Sharon A; Raphael, Emily I; Ceder, Leila M; Khan, Arshi; Timp, Katherine M; Salvant, Sabrina

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a motor-based, social skills intervention for two adolescents with high-functioning autism (HFA) using single-subject design. A description of the intervention is provided as a first step in the manualization process. The intervention was provided as a 7-week after-school program, once weekly to the paired participants. Intervention consisted of role-play methods in which motor behaviours were linked with their cognitive and emotional meanings. Baseline, intervention and 3-month probe data collection periods were carried out and then compared using visual inspection of graphed data, paired t-tests and a three-standard-deviation-band approach. Both participants displayed a statistically significant increase in targeted social skills behaviours from baseline to intervention and maintained this level at a 3-month post-intervention probe. These single-subject design cases illustrate that motor-based, social skills interventions may be effective for adolescents with HFA and warrant further testing. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Understanding and applying principles of social cognition and decision making in adaptive environmental governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental governance systems are under greater pressure to adapt and to cope with increased social and ecological uncertainty from stressors like climate change. We review principles of social cognition and decision making that shape and constrain how environmental governance...

  1. INFLUENCIA DE LOS MOTORES DE BÚSQUEDA Y LAS REDES SOCIALES EN LA DECISIÓN DE COMPRA DEL CONSUMIDOR AREQUIPEÑO 2016

    OpenAIRE

    PAREDES QUISPE, FANNY MIY

    2016-01-01

    El presente trabajo pretende conocer la influencia que tienen los motores de búsqueda y las redes sociales sobre el proceso de decisión de compra de los consumidores arequipeños de hoy; es decir, mostrar cuál es el rol que cumplen los buscadores y los medios sociales para ayudar a generar una decisión de compra mediante las interacciones digitales que realizan los consumidores previas a su acción de compra. Hoy en día, el proceso de decisión de compra del consumidor ha cambiado debido al...

  2. A Capability Approach to Understanding Sport for Social Inclusion: Agency, Structure and Organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Naofumi Suzuki

    2017-01-01

    Despite the global diffusion of the term social inclusion, as well as the use of sport to promote it, questions have been raised regarding the extent to which sport is able to contribute to transforming the exclusive nature of the social structure. The lack of analytical clarity of the concept has not helped to address these questions. This article proposes a conceptual framework based on Amartya Sen's capability approach, considering social exclusion as the denial of social relations that le...

  3. Understanding Social Media Culture and its Ethical Challenges for Art Therapists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkofer, Christopher M.; McNutt, Jill V.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses ethics in the context of the participatory culture of social media as it relates to art therapy. The authors present the view that social media formats are important venues for expression that contribute to interpersonal connections and social learning via the active participation of their members. To make informed ethical…

  4. Understanding social behaviour with the help of complexity science (Invited article)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemelrijk, C.K.

    2002-01-01

    In the study of complexity, a new kind of explanation has been developed for social behaviour. It shows how patterns of social behaviour can arise as a side-effect of the interaction of individuals with their social or physical environment (e.g. by self-organization). This development may influence

  5. In search of an adaptive social-ecological approach to understanding a tropical city

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.E. Lugo; C.M. Concepcion; L.E. Santiago-Acevedo; T.A. Munoz-Erickson; J.C. Verdejo Ortiz; R. Santiago-Bartolomei; J. Forero-Montana; C.J. Nytch; H. Manrique; W. Colon-Cortes

    2012-01-01

    This essay describes our effort to develop a practical approach to the integration of the social and ecological sciences in the context of a Latin-American city such as San Juan, Puerto Rico. We describe our adaptive social-ecological approach in the historical context of the developing paradigms of the Anthropocene, new integrative social and ecological sciences, and...

  6. Understanding work-related social media use: An extension of theory of planned behavior.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zoonen, W.; Verhoeven, J.W.M.; Elving, W.J.L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the motives of employees to engage in work related social media use - i.e. the use of personal social media accounts to communicate about work-related issues. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was used to explain this behavior. Because social media can enable users to express

  7. Understanding the links between ecosystem health and social system well-being: an annotated bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawn M. Elmer; Harriet H. Christensen; Ellen M. Donoghue; [Compilers].

    2002-01-01

    This bibliography focuses on the links between social system well-being and ecosystem health. It is intended for public land managers and scientists and students of social and natural sciences. Multidisciplinary science that addresses the interconnections between the social system and the ecosystem is presented. Some of the themes and strategies presented are policy...

  8. The Parkinson's experience of group physical activity: Understanding social support, social comparison, physical self-perceptions, and posttraumatic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Sheehy, Tammy L

    2014-01-01

    Group physical activity programs for clinical populations can provide opportunities for adaptive social interactions, improving perceptions of competence, and may facilitate posttraumatic growth (positive psychological changes resulting from traumatic life experiences). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine how people with Parkinson's experience social interactions and physical challenges in a group physical activity program, and to investigate what role they think those experie...

  9. Social Change: Toward an Informed and Critical Understanding of Social Justice and the Capabilities Approach in Community Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munger, Felix; MacLeod, Tim; Loomis, Colleen

    2016-03-01

    Community psychology has long been concerned with social justice. However, deployments of this term are often vague and undertheorized. To address this weakness in the field's knowledge body we explored John Rawls's theory of social justice and Amartya Sen's economic theory of the capabilities approach and evaluated each for its applicability to community psychology theory, research, and action. Our unpacking of the philosophical and political underpinnings of Rawlsian theory of social justice resulted in identifying characteristics that limit the theory's utility in community psychology, particularly in its implications for action. Our analysis of the capability approach proposed by Amartya Sen revealed a framework that operationalizes social justice in both research and action, and we elaborate on this point. Going beyond benefits to community psychology in adopting the capabilities approach, we posit a bi-directional relationship and discuss how community psychology might also contribute to the capabilities approach. We conclude by suggesting that community psychology could benefit from a manifesto or proclamation that provides a historical background of social justice and critiques the focus on the economic, sociological, and philosophical theories that inform present-day conceptualizations (and lack thereof) of social justice for community psychology. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  10. Fertility regulation as identity maintenance: Understanding the social aspects of birth control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Cicely; Renedo, Alicia; Nyaaba, Gertrude Nsorma

    2018-02-01

    We take a dialogical approach to exploring fertility regulation practices and show how they can maintain or express social identity. We identify three themes in educated Ghanaian women's accounts of how they navigate conflicting social demands on their identity when trying to regulate fertility: secrecy and silence - hiding contraception use and avoiding talking about it; tolerating uncertainty - such as using unreliable but more socially acceptable contraception; and wanting to be fertile and protecting menses. Family planning programmes that fail to tackle such social-psychological obstacles to regulating fertility will risk reproducing social spaces where women struggle to claim their reproductive rights.

  11. Understanding social reproduction: The recursive nature of structure and agency within a science class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Gale A.

    Schools and science classrooms within schools continue to contribute to social reproduction and to the disenfranchisement of inner city African American students though attempts have been made to remedy the situation through standards, high-stakes testing, and compensatory programs. Such reforms ignore the sociocultural, political, and economic contexts of the individual students in the schools they are impacting. They do not take into account the uniqueness and diversity of the learners in these settings and have not included the voices of the students. Another possibility was studied here; that of starting with the cultural capital of the learner rather than with external standards. In a non-required science course at a local high school two coteachers endeavored to enact a student-emergent curriculum as a way to foster student agency and to counteract the reproductive nature of schools. The class was examined as a field within multiple other fields. The dialectical relationship between structure and agency in the class was used to frame the analysis and the tension between them was examined at several levels through video and audio analysis. Structural and rational choice views of action were abandoned in favor of an understanding hinged upon strategies of action that actors construct from cultural toolkits in and through practice. In this setting the students and teachers co-constructed a class that can be described and characterized in certain ways yet contained many counter-examples and alternative characterizations. A continuum of successes and failures, agency and subjectivity can be found in the trends and counter-trends in the course. The contradictions were examined to portray the complexity of the interactions and the possibilities for agency within them.

  12. Understanding the relationship between social anxiety and alcohol use in college students: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schry, Amie R; White, Susan W

    2013-11-01

    Many college students use alcohol, and most of these students experience problems related to their use. Emerging research indicates that socially anxious students face heightened risk of experiencing alcohol-related problems, although the extant research on alcohol use and social anxiety in this population has yielded inconsistent findings. This meta-analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between social anxiety and alcohol variables in college students. A literature search was used to identify studies on college students that included measures of social anxiety and at least one of the alcohol variables of interest. All analyses were conducted using random effects models. We found that social anxiety was negatively correlated with alcohol use variables (e.g., typical quantity and typical frequency), but significantly positively correlated with alcohol-related problems, coping, conformity, and social motives for alcohol use, and positive and negative alcohol outcome expectancies. Several moderators of effect sizes were found to be significant, including methodological factors such as sample ascertainment approach. Given that social anxiety was negatively related to alcohol use but positively related to alcohol-related problems, research is needed to address why individuals high in social anxiety experience more problems as a result of their alcohol use. Avoidance of social situations among socially anxious students should also be taken into account when measuring alcohol use. The primary limitation of this study is the small number of studies available for inclusion in some of the analyses. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Social factors affect motor and anxiety behaviors in the animal model of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders: A housing-style factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Meng-Li; Kozłowska, Anna; Li, Yu-Sheng; Shen, Wen-Ling; Huang, Andrew Chih Wei

    2017-08-01

    The present study examines whether housing style (e.g., single housing, same-strain-grouped housing, and different-strain-grouped housing) and rat strain (e.g., spontaneous hypertension rats [SHR] and Wistar-Kyoto rats [WKY]) mediate motor function and anxiety behavior in the open field task. From week 4 through week 10 following birth, the rats were measured 30min for locomotor activity and anxiety once per week in the open field task. The SHR rats exhibited hyperactivity in total distance traveled and movement time to form the animal model of ADHD. The SHR rats spent more time inside the square and crossed the inside-outside line more often than the WKY rats, indicating the SHR rats exhibited less anxiety behavior. The different-strain-grouped housing style (but neither the same-strain-grouped housing style nor the single housing style) decreased total distance traveled and facilitated anxiety behavior. The motor function was negatively correlated with anxiety behavior for SHR rats but not for WKY rats. Housing styles had a negative correlation between motor function and anxiety behavior. The present findings provide some insights regarding how social factors (such as housing style) affect motor function and anxiety behavior related to ADHD in a clinical setting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Multimodal Therapy Involving High-Intensity Interval Training Improves the Physical Fitness, Motor Skills, Social Behavior, and Quality of Life of Boys With ADHD: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meßler, Carolin Friederike; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Sperlich, Billy

    2018-06-01

    To compare the effects of multimodal therapy including supervised high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with those of standard multimodal therapy (TRAD) concerning key variables of physical fitness (peak power and oxygen uptake), motor skills, social behavior, and quality of life in boys with ADHD. A single-center, two-arm randomized, controlled design was used, with 28 boys (8-13 years of age, IQ = 83-136) being randomly assigned to multimodal HIIT (three sessions/week, 4 × 4-min intervals at 95% of peak heart rate) or TRAD. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children II evaluated motor skills and the German version of the hyperkinetic disorder questionnaire for external evaluation by the guardians (FBB-HKS) or German version of the hyperkinetic disorder questionnaire for self-assessment by the children (SBB-HKS) and the KINDL-R questionnaires mental health and health-related quality of life. Both interventions enhanced peak power, and HIIT also reduced submaximal oxygen uptake. HIIT was more effective than TRAD in improving the total score for motor skills (including manual dexterity and ball skills; p HIIT improved physical fitness, motor skills, certain aspects of quality of life, competence, and attention in boys with ADHD.

  15. Making big communities small: using network science to understand the ecological and behavioral requirements for community social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Zachary

    2015-06-01

    The concept of social capital is becoming increasingly common in community psychology and elsewhere. However, the multiple conceptual and operational definitions of social capital challenge its utility as a theoretical tool. The goals of this paper are to clarify two forms of social capital (bridging and bonding), explicitly link them to the structural characteristics of small world networks, and explore the behavioral and ecological prerequisites of its formation. First, I use the tools of network science and specifically the concept of small-world networks to clarify what patterns of social relationships are likely to facilitate social capital formation. Second, I use an agent-based model to explore how different ecological characteristics (diversity and segregation) and behavioral tendencies (homophily and proximity) impact communities' potential for developing social capital. The results suggest diverse communities have the greatest potential to develop community social capital, and that segregation moderates the effects that the behavioral tendencies of homophily and proximity have on community social capital. The discussion highlights how these findings provide community-based researchers with both a deeper understanding of the contextual constraints with which they must contend, and a useful tool for targeting their efforts in communities with the greatest need or greatest potential.

  16. Understanding Contextual and Social Meaning in Typically Developing Finnish-Speaking Four- To Eight-Year-Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loukusa Soile

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the development of social-pragmatic comprehension in 170 Finnish four- to eight-year-old children. The children were asked to respond to socially and contextually demanding questions targeting their social-pragmatic language processing, and to explain their correct answers in order to elicit their awareness of how they had derived the answers from the context. The results showed that the number of correct answers increased especially between the ages of four and seven years. We found that questions demanding contextual processing without mind-reading were the easiest to understand, followed by questions demanding processing of feelings of others and false beliefs. The questions demanding understanding of relevant language use and processing of contextual factors including mental states and intentions were the most challenging for the children. Between four and five years of age there was a remarkable developmental phase in children’s ability to give proper explanations.

  17. Trust, Mistrust, and Organizational Design: Understanding the Effects of Social Configurations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moonier III, James E; Baker, Spencer L; Greene, Mark L

    2008-01-01

    .... The formation of effective partnerships is influenced greatly by trust. Trust sets the stage for necessary factors for collaboration such as social interaction, communication, negotiation, and cooperation...

  18. Toward a social capital based framework for understanding the water-health nexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisung, Elijah; Elliott, Susan J

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, there has been considerable interest in social capital theory in both research and policy arenas. Social capital has been associated with many aspects of improvements in health, environment and development. This paper assesses the theoretical support for a social capital based analysis of environment and health issues with a focus on the water-health nexus in low and middle income countries. We review conceptualisation of social capital by Pierre Bourdieu in relation to his concepts of "fields" and "habitus" as well as other conceptualisations of social capital by James Coleman and Robert Putnam. We integrate these authors' ideas with ecosocial analysis of social and geographical patterns of access to safe water, adequate sanitation and hygiene and the resulting health impacts. Further, we develop a conceptual framework for linking social capital and health through the water-health nexus. The framework focuses on the role of social capital in improving water-related knowledge, attitudes and practices as well as facilitating collective action towards improving access to water and sanitation. The proposed framework will facilitate critical engagement with the pathways through which social processes and interactions influence health within the context of access to water, sanitation and hygiene in low and middle income countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Understanding Students' Adaptation to Graduate School: An Integration of Social Support Theory and Social Learning Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Crystal Han-Huei

    2012-01-01

    The contemporary business world demands adaptive individuals (Friedman & Wyman, 2005). Adaptation is essential for any life transition. It often involves developing coping mechanisms, strategies, and seeking of social support. Adaptation occurs in many settings from moving to a new culture, taking a new job, starting or finishing an…

  20. Understanding the effects of different social data on selecting priority conservation areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Azadeh; Tulloch, Ayesha I T; Brown, Greg; Hockings, Marc

    2017-12-01

    Conservation success is contingent on assessing social and environmental factors so that cost-effective implementation of strategies and actions can be placed in a broad social-ecological context. Until now, the focus has been on how to include spatially explicit social data in conservation planning, whereas the value of different kinds of social data has received limited attention. In a regional systematic conservation planning case study in Australia, we examined the spatial concurrence of a range of spatially explicit social values and land-use preferences collected using a public participation geographic information system and biological data. We used Zonation to integrate the social data with the biological data in a series of spatial-prioritization scenarios to determine the effect of the different types of social data on spatial prioritization compared with biological data alone. The type of social data (i.e., conservation opportunities or constraints) significantly affected spatial prioritization outcomes. The integration of social values and land-use preferences under different scenarios was highly variable and generated spatial prioritizations 1.2-51% different from those based on biological data alone. The inclusion of conservation-compatible values and preferences added relatively few new areas to conservation priorities, whereas including noncompatible economic values and development preferences as costs significantly changed conservation priority areas (48.2% and 47.4%, respectively). Based on our results, a multifaceted conservation prioritization approach that combines spatially explicit social data with biological data can help conservation planners identify the type of social data to collect for more effective and feasible conservation actions. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  1. Understanding Social Situations (USS): A proof-of-concept social-cognitive intervention targeting theory of mind and attributional bias in individuals with psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiszdon, Joanna M; Roberts, David L; Penn, David L; Choi, Kee-Hong; Tek, Cenk; Choi, Jimmy; Bell, Morris D

