... in adulthood. 1 Perpetrating bullying in early middle school is associated with sexual harassment perpetration in adolescence. 5 How can we stop sexual violence before it starts? CDC developed a technical package to help ... family, school, community, and societal factors that influence risk and ...
The paper attempts to understand narratives of sexual violence anchored within the dynamics of social location of caste and gender. Apparent caste-patriarchy and gender hierarchies which are at play in cases of sexual violence against lower-caste and dalit women speak about differential experiences of rape and sexual abuse that women have in India. The paper endeavours to establish that sexual violence is also a form of caste violence by rereading the unfortunate cases of Bhanwari Devi, Khair...
Full Text Available The paper attempts to understand narratives of sexual violence anchored within the dynamics of social location of caste and gender. Apparent caste-patriarchy and gender hierarchies which are at play in cases of sexual violence against lower-caste and dalit women speak about differential experiences of rape and sexual abuse that women have in India. The paper endeavours to establish that sexual violence is also a form of caste violence by rereading the unfortunate cases of Bhanwari Devi, Khairlanji, Lalasa Devi and Delta Meghwal Keywords: caste-patriarchy, Dalit women, POA Act, rape, sexual violence
International agreements recognizing different forms of violence as violations of human rights and the definition provided by the 1993 UN Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women are taken as a starting point and its implications analyzed, emphasizing gender roles and stereotypes. Violence against women is related to violence in general, to the so-called culture of violence. Factors influencing a culture of violence are discussed, as well as the differences between public and private violence, emphasizing the need to understand their interaction to be effective in preventing violence against women. It is concluded that all violence stems from unbalanced exercise of power, creating injustice and lack of real democratic interaction. When left unchallenged such situations become part of the culture of individuals and societies, reinforcing the use of violence to solve conflicts. Hence, preventing violence against women requires cultural, social, economic, and political changes that are only possible by mobilizing society as a whole.
... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Sexual Violence Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir April ... stop sexual violence before it begins. Understanding Sexual Violence Sexual violence is any sexual activity where consent ...
Sexual violence in conflict is high on the agenda of the international humanitarian community. Despite commendable advances in both policy and practice, there continues to be a gap between what is recommended, and the reality on the ground. This paper argues that notwithstanding the profound
Understanding Teen Dating Violence Fact Sheet 2014 Dating violence is a type of intimate partner violence. It occurs between two people in a close relationship. The nature of dating violence can be physical, emotional, or sexual. • Physical— This ...
Sexual Violence Facts at a Glance 2012 Adults In a nationally representative survey of adults: 1 • Nearly 1 in ... 5.6% and 5.3%, respectively) experienced sexual violence other than rape, such as being made to ...
Logan, T K; Walker, Robert; Cole, Jennifer
This article has two overall goals. First, to examine the current state of sexual violence research to highlight several shortcomings in the knowledge on partner sexual violence. Second, to describe several factors to consider in future research to facilitate a more in-depth understanding of partner sexual violence. Shortcomings of the research on partner sexual violence include (1) overreliance on dichotomous yes/no representations of sexual violence experiences; (2) lack of, or inadequate documentation of the scope and nature of partner sexual violence; (3) inadequate ways to account for impairment of consent under different circumstances; (4) difficulties in discriminating unwanted from nonconsensual sexual activities; and (5) limited information about the role sexual violence plays in the larger context of coercive control. In order to facilitate a more in-depth understanding of partner sexual assault, there is a need (1) to better understand the scope and nature of partner sexual assault and (2) to better understand the role partner sexual violence plays in coercive control. By improving the measurement of this phenomenon, victims, researchers, practitioners, and those involved in the justice system might be better equipped to respond to sexual violence among intimate partners. © The Author(s) 2013.
This podcast discusses sexual violence - what it is, the long-term health problems it can contribute to, and tips to stop it before it begins. Created: 4/4/2011 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC). Date Released: 4/4/2011.
This special issue brings together emerging research concerning the issue of Sexual Violence and Abuse from around the world. The importance of pulling together research that explores the central topic of sexual violence and abuse is more pressing than ever and having a collection of work using different methodological approaches to unique samples previously unexplored contributes significantly to our understanding towards this type of offence.
This article discusses violence in relation to women's reproductive and sexual rights in Africa. Two types of violent behaviors are defined. One type is defined as a straightforward, aggressive act of brutality inflicted on one person by another, which may range from battery to rape, and which may occur domestically or be inflicted by a stranger. The other type of violent behavior is the violation of rights or denial of rights, which often operates not only on personal, but also on societal or cultural levels. These definitions allow us to address the record of violence against women in a broad social and political context in which not only men but women and society as a whole act to perpetuate systems resulting in various forms of abuse. In Africa, the strong patriarchal tradition with the economic mode of more formal and systematic, less centralized commerce makes it virtually impossible for a woman to move, act, or think freely. The most damaging type of sexual violence against women centers on the lack of control that women are allowed over their fertility. Denial of reproductive rights, services and information acts as pervasive form of violence, with significant consequences. Women face both the threats of direct bodily violence from strangers and within their own homes; and the exposure to the risk of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases, of unwanted and unplanned pregnancy, and of unsafe abortion due to the violation of women's basic human rights.
Sexual violence has been firmly put on the internal agenda of the humanitarian community. Despite commendable advances in both policy and practice, there continues to be a gap between what is recommended and the reality in the field. In this paper, I argue that, notwithstanding the profound
Full Text Available Reporting on sexual violence is a challenge even for seasoned war journalists. How should correspondents, news editors and producers report the impact of sexual violence on individuals and communities without causing further distress or danger?
Reporting on sexual violence is a challenge even for seasoned war journalists. How should correspondents, news editors and producers report the impact of sexual violence on individuals and communities without causing further distress or danger?
Curtis, Tine; Larsen, Finn B; Helweg-Larsen, Karin
The purposes of the study were to analyse the lifetime prevalence of violence and sexual abuse among the Inuit in Greenland and to study the associations between health and having been the victim of violence or sexual abuse. Associations were studied with specific attention to possible differences...... between women and men. Further, response rates were analysed specifically in order to understand consequences of including questions on violence and sexual abuse in the questionnaire survey. The analyses were based on material from a cross-sectional health interview survey conducted during 1993......-94 with participation from a random sample of the Inuit population in Greenland (N = 1393). The prevalence of ever having been a victim of violence was 47% among women and 48% among men. Women had more often than men been sexually abused (25% and 6%) (p sexually abused in childhood (8...
Vanderwoerd, James R.; Cheng, Albert
Religious colleges and universities make up a substantial segment of the higher education landscape in North America, but the incidence of sexual violence on these campuses remains understudied. This study estimates the incidence of sexual violence on independent Christian campuses using a sample of part-time and full-time undergraduate students…
Curtis, Tine; Larsen, Finn B; Helweg-Larsen, Karin
The purposes of the study were to analyse the lifetime prevalence of violence and sexual abuse among the Inuit in Greenland and to study the associations between health and having been the victim of violence or sexual abuse. Associations were studied with specific attention to possible differences...... between women and men. Further, response rates were analysed specifically in order to understand consequences of including questions on violence and sexual abuse in the questionnaire survey. The analyses were based on material from a cross-sectional health interview survey conducted during 1993......-94 with participation from a random sample of the Inuit population in Greenland (N = 1393). The prevalence of ever having been a victim of violence was 47% among women and 48% among men. Women had more often than men been sexually abused (25% and 6%) (p abused in childhood (8...
Kelly, Jocelyn; Albutt, Katherine; Kabanga, Justin; Anderson, Kimberley; VanRooyen, Michael
Female survivors of sexual violence in conflict experience not only physical and psychological sequelae from the event itself, but often many negative social outcomes, such as rejection and ostracisation from their families and community. Male relatives - whether husbands, fathers, brothers - play a key role in determining how the family and community respond to a survivor of sexual violence. Understanding these perspectives could help improve services for survivors of sexual violence, as well as their families and communities. This study draws on qualitative data gathered from focus groups of 68 men in the eastern region of Democratic Republic of Congo. Men were asked about their experiences as relatives of women who had experienced sexual violence. Two dominant themes arose throughout the focus groups: factors driving rejection and pathways to acceptance. Factors driving rejection included: fear of sexually transmitted infections, social stigma directed toward the husbands themselves, and an understanding of marriage and fidelity that is incompatible with rape. Men also touched on their own trauma, including struggling with witnessing a rape that took place in public, or caring for a survivor with a child from rape. They noted that the economic burden of medical treatment for survivors was a salient factor in the decision to reject. Pathways to acceptance included factors such as the love of their spouse or relative, survivors' potential to give continued financial contribution to the family, the need to keep the family together to care for children in the home, and pressure from people of importance in the community. This study provides unique insight into how male relatives respond to close family members who have experienced sexual violence. This is particularly critical since the reaction of a male relative after rape can be the most pivotal factor in promoting or impeding recovery for a survivor. These results emphasise the importance of services that focus
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Sexual Violence Resource Center (NSVRC) is a national information and resource hub relating to all aspects of sexual violence. NSVRC staff collect and...
Dartnall, Elizabeth; Jewkes, Rachel
Rape and sexual violence occur in all societies, and cut across all social classes. Prevalence estimates of rape victimisation range between 6 and 59% of women having experienced sexual abuse from their husbands or boyfriends in their lifetime. Two population-based studies from South Africa have found that 28% and 37% of men, respectively, have perpetrated rape. Estimates of rape perpetration from high-income countries seem to be lower than those from low- and middle-income countries; however, current data make it impossible to confirm this. Women and girls are much more likely to be the victims and men the perpetrators and, in most instances, the perpetrator is known to the victim. Children are particularly vulnerable to sexual abuse, with girls being at greater risk, especially while at school and at home. High rates of child sexual abuse are emerging from the research, with an increasing understanding of the effect of child sexual abuse on later perpetration and victimisation, highlighting the importance of primary prevention for sexual violence to address childhood exposures to violence. Much of our knowledge about sexual violence has historically been based on research undertaken in high-income countries. This, however, is changing with the emergence of good-quality studies from other settings, particularly in Africa, alongside an increasing number of multi-country studies looking at interpersonal and sexual violence. Most countries lack population data on perpetration of sexual violence, across all categories, including children, and a major gap exists in research on sexual violence among sub-groups and populations. Much of the existing research has limitations that affect cross-study comparability, owing to differences in definitions, research tools, methods and sampling used. Improved research is essential. Research priorities for understanding the magnitude of sexual violence prevalence include assessment of the prevalence and patterns of sexual violence
Sommarin, Clara; Kilbane, Theresa; Mercy, James A.; Moloney-Kitts, Michele; Ligiero, Daniela P.
Background Evidence linking violence against women and HIV has grown, including on the cycle of violence and the links between violence against children and women. To create an effective response to the HIV epidemic, it is key to prevent sexual violence against children and intimate partner violence (IPV) against adolescent girls. Methods Authors analyzed data from national household surveys on violence against children undertaken by governments in Swaziland, Tanzania, Kenya, and Zimbabwe, with support of the Together for Girls initiative, as well as an analysis of evidence on effective programmes. Results Data show that sexual and physical violence in childhood are linked to negative health outcomes, including increased sexual risk taking (eg, inconsistent condom use and increased number of sexual partners), and that girls begin experiencing IPV (emotional, physical, and sexual) during adolescence. Evidence on effective programmes addressing childhood sexual violence is growing. Key interventions focus on increasing knowledge among children and caregivers by addressing attitudes and practices around violence, including dating relationships. Programmes also seek to build awareness of services available for children who experience violence. Discussion Findings include incorporating attention to children into HIV and violence programmes directed to adults; increased coordination and leveraging of resources between these programmes; test transferability of programmes in low- and middle-income countries; and invest in data collection and robust evaluations of interventions to prevent sexual violence and IPV among children. Conclusions This article contributes to a growing body of evidence on the prevention of sexual violence and HIV in children. PMID:24918598
... offender. Risk factors for youth violence include: • Prior history of violence • Drug, alcohol, or tobacco use • Association with delinquent peers • Poor family functioning • Poor grades in school • Poverty in the community Note: This is a partial ...
Sexual violence in the United States continues to be a growing problem. Collegiate women face some of the highest rates of sexual violence, with statistics estimating one in four women will have this unwanted experience sometime during their college career. With Title IX administrators required to provide sexual violence awareness, more colleges…
Messerschmidt, James W.
In this paper the author summarizes several life history case studies of adolescent boys who were identified at school as "wimps" and who eventually engaged in various forms of sexual violence. Such boys rarely are--if at all--discussed in the childhood, education and feminist literatures on sexual violence. The life stories reveal the…
Landreman, Lisa M.; Williamsen, Kaaren M.
In this chapter, we outline the challenges campuses face in addressing sexual violence and Title IX compliance. We argue that there are critical roles for student affairs professionals in Title IX work in developing effective campus sexual violence prevention and response strategies.
Bertelsen, Eva; Østerby Sørensen, William; Jensen, Mathilde Worch
Even though Denmark in many respects shows some of the most gender equality rates in the world, the rates of physical and/or sexual violence against women in Denmark are among the highest in Europe. In this article we seek to describe state responses to these figures. We do so by investigating...... the symbolic representations of sexual violence in intimate relationships, framing contemporary political/societal developments of the Danish field of welfare work addressing violence in intimate relationships as well as the dominating knowledge production substantiating these. Theoretically, Slavoj Zizek...... and his concept objective violence inform the paper, in order to analyze authoritative representations of ‘sexual violence in intimate relationships’ in three areas: Danish legislation and legal practices, Danish research on sexual violence, and policy-papers. Thus the Danish Criminal Code, selected...
Hilinski-Rosick, Carly M; Freiburger, Tina L
Inmate misconduct has been a widely studied topic for many decades. General studies of misconduct have found that there are certain factors that contribute to misconduct, including age, gender, sentence length, and facility type. Few studies, however, have examined the factors predicting sexual offenses in a prison conduct. Although many studies of victims of sexual offenses in prison have been conducted, there is a lack of studies examining the perpetrators of prison sexual violence. The current study attempted to expand this body of literature by examining the correlates of sexual misconduct among a sample of male inmates incarcerated in the state of North Carolina during 2010. Deprivation and importation theories of inmate behavior were used to guide the analysis, and measures of deprivation and importation factors were both included in the analytical models. Findings indicate that Black, nonmarried, younger inmates, who had more previous incarcerations and had been incarcerated longer, had greater odds of having a sexual infraction. Additional findings, as well as policy implications, are discussed.
Kwon, Insook; Lee, Dong-Ok; Kim, Elli; Kim, Hyun-Young
This research is about sexual violence among men in the military in South Korea. The authors investigated the frequencies, causes, and circumstances surrounding sexual violence and looked for characteristic features of sexual violence among men in the military in South Korea. They found a high frequency of physical sexual violence and a high level…
Senn, Theresa E; Walsh, Jennifer L; Carey, Michael P
Prior research shows that violence is associated with sexual risk behavior, but little is known about the relation between community violence (i.e., violence that is witnessed or experienced in one's neighborhood) and sexual risk behavior. To better understand contextual influences on HIV risk behavior, we asked 508 adult patients attending a publicly funded STI clinic in the U.S. (54 % male, M age = 27.93, 68 % African American) who were participating in a larger trial to complete a survey assessing exposure to community violence, sexual risk behavior, and potential mediators of the community violence-sexual risk behavior relation (i.e., mental health, substance use, and experiencing intimate partner violence). A separate sample of participants from the same trial completed measures of sexual behavior norms, which were aggregated to create measures of census tract sexual behavior norms. Data analyses controlling for socioeconomic status revealed that higher levels of community violence were associated with more sexual partners for men and with more episodes of unprotected sex with non-steady partners for women. For both men and women, substance use and mental health mediated the community violence-sexual risk behavior relation; in addition, for men only, experiencing intimate partner violence also mediated this relation. These results confirm that, for individuals living in communities with high levels of violence, sexual risk reduction interventions need to address intimate partner violence, substance use, and mental health to be optimally effective.
James W. Messerschmidt
Full Text Available In this paper the author summarizes several life history case studies of adolescent boys who were identified at school as “wimps” and who eventually engaged in various forms of sexual violence. Such boys rarely are— if at all—discussed in the childhood, education and feminist literatures on sexual violence. The life stories reveal the interrelationship among inschool bullying, reflexivity, embodied structured action, and the social construction of heteromasculinities in the commission of sexual violence by subordinated boys. The author concludes by considering the implications the research has to the evolving discourses on social scientific conceptualizations of reflexive embodiment and heteromasculinities.
Roper, Larry D.
Legislation and initiatives at the state and federal levels are challenging colleges and universities to review their approach to issues of sexual violence. This article addresses issues of compliance and beyond.
Jessup-Anger, Jody; Lopez, Elise; Koss, Mary P.
In this chapter, we describe the history of sexual violence as it pertains to postsecondary institutions, focusing on social movements, research, and policy, and their implications for higher education.
Trindade,Luciana C; Linhares,Silvana M. G. M.; Vanrell,Jorge; Godoy,Danilo; C. A. Martins,José; Barbas,Stela M. A. N.
Objective To analyze the demographic and epidemiological profile of children and adolescents victims of sexual violence treated in a Unit of Forensic Medicine and the relationship between victims and perpetrators. Methods A descriptive study, with data collection from information gathered from sex abuse reports performed in 2009 on victims of sexual violence aged less than 18 years. The data collection tool was a form filled out with demographic information about the victim – gender a...
Trindade, Luciana C; Linhares, Silvana M. G. M.; Vanrell, Jorge; Godoy, Danilo; C. A. Martins, José; Barbas, Stela M. A. N.
Objective To analyze the demographic and epidemiological profile of children and adolescents victims of sexual violence treated in a Unit of Forensic Medicine and the relationship between victims and perpetrators. Methods A descriptive study, with data collection from information gathered from sex abuse reports performed in 2009 on victims of sexual violence aged less than 18 years. The data collection tool was a form filled out with demographic information about the victim – gender and age...
Reidy, Dennis E; Smith-Darden, Joanne P; Cortina, Kai S; Kernsmith, Roger M; Kernsmith, Poco D
Addressing gender norms is integral to understanding and ultimately preventing violence in both adolescent and adult intimate relationships. Males are affected by gender role expectations which require them to demonstrate attributes of strength, toughness, and dominance. Discrepancy stress is a form of gender role stress that occurs when boys and men fail to live up to the traditional gender norms set by society. Failure to live up to these gender role expectations may precipitate this experience of psychological distress in some males which, in turn, may increase the risk to engage in physically and sexually violent behaviors as a means of demonstrating masculinity. Five-hundred eighty-nine adolescent males from schools in Wayne County, Michigan completed a survey assessing self-perceptions of gender role discrepancy, the experience of discrepancy stress, and history of physical and sexual dating violence. Logistic regression analyses indicated boys who endorsed gender role discrepancy and associated discrepancy stress were generally at greater risk to engage in acts of sexual violence but not necessarily physical violence. Boys who experience stress about being perceived as "sub-masculine" may be more likely to engage in sexual violence as a means of demonstrating their masculinity to self and/or others and thwarting potential "threats" to their masculinity by dating partners. Efforts to prevent sexual violence perpetration among male adolescents should perhaps consider the influence of gender socialization in this population and include efforts to reduce distress about masculine socialization in primary prevention strategies. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available Sexual violence is used to maintain what Dr. Riane Eisler (1990 conceptualizes as the dominator model of society. The early days of the feminist anti-violence movement focused on changing the dominator model, but, in part, this focus was co-opted by seeking criminal justice solutions, contributing to punitive responses and mass incarceration that have been ineffective in ending sexual violence. The racist history of the rape charge and its disproportionate effect on people of color, an effect that continues today. Legislators have passed draconian laws that uniquely apply to anyone convicted of a sex offense, the definition of which has been broadened to encompass harmless behavior. A separate legal regime for sex offenders that isolates them from society and marks them for life as monsters obfuscates the causes of sexual violence and contributes to the problem. The feminist anti-violence movement remains influential, though little recognized, in today’s efforts to respond to sexual violence through restorative justice and transformative justice. A number of groups have adopted the RJ/TJ model, in particular women of color. The article provides examples of successful and unsuccessful implementation of RJ/TJ and discusses impediments to wider adoption of this approach. RJ/TJ is a promising alternative to the current criminal justice response to sexual assault, one that will bring us closer to a partnership culture.
Stevanović Ivana M.
Full Text Available The paper considers the situation of children-victims of severe sexual violence in the criminal substantive and proceedings law of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the Republic of Serbia. Through the analysis of specific incriminations sanctioning the worst forms of sexual violence against children as well as the analysis of their proceedings situation, the paper presents necessary amendments in this domain and compliance of our criminal legal system with the contemporary comparative law solutions. At the same time, the paper offers suggestions of possible new solutions in this domain, in accordance with the right of the child to comprehensive protection of his/her sexual integrity.
Sexual harassment and sexual violence are complex social issues and a prevalent problem on college and university campuses. College students are an "at risk" population because of their age, developmental stage, proximity to one another, and their access to social activities influenced by peer pressure, alcohol, and other drugs. In this…
electoral violence in Kenya since the 1990s, the fact that a considerable part of that violence was gender and sexual in nature has gone largely unnoticed. The Nairobi Women's Hospital Gender Violence Recovery Center reports that between ...
National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey CDC’s National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS) is an ongoing, nationally-representative telephone survey that collects detailed ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Hydatidiform mole (HM is characterized by abnormal proliferation of human trophoblast with producers functioning tissues of human chorionic gonadotropin. It can evolve with ovarian cysts tecaluteínicos, hypertension of pregnancy or hyperthyroidism. The incidence of HM is variable and its etiology poorly known, associated with nutritional factors, environmental, age, parity, history of HM, oral contraceptives, smoking, consanguinity or defects in germ cells. There is no reference in literature on HM resulting from sexual violence, objective of this report. Method Description of two cases of HM among 1146 patients with pregnancy resulting from sexual violence treated at Hospital Pérola Byington, São Paulo, from July 1994 to August 2011. Results The cases affected young, white, unmarried, low educated and low parity women. Sexual violence was perpetrated by known offenders unrelated to the victims, under death threat. Ultrasound and CT of the pelvis showed bulky uterus compatible with HM without myometrial invasion. One case was associated with theca lutein cysts. The two cases were diagnosed in the second trimester of pregnancy and evolved with hyperthyroidism. There was no hypertension, disease recurrence, metastasis or sexually transmitted infection. Conclusion The incidence of HM was 1:573 pregnancies resulting from rape, within the range estimated for Latin American countries. Trophoblastic material can be preserved to identify the violence perpetrator, considering only the paternal HM chromosomes. History of sexual violence should be investigated in cases of HM in the first half of adolescence and women in a vulnerable condition.
In the bivariate analysis, low self-esteem, lack of partner risk self-efficacy, having had sexually transmitted infections in a life-time, early sexual debut, not being employed and medium to high sexually permissive attitudes were associated with having experienced sexual violence. Programmes in combating sexual violence ...
Naved, Ruchira Tabassum
This article explored the magnitude and nature of within marriage sexual violence against women and factors associated with physically forced sex by husbands in urban and rural Bangladesh using population-based survey data from 2001 (n = 2,702). Results showed high prevalence of lifetime sexual violence: 37 % in urban and 50 % in rural areas. An overwhelming majority of the women reported being sexually abused by husbands more than once. Logistic regression analyses revealed that six out of ten independent variables included in the models were significant. The factors positively associated with physically forced sex by husbands during the last 12 months were: history of physical abuse of husband's mother by his father; level of controlling behavior by husband; and forced or coerced first sex. Women's age (20-24 compared to 15-19) and dowry demand at marriage increased the likelihood of this violence in the rural area. Urban women in the second and third income quartiles were more likely to be exposed to this violence compared to women in the first quartile. Results highlight the need for prevention programs targeting men, which would help at the same time to break the cycle of intergenerational exposure and thereby transmission of violence. Notions of gender equality; women's sexual rights; and women's right to consent and choice need to be widely promoted particularly among men.
Tatiane Herreira Trigueiro
Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To understand the daily actions of women who have experienced sexual violence. Method: A qualitative study was conducted with 11 women who suffered sexual violence in southern Brazil. Their testimonies were obtained through phenomenological interviews conducted between October 2014 and April 2015. Results: The daily lives of women after suffering sexual violence were permeated by mental distress, translated into fear. This impacted their mental health by limiting their daily lives, especially social activities (work, school, sentimental, and sexual relations. To overcome the consequences of sexual violence, women sought support from family and friends and reintegration into the labor market and course of studies. Conclusion and implications for practice: Individual and group actions providing psychosocial and social support to women in situations of sexual violence are essential to help victims cope with the consequences of this experience.
Trindade, Luciana C; Linhares, Silvana M G M; Vanrell, Jorge; Godoy, Danilo; Martins, José C A; Barbas, Stela M A N
To analyze the demographic and epidemiological profile of children and adolescents victims of sexual violence treated in a Unit of Forensic Medicine and the relationship between victims and perpetrators. A descriptive study, with data collection from information gathered from sex abuse reports performed in 2009 on victims of sexual violence aged less than 18 years. The data collection tool was a form filled out with demographic information about the victim - gender and age - and information regarding the sexual violence -, location of the occurrence, time elapsed between abuse and expert report, complaints reported, sexological examination findings, description of lesions outside the genital region, and aggressor's relationship to victim. In 2009, 421 individuals victim of sexual violence were assisted. Of those, 379 (90%) were younger than 18 years, and 66 cases were excluded from these reports. Most were female (81.2%). The most affected age group was 10 to 13 years old (36.7%), followed by 5 to 9 year-olds (30.7%). In most cases (86.3%), there were family or friendship ties between victims and perpetrators, being most frequently accused an acquaintance or friend of the family (42.3%), followed by the stepfather (16.6%) and the father (10.9%). The results are similar to other studies conducted in the country. This work aims at filling a gap caused by the lack of research on this topic in the State, hoping to collaborate to improve public policies against child sexual abuse.
Alsaker, Kjersti; Morken, Tone; Baste, Valborg; Campos-Serna, Javier; Moen, Bente E
To investigate whether sexual assaults are more likely to co-occur with some types of abuse rather than others in violent intimate relationships. Cross-sectional study. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to all Norwegian women's shelters. Women seeking refuge at Norwegian women's shelters in 2002 and 2003. Sexual assault and experiences of intimate partner violence were measured using the Severity of Violence against Women Scale (SVAWS) and psychological violence was measured using the Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory (PMWI). Student's t-test analyses were performed between the mean values of the different acts of reported violence, and linear regression analyses were used to examine the association between sexual violence and the other forms of violence reported. Sexual violence correlated significantly with the other eight categories in SVAWS, and with violence directed at the pregnant woman's abdomen and psychological violence in PMWI. When we adjusted all categories for each other by linear regression analysis, sexual intimate partner violence was significantly associated with hair pulling, arm twisting, spanking or biting, dominance and isolation abuse and violence directed at the pregnant woman's abdomen. Sexual assaults are more likely to co-occur with some types of physical and psychological violence than with others. This knowledge may be important for improving our understanding of sexual violence in intimate partner relationships and in the efforts to detect intimate partner violence. Bruises, loss of hair and bite marks may suggest that sexual acts were committed against the victim's will. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Holen, Sine Vorland; Vermeij, Lotte
To mark the 17th anniversary of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security, two experts look at how far we have come in the fight to eradicate sexual violence in conflict and at how NATO operations can be supported to enhance these efforts.
Full Text Available In hundreds of refugee and IDP settings throughout the world, women and girls are made more vulnerable to sexual violence because of the almost daily need to leave camps in search of firewood. More can and must be done to reduce this risk.
Geffner, Robert, Ed.
These two Bulletins contain selected articles that highlight research and treatment issues in child abuse and child sexual abuse. The first issue includes the following featured articles: (1) "The Relationships between Animal Abuse and Other Forms of Family Violence" (Phil Arkow), which addresses animal cruelty as a harbinger of…
Baniel, Alice; Cowlishaw, Guy; Huchard, Elise
Sexual violence occurring in the context of long-term heterosexual relationships, such as sexual intimidation, is widespread across human populations [1-3]. However, its evolutionary origins remain speculative because few studies have investigated the existence of comparable forms of sexual coercion in animals [4, 5], in which repeated male aggression toward a female provides the aggressor with delayed mating benefits . Here, we test whether male aggression toward females functions as sexual coercion in wild chacma baboons (Papio ursinus). We found support for all three main predictions of the sexual coercion hypothesis : male aggression (1) is greatest against cycling females, (2) is costly and represents the main source of injuries for cycling females, and (3) increases male mating success with their victims in the future. Detailed analysis of chronological sequences between aggression and matings ruled out other coercive mechanisms, such as short-term harassment and punishment, by showing that aggression and matings are temporally decoupled. This decoupling may explain why some forms of sexual violence have been largely overlooked in well-studied animal populations despite their likely impact on the fitness of both sexes. Finally, we found no support for alternative hypotheses such as a female preference for aggressive males [8, 9]. This new, detailed study of the forms and intensity of sexual intimidation in a wild primate suggests that it may be widespread across mammalian societies, with important implications for understanding the evolution of mate choice and sexual conflict in mammals, as well as the origins of human sexual violence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Reidy, Dennis E.; Smith-Darden, Joanne P.; Cortina, Kai S.; Kernsmith, Roger M.; Kernsmith, Poco D.