    2017-03-01

    In this proof-of-concept trial, we examined the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of Understanding Social Situations (USS), a new social-cognitive intervention that targets higher level social-cognitive skills using methods common to neurocognitive remediation, including drill and practice and hierarchically structured training, which may compensate for the negative effects of cognitive impairment on learning. Thirty-eight individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders completed the same baseline assessment of cognitive and social-cognitive functioning twice over a 1-month period to minimize later practice effects, then received 7-10 sessions of USS training, and then completed the same assessment again at posttreatment. USS training was well tolerated and received high treatment satisfaction ratings. Large improvements on the USS Skills Test, which contained items similar to but not identical to training stimuli, suggest that we were effective in teaching specific training content. Content gains generalized to improvements on some of the social-cognitive tasks, including select measures of attributional bias and theory of mind. Importantly, baseline neurocognition did not impact the amount of learning during USS (as indexed by the USS Skills Test) or the amount of improvement on social-cognitive measures. USS shows promise as a treatment for higher level social-cognitive skills. Given the lack of relationship between baseline cognition and treatment effects, it may be particularly appropriate for individuals with lower range cognitive function. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Understanding consumer health information-seeking behavior from the perspective of the risk perception attitude framework and social support in mobile social media websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhaohua; Liu, Shan

    2017-09-01

    This study integrates the risk perception attitude framework and social support to examine factors influencing consumers' intentions to seek health information in mobile social media websites. We develop a research model consisting of four social support dimensions, perceived health risk, health self-efficacy, and health information-seeking intention. A survey is conducted among patients with non-serious conditions. A two-step approach of structural equation modeling is used to test the research model. Among the four dimensions of social support, tangible support and appraisal support significantly influence perceived risk, whereas emotional support and esteem support significantly influence health self-efficacy. Perceived health risk and health self-efficacy significantly influence the health information-seeking behavior intention of consumers. Specifically, health self-efficacy significantly moderates the relationship between perceived risk and behavior intention. This study highlights the integrated effects of social capital and risk perception attitude framework on health information-seeking intention. It examines relationships among perceived health risk, health self-efficacy, and behavior intention in the mobile social media context. The findings help understand effects of social capital factors on perceived health risk and health self-efficacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Music as a technology for social bonding: Comment on "Music, empathy, and cultural understanding" by E. Clarke et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launay, Jacques

    2015-12-01

    From the perspective of evolutionary psychology music can be seen as problematic. Despite its ubiquity there is still no clearly agreed function in terms of improving the fitness of the species. Is it therefore fairer to judge it as 'auditory cheesecake' (see [1]) rather than attributing it with any specific purpose? An alternative argument is that it plays a fundamental role in the formation of human social bonds, and the authors of ;Music, empathy, and cultural understanding; concur with the view that music has a unique capacity to help people connect with others [2]. There is now evidence that even in the modern world there is a significant effect of our social bonds on health and longevity [3], suggesting that our hominid ancestors might have relied heavily on their social network for survival. If music has the capacity to encourage the formation of these social bonds it could form a powerful tool in the success of our species.

  4. Ties that Bind: A Social Network Approach To Understanding Student Integration and Persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Scott L.

    2000-01-01

    This study used a social network paradigm to examine college student integration of 329 college freshmen at a private liberal arts college. Analysis of the structural aspects of students' on-campus associations found differential effects of various social network characteristics on student commitment and persistence. (DB)

  5. The Relevance of the Social Information Processing Model for Understanding Relational Aggression in Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Marcelle M.; Finch, Cambra L.; Foster, Sharon L.

    2005-01-01

    Two studies examined whether social information-processing variables predict relational aggression in girls. In Study 1, fourth- through sixth-grade girls reported their intent attributions, social goals, outcome expectancies for relational aggression, and the likelihood that they would choose a relationally aggressive response in response to…

  6. Towards an Understanding of Teacher Judgement in the Context of Social Moderation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adie, Lenore Ellen; Klenowski, Valentina; Wyatt-Smith, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Social moderation involves teachers gathering together to discuss their judgements of the quality of student work and to reach agreement regarding the standard awarded. This qualitative study conducted over a three-year period investigated the social practice of moderation and the influence on teachers' judgements of students' work. An initial…

  7. A Capability Approach to Understanding Sport for Social Inclusion: Agency, Structure and Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naofumi Suzuki

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the global diffusion of the term social inclusion, as well as the use of sport to promote it, questions have been raised regarding the extent to which sport is able to contribute to transforming the exclusive nature of the social structure. The lack of analytical clarity of the concept has not helped to address these questions. This article proposes a conceptual framework based on Amartya Sen’s capability approach, considering social exclusion as the denial of social relations that leads to serious deprivation of important capabilities. A person’s capabilities could potentially be improved through micro-, meso-, and macro-level social processes. At the micro level, sport-based social inclusion programmes could offer such social relations to varying degrees, though sport’s values are only relative to other leisure activities. The scale of impact depends primarily on the meso-level processes, in which the size and quality of each programme can be improved through organisational learning, and secondarily on the macro-level processes whereby the organisational population is institutionalised. It is argued that more research needs to be done on the meso and macro levels, as they are concerned with the ultimate potential of sport to facilitate structural transformation towards more socially inclusive society.

  8. Using a social-ecological systems perspective to understand tourism and landscape interactions in coastal areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heslinga, Jasper; Groote, Peter D.; Vanclay, Francis

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to look at the potential synergies between tourism and landscapes and examine the potential contribution of tourism to build social-ecological resilience in the Dutch Wadden. Design/methodology/approach The authors reveal how a social-ecological systems

  9. Measuring, Understanding, and Responding to Covert Social Networks: Passive and Active Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-11

    Methods for generating a random sample of networks with desired properties are important tools for the analysis of social , biological, and information...on Theoretical Foundations for Statistical Network Analysis at the Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences at Cambridge U. (organized by...Approach SOCIAL SCIENCES STATISTICS EECS Problems span three disciplines Scientific focus is needed at the interfaces

  10. User-generated content? Get Serious! Understanding the interactions between organizations and customers on social media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moser, C.; van Eijkeren, A

    2016-01-01

    This study examines interactions between customers and organisations on social media by investigating how user-generated content influences interactions between organisations and customers on social media. In compliance with existing perspectives on user-generated content, a total of seven

  11. Life without Work: Understanding Social Class Changes and Unemployment through Theoretical Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Saba Rasheed; Fall, Kevin; Hoffman, Tina

    2013-01-01

    Unemployment is a stark reality in today's economic climate, and many Americans report a fear of loss or decrease in social status as a result of unexpected unemployment. Despite vocational psychology's emphasis on work as a domain of life, very little exploration on how social class shifts impact workers has been conducted. One way to rectify the…

  12. Understanding resilience in armed conflict: Social resources and mental health of children in Burundi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, B.J.; Tol, W.A.; Jordans, M.J.D.; Bass, J.; de Jong, J.T.V.M.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the role of cognitive social capital among war-affected youth in low- and middle-income countries. We examined the longitudinal association between cognitive social capital and mental health (depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms), functioning, and

  13. Understanding and reaching family forest owners: lessons from social marketing research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett J. Butler; Mary Tyrrell; Geoff Feinberg; Scott VanManen; Larry Wiseman; Scott Wallinger

    2007-01-01

    Social marketing--the use of commercial marketing techniques to effect positive social change--is a promising means by which to develop more effective and efficient outreach, policies, and services for family forest owners. A hierarchical, multivariate analysis based on landowners' attitudes reveals four groups of owners to whom programs can be tailored: woodland...

  14. Supporting Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Understanding and Coping with Complex Social Emotional Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, Kaitlyn P.; Gabrielsen, Terisa P.; Lewis, Danielle; Brady, Anna M.; Litchford, April

    2017-01-01

    Core deficits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) center around social communication and behavior. For those with ASD, these deficits complicate the task of learning how to cope with and manage complex social emotional issues. Although individuals with ASD may receive sufficient academic and basic behavioral support in school settings, supports for…

  15. Understanding the Role of Social Factors in Farmworker Housing and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Ben; Milofsky, Carl; Kissam, Edward; Arcury, Thomas A

    2015-11-01

    Differences in social advantage significantly influence health conditions and life expectancy within any population. Such factors reproduce historic class, race, and ethnic disparities in community success. Few populations in the United States face more social and economic disadvantage than farmworkers, and farmworker housing has significant potential to ameliorate or amplify the health impact of those disadvantages. Drawing on the limited direct research on farmworkers, and on additional research about poor, isolated, and immigrant societies, we propose four mechanisms through which housing can be expected to affect farmworker health: quality of social capital within farmworker communities, stress effects of poor housing situations, effects of housing on social support for healthy behaviors, and interactions among these factors, especially effects on children that can last for generations. Policy and planning definitions of "adequate" farmworker housing should take a more holistic view of housing needs to support specific social and community benefits in design decisions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Motor trajectories from birth to 5 years of children born at less than 30 weeks’ gestation: early predictors and functional implications. Protocol for a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia J Spittle

    2016-10-01

    Discussion/significance: Understanding the developmental precursors of motor impairment in children born before 30 weeks is essential for limiting disruption to skill development, and potential secondary impacts on physical activity, participation, academic achievement, self-esteem and associated outcomes (such as obesity, poor physical fitness and social isolation. An improved understanding of motor skill development will enable targeting of interventions and streamlining of services to children at highest risk of motor impairments.

  17. Understanding Social Hierarchies: The Neural and Psychological Foundations of Status Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, Jessica; Xie, Hongling; Olson, Ingrid R.

    2017-01-01

    Social groups across species rapidly self-organize into hierarchies, where members vary in their level of power, influence, skill, or dominance. In this review we explore the nature of social hierarchies and the traits associated with status in both humans and nonhuman primates, and how status varies across development in humans. Our review finds that we can rapidly identify social status based on a wide range of cues. Like monkeys, we tend to use certain cues, like physical strength, to make status judgments, although layered on top of these more primitive perceptual cues are socio-cultural status cues like job titles and educational attainment. One's relative status has profound effects on attention, memory, and social interactions, as well as health and wellness. These effects can be particularly pernicious in children and adolescents. Developmental research on peer groups and social exclusion suggests teenagers may be particularly sensitive to social status information, but research focused specifically on status processing and associated brain areas is very limited. Recent evidence from neuroscience suggests there may be an underlying neural network, including regions involved in executive, emotional, and reward processing, that is sensitive to status information. We conclude with questions for future research as well as stressing the need to expand social neuroscience research on status processing to adolescents. PMID:25697184

  18. Effects of sex and housing on social, spatial, and motor behavior in adult rats exposed to moderate levels of alcohol during prenatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Carlos I; Magcalas, Christy M; Barto, Daniel; Fink, Brandi C; Rice, James P; Bird, Clark W; Davies, Suzy; Pentkowski, Nathan S; Savage, Daniel D; Hamilton, Derek A

    2016-10-15

    Persistent deficits in social behavior, motor behavior, and behavioral flexibility are among the major negative consequences associated with exposure to ethanol during prenatal development. Prior work from our laboratory has linked moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the rat to deficits in these behavioral domains, which depend upon the ventrolateral frontal cortex (Hamilton et al., 2014) [20]. Manipulations of the social environment cause modifications of dendritic morphology and experience-dependent immediate early gene expression in ventrolateral frontal cortex (Hamilton et al., 2010) [19], and may yield positive behavioral outcomes following PAE. In the present study we evaluated the effects of housing PAE rats with non-exposed control rats on adult behavior. Rats of both sexes were either paired with a partner from the same prenatal treatment condition (ethanol or saccharin) or from the opposite condition (mixed housing condition). At four months of age (∼3 months after the housing manipulation commenced), social behavior, tongue protrusion, and behavioral flexibility in the Morris water task were measured as in (Hamilton et al., 2014) [20]. The behavioral effects of moderate PAE were primarily limited to males and were not ameliorated by housing with a non-ethanol exposed partner. Unexpectedly, social behavior, motor behavior, and spatial flexibility were adversely affected in control rats housed with a PAE rat (i.e., in mixed housing), indicating that housing with a PAE rat has broad behavioral consequences beyond the social domain. These observations provide further evidence that moderate PAE negatively affects social behavior, and underscore the importance of considering potential negative effects of housing with PAE animals on the behavior of critical comparison groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Shifting Stakes: Understanding the Dynamic Roles of Individuals and Organizations in Social Media Protests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiro, Emma S; Monroy-Hernández, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we examine two protests characterized by substantial social media presence and distributed participation frameworks via two core questions: what roles did organizations and individuals play, and how did participants' social interactions change over the course of the protests? To answer these questions, we analyzed a large Twitter activity dataset for the #YoSoy132 student uprising in Mexico and Brazil's "bus rebellion." Results indicate that individuals initially took prominence at the protests but faded in importance as the movements dwindled and organizations took over. Regarding the dynamics and structure of the interactions, we found that key time points with unique social structures often map to exogenous events such as coordinated protests in physical locations. Our results have important consequences for the visibility of such social movements and their ability to attract continued participation by individuals and organizations.

  20. Analyzing social policy: multiple perspectives for critically understanding and evaluating policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Connor, Mary Katherine; Netting, F. Ellen

    2011-01-01

    ... and development to implementation. Approaching the topic from an analytical and research-based perspective, the authors help readers make better, informed choices for successfully dealing with the complexities of social policy...

  1. Broadening Our Understanding and Assessment of Personal and Social Responsibility: A Challenge to Researchers and Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trosset, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Higher education literature has focused narrowly on social responsibility to the exclusion of personal responsibility. This chapter challenges higher education researchers and practitioners to include behaviors related to personal responsibility in their research and educational agendas.

  2. The Role of the History of Science in the Understanding of Social Darwinism and Eugenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Peter

    1990-01-01

    The link between science and society is examined by studying the application of evolution theories and genetics to human affairs. Described are the ways in which biological theories have been applied to social issues. (KR)

  3. [Understanding social interaction in children with autism spectrum disorders: does whole-body motion mean anything to them?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centelles, L; Assaiante, C; Etchegoyhen, K; Bouvard, M; Schmitz, C

    2012-06-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by difficulties in social interaction and verbal and non verbal reciprocal communication. Face and gaze direction, which participate in non verbal communication, are described as atypical in ASD. Also body movements carry multiple social cues. Under certain circumstances, for instance when seeing two persons from far, they constitute the only support that allows the grasping of a social content. Here, we investigated the contribution of whole-body motion processing in social understanding. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether children with ASD make use of information carried by body motion to categorize dynamic visual scenes that portrayed social interactions. In 1973, Johansson devised a technique for studying the perception of biological motion that minimizes static form information from the stimulus, but retains motion information. In these point-light displays, the movement figure, such as a body, is represented by a small number of illuminated dots positioned to highlight the motion of the body parts. We used Johansson's model to explore the ability of children with ASD to understand social interactions based on human movement analysis. Three-second silent point-light displays were created by videotaping two actors. The two actors were either interacting together or moving side by side without interacting. A large range of social interaction displays were used to cover social scenes depicting social norms (conventional gestures and courteous attitudes), emotional situations (carrying positive or negative valences) and scenes from games (sports, dance, etc.). Children were asked to carefully watch the stimuli and to classify them according to the question "Are the two persons communicating or not?". Four sessions of 3 minutes were performed by each child. Children with ASD were compared with typically developing control children matched with either non verbal mental age or chronological age. Response and

  4. Social media and rating sites as tools to understanding quality of care: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Lise M; Van de Belt, Tom H; Engelen, Lucien J L P G; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Kool, Rudolf B

    2014-02-20

    Insight into the quality of health care is important for any stakeholder including patients, professionals, and governments. In light of a patient-centered approach, it is essential to assess the quality of health care from a patient's perspective, which is commonly done with surveys or focus groups. Unfortunately, these "traditional" methods have significant limitations that include social desirability bias, a time lag between experience and measurement, and difficulty reaching large groups of people. Information on social media could be of value to overcoming these limitations, since these new media are easy to use and are used by the majority of the population. Furthermore, an increasing number of people share health care experiences online or rate the quality of their health care provider on physician rating sites. The question is whether this information is relevant to determining or predicting the quality of health care. The goal of our research was to systematically analyze the relation between information shared on social media and quality of care. We performed a scoping review with the following goals: (1) to map the literature on the association between social media and quality of care, (2) to identify different mechanisms of this relationship, and (3) to determine a more detailed agenda for this relatively new research area. A recognized scoping review methodology was used. We developed a search strategy based on four themes: social media, patient experience, quality, and health care. Four online scientific databases were searched, articles were screened, and data extracted. Results related to the research question were described and categorized according to type of social media. Furthermore, national and international stakeholders were consulted throughout the study, to discuss and interpret results. Twenty-nine articles were included, of which 21 were concerned with health care rating sites. Several studies indicate a relationship between information

  5. Social Media: Gateway to Public Preparedness and Understanding of GeoHazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballmann, J. E.; Bohon, W.; Bartel, B. A.