Purpose Addressing gender norms is integral to understanding and ultimately preventing violence in both adolescent and adult intimate relationships. Males are affected by gender role expectations which require them to demonstrate attributes of strength, toughness, and dominance. Discrepancy stress is a form of gender role stress that occurs when boys and men fail to live up to the traditional gender norms set by society. Failure to live up to these gender role expectations may precipitate this experience of psychological distress in some males which, in turn, may increase the risk to engage in physically and sexually violent behaviors as a means of demonstrating masculinity. Methods Five-hundred eighty-nine adolescent males from schools in Wayne County, Michigan completed a survey assessing self-perceptions of gender role discrepancy, the experience of discrepancy stress, and history of physical and sexual dating violence. Results Logistic regression analyses indicated boys who endorsed gender role discrepancy and associated discrepancy stress were generally at greater risk to engage in acts of sexual violence but not necessarily physical violence. Conclusions Boys who experience stress about being perceived as “sub-masculine” may be more likely to engage in sexual violence as a means of demonstrating their masculinity to self and/or others and thwarting potential “threats” to their masculinity by dating partners. Efforts to prevent sexual violence perpetration among male adolescents should perhaps consider the influence of gender socialization in this population and include efforts to reduce distress about masculine socialization in primary prevention strategies. PMID:26003576
... a national level focusing on these types of interpersonal violence based on the sexual orientation of U.S. ... field, additional efforts could be made to enhance training for domestic violence and sexual assault service providers. ...
The Mentors in Violence Prevention (MVP) model seeks to address the root causes of gender violence using a bystander approach and leadership training to challenge structures of patriarchy. Emerging research on adolescent relationship abuse and sexual violence points to key modifiable targets-transforming gender norms, addressing homophobia, integrating with comprehensive sexuality education, and acknowledging the needs of youth already exposed to violence. A social justice-based bystander approach such as the MVP model should be part of a multi-level approach to sexual violence prevention that addresses gender and power, encourages healthy sexuality conversations, and provides safety and support for survivors.
Barbosa, Jaqueline Almeida Guimarães; de Souza, Marina Celly Martins Ribeiro; Freitas, Maria Imaculada de Fátima
To understand the impact of sexual violence suffered by women with mental disorders based on self-reports of these experiences. The reports emerged from open interviews with women receiving care at public mental health services in the states of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. These interviews were part of a larger research project that had the overall objective of investigating how this population group lives and thinks sexuality, in order to contribute to actions to promote sexual health. Data collection took place in 2008. Seventeen women with age between 18 and 68 years were interviewed. Fourteen reported having had stable relationships, but only three were still in these relationships. Most of the stable relationships had not been formalized into marriage. Two participants were widows and 13 had children. All the participants reported difficulties in living with their partners and children and having few friends and little family support. The instability of relationships was attributed to situations of aggression, infidelity, and use of drugs and alcohol. Seven women reported having been victims of physical violence within the family, mostly from partners. Two participants reported never having had sexual relations. Health care professionals must be trained to encourage the report of sexual violence by women and adequately handle the situation. Intersectoral actions to deal with this issue are also essential.
Merrick, Melissa T; Basile, Kathleen C; Zhang, Xinjian; Smith, Sharon G; Kresnow, Marcie-Jo
Youth sexual violence victimization is an urgent public health concern that can lead to a variety of health problems and increased risk for victimization during adulthood. Examining the characteristics of early victimization and their association with subsequent victimization during adulthood may help strengthen primary prevention efforts. Data are from the 2012 National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey. Prevalence estimates were computed in 2017 for rape and made to sexually penetrate, their subtypes, as well as proportions among victims by type of perpetrator. Chi-square tests of association were conducted between youth sexual violence victimization and the same experiences in adulthood. Approximately 10 million U.S. females (8.4%) experienced completed or attempted rape and 1.9 million U.S. males (1.6%) were made to penetrate someone during youth. Most victims knew their perpetrators. Being raped or made to penetrate during youth was associated with increased likelihood of such victimization in adulthood. Females and males experience youth sexual violence victimization at alarming rates. Primary prevention efforts with youth are critical to prevent early victimization, subsequent victimization in adulthood, and the mental and physical health consequences associated with sexual violence victimization. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Robertson, Carrie A; Knight, Raymond A
Sexual sadism and psychopathy have been theoretically, clinically, and empirically linked to violence. Although both constructs are linked to predatory violence, few studies have sought to explore the covariation of the two constructs, and even fewer have sought to conceptualize the similarities of violence prediction in each. The current study considered all four Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) facets and employed well-defined, validated measures of sadism to elucidate the relation between sadism and psychopathy, as well as to determine the role of each in the prediction of non-sexual violence and sexual crime behaviors. Study 1 assessed 314 adult, male sex offenders using archival ratings, as well as the self-report Multidimensional Inventory of Development, Sex, and Aggression (the MIDSA). Study 2 used archival ratings to assess 599 adult, male sex offenders. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of crime scene descriptions yielded four sexual crime behavior factors: Violence, Physical Control, Sexual Behavior, and Paraphilic. Sadism and psychopathy covaried, but were not coextensive; sadism correlated with Total PCL-R, Facet 1, and Facet 4 scores. The constructs predicted all non-sexual violence measures, but predicted different sexual crime behavior factors. The PCL-R facets collectively predicted the Violence and Paraphilic factors, whereas sadism only predicted the Violence factor. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Luciana C Trindade
Full Text Available Objective To analyze the demographic and epidemiological profile of children and adolescents victims of sexual violence treated in a Unit of Forensic Medicine and the relationship between victims and perpetrators. Methods A descriptive study, with data collection from information gathered from sex abuse reports performed in 2009 on victims of sexual violence aged less than 18 years. The data collection tool was a form filled out with demographic information about the victim – gender and age - and information regarding the sexual violence –, location of the occurrence, time elapsed between abuse and expert report, complaints reported, sexological examination findings, description of lesions outside the genital region, and aggressor’s relationship to victim. Results In 2009, 421 individuals victim of sexual violence were assisted. Of those, 379 (90% were younger than 18 years, and 66 cases were excluded from these reports. Most were female (81.2%. The most affected age group was 10 to 13 years old (36.7%, followed by 5 to 9 year-olds (30.7%. In most cases (86.3%, there were family or friendship ties between victims and perpetrators, being most frequently accused an acquaintance or friend of the family (42.3%, followed by the stepfather (16.6% and the father (10.9%. Conclusion The results are similar to other studies conducted in the country. This work aims at filling a gap caused by the lack of research on this topic in the State, hoping to collaborate to improve public policies against child sexual abuse.
Cale, Jesse; Lussier, Patrick
Very little is understood about the developmental antecedents of sexual behaviour prior to adolescence. Our aim was to examine the impact of different forms of intimate partner violence on early childhood sexual development. We used data from an ongoing prospective longitudinal cohort study of Canadian families. Intimate partner violence of various kinds was measured using a modified version of the Conflict Tactics Scale. Measures of child sexual development were based on the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory. Both measures relied on parental report. Sexual coercion between parental figures, but not physical violence or emotional aggression, was significantly associated with intrusive sexual behaviours shown by 3- to 5-year-old children. It may seem unlikely that 3- to 5- year-old children can understand that their parents are in a sexually coercive relationship, but our findings suggest that they are sufficiently aware of such behaviours when they occur that they may start to model their own behaviour on them. Clinicians and social workers may need to be more aware of this possibility. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
de Heer, Brooke; Jones, Lynn
Since the 2014 "Not Alone" report on campus sexual assault, the use of climate surveys to measure sexual violence on campuses across the United States has increased considerably. The current study utilizes a quasi meta-analysis approach to examine the utility of general campus climate surveys, which include a measure of sexual violence,…
This article explores sexual violence in male prisons in South Africa. It focuses on the social meanings and identities that surround sexual violence, particularly the ideas of manhood that shape both the perpetration of sexual abuses and how it is dealt with – or not. The dominant inmate culture endorses prison rape and ...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS) is an ongoing, nationally representative survey to assess experiences of intimate partner violence,...
Anand, Mallika; Redding, Colleen A.; Peipert, Jeffrey F.
Abstract Objective To investigate whether women aged 13–35 who were victims of interpersonal violence were more likely than nonvictims to experience incident sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Methods We examined 542 women aged 13–35 enrolled in Project PROTECT, a randomized clinical trial that compared two different methods of computer-based intervention to promote the use of dual methods of contraception. Participants completed a baseline questionnaire that included questions about their history of interpersonal violence and were followed for incident STIs over the 2-year study period. We compared the incidence of STIs in women with and without a history of interpersonal violence using bivariate analyses and multiple logistic regression. Results In the bivariate analyses, STI incidence was found to be significantly associated with African American race/ethnicity, a higher number of sexual partners in the past month, and a lower likelihood of avoidance of sexual partners who pressure to have sex without a condom. In both crude and adjusted regression analyses, time to STI incidence was faster among women who reported physical or sexual abuse in the year before study enrollment (HRRadj = 1.68, 95% CI 1.06, 2.65). Conclusions Women with a recent history of abuse are at significantly increased risk of STI incidence than are nonvictims. PMID:19245303
Hilhorst, Dorothea; Porter, Holly; Gordon, Rachel
Abstract: Gender, sexuality, and violence have attracted significant attention in the sphere of humanitarianism in recent years. While this shift builds on the earlier Gender and Development approach and the Women, Peace, and Security Agenda, analytical depth is lacking in practice. Notably, gender often means a singular concern for women, neglecting questions of agency and the dynamic and changing realities of gendered power relations. This introductory paper examines why this neglect occurs...
Violence against children in all its forms (physical, emotional, and sexual) is a profound ... and long-term mental and physical effects (UN Secretary-General's Study on ... The research team will work with children and young people between 13 ...
Violence against children is not a new phenomenon. In this regard, the forms in which it occurs as well as methods that allow it to have taken on an astonishing scale worldwide. Certainly, in this sense, sexual violence leaves the hardest and most complicated effects on the victim. Bearing in mind the complexity of sexual violence against children in the work we are going through an analysis of the criminalization of certain creatures that protect the sexual integrity of children from v...
Miller, Elizabeth; Jones, Kelley A; McCauley, Heather L
Dating and sexual violence victimization are not uncommon in early adolescence and increase in prevalence throughout adolescence into young adulthood with profound health and social consequences. Greater attention to what works in prevention is needed to inform current policies and practices. Adolescent dating violence (ADV) and sexual violence victimization, including cyber dating abuse, are highly prevalent among adolescents. Studies have found sex category differences, with adolescent girls reporting more victimization than boys, particularly sexual violence. Sexual and gender minority youth also experience a higher prevalence of violence victimization than their heterosexual counterparts. Studies on risk factors include examinations of childhood adversities, exposure to sexually explicit material and substance use as well as the role of gender inequitable attitudes on violence perpetration. Recent prevention research includes examining the impact of bystander interventions and transforming gender norms. Recent ADV/ sexual violence research highlights both prevalence and modifiable risk and protective factors that may help reduce such violence. Practitioners caring for youth should consider ADV/ sexual violence when seeing patients (including those struggling with substance use and other behaviours that contribute to poor health) and not simply rely on screening tools to identify those suffering from ADV/ sexual violence.
Lippy, Caroline; DeGue, Sarah
Sexual violence continues to be a significant public health problem worldwide with serious consequences for individuals and communities. The implementation of prevention strategies that address risk and protective factors for sexual violence at the community level are important components of a comprehensive approach, but few such strategies have been identified or evaluated. The current review explores one potential opportunity for preventing sexual violence perpetration at the community level: alcohol policy. Alcohol policy has the potential to impact sexual violence perpetration through the direct effects of excessive alcohol consumption on behavior or through the impact of alcohol and alcohol outlets on social organization within communities. Policies affecting alcohol pricing, sale time, outlet density, drinking environment, marketing, and college environment are reviewed to identify existing evidence of impact on rates of sexual violence or related outcomes, including risk factors and related health behaviors. Several policy areas with initial evidence of an association with sexual violence outcomes were identified, including policies affecting alcohol pricing, alcohol outlet density, barroom management, sexist content in alcohol marketing, and policies banning alcohol on campus and in substance-free dorms. We identify other policy areas with evidence of an impact on related outcomes and risk factors that may also hold potential as a preventative approach for sexual violence perpetration. Evidence from the current review suggests that alcohol policy may represent one promising avenue for the prevention of sexual violence perpetration at the community level, but additional research is needed to directly examine effects on sexual violence outcomes. PMID:25403447
Sisneros, Kathy; Rivera, Monica
Using an institutional example, this chapter offers strategies to effectively navigate institutional culture, processes, and structures to engage the entire campus community in addressing sexual violence.
Full Text Available The increased active participation of individuals in the creation of sexual violence narratives online, as opposed to the previously passive consumption of news stories offline, could prove problematic in ensuring justice is served. Social media allows for circumvention of the criminal justice system in response to its perceived inadequacies. With the 24-hour news cycle, the ease with which media consumers can interact with the story as it breaks online, and the manner in which social media has been used by laypersons and secondary bystanders to target victims or perpetrators before a case ever makes it to court, raises questions about how narrative construction online possibly influences people’s beliefs and understandings about sexual violence and the effect this may have for the justice system.
Lees, Shelley; Devries, Karen
Understandings of violence, and especially sexual violence against children, must be situated within the local context. The 2009 Violence against Children Survey in Zanzibar indicated that 6% of girls and 9% of boys reported having experienced sexual violence before the age of 18 years. This paper reports on an in-depth qualitative study conducted in Zanzibar to provide further insights to these findings by examining the circumstances for sexual and other violence against children in Zanzibar. Twenty-four in-depth interviews with young people and 18 focus-group discussions with young people and adults were conducted in rural and urban Zanzibar. A further 8 interviews were conducted with parents and key stakeholders in government and NGO offices that provide services for children. The findings revealed that religious and cultural practices, which form the foundation of Swahili culture in Zanzibar, provide a moral frame for childhood development, but structural factors make children vulnerable to sexual violence. Both boys and girls are vulnerable to sexual violence in the home, neighbourhood, at school and, in particular, at madrasa or Qur'anic schools. As religion and culture are strong influences on childhood, preventing sexual violence at madrasa schools would strengthen the positive aspects of religious teachings for ensuring a safe childhood.
Kennedy, Angie C; Bybee, Deborah; Kulkarni, Shanti J; Archer, Gretchen
Guided by an intersectional feminist perspective, we examined sexual victimization, witnessing intimate partner violence (IPV) in the family, and familial physical abuse among a sample of 180 urban African American adolescent women. We used cluster analysis to better understand the profiles of cumulative victimization, and the relationships between profiles and IPV victimization and personal exposure to the sex trade. Just under one third of the sample reported sexual victimization, with cooccurrence with both forms of family violence common. The cluster profile with high levels of severe family violence was associated with the highest rate of IPV victimization and sex trade exposure.
Nov 5, 2015 ... ... are exploring the underlying dynamics of life in the capital city and analyzing how they ... poverty, and inequality that holds the key to understanding the links between ... Social cohesion: solution or driver of urban violence?
Pfaus, J G; Myronuk, L D; Jacobs, W J
Male undergraduates were exposed to a videotaped depiction of heterosexual rape accompanied by one of three soundtracks: the original soundtrack (featuring dialogue and background rock music), relaxing music, or no sound. Subjective reports of sexual arousal, general enjoyment, perceived erotic content, and perceived pornographic content of the sequence were then provided by each subject. Results indicated that males exposed to the videotape accompanied by the original soundtrack found the sequence significantly more pornographic than males exposed to the sequence accompanied by either relaxing background music or no sound. Ratings of sexual arousal, general enjoyment, and the perceived erotic content, however, did not differ significantly across soundtrack conditions. These results are compatible with the assertion that the content of a video soundtrack may influence the impact of depicted sexual violence.
Kelly-Hanku, A; Aeno, H; Wilson, L; Eves, R; Mek, A; Nake Trumb, R; Whittaker, M; Fitzgerald, L; Kaldor, J M; Vallely, A
Sexual violence against women and girls is commonplace in Papua New Guinea (PNG). While the experiences of women are rightly given central place in institutional responses to sexual violence, the men who perpetrate violence are often overlooked, an oversight that undermines the effectiveness of prevention efforts. This paper draws on interviews conducted with young men as part of a qualitative longitudinal study of masculinity and male sexuality in a rural highland area of PNG. It explores one aspect of male sexuality: men's narratives of sexual violence. Most striking from the data is that the collective enactment of sexual violence against women and girls is reported as an everyday and accepted practice amongst young men. However, not all women and girls were described as equally at risk, with those who transgress gender roles and roles inscribed and reinforced by patriarchal structures, at greater risk. To address this situation, efforts to reduce sexual violence against women and girls require an increased focus on male-centred intervention to critically engage with the forms of patriarchal authority that give license to sexual violence. Understanding the perceptions and experiences of men as perpetrators of sexual violence is a critical first step in the process of changing normative perceptions of gender, a task crucial to reducing sexual violence in countries such as PNG.
Hagan, John; Rymond-Richmond, Wenona; Palloni, Alberto
We used the Atrocities Documentation Survey to determine whether Sudanese government forces were involved in racially targeting sexual victimization toward ethnically African women in the Darfur region of western Sudan. The US State Department conducted the survey by interviewing a randomized multistage probability sample of 1136 Darfur refugees at 20 sites in Chad in 2004. For a subset of 932 respondents who had fled from village clusters that accounted for 15 or more respondents per cluster, we used hierarchical linear models to analyze village-level patterns of reported sexual violence. We statistically controlled for individual sexual victimization to remove bias. Respondents reported being subjected to racial epithets associated with sexual victimization significantly more often during combined attacks by Sudanese government forces and Janjaweed militia forces than during separate attacks by either force. Combined attacks by Sudanese government forces and Janjaweed militia forces led to racial epithets being used more often during sexual victimization in Darfur. Our results suggest that the Sudanese government is participating in the use of sexual assault as a racially targeted weapon against ethnically African civilians.
Martin-Storey, Alexa; Paquette, Geneviève; Bergeron, Manon; Dion, Jacinthe; Daigneault, Isabelle; Hébert, Martine; Ricci, Sandrine
Sexual violence is a pervasive problem on university campuses. Although previous work has documented greater vulnerability for sexual violence among sexual and gender minority students, little is known about contextual variation in vulnerability to this kind of violence. The goals of the current study were (1) to identify vulnerability among sexual and gender minority students with regard to sexual violence, and (2) to explore if the context of this violence differs across sexual and gender minority status. Undergraduate students (ages 18-24) from six francophone universities in Quebec, Canada (N = 4,264) completed online questionnaires regarding their experience of sexual violence, as well as the context of these acts (e.g., the gender of the perpetrator, the status of the perpetrator, and the location of the violence). They also provided information regarding their sexual and gender minority status. Binary logistic regressions were conducted to assess for variation in experiencing sexual violence across sexual and gender minority status. Transgender/nonbinary students generally reported higher levels of sexual violence than their cisgender peers, while variation occurred with regard to vulnerability across sexual identity subgroups. Few differences in context were observed across sexual minority identity. Transgender/nonbinary students were significantly more likely to report sexual violence in athletic contexts and during volunteering activities compared to their cisgender peers. Findings highlight the higher levels of vulnerability for sexual violence among gender minority and some sexual minority university students. They also point to the contexts in which such violence occurs, suggesting specific strategies for prevention. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gonçalves, Rui Abrunhosa; Vieira, Sandra
No ficheiro onde se lê: "PSICOLOGIA: TEORIA, INVESTIGAÇÃO E PRÁTICA, 2004, 2, 065-080" deverá ler-se: "Psicologia : teoria, investigação e prática". ISSN 0873-4976. 10:1 (2005) 65-80". Tendo em conta a importância de que se reveste a avaliação do risco de violência em geral e o risco de violência sexual em particular, na prevenção da criminalidade, apresentam-se as características, o modo de utilização, as aplicações e as limitações de uma checklist (o SVR-20), concebida para identificar o...
Hackman, Christine L.; Pember, Sarah E.; Wilkerson, Amanda H.; Burton, Wanda; Usdan, Stuart L.
Sexual violence is a significant public health issue on US college campuses. This qualitative study aimed to better understand college student perceptions of sexual violence and bystander intervention. Gendered group and individual interviews were conducted with male (n = 3) and female (n = 12) undergraduates. Eight major themes emerged which…
Garrity, Mary Kate
This social constructivist/constructionist research explores changes in female therapists' intimate relationships after they began working with survivors of female sexual violence. Discourse analysis found that working with survivors shifted participants' initially naive understanding of female sexual violence, as they developed a critical…
Despite the undeniable, experiential reality of sexual violence in women's lives, sexual violence as a "public reality", and subsequently as a viable topic for social scientific and historical inquiry, did not emerge until this time. The women's liberation movement created the conditions that made possible--and salient--the articulation of the…
MA Bekele, A.B.
The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate the determinants of sexual violence among Eastern Ethiopia secondary school students. To this end, we studied risk and protective factors for both sexual violence perpetration and victimization, and the moderating role of protective factors on the
As sexual violence against schoolgirls is pervasive, efforts must be done to tackle the problem and promote harassment-free environment for young girls. Especially, improvement of law enforcement related to sexual violence or harassment and awareness promotion of the problem and women\\'s rights are very essential.
Banyard, Victoria L.; Moynihan, Mary M.; Plante, Elizabethe G.
The current study used an experimental design to evaluate a sexual violence prevention program based on a community of responsibility model that teaches women and men how to intervene safely and effectively in cases of sexual violence before, during, and after incidents with strangers, acquaintances, or friends. It approaches both women and men as…
Adinew, Yohannes Mehretie; Hagos, Mihiret Abreham
Though many women are suffering the consequences of sexual violence, only few victims speak out as it is sensitive and prone to stigma. This lack of data made it difficult to get full picture of the problem and design proper interventions. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and factors associated with sexual violence among female students of Wolaita Sodo University, south Ethiopia. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among 462 regular female Wolaita Sodo University students on April 7/2015. Participants were selected by simple random sampling. Data were collected by self-administered questionnaire. Data entry and analysis was done by EPI info and SPSS statistical packages respectively. Descriptive statistics were done. Moreover, bivariate and multivariate analyses were also carried out to identify predictors of sexual violence. The age of respondents ranged from 18 to 26 years. Lifetime sexual violence was found to be 45.4%. However, 36.1% and 24.4% of respondents reported experiencing sexual violence since entering university and in the current academic year respectively. Life time sexual violence was positively associated with witnessing inter-parental violence as a child, rural childhood residence, having regular boyfriend, alcohol consumption and having friends who drink regularly; while it was negatively associated with discussing sexual issues with parents. Sexual violence is a common phenomenon among the students. More detailed research has to be conducted to develop prevention and intervention strategies.
Depression and guilt were the major health consequences reported. Sexual violence is high at the University of Port Harcourt, which warrants targeted preventive action. Keywords: Sexual violence, epidemiology, health consequences, females, University. Nous avons menée une étude sur la prévalence, la configuration, ...
Macy, Rebecca J.; Johns, Natalie; Rizo, Cynthia F.; Martin, Sandra L.; Giattina, Mary
We investigated agency directors' perspectives about how service goals should be prioritized for domestic violence and sexual assault service subtypes, including crisis, legal advocacy, medical advocacy, counseling, support group, and shelter services. A sample of 97 (94% response rate) North Carolina domestic violence and/or sexual assault agency…
Knapik, Gregory P.; Martsolf, Donna S.; Draucker, Claire B.; Strickland, Karen D.
This study focuses on what aspects of attributes of spirituality as defined by Martsolf and Mickley (1998) are most salient for female and male survivors of sexual violence. Content analysis of secondary narrative data, provided by 50 participants in a study of women's and men's responses to sexual violence, was coded to the five attributes of…
Draucker, Claire; Martsolf, Donna
Two qualitative methodologies were used to develop a life-course typology of individuals who had been exposed to sexual violence. Interview narratives of 121 adult women and men who participated in qualitative study of women's and men's responses to sexual violence provided the data. The authors combined a narrative approach (holistic-content and…
Hong, Luoluo; Marine, Susan B.
In this chapter, we explore the factors that support the occurrence of sexual violence, including the role of interlocking systems of oppression. Traditional conceptions of "prevention" are deconstructed, a social justice paradigm for addressing sexual violence is advanced, and examples of how the paradigm can be applied to practice are…
Barling, J; Rogers, A G; Kelloway, E K
The authors developed and tested a structural model predicting personal and organizational consequences of workplace violence and sexual harassment for health care professionals who work inside their client's home. The model suggests that workplace violence and sexual harassment predict fear of their recurrence in the workplace, which in turn predicts negative mood (anxiety and anger) and perceptions of injustice. In turn, fear, negative mood, and perceived injustice predict lower affective commitment and enhanced withdrawal intentions, poor interpersonal job performance, greater neglect, and cognitive difficulties. The results supported the model and showed that the associations of workplace violence and sexual harassment with organizational and personal outcomes are indirect, mediated by fear and negative mood. Conceptual implications for understanding sexual harassment and workplace violence, and future research directions, are suggested.
N. M. Boychenko
Full Text Available Purpose. In order to consistently distinguish between violence, which is always primarily a destructive force, and the civilized use of force that involves constructive, creative goals, one should explore the main possible philosophical approaches to understand the nature of violence and try to give it a systematic outline. Methodology. This study uses a systematic approach to identify the internal relationship between different forms of violence and, accordingly, the counteraction against violence. Also, the author uses an axiology to identify the values that are the basis for distinguishing violence from its prototypes, as well as for the distinction between violence and coercion, as well as different types of coercion. Originality. This article presents significant clarifications on the classification of types of violence, in particular, it is clearly established that certain types of violence can not have ethical relevance, since they belong to the sphere of biology (expansion, aggression or social anthropology (cultural, institutional coercion. Actually violence or violence in the narrow sense implies the existence of will, consciousness and destructive purpose. Accordingly, counteraction against violence should include the formation of a certain non-violent type of will, non-violent culture and creative, constructive goals. This requires both personal effort and institutional support and the availability of appropriate moral traditions. Ethical theory is intended to clarify and systematize these efforts. In this sense, ethics is the core of practical philosophy. To the extent that the influence of ethics on changes in human culture and sociality in the counterfactual regime is increasing, one should also speak of the anthropological significance of ethics. Conclusions. From the socio-philosophical point of view, it is necessary to specify exactly which social institutions and in which constellation generate violence. The ethical aspect of
Knapik, Gregory P.; Martsolf, Donna S.; Draucker, Claire B.
A theoretical framework explaining how survivors of sexual violence use spirituality to respond to or recover from sexual violence is presented. Data were drawn from open-ended interviews of 27 women and 23 men who participated in a larger, ongoing study of women’s and men’s responses to sexual violence. Grounded theory methodology was used to develop the core category of Being Delivered, reflecting the participants’ experiences of being rescued, saved, or set free from the effects of sexual violence by a spiritual being or power. The theoretical framework describing Being Delivered is composed of three dimensions: Spiritual Connection, Spiritual Journey, and Spiritual Transformation. The framework can be used by clinicians to guide discussions of spirituality and healing with survivors of sexual violence. PMID:18382913
Martin-Storey, Alexa; Fromme, Kim
Dating violence presents a serious threat for individual health and well-being. A growing body of literature suggests that starting in adolescence, individuals with sexual minority identities (e.g., individuals who identify as gay, lesbian, or bisexual) may be at an increased risk for dating violence compared with heterosexuals. Research has not, however, identified the mechanisms that explain this vulnerability. Using a diverse sample of young adults ( n = 2,474), the current study explored how minority stress theory, revictimization theory, sex of sexual partners, and risky sexual behavior explained differences in dating violence between sexual minority and heterosexual young adults. Initial analyses suggested higher rates of dating violence among individuals who identified as bisexual, and individuals who identified as gay or lesbian when compared with heterosexuals, and further found that these associations failed to differ across gender. When mediating and control variables were included in the analyses, however, the association between both sexual minority identities and higher levels of dating violence became nonsignificant. Of particular interest was the role of discrimination, which mediated the association between bisexual identity and dating violence. Other factors, including sex and number of sexual partners, alcohol use, and childhood maltreatment, were associated with higher rates of dating violence but did not significantly explain vulnerability among sexual minority individuals compared with their heterosexual peers. These findings suggest the importance of minority stress theory in explaining vulnerability to dating violence victimization among bisexuals in particular, and generally support the importance of sexual-minority specific variables in understanding risk for dating violence within this vulnerable population.
Chibber, Karuna S.; Krupp, Karl; Padian, Nancy; Madhivanan, Purnima
The prevalence of sexual violence is increasingly being studied in India. Yet the determinants of sexual violence, irrespective of physical violence, remain largely unexplored. Here the authors identify the determinants of sexual violence, and additionally, explore how the presence of physical violence modifies these determinants. A…
Ipekten Alaman, Mehtap; Yıldız, Hatice
Domestic violence is a universal problem, and sexual violence in marriage, in particular, is a hidden form of it. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted to determine to the prevalence of domestic sexual violence by husbands, the prevalence of sexual problems, and the relation of these among married women attending a gynecology outpatient clinic. This study was performed in a university hospital in Turkey and data were collected February-April 2009. The study sample consisted of 200 married women, 53% of whom reported having been exposed to at least one type of domestic sexual violence behaviors by their husbands. Among those behaviors, the rate of marital rape was 33%. The frequency of experiencing any sexual problem was 82%. Women expressed that they mostly had orgasmic problems, and their husbands had premature ejaculation problems. The majority of women who reported sexual violence reported experiencing sexual problems; the frequency of sexual problems was higher in the participants who did (94.3%) than in those who did not report (68.1%) sexual violence (p violence in marriage. The results also revealed that the prevalence of sexual violence and sexual problems among those married women who attended gynecology clinics was considerable, even though they did not report this to the health care provider as a problem.
Henry, Nicola; Powell, Anastasia
Criminality in cyberspace has been the subject of much debate since the 1990s, yet comparatively little attention has been paid to technology-facilitated sexual violence and harassment (TFSV). The aim of this article is to explore the ways in which retraditionalized gender hierarchies and inequalities are manifested in online contexts, and to conceptualize the cause and effects of TFSV as "embodied harms." We argue that problematic mind/body and online/off-line dualisms result in a failure to grasp the unique nature of embodied harms, precluding an adequate understanding and theorization of TFSV. © The Author(s) 2015.
Dickson, Sandra; Willis, Gwenda M
The extensive and sometimes profoundly damaging effects of sexual violence and large numbers of victims necessitate dedicated attention to primary prevention efforts. Few studies have examined the scope of current prevention activities or their fit with empirical research into effective prevention strategies. The current article presents findings from a survey of primary prevention activities in non-Māori and bicultural communities within Aotearoa New Zealand. Forty-four respondents representing 42 agencies responded to a comprehensive survey that canvased types of sexual violence primary prevention activities undertaken, sexual violence primary prevention programs, and barriers and supports to sexual violence prevention work. Consistent with findings from previous international surveys, the focus of primary prevention work in New Zealand was on sexual violence education and increasing awareness. Findings are discussed in the context of the sexual violence prevention literature and what works in prevention more broadly to help identify promising initiatives as well as gaps in current practices. Recommendations for advancing sexual violence primary prevention research are also provided.
... An Overview of 2010 Findings on Victimization by Sexual Orientation About NISVS NISVS is an ongoing, nationally representative ... Violence Survey (NISVS): 2010 Findings on Victimization by Sexual Orientation is the first of its kind to present ...
Khalifeh, H; Moran, P; Borschmann, R; Dean, K; Hart, C; Hogg, J; Osborn, D; Johnson, S; Howard, L M
Domestic and sexual violence are significant public health problems but little is known about the extent to which men and women with severe mental illness (SMI) are at risk compared with the general population. We aimed to compare the prevalence and impact of violence against SMI patients and the general population. Three hundred and three randomly recruited psychiatric patients, in contact with community services for ⩾ 1 year, were interviewed using the British Crime Survey domestic/sexual violence questionnaire. Prevalence and correlates of violence in this sample were compared with those from 22 606 general population controls participating in the contemporaneous 2011/12 national crime survey. Past-year domestic violence was reported by 27% v. 9% of SMI and control women, respectively [odds ratio (OR) adjusted for socio-demographics, aOR 2.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-4.0], and by 13% v. 5% of SMI and control men, respectively (aOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.0-2.8). Past-year sexual violence was reported by 10% v. 2.0% of SMI and control women respectively (aOR 2.9, 95% CI 1.4-5.8). Family (non-partner) violence comprised a greater proportion of overall domestic violence among SMI than control victims (63% v. 35%, p < 0.01). Adulthood serious sexual assault led to attempted suicide more often among SMI than control female victims (53% v. 3.4%, p < 0.001). Compared to the general population, patients with SMI are at substantially increased risk of domestic and sexual violence, with a relative excess of family violence and adverse health impact following victimization. Psychiatric services, and public health and criminal justice policies, need to address domestic and sexual violence in this at-risk group.
Papas, Rebecca K; Gakinya, Benson N; Mwaniki, Michael M; Lee, Hana; Kiarie, Stella W; Martino, Steve; Loxley, Michelle P; Keter, Alfred K; Klein, Debra A; Sidle, John E; Baliddawa, Joyce B; Maisto, Stephen A
Victimization from physical and sexual violence presents global health challenges. Partner violence is higher in Kenya than Africa. Violence against drinkers and HIV-infected individuals is typically elevated, so dual vulnerabilities may further augment risk. Understanding violence risks can improve interventions. Participants were 614 HIV-infected outpatient drinkers in western Kenya enrolled in a randomized trial to reduce alcohol use. At baseline, past 90-day partner physical and sexual violence were examined descriptively and in gender-stratified regression models. We hypothesized higher reported violence against women than men, and positive violence association with HIV stigma and alcohol use across gender. Women reported significantly more current sexual (26.3 vs. 5.7%) and physical (38.9 vs. 24.8%) victimization than men. Rates were generally higher than Kenyan lifetime national averages. In both regression models, HIV stigma and alcohol-related sexual expectations were significantly associated with violence while alcohol use was not. For women, higher violence risk was also conferred by childhood violence, past-year transactional sex, and younger age. HIV-infected Kenyan drinkers, particularly women, endorse high current violence due to multiple risk factors. Findings have implications for HIV interventions. Longitudinal research is needed to understand development of risk.
Hilhorst, Dorothea; Porter, Holly; Gordon, Rachel
Gender, sexuality, and violence have attracted significant attention in the sphere of humanitarianism in recent years. While this shift builds on the earlier 'Gender and Development' approach and the 'Women, Peace, and Security Agenda', analytical depth is lacking in practice. Notably, 'gender' often means a singular concern for women, neglecting questions of agency and the dynamic and changing realities of gendered power relations. This introductory paper examines why this neglect occurs and proposes a more relational approach to gender. It explores how the contributions to this special issue of Disasters revisit classic gender issues pertaining to violence, livelihoods, and institutions in different settings of humanitarian emergencies, while expanding one's vision beyond them. It draws from the seven papers a number of lessons for humanitarianism, concerning the entangled nature of gender relations, the risks of the unintended effects of gender programming, and the importance of paying sustained attention to how gender relations unfold in a time of crisis. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.
Donne, Martina Delle; DeLuca, Joseph; Pleskach, Pavel; Bromson, Christopher; Mosley, Marcus P; Perez, Edward T; Mathews, Shibin G; Stephenson, Rob; Frye, Victoria
Research on sexual violence and related support services access has mainly focused on female victims; there is still a remarkable lack of research on men who experience sexual violence. Research demonstrates that people who both self-identify as men and are members of sexual-orientation minority populations are at higher risk of sexual violence. They are also less likely to either report or seek support services related to such experiences. The present study is an exploratory one aimed at filling the gap in the literature and better understanding how men, both straight and gay as well as cisgender and transgender, conceptualize, understand, and seek help related to sexual violence. A sample of 32 men was recruited on-line and participated in either a one-on-one in-depth interview ( N = 19) or one of two focus group discussions ( N = 13). All interviews and groups were audiotaped, professionally transcribed and coded using NVivo 9 qualitative software. The present analysis focused on barriers to and facilitators of support service access. Emergent and cross-cutting themes were identified and presented, with an emphasis on understanding what factors may prevent disclosure of a sexual violence experience and facilitate seeking support services and/or professional help. Through this analysis, the research team aims to add knowledge to inform the development of tools to increase service access and receipt, for use by both researchers and service professionals. Although this study contributes to the understanding of the issue of men's experiences of sexual violence, more research with diverse populations is needed.
Full Text Available The sexual violence laws introduced in DRC in 2006 have had only limited impact. A much louder condemnation of rape and a far more proactive approach to prevention are urgently needed.
Full Text Available Violence against children is not a new phenomenon. In this regard, the forms in which it occurs as well as methods that allow it to have taken on an astonishing scale worldwide. Certainly, in this sense, sexual violence leaves the hardest and most complicated effects on the victim. Bearing in mind the complexity of sexual violence against children in the work we are going through an analysis of the criminalization of certain creatures that protect the sexual integrity of children from various forms of sexual violence, and analysis of his position of criminal attempt to answer the question of how the criminal justice system of protection that exists in our country can respond to this case.
The Bangladesh War Crimes Tribunal of 2009 makes no mention of rape, ... Elsewhere in the world, rape is increasingly being discussed and accepted not only ... A second element will consist in oral histories with survivors of sexual violence.
Iverson, Susan V.; Issadore, Michelle N.
Policy can and should be used as a tool of sexual violence prevention and response. In this chapter, we explore the historical, social justice, compliance, and best practice rationales for approaching policy development and revision differently.
Hipwell, A E; Stepp, S D; Keenan, K; Allen, A; Hoffmann, A; Rottingen, L; McAloon, R
To examine the association between dating violence perpetration and victimization and sexually risky behaviors among sexual minority and heterosexual adolescent girls. Adolescent girls reported on sexual orientation, sexual behaviors, and risk-taking, and their use of, and experience with, dating violence in the past year. Data were analyzed using multinomial regression adjusted for race, poverty, living in a single parent household, and gender of current partner to examine (1) whether sexual minority status was associated with sexual risk behaviors after sociodemographic correlates of sexual risk were controlled; and (2) whether dating violence context accounted for elevated risk. Urban, population-based sample of girls interviewed in the home. 1,647 adolescent girls (38% European American, 57% African American, and 5% other) aged 17 years. Over one-third of the sample lived in poverty. None. Sexual risk-taking. Sexual minority status differentiated girls engaging in high sexual risk-taking from those reporting none, after controlling for sociodemographic and relationship characteristics. Dating violence perpetration and victimization made unique additional contributions to this model and did not account for the elevated risk conferred by sexual minority status. Sexual minority girls (SMGs) were more likely than heterosexual girls to report high sexual risk-taking and teen dating violence victimization. As with heterosexual girls, sexual risk-taking among SMGs was compounded by dating violence, which was not explained by partner gender. Adolescent girls' risky sexual behavior may be reduced by interventions for teen dating violence regardless of sexual minority status. Copyright © 2013 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Girls' vulnerability to sexual violence and harassment is a recurrent theme in much of the literature on schooling in sub-Saharan Africa. Within this research, girls are often framed as passive victims of violence. By drawing on a case study, this paper focuses on 12 to 13-year-old South African school girls as they mediate and participate in…
Peterson, Cora; Liu, Yang; Kresnow, Marcie-Jo; Florence, Curtis; Merrick, Melissa T; DeGue, Sarah; Lokey, Colby N
The purpose of this study is to estimate victims' lifetime short-term lost productivity because of intimate partner violence, sexual violence, or stalking. U.S. nationally representative data from the 2012 National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey were used to estimate a regression-adjusted average per victim (female and male) and total population number of cumulative short-term lost work and school days (or lost productivity) because of victimizations over victims' lifetimes. Victims' lost productivity was valued using a U.S. daily production estimate. Analysis was conducted in 2017. Non-institutionalized adults with some lifetime exposure to intimate partner violence, sexual violence, or stalking (n=6,718 respondents; survey-weighted n=130,795,789) reported nearly 741 million lost productive days because of victimizations by an average of 2.5 perpetrators per victim. The adjusted per victim average was 4.9 (95% CI=3.9, 5.9) days, controlling for victim, perpetrator, and violence type factors. The estimated societal cost of this short-term lost productivity was $730 per victim, or $110 billion across the lifetimes of all victims (2016 USD). Factors associated with victims having a higher number of lost days included a higher number of perpetrators and being female, as well as sexual violence, physical violence, or stalking victimization by an intimate partner perpetrator, stalking victimization by an acquaintance perpetrator, and sexual violence or stalking victimization by a family member perpetrator. Short-term lost productivity represents a minimum economic valuation of the immediate negative effects of intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and stalking. Victims' lost productivity affects family members, colleagues, and employers. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Dardis, Christina M; Shipherd, Jillian C; Iverson, Katherine M
National estimates suggest intimate partner violence (IPV) rates are equal or higher among lesbian, bisexual, or questioning (LBQ)-identified women than heterosexual-identified women. Women veterans are a population at high risk for IPV, yet the occurrence of lifetime and past-year IPV experiences by sexual orientation have not been examined in this population. Lifetime and past-year IPV experiences and current IPV-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were assessed with validated screening measures as part of a 2014 web-based national survey of women veterans. Among 403 respondents, 9.7% (n = 39) identified as LBQ, and 90.3% (n = 364) identified as heterosexual. When controlling for age, LBQ-identified women veterans were significantly more likely to report lifetime sexual and physical IPV and lifetime intimate partner stalking. In the past year, LBQ-identified veterans were twice as likely to endorse emotional mistreatment and physical IPV, and three times more likely to endorse sexual IPV, than were heterosexual-identified women veterans. However, sexual orientation was unrelated to IPV-related PTSD symptoms, when controlling for age, race, and number IPV forms experienced. IPV is prevalent among LBQ-identified women veterans, suggesting the need to understand the potentially unique contextual factors and health-care needs of this group.
Sumner, Steven A.; Mercy, James A.; Buluma, Robert; Mwangi, Mary W.; Marcelin, Louis H.; Kheam, They; Lea, Veronica; Brookmeyer, Kathryn; Kress, Howard; Hillis, Susan D.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Globally, little evidence exists on sexual violence against boys. We sought to produce the first internationally comparable estimates of the magnitude, characteristics, risk factors, and consequences of sexual violence against boys in 3 diverse countries. METHODS We conducted nationally representative, multistage cluster Violence Against Children Surveys in Haiti, Kenya, and Cambodia among males aged 13 to 24 years. Differences between countries for boys experiencing sexual violence (including sexual touching, attempted sex, and forced/coerced sex) before age 18 years were examined by using χ2 and logistic regression analyses. RESULTS In Haiti, Kenya, and Cambodia, respectively, 1459, 1456, and 1255 males completed surveys. The prevalence of experiencing any form of sexual violence ranged from 23.1% (95% confidence Interval [CI]: 20.0–26.2) in Haiti to 14.8% (95% CI: 12.0–17.7) in Kenya, and 5.6% (95% CI: 4.0–7.2) in Cambodia. The largest share of perpetrators in Haiti, Kenya, and Cambodia, respectively, were friends/neighbors (64.7%), romantic partners (37.2%), and relatives (37.0%). Most episodes occurred inside perpetrators’ or victims’ homes in Haiti (60.4%), contrasted with outside the home in Kenya (65.3%) and Cambodia (52.1%). The most common time period for violence in Haiti, Kenya, and Cambodia was the afternoon (55.0%), evening (41.3%), and morning (38.2%), respectively. Adverse health effects associated with violence were common, including increased odds of transactional sex, alcohol abuse, sexually transmitted infections, anxiety/depression, suicidal ideation/ attempts, and violent gender attitudes. CONCLUSIONS Differences were noted between countries in the prevalence, characteristics, and risk factors of sexual violence, yet associations with adverse health effects were pervasive. Prevention strategies tailored to individual locales are needed. PMID:27244799
Youth violence is a topic of increasing global concern. Research has primarily focused on young people's responses to existing definitions of violence in seeking to understand how best to develop violence prevention. Little work has explored how young people themselves define violence and the factors which influence their acceptance, and use, of…
Cierniak, Katie; Heiman, Julia R.; Plucker, Jonathan A.
For roughly three decades, policymakers have sought to reduce sexual violence by reliance on a criminal justice approach in which sexually violent acts are dealt with after they occur. Recognizing that prevention efforts could be more valuable, as they work to stop the problem before it begins, researchers have begun to implement a primary…
oust the Idi Amin regime); the Uganda People's Democratic Army (UPDA) led by the late ..... The narratives of survivors of sexual violence and rape and other forms of sexual .... We have no money for food, school fees … And the ..... Lederach, John-Paul 2005. The moral ... 85–121. Schaffer, Kay and Sidonie Smith 2004.
Using a qualitative research approach, this study examines gender norms and pressures that shape gender roles, rights, responsibilities and sexual relationships in post-conflict situations. Evidence on the nature and extent of sexual violence and challenges and barriers to prevention responses were elicited through the ...
Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important public health issue that is associated with adverse sexual and reproductive health outcomes including sexually transmitted infections (STIs). STIs have recently gained more recognition worldwide because they increase the risk forHIV infection. However, there is ...
Tadayon, Mitra; Hatami-Manesh, Zahra; Sharifi, Nasibeh; Najar, Shahnaz; Saki, Azadeh; Pajohideh, Zahra
One of the forms of violence that receives less attention due to cultural and social issues is sexual violence against women, which is a hidden and a constant epidemic and impact on their health. This study aimed to determine the relationship between function and sexual satisfaction in women who have experienced sexual violence in Ahvaz-Iran. This study was a case-control study which was conducted on 105 women (cases=35 and control=70) referred to one forensic center and seventeen Shahrivar health centers during 2013-2014 in Ahwaz-Iran. The data collection tools included questionnaires for evaluating demographic characteristics and sexual satisfaction, sexual female function index and sexual violence. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics (Chi-square, Fisher's exact, and independent-samples t-test) in SPSS, version 19. P-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Two groups of women were matched according to age and education. Mean ± SD sexual satisfaction was (71.4±15.84) in the case group and (99.44±15.68) in the control group (p<0.001). The mean ± SD of sexual function was (17.1±4.94) in the case group and (26.37±5.27) in the control group. The groups had a statistically significant difference in terms of sexual arousal, sexual orgasm, sexual lubrication, pain and sexual satisfaction (p<0.001). Sexual dysfunction and dissatisfaction have a relation with sexual violence, and a major concern is that the sexual violence in most cases is hidden and can seriously affect the general health condition of women.
Ybarra, Michele L; Strasburger, Victor C; Mitchell, Kimberly J
Emerging research suggests sexual media affects sexual behavior, but most studies are based on regional samples and few include measures of newer mediums. Furthermore, little is known about how sexual media relates to sexual violence victimization. Data are from 1058 youth 14 to 21 years of age in the national, online Growing up with Media study. Forty-seven percent reported that many or almost all/all of at least one type of media they consumed depicted sexual situations. Exposure to sexual media in television and movies, and music was greater than online and in games. All other things equal, more frequent exposure to sexual media was related to ever having had sex, coercive sex victimization, and attempted/completed rape but not risky sexual behavior. Longer standing mediums such as television and movies appear to be associated with greater amounts of sexual media consumption than newer ones, such as the Internet. A nuanced view of how sexual media content may and may not be affecting today's youth is needed. © The Author(s) 2014.
This paper traces the genealogy of sexual violence as a public and political issue in South Africa, from its initial marginalization and minimization during the apartheid era, through to the explosion of anguish and anger which marked the post-apartheid moment, and most dramatically the years 2001 and 2002. Of particular interest is the question of how and why the problem of sexual violence came to be seen as a scandal of manhood, putting male sexuality under critical public scrutiny. The paper argues that the sudden, intense eruption of public anxiety and argument about sexual violence which marked the post-apartheid period had relatively little to do with feminist analysis and politics (influential though this has been in some other respects). Rather, the key to understanding this politicization of sexual violence lies with its resonances with wider political and ideological anxieties about the manner of the national subject and the moral community of the country's fledgling democracy.
Go, Vivian F.; Srikrishnan, Aylur K.; Salter, Megan L.; Mehta, Shruti; Johnson, Sethulakshmi C.; Sivaram, Sudha; Davis, Wendy; Solomon, Suniti; Celentano, David D.
With an estimated 2.5 million people living with HIV/AIDS, India has the third highest number of HIV-infected people in the world. Despite reductions in prevalence among the general population, the percentage of all infections occurring among Indian women is continuing to rise. Women s risk of HIV infection from their partner and observed associations between sexual violence and HIV infection in India underscore the importance of understanding determinants of forced sex. A probability survey was conducted from June 2003 to August 2007 in Chennai, India among alcohol venue (“wine shops”) patrons to estimate the prevalence of sexual violence and to identify risk factors associated with perpetrating forced sex. Among 1499 men, 28.5% reported forced sex with at least one partner in the past 3 months. In multivariate analysis, earning income for less than 12 months a year, visiting the wine shop with friends, STD symptoms, perpetration of physical violence, and number of sexual partners were statistically significantly associated with perpetrating forced sex. Men who reported having 3 or more close friends were less likely to perpetrate violence. HIV interventions that facilitate formal groups that foster positive social support and address a range of HIV risk behaviors including sexually and physically abusive behaviors are recommended to reduce sexual violence. PMID:20692757
Dating violence during adolescence negatively influences concurrent psychosocial functioning, and has been linked with an increased likelihood of later intimate partner violence. Identifying who is most vulnerable for this negative outcome can inform the development of intervention practices addressing this problem. The two goals of this study were to assess variations in the prevalence of dating violence across different measures of sexual minority status (e.g., sexual minority identity or same-sex sexual behavior), and to assess whether this association was mediated by bullying, the number of sexual partners, binge drinking or aggressive behaviors. These goals were assessed by employing the Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey (N = 12,984), a regionally representative sample of youth ages 14-18. In this sample, a total of 540 girls and 323 boys reported a non-heterosexual identity, and 429 girls and 230 boys reported having had one or more same-sex sexual partners. The results generally supported a higher prevalence of dating violence among sexual minority youth. This vulnerability varied considerably across gender, sexual minority identity and the gender of sexual partners, but generally persisted when accounting for the mediating variables. The findings support investigating dating violence as a mechanism in the disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual youth, and the importance of addressing sexual minority youth specifically in interventions targeting dating violence.
Violence in South African society has reached epidemic levels and has permeated the walls of the workplace. The aim of the study was to gain a deeper understanding of how nurses experience and understand workplace violence perpetrated by patients, and to make recommendations to reduce this type of violence.
Blom, Helena; Högberg, Ulf; Olofsson, Niclas; Danielsson, Ingela
To address the associations between emotional, physical and sexual violence, specifically multiple violence victimisation, and sexual ill health and sexual risk behaviours in youth, as well as possible gender differences. A cross-sectional population-based survey among sexually experienced youth using a questionnaire with validated questions on emotional, physical, and sexual violence victimisation, sociodemographics, health risk behaviours, and sexual ill health and sexual risk behaviours. Proportions, unadjusted/adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. The participants comprised 1192 female and 1021 male students aged 15 to 22 years. The females had experienced multiple violence (victimisation with two or three types of violence) more often than the males (21% vs. 16%). The associations between multiple violence victimisation and sexual ill health and sexual risk behaviours were consistent for both genders. Experience of/involvement in pregnancy yielded adjusted ORs of 2.4 (95% CI 1.5-3.7) for females and 2.1 (95% CI 1.3-3.4) for males, and early age at first intercourse 2.2 (95% CI 1.6-3.1) for females and 1.9 (95% CI 1.2-3.0) for males. No significantly raised adjusted ORs were found for non-use of contraceptives in young men or young women, or for chlamydia infection in young men. Several types of sexual ill health and sexual risk behaviours are strongly associated with multiple violence victimisation in both genders. This should be taken into consideration when counselling young people and addressing their sexual and reproductive health.
Pyra, Maria; Weber, Kathleen; Wilson, Tracey E; Cohen, Jennifer; Murchison, Lynn; Goparaju, Lakshmi; Cohen, Mardge H
Sexual minority women with and at-risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may face increased risks of violence. To understand the relationship between sexual minority status and violence; and how high-risk sex and substance use mediate that relationship among women with and at-risk for HIV. Longitudinal study of 1,235 HIV infected and 508 uninfected women of the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) cohort, from New York City, NY, Chicago, IL, Washington D.C., and San Francisco, CA, 1994-2012. Primary exposures are sexual identity (heterosexual, bisexual, lesbian/gay) and sexual behavior (male, female, or male & female partners). Primary outcomes are sexual abuse, intimate partner violence (IPV) and physical violence; high-risk sex and substance use were examined as mediators. Bisexual women were at increased odds for sexual abuse [aOR 1.56 (1.00, 2.44)], IPV [aOR 1.50 (1.08, 2.09)], and physical violence [aOR 1.77 (1.33, 2.37)] compared to heterosexual women. In a separate analysis, women who reported sex with men and women (WSMW) had increased odds for sexual abuse [aOR 1.65 (0.99, 2.77], IPV [aOR 1.50 (1.09, 2.06)] and physical violence [aOR 2.24 (1.69, 2.98)] compared to women having sex only with men (WSM). Using indirect effects, multiple sex partners, cocaine and marijuana were significant mediators for most forms of abuse. Transactional sex was only a mediator for bisexual women. Women who reported sex only with women (WSW) had lower odds of sexual abuse [aOR 0.23 (0.06, 0.89)] and physical violence [aOR 0.42 (0.21, 0.85)] compared to WSM. Women who identify as bisexual or report both male and female sex partners are most vulnerable to violence; multiple recent sex partners, transactional sex and some types of substance use mediate this relationship. Acknowledging sexual identity and behavior, while addressing substance use and high-risk sex in clinical and psychosocial settings, may help reduce violence exposure among women with and at-risk for HIV.
Full Text Available To study visual representations of sexual violence, photographs accompanying German Internet news articles that appeared between January 2013 and March 2015 (N = 42 were subjected to thematic analysis. Two main themes, consisting of several sub-themes, emerged from the data. The first theme was “rape myths,” illustrating a stereotypical view of sexual violence. It consisted of three sub-themes: “beauty standards,” referring to the fact that all women in our sample fit western beauty standards, “physical violence,” as most images implied some form of physical violence, and finally “location,” suggesting that rape only happens in secluded outdoor areas. These findings suggest that the images from our sample perpetuate certain rape myths. The second theme was “portrayal of victimhood,” referring to the way victims of sexual violence were portrayed in photographs. The analysis of the sub-theme “passivity” showed that these portrayals fit a certain stereotype: the women were shown to be weak and helpless rather than individuals with agency and able to leave their status as a victim. Further sub-themes were “background,” “organization of space,” “camera perspective,” and “lighting.” We discuss these findings in relation to possibly reinforcing rape myths in society and as an issue in creating a biased perception of women who have experienced sexual violence.
The article is devoted to the sources of legal regulation of sexual violence prevention as a kind of domestic violence. Analyzed the legal provisions regulating the concept, types, measures of prevention of domestic violence, the activities of the competent authorities.
Deb, Sibnath; Walsh, Kerryann
This study sought to understand the pervasiveness and impact of physical, psychological, and sexual violence on the social adjustment of Grade 8 and 9 school children in the state of Tripura, India. The study participants, 160 boys and 160 girls, were randomly selected from classes in eight English and Bengali medium schools in Agartala city,…
Nov 10, 2015 ... ... and girls experience sexual or physical violence in their lifetime. ... IDRC's Governance and Justice program supports innovative research to ... with a national study on the different dimensions of sexual violence in Senegal.
Nelson, Deborah B; Lepore, Stephen J; Mastrogiannis, Dimitrios S
Unintended pregnancy (UP) is a significant public health problem. The consistent use of effective contraception is the primary method to prevent UP. We examined the role of childhood sexual and physical violence and current interpersonal violence on the risk of unintended pregnancy among young, urban, sexually active women. In particular, we were interested in examining the role of childhood violence and interpersonal violence while recognizing the psychological correlates of experiencing violence (i.e., high depressive symptoms and low self-esteem) and consistent use of contraception. For this assessment, 315 sexually active women living in Philadelphia PA were recruited from family planning clinics in 2013. A self-administered, computer-assisted interview was used to collect data on method of contraception use in the past month, consistency of use, experiences with violence, levels of depressive symptoms, self-esteem and sexual self-efficacy, substance use and health services utilization. Fifty percent of young sexually active women reported inconsistent or no contraception use in the past month. Inconsistent users were significantly more likely to report at least one prior episode of childhood sexual violence and were significantly less likely to have received a prescription for contraception from a health care provider. Inconsistent contraception users also reported significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms and significantly lower levels of self-esteem. The relation between childhood sexual violence and UP remained unchanged in the multivariate models adjusting for self-esteem or depressive symptoms. These findings highlight the long-term consequences of childhood sexual violence, independent of current depressive symptoms and low self-esteem, on consistent use of contraception.