    2016-12-01

    The clear, timely communication of natural hazards information is critical to providing the public with the tools and information they need to make informed decisions before, during, and after events such as earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions. For the geohazards community, this is a multi-sector collaboration involving partners from national, state, and local governments, businesses, educational organizations, non-profit groups, and scientific institutions, for the benefit and participation of the whole community. Communications channels must be clear, consistent, and unified for the sake of maximum reach. One method of public communication that has proven to be particularly effective in disseminating hazards-related information is social media. The broad social and geographic reach of social media coupled with its ubiquitous use in all age groups makes it a powerful way to reach large segments of the population. Social media is already widely used by mass media and scientific organizations to communicate science and hazards. However, it is important that science organizations present a united and clear message, particularly about hazards preparation and response. The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), UNAVCO, and the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) have created a Joint Social Media Task Force. The objective of this collaboration is 1) to build social media communities and improve the reach of science messaging, 2) to create and present consistent and clear messaging across social media platforms and regional facilities, 3) to promote outstanding products and educational information , 4) to assist and collaborate in regional, national and international efforts (TweetChats, Reddit fora, ShakeOut, etc.) and 5) to assist and support the efforts of FEMA, the USGS and other partner organizations during crisis situations. Here, we outline the difficulties and successes of creating such an alliance and provide a road map

  6. De-Virtualizing Social Events: Understanding the Gap between Online and Offline Participation for Event Invitations

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Ai-Ju; Wang, Hao-Chuan; Yuan, Chien Wen

    2013-01-01

    One growing use of computer-based communication media is for gathering people to initiate or sustain social events. Although the use of computer-mediated communication and social network sites such as Facebook for event promotion is becoming popular, online participation in an event does not always translate to offline attendance. In this paper, we report on an interview study of 31 participants that examines how people handle online event invitations and what influences their online and offl...

  7. A Discursive Institutionalist Approach to Understanding the Changes to the Irish Social Partnership Policy After 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Hogan, John; Timoney, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Read before the society, 14 January 2016 Employing the critical juncture theory (CJT), a discursive institutionalist approach, this paper examines the nature of the changes to social partnership policy at the end of the decade of the 2000s. Did these changes constitute a transformation in social partnership policy, or were they a continuation of a previously established policy pathway? The CJT consists of three elements – economic crisis, ideational change, and the nature of the policy cha...

  8. Social Networks and Health: Understanding the Nuances of Healthcare Access between Urban and Rural Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoah, Padmore Adusei; Edusei, Joseph; Amuzu, David

    2018-05-13

    Communities and individuals in many sub-Saharan African countries often face limited access to healthcare. Hence, many rely on social networks to enhance their chances for adequate health care. While this knowledge is well-established, little is known about the nuances of how different population groups activate these networks to improve access to healthcare. This paper examines how rural and urban dwellers in the Ashanti Region in Ghana distinctively and systematically activate their social networks to enhance access to healthcare. It uses a qualitative cross-sectional design, with in-depth interviews of 79 primary participants (28 urban and 51 rural residents) in addition to the views of eight community leaders and eight health personnel. It was discovered that both intimate and distanced social networks for healthcare are activated at different periods by rural and urban residents. Four main stages of social networks activation, comprising different individuals and groups were observed among rural and urban dwellers. Among both groups, physical proximity, privacy, trust and sense of fairness, socio-cultural meaning attached to health problems, and perceived knowledge and other resources (mainly money) held in specific networks inherently influenced social network activation. The paper posits that a critical analysis of social networks may help to tailor policy contents to individuals and groups with limited access to healthcare.

  9. Obesity emergence in the Pacific islands: why understanding colonial history and social change is important.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, Amy K; Ulijaszek, Stanley J

    2015-06-01

    Between 1980 and 2008, two Pacific island nations - Nauru and the Cook Islands - experienced the fastest rates of increasing BMI in the world. Rates were over four times higher than the mean global BMI increase. The aim of the present paper is to examine why these populations have been so prone to obesity increases in recent times. Three explanatory frames that apply to both countries are presented: (i) geographic isolation and genetic predisposition; (ii) small population and low food production capacity; and (iii) social change under colonial influence. These are compared with social changes documented by anthropologists during the colonial and post-colonial periods. Nauru and the Cook Islands. While islands are isolated, islanders are interconnected. Similarly, islands are small, but land use is socially determined. While obesity affects individuals, islanders are interdependent. New social values, which were rapidly propagated through institutions such as the colonial system of education and the cash economy, are today reflected in all aspects of islander life, including diet. Such historical social changes may predispose societies to obesity. Colonial processes may have put in place the conditions for subsequent rapidly escalating obesity. Of the three frameworks discussed, social change under colonial influence is not immutable to further change in the future and could take place rapidly. In theorising obesity emergence in the Pacific islands, there is a need to incorporate the idea of obesity being a product of interdependence and interconnectedness, rather than independence and individual choice.

  10. Use of a public film event to promote understanding and help seeking for social withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Alan Robert; Stufflebam, Kyle Whitaker; Lu, Francis; Fetters, Michael Derwin

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to implement a public film event about mental health aspects of social withdrawal. Secondary aims were to assess participants' knowledge, attitudes, and intended behaviors related to social withdrawal. The event, held at three U.S. sites, consisted of a film screening, question-and-answer session, and lecture. Participants completed a post-event survey. Of the 163 participants, 115 (70.6%) completed surveys. Most of the sample deemed social withdrawal a significant mental health issue. Regarding post-event intended behaviors, 90.2% reported intent to get more information, 48.0% to being vigilant for social withdrawal in others, and 19.6% to talking with a health care professional about concerns for social withdrawal in themselves or someone they knew. Asian participants were significantly more likely than non-Asians to intend to encourage help-seeking for social withdrawal (p = .001). A public film event may be a creative way to improve mental health awareness and treatment-seeking. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. What do we really know about the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership: Facts versus myths? Trying to understand social expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Dzialo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this work is to confront the social expectations of the TTIP, and how it effects the so-called "expert knowledge". Defining a mismatch between the social expectations and expert knowledge may contribute to better understanding of the controversies related to the TTIP. Using the NAFTA case study, we investigate if there is a significant gap between ex-ante and ex-post analysis of the Free Trade Agreement (FTA. Design/methodology/approach: We rely on Eurobarometer (2014, 2015 and Bertelsmann Foundation (2016 surveys to describe the TTIP-related social expectations. We make a critical overview of the global CGE models, which are the main source of ex-ante estimations of TTIP macro effects. We also use the NAFTA case study as a TTIP reference point that allows for a comparison of ex-ante with ex-post analysis results. Findings: Social expectations regarding the economic effects of the TTIP are ambiguous on both sides of the Atlantic. The CGE models have many limiting assumptions. They are, however, a useful tool for exploring the effects of the TTIP, bearing in mind all restrictions and limitations of ex-ante analyses. The NAFTA case study indicates that most ex-ante models tend to overestimate benefits and underestimate disadvantages arising from free trade. Research limitations/implications: Many such surveys have been conducted recently. The results should be developed upon, for a more detailed, country-specific and time variant understanding of possible sources of social conflicts in the context of the TTIP (or FTA implementation. Originality/value: The analysis tends to prove the existence of a mismatch between social and expert knowledge on the TTIP, which may result in generating social conflicts. A practical and original outcome of our work is a well-supported recommendation to make the TTIP realistic effects much more transparent to the public, which should be important to those supporting the TTIP (and generally

  12. Schizophrenia, Narrative, and Neurocognition: The Utility of Life-Stories in Understanding Social Problem-Solving Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Aubrey M; Breitborde, Nicholas J K; Bourassa, Kyle J; Gallagher, Colin J; Shakeel, Mohammed K; Docherty, Nancy M

    2018-01-22

    Schizophrenia researchers have focused on phenomenological aspects of the disorder to better understand its underlying nature. In particular, development of personal narratives-that is, the complexity with which people form, organize, and articulate their "life stories"-has recently been investigated in individuals with schizophrenia. However, less is known about how aspects of narrative relate to indicators of neurocognitive and social functioning. The objective of the present study was to investigate the association of linguistic complexity of life-story narratives to measures of cognitive and social problem-solving abilities among people with schizophrenia. Thirty-two individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia completed a research battery consisting of clinical interviews, a life-story narrative, neurocognitive testing, and a measure assessing multiple aspects of social problem solving. Narrative interviews were assessed for linguistic complexity using computerized technology. The results indicate differential relationships of linguistic complexity and neurocognition to domains of social problem-solving skills. More specifically, although neurocognition predicted how well one could both describe and enact a solution to a social problem, linguistic complexity alone was associated with accurately recognizing that a social problem had occurred. In addition, linguistic complexity appears to be a cognitive factor that is discernible from other broader measures of neurocognition. Linguistic complexity may be more relevant in understanding earlier steps of the social problem-solving process than more traditional, broad measures of cognition, and thus is relevant in conceptualizing treatment targets. These findings also support the relevance of developing narrative-focused psychotherapies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Maternal Knowing and Social Networks: Understanding First-Time Mothers' Search for Information and Support Through Online and Offline Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Sheri Lynn; Aston, Megan; Monaghan, Joelle; Sim, Meaghan; Tomblin Murphy, Gail; Etowa, Josephine; Pickles, Michelle; Hunter, Andrea; Little, Victoria

    2017-12-01

    The postpartum period is an exciting yet stressful time for first-time mothers, and although the experience may vary, all mothers need support during this crucial period. In Canada, there has been a shift for universal postpartum services to be offered predominantly online. However, due to a paucity of literature, it is difficult to determine the degree to which mothers' needs are being effectively addressed. The aim of this study was to examine and understand how first-time mothers accessed support and information (online and offline) during the first 6 months of their postpartum period. Using feminist poststructuralism methodology, data were collected from focus groups and e-interviews, and analyzed using discourse analysis. Findings indicate that peer support is greatly valued, and mothers often use social media to make in-person social connections. Findings highlight how accessing support and information is socially and institutionally constructed and provide direction for health professionals to provide accessible postpartum care.

  14. Understanding the experiences of people with disfigurements: An integration of four models of social and psychological functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, G

    2000-05-01

    Both psychological (Cash, 1996; Partridge, 1998; Leary et al ., 1998) and sociological (Goffman, 1968) models have been used to explain the personal and social consequences of cosmetic blemishes. In this study, people with the skin disease vitiligo were asked to describe a situation in which their condition had recently affected their lives. Consistent with theories of body image disturbance, incidents usually involved a triggering event when concerns about appearance were raised due to bodily exposure or enacted stigma. These events led respondents to be vigilant to others' behaviour, to be self-conscious and to attribute the cause of the event to their appearance. Theories of social anxiety could be used to account for how the respondents used impression management strategies such as avoidance and concealment. Respondents described how they could be uncertain as to how to deal with others' behaviour, illustrating the relevance of social skills models. In addition, avoidance/concealment had a number of social and personal costs, including the loss of valued activities, reluctance to develop intimate relationships and continuing anxiety. Thus, theories of body image, social anxiety, social skills and the sociology of stigma could be used to understand the respondents' experiences. It seems likely that therapeutic interventions based on different models are useful because they influence different aspects of the above process.

  15. Social anxiety disorder in adolescence: How developmental cognitive neuroscience findings may shape understanding and interventions for psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone P.W. Haller

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Social anxiety disorder represents a debilitating condition that has large adverse effects on the quality of social connections, educational achievement and wellbeing. Age-of-onset data suggests that early adolescence is a developmentally sensitive juncture for the onset of social anxiety. In this review, we highlight the potential of using a developmental cognitive neuroscience approach to understand (i why there are normative increases in social worries in adolescence and (ii how adolescence-associated changes may ‘bring out’ neuro-cognitive risk factors for social anxiety in a subset of individuals during this developmental period. We also speculate on how changes that occur in learning and plasticity may allow for optimal acquisition of more adaptive neurocognitive strategies through external interventions. Hence, for the minority of individuals who require external interventions to target their social fears, this enhanced flexibility could result in more powerful and longer-lasting therapeutic effects. We will review two novel interventions that target information-processing biases and their neural substrates via cognitive training and visual feedback of neural activity measured through functional magnetic resonance imaging.

  16. Motor Neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Jorn

    2017-01-01

    Motor neurons translate synaptic input from widely distributed premotor networks into patterns of action potentials that orchestrate motor unit force and motor behavior. Intercalated between the CNS and muscles, motor neurons add to and adjust the final motor command. The identity and functional...... in in vitro preparations is far from complete. Nevertheless, a foundation has been provided for pursuing functional significance of intrinsic response properties in motoneurons in vivo during motor behavior at levels from molecules to systems....

  17. Understanding Australian policies on public health using social and political science theories: reflections from an Academy of the Social Sciences in Australia Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Fran; Graycar, Adam; Delany-Crowe, Toni; de Leeuw, Evelyne; Bacchi, Carol; Popay, Jennie; Orchard, Lionel; Colebatch, Hal; Friel, Sharon; MacDougall, Colin; Harris, Elizabeth; Lawless, Angela; McDermott, Dennis; Fisher, Matthew; Harris, Patrick; Phillips, Clare; Fitzgerald, Jane

    2018-04-19

    There is strong, and growing, evidence documenting health inequities across the world. However, most governments do not prioritize policies to encourage action on the social determinants of health and health equity. Furthermore, despite evidence concerning the benefits of joined-up, intersectoral policy to promote health and health equity, it is rare for such policy approaches to be applied systematically. To examine the usefulness of political and social science theory in understanding the reasons for this disjuncture between evidence and practice, researchers and public servants gathered in Adelaide for an Academy of the Social Sciences in Australia (ASSA) Workshop. This paper draws together the learnings that emerged from the Workshop, including key messages about the usefulness of various theories as well as insights drawn from policy practice. Discussions during the Workshop highlighted that applying multiple theories is particularly helpful in directing attention to, and understanding, the influence of all stages of the policy process; from the construction and framing of policy problems, to the implementation of policy and evaluation of outcomes, including those outcomes that may be unintended. In addition, the Workshop emphasized the value of collaborations among public health researchers, political and social scientists and public servants to open up critical discussion about the intersections between theory, research evidence and practice. Such critique is vital to render visible the processes through which particular sources of knowledge may be privileged over others and to examine how political and bureaucratic environments shape policy proposals and implementation action.

  18. Multiple Sensory-Motor Pathways Lead to Coordinated Visual Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chen; Smith, Linda B.

    2017-01-01

    Joint attention has been extensively studied in the developmental literature because of overwhelming evidence that the ability to socially coordinate visual attention to an object is essential to healthy developmental outcomes, including language learning. The goal of this study was to understand the complex system of sensory-motor behaviors that…

  19. Infrastructure and social tie: Spatial model approach on understanding poverty in Malang regency, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ari, I. R. D.; Hasyim, A. W.; Pratama, B. A.; Helmy, M.; Sheilla, M. N.

    2017-06-01

    Poverty is a problem that requires attention from the government especially in developing countries such as Indonesia. This Research takes Place at Kasembon District because it has 53,19% family below poverty line in the region. The purpose of this research is to measure poverty based on 3 poverty indicators published by World Bank and 1 multidimensional poverty index. Furthermore, this research invesitigas the relationship between poverty with social and infrastructure in Kasembon District. This study using social network analysis, hot spots analysis, and regression analysis with ordinary least squares. From the poverty indicators known that Pondokagung Village has the highest poverty rate compared to another region. Results from regression model indicate that social and infrastructure affecting poverty in Kasembon District. Social parameter that affecting poverty is density. Infrastructure parameter that affecting poverty is length of paved road. Coefficient value of density is the largest in the model. Therefore it can be concluded that social factors can give more opportunity to reduce poverty rates in Kasembon District. In the local model of paved road coefficient, it is known that the coefficient for each village has not much different value from the global model.

  20. Applying traditional signal processing techniques to social media exploitation for situational understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelzaher, Tarek; Roy, Heather; Wang, Shiguang; Giridhar, Prasanna; Al Amin, Md. Tanvir; Bowman, Elizabeth K.; Kolodny, Michael A.

    2016-05-01

    Signal processing techniques such as filtering, detection, estimation and frequency domain analysis have long been applied to extract information from noisy sensor data. This paper describes the exploitation of these signal processing techniques to extract information from social networks, such as Twitter and Instagram. Specifically, we view social networks as noisy sensors that report events in the physical world. We then present a data processing stack for detection, localization, tracking, and veracity analysis of reported events using social network data. We show using a controlled experiment that the behavior of social sources as information relays varies dramatically depending on context. In benign contexts, there is general agreement on events, whereas in conflict scenarios, a significant amount of collective filtering is introduced by conflicted groups, creating a large data distortion. We describe signal processing techniques that mitigate such distortion, resulting in meaningful approximations of actual ground truth, given noisy reported observations. Finally, we briefly present an implementation of the aforementioned social network data processing stack in a sensor network analysis toolkit, called Apollo. Experiences with Apollo show that our techniques are successful at identifying and tracking credible events in the physical world.

  1. Social determinants of health and local government: understanding and uptake of ideas in two Australian states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, Angela; Lane, Anna; Lewis, Felicity-Ann; Baum, Fran; Harris, Patrick

    2016-10-23

    To examine the awareness and perceptions of local government staff about the social determinants of health (SDoH) and health inequity and use of these ideas to shape policy and practice. 96 staff at 17 councils in South Australia or New South Wales responded to questions in a pilot online survey concerning: sources of knowledge about, familiarity with the evidence on, attitudes towards, and uses of ideas about the social determinants of health. Eight of 68 SA councils and 16 of 152 NSW councils were randomly selected stratified by state and metropolitan status. Differences between states and metropolitan/non-metropolitan status were explored. The majority of respondents (88.4%) reported some familiarity with ideas about the broad determinants of health and 90% agreed that the impact of policy action on health determinants should be considered in all major government policy and planning initiatives. Research articles, government/professional reports, and professional contacts were rated as important sources of knowledge about the social determinants of health. Resources need to be dedicated to systematic research on practical implementation of interventions on social determinants of health inequities and towards providing staff with more practical information about interventions and tools to evaluate those interventions. The findings suggest there is support for action addressing the social determinants of health in local government. The findings extend similar research regarding SDoH and government in NZ and Canada to Australian local government. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  2. Towards a poststructural understanding of abortion and social class in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Gillian

    2018-06-01

    Despite previous research suggesting that social class influences experiences of and attitudes to abortion, there is a dearth of research which studies the intersection of abortion and social class in England. Across the UK, abortion rates and experiences differ by region and socio-economic status, reflecting broader health inequalities. Contemporary austerity in the UK creates an imperative for new research which contextualises the experience of abortion within this socio-historical moment, and the worsening inequalities which have accompanied it. Whilst work on abortion and social inequality exists, it has often approached class as an a priori category. I argue that contemporary post-structural work on class provides a framework to go beyond this approach by examining how these social classifications occur; who has the power to classify; and how these classifications might be resisted. This framework is demonstrated with emerging findings from a life history study of abortion experiences in England. The applications of this to the work on abortion are potentially rich, because the act of ending a pregnancy invites classification from many quarters, from the legal (legal/illegal) to the medical (early/late) to the moral (deserved/undeserved). This work, therefore, speaks to public health concerns about access to and stigma around abortion and social inequalities.

  3. The social conditions of instrumental action: Problems in the sociological understanding of rational choice theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Sciberras de Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article critically analyzes new sociological approaches to the rational choice theory which - beyond examining political or economic practices - link the notion of instrumental rationality to social issues and themes. The article begins by highlighting the issue of trust, indicating the functionality of certain social arrangements in collective problem-solving. The paper goes on to demonstrate that problems emerge with the theory when it attempts to explain the feasibility of social norms in impersonal, comprehensive contexts. Thus, the fundamental point that appears to be missing from rational choice theory is the perception that individual decisions and instrumental conduct itself incorporate dispositions that in a sense are beyond the actors' control.

  4. How do you perceive this author? Understanding and modeling authors’ communication quality in social media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we leverage human evaluations, content analysis, and computational modeling to generate a comprehensive analysis of readers’ evaluations of authors’ communication quality in social media with respect to four factors: author credibility, interpersonal attraction, communication competence, and intent to interact. We review previous research on the human evaluation process and highlight its limitations in providing sufficient information for readers to assess authors’ communication quality. From our analysis of the evaluations of 1,000 Twitter authors’ communication quality from 300 human evaluators, we provide empirical evidence of the impact of the characteristics of the reader (demographic, social media experience, and personality), author (profile and social media engagement), and content (linguistic, syntactic, similarity, and sentiment) on the evaluation of an author’s communication quality. In addition, based on the author and message characteristics, we demonstrate the potential for building accurate models that can indicate an author’s communication quality. PMID:29389979

  5. How do you perceive this author? Understanding and modeling authors' communication quality in social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyungsik

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we leverage human evaluations, content analysis, and computational modeling to generate a comprehensive analysis of readers' evaluations of authors' communication quality in social media with respect to four factors: author credibility, interpersonal attraction, communication competence, and intent to interact. We review previous research on the human evaluation process and highlight its limitations in providing sufficient information for readers to assess authors' communication quality. From our analysis of the evaluations of 1,000 Twitter authors' communication quality from 300 human evaluators, we provide empirical evidence of the impact of the characteristics of the reader (demographic, social media experience, and personality), author (profile and social media engagement), and content (linguistic, syntactic, similarity, and sentiment) on the evaluation of an author's communication quality. In addition, based on the author and message characteristics, we demonstrate the potential for building accurate models that can indicate an author's communication quality.

  6. Using the Lens of “Social Construction of Technology” to Understand the Design and Implementation of Aadhaar (UID) Project

    OpenAIRE

    Sivamalai, Lewin

    2013-01-01

    Part 7: Shorter Papers; International audience; Extant Research on e-government projects has shown that multiple stakeholders are at play always, each with their own divergent interests. And many a time, differences in stakeholder expectations from a project has resulted in projects failing or being abandoned after initial usage. Social Construction of Technology (SCOT) studies look at the development history of a technology in order to understand how that particular technology has evolved, b...

  7. Understanding the influence of social media in medicine: lesson learned from Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savas, Jessica A; Huang, Karen E; Tuchayi, Sara Moradi; Feldman, Steven R

    2014-09-16

    Atopic dermatitis is a very common chronic skin disease. With increasing number of patients searching social media outlets such as Facebook for medical information, social media can be used by physicians as a powerful educational tool. We analyzed the unmoderated Q&A series on Facebook begun by members of National Eczema Association Scientific Advisory Committee. Four respondents accounted for more than 50% of all responses and the most common were negative posts about topical steroids (61%). Possible strategies to accomplish the safe dissemination of information in a public forum may include a moderator role for physicians.

  8. Understanding the gender differences in pathways to social deviancy: relational aggression and emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowie, Bonnie H

    2010-02-01

    This study explored the associations among childhood emotion regulation, overt aggression, relational aggression, and adolescent deviant social behaviors. Data were drawn from the Family Health Project, a longitudinal study conducted over 4 years. The sample consisted of 111 children at Time 1 who ranged in age from 51/2 to 12 years at Time 1 and 8 to 14 years at Time 3. A significant finding was that, for girls, lower emotion regulation predicted later relational aggression (beta = -2.95, P skills coupled with relational aggression were associated with deviant social behaviors. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Understanding Social Media’s Take on Climate Change through Large-Scale Analysis of Targeted Opinions and Emotions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pathak, Neetu; Henry, Michael J.; Volkova, Svitlana

    2017-03-29

    Social media is a powerful data source for researchers interested in understanding population-level behavior, having been successfully leveraged in a number of different application areas including flu and illness prediction models, detecting civil unrest, and measuring public sentiment towards a given topic of interest within the public discourse. In this work, we present a study of a large collection of Twitter data centered on the social conversation around global cli- mate change during the UN Climate Change Conference, held in Paris, France during December 2015 (COP21). We first developed a mechanism for distinguishing between personal and non-personal accounts. We then analyzed demographics and emotion and opinion dynamics over time and location in order to understand how the different user types converse around meaningful topics on social media. This methodology offers an in-depth insight into the behavior and opinions around a topic where multiple distinct narratives are present, and lays the groundwork for future work in studying narratives in social media.

  10. Analyzing social policy: multiple perspectives for critically understanding and evaluating policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Connor, Mary Katherine; Netting, F. Ellen

    2011-01-01

    "This unique volume outlines the different frameworks of policy analysis and explains how readers can use research and critical thinking skills to understand the different models from their formation...

  11. Using social media data to understand mobile customer experience and behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Wenling; Jacobsen, Guy; Jin, Yu; Skudlark, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Understanding mobile customer experience and behavior is an important task for cellular service providers to improve the satisfaction of their customers. To that end, cellular service providers regularly measure the properties of their mobile network, such as signal strength, dropped calls, call blockage, and radio interface failures (RIFs). In addition to these passive measurements collected within the network, understanding customer sentiment from direct customer feedback is also an importa...

  12. Understanding and applying principles of social cognition and decision making in adaptive environmental governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. DeCaro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental governance systems are under greater pressure to adapt and to cope with increased social and ecological uncertainty from stressors like climate change. We review principles of social cognition and decision making that shape and constrain how environmental governance systems adapt. We focus primarily on the interplay between key decision makers in society and legal systems. We argue that adaptive governance must overcome three cooperative dilemmas to facilitate adaptation: (1 encouraging collaborative problem solving, (2 garnering social acceptance and commitment, and (3 cultivating a culture of trust and tolerance for change and uncertainty. However, to do so governance systems must cope with biases in people's decision making that cloud their judgment and create conflict. These systems must also satisfy people's fundamental needs for self-determination, fairness, and security, ensuring that changes to environmental governance are perceived as legitimate, trustworthy, and acceptable. We discuss the implications of these principles for common governance solutions (e.g., public participation, enforcement and conclude with methodological recommendations. We outline how scholars can investigate the social cognitive principles involved in cases of adaptive governance.

  13. A Socially Inclusive A-Star Is Only Possible through the Understanding of Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Ciara; Houghton, Jack; Read, Beth; Bird, Danny; Tatten, J. J.

    2016-01-01

    This article is written by young people who attend an open-access youth project in the city centre of Hull. Although they describe themselves as "educational failures" (the "black holes"), they argue that they have a significant contribution to make to discussions about how to develop socially just education in schools. In the…

  14. Understanding the Factors Influencing User Experience of Social Question and Answer Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shengli; Fang, Yuling; Liu, Yong; Li, Hongxiu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The popularity of social question and answer sites has made it an important and convenient source for obtaining knowledge. This study quantifies how three different system characteristics (interface design, interaction and answer quality) affect users' perceptions (perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and perceived enjoyment),…

  15. Understanding Frame-of-Reference Training Success: A Social Learning Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulsky, Lorne M.; Kline, Theresa J. B.

    2007-01-01

    Employing the social learning theory (SLT) perspective on training, we analysed the effects of alternative frame-of-reference (FOR) training protocols on various criteria of training effectiveness. Undergraduate participants (N = 65) were randomly assigned to one of four FOR training conditions and a control condition. Training effectiveness was…

  16. Understanding and Acting on the Growing Childhood and Adolescent Weight Crisis: A Role for Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Shawn; Hazlett, Rebekah; Hightower, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    The childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity rates are rising at an alarming rate. Numerous individual, family, community, and social factors contribute to overweight and obesity in children and are explored. If left unaddressed, the epidemic of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity may lead to amplified problems for individual…

  17. Understanding the Learning of Values Using a Domains-of-Socialization Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinik, Julia; Johnston, Megan; Grusec, Joan E.; Farrell, Renee

    2013-01-01

    The narratives that emerging adults wrote about a time when they learned an important moral, value or lesson were explored in order to determine the characteristics of events that lead to internalized values as well as to compare the way different kinds of moral values are socialized. Lessons resulting from misbehavior were reported most…

  18. Understanding the diffusion and adoption of mobile IT across social worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengiste, Shegaw Anagaw; Nielsen, Jeppe

    2014-01-01

    IT facilitated and mediated negotiation and collaboration among various stakeholders at one time and become source of tension and conflicts at other times between different social worlds. Indeed, the trajectory of mobile IT adoption was of a top-down approach and the use of the new technology interfered...

  19. Understanding academic performance of international students: the role of ethnicity, academic and social integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rientjes, B.; Beausaert, S.; Grohnert, T.; Niemantsverdriet, S.; Kommers, Petrus A.M.

    2012-01-01

    More than 3 million students study outside their home country, primarily at a Western university. A common belief among educators is that international students are insufficiently adjusted to higher education in their host country, both academically and socially. Furthermore, several groups of

  20. Engineering the future, understanding the past : a social history of technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vleuten, E.; Oldenziel, R.; Davids, M.

    2017-01-01

    The world is in turmoil: we are witnessing steep social and environmental challenges. Technology is identified as both cause of, and solution to, these challenges. How can we use technology to solve problems, without creating new ones? This book discusses the role of engineering in our age of grand

  1. Understanding health systems, health economies and globalization: the need for social science perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Susan F; Bisht, Ramila; Baru, Rama; Pitchforth, Emma

    2012-08-31

    The complex relationship between globalization and health calls for research from many disciplinary and methodological perspectives. This editorial gives an overview of the content trajectory of the interdisciplinary journal 'Globalization and Health' over the first six years of production, 2005 to 2010. The findings show that bio-medical and population health perspectives have been dominant but that social science perspectives have become more evident in recent years. The types of paper published have also changed, with a growing proportion of empirical studies. A special issue on 'Health systems, health economies and globalization: social science perspectives' is introduced, a collection of contributions written from the vantage points of economics, political science, psychology, sociology, business studies, social policy and research policy. The papers concern a range of issues pertaining to the globalization of healthcare markets and governance and regulation issues. They highlight the important contribution that can be made by the social sciences to this field, and also the practical and methodological challenges implicit in the study of globalization and health.

  2. Understanding health systems, health economies and globalization: the need for social science perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Susan F

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The complex relationship between globalization and health calls for research from many disciplinary and methodological perspectives. This editorial gives an overview of the content trajectory of the interdisciplinary journal ‘Globalization and Health’ over the first six years of production, 2005 to 2010. The findings show that bio-medical and population health perspectives have been dominant but that social science perspectives have become more evident in recent years. The types of paper published have also changed, with a growing proportion of empirical studies. A special issue on ‘Health systems, health economies and globalization: social science perspectives’ is introduced, a collection of contributions written from the vantage points of economics, political science, psychology, sociology, business studies, social policy and research policy. The papers concern a range of issues pertaining to the globalization of healthcare markets and governance and regulation issues. They highlight the important contribution that can be made by the social sciences to this field, and also the practical and methodological challenges implicit in the study of globalization and health.

  3. Understanding Rape Survivors' Decisions Not to Seek Help from Formal Social Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Debra; Greeson, Megan; Campbell, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Few rape survivors seek help from formal social systems after their assault. The purpose of this study was to examine factors that prevent survivors from seeking help from the legal, medical, and mental health systems and rape crisis centers. In this study, 29 female rape survivors who did not seek any postassault formal help were interviewed…

  4. Understanding social engagement in autism: Being different in perceiving and sharing affordances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika eHellendoorn

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the current paper I will argue that the notion of affordances offers an alternative to theory of mind (ToM approaches in studying social engagement in general and in explaining social engagement in autism spectrum disorder (ASD specifically. Affordances are the possibilities for action offered by the environment. In contrast to ToM approaches, the concept of affordances implies the complementarity of person and environment and rejects the dualism of mind and behaviour. In line with the Gibsonian idea that a child must eventually perceive the affordances of the environment for others as well for herself in order to become socialized, I will hypothesize that individuals with ASD often do not perceive the same affordances in the environment as other people do and have difficulties perceiving others' affordances. This can lead to a disruption of interpersonal behaviours. I will further argue that the methods for studying social engagement should be adapted if we want to take interaction into account.

  5. Understanding Aggression through Attachment and Social Emotional Competence in Korean Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Sukkyung; Kim, Ann Y.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, increase in adolescent crime in the Republic of Korea has put adolescent aggression in the spotlight. This study examines whether the quality of attachment to parents and peers influences aggressive behaviors and whether social emotional competencies serve as significant mediators for middle school students. These relationships…

  6. Understanding the Consequences of Newcomer Integration Processes: The Sport Team Socialization Tactics Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Alex J; Eys, Mark

    2017-02-01

    The ways in which newcomers are integrated into sport teams may have broad consequences for the athletes entering the group, as well as for the existing team members. Drawing from organizational socialization theory, the current research developed a questionnaire to assess athletes' perceptions of how newcomers are socialized into their group. Across four studies, think-aloud interviews (N = 8), an expert panel review (N = 6), cross-sectional tests of the factor structure (N Study 2  = 197; N Study 3  = 460), and a two-wave correlational design (N Study 4  = 194) were used to evaluate the construct validity and the internal consistency of the Sport Team Socialization Tactics Questionnaire (STSTQ). Collectively, these efforts identified a three-factor structure underlying the STSTQ and provided preliminary evidence for its validity. The STSTQ enables researchers to systematically examine the individual- and group-level consequences associated with the socialization tactics implemented in sport teams.

  7. Bachelor of Social Work Students and Mental Health Stigma: Understanding Student Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellmann, Karen T.; Madden, Elissa E.; Aguiniga, Donna M.

    2014-01-01

    Bachelor-level social work students (n = 198) at a midsized Midwestern public university were surveyed to evaluate their attitudes toward those with mental health concerns. Additionally, students were surveyed regarding their willingness to seek treatment for their own mental health needs. Results of the analyses suggest that the majority of…

  8. Few Things About Idioms: Understanding Idioms and Its Users in the Twitter Online Social Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-22

    Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 20(5), 484–493 (1994) 11. Chakraborty, A., Ghosh, S., Ganguly, N.: Detecting overlapping communities in folksonomies ...in folksonomies . In: Dynamics on and of Complex Networks, vol. 2. Springer (2013) 20. Wu, S., Hofman, J.M., Mason, W.A., Watts, D.J.: Who says what

  9. The Use of Social Media and Popular Culture to Advance Cross-Cultural Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzel, Sait; Hobbs, Renee

    2017-01-01

    Although we live in a global society, educators face many challenges in finding meaningful ways to connect students to people of other cultures. This paper offers a case study of a collaboration between teachers in the US and Turkey, where 7th grade students interacted with each other via online social media as a means to promote cultural…

  10. Online Community and User-Generated Content: Understanding the Role of Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jeong Ha

    2010-01-01

    Models of user generated content (UGC) creation such as Facebook, MySpace, and YouTube are facing robust growth accelerated by the adoption of Web 2.0 technologies and standards. These business models offer a fascinating avenue for exploring the role of social influence online. This dissertation is motivated by the success of YouTube, which is…

  11. Understanding social acceptability of arsenic-safe technologies in rural Bangladesh: A user-oriented analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kundu, D.K.; Gupta, A.; Mol, A.P.J.; Nasreen, M.