Deborah B. Nelson
Full Text Available Unintended pregnancy (UP is a significant public health problem. The consistent use of effective contraception is the primary method to prevent UP. We examined the role of childhood sexual and physical violence and current interpersonal violence on the risk of unintended pregnancy among young, urban, sexually active women. In particular, we were interested in examining the role of childhood violence and interpersonal violence while recognizing the psychological correlates of experiencing violence (i.e., high depressive symptoms and low self-esteem and consistent use of contraception. For this assessment, 315 sexually active women living in Philadelphia PA were recruited from family planning clinics in 2013. A self-administered, computer-assisted interview was used to collect data on method of contraception use in the past month, consistency of use, experiences with violence, levels of depressive symptoms, self-esteem and sexual self-efficacy, substance use and health services utilization. Fifty percent of young sexually active women reported inconsistent or no contraception use in the past month. Inconsistent users were significantly more likely to report at least one prior episode of childhood sexual violence and were significantly less likely to have received a prescription for contraception from a health care provider. Inconsistent contraception users also reported significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms and significantly lower levels of self-esteem. The relation between childhood sexual violence and UP remained unchanged in the multivariate models adjusting for self-esteem or depressive symptoms. These findings highlight the long-term consequences of childhood sexual violence, independent of current depressive symptoms and low self-esteem, on consistent use of contraception.
Full Text Available The paper devoted to the age and gender identity among the perpetrators of sexual violence against children and discussed the factors lead to pathogenesis of abnormal sexual behavior against children. We have identified particularities of gender and age identity in perpetrators of violent sexual acts against children. It was noted that patients with a diagnosis of pedophilia have abnormalities mostly in cognitive structure of sexual identity, that is shown in undifferentiated age peculiarities of perception of self-image and gender and role stereotypes. These data allow assessing more accurately the abnormalities of sexual sphere, explaining the deviant behavior, as well as structure of age and sex self-identity in persons with the disorder of sexual desire in the form of pedophilia and take a step closer to understanding the mechanisms of abnormal choice of sexual object.
Stein, T S
The very terms of a debate about whether or not sexual orientation is primarily a biological phenomenon fail to consider the complex origins of the phenomenon. Deconstruction of the term "homosexuality" shows that it refers to multiple factors which cannot be studied as or subsumed under a unitary concept. Adequate understanding of sexual orientation must consider the developmental, interpersonal, experiential, and cultural dimensions of sexuality, as well as any biological contributions to sexual attraction, behavior, and identity.
Veselinović Nataša I.
Full Text Available Results of researches on biological, psychological and sociological characteristics of sexual offenders show etiological and phenomenological differences, while, on the other side, treatment programs show tendency toward unification. Unification that works contains behavioural learning victim empathy work and work on one’s own trauma. In this paper the author looks for an answer to the question who is the sexual offender and how he became that. In theory rapists and paedophiles are similar as much as their victims are, and they are often victims of some traumatic experience which seeks for satisfaction in inappropriate but well-known way. Sexual violence can be stopped by breaking the circle of its beginning and development by helping sexual perpetrator to find the way out from sexual violence circle and healthier behavioural patterns.
Dantas-Berger, Sônia Maria; Giffin, Karen
This article presents the results of a qualitative study of women who had filed complaints of domestic violence, situating gender relations in a broader context. The authors focus on the meaning ascribed to sexual coercion in violent relations, suggesting that conjugal sexual violence is related to the perverse effects of changes in the sexual division of labor and the aggravated double demands on women from housework and the workplace, in relation to the dismantling of the male's role as provider in situations of poverty. In this context, women's refusal to engage in sex (a form of resistance which expresses their desire to be sexual protagonists and communicates disappointment with their partners) can be seen as contributing to the exacerbation of conjugal violence. In their partial position of "subjects of resistance", these women reveal a situation of oppression which is rarely referred to as violence: feelings of disgust and repulsion following sexual relations conceded as "conjugal rights" are similar to those manifested by victims of rape by strangers (which, in contrast, is generally recognized as "sexual violence").
Bittner, Martin; Wittfeld, Meike
The article takes its starting point from the current debate on sexual violence in educational institutions. It follows an ethnographic perspective without observing sexual violence directly, arguing that doing so is ethically impossible. Instead it suggests deducing risks for sexual violence through the limits of pedagogical practices. Discussing…
Buelna, Christina; Ulloa, Emilio C.; Ulibarri, Monica D.
This study examined relationship power as a possible mediator of the relationship between dating violence and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The proposed mediation model was based on the theory of gender and power as well as previous research on intimate partner violence and STI risk. Survey results from a sample of 290 single,…
POSMONTIER, BOBBIE; DOVYDAITIS, TIFFANY; LIPMAN, KENNETH
Sexual violence, which affects one in three women worldwide, can result in significant psychiatric morbidity and suicide. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) offers health care providers the option of a brief psychiatric intervention that can result in psychiatric healing in as few as four sessions. Because health care providers often hear stories of sexual violence from their patients, they are in an ideal position to make recommendations for treatment. The purpose of this article is to introduce health care providers to the technique of EMDR, review safety and appropriateness, and discuss clinical and research implications. PMID:20623397
Le Mat, M.L.J.
It has been increasingly recognised that sexual violence in schools is one of the major concerns with regard to promoting sexual and reproductive health and rights. This paper examines how boys and girls define, experience, and interpret sexual violence in a secondary school in Addis Ababa,
Le Mat, Marielle L. J.
It has been increasingly recognised that sexual violence in schools is one of the major concerns with regard to promoting sexual and reproductive health and rights. This paper examines how boys and girls define, experience, and interpret sexual violence in a secondary school in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, and considers from their perspectives, how…
Karaoglu, Leyla; Celbis, Osman; Ercan, Cihan; Ilgar, Mehtap; Pehlivan, Erkan; Gunes, Gulsen; Genc, Metin F; Egri, Mucahit
In Turkey, violence against women was established as a critical area of concern related to women and various prevention strategies have been developed since 1980. There are limited numbers of studies on violence during pregnancy in the country. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of physical, emotional and sexual violence during pregnancy in Malatya province and the associated factors. A cross-sectional interview survey was conducted among pregnant women living in Malatya province between October 2003 and May 2004. Stratified probability-proportional-to-size sampling methodology was used for selecting the study population. A total of 824 pregnant women from 60 clusters were studied. Association between violence prevalences and womens' sociodemographic, fertility and behavioural characteristics were evaluated. During pregnancy 31.7% of women were exposed to any form of violence. Emotional violence was the most frequently reported form (26.7%), followed by sexual (9.7%) and physical violence (8.1%). Regular smoking [odds ratio (OR) 1.6], unwanted pregnancy (OR 1.8), living in urban area (OR 1.5), low education level of husband (OR 1.7), low family income (OR 1.9) and being in second trimester (OR 1.4) were determined to be the main predictors of overall violence during pregnancy. Violence during pregnancy is a common public health problem in Malatya. Low education level in partners, low family income, husband's unemployment, urban settlement, unwanted pregnancy and smoking should alert health staff towards violence at pregnancy and training of health personnel on the subject is recommended.
Hall, Jeffrey E.; Walters, Mikel L.; Basile, Kathleen C.
This study continues previous work documenting the structure of violence perpetrated by males against their female intimate partners. It assesses the construct validity of a measurement model depicting associations among eight subtypes of perpetration: moderate physical violence, severe physical violence, forced or coerced sexual violence, sexual…
Sexual violence is a common human rights violation among campus students. Students within the university, faculty committees, and members of staff are not only involved in sexual violence, but also in addressing its causes. This thesis describes sexual violence victimization and perpetration awareness, its relationship with human right and punitive measures accorded to it in a sample of 150-university students. A cross sectional survey design was used to contact students through voluntary gat...
Kate E. Temoney
Full Text Available In recent genocides and other conflicts—for example, the Sudan, Burma, and now Iraq—sexual violence and religion have received increasing but modest systematic treatment in genocide studies. This essay contributes to the nascent scholarship on the religious and sexual dimensions of genocide by providing a model for investigating the intersections among religion, genocide, and sexual violence. I treat the Rwandan genocide as a case study using secondary and primary sources and proffer the reinforcing typologies of “othering,” justification, and authorization as an investigatory tool. I further nuance the influences of religion on forms of sexual violation by arguing that religion indirectly (distally and directly (proximately furthers the aims of genocide by coding genocidal ideology and violence as “religious.” Ultimately, I contend that studying the religious and sexual aspects of genocide deepens our understanding of the complex dynamics of genocide and opens new lines of inquiry into genocide studies.
Wood, Kate; Lambert, Helen; Jewkes, Rachel
South Africa's complex social and political history has produced conditions for interpersonal violence of multiple kinds to flourish. Violence experienced by girls and young women, including within their sexual relationships, has become an area of intense research and policy interest since the end of apartheid. Drawing on a long-term ethnographic study of young people in an urban township, this article explores how violent practices are variously construed, differentiated, and legitimated, in particular through the assignment of blame and the significance accorded to bodily marking. Pointing to the cultural embeddedness of disciplining techniques in this setting, the article examines local understandings of gender hierarchy and power, young men's vulnerabilities in relation to their partners' actions, and the links between disciplining action and notions of anger, love, and shame. Violence is shown to configure lives and subjectivities and to be productive of relationships, in particular playing a part in the organization of inequality within sexual relationships.
Chiang, Laura F; Chen, Jieru; Gladden, Matthew R; Mercy, James A; Kwesigabo, Gideon; Mrisho, Fatma; Dahlberg, Linda L; Nyunt, Myo Zin; Brookmeyer, Kate A; Vagi, Kevin
Prior research has established an association between sexual violence and HIV. Exposure to sexual violence during childhood can profoundly impact brain architecture and stress regulatory response. As a result, individuals who have experienced such trauma may engage in sexual risk-taking behavior and could benefit from targeted interventions. In 2009, nationally representative data were collected on violence against children in Tanzania from 13-24 year old respondents (n=3,739). Analyses show that females aged 19-24 (n=579) who experienced childhood sexual violence, were more likely to report no/infrequent condom use in the past 12 months (AOR=3.0, CI [1.5, 6.1], p=0.0017) and multiple sex partners in the past 12 months (AOR=2.3, CI [1.0, 5.1], p=0.0491), but no more likely to know where to get HIV testing or to have ever been tested. Victims of childhood sexual violence could benefit from targeted interventions to mitigate impacts of violence and prevent HIV.
Gómez, Anu Manchikanti; Speizer, Ilene S.; Beauvais, Harry
We examine sexual violence and reproductive health outcomes among sexually experienced youth in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, using the Priorities for Local AIDS Control methodology to identify participants in locations where sexual partnerships are formed. Sexual violence is common and is significantly associated with condom use, pregnancy experience and recent STI symptoms. PMID:19380102
Collazo-Vargas, Erika M; Dodge, Brian; Herbenick, Debby; Guerra-Reyes, Lucia; Mowatt, Rasul; Otero-Cruz, Ilia M; Rodríguez-Díaz, Carlos
People who inject drugs (PWID) face numerous gender-specific health risks, which increase their susceptibility to adverse outcomes, including violence. There is a need for research on female PWID to capture their unique experiences and understand behavioral and gender-based differences. This study aimed to understand which drug use and sexual behaviors are the most prevalent among female PWID accessing health services in Puerto Rico and to gather preliminary information on those individuals' experiences of sexual violence. Utilizing a transformative theoretical perspective, a mixed-methods study was conducted with a sample of 90 Puerto Rican women who reported recent (past 12 months) injection drug use (IDU) This manuscript focused on Phase 1, in which participants completed an interviewer-administered survey eliciting information about sexual behaviors, drug use, experiences of sexual violence, and access to healthcare services. Phase 2 involved an in-depth interview focused on sexual health and access to healthcare services. Female PWID were found to engage in a variety of sexual behaviors throughout their lifespans and at their most recent sexual events. There were significant differences across age groups for participants, those being time of most recent sexual event (p = 0.007), partner's sex (p = 0.039), relationship with partner (p = 0.023), contraception method used (p = 0.057), and reports of partner orgasm (p = 0.055). Over half of all participants reported having experienced sexual violence in their lifetime. This study extends the literature on PWID in Puerto Rico by underscoring the diversity of female PWID sexual experiences and needs while illustrating how those experiences are often mediated by drug use. The findings highlight the need for further research on female PWID in Puerto Rico to better develop programs that include sexual violence prevention as part of future interventions for this population.
Double, Katelin B.
A mixed methodological approach was used to examine the impact of disclosure characteristics on mental health among individuals who have experienced campus sexual violence occurring at Christian and non-religiously affiliated universities. After completing an online survey, a sample of 97 participants qualified for the study. No disclosure and…
McMahon, Sarah; Banyard, Victoria L.; McMahon, Sheila M.
Evaluations of bystander intervention education programs demonstrate that this approach results in students' increased willingness to intervene in prosocial ways to prevent sexual violence (e.g., Moynihan, Banyard, Arnold, Eckstein, & Stapleton, 2010). These programs often focus on first-year college students, though theories and research on…
Banyard, Victoria L.; Eckstein, Robert P.; Moynihan, Mary M.
Increasing numbers of empirical studies and theoretical frameworks for preventing sexual violence are appearing in the research- and practice-based literatures. The consensus of this work is that although important lessons have been learned, the field is still in the early stages of developing and fully researching effective models, particularly…
Sexual violence in various forms is a particular brand of evil that women have endured during armed conflicts, from time immemorial. It is a problem that has continued to task the conscience of humanity, especially in our times. There has been no shortage of basic laws at the international level
DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Ukubhinya: Gender and Sexual Violence in Bulawayo, Colonial Zimbabwe, 1946-1956. Koni Benson, Joyce Chadya. Abstract. No Abstract Available Zambezia (2003), XXX (i): 108-133. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL ...
Rumble, Lauren; Febrianto, Ryan Fajar; Larasati, Melania Niken; Hamilton, Carolyn; Mathews, Ben; Dunne, Michael P
There has been relatively little research into the prevalence of childhood sexual violence (CSV) as well as the risk and protective factors for CSV in low- and middle-income countries including Indonesia. Systematic searches conducted in English and Bahasa Indonesia in this review identified 594 records published between 2006 and 2016 in peer-reviewed journals and other literature including 299 Indonesian records. Fifteen studies, including nine prevalence studies, met the quality appraisal criteria developed for this review. The review found that CSV research is scarce: Only one study included nationally representative prevalence estimates. Varying definitions for CSV, survey methods, and sample characteristics limited the generalizability of the data. The available evidence points to significant risk of sexual violence affecting both girls and boys across many geographical and institutional settings. Married adolescent girls are vulnerable to sexual violence by partners in their homes. Children in schools are vulnerable to CSV by peers and adults. Victims seldom disclose incidents and rarely seek support. In addition, early childhood experiences of trauma were strongly associated with later perpetration of sexual violence and revictimization. Limited information is available about protective factors. This review synthesizes evidence about what is currently known about CSV in Indonesia and identifies the strengths and weaknesses of the existing research. A more robust evidence base regarding CSV is required to better inform policy and justify investment into prevention programs.
recognition worldwide because they increase the risk for HIVinfection. ... any form of IPV were found to be more likely to report STI than women who did ... correlate of a wide range of adverse reproductive ..... studies that demonstrated sexual violence as the form ... that sociocultural and economic distinctions between.
Of the 19 (8.8%) who reported rape being performed on them, unwanted pregnancy, suicide attempt, vaginal discharge and abortion were the consequences in 21%, 15.8%, 10.5% and 5.3%, respectively. Conclusion: Sexual violence is a major public health problem with high rates of underreporting .Sex education should ...
The aim of the study is to investigate sexual abuse, violence and HIV risk among a sample of South African adolescents. The sample included 400 male and 400 female 16 or 17 year-olds; 400 were from rural and 400 from urban areas, and almost all from African descent. Participants were chosen by multi-stage cluster and ...
Luo, Feijun; Tharp, Andra T.
Objectives. We examined (1) whether sexual minority youths (SMYs) are at increased risk for physical dating violence victimization (PDVV) compared with non-SMYs, (2) whether bisexual youths have greater risk of PDVV than lesbian or gay youths, (3) whether youths who have had sexual contact with both sexes are more susceptible to PDVV than youths with same sex–only sexual contact, and (4) patterns of PDVV among SMYs across demographic groups. Methods. Using 2 measures of sexual orientation, sexual identity and sexual behavior, and compiling data from 9 urban areas that administered the Youth Risk Behavior Surveys from 2001 to 2011, we conducted logistic regression analyses to calculate odds of PDVV among SMYs across demographic sub-samples. Results. SMYs have significantly increased odds of PDVV compared with non-SMYs. Bisexual youths do not have significantly higher odds of PDVV than gay or lesbian youths, but youths who had sexual contact with both-sexes possess significantly higher odds of PDVV than youths with same sex–only sexual contact. These patterns hold for most gender, grade, and racial/ethnic subgroups. Conclusions. Overall, SMYs have greater odds of PDVV versus non-SMYs. Among SMYs, youths who had sexual contact with both sexes have greater odds of PDVV than youths with same sex–only sexual contact. Prevention programs that consider sexual orientation, support tolerance, and teach coping and conflict resolution skills could reduce PDVV among SMYs. PMID:25121813
Ali, Bina; Mittal, Mona; Schroder, Allison; Ishman, Najah; Quinton, Sylvia; Boekeloo, Bradley
Physical and sexual violence are commonly researched as risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, psychological violence and its relationship with HIV risk behaviors have received limited attention among African American/Black (Black) women. This study examined (a) the frequency of recent (past 3 months) psychological violence, physical violence, and sexual violence and (b) the association of HIV risk behaviors, including unprotected sex, sex under the influence of alcohol/drugs, and sex exchange for money/drugs/shelter, with psychological violence. Participants included 191 women (89.2% Black), who were recruited through information sessions held at community centers, Parent Teacher Association meetings, substance use and HIV counseling centers, radio public service announcements, and word of mouth. Interested women participated in a multisession HIV and substance use prevention program and completed a self-reported assessment at program baseline. The current study utilized baseline data collected for a longitudinal study. Results from descriptive analysis indicated that the rate of psychological violence was higher than physical violence or sexual violence, and it was strongly associated with physical and sexual violence. Furthermore, hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that unprotected sex was significantly associated with recent psychological violence after controlling for covariates. Findings suggest that recent psychological violence is more common than physical or sexual violence and it relates to sexual risk behaviors among Black women. Recent psychological violence may indicate psychosocial and sexual vulnerability for HIV and warrants particular attention among Black women.
von Sternberg, Kirk; Cardoso, Jodi Berger; Jun, Jina; Learman, Joy; Velasquez, Mary M
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are among the most common infections in the United States and are particularly prevalent in survivors of sexual violence. The purpose of this study is to examine co-occurring risk factors for sexual violence and STIs including mental health, alcohol use, drug use, and multiple partners as intersecting pathways to STIs for women who experienced sexual abuse in the past year. Secondary analyses were conducted on cross-sectional data from women originally recruited as respondents for an epidemiologic survey funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Project CHOICES. The survey was administered to 2,672 women in six settings: A large, urban jail and residential alcohol and drug treatment facilities (Texas); a gynecology clinic (Virginia); two primary care clinics (Virginia and Florida); and media solicitation (Florida). Women were included in the current study if they were fertile, sexually active, and not pregnant or trying to get pregnant (n = 1,183). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the conceptual path model between sexual violence and STI occurrence. In the SEM, there were no significant paths from mental health, alcohol severity, or drug use to STI occurrence contrary to the results of the initial bivariate analyses. Multiple sexual partners significantly mediated the relationship between sexual violence and STIs and between mental health and drug use and STIs. This study highlights the importance of providing effective treatment to survivors of sexual violence, which includes addressing risky sexual behaviors to reduce STI occurrence. Copyright © 2012 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Honda, Tomoko; Wynter, Karen; Yokota, Jinko; Tran, Thach; Ujiie, Yuri; Niwa, Madoka; Nakayama, Michi; Ito, Fumie; Kim, Yoshiharu; Fisher, Jane; Kamo, Toshiko
The aim of this study was to examine the impact of sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) on mental health among Japanese women and to explore to what extent sexual IPV is an important contributor to the severity of mental health problems in comparison with physical and psychological IPV. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of the medical records of participants during psychiatric consultation at the Institute of Women's Health, Tokyo Women's Medical University, including 62 women who experienced IPV without sexual violence and 83 women who experienced IPV with sexual violence. Mental health problems were compared, including anxiety, depression, suicidality, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and dissociative experiences. The results demonstrated a higher incidence and severity of somatic symptoms, insomnia, social dysfunction, severe depression and suicidality, PTSD, and dissociative experiences among women in the sexual IPV group than in the women who experienced IPV without sexual violence. In analyzing the relative contribution of sexual, physical, and psychological violence to the severity of mental health problems of the survivors, results indicated that sexual violence was an independent predictor of both PTSD and dissociative experiences. The present research showed that significant adverse effects on mental health were observed among women who experienced IPV with sexual violence compared with the ones without. These findings provide important implications for considering the specific approaches to meet the needs of those women experiencing sexual IPV and the need for timely and effective interventions, including healthcare, social services, and primary prevention.
Sokoloff, Natalie J; Dupont, Ida
This article provides a comprehensive review of the emerging domestic violence literature using a race, class, gender, sexual orientation intersectional analysis and structural framework fostered by women of color and their allies to understand the experiences and contexts of domestic violence for marginalized women in U.S. society. The first half of the article lays out a series of challenges that an intersectional analysis grounded in a structural framework provides for understanding the role of culture in domestic violence. The second half of the article points to major contributions of such an approach to feminist methods and practices in working with battered women on the margins of society.
Understanding How Solidarity Groups-A Community-Based Economic and Psychosocial Support Intervention-Can Affect Mental Health for Survivors of Conflict-Related Sexual Violence in Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Koegler, Erica; Kennedy, Caitlin; Mrindi, Janvier; Bachunguye, Richard; Winch, Peter; Ramazani, Paul; Makambo, Maphie Tosha; Glass, Nancy
Solidarity groups were established in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo to provide female survivors of conflict-related sexual violence an opportunity to generate income, establish networks of support, and cope with atrocities. Qualitative data were collected from 12 members of solidarity groups to explore factors that contributed to members' mental health. All women identified some improvement (physiological, psychological, economic, or social) since joining the solidarity group, but none of the women were free from ailments. Our findings suggest that a multifaceted intervention in women's own communities has the potential to improve multiple aspects of women's lives, including mental health.
Jaime, M. C. D.; Stocking, M.; Freire, K.; Perkinson, L.; Ciaravino, S.; Miller, E.
"Coaching Boys into Men" is an evidence-based dating violence prevention program for coaches to implement with male athletes. A common adaptation of this program is delivery by domestic violence and sexual violence prevention advocates instead of coaches. We explored how this implementer adaptation may influence athlete uptake of program…
This article examines a new dimension in the Nigerian Pentecostal understanding of sexuality, which is influenced by the security gospel emanating from Mountain of Fire and Miracles Ministries in Nigeria. This new dimension is noted in how Mountain of Fire and Miracles Ministries intricately connects sexuality with destiny.
Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Tucker, Christine M; Bengtson, Angela; Kupper, Lawrence L; McLean, Samuel A; Martin, Sandra L
The objective of this study is to examine the association between physical and sexual violence exposure and somatic symptoms among female adolescents. We studied a nationally representative sample of 8,531 females, aged 11-21 years, who participated in the 1994-1995 Wave I of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Female adolescents were asked how often they had experienced 16 specific somatic symptoms during the past 12 months. Two summary categorical measures were constructed based on tertiles of the distributions for the entire female sample: (a) total number of different types of symptoms experienced, and (b) number of frequent (once a week or more often) different symptoms experienced. Groups were mutually exclusive. We examined associations between adolescents' violence exposure and somatic symptoms using multinomial logistic regression analyses. About 5 % of adolescent females reported both sexual and non-sexual violence, 3 % reported sexual violence only, 36 % reported non-sexual violence only, and 57 % reported no violence. Adolescents who experienced both sexual and non-sexual violence were the most likely to report many different symptoms and to experience very frequent or chronic symptoms. Likelihood of high symptomatology was next highest among adolescents who experienced sexual violence only, followed by females who experienced non-sexual violence only. Findings support an exposure-response association between violence exposure and somatic symptoms, suggesting that symptoms can be markers of victimization. Treating symptoms alone, without addressing the potential violence experienced, may not adequately improve adolescents' somatic complaints and well-being.
Situations of chronic conflict across the globe make it imperative to draw attention to its gendered health consequences, particularly the violation of women's reproductive and sexual rights. Since early 2002 in Gujarat, western India, the worst kind of state-sponsored violence against Muslims has been perpetrated, which continues to this day. This paper describes the history of that violence and highlights the mental and physical consequences of sexual and gender-based violence and the issues that need to be addressed by the police, the health care system and civil society. It draws upon several reports, including from the International Initiative for Justice and the Medico Friend Circle, which documented the reproductive, sexual and mental health consequences of the violence in Gujarat, and the lacunae in the responses of the health system. The paper calls for non-discrimination to be demonstrated by health personnel in the context of conflict and social unrest. Their training should include conflict as a public health problem, their roles and responsibilities in prevention, treatment and documentation of this "disease", and focus on relevant medico-legal methodology and principles, the psychological impact of sexual assault on victims, and the legal significance of medical evidence in these cases.
Hill, Danielle C; Stein, L A R; Rossi, Joseph S; Magill, Molly; Clarke, Jennifer G
Rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among adolescents are on the rise. The majority of adolescents who contract STIs do so through risky sexual behavior. Previous literature has identified multiple correlates of risky sexual behaviors among adolescents, including physical and sexual victimization, mental health concerns, and substance use. Few studies, however, have examined these relationships together in a comprehensive model. The primary purpose of this study was to examine whether relationship violence was related to risky sexual behavior, and whether mental health symptoms and substance use mediated this relationship. A cross-sectional design was used, and adolescent females (N = 179), recruited from social service agencies, were 18.9 years old on average and were 37.2% White, 19.3% Black, 37.9% multiracial, and 5.6% other. Regression results revealed that females who were physically assaulted and sexually victimized by their intimate partners did engage in more sex without condoms. Mediational analyses indicated that PTSD symptoms significantly influenced the relationship between (1) physical assault and risky sexual behavior and (2) sexual victimization and risky sexual behavior. Contrary to expectations, PTSD may act to reduce risk perhaps by reducing interest in sex. It is important to address victimization, PTSD, and sexual risk in young women. More work is needed to understand these complex relationships using longitudinal designs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Cyr, Mireille; McDuff, Pierre; Wright, John
The purpose of this study was to advance knowledge of dating violence behaviors among adolescent victims of child sexual abuse (CSA), first, by determining the prevalence of psychological and physical dating violence and the reciprocity of violence, and second, by investigating the influence of certain CSA characteristics to dating violence.…
This article presents information on the rape of women in the former Yugoslavia, focusing more on Muslim women in Bosnia-Herzegovina, and examines the evolutionary, sociological, psychological, and feminist theories of this form of sexual violence. Using a case study approach, through documentation from newspapers and other media accounts, this paper investigated the sexual violence that featured strongly in the campaign of ethnic cleansing or genocide of Muslims in Bosnia-Herzegovina. It was noted that the variables of power, sex, and aggression in the context of war seem to be linked. This is particularly evident when authority legitimates sexual aggression. Without the backing of authority, some rape is expected, but not of such proportion or brutality. In terms of the theories, the evolutionary perspective appears to have limited applicability in explaining rape as an act of war. However, the feminist and macrosociological multivariate theories that focus on heterogeneity of the population, a cultural foundation of very traditional gender roles, and a historical tradition that legitimates sexual violence by armies in war-time, provide more persuasive insights.
Berry, Vashti Louise; Stanley, Nicky; Radford, Lorraine; McCarry, Melanie; Larkins, Cath
Independent researchers from the Connect Centre for International Research on Interpersonal Violence based in the School of Social Work at the University of Central Lancashire were commissioned by the Welsh Government in 2013 to conduct research into violence against women, domestic abuse and sexual violence services in Wales. The research aimed to inform the forthcoming Ending Violence Against Women and Domestic Abuse (Wales) Bill, implementation of the legislation and future policy more gen...
Wooten, Sara Carrigan
This article aims to challenge the framework by which rape and sexual assault prevention in higher education are being constituted by centring Black women's experiences of sexual violence within a prevention and response policy framework. Numerous research studies exist in the literature regarding the specific experience of sexual violence for…
Jaffe, Anna E.; Cranston, Christopher C.; Shadlow, Joanna O.
Child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence may have a significant impact on parenting. The current study expands on existing research by examining the effects of child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence on parenting styles and parenting self-efficacy. In women from a parenting intervention program (n = 20), child sexual abuse was…
This paper seeks to develop an understanding of ‘recreational’ youth violence against strangers in ‘moral holidays’. These are enclaves in which youth seek to enjoy disorder and disruption. Drawing on Eliasian theory and Collins’s micro-sociology of violence, it is argued that violent moral holidays
This paper will provide the reader with an understanding of how domestic violence affects the behavior of high school students. The presentation is designed to provide the reader with a working definition of domestic violence, the rate of occurrence and its effects on high school students. Additionally the paper will summarize the negative effects…
Do, Vinh Thi; Ho, Hien Thi; Nguyen, Tri Manh; Do, Huynh Khac
We conducted a cross-sectional study among 148 women who were regular sexual partners of male injecting drug users in Tien Du, Bac Ninh province, Vietnam to identify the rate of HIV infection and factors associated with HIV transmission among them. HIV infection rate among sexual partners was high, 11.5%. Sexual violence was prevalent, 63.5% among sexual partners; 94.1% (16/17) among those with HIV. We discovered an association between sexual violence and HIV infection. Sexual partners suffering from sexual violence caused by their regular sexual partners faced 9.24 times higher HIV risk than those who did not have sexual violence.
Susan Nicole Rayment-McHugh
Full Text Available Endemic sexual violence and abuse has been observed in a number of specific circumstances, most notably conflict zones, remote and marginalised communities, and religious and state institutions. In this article we examine several documented examples and argue that a similar set of causal processes are at work in all of these otherwise apparently disparate circumstances. Rather than construing the problem as ‘organised’ sexual abuse, we present the problem in terms of the breakdown (or disorganisation of usual individual, situational and ecological constraints.
Draucker, Claire Burke; Martsolf, Donna S.
Two qualitative methodologies were used to develop a life course typology of individuals who had been exposed to sexual violence. Interview narratives of 121 adult women and men who participated in qualitative study of women’s and men’s responses to sexual violence provided the data. The authors combined a narrative approach (holistic-content and holistic-form analysis) to describe the life courses of the participants and a qualitative person-oriented approach (cross-case analysis) to identify meaningful sub-groups within the total sample. The six groups are: (a) life of turmoil, (b) life of struggles, (c) diminished life, (d) taking control of life, (e), finding peace in life, and (f) getting life back to normal. This work exemplifies a promising strategy for identifying sub-groups of violence-exposed individuals within a heterogeneous sample. Such a typology could aid the development of treatment approaches that consider both the substance and the structure of an individual’s life course, rather than target one specific type of violence. PMID:19762554
Reported sexual violence among women and children seen at the gynaecological emergency unit of a rural tertiary health facility, northwest Nigeria. ... were known in 83.3% (20/24) of the cases; of which 45.8% (11/24) were neighbors, 29.2% (7/24) were buyers of snacks and drinks while 8.3% (2/24) were family members.
Moynihan, Mary M; Banyard, Victoria L; Cares, Alison C; Potter, Sharyn J; Williams, Linda M; Stapleton, Jane G
Colleges and universities are high-risk settings for sexual and relationship violence. To address these problems, institutions of higher education have implemented prevention programs, many of which train students as potential bystanders who can step in to help diffuse risky situations, identify and challenge perpetrators, and assist victims. The impact of bystander sexual and relationship violence prevention programs on long-term behavior of bystanders has remained a key unanswered question for those who seek to offer the most effective programs as well as for policy makers. In this study, the researchers experimentally evaluated the effectiveness of the Bringing in the Bystander® in-person program. Participants were 948 1st-year college students of whom 47.8% were women and 85.2% identified as White (15% also identified as Hispanic in a separate question) between the ages of 18 and 24 at two universities (one a rural, primarily residential campus and the other an urban, highly commuter campus) in the northeastern United States. To date, this is the first study to have found positive behavior changes as long-lasting as 1 year following an educational workshop focusing on engaging bystanders in preventing sexual and relationship violence. Even so, many questions remain to be answered about prevention and intervention of this type. More prospective research is needed on bystander-focused prevention of these forms of violence to help understand and better predict the complicated relationships both between and among the attitudes and behaviors related to preventing sexual and relationship violence. In this regard, we make specific recommendations for designing and evaluating programs based on our findings relating to the importance of moderators, especially two key understudied ones, readiness to help and opportunity to intervene. © The Author(s) 2014.
Noonan, Rita K; Gibbs, Deborah
This special issue captures several threads in the ongoing evolution of sexual violence prevention. The articles that follow examine an empowerment evaluation process with four promising programs dedicated to preventing first-time male perpetration of sexual violence, as well as evaluation findings. Both the evaluation approach and the programs examined shed light on how sexual violence prevention can continue to be improved in the future.
Leclerc, Benoit; Chiu, Yi-Ning; Cale, Jesse
Most criminal justice responses to address sexual violence and abuse against children are aimed at identifying and incarcerating offenders or at best, trying to prevent them from reoffending. This policy situation, primarily characterized by tertiary intervention strategies, is exacerbated by a lack of evidence-based knowledge about the circumstances in which this phenomenon occurs. This specific information can inform certain types of primary and secondary prevention strategies. In this study, we are taking the first steps to address this situation by (a) organising and reviewing for the first time the empirical knowledge on this phenomenon according to questions asked by environmental criminologists and crime analysts, that is, the who, what, where, when, and how this phenomenon occurs, and (b) discussing directions for future research. By engaging in this exercise, we argue that environmental criminology can substantially contribute to understanding and informing prevention practices in the field of sexual violence and abuse against children. © The Author(s) 2014.
Complainants of sexual assault may disclose to different agencies, the police and health professionals being the most likely. It is possible for certain evidence types to be collected before a clinical forensic assessment takes place that do not require the need for a Forensic Medical Practitioner. If the time frames after the incident and the nature of assault warrant the need for a forensic medical examination of either a complainant or a suspect, this should only be conducted by doctors and nurses who have received relevant, up-to-date specialist theoretical and practical training. Clear evidence shows that few other criminal offences require as extensive an examination and collection of forensic evidence as that of a sexual assault. The forensic evidence in a case may identify an assailant, eliminate a nominated suspect(s), and assist in the prosecution of a case. The elements of forensic medical examination, reviewed in this chapter, are those that are the most varied across jurisdictions around the world currently. Key focus points of this chapter are considerations for early evidence collection, utilising dedicated medical examination facilities for sample collection, contamination issues associated with evidence collection and certain practical aspects of forensic sampling methods which have evolved given results identified by Forensic Scientists processing evidential samples in sexual assault cases, Some of the problems encountered by the forensic science provider will also be discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Boyce, Sabrina; Zeledón, Perla; Tellez, Ever; Barrington, Clare
Gender inequity negatively affects health in Central America. In 2011, we conducted 60 semistructured interviews and 12 photovoice focus groups with young coupled men and women in León, Nicaragua, to explore the ways in which social norms around marriage and gender affect sexual health and gender-based violence. Participants' depictions of their experiences revealed gendered norms around infidelity that provided a narrative to justify male expressions of jealousy, which included limiting partner autonomy, sexual coercion, and physical violence against women, and resulted in increased women's risk of sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. By understanding and taking account of these different narratives and normalized beliefs in developing health- and gender-based violence interventions, such programs might be more effective in promoting gender-equitable attitudes and behaviors among young men and women in Nicaragua.
Wilson, Helen W.; Woods, Briana A.; Emerson, Erin; Donenberg, Geri R.
Objective This study examined the relationship between violence exposure and sexual risk-taking among low-income, urban African American (AA) adolescent girls, considering overlap among different types and characteristics of violence. Methods AA adolescent girls were originally recruited from outpatient mental health clinics serving urban, mostly low-SES communities in Chicago, IL as part of a two-year longitudinal investigation of HIV-risk behavior. A subsequent follow-up was completed to assess lifetime history of trauma and violence exposure. The current study (N=177) included violence exposure and sexual risk behavior reported at the most recent interview (ages 14-22). Multiple regression was used to examine combined and unique contributions of different types, ages, settings, and perpetrators or victims of violence to variance in sexual risk. Results More extensive violence exposure and cumulative exposure to different kinds of violence were associated with overall unsafe sex, more partners, and inconsistent condom use. The most significant unique predictors, accounting for overlap among different forms of violence, were physical victimization, adolescent exposure, neighborhood violence, and violence involving dating partners. Conclusions These findings put sexual risk in the context of broad traumatic experiences but also suggest that the type and characteristics of violence exposure matter in terms of sexual health outcomes. Violence exposure should be addressed in efforts to reduce STIs among low-income, urban African American girls. PMID:24563808
Semple, Shirley J; Stockman, Jamila K; Goodman-Meza, David; Pitpitan, Eileen V; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Chavarin, Claudia V; Rangel, Gudelia; Torres, Karla; Patterson, Thomas L
Sexual violence among men who have sex with men (MSM) is prevalent in developing countries and is associated with increased HIV/STI risk. Despite high HIV prevalence (20 %) among MSM in Tijuana, Mexico, little attention has been paid to the occurrence of sexual violence in this high-risk group. The present study used a syndemic conditions framework to examine correlates of sexual violence victimization in a sample of 201 MSM surveyed in Tijuana, Mexico during 2012 and 2013. Participants were recruited through respondent-driven sampling and underwent a 2-h baseline interview and testing for HIV and syphilis. Sexual violence was defined as any incident during the past year in which the participant had been raped, sexually molested, or sexually harassed. The majority of participants self-identified as gay or bisexual, had never married, were employed, and had a high school education or greater. The average age was 29.7 years. Thirty-nine percent reported sexual violence in the past year. A hierarchical multiple linear regression model predicting more experiences of sexual violence was tested. In a final model, a higher number of experiences of sexual violence was associated with a history of childhood sexual abuse, more adult experiences of homophobia, more depression and hostility symptoms, and not living with a spouse or steady partner. The findings from this study support a model of co-occurring psychosocial factors that increase the likelihood of sexual violence experiences among MSM. Multi-level approaches to the prevention of childhood and adult experiences of sexual violence and homophobia are needed to avert the development of adverse mental and physical health outcomes associated with sexual violence victimization.
Semple, Shirley J.; Stockman, Jamila K.; Goodman-Meza, David; Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Chavarin, Claudia V.; Rangel, Gudelia; Torres, Karla; Patterson, Thomas L.
Sexual violence against men who have sex with men (MSM) is prevalent in developing countries and is associated with increased HIV/STI risk. Despite high HIV prevalence (20%) among MSM in Tijuana, Mexico, little attention has been paid to the occurrence of sexual violence in this high-risk group. The present study used a syndemic conditions framework to examine correlates of sexual violence victimization in a sample of 201 MSM surveyed in Tijuana, Mexico during 2012 and 2013. Participants were recruited through respondent-driven sampling (RDS) and underwent a two-hour baseline interview and testing for HIV and syphilis. Sexual violence was defined as any incident during the past year in which the participant had been raped, sexually molested, or sexually harassed. The majority of participants self-identified as gay or bisexual, had never married, were employed, and had a high school education or greater. The average age was 29.7 years. Thirty-nine percent reported sexual violence in the past year. A hierarchical multiple linear regression model predicting more experiences of sexual violence was tested. In a final model, a higher number of experiences of sexual violence was associated with a history of childhood sexual abuse, more adult experiences of homophobia, more depression and hostility symptoms, and not living with a spouse or steady partner. The findings from this study support a model of co-occurring psychosocial factors that increase the likelihood of sexual violence experiences among MSM. Multi-level approaches to the prevention of childhood and adult experiences of sexual violence and homophobia are needed to avert the development of adverse mental and physical health outcomes associated with sexual violence victimization. PMID:27178173
Goldberg-Looney, Lisa D; Perrin, Paul B; Snipes, Daniel J; Calton, Jenna M
This study examined the coping styles used by sexual minority men who have experienced intimate partner violence, including sexual, emotional and physical victimisation, as well as physical injury. Although sexual minority men experience intimate partner violence at least as often as do heterosexuals, there is currently limited knowledge of intimate partner violence in this community or resources for sexual minority men who experience intimate partner violence. Cross-sectional design. Sexual minority men (N = 89) were recruited as part of a national online survey and completed questionnaires assessing lifetime experiences of intimate partner violence as well as various coping strategies. In terms of intimate partner violence, 34·8% of participants reported having been targets of sexual abuse, 38·2% targets of physical abuse, 69·7% targets of psychological abuse and 28·1% had experienced an injury as a result of intimate partner violence during their lifetime. Canonical correlation analyses found that intimate partner violence victimisation explained 32·5% of the variance in adaptive and 31·4% of the variance in maladaptive coping behaviours. In the adaptive coping canonical correlation, standardised loadings suggested that sexual minority men who experienced intimate partner violence resulting in injury were more likely to use religious coping, but less likely to use planning coping. In the maladaptive coping canonical correlation, sexual minority men who had been targets of intimate partner sexual victimisation and intimate partner violence resulting in injury tended to engage in increased behavioural disengagement coping. This study revealed several coping behaviours that are more or less likely as the severity of different forms of intimate partner violence increases. The identification of these coping styles could be applied to the development and modification of evidence-based interventions to foster effective and discourage ineffective coping styles
And while there have been many initiatives to address it, studies evaluating the situation remain limited. There is a clear need for evidence to support advocacy, inform national planning and budgeting, and monitor impact. Violence against children is preventable. Developing and implementing effective prevention strategies ...
The aim of this thesis is the better understanding of structural sexual violence against women. Through a human rights approach, the author examines the link between the gendered discriminatory policies against women and the occurrences of sexual violence against female soldiers within the Peruvian Armed Forces. This empirical study demonstrates that whereas civil and political rights must be respected and enforced, the satisfaction of socio-economic rights is also a key element for the preve...
Breiding, Matthew J; Basile, Kathleen C; Klevens, Joanne; Smith, Sharon G
Previous research has consistently found that low SES is associated with higher levels of both intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual violence (SV) victimization. Though associated with poverty, two indicators of economic insecurity, food and housing insecurity, have been identified as conceptually distinct social determinants of health. This study examined the relationship between food and housing insecurity experienced in the preceding 12 months and IPV and SV victimization experienced in the preceding 12 months, after controlling for SES and other demographic variables. Data were from the 2010 National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, a nationally representative telephone survey of U.S. adults. In 2016, multivariate logistic regression modeling was used to examine the association between food and housing insecurity and multiple forms of IPV and SV victimization. Robust associations were found between food and housing insecurity experienced in the preceding 12 months and IPV and SV experienced in the preceding 12 months, for women and men, even after controlling for age, family income, race/ethnicity, education, and marital status. Food and housing insecurity may be important considerations for the prevention of SV and IPV or the reductions of their consequences, although future research is needed to disentangle the direction of the association. Strategies aimed at buffering economic insecurity may reduce vulnerability to IPV and SV victimization. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Luis Eduardo Wearick-Silva; Saulo G. Tractenberg; Mateus L. Levandowski; Thiago W. Viola; Joelza M. A. Pires; Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira
Introduction: Recurrent exposure to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) seems to be higher among victims of sexual abuse. In this sense, experiences related to sexual violence can perpetuate within the family context itself in various ways. Here, we investigate the association between being exposed to CSA and having a child victim of sexual abuse. Method: We used a sample with 123 mothers, who were divided into 2 groups: one consisting of 41 mothers of sexually abused children and another consi...
Lormand, Donna K.; Markham, Christine M.; Peskin, Melissa F.; Byrd, Theresa L.; Addy, Robert C.; Baumler, Elizabeth; Tortolero, Susan R.
Background: Whereas dating violence among high school students has been linked with sexual risk-taking and substance use, this association has been understudied among early adolescents. We estimated the prevalence of physical and nonphysical dating violence in a sample of middle school students and examined associations between dating violence,…
Sharkey, Jill D; Reed, Lauren A; Felix, Erika D
Rigorous research and program evaluation are needed to understand the experience of dating and sexual violence among youth and the impact of prevention and intervention efforts. Our dilemma in doing this work occurred when youth disclosed dating and sexual violence on a research survey. What responsibility do researchers have to protect survivors' confidentiality as a research participant versus taking steps to ensure the student has the opportunity to access help? In our evaluation of a pilot dating violence prevention program, our protocols employed widely used procedures for providing resources to participants upon their completion of the survey and de-identifying survey data. Upon reviewing preliminary survey results, we became concerned that these established procedures were not sufficient to support research participants who were adolescent survivors of dating and sexual violence. We followed a structured ethical decision-making process to examine legal and ethical considerations, consult with colleagues, consider impacts and alternative solutions, and ultimately find a solution. Through this process, we developed procedures that balance participant confidentiality and the desire to support the welfare of survivors, which other researchers may want to employ when conducting youth sexual and dating violence research in school and community settings. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.
Banyard, Victoria L.; Moynihan, Mary M.; Crossman, Maria T.
Sexual violence is a widespread problem for college communities. Students, faculty, and staff are increasingly involved in prevention efforts. To date, however, evaluation of sexual violence prevention programs has shown mixed results. One promising new practice teaches segments of college communities to be engaged, positive bystanders. It aims to…
This study has set out to investigate the legacy of post-genocide judicial institutions mandated to adjudicate cases of genocide and related offences vis-à-vis genocidal gender and sexual violence. The study takes the complex genocidal experience of victims of gender and sexual violence as the
McMahon, Sarah; Postmus, Judy L.; Koenick, Ruth Anne
Bystander intervention offers promise as a sexual violence prevention tool for student affairs administrators on college campuses, but the conceptualization and definition of the approach is in its infancy and needs further development. In an effort to emphasize the potential role of bystanders in the primary prevention of sexual violence, we put…
Emusu, Donath; Ivankova, Nataliya; Jolly, Pauline; Kirby, Russell; Foushee, Herman; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Katongole, Drake; Ehiri, John
HIV-serodiscordant relationships are those in which one partner is infected with HIV while the other is not. We investigated experiences of sexual violence among women in HIV discordant unions attending HIV post-test club services in Uganda. A volunteer sample of 26 women from three AIDS Information Centres in Uganda who reported having experienced sexual violence in a larger epidemiological study were interviewed, using the qualitative critical incident technique. Data were analysed using TEXTPACK, a software application for computer-assisted content analysis. Incidents of sexual violence narrated by the women included use of physical force and verbal threats. Overall, four themes that characterise the women’s experience of sexual violence emerged from the analysis: knowledge of HIV test results, prevalence of sexual violence, vulnerability and proprietary views and reactions to sexual violence. Alcohol abuse by the male partners was an important factor in the experience of sexual violence among the women. Their experiences evoked different reactions and feelings, including concern over the need to have children, fear of infection, desire to separate from their spouses/partners, helplessness, anger and suicidal tendencies. HIV counselling and testing centres should be supported with the capacity to address issues related to sexual violence for couples who are HIV discordant. PMID:20024712
Studies indicate that girls and women encounter sexual violence in their day-to-day social life in all cultures and societies. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sexual violence against female students in Wolaita Sodo University; 374 female students provided responses to self-administered questionnaire. The study revealed 23.4% (95%…
Martsolf, Donna S.; Draucker, Claire B.; Cook, Christina B.; Ross, Ratchneewan; Stidham, Andrea Warner; Mweemba, Prudencia
Sexual violence occurs at alarming rates in children and adults. Survivors experience myriad negative health outcomes and legal problems, which place them in need of professional services. A meta-summary was conducted of 31 published qualitative studies on adults' responses to sexual violence, with a focus on survivors' use of professional…
Sales, Jessica; Krause, Kathleen
Creating a normative campus environment intolerant to sexual violence is important for prevention. While prevention initiatives focusing on students are vital, faculty and staff have a central role in supporting and sustaining a comprehensive strategy for preventing campus sexual violence. Nationwide, colleges and universities recently implemented…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual violence within marriage is a public health and human rights issue; yet it remains a much neglected research area, especially in Nepal. This paper represents one of the first attempts to quantify the extent of sexual violence and its determinants among young married women in Nepal. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1,296 married women aged 15–24 years in four major ethnic groups in rural Nepal. The survey data were used to estimate the prevalence and identify determinants of sexual violence. The relative importance of different correlates of sexual violence in the past 12 months at the individual, household and community levels were examined by using a multi-level multivariate statistical approach. Results Of the young women surveyed 46% had experienced sexual violence at some point and 31% had experienced sexual violence in the past 12 months. Women’s autonomy was found to be particularly protective against sexual violence both at the individual and community level. Women’s educational level was not found to be protective, while the educational level of the husband was found to be highly protective. Conclusions The high prevalence of sexual violence against young women by husbands found in this study is a matter for serious concern and underscores the need for a comprehensive response by policymakers.
Macy, Rebecca J.; Giattina, Mary C.; Parish, Susan L.; Crosby, Carmen
More than 20 years ago, concerns were raised about whether domestic violence and sexual assault agencies need for stable funding would conflict with the values that initiated these respective movements. Since then, the movements have evolved considerably. Therefore, it is timely to investigate the challenges domestic violence and sexual assault…
... speak out and share common experiences had a significant impact on the psychological recovery and emotional well-being of these women. Read about what IDRC grantees are doing to challenge impunity against sexual violence in our brochure, Ending sexual and gender-based violence in English, French or Spanish ...
Luis Eduardo Wearick-Silva
Full Text Available Introduction: Recurrent exposure to childhood sexual abuse (CSA seems to be higher among victims of sexual abuse. In this sense, experiences related to sexual violence can perpetuate within the family context itself in various ways. Here, we investigate the association between being exposed to CSA and having a child victim of sexual abuse. Method: We used a sample with 123 mothers, who were divided into 2 groups: one consisting of 41 mothers of sexually abused children and another consisting of 82 mothers of non-sexually abused children. History of exposure to CSA was evaluated by means of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire - Short Form (CTQ and we used a logistic regression model to estimate the prediction values regarding having or not a child exposed to sexual violence. Results: Mothers of sexually abused children had significantly higher scores on CTQ, especially on the sexual abuse subscale (SA. According to our logistic regression model, higher scores on the CTQ significantly predicted the status of being a mother of children exposed to sexual violence in our sample (Wald = 7.074; p = 0.008; Exp(B = 1.681. Years of formal education reduced the likelihood of having a child victim of sexual violence (Wald = 18.994; p = 0.001; Exp(B = 0.497. Conclusion: Our findings highlight the importance of a possible intergenerational effect of sexual abuse. Family intervention and prevention against childhood maltreatment should take this issue in account.
Zijlstra, E.; LoFoWong, S.; Hutschemaekers, G.; Lagro-Janssen, A.
INTRODUCTION: Worldwide, sexual and family violence are highly prevalent problems. Victims of sexual and family violence often do not seek formal help in the acute phase. When they do seek help, they encounter a system of scattered care. For this reason, a centre for sexual and family violence was
Rouhani, Shada A; Scott, Jennifer; Greiner, Ashley; Albutt, Katherine; Hacker, Michele R; Kuwert, Philipp; VanRooyen, Michael; Bartels, Susan
Since armed conflict began in 1996, widespread sexual violence in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo has resulted in many sexual violence-related pregnancies (SVRPs). However, there are limited data on the relationships between mothers and their children from sexual violence. This study aimed to evaluate the nature and determinants of these maternal-child relationships. Using respondent-driven sampling, 757 women raising children from SVRPs in South Kivu Province, Democratic Republic of Congo were interviewed. A parenting index was created from questions assessing the maternal-child relationship. The influences of social stigma, family and community acceptance, and maternal mental health on the parenting index were assessed in univariate and multivariable analyses. The majority of mothers reported positive attitudes toward their children from SVRPs. Prevalence of perceived family or community stigma toward the women or their children ranged from 31.8% to 42.9%, and prevalence of perceived family or community acceptance ranged from 45.2% to 73.5%. In multivariable analyses, stigma toward the child, as well as maternal anxiety and depression, were associated with lower parenting indexes, whereas acceptance of the mother or child and presence of a spouse were associated with higher parenting indexes (all P ≤ .01). In this study with a large sample size, stigma and mental health disorders negatively influenced parenting attitudes, whereas family and community acceptance were associated with adaptive parenting attitudes. Interventions to reduce stigmatization, augment acceptance, and improve maternal mental health may improve the long-term well-being of mothers and children from SVRPs. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Banyard, Victoria L; Rizzo, Andrew J; Bencosme, Yamilex; Cares, Alison C; Moynihan, Mary M
The prevalence of sexual violence crimes on U.S. college campuses is prompting institutions of higher education to increasingly invest in centers to support survivors and programs to prevent the violence before it happens. Understanding bystanders to sexual violence and what may motivate them to step in and help is a promising prevention strategy. The purpose of this study was to understand how potential active bystanders' (first-year college students) perceptions of community (including a sense of one's influence in the community and positive peer norms for helping) and individual beliefs about self (including sense of responsibility and self-efficacy) affect their self-reports of performing bystander behavior to address sexual violence risks. Participants were 948 students at two different universities (one a rural, primarily residential campus and the other an urban, mostly commuter campus) in the northeastern United States. Regression and path analysis quantitative results suggest that individual-level characteristics may mediate some of the impact that community-level norms and perceptions have on bystander outcomes, explaining some of the mixed findings in previous research. Prevention strategies should work to change community norms and perceptions of mattering and perceptions of community influence in addition to the more traditional focus on individual-level violence specific attitudes.
Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Abolghasemi, Naria; Smith, Thomas G
Sexuality education (SE) is hotly contested in the West and there is much abstinence-only education; however, it remains controversial in a variety of contexts, including in Iran. The lack of consensus about children's SE in Muslim societies obliges us to explore different aspects of this topic systematically. The qualitative research presented here was about how Iranian parents perceived children's sexuality. Data from parents of 26 children were collected during four focus group sessions. Informants were selected from Area 5 in West Tehran. This area included 72 primary schools for girls and 82 for boys. The sessions were facilitated by using a semi-structured focus group guide. Content analysis was adopted using combined free and analytical coding to reduce data, to extract meanings, and to categorize domains. One of the three main domains identified, family management of child sexuality, is comprised of the following: (1) understanding of child sexuality, (2) family rules, (3) parent-child interactions, and (4) opposite sex interactions. Parental misinformation, accumulated myths, and ignorance about children's sexual development were evident. Strict family rules and a lack of consistent policy and instruction for SE were also identified. Parents said they were neither well-prepared nor competent to educate their children about sexuality. In fact, a majority of mothers raised "incompetence" as an important determinant in their own parent-child interactions. Societal changes as well as children's socialization patterns have forced parents to accept their children's opposite sex friendships as a reality. Results suggest a community need for developing comprehensive and culturally sensitive SE for schools and parental use.
Basile, Kathleen C.; Hall, Jeffrey E.
This study assessed the construct validity of two different measurement models of male partners' perpetration of physical violence, sexual violence, psychological abuse, and stalking against intimate partners. Data were obtained from a sample of 340 men arrested for physical assault of a female spouse or partner and court ordered into batterer…
Full Text Available Introduction: Domestic violence is one of the most important public health priorities that directly or indirectly impact on pregnancy outcomes. Given the importance of sexuality in pregnancy and its effect on marital relations, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between sexual satisfaction and violence against pregnant women.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 430 pregnant women admitted to Fatemiyeh hospital in Shahroud during the first quarter of 2015, after obtaining informed consent, were selected to complete Larson Sexual Satisfaction Scale and ENRICH Marital Satisfaction Scale as well as Domestic Violence questionnaire. Relationships between variables were analyzed using structural equation modeling.Results: The mean age of mothers was 28±5.2 years. Prevalence of domestic violence was reported 84.4% in this study. The 81.2% of participants reported physical violence, 55.8% reported emotional violence and 25.3% reported sexual violence. The mean score of marital satisfaction in women with domestic violence (162.5 ± 28.9 was significantly lower than that in pregnant women without domestic violence (188.7 ± 31.4. A significant negative relationship was observed between sexual satisfaction and marital satisfaction with the domestic violence, --0.42 and –0.61, respectively.Conclusion: Considering the high prevalence of domestic violence and its significant relationship with marital satisfaction and sexual satisfaction in this study, interventions and counseling are recommended to increase marital satisfaction and sexual satisfaction and to reduce domestic violence during pregnancy.
Voisin, Dexter R; Hotton, Anna L; Neilands, Torsten B
Exposure to community violence and HIV sexual risks are two major public health concerns among youth. This study tests various pathways linking exposure to community violence and sexual behaviors among African American adolescents. Using a sample of 563 (61% females) African American youth attending high school we examined whether problematic psychological symptoms, low school engagement, and/or negative perceptions of peer norms about safer sex functioned as pathways linking exposure to community violence and sexual behaviors. Major findings indicated that, for boys, the relationship between exposure to community violence and sexual début and sexual risk behaviors were linked by aggression. In addition, the relationship between exposure to community violence and sexual risk behaviors were linked by negative perceptions of peer attitudes about safer sex. For girls, the relationship between exposure to community violence and sexual début was linked by aggression and negative perceptions of peer attitudes about safer sex. These findings provide support for pathways linking exposure to community violence to sexual behaviors.
Kilonzo, Nduku; Ndung'u, Njoki; Nthamburi, Nerida; Ajema, Caroline; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; Theobald, Sally; Tolhurst, Rachel
Six sub-Saharan African countries currently have laws on sexual violence, including Kenya, and eight others have provisions on sexual violence in other legislation. Effective legislation requires functioning medico-legal linkages to enable both justice to be done in cases of sexual violence and the provision of health services for survivors of sexual violence. The health sector also needs to provide post-rape care services and collect and deliver evidence to the criminal justice system. This paper reviews existing data on sexual violence in sub-Saharan Africa, and summarises the content of sexual violence legislation in the region and the strengths and weaknesses of existing medico-legal linkages, using Kenya as a case study. Many sub-Saharan African countries do not yet have comprehensive post-rape care services, nor substantial co-ordination between HIV and sexual and reproductive health services, the legal and judicial systems, and sexual violence legislation. These need to be integrated by cross-referrals, using standardised referral guidelines and pathways, treatment protocols, and medico-legal procedures. Common training approaches and harmonised information across sectors, and common indicators, would facilitate government accountability. Joint and collaborative planning and working at country level, through sharing of information and data between the different systems remain key to achieving this.