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of shallow tube well drinking water by naturally occurring arsenic is a severe societal and human health challenge in Bangladesh. Multiple technological interventions seeking to ameliorate the problem face hurdles in securing social acceptance, i.e. a willingness of users to receive

  12. Understanding the influence of social interactions on individual's behavior pattern in a work environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Chih-Wei; Aztiria, Asier; Ben Allouch, Soumaya; Aghajan, Hamid; Salah, Albert Ali; Lepri, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we study social interactions in a work environment and investigate how the presence of other people changes personal behavior patterns. We design the visual processing algorithms to track multiple people in the environment and detect dyadic interactions using a discriminative

  13. Understanding the Social Exclusion and Stalled Welfare of Citizens with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redley, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    Despite the UK's recent history of promoting the social inclusion and equality of men and women with learning disabilities they remain a significantly disadvantaged group. Compared with their non-disabled peers they are more likely to be unemployed, less likely to own their own homes and are at a significantly greater risk of physical and mental…

  14. Using the Lens of Social Capital to Understand Diversity in the Earth System Sciences Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Caitlin N.; Libarkin, Julie C.; McCallum, Carmen M.; Atchison, Christopher L.

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary, we argue that social capital theory, the idea that membership in a group creates opportunities to acquire valuable information and resources from other group members, is a useful framework in which to consider ways to increase diversity in the Earth System Sciences (ESS) and in the science, technology, engineering, and…

  15. Understanding negative impacts of perceived cognitive load on job learning effectiveness: a social capital solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chieh-Peng

    2010-12-01

    This study proposes a model explaining how social capital helps ease excessively required mental effort. Although organizational researchers have studied both social capital and cognitive load, no prior research has critically examined the role of social capital in improving individuals' mental load and effort and consequently enhancing job learning effectiveness. This study surveys participants made up of professionals in Taiwan's information technology industry. It measures the constructs with the use of 5-point Likert-type scale items modified from existing literature. The survey data were analyzed with the use of structural equation modeling. Job learning effectiveness is negatively influenced by role ambiguity and role conflict. Time pressure has a positive influence on role ambiguity and role conflict Although the relationship between task complexity and role ambiguity is insignificant, task complexity has a positive influence on role conflict. Because the relationship between network ties and role conflict is insignificant, trust has a negative influence on role conflict. Last, shared vision has a negative influence on role ambiguity. This study provides an example of how social capital can be applied as a useful remedy to ease the negative impact of perceived cognitive load on job learning effectiveness. The negative relationship between shared vision and role ambiguity suggests that a shared vision helps in disseminating organizationally common goals and directions among employees to alleviate individuals' mental efforts in dealing with the ambiguity of their job roles. A firm's management team should take actions to decrease role conflict by strengthening trust among employees.

  16. Understanding Infants' and Children's Social Learning about Foods: Previous Research and New Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D.; DeJesus, Jasmine M.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental psychologists have devoted significant attention to investigating how children learn from others' actions, emotions, and testimony. Yet most of this research has examined children's socially guided learning about artifacts. The present article focuses on a domain that has received limited attention from those interested in the…

  17. Using Social Marketing Principles to Understand an Extension Audience’s Landscape Water Conservation Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A. Warner

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A substantial amount of water is applied to Florida landscapes, and encouraging water conservation through irrigation practices has been identified as a priority programming area where there is great opportunity to positively affect the state’s water resources. Florida Extension addresses this priority area through educational programming. Social marketing has been identified as a promising approach to changing behaviors that influence environmental issues, such as water-saving irrigation technologies and practices. This approach recognizes that there are barriers that prevent individuals from engaging in positive behavior changes. This study evaluated an irrigation seminar using a retrospective pretest-posttest design that incorporated elements of a social marketing intercept survey. Thirty-four attendees participated and primarily represented green industry professional and government sectors. Study objectives were to evaluate the workshop and describe the audience using social marketing principles for future program planning based on audience research. The audience rated their descriptive norms, a strong predictor of behavioral change, lower than their injunctive norms, a less robust predictor. The majority planned to adopt at least one water-conservation best management practice as a result of the workshop. We make recommendations for applying social marketing principles to Extension programming.

  18. Sex Differences in Affect Behaviors, Desired Social Responses, and Accuracy at Understanding the Social Desires of Other People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob M. Vigil

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available I recently proposed a socio-relational framework that suggests that phenotypic variation in the expression of discrete affect behaviors (e.g., expressed anger vs. sadness may reflect two basic dimensions of behavioral response. The first dimension is the motivation to selectively attract or avoid interactions with different people. The second dimension is the behavioral display of either personal capacity or trustworthiness cues, often through the expression of dominant and submissive behaviors, respectively (Vigil, in press. Sex differences in affect behaviors (e.g., externalizing vs. internalizing displays may reflect developmental sensitivities to advertise capacity and trustworthiness cues somewhat differently, due to the unique social dynamics and relational constraints under which males and females evolved. In this study, I use a series of self-report questionnaires to examine two basic assumptions of the framework. The first assumption is that sex differences in nonverbal affect behaviors (aggression vs. crying reflect the desire for, and are effective for causing other people to either avoid or comfort the individual, respectively. I hypothesized that males would report a greater likelihood of responding to various distress moods with aggressive, rather than crying behaviors, and that males would desire, and believe male peers similarly desire distancing responses from others when feeling these moods. Instead, females were hypothesized to report more crying behaviors, and to desire, and believe female peers desire more comforting responses from others. The second assumption is that people are more accurate at inferring the desired social responses (i.e., to be left alone or comforted when experiencing distress of same-sex, rather than opposite-sex peers. I hypothesized that people's beliefs of same-sex peers are more similar to the self-reported desires of the male and female participants, themselves, than their beliefs of opposite

  19. The change in perceived motor competence and motor task values during elementary school : Gender and motor performance differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordstar, J.J.; van der Net, J.; Jak, S.; Helders, P.J.M.; Jongmans, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Participation in motor activities is essential for social interaction and life satisfaction in children. Self-perceptions and task values have a central position in why children do or do not participate in (motor) activities. Investigating developmental changes in motor self-perceptions and motor

  20. Towards a differentiated understanding of active travel behaviour: using social theory to explore everyday commuting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guell, C; Panter, J; Jones, N R; Ogilvie, D

    2012-07-01

    Fostering physical activity is an established public health priority for the primary prevention of a variety of chronic diseases. One promising population approach is to seek to embed physical activity in everyday lives by promoting walking and cycling to and from work ('active commuting') as an alternative to driving. Predominantly quantitative epidemiological studies have investigated travel behaviours, their determinants and how they may be changed towards more active choices. This study aimed to depart from narrow behavioural approaches to travel and investigate the social context of commuting with qualitative social research methods. Within a social practice theory framework, we explored how people describe their commuting experiences and make commuting decisions, and how travel behaviour is embedded in and shaped by commuters' complex social worlds. Forty-nine semi-structured interviews and eighteen photo-elicitation interviews with accompanying field notes were conducted with a subset of the Commuting and Health in Cambridge study cohort, based in the UK. The findings are discussed in terms of three particularly pertinent facets of the commuting experience. Firstly, choice and decisions are shaped by the constantly changing and fluid nature of commuters' social worlds. Secondly, participants express ambiguities in relation to their reasoning, ambitions and identities as commuters. Finally, commuting needs to be understood as an embodied and emotional practice. With this in mind, we suggest that everyday decision-making in commuting requires the tactical negotiation of these complexities. This study can help to explain the limitations of more quantitative and static models and frameworks in predicting travel behaviour and identify future research directions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Learning from social media: utilizing advanced data extraction techniques to understand barriers to breast cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Rachel A; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Vaz-Luis, Ines; Keating, Nancy L

    2016-07-01

    Past examinations of breast cancer treatment barriers have typically included registry, claims-based, and smaller survey studies. We examined treatment barriers using a novel, comprehensive, social media analysis of online, candid discussions about breast cancer. Using an innovative toolset to search postings on social networks, message boards, patient communities, and topical sites, we performed a large-scale qualitative analysis. We examined the sentiments and barriers expressed about breast cancer treatments by Internet users during 1 year (2/1/14-1/31/15). We categorized posts based on thematic patterns and examined trends in discussions by race/ethnicity (white/black/Hispanic) when this information was available. We identified 1,024,041 unique posts related to breast cancer treatment. Overall, 57 % of posts expressed negative sentiments. Using machine learning software, we assigned treatment barriers for 387,238 posts (38 %). Barriers included emotional (23 % of posts), preferences and spiritual/religious beliefs (21 %), physical (18 %), resource (15 %), healthcare perceptions (9 %), treatment processes/duration (7 %), and relationships (7 %). Black and Hispanic (vs. white) users more frequently reported barriers related to healthcare perceptions, beliefs, and pre-diagnosis/diagnosis organizational challenges and fewer emotional barriers. Using a novel analysis of diverse social media users, we observed numerous breast cancer treatment barriers that differed by race/ethnicity. Social media is a powerful tool, allowing use of real-world data for qualitative research, capitalizing on the rich discussions occurring spontaneously online. Future research should focus on how to further employ and learn from this type of social intelligence research across all medical disciplines.

  2. Resilience, political ecology, and well-being: an interdisciplinary approach to understanding social-ecological change in coastal Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia F. Hoque

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The commodification of peasant livelihoods through export-oriented aquaculture has brought about significant social-ecological changes in low-lying coastal areas in many parts of Asia. A better understanding of the underlying drivers and distributional effects of these changes requires integration of social and ecological approaches that often have different epistemological origins. Resilience thinking has gained increased traction in social-ecological systems research because it provides a dynamic analysis of the cross-scalar interactions between multiple conditions and processes. However, the system-oriented perspective inherent in resilience thinking fails to acknowledge the heterogeneous values, interests, and power of social actors and their roles in navigating social-ecological change. Incorporation of political ecology and well-being perspectives can provide an actor-oriented analysis of the trade-offs associated with change and help to determine which state is desirable for whom. However, empirical demonstrations of such interdisciplinary approaches remain scarce. Here, we explore the combined application of resilience, political ecology, and well-being in investigating the root causes of social-ecological change and identifying the winners and losers of system transformation through empirical analysis of the differential changes in farming systems in two villages in coastal Bangladesh. Using the adaptive cycle as a structuring model, we examine the evolution of the shrimp aquaculture system over the past few decades, particularly looking at the power dynamics between households of different wealth classes. We found that although asymmetric land ownership and political ties enabled the wealthier households to reach their desired farming system in one village, social resilience achieved through memory, leadership, and crisis empowered poorer households to exercise their agency in another village. Material dimensions such as improved

  3. Social relevance: toward understanding the impact of the individual in an information cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Robert T.; White, Joshua S.; Fields, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    Information Cascades (IC) through a social network occur due to the decision of users to disseminate content. We define this decision process as User Diffusion (UD). IC models typically describe an information cascade by treating a user as a node within a social graph, where a node's reception of an idea is represented by some activation state. The probability of activation then becomes a function of a node's connectedness to other activated nodes as well as, potentially, the history of activation attempts. We enrich this Coarse-Grained User Diffusion (CGUD) model by applying actor type logics to the nodes of the graph. The resulting Fine-Grained User Diffusion (FGUD) model utilizes prior research in actor typing to generate a predictive model regarding the future influence a user will have on an Information Cascade. Furthermore, we introduce a measure of Information Resonance that is used to aid in predictions regarding user behavior.

  4. Using social marketing to understand the family dinner with working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinasek, Mary P; DeBate, Rita D; Walvoord, Ashley G; Melton, Stephanie T; Himmelgreen, David; Allen, Tammy D; McDermott, Robert J

    2010-01-01

    The family dinner is a valued tradition that affords opportunities for social interaction and attachment, as well as sharing events of the day, role modeling, connectedness, and problem solving. Guided by the social-marketing framework, this study explored factors associated with the frequency of the family dinner among working mothers with children ages 8-11 years. A qualitative design was used, employing focus groups and Atlas-ti software for thematic analysis. Lack of time, cost, and exhaustion/lack of energy emerged as barriers. Working mothers indicated that a youth-based organization operating as a community partner could increase the frequency of the family dinner by helping with homework completion during after-school care, thereby providing mothers with the time necessary to prepare dinner. This research identified both community partners and working mothers as valued resources for prevention strategies. Interventions developed to increase family dinner frequency should emphasize the perceived value while decreasing the costs/barriers.

  5. Can Social Cognitive Theories Help Us Understand Nurses' Use of Electronic Health Records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strudwick, Gillian; Booth, Richard; Mistry, Kartini

    2016-04-01

    Electronic health record implementations have accelerated in clinical settings around the world in an effort to improve patient safety and enhance efficiencies related to care delivery. As the largest group of healthcare professionals globally, nurses play an important role in the use of these records and ensuring their benefits are realized. Social cognitive theories such as the Theory of Reasoned Action, Theory of Planned Behaviour, and the Technology Acceptance Model have been developed to explain behavior. Given that variation in nurses' electronic health record utilization may influence the degree to which benefits are realized, the aim of this article is to explore how the use of these social cognitive theories may assist organizations implementing electronic health records to facilitate deeper-level adoption of this type of clinical technology.

  6. African American Social Networking Online: Applying a Digital Practice Approach to Understanding Digital Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Taana Smith

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a framework for systematic examination of information and communication technologies (ICTs usage differences within a group. This framework situates the digital divide and digital inequalities model within a broader conceptual model of digital practice, exemplified by how groups of people use ICTs. I use nationally representative data to examine online activities on social networking sites (SNS for African Americans and other ethnoracial groups. The data for this research comes from the Pew Internet and American Life’s “Spring Tracking Survey 2008”. The results from regression analyses support the digital practice framework which moves discussions of ICT usage beyond social and economic advantages or disadvantages, and addresses individual and group needs in using these technologies.

  7. Understanding and Implementation of Corporate Social Responsibility in the Peruvian Context

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Risco, Liliana Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    In the last decades Corporate Social Responsibility - CSR has become a form of business management which seeks to incorporate the different expectations and needs not only of companies but also of society as a whole, in such a way there may be a mutual and long term benefit. In line with this, CSR has taken greater importance in developing countries as an alternative to alleviate poverty and promote sustainable development, however the way in which it is interpreted and implemented can vary w...

  8. How do you perceive this author? Understanding and modeling authors’ communication quality in social media

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Kyungsik

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we leverage human evaluations, content analysis, and computational modeling to generate a comprehensive analysis of readers' evaluations of authors' communication quality in social media with respect to four factors: author credibility, interpersonal attraction, communication competence, and intent to interact. We review previous research on the human evaluation process and highlight its limitations in providing sufficient information for readers to assess authors' communicatio...

  9. Understanding environment-influenced swarm behavior from a social force perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J.; Lu, D.; Jiang, Y.; Lee, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Yu, J.

    2018-02-01

    The relevant research on swarm behavior has focused on the facts that when individuals agree with other members in the system globally consistent behaviors are generated and that individual decisions are completely dominated by other members. In fact, when individuals generate their own behavior strategies, they tend to consider not only the influences of other members but also autonomically consider their current environment. For example, in the social foraging of flocks, the behavior strategy of each individual animal is influenced by the food distribution, and individual movement patterns are characterized by a highly efficient search strategy-Lévy walks. To investigate this, this paper proposes using an environment-driven social force perspective to explore the Lévy walks of individuals in a group in patchy food environments. This model adopts the concept of social force to quantify the social effects and the interactions between individuals and food. The coordination between forces is a key in the formation of individual behavior strategies. Our simulation results show a power-law frequency distribution for agent flight lengths that conforms to Lévy walks and verifies the hypothesis of a relationship between food density and the Lévy index. In our model, the flock still exhibits collective consistency and cohesion and yields a high value for the order parameter and population density when moving between food patches. In addition, our model explains the intraspecific cooperation and competition that occurs during foraging as proposed in related work. The simulation also validates the impact of two inducements for individual behaviors compared with several benchmark models.

  10. USING SOCIAL MEDIA BY MICRO ENTERPRISES – CASE STUDY FOR UNDERSTANDING MOTIVATION, PRACTICE AND EXPECTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MELINDA MAJLÁTH

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines whether microenterprises can use facilities given by the internet successfully in their marketing communication or not. Tinta Publisher has been chosen as a case study, a Hungarian microenterprise specializing in publishing books on linguistics and dictionaries. The publishing company uses Facebook, Twitter and Youtube for popularizing their publications. The paper summarizes the expectations, techniques, experiences and disadvantages of using social media.