Rafaella Queiroga Souto
Full Text Available Objective: To describe the profile of people submitted to the Indecent Assault Evaluation (IAE at the Nucleus for Legal Medicine and Dentistry (NUMOL in Campina Grande - PB, Brazil. Methods: This is a descriptive and documentary survey carried out with medical reports of incident assault performed against men and women of any age, who were evaluated at the Nucleus for Legal Medicine and Dentistry (NUMOL in Campina Grande - PB, Brasil, from 2005 to 2009. Data collection instrument was a specially designed form based on existing information in the IAE records. Data was recorded in SPSS, version 17, and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: Male individuals (n = 85; 62%, under the age of 20 (n = 112; 81.8% were the main victims. The notification of sexual violence was carried out by the parents (n = 34; 24.8%, mostly by the mother (n = 27; 19.7%, and the police stations were the most frequent location to express the complaint (n = 134; 97.8%. The violence was committed by a single perpetrator (n = 78; 56.9%, who was known by the victim (n = 88; 64.2%. The crime of rape was confirmed in (n = 48 35% of cases. Conclusion: The men, most of them young, are the main victims of indecent assault, and violence is committed by one individual, member of the victim’s social circle.
Axelsson, Jakob; Modén, Birgit; Rosvall, Maria; Lindström, Martin
To study the association between sexual orientation and self-rated health, including trust, offence, threat of violence, and violence. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS/MEASUREMENT: The 2008 Public Health Survey in Skåne is a cross-sectional postal questionnaire study. A total of 28,198 persons aged 18-80 years responded (55%). Logistic regressions analysed the association between sexual orientation and self-rated health. 27.4% of all men and 30.0% of all women rated their health as poor. Poor self-rated health was significantly more prevalent in higher age, among immigrants, people with lower education, low social support, low trust, experience of being offended, experience of threat of violence and violence, and bisexual and other orientation. Homosexual and bisexual men and women had higher age-adjusted odds ratios of having felt offended compared to heterosexual respondents. The odds ratios of low trust, threat of violence (men), and experience of violence (women) were significant for respondents with bisexual orientation but not for respondents with homosexual orientation. In the age-adjusted model, no significant association was observed between homosexual orientation and poor self-rated health among women. All other associations between sexual orientation and health were significant in the age-adjusted model but non-significant in the multiple models. Associations between sexual orientation and health disappear after multiple adjustments including trust and experience of offence, threat of violence, and violence. The study suggests that the group with bisexual orientation seems to be more exposed to low social capital (trust), threat of violence, and violence than the group with homosexual orientation.
Villaseñor-Farías, Martha; Castañeda-Torres, Jorge D
To analyze perceived meanings of masculinity and power related to sexual violence among adolescents. A qualitative study was carried out between 1998 and 2000 in the metropolitan area of Guadalajara, Mexico, among 155 junior high and high school male/female students. Information was collected from 12 focal groups in two-hour sessions. Data collection instruments included: interviews, observation, and instruction guides. Data were recorded using notes and tape recordings. Oral and written information was transcribed, categorized, and coded, in order to construct matrixes and interpret results. Symbolic explanatory concepts related with rape included: constructivism vs. naturalism, heteronomous moral posture, and early exchange towards respect and human rights. Females were perceived as the real and potential victims. Males were perceived as violent by nature or under challenge, and prone to be victimized only if they were children, unmanly, or homosexual. Analysis objects included motives, power, female refusal, accusation, consequences, management, and prevention. Sexual violence is symbolized within the realm of explanatory and moral controversy. The ideological values of masculinity legitimate both legal and judiciary impunity. Social meanings and adolescent participation should be considered in research and interventions.
Wazlawik, Martin; Christmann, Bernd; Dekker, Arne
Prevention of sexual violence against children and adolescents obtains high priority in educational contexts. This is due to the massive (possible) psychosocial impacts of sexual victimization as well as to the considerable prevalence rates that are reported in current studies. Preventive approaches are predominantly native to violence prevention and sex education where they are characterized by independent lines of tradition and positions. This contribution outlines their empirically largely unexplained relation with a focus on the history and development of the discourses of sex education. Diverging disciplinary attempts of positioning towards the prevention of sexual violence reveal an area of conflict between sex-positive and preventive educational objectives. A primacy of preventive contents is seen to be threatening a comprehensive sex education that emphasizes the positive aspects of sexuality. On the other hand, its standards are opposed to excluding and to tabooing sexual violence as a topic. Yet unfinished is therefore the search for a "third way" that might transfer the opposites of both approaches into integrative educational concepts. Unsettled questions about possible contributions of sex education to the prevention of sexual violence, and especially to which extent they are sensitive to difference are discussed based on international research and the theory of sex education.
Nyamhanga, Tumaini M; Frumence, Gasto
There is a dearth of empirical research illuminating possible connections between gender imbalances and sexual violence among married women in Tanzania. There is a need to generate in-depth information on the connectivity between gender imbalances (asymmetrical resource ownership, sexual decision making, roles, and norms) and sexual violence plus associated HIV risky sexual behavior among married women. This paper is based on a qualitative case study that involved use of focus group discussions (FGDs). A thematic analysis approach was used in analyzing the study findings. The study findings are presented under the three structures of gender and power theory. On sexual division of labor, our study found that economic powerlessness exposes women to sexual violence. This study suggests that married women experience a sexual risk of acquiring HIV that results from non-consensual sex. That non-consensual sex is a function of gender imbalances - ranging from women's economic dependence on their husbands or partners to socioculturally rooted norms and expectations regarding women's sexual behavior. The HIV risk is especially heightened because masculine sexual norms encourage men [husbands/partners] to engage in unprotected intra- and extramarital sex. It is recommended that the Tanzania Commission for AIDS (TACAIDS) should address the gender dimensions of sexual violence in marriage.
Ybarra, Michele L; Thompson, Richard E
This study aims to report the epidemiology of sexual violence (SV) perpetration for both female and male youth across a broad age spectrum. Additionally, the etiology of SV perpetration is examined by identifying prior exposures that predict a first SV perpetration. Six waves of data were collected nationally online, between 2006 and 2012, from 1586 youth between 10 and 21 years of age. Five types of SV were assessed: sexual harassment, sexual assault, coercive sex, attempted rape, and rape. To identify how prior exposures may predict the emergence of SV in adolescence, parsimonious lagged multivariable logistic regression models estimated the odds of first perpetrating each of the five types of SV within the context of other variables (e.g., rape attitudes). Average age at first perpetration was between 15 and 16 years of age, depending on SV type. Several characteristics were more commonly reported by perpetrators than non-perpetrators (e.g., alcohol use, other types of SV perpetration and victimization). After adjusting for potentially influential characteristics, prior exposure to parental spousal abuse and current exposure to violent pornography were each strongly associated with the emergence of SV perpetration-attempted rape being the exception for violent pornography. Current aggressive behavior was also significantly implicated in all types of first SV perpetration except rape. Previous victimization of sexual harassment and current victimization of psychological abuse in relationships were additionally predictive of one's first SV perpetration, albeit in various patterns. In this national longitudinal study of different types of SV perpetration among adolescent men and women, findings suggest several malleable factors that need to be targeted, especially scripts of inter-personal violence that are being modeled by abusive parents in youths' homes and also reinforced by violent pornography. The predictive value of victimization for a subsequent first SV
Full Text Available The prevalence of physical violence during pregnancy varies widely in different societies. To assess the incidence of self-reported physical, emotional and sexual violence in pregnancy and describe the association with maternal complication and birth outcomes, 3275 women who gave birth to live-born infants from October 2002 to November 2003 were assessed for self-reported violence in postpartum units of Obstetrics Department of Babol university of Medical Sciences. Outcome data included maternal antenatal hospitalizations, labor and delivery complications and low birth weights and preterm births. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to measure the association between violence, maternal morbidity and birth outcomes. The prevalence of physical, sexual and emotional domestic violence was respectively 9.1%, 30.8% and 19.2%. Compared with those not reporting physical, sexual and emotional violence, women who did were more likely to deliver by cesarean and to have abnormal progress of labor, premature rupture of membranes, low birth weight, preterm birth and any hospitalization before delivery. Prevalence of physical, emotional or sexual violence during pregnancy was high and was associated with adverse fetal and maternal conditions. These findings support routine screening for physical, emotional and sexual violence in pregnancy and postpartum period to prevent consequences of domestic violence.
Latimer, Jennifer; Fleckman, Julia; Wallace, Maeve; Rountree, Michele; Theall, Katherine
This study examines the implications of a history of personal violence on health and health behaviors. A secondary analysis of cross-sectional data involving adults (n = 214) from a semirural area in southern Louisiana between October 2008 and December 2010 was conducted to ascertain the association between a personal history of violence victimization and indicators of sexual health behaviors and outcomes: communication with sexual partners about HIV status, consistent condom use, and sexually transmitted infection (STI). While violence victimization is widely accepted as a risk factor for high-risk sex behavior, the mechanisms underlying violence victimization's influence on sexual health outcomes remain unclear. Bivariate analyses demonstrated a significant positive association between experience of physical abuse and lifetime history of STI. Surprisingly, respondents reporting lifetime physical violence were more than two times more likely to ask sexual partners about HIV status [odds ratio (OR) for physical attack = 2.23, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.00-4.97; OR for physical injury = 4.60, 95% CI = 1.79-11.85]. Consistent condom use was not significantly associated with violence exposure in adjusted models. There was no evidence that communication with sexual partners mediated the relationship between experiences of violence and condom use. The link between personal history of violence and condom use may be mediated through alternative pathways beyond communication.
Spector, Paul E; Zhou, Zhiqing E; Che, Xin Xuan
This paper provides a quantitative review that estimates exposure rates by type of violence, setting, source, and world region. A quantitative review of the nursing violence literature was summarized. A literature search was conducted using the CINAHL, Medline and PsycInfo data bases. Studies included had to report empirical results using a nursing sample, and include data on bullying, sexual harassment, and/or violence exposure rates. A total of 136 articles provided data on 151,347 nurses from 160 samples. Articles were identified through a database search and by consulting reference lists of review articles that were located. Relevant data were coded by the three authors. Categories depended on the availability of at least five studies. Exposure rates were coded as percentages of nurses in the sample who reported a given type of violence. Five types of violence were physical, nonphysical, bullying, sexual harassment, and combined (type of violence was not indicated). Setting, timeframe, country, and source of violence were coded. Overall violence exposure rates were 36.4% for physical violence, 66.9% for nonphysical violence, 39.7% for bullying, and 25% for sexual harassment, with 32.7% of nurses reporting having been physically injured in an assault. Rates of exposure varied by world region (Anglo, Asia, Europe and Middle East), with the highest rates for physical violence and sexual harassment in the Anglo region, and the highest rates of nonphysical violence and bullying in the Middle East. Regions also varied in the source of violence, with patients accounting for most of it in Anglo and European regions, whereas patents' families/friends were the most common source in the Middle East. About a third of nurses worldwide indicated exposure to physical violence and bullying, about a third reported injury, about a quarter experienced sexual harassment, and about two-thirds indicated nonphysical violence. Physical violence was most prevalent in emergency
Riazi, Hedyeh; Alaei, Shima; Emamhadi, Mohammadali; Nazparvar, Bashir; Salmani, Fatemeh
Sexual violence is a serious public health problem which is common around the world. The aim of this study was to evaluate spiritual health and self-esteem in sexual violence victims. This cross-sectional study was performed on 66 subjects in the group of sexual violence women and 147 subjects in the group of women with no experience of sexual violence who referred to Tehran Forensic Medical Center and the health centers of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences respectively, in 2015, in Tehran, Iran. Sexual violence was considered as vaginal or anal penetration. Paloutzian & Ellison spiritual health questionnaire and Rosenberg self-esteem scale were used for data collecting. Data were analyzed using IBM-SPSS version 21. The Kolmogorov Simonov test was used for normality distribution of variables. Descriptive and the Mann-Whitney tests were used to analyze the data. Statistical significance was set to pself-esteem in the two groups (M1: 21.89, M2: 21.02; p=0.76) while a significant difference was seen between the mean scores of spiritual health, which indicates a lower level of spiritual health in women with sexual violence (M1: 74.59 (2.03), M2: 86.39 (3.12); pimportance of spirituality in sexual violence so policies to promote spiritual health are recommended to protect women.
Szalacha, Laura A; Hughes, Tonda L; McNair, Ruth; Loxton, Deborah
We examined the relationships among experiences of interpersonal violence, mental health, and sexual identity in a national sample of young adult women in Australia. We used existing data from the third (2003) wave of young adult women (aged 25-30) in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH). We conducted bivariate analyses and fit multiple and logistic regression models to test experiences of six types of interpersonal violence (physical abuse, severe physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, harassment, and being in a violent relationship), and the number of types of violence experienced, as predictors of mental health. We compared types and number of types of violence across sexual identity subgroups. Experiences of interpersonal violence varied significantly by sexual identity. Controlling for demographic characteristics, compared to exclusively heterosexual women, mainly heterosexual and bisexual women were significantly more likely to report physical, sexual, and emotional abuse. Mainly heterosexual and lesbian women were more likely to report severe physical abuse. Mainly heterosexual women were more than three times as likely to have been in a violent relationship in the past three years, and all three sexual minority subgroups were two to three times as likely to have experienced harassment. Bisexual women reported significantly higher levels of depression than any of the other sexual identity groups and scored lower on mental health than did exclusively heterosexual women. In linear regression models, interpersonal violence strongly predicted poorer mental health for lesbian and bisexual women. Notably, mental health indicators were similar for exclusively heterosexual and sexual minority women who did not report interpersonal violence. Experiencing multiple types of interpersonal violence was the strongest predictor of stress, anxiety and depression. Interpersonal violence is a key contributor to mental health disparities
Schulze, Corina; Perkins, Wendy
The sexual victimization of sexual minorities enrolled in college is not a topic that has been well researched. The present study examines the awareness that college minority students have of services they can access in the event they experience sexual violence. The results indicate that many students are unaware of specific services that they can…
Teitelman, Anne M.; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Morales-Aleman, Mercedes M.; Sullivan, Cris M.
This study examined the association between sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence, and condom use among African American and Hispanic urban girls. In this sample of 56 sexually active girls, 50% did not use condoms consistently and therefore were at higher risk for acquiring HIV or sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Teens who…
Ihongbe, Timothy O.; Cha, Susan; Masho, Saba W.
Background: Research has shown that early age of sexual debut is associated with physical dating violence (PDV), but sex-specific associations are sparse. We estimated the prevalence of PDV victimization in high school students who have initiated sexual intercourse and examined sex-specific association between age of sexual debut and PDV…
Shorey, Ryan C.; Fite, Paula J.; Choi, HyeJeong; Cohen, Joseph R.; Stuart, Gregory L.; Temple, Jeff R.
Objective To examine dating violence perpetration and victimization (physical, psychological, and sexual) and lifetime substance use (alcohol, marijuana, and hard drugs) as longitudinal predictors of adolescents’ risky sexual behavior across one year, and to determine whether predictors varied across adolescents’ gender and ethnicity. Methods A sample of Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic male and female adolescents from 7 public high schools in Texas (N = 882) participated. Adolescents completed self-report measures of dating violence, lifetime substance use, and risky sexual behavior at baseline and, 1-year later, completed a second assessment of their risky sexual behavior. Results Path analysis demonstrated that greater physical dating violence victimization, lifetime alcohol use, lifetime marijuana use, and age (being older) were all significant predictors of risky sexual behavior at the 1-year follow-up. These results did not vary across gender or the three ethnic groups (Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic). Conclusions Overall, substance use was a longitudinal predictor of risky sexual behavior across the three ethnic groups, with physical dating violence victimization being the only type of dating violence longitudinally predicting risky sexual behavior. Prevention efforts should consider the roles of physical dating violence and substance use in preventing risky sexual behavior. PMID:25797949
Shorey, Ryan C; Fite, Paula J; Choi, HyeJeong; Cohen, Joseph R; Stuart, Gregory L; Temple, Jeff R
The objectives of this study is to examine dating violence perpetration and victimization (physical, psychological, and sexual) and lifetime substance use (alcohol, marijuana, and hard drugs) as longitudinal predictors of adolescents' risky sexual behavior across 1 year and to determine whether predictors varied across adolescents' gender and ethnicity. A sample of Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic male and female adolescents from seven public high schools in Texas (N = 882) participated. Adolescents completed self-report measures of dating violence, lifetime substance use, and risky sexual behavior at baseline and, 1-year later, completed a second assessment of their risky sexual behavior. Path analysis demonstrated that greater physical dating violence victimization, lifetime alcohol use, lifetime marijuana use, and age (being older) were all significant predictors of risky sexual behavior at the 1-year follow-up. These results did not vary across gender or the three ethnic groups (Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic). Overall, substance use was a longitudinal predictor of risky sexual behavior across the three ethnic groups, with physical dating violence victimization being the only type of dating violence longitudinally predicting risky sexual behavior. Prevention efforts should consider the roles of physical dating violence and substance use in preventing risky sexual behavior.
Tumaini M. Nyamhanga
Full Text Available Background: There is a dearth of empirical research illuminating possible connections between gender imbalances and sexual violence among married women in Tanzania. There is a need to generate in-depth information on the connectivity between gender imbalances (asymmetrical resource ownership, sexual decision making, roles, and norms and sexual violence plus associated HIV risky sexual behavior among married women. Design: This paper is based on a qualitative case study that involved use of focus group discussions (FGDs. A thematic analysis approach was used in analyzing the study findings. Results: The study findings are presented under the three structures of gender and power theory. On sexual division of labor, our study found that economic powerlessness exposes women to sexual violence. On sexual division of power, our study found that perception of the man as a more powerful partner in marriage is enhanced by the biased marriage arrangement and alcohol consumption. On cathexis, this study has revealed that because of societal norms and expectations regarding women's sexual behavior characterized by their sexual and emotional attachments to men, women find it hard to leave sexually abusive marriages. That is, because of societal expectations of obedience and compelled tolerance many married women do suffer in silence. They find themselves trapped in marriages that increase their risk of acquiring HIV. Conclusions: This study suggests that married women experience a sexual risk of acquiring HIV that results from non-consensual sex. That non-consensual sex is a function of gender imbalances – ranging from women's economic dependence on their husbands or partners to socioculturally rooted norms and expectations regarding women's sexual behavior. The HIV risk is especially heightened because masculine sexual norms encourage men [husbands/partners] to engage in unprotected intra- and extramarital sex. It is recommended that the Tanzania
Full Text Available There is a scarcity of data on the association of sexual violence and women's subsequent obstetric outcomes. Our aim was to investigate whether women exposed to sexual violence as teenagers (12-19 years of age or adults present with different obstetric outcomes than women with no record of such violence.We linked detailed prospectively collected information on women attending a Rape Trauma Service (RTS to the Icelandic Medical Birth Registry (IBR. Women who attended the RTS in 1993-2010 and delivered (on average 5.8 years later at least one singleton infant in Iceland through 2012 formed our exposed cohort (n = 1068. For each exposed woman's delivery, nine deliveries by women with no RTS attendance were randomly selected from the IBR (n = 9126 matched on age, parity, and year and season of delivery. Information on smoking and Body mass index (BMI was available for a sub-sample (n = 792 exposed and n = 1416 non-exposed women. Poisson regression models were used to estimate Relative Risks (RR with 95% confidence intervals (CI.Compared with non-exposed women, exposed women presented with increased risks of maternal distress during labor and delivery (RR 1.68, 95% CI 1.01-2.79, prolonged first stage of labor (RR 1.40, 95% CI 1.03-1.88, antepartum bleeding (RR 1.95, 95% CI 1.22-3.07 and emergency instrumental delivery (RR 1.16, 95% CI 1.00-1.34. Slightly higher risks were seen for women assaulted as teenagers. Overall, we did not observe differences between the groups regarding the risk of elective cesarean section (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.61-1.21, except for a reduced risk among those assaulted as teenagers (RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.34-0.93. Adjusting for maternal smoking and BMI in a sub-sample did not substantially affect point estimates.Our prospective data suggest that women with a history of sexual assault, particularly as teenagers, are at increased risks of some adverse obstetric outcomes.
Gisladottir, Agnes; Luque-Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Harlow, Bernard L; Gudmundsdottir, Berglind; Jonsdottir, Eyrun; Bjarnadottir, Ragnheidur I; Hauksdottir, Arna; Aspelund, Thor; Cnattingius, Sven; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur A
There is a scarcity of data on the association of sexual violence and women's subsequent obstetric outcomes. Our aim was to investigate whether women exposed to sexual violence as teenagers (12-19 years of age) or adults present with different obstetric outcomes than women with no record of such violence. We linked detailed prospectively collected information on women attending a Rape Trauma Service (RTS) to the Icelandic Medical Birth Registry (IBR). Women who attended the RTS in 1993-2010 and delivered (on average 5.8 years later) at least one singleton infant in Iceland through 2012 formed our exposed cohort (n = 1068). For each exposed woman's delivery, nine deliveries by women with no RTS attendance were randomly selected from the IBR (n = 9126) matched on age, parity, and year and season of delivery. Information on smoking and Body mass index (BMI) was available for a sub-sample (n = 792 exposed and n = 1416 non-exposed women). Poisson regression models were used to estimate Relative Risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Compared with non-exposed women, exposed women presented with increased risks of maternal distress during labor and delivery (RR 1.68, 95% CI 1.01-2.79), prolonged first stage of labor (RR 1.40, 95% CI 1.03-1.88), antepartum bleeding (RR 1.95, 95% CI 1.22-3.07) and emergency instrumental delivery (RR 1.16, 95% CI 1.00-1.34). Slightly higher risks were seen for women assaulted as teenagers. Overall, we did not observe differences between the groups regarding the risk of elective cesarean section (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.61-1.21), except for a reduced risk among those assaulted as teenagers (RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.34-0.93). Adjusting for maternal smoking and BMI in a sub-sample did not substantially affect point estimates. Our prospective data suggest that women with a history of sexual assault, particularly as teenagers, are at increased risks of some adverse obstetric outcomes.
Shuaib, Faisal M B; Ehiri, John E; Jolly, Pauline; Zhang, Qionghui; Emusu, Donath; Ngu, Julius; Foushee, Herman; Katongole, Drake; Kirby, Russell; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred
HIV serodiscordance is a sexual partnership in which one partner is infected with HIV while the other is not. Managing emotional and sexual intimacy in HIV serodiscordant unions can be difficult due to concerns about HIV transmission and the challenge of initiating and maintaining safe sex. In situations where couples are jointly aware of their HIV status, women in serodiscordant unions may face increased risk of partner violence. We conducted an investigation to assess risk factors for HIV serodiscordance and determine if HIV serodiscordance is associated with incident sexual violence among a cohort of women attending HIV post-test club services at three AIDS Information Centers (AICs) in Uganda. Using a prospective study of 250 women, we elicited information about sexual violence using structured face-to-face interviews. Sexual violence and risk factors were assessed and compared among HIV positive women in HIV discordant unions, HIV negative women in discordant unions, and HIV negative women in negative concordant unions. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between participants' serostatus and sexual violence. HIV negative women in serodiscordant relationships (36.1±11.1 years, range: 19-65 years) were significantly older than either HIV positive women in serodiscordant relationships (32.2±9.0 years, range: 18-56 years), or HIV negative women in concordant relationships (32.3±11.0 years, range: 18-62), (p=0.033). Early age at sexual debut was associated with a 2.4-fold increased risk of experiencing sexual violence (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.27-4.65). Based on unadjusted analysis, HIV positive women in discordant relationship were at highest risk for sexual violence compared to HIV negative women in discordant unions, and HIV negative women in negative concordant unions. HIV negative women in discordant relationships and those in concordant negative relationships showed no increased risk for sexual violence. However, couples' HIV
Martin-Storey, Alexa; Fromme, Kim
The purpose of this study was to examine how sexual minority status (as assessed using both identity and behavior) was associated with trajectories of dating violence. University students from a large Southwestern university completed questions on their sexual minority identity, the gender of their sexual partners, and about experiences of dating violence for six consecutive semesters (N = 1942). Latent growth curve modeling indicated that generally, trajectories of dating violence were stable across study participation. Sexual minority identity was associated with higher initial levels of dating violence at baseline, but also with greater decreases in dating violence across time. These differences were mediated by number of sexual partners. Having same and other-sex sexual partners was associated with higher levels of dating violence at baseline, and persisted in being associated with higher levels over time. No significant gender difference was observed regarding trajectories of dating violence. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jaffe, Anna E; Cranston, Christopher C; Shadlow, Joanna O
Child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence may have a significant impact on parenting. The current study expands on existing research by examining the effects of child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence on parenting styles and parenting self-efficacy. In women from a parenting intervention program (n = 20), child sexual abuse was related to lower parenting self-efficacy and more permissive parenting. In women at a domestic violence shelter (n = 45), child sexual abuse was related to current sexual coercion of the partner, and authoritative parenting was related to higher parenting self-efficacy. These results indicate that having a history of child sexual abuse should be taken into consideration when dealing with mothers in violent relationships.
Using the empirical powers of theories of intersectionality, the study investigates the association between students' demographics (such as gender identity, race, ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status) and sexual violence victimization. An anonymous survey was employed to collect data from a cluster random sample of 966 students attending face-to-face courses at a midsize urban nonresidential campus. The empirical findings suggest that being older and female are the only statistically significant factors in the analysis. As the first attempt to focus on students attending nonresidential programs in the United States, the study presents implications for policy and program implementation to include issues pertinent to students' diversity to better respond to students' risk of victimization.
Draucker, Claire Burke; Martsolf, Donna S; Ross, Ratchneewan; Cook, Christina Benson; Stidham, Andrea Warner; Mweemba, Prudencia
A qualitative metasynthesis was conducted to identify the essence of healing from sexual violence, as described by adults who experienced it as children or as adults. Based on the findings of 51 reports, four domains of healing were identified: (a) managing memories, (b) relating to important others, (c) seeking safety, and (c) reevaluating self. The ways of healing within each domain reflected opposing responses. The dialectical process identified for each of the four domains include, respectively: (a) calling forth memories, (b) regulating relationships with others, (c) constructing an “as-safe-as-possible” lifeworld, and (d) restoring a sense of self. These complex processes resulted in a new reality for the participants that was based on a greater sense of agency and provided a more satisfying life course. PMID:19415681
Mumford, Elizabeth A; Okamoto, Janet; Taylor, Bruce G; Stein, Nan
To pilot a study of social networks informing contextual analyses of sexual harassment and peer violence (SH/PV). Seventh and 8th grade students (N = 113) in an urban middle school were surveyed via a Web-based instrument. Boys and girls reported SH/PV victimization and perpetration at comparable rates. The proportion of nominated friends who reported SH/ PV outcomes was greater in boys' than in girls' social networks. Structural descriptors of social networks were not significant predictors of SH/PV outcomes. Collection of sensitive relationship data via a school-based Web survey is feasible. Full-scale studies and greater flexibility regarding the number of friendship nominations are recommended for subsequent investigations of potential sex differences.
McNaughton Reyes, H. Luz; Chen, May S.; Ennett, Susan T.; Basile, Kathleen C.; DeGue, Sarah; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M.; Moracco, Kathryn E.; Bowling, J. Michael
The high risk of perpetrating physical dating violence, bullying, and sexual harassment by adolescents exposed to domestic violence points to the need for programs to prevent these types of aggression among this group. This study of adolescents exposed to domestic violence examined whether these forms of aggression share risk factors that could be targeted for change in single programs designed to prevent all three types of aggression. Analyses were conducted on 399 mother victims of domestic violence and their adolescents, recruited through community advertising. The adolescents ranged in age from 12 to 16 years; 64 % were female. Generalized estimating equations was used to control for the covariation among the aggression types when testing for shared risk factors. Approximately 70 % of the adolescents reported perpetrating at least one of the three forms of aggression. In models examining one risk factor at a time, but controlling for demographics, adolescent acceptance of sexual violence, mother–adolescent discord, family conflict, low maternal monitoring, low mother–adolescent closeness, low family cohesion, depressed affect, feelings of anger, and anger reactivity were shared across all three aggression types. In multivariable models, which included all of the risk factors examined and the demographic variables, low maternal monitoring, depressed affect and anger reactivity remained significant shared risk factors. Our findings suggest that programs targeting these risk factors for change have the potential to prevent all three forms of aggression. In multivariable models, poor conflict management skills was a risk for bullying and sexual harassment, but not dating violence; acceptance of dating violence was a risk for dating violence and bullying, but not sexual harassment; and none of the examined risk factors were unique to aggression type. The study’s implications for the development of interventions and future research are discussed. PMID:26746242
Foshee, Vangie A; McNaughton Reyes, H Luz; Chen, May S; Ennett, Susan T; Basile, Kathleen C; DeGue, Sarah; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Moracco, Kathryn E; Bowling, J Michael
The high risk of perpetrating physical dating violence, bullying, and sexual harassment by adolescents exposed to domestic violence points to the need for programs to prevent these types of aggression among this group. This study of adolescents exposed to domestic violence examined whether these forms of aggression share risk factors that could be targeted for change in single programs designed to prevent all three types of aggression. Analyses were conducted on 399 mother victims of domestic violence and their adolescents, recruited through community advertising. The adolescents ranged in age from 12 to 16 years; 64 % were female. Generalized estimating equations was used to control for the covariation among the aggression types when testing for shared risk factors. Approximately 70 % of the adolescents reported perpetrating at least one of the three forms of aggression. In models examining one risk factor at a time, but controlling for demographics, adolescent acceptance of sexual violence, mother-adolescent discord, family conflict, low maternal monitoring, low mother-adolescent closeness, low family cohesion, depressed affect, feelings of anger, and anger reactivity were shared across all three aggression types. In multivariable models, which included all of the risk factors examined and the demographic variables, low maternal monitoring, depressed affect and anger reactivity remained significant shared risk factors. Our findings suggest that programs targeting these risk factors for change have the potential to prevent all three forms of aggression. In multivariable models, poor conflict management skills was a risk for bullying and sexual harassment, but not dating violence; acceptance of dating violence was a risk for dating violence and bullying, but not sexual harassment; and none of the examined risk factors were unique to aggression type. The study's implications for the development of interventions and future research are discussed.
Boudreau, Courtney L; Kress, Howard; Rochat, Roger W; Yount, Kathryn M
Sexual violence (SV) against children is a global health and human rights issue that can have short and long-term consequences for health and wellbeing. Disclosing SV increases the likelihood that children can access health and protective services and receive psychosocial support. Research in high-income countries has found that child SV survivors are more likely to disclose when they are girls/women, experience fewer SV events, and experience SV perpetrated by a stranger. No studies have examined correlates of SV disclosure in Kenya. The objective of this research was to assess the correlates of disclosing SV among Kenyan youth ages 13-24 who reported an SV experience before age 18. In 2010, the Kenya Ministry of Gender, Children and Social Development, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Division of Violence Prevention, the UNICEF Kenya Country Office, and the Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS) conducted a national survey of violence against children. These data were used to conduct weighted logistic regression analyses to determine which factors were correlated with reporting SV disclosure. Among the 27.8% of girls/women and 14.5% of boys/men who reported SV before age 18, 44.6% of girls/women and 28.2% of boys/men reported to have disclosed the experience. In weighted logistic regression analysis, the odds of disclosure were lower among survivors who were boys/men and among survivors who reported more SV events, and higher when any perpetrator was a family member. More context-specific research on SV disclosure among young people is needed globally. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Walsh, Jennifer L.; Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.
Objective Diverse forms of violence, including childhood maltreatment (CM), intimate partner violence (IPV), and exposure to community violence (ECV), have been linked separately with sexual risk behaviors. However, few studies have explored multiple experiences of violence simultaneously in relation to sexual risk-taking, especially in women who are most vulnerable to violent experiences. Methods Participants were 481 women (66% African American, Mage = 27 years) attending a publicly-funded STD clinic who reported on their past and current experiences with violence and their current sexual risk behavior. We identified patterns of experience with violence using latent class analysis (LCA) and investigated which combinations of experiences were associated with the riskiest sexual outcomes. Results Four classes of women with different experiences of violence were identified: Low Violence (39%), Predominantly ECV (20%), Predominantly CM (23%), and Multiply Victimized (18%). Women in the Multiply Victimized and Predominantly ECV classes reported the highest levels of sexual risk behavior, including more lifetime sexual partners and a greater likelihood of receiving STD treatment and using substances before sex. Conclusions Women with different patterns of violent experiences differed in their sexual risk behavior. Interventions to reduce sexual risk should address violence against women, focusing on experiences with multiple types of violence and experiences specifically with ECV. Additional research is needed to determine the best ways to address violence in sexual risk reduction interventions. PMID:23626921
Voisin, Dexter R; Hotton, Anna; Neilands, Torsten
African American youth bear a disproportionate burden of sexually transmitted infections. A growing number of studies document that youth exposure to community violence and sexual behaviors are highly correlated. Despite such growing evidence, only a few studies have empirically tested conceptually driven pathways that may account for such relationships. This study seeks to address that gap by exploring multiple pathways linking exposure to community violence and youth sexual behaviors. Using an existing sample of 563 African American youth attending high school, we examined whether possible links between exposure to community violence and sexual activity, sexual risk behaviors were mediated by aggression, low student-teacher connectedness, and negative peer norms. Major findings indicated indirect relationships between exposures to community violence and both sexual activity and risky sex, mediated by aggression and negative peer norms with no significant differences based on gender or socioeconomic status. Overall findings also indicated a significant indirect effect of aggression to risky sex via negative peer norms and from community violence to risky peer norms via aggression. By illuminating ways that community violence, aggression, peer norms, and sexual behaviors are dynamically interrelated, these findings have significant implications for future research and intervention initiatives aimed at addressing the different pathways.
Mercer, Dave; Perkins, Liz
This article reports findings from a discourse analytic study which critically explored the language of mental health nurses, and detained sexual offenders, in relation to pornography in one high-security hospital. It recognised previous empirical investigation, and pro-feminist theorising, into mediated representations and male sexual violence, but situated the research process in a forensic nursing context. Decision-making about access to, or restriction of, commercial sexual literature, as a component of therapeutic intervention and offender management, reveals tensions between service-user rights and treatment goals. The aim was to access nurse and patient talk in a specific culture. Semi-structured interviews with eighteen nursing staff, and nine patients, were used to co-construct accounts of pornography, sexual offending, and treatment. Analysis and data collection were undertaken concurrently. Interviews were audio-taped and transcribed. Data was coded to identify theoretical/conceptual themes and sub-themes representing discursive repertoires. Attention was given to how textual variation positioned respondents in relation to each other and the institution. Findings suggested collective male talk textured the environment, promoted gendered inequality, marginalised female nurses, and undermined rehabilitation. Shared discourse enabled male staff and patients to relate to each other as men, while maintaining distance through constructions of otherness. Discussion focuses on discriminatory discursive-practices, where men's talk about pornography and sexual violence embodied gendered knowledge/experience and contributed to a toxic culture. Consideration is given to ways of resisting institutional impediments and promoting positive therapeutic relations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Winskell, Kate; Sabben, Gaëlle
There is growing recognition of the health disparities faced by sexual minority populations and the critical role played by sexual stigma in increasing their vulnerability. Experienced, anticipated, and internalized, stigma based on sexual orientation reduces access to HIV/STI prevention and treatment services among African men who have sex with men and has been linked to compromised mental health, risk-taking, and HIV status. It is likely that similar processes undermine the health of sexual minority African women and transgender and non-binary people. There is a need for increased understanding of both the contextual factors and the cultural meanings, or symbolic violence, that inform sexual stigma and harmful stigma management strategies in contexts that are culturally and socio-politically oppressive for sexual and gender minorities. Using thematic data analysis and narrative-based methodologies, we analyzed narratives and essays on same-sex attraction contributed by young people aged 13-24 from ten African countries to a Spring 2013 scriptwriting competition on HIV, sexuality, and related themes. Submitted by 27 male and 29 female authors, the texts were written in response to a prompt inviting participants to "Tell a story about someone who is attracted to people of the same sex". We analyzed the ways in which sexual stigma and its effects are described, enacted, and counteracted in the texts. The data provide insights into the social and symbolic processes that create and sustain sexual stigma in the context of broader transnational discourses. The data shed light on psychosocial challenges faced by sexual minority youth and identify both rhetoric, stereotypes, and discourse that devalue them and representations that counteract this symbolic violence. We share our findings in the hope they may inform education and communication programming as part of multi-level efforts to improve the health and human rights of sexual minority populations in sub
Dos Reis, Maria José; Lopes, Maria Helena Baena de Moraes; Osis, Maria José Duarte
To describe the experiences of women who have suffered sexual violence and the impact and importance of that violence on their lives. Sexual violence against women is a serious problem worldwide. Studies need to investigate how women reorganise their lives after experiencing sexual violence. A qualitative design was used to explore women's experiences. This study analysed semistructured interviews of 11 women who had experienced a sexual assault. The interviews were performed at a specialised walk-in clinic at a university hospital in the interior of São Paulo State, Brazil. A thematic analysis of the content led to the identification of the following themes: (1) impact and meaning of the violence; (2) feelings; (3) overcoming the violence and (4) expectations for the future. Sexual violence had a devastating impact on the lives of these women. The women's postviolence experiences caused feelings of guilt, impotence, fragility and immobility. These experiences also instilled a belief that they may have 'provoked' the violence. Nevertheless, the women showed resilience, investing all of their energy in returning their lives to pre-violence conditions. Family, friends and other important people, as well as the care that the women received from health services, were cited as factors that sustained this attitude of resilience. Providing appropriate care to female victims of sexual assault requires not only treating the physical damage caused by the violence but also evaluating the particularities of the experience's emotional impact on each woman and the psychosocial repercussions of the experience. Health professionals should follow up with women during their recovery period. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Santos, Marconi de Jesus; Mascarenhas, Márcio Dênis Medeiros; Rodrigues, Malvina Thaís Pacheco; Monteiro, Rosane Aparecida
to describe the reports of sexual violence against children and adolescents at school, in Brazil, from 2010 to 2014. a descriptive study on the characteristics of the victims, the event, the aggressor and the attendance among the records of compulsory notification of sexual violence against children (0-9 years) and adolescents (10-19 years) at school; we used data from the Notification of Injury Information System (Sinan). 2,226 reports of sexual violence occurred at school, of which 1,546 (69.5%) were children and 680 (30.5%) were adolescents; the average age of the victims was 7.4 years and the median age was 6 years; prevalence of female victims (63.8%) and, most of the time, the aggressor was male (88.9%). children and adolescents are exposed to sexual violence at school, a place that supposedly should guarantee protection, healthy development and safety for schoolchildren.
Lina María Céspedes-Báez
Full Text Available This article reviews the evidence collected by diverse national and international organizations regarding the relationship between sexual violence against women, forced displacement, and dispossession in the context of the Colombian armed conflict. To this end, it uses the concept of “sexual violence regimes” to highlight that the endspursued by sexual violence are not always exhausted by simple consummation (that is, the act of sexual violence itself, but depending on the context, can be connected with broader strategic goals of armed actors. At the same time, this document admits the difficulty of proving this relationship with respect to judicial procedures, and thus sets out the possibility of creating a rebuttable presumption, in the framework of “unconstitutional state of affairs” created by judgment T-025 of 2004, that alleviates the burden of proof of the victims, and serves as a catalyst to promote new genderbased mechanisms of reparations.
most pervasive and unreported type of gender-based violence ... Ineffective laws offer limited or no protection to victims, with ... India: With support from IDRC, Peace and Equality ... 21 schools to raise awareness of child sexual abuse,.
Mainey, Lydia; Taylor, Annabel; Baird, Kathleen; O'Mullan, Catherine
One third of women will have an abortion in their lifetime (Kerr, QUT Law Rev 14:15, 2014; Aston and Bewley, Obstetrician & Gynaecologist 11:163-8, 2009). These women are more likely to have experienced domestic violence or sexual assault than women who continue with their pregnancies. Frontline health personnel involved in the care of women seeking abortions are uniquely positioned to support patients who choose to disclose their violence. Yet, the disclosure of domestic violence or sexual assault within the context of abortion is not well understood. To enhance service provision, it is important to understand the disclosure experience, that is, how frontline health personnel manage such disclosures and how victims/survivors perceive this experience. This review aims to provide a systematic synthesis of qualitative literature to increase understanding of the phenomena and identify research gaps. A meta-ethnography of qualitative evidence following PRISMA-P recommendations for reporting systematic reviews will be performed to better understand the experiences of domestic violence and sexual assault disclosure from the perspective of frontline health personnel providing support and women seeking an abortion. A three-stage search strategy including database searching, citation searching and Traditional Pearl Growing will be applied starting with the terms "domestic violence", "sexual assault", "disclosure" and "abortion", their common synonyms and MeSH terms. The database search will include CINAHL, MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO. Published studies from 1970, written in English and from all countries will be included. Two reviewers will screen titles and abstracts and if suitable will then perform a full-text review. To attribute weight to each study, two reviewers will perform the critical appraisal using a modified version of the "Guidelines for Extracting Data and Quality Assessing Primary Studies in Educational Research". Data extraction and coding will occur using
Coyle, Karin K.; Guinosso, Stephanie A.; Glassman, Jill R.; Anderson, Pamela M.; Wilson, Helen W.
This article examines the relationship between exposure to violence, fear of exposure to violence, and sexual risk among a sample of urban middle school youth. The sample included 911 seventh-grade students who completed self-report surveys. Approximately 20% of the sample reported at least one direct threat or injury with a weapon in the past 3…
Miller, Shari; Williams, Jason; Cutbush, Stacey; Gibbs, Deborah; Clinton-Sherrod, Monique; Jones, Sarah
Although there is growing recognition of the problem of dating violence, little is known about how it unfolds among young adolescents who are just beginning to date. This study examined classes (subgroups) and transitions between classes over three time points based on dating violence, bullying, and sexual harassment perpetration and victimization…
The purpose of the present study was to explore and comprehend sexual violence against children in Indonesia using the phenomenological method. The study was conducted in Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam and West Java Provinces. In-depth interviews were carried out with several informants ranging from government officials, women activists, teachers, and community leaders. Results showed that sexual violence against children was actually perpetrated by the person closest to the victims. The perpetrato...
Courey, Tamra J.; Martsolf, Donna S.; Draucker, Claire B.; Strickland, Karen B.
Background Individuals who experience sexual violence often seek services in a variety of healthcare settings. Although research indicates that survivors often report that interactions with healthcare professionals are distressing, little is known about what renders these encounters helpful or hurtful. Objective The purpose of this study was to use Hildegard Peplau’s (1952) conceptualization of nurses’ helping roles (i.e., stranger, resource person, teacher, leadership, surrogate, counselor, technical expert) in nurse-client interactions to explore how survivors of sexual violence perceive their encounters with healthcare professionals. Study Design Content analysis was conducted on the transcripts of 60 minimally structured interviews in which participants discussed their experiences of sexual violence. Results The results revealed that the helping roles of counselor and technical expert, as identified by Peplau, were most important to survivors of sexual violence. Regardless of role, participants perceived healthcare professionals to be helpful when they exhibited interpersonal sensitivity, especially in regards to the participants’ experiences with violence. Conclusions The findings indicate that healthcare professionals need to maintain an attentive and compassion stance when working with survivors of sexual violence. Those who serve in a counselor role need to create an atmosphere of trust so that clients may explore in depth how violence has affected their lives. PMID:21665762
Blondeel, Karel; de Vasconcelos, Sofia; García-Moreno, Claudia; Stephenson, Rob; Temmerman, Marleen; Toskin, Igor
To assess the prevalence of physical and sexual violence motivated by perception of sexual orientation and gender identity in sexual and gender minorities. We searched nine databases without language restrictions for peer-reviewed and grey literature published from 2000 to April 2016. We included studies with more than 50 participants that measured the prevalence of physical and sexual violence perceived as being motivated by sexual orientation and gender identity or gender expression. We excluded intimate partner violence and self-harm. Due to heterogeneity and the absence of confidence intervals in most studies, we made no meta-analysis. We included 76 articles from 50 countries. These covered 74 studies conducted between 1995 and 2014, including a total of 202 607 sexual and gender minority participants. The quality of data was relatively poor due to a lack of standardized measures and sometimes small and non-randomized samples. In studies where all sexual and gender minorities were analysed as one population, the prevalence of physical and sexual violence ranged from 6% (in a study including 240 people) to 25% (49/196 people) and 5.6% (28/504) to 11.4% (55/484), respectively. For transgender people the prevalence ranged from 11.8% (of a subsample of 34 people) to 68.2% (75/110) and 7.0% (in a study including 255 people) to 49.1% (54/110). More data are needed on the prevalence, risk factors and consequences of physical and sexual violence motivated by sexual orientation and gender identity in different geographical and cultural settings. National violence prevention policies and interventions should include sexual and gender minorities.
de Vasconcelos, Sofia; García-Moreno, Claudia; Stephenson, Rob; Temmerman, Marleen; Toskin, Igor
Abstract Objective To assess the prevalence of physical and sexual violence motivated by perception of sexual orientation and gender identity in sexual and gender minorities. Methods We searched nine databases without language restrictions for peer-reviewed and grey literature published from 2000 to April 2016. We included studies with more than 50 participants that measured the prevalence of physical and sexual violence perceived as being motivated by sexual orientation and gender identity or gender expression. We excluded intimate partner violence and self-harm. Due to heterogeneity and the absence of confidence intervals in most studies, we made no meta-analysis. Findings We included 76 articles from 50 countries. These covered 74 studies conducted between 1995 and 2014, including a total of 202 607 sexual and gender minority participants. The quality of data was relatively poor due to a lack of standardized measures and sometimes small and non-randomized samples. In studies where all sexual and gender minorities were analysed as one population, the prevalence of physical and sexual violence ranged from 6% (in a study including 240 people) to 25% (49/196 people) and 5.6% (28/504) to 11.4% (55/484), respectively. For transgender people the prevalence ranged from 11.8% (of a subsample of 34 people) to 68.2% (75/110) and 7.0% (in a study including 255 people) to 49.1% (54/110). Conclusion More data are needed on the prevalence, risk factors and consequences of physical and sexual violence motivated by sexual orientation and gender identity in different geographical and cultural settings. National violence prevention policies and interventions should include sexual and gender minorities. PMID:29403098
Schmitz K Peter
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite international acknowledgement of the linkages between sexual violence and conflict, reliable data on its prevalence, the circumstances, characteristics of perpetrators, and physical or mental health impacts is rare. Among the conflicts that have been associated with widespread sexual violence has been the one in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC. Methods From 2003 till to date Malteser International has run a medico-social support programme for rape survivors in South Kivu province, DRC. In the context of this programme, a host of data was collected. We present these data and discuss the findings within the frame of available literature. Results Malteser International registered 20,517 female rape survivors in the three year period 2005–2007. Women of all ages have been targeted by sexual violence and only few of those – and many of them only after several years – sought medical care and psychological help. Sexual violence in the DRC frequently led to social, especially familial, exclusion. Members of military and paramilitary groups were identified as the main perpetrators of sexual violence. Conclusion We have documented that in the DRC conflict sexual violence has been – and continues to be – highly prevalent in a wide area in the East of the country. Humanitarian programming in this field is challenging due to the multiple needs of rape survivors. The easily accessible, integrated medical and psycho-social care that the programme offered apparently responded to the needs of many rape survivors in this area.
Steiner, Birthe; Benner, Marie T; Sondorp, Egbert; Schmitz, K Peter; Mesmer, Ursula; Rosenberger, Sandrine
Background Despite international acknowledgement of the linkages between sexual violence and conflict, reliable data on its prevalence, the circumstances, characteristics of perpetrators, and physical or mental health impacts is rare. Among the conflicts that have been associated with widespread sexual violence has been the one in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Methods From 2003 till to date Malteser International has run a medico-social support programme for rape survivors in South Kivu province, DRC. In the context of this programme, a host of data was collected. We present these data and discuss the findings within the frame of available literature. Results Malteser International registered 20,517 female rape survivors in the three year period 2005–2007. Women of all ages have been targeted by sexual violence and only few of those – and many of them only after several years – sought medical care and psychological help. Sexual violence in the DRC frequently led to social, especially familial, exclusion. Members of military and paramilitary groups were identified as the main perpetrators of sexual violence. Conclusion We have documented that in the DRC conflict sexual violence has been – and continues to be – highly prevalent in a wide area in the East of the country. Humanitarian programming in this field is challenging due to the multiple needs of rape survivors. The easily accessible, integrated medical and psycho-social care that the programme offered apparently responded to the needs of many rape survivors in this area. PMID:19284879
Jamali, Safieh; Javadpour, Shohreh
Sexuality is an integral part of a woman's life. A variety of factors can affect a woman's sexuality, among them physical disorders, social-religious beliefs, age, psychological factors, depression, mental tension, disbelief, an unfulfilling relationship with one's spouse and emotional and physical violence. The present study aimed to explore the rate of domestic violence against women and its impact on women's sexuality. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 813 women referring to the gynaecology clinics of Jahrom, Iran, from April to October 2015. Data were collected using a demographics questionnaire, a violence questionnaire and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). The collected data were analysed using Student's t-test and logistic regression. The prevalence of violence was found to be 43.2%. Also, there was a significant relationship between violence and age (OR=1.33 95% CI=2.22-7.95, pviolence was found to increase by 3.1 times with an increase in the length of marriage (OR=3.1595% CI=1.42-4.12, pviolence significantly correlated with women's education level (OR=11.75 95% CI=2.15-64.12, p=0.002) and their husband's education level (OR=0.194, 95%CI=0.329-0.919, p=0.02). The results showed that the sexual function mean score of non-abused women and abused women were 17.74±8.82 and 14.59±10.63, respectively. However, a significant difference was found between the two groups regarding the domains of sexual function (pviolence is rather high and that can increase the risk of sexual dysfunction. Thus, routine screening for violence and sexual dysfunction is recommended for early detection of violence and sexual dysfunction.
Jun 17, 2016 ... area understand sexual abstinence as the decision not to have sex, and this was associated with ..... emotional turmoil or guilt that comes with being sexually .... to be encouraged toward an informed process of making their.
Gregory, Katie; Nnawulezi, Nkiru; Sullivan, Cris M
Domestic violence shelters have historically gone beyond providing emergency residential space for survivors by assisting in obtaining future housing, employment, health care, child care, or legal services. Domestic violence shelters are expected to operate within an empowerment philosophy, with an understanding that survivors are self-determining, can identify their needs, and know what it takes to meet those needs. Recent research has indicated that, as many shelters have become more rigid in creating rules that survivors must follow to access and retain free temporary housing, the result has been survivors' feelings of disempowerment, the complete opposite of what was originally intended. This study builds on the small amount of research conducted regarding survivors' experiences of shelter rules by specifically examining how rules were perceived to affect empowerment. Seventy-three survivors from two domestic violence shelters were asked about their experiences around specific shelter rules relating to curfew, parenting, chores, time limits, food, alcohol, drugs, and medications. A transcendental phenomenological approach was used to analyze the qualitative data, seeking explanations of how survivors made meaning of the rules and how those rules influenced their empowerment. Among those survivors who found the rules problematic, three major themes emerged: (a) rules acted as barriers to carrying out their normal, day-to-day activities; (b) the shelter staff's flexibility with rules was based on contingencies; and (c) rules negatively affected their psychological well-being, and required them to engage in protective behaviors. Recommendations are made for the reexamination and restructuring of rules within domestic violence shelters.
Al-Quaiz, Al-Joharah M; Raheel, Hafsa M
To determine the frequency, experiences and correlates of sexual violence among female adolescents in Riyadh city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2 schools in Riyadh city for adolescent females starting from January 2008 for 3 months. Five classes with 25 students in each were randomly selected from intermediate and secondary grade of each school. Four hundred and nineteen students were included. A self-answering questionnaire was distributed and collected after 15 minutes by 3 research assistants. Forty-two adolescent students (10%) were exposed to sexual violence. Only 31% of the students were taught how to react to sexual violence. Students whose order was > or = 5th among siblings and who had unsupportive parents in discussing sexual issues were more exposed to sexual violence (chi2=4.02, p=0.044, chi2=4.24, p=0.039). Being > or = 5th in order among siblings and having unsupportive parents in discussing sexual issues were correlates for exposure to sexual violence.
Turchik, Jessica A; Hebenstreit, Claire L; Judson, Stephanie S
Although the majority of adulthood sexual violence involves a male perpetrator and a female victim, there is also substantial evidence that members of both genders can be victims and perpetrators of sexual violence. As an alternative to viewing sexual violence within gender-specific terms, we advocate for the use of a gender inclusive conceptualization of sexual aggression that takes into account the factors that contribute to sexual victimization of, and victimization by, both men and women. The goal of the current review is to examine the need and importance of a gender inclusive conceptualization of sexual violence and to discuss how compatible our current theories are with this conceptualization. First, we examine evidence of how a gender-specific conceptualization of sexual violence aids in obscuring assault experiences that are not male to female and how this impacts victims of such violence. We specifically discuss this impact regarding research, law, public awareness, advocacy, and available victim treatment and resources. Next, we provide an overview of a number of major sexual violence theories that are relevant for adult perpetrators and adult victims, including neurobiological and integrated biological theories, evolutionary psychology theory, routine activity theory, feminist theory, social learning and related theories, typology approaches, and integrated theories. We critically examine these theories' applicability to thinking about sexual violence through a gender inclusive lens. Finally, we discuss further directions for research, clinical interventions, and advocacy in this area. Specifically, we encourage sexual violence researchers and clinicians to identify and utilize appropriate theoretical frameworks and to apply these frameworks in ways that incorporate a full range of sexual violence. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Globally, studies report a high prevalence of intimate partner sexual violence (IPSV and an association with HIV infection. Despite the criminalisation of IPSV and deliberate sexual HIV infection in Zimbabwe, IPSV remains common. This study explored women's and health workers' perspectives and experiences of sexuality and sexual violence in pregnancy, including in relation to HIV testing. METHODS: This qualitative study was part of a larger study of the dynamics of intimate partner violence and HIV in pregnancy in Zimbabwe. Key informant interviews were conducted with health workers and focus group discussions were held with 64 pregnant or nursing mothers attending antenatal and postnatal care clinics in low-income neighbourhoods of Harare, covering the major thematic areas of validated sexual violence research instruments. Thematic content analysis of audio-recorded and transcribed data was conducted. RESULTS: While women reported some positive experiences of sex in pregnancy, most participants commonly experienced coercive sexual practices. They reported that men failed to understand, or refused to accept, pregnancy and its associated emotional changes, and often forced painful and degrading sexual acts on them, usually while the men were under the influence of alcohol or illicit drugs. Men often refused or delayed HIV testing, and participants reported accounts of HIV-positive men not disclosing their status to their partners and deliberately infecting or attempting to infect them. Women's passive acceptance of sexual violence was influenced by advice they received from other females to subordinate to their partners and to not deprive men of their conjugal sexual rights. CONCLUSIONS: Cultural and societal factors, unequal gender norms and practices, women's economic vulnerability, and men's failure to understand pregnancy and emotional changes, influence men to perpetrate IPSV, leading to high risk of HIV infection.
Olver, Mark E; Mundt, James C; Thornton, David; Beggs Christofferson, Sarah M; Kingston, Drew A; Sowden, Justina N; Nicholaichuk, Terry P; Gordon, Audrey; Wong, Stephen C P
The present study sought to develop updated risk categories and recidivism estimates for the Violence Risk Scale-Sexual Offense version (VRS-SO; Wong, Olver, Nicholaichuk, & Gordon, 2003-2017), a sexual offender risk assessment and treatment planning tool. The overarching purpose was to increase the clarity and accuracy of communicating risk assessment information that includes a systematic incorporation of new information (i.e., change) to modify risk estimates. Four treated samples of sexual offenders with VRS-SO pretreatment, posttreatment, and Static-99R ratings were combined with a minimum follow-up period of 10-years postrelease (N = 913). Logistic regression was used to model 5- and 10-year sexual and violent (including sexual) recidivism estimates across 6 different regression models employing specific risk and change score information from the VRS-SO and/or Static-99R. A rationale is presented for clinical applications of select models and the necessity of controlling for baseline risk when utilizing change information across repeated assessments. Information concerning relative risk (percentiles) and absolute risk (recidivism estimates) is integrated with common risk assessment language guidelines to generate new risk categories for the VRS-SO. Guidelines for model selection and forensic clinical application of the risk estimates are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Schneider, Madeline; Hirsch, Jennifer S
Sexual violence (SV) represents a serious public health problem with high rates and numerous health consequences. Current primary prevention strategies to reduce SV perpetration have been shown to be largely ineffective-not surprisingly, since as others have pointed out current prevention largely fails to draw on existing knowledge about the characteristics of effective prevention. In this article, we examine the potential of K-12 comprehensive sexuality education (CSE), guided by the National Sexuality Education Standards (NSES), to be an effective strategy. Our discussion uses socioecological and feminist theories as a guide, examines the extent to which NSES-guided CSE could both meet the qualities of effective prevention programs and mitigate the risk factors that are most implicated in perpetration behavior, and considers the potential limitations of this approach. We suggest that sequential, K-12 program has potential to prevent the emergence of risk factors associated with SV perpetration by starting prevention early on in the life course. CSE has not yet been evaluated with SV perpetration behavior as an outcome, and this article synthesizes what is known about drivers of SV perpetration and the potential impacts of CSE to argue for the importance of future research in this area. The primary recommendation is for longitudinal research to examine the impact of CSE on SV perpetration as well as on other sexual and reproductive health outcomes.