  11. Why Do You Spread This Message? Understanding Users Sentiment in Social Media Campaigns

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmud, Jalal; Gao, Huiji

    2014-01-01

    Twitter has been increasingly used for spreading messages about campaigns. Such campaigns try to gain followers through their Twitter accounts, influence the followers and spread messages through them. In this paper, we explore the relationship between followers sentiment towards the campaign topic and their rate of retweeting of messages generated by the campaign. Our analysis with followers of multiple social-media campaigns found statistical significant correlations between such sentiment ...

  12. Lexical analysis in schizophrenia: how emotion and social word use informs our understanding of clinical presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Kyle S; Bonfils, Kelsey A; Luther, Lauren; Firmin, Ruth L; Kukla, Marina; MacLain, Victoria R; Buck, Benjamin; Lysaker, Paul H; Salyers, Michelle P

    2015-05-01

    The words people use convey important information about internal states, feelings, and views of the world around them. Lexical analysis is a fast, reliable method of assessing word use that has shown promise for linking speech content, particularly in emotion and social categories, with psychopathological symptoms. However, few studies have utilized lexical analysis instruments to assess speech in schizophrenia. In this exploratory study, we investigated whether positive emotion, negative emotion, and social word use was associated with schizophrenia symptoms, metacognition, and general functioning in a schizophrenia cohort. Forty-six participants generated speech during a semi-structured interview, and word use categories were assessed using a validated lexical analysis measure. Trained research staff completed symptom, metacognition, and functioning ratings using semi-structured interviews. Word use categories significantly predicted all variables of interest, accounting for 28% of the variance in symptoms and 16% of the variance in metacognition and general functioning. Anger words, a subcategory of negative emotion, significantly predicted greater symptoms and lower functioning. Social words significantly predicted greater metacognition. These findings indicate that lexical analysis instruments have the potential to play a vital role in psychosocial assessments of schizophrenia. Future research should replicate these findings and examine the relationship between word use and additional clinical variables across the schizophrenia-spectrum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Understanding the gender gap: Social cognitive changes during an introductory stem course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Erin E; Longhurst, Melanie O

    2016-03-01

    Despite robust support for the basic theoretical model of social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) and predictions that, for example, increases (or declines) in self-efficacy would lead to subsequent increases (or declines) in interest, there has been surprisingly little longitudinal research that has directly examined the extent to which members of different groups (e.g., women and men) actually do experience changes in critical social-cognitive variables over time early in their curricula in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Knowing the extent to which such changes occur in typical introductory undergraduate courses is important for targeting interventions to increase persistence of underrepresented groups in STEM. We measured social-cognitive-career-theory-relevant variables near the middle and at the end of the 1st semester of a gateway introductory chemistry course and found that women had lower STEM self-efficacy, coping self-efficacy, and STEM interest than did men, even after controlling for actual course performance. Although there were no detrimental changes across the semester for women or men, men experienced a small but significant increase in their perceived support for pursuing a STEM degree, whereas women did not. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Understanding Medicaid Managed Care Investments in Members' Social Determinants of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Laura; Ackerman, Sara; Wing, Holly; Manchanda, Rishi

    2017-08-01

    Despite widespread interest in addressing social determinants of health (SDH) as a means to improve health and to reduce health care spending, little information is available about how to develop, sustain, and scale nonmedical interventions in diverse payer environments, including Medicaid Managed Care. This study aimed to explore how Medicaid Managed Care Organization (MMCO) leaders interpret their roles and responsibilities around SDH, how they garner resources to develop and sustain interventions to address SDH, and how they perceive the influences of external organizations on related activities. Semistructured qualitative key informant interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 26 Medicaid Managed Care corporate executives. Data were analyzed with an iterative coding, thematic development and interpretation process. MMCO leaders' interests and activities around interventions to address SDH are described, as well as their perceptions of existing and potential incentives and barriers to expanding these interventions. Despite significant experimentation and programmatic diversity of interventions addressing social determinants, MMCO leaders struggle with clinical integration, financing, and evaluation efforts that could promote sustainability. Though their efforts are nascent, MMCO leaders are investing in tackling social determinants to improve health and to decrease health care spending in managed care settings that serve low-income populations. Results highlight both opportunities and concerns about sustaining and scaling clinical interventions addressing SDH.

  15. Understanding motivation for substance use treatment: the role of social pressure during the transition to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Ilana; Peterson-Badali, Michele; Henderson, Joanna

    2011-06-01

    Research has shown that social pressure is related to treatment motivation and plays an important role in treatment engagement in adults with problematic substance use. Despite the shifts in autonomy and decision-making in emerging adulthood, the factors affecting treatment motivation (e.g., readiness to comply with treatment) during this period have been largely ignored. In this cross sectional study, 134 youth (83 males and 51 females) presenting to an outpatient substance abuse program completed questionnaires regarding substance use history, mental health, social pressure to reduce use and enter treatment, and treatment motivation. Age was positively related to identification of internal reasons for seeking treatment and negatively related to external coercive social pressures as a motivator for treatment. Peer pressure accounted for significant variance in Identified (e.g., personal choice and commitment to the program) and Introjected (e.g., guilt about continued substance use) treatment motivation. Family pressure was related only to External treatment motivation when peer pressure was considered in the regression model. These results highlight the importance of emerging adult peers as motivators of youths' treatment seeking. Limitations, directions for future research and treatment implications are discussed. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Understanding Gender Differences in Rape Victim Blaming: The Power of Social Influence and Just World Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinciotti, Caitlin M; Orcutt, Holly K

    2017-08-01

    Victims of sexual violence are frequently blamed by friends, family, or legal personnel in the aftermath of an attack, with men attributing greater blame on average than women. Victims' experiences of being blamed may generate a vicious cycle in which they are more likely to be blamed in the future. Moreover, just world beliefs (JWB) have been studied extensively as an underlying cognitive mechanism that predicts greater blame. Studies examining the influence of social support on blame have yet to examine the unique role of JWB on these attributions. The current study examined blame attribution of a fictional rape victim who received either positive, negative, or neutral support from friends and family in a sample of 383 undergraduate men and women. Individually, social support and JWB were both significant predictors of blame, and women were more influenced by social support than men; specifically, gender was a more salient predictor of blame toward the positively supported victim, suggesting that positive support received by friends and family may evoke a domino effect of support from other women. Conditional effects revealed that JWB were most influential on blame when responding to the positively supported victim. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  17. Teaching for Historical Understanding: Perspectives from a High School Social Studies Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher S.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the issue of history education and its failure to understand and implement the most effective teaching and learning strategies for the discipline. It did this by conducting interviews, observations, and a focus group with a group of history teachers in a suburban high school in New England. While aiming to explain…

  18. Addressing business from a social-ecological perspective to understand and deal with risk and resilience

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Haywood, L

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available on ecosystem services for the provision of clean water, air, productive soils and other natural resources it is imperative to understand the complex landscape in which the business operate and how global change can have a devastating economic consequences...

  19. Theory of Mind at Home: Linking Authoritative and Authoritarian Parenting Styles to Children's Social Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Jessica; Peterson, Candida C.

    2014-01-01

    Building on Vinden's pioneering research [(2001). Parenting attitudes and children's understanding of mind: A comparison of Korean American and Anglo-American families. "Cognitive Development", 16, 793-809], we examined how parents' use of authoritative versus authoritarian styles of discipline related to their children's development of…

  20. Living Memorials: Understanding the Social Meanings of Community-Based Memorials to September 11, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erika S. Svendsen; Lindsay K. Campbell

    2010-01-01

    Living memorials are landscaped spaces created by people to memorialize individuals, places, and events. Hundreds of stewardship groups across the United States of America created living memorials in response to the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks. This study sought to understand how stewards value, use, and talk about their living, community-based memorials....

  1. Watersheds in Baltimore, Maryland: understanding and application of integrated ecological and social processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward T.A. Pickett; Kenneth T. Belt; Michael F. Galvin; Peter M. Groffman; J. Morgan Grove; Donald C. Outen; Richard V. Pouyat; William P. Stack; Mary L. Cadenasso

    2007-01-01

    The Water and Watersheds program has made significant and lasting contributions to the basic understanding of the complex ecological system of Baltimore, MD. Funded at roughly the same time as the urban Long- Term Ecological Research (LTER) project in Baltimore, the Water and Watersheds grant and the LTER grant together established the Baltimore Ecosystem Study (BES)...

  2. Situating beyond the Social: Understanding the Role of Materiality in Danish Nursing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer, Ann Katrine B.

    2016-01-01

    Situated learning serves as an analytical framework for learning in a community of practice and has been widely used to understand the learning process that is entailed in becoming a nurse. Yet in this paper, the difficulties encountered with the original notion of situated learning once it is applied to contemporary Danish nursing education are…

  3. Articulating Scientific Practice: Understanding Dean Hamer's "Gay Gene" Study as Overlapping Material, Social and Rhetorical Registers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, John A.

    2009-01-01

    Rhetoricians have tried to develop a better understanding of the connection between words and things, but these attempts often employ a logic of representation that undermines a full examination of materiality and the complexity of scientific practice. A logic of articulation offers a viable alternative by focusing attention on the linkages…

  4. Understanding social disparities in hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control: the role of neighborhood context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morenoff, Jeffrey D; House, James S; Hansen, Ben B; Williams, David R; Kaplan, George A; Hunte, Haslyn E

    2007-11-01

    The spatial segregation of the US population by socioeconomic position and especially race/ethnicity suggests that the social contexts or "neighborhoods" in which people live may substantially contribute to social disparities in hypertension. The Chicago Community Adult Health Study did face-to-face interviews, including direct measurement of blood pressure, with a representative probability sample of adults in Chicago. These data were used to estimate socioeconomic and racial-ethnic disparities in the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension, and to analyze how these disparities are related to the areas in which people live. Hypertension was significantly negatively associated with neighborhood affluence/gentrification, and adjustments for context eliminated the highly significant disparity between blacks/African-Americans and whites, and reduced the significant educational disparity by 10-15% to borderline statistical significance. Awareness of hypertension was significantly higher in more disadvantaged neighborhoods and in places with higher concentrations of blacks (and lower concentrations of Hispanics and immigrants). Adjustment for context completely eliminated blacks' greater awareness, but slightly accentuated the lesser awareness of Hispanics and the greater levels of awareness among the less educated. There was no consistent evidence of either social disparities in or contextual associations with treatment of hypertension, given awareness. Among those on medication, blacks were only 40-50% as likely as whites to have their hypertension controlled, but context played little or no role in either the level of or disparities in control of hypertension. In sum, residential contexts potentially play a large role in accounting for racial/ethnic and, to a lesser degree, socioeconomic disparities in hypertension prevalence and, in a different way, awareness, but not in treatment or control of diagnosed hypertension.

  5. Understanding maternal dietary choices during pregnancy: The role of social norms and mindful eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, A D; Charters, M; Prichard, I; Fletcher, C; Wilson, C

    2017-05-01

    Serious health complications associated with excessive weight have been documented for pregnant women and their babies during pregnancy, birth and beyond. Whilst research has focused on identifying particular foods that can be either detrimental or essential for the developing baby, pregnant women's food choices are likely determined by broader considerations. This study examined social influences as represented in reports of descriptive and injunctive social norms related to healthy eating during pregnancy, and individual differences in mindfulness while eating, as important potential correlates of pregnant women's self-reported diet. Pregnant women (N = 139) completed a questionnaire that measured self-reported consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods, descriptive and injunctive norms related to healthy eating during pregnancy and the Mindful Eating Questionnaire (MEQ). Hierarchical multiple regressions were conducted to assess the extent to which norms and mindful eating accounted for variance in consumption of both foods. No significant associations were observed between perceived social norms related to diet during pregnancy and self-reported dietary behaviour. Mindful eating was found to play a role in pregnant women's eating behaviour, with the awareness subscale of the MEQ significantly associated with healthy eating and the emotional subscale associated with unhealthy eating. Age was also associated with consumption of unhealthy foods; younger pregnant women reported consuming more unhealthy snacks and fast food meals. The associations between mindful eating and dietary behaviour suggests that improving mindfulness related to food consumption before and during pregnancy may provide a strategy to address excessive gestational weight gain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Understanding interactions in virtual HIV communities: a social network analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jingyuan; Wang, Xiaohui; Peng, Tai-Quan; Chen, Liang

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated the driving mechanism of building interaction ties among the people living with HIV/AIDS in one of the largest virtual HIV communities in China using social network analysis. Specifically, we explained the probability of forming interaction ties with homophily and popularity characteristics. The exponential random graph modeling results showed that members in this community tend to form homophilous ties in terms of shared location and interests. Moreover, we found a tendency away from popularity effect. This suggests that in this community, resources and information were not disproportionally received by a few of members, which could be beneficial to the overall community.

  7. The authoritative metaphor and social change: Surgeon General C. Everett Koop's Direct Mailer, "Understanding AIDS".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Robin E; King, Abigail Selzer

    2013-01-01

    In 1988, Surgeon General C. Everett Koop published "Understanding AIDS," the nation's first and only direct mailing sent to every private home in the country. His appeals therein were driven by what we label authoritative metaphors. Communicated by and/or attributed to persons of authority, authoritative metaphors capitalize on the symbolic force of sanctioned power by appealing to the ethos of office. In "Understanding AIDS," we find that Koop drew from his positions as a surgeon and a general, respectively, to equate AIDS with an unprecedented plague and an unprecedented war. He created new authoritative metaphors out of the vestiges of familiar metaphors related to disease and public health and thereby portrayed AIDS as a recognizable but decisively unique dilemma requiring distinct preventative behaviors.

  8. Understanding problematic game behavior: prevalence and the role of social cognitive determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Haagsma, Maria Catharina

    2012-01-01

    In the last two decades, there has been growing academic attention on the phenomenon of problematic game use. Empirical research has consistently identified a subgroup of gamers in Western, industrial countries who report adverse psychosocial consequences related to their video-gaming behavior. The aim of this thesis is to get a better understanding of problematic game behavior and to contribute to the development of knowledge on this topic in several ways. First, video gaming habits and prob...

  9. Understanding factors influencing vulnerable older people keeping warm and well in winter: a qualitative study using social marketing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tod, Angela Mary; Lusambili, Adelaide; Homer, Catherine; Abbott, Joanne; Cooke, Joanne Mary; Stocks, Amanda Jayne; McDaid, Kathleen Anne

    2012-01-01

    To understand the influences and decisions of vulnerable older people in relation to keeping warm in winter. A qualitative study incorporating in-depth, semi-structured individual and group interviews, framework analysis and social marketing segmentation techniques. Rotherham, South Yorkshire, UK. 50 older people (>55) and 25 health and social care staff underwent individual interview. The older people also had household temperature measurements. 24 older people and 19 health and social care staff participated in one of the six group interviews. Multiple complex factors emerged to explain whether vulnerable older people were able to keep warm. These influences combined in various ways that meant older people were not able to or preferred not to access help or change home heating behaviour. Factors influencing behaviours and decisions relating to use of heating, spending money, accessing cheaper tariffs, accessing benefits or asking for help fell into three main categories. These were situational and contextual factors, attitudes and values, and barriers. Barriers included poor knowledge and awareness, technology, disjointed systems and the invisibility of fuel and fuel payment. Findings formed the basis of a social marketing segmentation model used to develop six pen portraits that illustrated how factors that conspire against older people being able to keep warm. The findings illustrate how and why vulnerable older people may be at risk of a cold home. The pen portraits provide an accessible vehicle and reflective tool to raise the capacity of the NHS in responding to their needs in line with the Cold Weather Plan.

  10. Understanding heterogeneity in social anxiety disorder: dependency and self-criticism moderate fear responses to interpersonal cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C; Zuroff, David C; Russell, Jennifer J; Moskowitz, D S

    2014-06-01

    This study examined how the personality traits of self-criticism and dependency moderated the effects of situational interpersonal cues on fear during interpersonal interactions among individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD). We hypothesized that self-criticism would moderate the fear-inducing effects of situational self-consciousness and that dependency would moderate the fear-inducing effects of situational emotional insecurity. Forty SAD patients (Mage = 29.23) and matched community controls (Mage = 28.93) completed event-contingent record forms after each significant social interaction of over 5 min for a 20-day period. There were 20 female patients and 20 male patients in each group. Event-level self-consciousness was more strongly associated with elevations in fear among socially anxious patients who reported higher levels of self-criticism, while event-level emotional security was more strongly associated with decreases in fear among SAD patients who reported higher levels of dependency. These interactions were not found in the community sample. Findings support the application of personality-vulnerability models to understanding fear during social interactions in patients with SAD. Results also have implications for psychotherapeutic treatments of SAD. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Understanding of social capital condition among red guava farmers in Tambahrejo Village, Pageruyung District, Kendal Regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayatri, S.; Sumarjono, D.; Satmoko, S.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the potential of social capital and growing income of red guava farmers in Tambahrejo Village, Pageruyung District, Kendal Regency. Interview and observation were used for data collection. Set of Questionnaire was developed to answer research’ goal. All member of farmer group I ACC (Kelompok Tani Makmur I ACC) were chosen as respondents in this research. Data were analyzed using multiple regressions. The result shows that there was significant relationship between social capital in community and the income of the red guava farmers. Farmer’ group was found as a media to improve farmers’ knowledge and networking. Farmers group facilitated farmers to market red guava product. Moreover, wife of the farmers established women group or KWT (Kelompok Wanita Tani). The result found that KWT contributed to improve family’s income. KWT also promote activities to help product’s diversification of red guava. Both farmer group and KWT provided activities such as saving and loans, it means there was trust among member of farmer group.

  12. Cardiac autonomic imbalance by social stress in rodents: understanding putative biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan K Wood, Phd

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to stress or traumatic events can lead to the development of depression and anxiety disorders. In addition to the debilitating consequences on mental health, patients with psychiatric disorders also suffer from autonomic imbalance, making them susceptible to a variety of medical disorders. Emerging evidence utilizing spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV, a reliable noninvasive measure of cardiovascular autonomic regulation, indicates that patients with depression and various anxiety disorders (i.e., panic, social, generalized anxiety disorders, and post traumatic stress disorder are characterized by decreased HRV. Social stressors in rodents are ethologically relevant experimental stressors that recapitulate many of the dysfunctional behavioral and physiological changes that occur in psychological disorders. In this review, evidence from clinical studies and preclinical stress models identify putative biomarkers capable of precipitating the comorbidity between disorders of the mind and autonomic dysfunction. Specifically, the role of corticotropin releasing factor, neuropeptide Y and inflammation are investigated. The impetus for this review is to highlight stress-related biomarkers that may prove critical in the development of autonomic imbalance in stress -related psychiatric disorders.

  13. Frameworks for Understanding the Nature of Interactions, Networking, and Community in a Social Networking Site for Academic Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grainne Conole

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new social networking site, Cloudworks, which has been developed to enable discussion and sharing of learning and teaching ideas/designs and to promote reflective academic practice. The site aims to foster new forms of social and participatory practices (peer critiquing, sharing, user-generated content, aggregation, and personalisation within an educational context. One of the key challenges in the development of the site has been to understand the user interactions and the changing patterns of user behaviour as it evolves. The paper explores the extent to which four frameworks that have been used in researching networked learning contexts can provide insights into the patterns of user behaviour that we see in Cloudworks. The paper considers this within the current debate about the new types of interactions, networking, and community being observed as users adapt to and appropriate new technologies.

  14. Dyslexia and psycho-social functioning: an exploratory study of the role of self-esteem and understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terras, Melody M; Thompson, Lucy C; Minnis, Helen

    2009-11-01

    Individuals with dyslexia may have lower self-esteem and exhibit more emotional and behavioural difficulties than those without reading problems. However, the nature of any relationship between self-esteem and psychopathology remains unknown. This exploratory study assessed levels of self-esteem using the Self-Perception Profile for Children (Manual for the Self-Perception Profile for Children. University of Denver, CO: Denver; 1985) and psycho-social adjustment using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry, 1997; 38: 581-586) and examined child and parent understanding, attitudes and the perceived impact of reading difficulties on daily life. Sixty-eight children assessed as dyslexic on the basis of discrepancy scores (mean age 11.2 years; 44 male), and their parents, participated. No global self-esteem deficit was found, but the mean score for both child and parent-rated scholastic competence was significantly lower than that of the general population. Rates of social, emotional and behavioural difficulties were significantly higher than in the general population and were correlated with self-esteem. For children who had high global self-worth, both children and their parents had more positive attitudes towards their reading difficulties and were less likely to perceive a negative impact on relationships. The association between academic self-esteem and emotional symptoms is consistent with the proposed link between dyslexia and internalizing difficulties. Good self-esteem and a good understanding of dyslexia may help children avoid some of these difficulties. Further research with larger more representative samples is necessary as understanding the factors that promote successful psycho-social adjustment is essential to the development of effective prevention and intervention strategies.

  15. Healthy meals at worksite canteens - Social shaping as a framework for understanding sustainable interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Anne Vibeke

    The challenge of public health nutrition in relation to worksite settings is to improve access to healthier meal options – especially for the groups with a lower educational level. Strategies changing the dietary environment such as increasing the availability of healthy food and reducing barriers...... by the involved local actors' ideas of health and nutrition and also by their concepts of how these ideas interrelate with the worksite’s working conditions and working performance. A combination of a social shaping approach and a worksite policy process approach to the shaping and embedding of healthy worksite...... a crucial role. The results of this thesis point to the need for a more widespread implementation of strategies that promote healthier eating at worksite canteens. The results indicate that a worksite intervention needs to be tailored to the needs of the particular worksite environment in which...

  16. Suicidal Disclosures among Friends: Using Social Network Data to Understand Suicide Contagion*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Anna S.; Abrutyn, Seth

    2015-01-01

    A robust literature suggests that suicide is socially contagious; however, we know little about how and why suicide spreads. Using network data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, we examine the effects of alter’s (1) disclosed and (2) undisclosed suicide attempts, (3) suicide ideation and (4) emotional distress on ego’s mental health one year later to gain insights into the emotional and cultural mechanisms that underlie suicide contagion. We find that when egos know about alter’s suicide attempt, they report significantly higher levels of emotional distress and are more likely to report suicidality, net of extensive controls; however, alter’s undisclosed suicide attempts and ideation have no significant effect on ego’s mental health. Finally, we find evidence that emotional distress is contagious in adolescence, though it does not seem to promote suicidality. We discuss the implications of our findings for suicide contagion specifically and sociology more generally. PMID:25722129

  17. Preschool children's social understanding: a pilot study of goals and strategies during conflict situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazura, Kerry; Flanders, Rachel

    2007-10-01

    This pilot study tested a new enactive measure of social information-processing skills and investigated whether preschool children's goals were related to their strategies during hypothetical conflict situations. Children (13 boys, 12 girls) ages 3 to 6 years (three 3-yr.-olds, three 4-yr.-olds, 11 5-yr.-olds, and eight 6-yr.-olds) engaged in a puppet interview of six hypothetical situations. Significant correlations were found between goals and strategies of the adapted version of Chung and Asher's Children's Conflict Resolution Measure, suggesting that preschool children who endorsed friendship goals tended to select more prosocial strategies (.41). Children who endorsed more retaliation goals tended to select more hostile strategies (.67) but fewer prosocial strategies (-.41), and children who endorsed more avoidance goals tended to select more adult-seeking strategies (.45).

  18. Social meanings and understandings in patient-nurse interaction in the community practice setting: a grounded theory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoddart Kathleen M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The patient-nurse relationship is a traditional concern of healthcare research. However, patient-nurse interaction is under examined from a social perspective. Current research focuses mostly on specific contexts of care delivery and experience related to medical condition or illness, or to nurses’ speciality. Consequentially, this paper is about the social meanings and understandings at play within situated patient-nurse interaction in the community practice setting in a transforming healthcare service. Methods Grounded theory methodology was used and the research process was characterised by principles of theoretical sensitivity and constant comparative analysis. The field of study was four health centres in the community. The participants were patients and nurses representative of those attending or working in the health centres and meeting there by scheduled appointment. Data collection methods were observations, informal interviews and semi-structured interviews. Results Key properties of ‘Being a good patient, being a good nurse’, ‘Institutional experiences’ and ‘Expectations about healthcare’ were associated with the construction of a category entitled ‘Experience’. Those key properties captured that in an evolving healthcare environment individuals continually re-constructed their reality of being a patient or nurse as they endeavoured to perform appropriately; articulation of past and present healthcare experiences was important in that process. Modus operandi in role as patient was influenced by past experiences in healthcare and by those in non-healthcare institutions in terms of engagement and involvement (or not in interaction. Patients’ expectations about interaction in healthcare included some uncertainly as they strived to make sense of the changing roles and expertise of nurses and, differentiating between the roles and expertise of nurses and doctors. Conclusions The importance of social

  19. Psychological and social adjustment to blindness: understanding from two groups of blind people in Ilorin, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunde-Ayinmode, Mosunmola F; Akande, Tanimola M; Ademola-Popoola, Dupe S

    2011-01-01

    Blindness can cause psychosocial distress leading to maladjustment if not mitigated. Maladjustment is a secondary burden that further reduces quality of life of the blind. Adjustment is often personalized and depends on nature and quality of prevailing psychosocial support and rehabilitation opportunities. This study was aimed at identifying the pattern of psychosocial adjustment in a group of relatively secluded and under-reached totally blind people in Ilorin, thus sensitizing eye doctors to psychosocial morbidity and care in the blind. A cross-sectional descriptive study using 20-item Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and a pro forma designed by the authors to assess the psychosocial problems and risk factors in some blind people in Ilorin metropolis. The study revealed that most of the blind people were reasonably adjusted in key areas of social interaction, marriage, and family. Majority were considered to be poorly adjusted in the areas of education, vocational training, employment, and mobility. Many were also considered to be psychologically maladjusted based on the high rate of probable psychological disorder of 51%, as determined by SRQ. Factors identified as risk factors of probable psychological disorder were poor educational background and the presence of another medical disorder. Most of the blind had no access to formal education or rehabilitation system, which may have contributed to their maladjustment in the domains identified. Although their prevailing psychosocial situation would have been better prevented yet, real opportunity still exists to help this group of people in the area of social and physical rehabilitation, meeting medical needs, preventive psychiatry, preventive ophthalmology, and community health. This will require the joint efforts of medical community, government and nongovernment organizations to provide the framework for delivery of these services directly to the communities.

  20. Understanding the experience of being taught by peers: the value of social and cognitive congruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockspeiser, Tai M; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Teherani, Arianne; Muller, Jessica

    2008-08-01

    Medical schools use supplemental peer-teaching programs even though there is little research on students' actual experiences with this form of instruction. To understand the student experience of being taught by peers instead of by faculty. We conducted focus groups with first- and second-year medical students participating in a supplemental peer-teaching program at one institution. From the learner focus group themes, we developed a questionnaire and surveyed all first-year students. Focus groups revealed four learner themes: learning from near-peers, exposure to second-year students, need for review and synthesis, teaching modalities and for the peer-teachers, the theme of benefits for the teacher. Factor analysis of the survey responses resulted in three factors: second-year students as teachers, the benefit of peer-teachers instead of faculty, and the peer-teaching process. Scores on these factors correlated with attendance in the peer-teaching program (P learning from near-peers because of their recent experience with the materials and their ability to understand the students' struggles in medical school. Students with the highest participation in the program valued the unique aspects of this kind of teaching most. Areas for improvement for this program were identified.

  1. An ecological public health approach to understanding the relationships between sustainable urban environments, public health and social equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Michael

    2014-09-01

    The environmental determinants of public health and social equity present many challenges to a sustainable urbanism-climate change, water shortages and oil dependency to name a few. There are many pathways from urban environments to human health. Numerous links have been described but some underlying mechanisms behind these relationships are less understood. Combining theory and methods is a way of understanding and explaining how the underlying structures of urban environments relate to public health and social equity. This paper proposes a model for an ecological public health, which can be used to explore these relationships. Four principles of an ecological public health-conviviality, equity, sustainability and global responsibility-are used to derive theoretical concepts that can inform ecological public health thinking, which, among other things, provides a way of exploring the underlying mechanisms that link urban environments to public health and social equity. Theories of more-than-human agency inform ways of living together (conviviality) in urban areas. Political ecology links the equity concerns about environmental and social justice. Resilience thinking offers a better way of coming to grips with sustainability. Integrating ecological ethics into public health considers the global consequences of local urban living and thus attends to global responsibility. This way of looking at the relationships between urban environments, public health and social equity answers the call to craft an ecological public health for the twenty-first century by re-imagining public health in a way that acknowledges humans as part of the ecosystem, not separate from it, though not central to it. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Using realist synthesis to understand the mechanisms of interprofessional teamwork in health and social care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Gillian; Sims, Sarah; Harris, Ruth

    2014-11-01

    Realist synthesis offers a novel and innovative way to interrogate the large literature on interprofessional teamwork in health and social care teams. This article introduces realist synthesis and its approach to identifying and testing the underpinning processes (or "mechanisms") that make an intervention work, the contexts that trigger those mechanisms and their subsequent outcomes. A realist synthesis of the evidence on interprofessional teamwork is described. Thirteen mechanisms were identified in the synthesis and findings for one mechanism, called "Support and value" are presented in this paper. The evidence for the other twelve mechanisms ("collaboration and coordination", "pooling of resources", "individual learning", "role blurring", "efficient, open and equitable communication", "tactical communication", "shared responsibility and influence", "team behavioural norms", "shared responsibility and influence", "critically reviewing performance and decisions", "generating and implementing new ideas" and "leadership") are reported in a further three papers in this series. The "support and value" mechanism referred to the ways in which team members supported one another, respected other's skills and abilities and valued each other's contributions. "Support and value" was present in some, but far from all, teams and a number of contexts that explained this variation were identified. The article concludes with a discussion of the challenges and benefits of undertaking this realist synthesis.

  3. Understanding the social and community support networks of American Indian women cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnette, Catherine E; Liddell, Jessica; Roh, Soonhee; Lee, Yeon-Shim; Lee, Hee Yun

    2018-04-02

    Cancer is the leading cause of death among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) women, and although cancer disparities among AI women are alarming, there is little research focused on the topic of social support and cancer treatment and outcomes. A community advisory board was used to develop and administer the project, and a qualitative descriptive study methodology was used. This research was conducted in partnership with two community-based hospitals in the Northern Plains. The sample included 43 AI female cancer survivors who were interviewed with a semi-structured interview guide. The data were analyzed using content analysis. Emergent themes revealed that AI cancer survivors' non-familial support systems included friends (n = 12), support groups (n = 6), churches (n = 10), co-workers (n = 5), communities (n = 4), support from health practitioners (n = 3) and additional forms of support. Results indicate that survivors' networks are diverse, and support broad prevention programs that reach out to churches, community groups, and online forums. These sources of supports can be enhanced through sustainable community-based infrastructures.

  4. Understanding the physical and social contexts of children's nonschool sedentary behavior: an ecological momentary assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yue; Intille, Stephen; Wolch, Jennifer; Pentz, Mary Ann; Dunton, Genevieve Fridlund

    2014-03-01

    Research on children's sedentary behavior has relied on recall-based self-report or accelerometer methods, which do not assess the context of such behavior. This study used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to determine where and with whom children's sedentary behavior occurs during their nonschool time. Children (N = 120) ages 9-13 years (51% male, 33% Hispanic) wore mobile phones that prompted surveys (20 total) for 4 days. Surveys measured current activity (eg, exercise, watching TV), physical location (eg, home, outdoors), and social company (eg, family, friends). Children engaged in a greater percentage of leisure-oriented (eg, watching TV) than productive (eg, reading, doing homework) sedentary behavior (70% vs 30%, respectively). Most of children's sedentary activity occurred at home (85%). Children's sedentary activity took place most often with family members (58%). Differences in physical context of sedentary behavior were found for older vs. younger children (P Research demonstrates the potential for using EMA to capture real-time information about children's sedentary behavior during their nonschool time.

  5. Using Social Network Analysis to Better Understand Compulsive Exercise Behavior Among a Sample of Sorority Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Megan S; Goodson, Patricia

    2017-05-01

    Compulsive exercise, a form of unhealthy exercise often associated with prioritizing exercise and feeling guilty when exercise is missed, is a common precursor to and symptom of eating disorders. College-aged women are at high risk of exercising compulsively compared with other groups. Social network analysis (SNA) is a theoretical perspective and methodology allowing researchers to observe the effects of relational dynamics on the behaviors of people. SNA was used to assess the relationship between compulsive exercise and body dissatisfaction, physical activity, and network variables. Descriptive statistics were conducted using SPSS, and quadratic assignment procedure (QAP) analyses were conducted using UCINET. QAP regression analysis revealed a statistically significant model (R 2 = .375, P exercise behavior. Physical activity, body dissatisfaction, and network variables were statistically significant predictor variables in the QAP regression model. In our sample, women who are connected to "important" or "powerful" people in their network are likely to have higher compulsive exercise scores. This result provides healthcare practitioners key target points for intervention within similar groups of women. For scholars researching eating disorders and associated behaviors, this study supports looking into group dynamics and network structure in conjunction with body dissatisfaction and exercise frequency.

  6. Williams syndrome deletions and duplications: Genetic windows to understanding anxiety, sociality, autism, and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Bernard J; Procyshyn, Tanya L

    2017-08-01

    We describe and evaluate an integrative hypothesis for helping to explain the major neurocognitive features of individuals with Williams syndrome region deletions and duplications. First, we demonstrate how the cognitive differences between Williams syndrome individuals, individuals with duplications of this region, and healthy individuals parallel the differences between individuals subject to effects of increased or decreased oxytocin. Second, we synthesize evidence showing that variation in expression of the gene GTF2I (General Transcription Factor II-I) underlies the primary social phenotypes of Williams syndrome and that common genetic variation in GTF2I mediates oxytocin reactivity, and its correlates, in healthy populations. Third, we describe findings relevant to the hypothesis that the GTF2I gene is subject to parent of origin effects whose behavioral expression fits with predictions from the kinship theory of genomic imprinting. Fourth, we describe how Williams syndrome can be considered, in part, as an autistic syndrome of Lorna Wing's 'active-but-odd' autism subtype, in contrast to associations of duplications with both schizophrenia and autism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Social jetlag, academic achievement and cognitive performance: Understanding gender/sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Morales, Juan F; Escribano, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents in high school suffer from circadian misalignment, undersleeping on weekdays and oversleeping on weekends. Since high schools usually impose early schedules, adolescents suffer from permanent social jetlag (SJL) and thus are a suitable population to study the effects of SJL on both academic and cognitive performance. In this study, 796 adolescents aged 12-16 years reported information about their sleep habits, morningness-eveningness (M-E), cognitive abilities and grade point average (GPA). Time in bed on both weekdays and weekends was not related to cognitive abilities, and only time in bed on weekdays was related to academic achievement. SJL was negatively related to academic achievement, cognitive abilities (except for vocabulary and verbal fluency abilities) and general cognitive ability (g), whereas M-E was slightly positively related to academic achievement and marginally negatively related to inductive reasoning. Results separated by sex/gender indicated that SJL may be more detrimental to girls' performance, as it was negatively related to a greater number of cognitive abilities and GPA.

  8. Behavioural phenotypes of the mucopolysaccharide disorders: a systematic literature review of cognitive, motor, social, linguistic and behavioural presentation in the MPS disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, E M; Hare, D J

    2013-03-01

    The mucopolysaccharide disorders (MPS) are a group of recessively inherited metabolic disorders resulting in progressive physical and cognitive decline. MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Embase databases were searched, alongside manual screening, to identify relevant literature. Papers were included in the review if they were published in a peer reviewed journal and conducted empirical research into cognitive, motor, social or linguistic development or behaviour in one or more MPS disorders. Twenty-five papers were reviewed. Two papers used methodology of a sufficiently high standard to demonstrate a behavioural phenotype; both found sleep disturbance to be part of the phenotype of MPS III. Fearfulness and sleep disturbance were frequently observed in people with MPS I and II. Cognitive and motor impairment and decline, and challenging behaviour were highly prevalent in the severe form of MPS II. Cognitive decline and severe behavioural problems relating to aggression, hyperactivity, orality, unusual affect and temper tantrums were seen in MPS III. Sleep disturbance is part of the behavioural phenotype of MPS III, and challenging behaviour is highly prevalent in MPS II and MPS III, therefore the efficacy of behavioural interventions for these populations should be investigated. Further research into the behaviour and adaptive skills of children with MPS III and MPS IV is required.

  9. Diversity as valued and troubled: social identities and demographic categories in understandings of rapid urban growth in Vanuatu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the simultaneous mainstreaming and diversification of ni-Vanuatu social categories associated with the ways in which population growth is understood as a possible crisis in both demographic knowledge and everyday ni-Vanuatu knowledge. The author is interested in understanding the downplaying but primarily the amplification of difference with respect to place, generation and gender identities. The relationship between reproduction, social reproduction and the multiple meanings of modernity is at issue. In the expert knowledge of demography that proffers advice for the ni-Vanuatu state, it is the lack of modern development - in the form of adequate biomedical birth control, western education, and the equality of women - that is the implicit cause of population growth. Yet, many ni-Vanuatu see population growth as tied to the troubles that arise from the dilution of traditional social forms: there is too much modernity. In both demographic and ni-Vanuatu everyday narrations of the potential population crisis, diversification and mainstreaming take place and vulnerabilities are produced.

  10. Understanding High Incidence of Severe Obesity and Very Low Food Security in Food Pantry Clients: Implications For Social Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Michelle L; Cafer, Anne

    2018-01-01

    The United States is facing two interconnected social and public health crises of severe obesity and food insecurity within the social-ecological environment. Marginalized groups experience the highest rates and the greatest impacts in terms of morbidity, mortality, and financial burdens. Consequences include experiencing multimorbidities, mental health issues, and decreased quality of life. Food pantries have served as spaces to obtain food to meet household needs, but for some, food pantries have become long-term solutions. We surveyed 2,634 people who accessed pantries in 2005, 2010, and 2013 across 32 counties in a Midwest state. The authors sought to understand to what extent does length of time using a food pantry, food security status, income sources, use of federal food benefits, visiting a doctor, and demographic variables increase odds of severe obesity. More than 14% were severely obese; those who were long-term food pantry users and very low food secure were 1.732 times more likely to be severely obese. Receiving Disability/Supplemental Security Income, seeing a doctor in the last year, being female, and older age reduced the odds of severe obesity. Discussion includes implications for social workers who interact with groups likely to experience very low food security and severe obesity at different systems levels.

  11. Health care and social media: What patients really understand [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Hoedebecke

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low health literacy is associated with decreased patient compliance and worse outcomes - with clinicians increasingly relying on printed materials to lower such risks. Yet, many of these documents exceed recommended comprehension levels. Furthermore, patients look increasingly to social media (SoMe to answer healthcare questions. The character limits built into Twitter encourage users to publish small quantities of text, which are more accessible to patients with low health literacy. The present authors hypothesize that SoMe posts are written at lower grade levels than traditional medical sources, improving patient health literacy. Methods: The data sample consisted of the first 100 original tweets from three trending medical hashtags, leading to a total of 300 tweets. The Flesch-Kincaid Readability Formula (FKRF was used to derive grade level of the tweets. Data was analyzed via descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The readability scores for the data sample had a mean grade level of 9.45. A notable 47.6% of tweets were above ninth grade reading level. An independent-sample t-test comparing FKRF mean scores of different hashtags found differences between the means of the following: #hearthealth versus #diabetes (t = 3.15, p = 0.002; #hearthealth versus #migraine (t = 0.09, p = 0.9; and #diabetes versus #migraine (t = 3.4, p = 0.001. Conclusions: Tweets from this data sample were written at a mean grade level of 9.45, signifying a level between the ninth and tenth grades. This is higher than desired, yet still better than traditional sources, which have been previously analyzed. Ultimately, those responsible for health care SoMe posts must continue to improve efforts to reach the recommended reading level (between the sixth and eighth grade, so as to ensure optimal comprehension of patients.

  12. Understanding the role of violence as a social determinant of preterm birth.

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    Masho, Saba W; Cha, Susan; Chapman, Derek A; Chelmow, David

    2017-02-01

    Preterm birth is one of the leading causes of infant morbidity and mortality. Although major strides have been made in identifying risk factors for preterm birth, the complexities between social and individual risk factors are not well understood. This study examines the association between neighborhood youth violence and preterm birth. A 10-year live birth registry data set (2004 through 2013) from Richmond, VA, a mid-sized, racially diverse city, was analyzed (N = 27,519). Data were geocoded and merged with census tract and police report data. Gestational age at birth was classified as rates were calculated for each census tract area and categorized into quartiles. Hierarchical models were examined fitting multilevel logistic regression models incorporating randomly distributed census tract-specific intercepts assuming a binary distribution and a logit link function. Nearly a fifth of all births occurred in areas with the highest quartiles of violence. After adjusting for maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, paternal presence, parity, adequacy of prenatal care, pregnancy complications, history of preterm birth, insurance, and tobacco, alcohol, and drug use, census tracts with the highest level of violence had 38% higher odds of very preterm births (adjusted odds ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.80), than census tracts with the lowest level of violence. There is an association between high rate of youth violence and very preterm birth. Findings from this study may help inform future research to develop targeted interventions aimed at reducing community violence and very preterm birth in vulnerable populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Fool’s Gold: Understanding Social, Economic and Environmental Impacts from Gold Mining in Quang Nam Province, Vietnam

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    Nhi Nguyen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Extractive industries are often claimed to contribute to both poverty reduction and economic growth. Yet, there is also a body of research that suggests natural resource dependence can result in limited development, environmental degradation and social upheaval. This paper examines differences in the socioeconomic and environmental state of mining and non-mining communities in rural Vietnam in order to understand the extent to which mining contributes to livelihood development and socioeconomic well-being. In particular, we examine the role that “corporate social responsibility” (CSR plays in supporting community development in Phuoc Son and Phu Ninh districts, Quang Nam province. Content analysis of newspapers, government documents and mining company reports provided a contextual overview of mining operations and community relations in each study area. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect information from local and regional stakeholders to further understand perceived impacts of mining operations on local communities. Our study finds that in comparison to non-mining communities, communities with active mines demonstrated increased job development, decreased poverty rates, enhanced infrastructure and social development along with increased incidences of CSR initiatives. However, a number of adverse effects from mining activities were reported including environmental degradation (e.g., deforestation, water pollution, etc. increased criminal activity and drug addiction. Dependence on mine-related employment in local communities becomes acutely apparent when temporary mine closures result in widespread unemployment. Local governments may be the greatest beneficiaries of mining with increased tax revenues and enhanced management potential of leased land. Non-mining communities without direct benefits from mining activities maintained economic diversity and were therefore more resilient to economic shocks such as nearby mine closures.

  14. Understanding Group/Party Affiliation Using Social Networks and Agent-Based Modeling

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    Campbell, Kenyth

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics of group affiliation and group dispersion is a concept that is most often studied in order for political candidates to better understand the most efficient way to conduct their campaigns. While political campaigning in the United States is a very hot topic that most politicians analyze and study, the concept of group/party affiliation presents its own area of study that producers very interesting results. One tool for examining party affiliation on a large scale is agent-based modeling (ABM), a paradigm in the modeling and simulation (M&S) field perfectly suited for aggregating individual behaviors to observe large swaths of a population. For this study agent based modeling was used in order to look at a community of agents and determine what factors can affect the group/party affiliation patterns that are present. In the agent-based model that was used for this experiment many factors were present but two main factors were used to determine the results. The results of this study show that it is possible to use agent-based modeling to explore group/party affiliation and construct a model that can mimic real world events. More importantly, the model in the study allows for the results found in a smaller community to be translated into larger experiments to determine if the results will remain present on a much larger scale.

  15. Cultural constructions of "obesity": understanding body size, social class and gender in Morocco.

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    Batnitzky, Adina K

    2011-01-01

    This article presents data from an in-depth qualitative study of overweight and diabetic women in Morocco, a North African country experiencing a rapid increase in obesity according to national statistics. This case study explores the heterogeneous relationship among health, culture and religion in Morocco by highlighting the relationship between the intricacies of women's everyday lives and their body sizes. My findings suggest that although the Body Mass Index (BMI) of adult women has been documented to have increased in Morocco along with other macroeconomic changes (i.e., increases in urbanization, etc.), "obesity" has yet to be universally medicalized in the Moroccan context. As such women do not generally utilize a medicalized concept of obesity in reference to their larger body sizes. Rather, cultural constructions of "obesity" are understood through cultural understandings of a larger body size, religious beliefs about health and illness, and the nature of women's religious participation. This stands in contrast to dominant accounts about the region that promote an overall veneration of a larger body size for women. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Striving for social justice: understanding gender issues at the workplace in India

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    Suparna Jain

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Patriarchy dominates not only the mind-set and behavioural patterns of both males and females in India in general but also has a far-reaching impact on work culture as well as quality of work life. Indians not only suffer the archaic gender patterns but also are burdened with a unique system of caste that discriminates people based on their birth in a particular section of society. The government has made an effort to eradicate the adverse impacts of the caste system by making a unique reservation policy (a form of affirmative action in work and education that tries to promote social justice. Participants and procedure The present research study was conducted to assess the perception of public-sector employees of the diversity climate of their organizations (in terms of the diversity created by the affirmative action and the psychological impact of this perception. Three hundred participants (all employed in public-sector organizations were categorized into four groups, namely General Category Men, Reserved Category Men, General Category Women and Reserved Category Women. Participants in the reserved category were those who had directly benefitted from the affirmative action. All the participants were given questionnaires to assess perceived diversity climate, work-family conflict and alienation from work. Thirty percent of the participants were interviewed with semi-structured open-ended questions. Quantitative data were analysed using both descriptive and inferential (ANOVA statistics. Results The study’s findings revealed that women in the two categories hold contrasting perceptions of their organisations’ diversity climates. While among the four categories General Category Women hold the worst perception, Reserved Category Women hold the best. The former suffer from severe psychological consequences. Qualitative analysis via thematic analysis of individual interviews revealed themes that explain the findings of the study

  17. Applying social network analysis to understand the knowledge sharing behaviour of practitioners in a clinical online discussion forum.

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    Stewart, Samuel Alan; Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

    2012-12-04

    Knowledge Translation (KT) plays a vital role in the modern health care community, facilitating the incorporation of new evidence into practice. Web 2.0 tools provide a useful mechanism for establishing an online KT environment in which health practitioners share their practice-related knowledge and experiences with an online community of practice. We have implemented a Web 2.0 based KT environment--an online discussion forum--for pediatric pain practitioners across seven different hospitals in Thailand. The online discussion forum enabled the pediatric pain practitioners to share and translate their experiential knowledge to help improve the management of pediatric pain in hospitals. The goal of this research is to investigate the knowledge sharing dynamics of a community of practice through an online discussion forum. We evaluated the communication patterns of the community members using statistical and social network analysis methods in order to better understand how the online community engages to share experiential knowledge. Statistical analyses and visualizations provide a broad overview of the communication patterns within the discussion forum. Social network analysis provides the tools to delve deeper into the social network, identifying the most active members of the community, reporting the overall health of the social network, isolating the potential core members of the social network, and exploring the inter-group relationships that exist across institutions and professions. The statistical analyses revealed a network dominated by a single institution and a single profession, and found a varied relationship between reading and posting content to the discussion forum. The social network analysis discovered a healthy network with strong communication patterns, while identifying which users are at the center of the community in terms of facilitating communication. The group-level analysis suggests that there is strong interprofessional and interregional

  18. Understanding Social Conflicts Between Forestry and Nature Protection Sectors: Case Study Velebit Mountain

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    Konrad Kiš

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The last couple of decades brought significant changes in forest and nature protection policy worldwide. Rising environmental awareness, over-utilization of scarce natural resources and global climate change set high goals for the forest and nature protection policy makers. This paper is about a case study of relations among various stakeholders on Velebit Mountain, a coast-by mountain in Central Croatia. Velebit Mountain is both: a nature protection area and a forest exploitation site, which raises various conflicts between these two sectors and major stakeholders. Purpose of this research was to investigate the relations among various interest groups and coalition parties, their opinions, aspirations and interests and, especially, the way to resolve issues or manage conflicts. Material and Methods: This case-study research was conducted in form of interviews held with the representatives of each of the defined stakeholder groups within the target area, i.e. Velebit Mountain Nature Park. Interviews consisted of several groups of questions (introductory part, conflicts, conflict management and policy development, while stakeholder groups included "Croatian Forests ltd.", a state-owned company in charge of the management of state forests, Nature Park Velebit, National Park Paklenica, National Park "Northern Velebit", hunters' associations, private forest owners, fishermen associations, representatives of the local administration and mountaineers' associations. The questionnaire consisted of open-ended questions regarding various issues divided into these four groups. The data was analyzed by using the NVivo qualitative data analysis software. Theoretical framework used in this research was Walker and Daniels' Social Conflict Theory (1997, p.13 which describes types of conflicts, ways to address them and typical sources of occurring conflicts. Results and Conclusion: The results showed which the most salient conflict

  19. Understanding the Use and Impact of Social Media Features on the Educational Experiences of Higher-Education Students in Blended and Distance-Learning Environments

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    Scialdone, Michael John

    2014-01-01

    Students are increasingly expecting social media to be a component of their educational experiences both outside and inside of the classroom. The phenomenon of interest in this dissertation is understanding how the educational experiences of students are affected when social media are incorporated into online and blended course activities.…

  20. [Children and motor competence].

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    Sigmundsson, H; Haga, M

    2000-10-20

    Recently, the topic of motor competence has figured prominently in the media. The claims made are many, but the research that support the statements is seldom cited. The aim of this review article is to address that deficiency by documenting what is really known about the motor competence of children. Motor competence not only allows children to carry out everyday practical tasks, but it is also an important determinant of their level of self-esteem and of their popularity and status in their peer group. While many studies have shown a significant correlation between motor problems and other problems in the social sphere, it has been difficult to establish causal relationships with any degree of confidence, as there appear to be several interactions which need to be taken into account. Research has shown that 6-10% of Norwegian children in the 7 to 10 year age group have a motor competence well below the norm. It is unusual for motor problems to simply disappear over time. In the absence of intervention the syndrome is likely to continue to manifest itself. More recent research points to some of the circularity in this causal network, children with motor problems having been shown to be less physically active than their peers. In a larger health perspective this in itself can have very serious consequences for the child.