Black, Beverly M.; Weisz, Arlene N.; Jayasundara, Dheeshana S.
A dating violence and sexual assault prevention program was presented to 396, predominately African American, middle schoolers in two inner city schools in the United States. In one school the program was offered with a same-gender group composition; in the other school, the same program was offered with mixed-gender group composition. A…
Schroll, Anne-Mette; Tabor, Ann; Kjaergaard, Hanne
To estimate the prevalence of self-reported lifetime violence and to assess whether women exposed to any physical violence or sexual violence (SEV) had a higher risk of having fear of childbirth (FOC) before, during or after delivery compared with women without such history.......To estimate the prevalence of self-reported lifetime violence and to assess whether women exposed to any physical violence or sexual violence (SEV) had a higher risk of having fear of childbirth (FOC) before, during or after delivery compared with women without such history....
Santaularia, Jeanie; Johnson, Monica; Hart, Laurie; Haskett, Lori; Welsh, Ericka; Faseru, Babalola
Sexual assault is a traumatic event with potentially devastating lifelong effects on physical and mental health. Research has demonstrated that individuals who experience sexual assault during childhood are more likely to engage in risky behaviors later in life, such as smoking, alcohol and drug use, and disordered eating habits, which may increase the risk of developing a chronic disease. Despite the high prevalence and economic burden of sexual assault, few studies have investigated the associations between sexual violence and chronic health conditions in the US. The purpose of this study is to identify associations between sexual violence and health risk behaviors, chronic health conditions and mental health conditions utilizing population based data in Kansas. Secondary analysis was done using data from the 2011 Kansas Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System sexual violence module (N = 4,886). Crude and adjusted prevalence rate ratios were computed to examine associations between sexual assault and health risk behaviors, chronic health conditions and mental health conditions, overall and after adjusting for social demographic characteristics. Additional logistic regression models were implemented to examine the association between sexual assault and health risk behaviors with further adjustment for history of anxiety or depression. There was a significantly higher prevalence of health risk behaviors (heavy drinking, binge drinking and current smoking), chronic health conditions (disability, and current asthma) and mental health conditions (depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation) among women who ever experienced sexual assault compared to women who did not, even after adjustment for potential confounders. Study findings highlight the need for chronic disease prevention services for victims of sexual violence. There are important implications for policies and practices related to primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention, as well as collaborations
The issue of physical and sexual abuse of children in Kenya is recognised as a highly prevalent and significant problem, occurring within a framework of social values that contribute to the exploitation of women and children. In order to understand the risk and protective factors for children who experience physical and sexual abuse, the cultural context must be taken into consideration. This paper will argue that patriarchy and traditional values underlie the norms and behaviours of parents and communities interacting with children. These values can be protective, eg the value placed on family structure; however, the traditional value-system justifies harsh physical punishment as a means of disciplining children. While systems exist to prevent abuse, these often disenfranchise the poor, who are then left to seek traditional means of support (eg out-of-court agreements and settlements). A culture of silence also prevents many children from reporting abuse. The paper argues that efforts must be made to gain a better understanding of the prevalence of child maltreatment in Kenya so that targeted services can be developed to reduce it, taking into consideration and overcoming negative cultural factors through the implementation of educational programmes and anti-oppressive practice. It is hoped that this paper will enable community practitioners and health visitors in the UK to provide better support to Kenyan children who are at risk of experiencing physical and sexual violence.
Draper, Jordan Leigh
Nearly 20% of college females and 6% of college males will experience a form of sexual assault while enrolled in a college or university (Krebs, Lindquist, Warner, Fisher, & Martin, 2007). Sexual violence is not a new issue within college environments; however, it is rapidly gaining media attention based on victim testimonials and additional…
Parkes, Jenny; Heslop, Jo; Januario, Francisco; Oando, Samwel; Sabaa, Susan
This paper interrogates the influence of a tradition-modernity dichotomy on perspectives and practices on sexual violence and sexual relationships involving girls in three districts of Kenya, Ghana and Mozambique. Through deploying an analytical framework of positioning within multiple discursive sites, we argue that although the dichotomy…
Snyder, Jamie A.; Scherer, Heidi L.; Fisher, Bonnie S.
Researchers have shown that college students are at an increased risk of experiencing interpersonal violence (IV). One factor that appears to play a role in shaping their likelihood of IV is sexual orientation. However, little is known about this relationship and how IV risk varies across categories of sexual orientation. Utilizing a sample of…
Choudhary, Ekta; Coben, Jeffrey; Bossarte, Robert M.
In the United States, an estimated three million men are victims of sexual violence each year, yet the majority of existing studies have evaluated the consequences and characteristics of victimization among women alone. The result has been a gap in the existing literature examining the physical and psychological consequences of sexual assault…
Phipps, Alison; Ringrose, Jessica; Renold, Emma; Jackson, Carolyn
Introduction to Special Issue of Journal of Gender Studies entitled Rape culture, lad culture and everyday sexism: Researching, conceptualizing and politicizing new mediations of gender and sexual violence.
Wong, Janet Yuen-Ha; Choi, Edmond Pui-Hang; Lo, Herman Hay-Ming; Wong, Wendy; Chio, Jasmine Hin-Man; Choi, Anna Wai-Man; Fong, Daniel Yee-Tak
Theories explaining the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) on mental health have focused on heterosexual relationships. It is unclear whether mental health disparities between heterosexual and sexual minority people are due to IPV or factors related to sexual orientation. The present study aimed to investigate pathways of how sexual orientation influenced quality of life and mental health. The present cross-sectional study was conducted in 1076 young adults in a university population (934 heterosexual and 142 sexual minority groups). Structural equation modelling was used to examine the pathways of sexual orientation, dating violence, sexual orientation concealment, quality of life and mental health (perceived stress, anxiety and depression). After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, quality of life in sexual minority people was poorer [estimate -2.82, 95 % confidence interval (CI) -4.77 to -0.86, p = 0.005], and stress (estimate 2.77, 95 % CI 1.64-3.92, p violence and sexual orientation concealment were mediators, with the models showing a good fit. Our study has progressed investigation of the link between sexual orientation and quality of life and mental health in the Chinese context. It has helped identify health disparities between heterosexual and sexual minority people and determined specific factors affecting their quality of life and mental health.
Alemayehu, Mussie; Yohannes, Gebregizabeher; Damte, Ashenafi; Fantahun, Atsede; Gebrekirstos, Kahsu; Tsegay, Resom; Goldberger, Adina; Yebyo, Henock
Gender-based violence is a natural outgrowth of the stigma and discrimination experienced by commercial sex workers (CSWs) across the globe. In light of this, the current study aimed to describe the prevalence and character of sexual violence, as well as any risk factors for violence, experienced by CSWs in Mekelle City, Northern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Mekelle City in April 2013. 250 CSWs were selected for participation using simple random sampling. Data were collected via a questionnaire instrument. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed using SPSS 20 for Windows. The overall prevalence of sexual violence among CSWs was 75.6 %. Basic literacy [(AOR = 5.3, 95 % of CI (1.15-25.20)], completion of only elementary school [AOR = 6.9, 95 % of CI (1.55-31.25)], completion of only high school [AOR = 7.9, 95 % of CI (1.65-38.16)], being married [(AOR = 3.8, 95 % CI (1.34-11.09)], engaging in sex work for 1-4 years [(AOR = 5.3, 95 % CI(1.7-16.2)] and drug use [AOR = 5.3, 95 % of CI (1.78-16.21)] were all significant risk factors for sexual violence. CSWs with lower monthly income were also more likely to experience sexual violence; monthly income of 51.2-101.9 USD yielded AOR = 2.4 (95 % CI 1.12-5.37) and monthly income of 102.2-153.1 USD yielded AOR = 7.9 (95 % CI 2.46-25.58), compared to CSWs earning 153.2 USD or more. The prevalence of sexual violence among CSWs is high. Lower educational attainment, being married, lower monthly income, drug use, and shorter duration of sex work are all risk factors for sexual violence.
Watkins, Jennifer H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mackerrow, Edward P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patelli, Paolo G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eberhardt, Ariane [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stradling, Seth G [Los Alamos National Laboratory
Understanding the process that enables political violence is of great value in reducing the future demand for and support of violent opposition groups. Methods are needed that allow alternative scenarios and counterfactuals to be scientifically researched. Computational social simulation shows promise in developing 'computer experiments' that would be unfeasible or unethical in the real world. Additionally, the process of modeling and simulation reveals and challenges assumptions that may not be noted in theories, exposes areas where data is not available, and provides a rigorous, repeatable, and transparent framework for analyzing the complex dynamics of political violence. This paper demonstrates the computational modeling process using two simulation techniques: system dynamics and agent-based modeling. The benefits and drawbacks of both techniques are discussed. In developing these social simulations, we discovered that the social science concepts and theories needed to accurately simulate the associated psychological and social phenomena were lacking.
DeGue, Sarah; Valle, Linda Anne; Holt, Melissa K; Massetti, Greta M; Matjasko, Jennifer L; Tharp, Andra Teten
This systematic review examined 140 outcome evaluations of primary prevention strategies for sexual violence perpetration. The review had two goals: 1) to describe and assess the breadth, quality, and evolution of evaluation research in this area; and 2) to summarize the best available research evidence for sexual violence prevention practitioners by categorizing programs with regard to their evidence of effectiveness on sexual violence behavioral outcomes in a rigorous evaluation. The majority of sexual violence prevention strategies in the evaluation literature are brief, psycho-educational programs focused on increasing knowledge or changing attitudes, none of which have shown evidence of effectiveness on sexually violent behavior using a rigorous evaluation design. Based on evaluation studies included in the current review, only three primary prevention strategies have demonstrated significant effects on sexually violent behavior in a rigorous outcome evaluation: Safe Dates (Foshee et al., 2004); Shifting Boundaries (building-level intervention only, Taylor, Stein, Woods, Mumford, & Forum, 2011); and funding associated with the 1994 U.S. Violence Against Women Act (VAWA; Boba & Lilley, 2009). The dearth of effective prevention strategies available to date may reflect a lack of fit between the design of many of the existing programs and the principles of effective prevention identified by Nation et al. (2003).
DeGue, Sarah; Valle, Linda Anne; Holt, Melissa K.; Massetti, Greta M.; Matjasko, Jennifer L.; Tharp, Andra Teten
This systematic review examined 140 outcome evaluations of primary prevention strategies for sexual violence perpetration. The review had two goals: 1) to describe and assess the breadth, quality, and evolution of evaluation research in this area; and 2) to summarize the best available research evidence for sexual violence prevention practitioners by categorizing programs with regard to their evidence of effectiveness on sexual violence behavioral outcomes in a rigorous evaluation. The majority of sexual violence prevention strategies in the evaluation literature are brief, psycho-educational programs focused on increasing knowledge or changing attitudes, none of which have shown evidence of effectiveness on sexually violent behavior using a rigorous evaluation design. Based on evaluation studies included in the current review, only three primary prevention strategies have demonstrated significant effects on sexually violent behavior in a rigorous outcome evaluation: Safe Dates (Foshee et al., 2004); Shifting Boundaries (building-level intervention only, Taylor, Stein, Woods, Mumford, & Forum, 2011); and funding associated with the 1994 U.S. Violence Against Women Act (VAWA; Boba & Lilley, 2009). The dearth of effective prevention strategies available to date may reflect a lack of fit between the design of many of the existing programs and the principles of effective prevention identified by Nation et al. (2003). PMID:29606897
Mahlangu, Vimbi Petrus
This paper highlights legal understanding of quid pro quo sexual harassment in schools. Quid pro quo sexual harassment implies abuse of authority or position to gain something sexual. A duty of care rests on teachers, Schools Governing Bodies and the Department of Education to provide and maintain safe schools that are free from all forms of…
attitudes. Discussion and conclusions: The prevalence rates of both lifetime physical and sexual violence were very high among HIV-uninfected women and even higher among HIV-infected women recruited in health facilities in this West African country. Screening for intimate partner violence should be systematic in health-care settings, and specifically within HIV care services. At a time of increased investments in couple-oriented HIV prevention interventions, further longitudinal research to better understanding of HIV-serodiscordant couple dynamics in terms of intimate partner violence is needed.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Health effects and human rights dimensions of sexual violence against women, a public health and human rights problem, evaluated by the case of Bosnia War. METHODS: Bosnia War, United Nations resolutions, International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY cases, activities of NGOs, approaches of WHO, Dayton Peace Agreement, current health programs were evaluated with the health effects and human rights dimensions of sexual violence against women. RESULTS: Sexual violence against women and systematic rapes were used as an “ethnic cleaning” tool and war weapon during Bosnia War, estimated 20.000-60.000 women and girls were raped systematically, captivated in rape camps, exposed to sexual violence. Medical care following the sexual violence against women and rape should include; Determination and teatment of injuries, forensic notice and documentation, preventive and curative services for Sexually Transmitted Diseases including HIV/AIDS, emergency contraceptive services, safe medical abortus, follow up of pregnancies, psychosocial support and services and training of health care professionals. Mental Health Reform became a priority health topic for Bosnia Herzegovina aftermath of the Bosnia War. Taking measures to prevent social stigmatism of the victims, economic support and implementation of rehabilitation programs, punishment of the perpetrators to repair social and community bonds are important. ICTY investigates and punishes the crimes of rapes and sexual violence against women. CONCLUSION: UN defines the violence against women and rapes during wars as “crime against humanity”. Besides improving the status of women, comprehensive approaches with the cooperation of medical, legal and social organisations are needed. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 119-126
Henriksen, L; Schei, B; Vangen, S; Lukasse, M
This study aimed to explore the association between sexual violence and mode of delivery. National cohort study. Women presenting for routine ultrasound examinations were recruited to the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study between 1999 and 2008. A total of 74,059 pregnant women. Sexual violence was self-reported during pregnancy using postal questionnaires. Mode of delivery, other maternal birth outcomes and covariates were retrieved from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Risk estimations were performed using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Mode of delivery and selected maternal birth outcomes. Of 74,059 women, 18.4% reported a history of sexual violence. A total of 10% had an operative vaginal birth, 4.9% had elective caesarean section and 8.6% had an emergency caesarean section. Severe sexual violence (rape) was associated with elective caesarean section, adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.56 (95% CI 1.18-2.05) for nulliparous women and 1.37 (1.06-1.76) for multiparous women. Those exposed to moderate sexual violence had a higher risk of emergency caesarean section, AOR 1.31 (1.07-1.60) and 1.41 (1.08-1.84) for nulliparous and multiparous women, respectively. No association was found between sexual violence and operative vaginal birth, except for a lower risk among multiparous women reporting mild sexual violence, AOR 0.73 (0.60-0.89). Analysis of other maternal outcomes showed a reduced risk of episiotomy for women reporting rape and a higher frequency of induced labour. Women with a history of rape had higher odds of elective caesarean section and induction and significantly fewer episiotomies. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
Lundberg, Patric; Nakasujja, Noeline; Musisi, Seggane; Thorson, Anna Ekéus; Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth; Allebeck, Peter
We investigated prevalence of past-year sexual risk behavior and sexual violence exposure in persons with severe mental illness (SMI) in Uganda, and compared results to general population estimates. We also investigated whether persons with SMI reporting sexual risk behavior and sexual violence exposure were more likely to be HIV-infected. We included 602 persons consecutively discharged from Butabika Hospital, Kampala, Uganda, February to April 2010. We asked about past-year number of sexual partners and condom use. We assessed sexual violence with the World Health Organization Violence Against Women Instrument. We performed HIV testing. We used data from 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey for comparison. Women with SMI had more sexual risk behavior and more sexual violence exposure than women in the general population. We found no difference in sexual risk behavior in men. Sexual risk behavior was associated with HIV infection in men, but not women. Sexual violence exposure was not associated with HIV infection in women. Findings suggest that SMI exacerbates Ugandan women's sexual vulnerability. Public health practitioners, policymakers, and legislators should act to protect health and rights of women with SMI in resource-poor settings.
Teitelman, Anne M.; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Morales-Aleman, Mercedes M.; Sullivan, Cris M.
This study examined the association between sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence, and condom use among African American and Hispanic urban girls. In this sample of 56 sexually active girls, 50% did not use condoms consistently and therefore were at higher risk for acquiring HIV or sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Teens who experienced more intimate partner violence had a significantly higher likelihood of inconsistent condom use and therefore a greater risk for HIV/STDs. Girls' sense of sexual control in their relationships was not directly associated with inconsistent condom use but was inversely related to verbal and emotional abuse. Interventions aimed at reducing HIV/STD risk for adolescent girls need to address patterns of dominance and control in adolescent relationships as well as multiple forms of partner violence. This suggests the need for multilevel intervention approaches that promote girls' agency and multiple ways to keep girls safe from perpetrators of partner abuse. PMID:18349344
Despite half a century of research on both sexual violence and elder abuse, the intersection between the two remains largely unexplored. Using theoretical lenses of feminist criminology and critical feminist gerontology, this article explores the intersection between age and sexual violence drawing on interviews with 23 practitioners supporting older survivors (aged 60 and over). They reported physical and emotional effects of sexual violence leading to limited lifestyles, disengagement from social networks, and reliance on pathogenic coping strategies. Provision of effective support was complicated by challenges associated with aging bodies and the social stigma associated with both sexual victimhood and older age. Additional challenges lay in supporting older male survivors and those living with dementia. The article ends by discussing implications for practice and an agenda for future research.
Nydegger, Liesl A; DiFranceisco, Wayne; Quinn, Katherine; Dickson-Gomez, Julia
Unequal gender norms and age-disparate sexual relationships can lead to power imbalances and are also associated with intimate partner violence (IPV), sexual coercion and violence, and sexual risk behaviors. The present study examined these variables from both victim and perpetrator perspectives among adolescent gang members. Age-disparate sexual relationships were defined as sex partners 5 or more years older among female participants and 5 or more years younger among male participants. Participants were recruited from a mid-sized Midwestern city and completed a 60-90-min audio computer-assisted self-interview in a community-based setting. Participants in this study included 107 female gang members (68 % African-American, 19 % Latina; mean age, 17.6) and 169 male gang members (62 % African-American, 28 % Latino; mean age, 17.7). As hypothesized, endorsing unequal gender norms toward women was significantly related to IPV victimization among female participants and perpetration among male participants, and engagement in group sex in the past month among both female and male participants (ps sexual relationships were significantly more likely to have experienced more IPV and report being raped and males gang members who had age-disparate sexual relationships were significantly more likely to perpetrate IPV in the past year and perpetrate rape (ps sexual relationships were also significantly related to being gang raped among female gang members and participating in a gang rape among male gang members, and engaging in group sex among both female and male gang members (ps sexual relationships were more likely to have been pregnant (ps sexual coercion/violence. Early intervention will also be necessary as these adolescent gang members are already engaged in extremely high-risk, coercive, and violent behaviors.
Frey, Lisa L; Beesley, Denise; Abbott, Deah; Kendrick, Elizabeth
There is little research related to sexual assault and domestic violence advocates' experiences, with the bulk of the literature focused on stressors and systemic barriers that negatively impact efforts to assist survivors. However, advocates participating in these studies have also emphasized the positive impact they experience consequent to their work. This study explores the positive impact. Vicarious resilience, personal trauma experiences, peer relational quality, and perceived organizational support in advocates (n = 222) are examined. Also, overlap among the conceptual components of vicarious resilience is explored. The first set of multiple regressions showed that personal trauma experiences and peer relational health predicted compassion satisfaction and vicarious posttraumatic growth, with organizational support predicting only compassion satisfaction. The second set of multiple regressions showed that (a) there was significant shared variance between vicarious posttraumatic growth and compassion satisfaction; (b) after accounting for vicarious posttraumatic growth, organizational support accounted for significant variance in compassion satisfaction; and (c) after accounting for compassion satisfaction, peer relational health accounted for significant variance in vicarious posttraumatic growth. Results suggest that it may be more meaningful to conceptualize advocates' personal growth related to their work through the lens of a multidimensional construct such as vicarious resilience. Organizational strategies promoting vicarious resilience (e.g., shared organizational power, training components) are offered, and the value to trauma-informed care of fostering advocates' vicarious resilience is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Godier, Lauren; Fossey, Matt
Despite media interest in alleged sexual violence and harassment in the UK military, there remains a paucity of UK-based peer-reviewed research in this area. Ministry of Defence and service-specific reports support the suggestion that UK service personnel may be at risk of experiencing sexual harassment. These reports however highlight a reluctance by service personnel to report sexual harassment through official channels. In this article, we discuss the paucity of UK-based research pertainin...
... violence; Spousal abuse; Elder abuse; Child abuse; Sexual abuse - domestic violence ... 2016. National Domestic Violence Hotline website. What is domestic violence? www.thehotline.org/is-this-abuse/abuse-defined . Accessed July 10, 2016.
McGee, Hannah; Garavan, Rebecca; Byrne, Joanne; O'Higgins, Madeleine; Conroy, Ronán M
Sexual violence is a worldwide problem affecting children and adults. Knowledge of trends in prevalence is essential to inform the design and evaluation of preventive and intervention programmes. We aimed to assess the prevalence of lifetime sexual violence for both sexes and to document the prevalence of adult and child abuse by birth year in the general population. National cluster-randomized telephone interview study of 3120 adults in Ireland was done. Child sexual abuse involving physical contact was reported by 20% of women and 16% of men. In adulthood, figures were 20% and 10% for women and men, respectively. Prevalence of any form of sexual violence across the lifespan was 42% (women) and 38% (men). Analysis by year of birth indicated a curvilinear pattern for child sexual abuse with lower prevalence in the oldest and youngest participants. Sexual violence in young adulthood showed a linear pattern with higher prevalence in the youngest participants. The trend of lower rates of experience of child sexual abuse in younger adults in the sample is in keeping with findings from other countries. The trend of higher rates of adult sexual violence in younger adults is worrying, particularly since the same participants reported less experience of child sexual abuse than the preceding generations. There is a paucity of international data addressing the issue of cohort differences in exposure to sexual violence. Within-study analysis, and follow-up studies designed to maximize replicability, are needed to inform discussion about societal trends in different types of sexual violence.
Willie, Tiara C; Khondkaryan, Enna; Callands, Tamora; Kershaw, Trace
The purpose of the study was to (a) explore the relationship between sexual cultural scripting and traditional masculine norms on changes in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration, and (b) examine traditional masculine norms as an effect modifier among young heterosexual men. This study is a secondary data analysis of a prospective cohort study of 119 young heterosexual men who were followed for 6 months. The adjusted logistic regression results revealed that sexual cultural scripting norms were associated with an increased odds of emotional IPV perpetration and traditional masculine norms were associated with an increased odds of physical IPV perpetration in the past 6 months. There were no significant interaction effects between sexual cultural scripting and traditional masculine norms on IPV perpetration. These findings suggest that socially constructed norms and beliefs surrounding masculinity, femininity, and how women and men interact in sexual relationships are important constructs for understanding the etiology of young men's use of violence against a female partner. While primary IPV interventions targeting young men do address masculinity, sexual cultural scripting is an additional concept that should also be addressed. © Society for Community Research and Action 2018.
Ohlert, Jeannine; Seidler, Corinna; Rau, Thea; Fegert, Jörg; Allroggen, Marc
Research on sexual violence victims and perpetrators indicates that victims in general are found to report higher levels of psychopathological symptoms, especially internalizing behavior, whereas perpetrators often show externalizing behavior. Little is known, however, about the psychopathology of perpetrators of sexual violence who have also experienced sexual victimization (victim-perpetrators). Thus, the aim of the current study was to examine this group within a sample of adolescents living in residential care or federal boarding schools. Participants reported their lifetime experience with sexual violence (both as victim and perpetrator) and completed the Youth Self Report. Results indicate that all three groups of adolescents with sexual violence experience report higher total problem scores than adolescents without this experience. Victim-perpetrators show results more similar to those of perpetrators only than those of victims only. The discussion deals with the implications of our findings for the treatment of victims of sexual violence.
Gust, Deborah A; Pan, Yi; Otieno, Fred; Hayes, Tameka; Omoro, Tereza; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A; Odongo, Fred; Otieno, George O
Intimate partner physical violence increases women's risk for negative health outcomes and is an important public health concern. The purpose of the present study was to determine 1) the proportion of girls (≤18 years) and women (>18 years) who experienced physical violence by a sexual partner, and 2) factors (including self-reported HIV infection) associated with girls and women who experienced physical violence by a sexual partner. Cross-sectional surveys conducted in the Gem Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) area in Siaya County, western Kenya in 2011-2012 (Round 1) and 2013-2014 (Round 2). Among 8003 unique participants (582 girls and 7421 women), 11.6% reported physical violence by a sexual partner in the last 12 months (girls: 8.4%, women: 11.8%). Three factors were associated with physical violence by a sexual partner among girls: being married or cohabiting (nearly 5-fold higher risk), low education, and reporting forced sex in the last 12 months (both with an approximate 2-fold higher risk). Predictive factors were similar for women, with the addition of partner alcohol/drug use and deliberately terminating a pregnancy. Self-reported HIV status was not associated with recent physical violence by a sexual partner among girls or women. Gender-based physical violence is prevalent in this rural setting and has a strong relationship with marital status, low education level, and forced sex among girls and women. Concerted efforts to prevent child marriage and retain girls in school as well as implementation of school and community-based anti-violence programs may help mitigate this risk.
Russell, Tiffany D; King, Alan R
Psychopathy and narcissism are known predictors of sexual violence, but they are broad personality constructs with limited utility in intervention and prevention efforts. The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) assesses 25 specific personality facets residing in five higher order domains. The goal of this research was to test the PID-5 in a sexual aggression model, which also included hostile masculinity, juvenile delinquency, and five sexual assault indices. A nationwide sample of adult men ( N = 512) completed the online survey. Hostile masculinity and juvenile delinquency were expected to have direct paths to sexual violence in a structural equation model. Hostile masculinity was also hypothesized as a mediator between sexual violence and PID-5 facets related to narcissism and psychopathy. These hypotheses were largely supported. Overall, 29.5% of men reported perpetrating sexual violence at least once, and 24.2% reported multiple assaults. In the sexually violent sample, 45.7% endorsed completed rape as their most severe act. PID-5 Suspiciousness, Cognitive and Perceptual Dysregulation, Grandiosity, and a lack of Eccentricity emerged as indirect predictors of sexual violence. These PID-5 facets were mediated by hostile masculinity, which had a reliable path to sexual violence. Juvenile delinquency had a direct and indirect path to sexual assault. The model accounted for 48% of the variance in latent sexual violence, and the five sexual violence index R 2 s ranged from .53 to .82. This research adds specificity to sexual violence models by demonstrating the underlying maladaptive personality trait structures associated with sexual assault. It also provides a more precise personality profile for clinical use and prevention programs.
Depalma, Renée; Francis, Dennis
In in-depth interviews with 25 Life Orientation teachers in South Africa, we found that teachers spontaneously drew upon notions of culture to explain and justify people's sexual beliefs and behaviours and their own role as educators. Drawing upon a Bakhtinian understanding of discourse, we apply critical semantic analysis to explore how culture is deployed as a discursive strategy. Teachers draw upon particular understandings of culture available to them in their social contexts. Furthermore, the substitution of the word 'culture' for a series of other phenomena (silence, violence and poverty) affords these phenomena a certain authority that they would otherwise not wield. We argue, first, that systems teacher education and training needs to (re)define culture as dynamic, interactive and responding to, but not determined by, socio-historical realities. Beyond this, teachers need to learn how to critically engage with cultural practices and perceptions and to be provided with some basic tools to do so, including more sophisticated understandings of cultural and training in dialogic methodologies. Teaching sexuality education in multicultural societies such as South Africa will require meaningful engagement in intercultural dialogues that may need to include voices that have traditionally been excluded from school spaces.
Alleyne-Green, Binta; Grinnell-Davis, Claudette; Clark, Trenette T; Quinn, Camille R; Cryer-Coupet, Qiana R
This study explored the relationship between the involvement of biological fathers and the sexual risk behaviors and dating violence/victimization and/or perpetration of adolescent girls. The data used in this cross-sectional analysis were drawn from the second wave of the public release of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Only adolescents who reported their biological sex as female, reported a history of being sexually active, and reported having a romantic partner in the previous 18 months were selected (N = 879). This study focused on overall positive sexual behaviors and use of contraception. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to best utilize capacity for dealing with latent variables and to test for possible mediation effects. The analysis demonstrated main effects of dating violence and father involvement on sexual behaviors. The more dating violence an adolescent girl experiences, the less likely she is to engage in healthy sexual behaviors. Likewise, the more involvement the biological father has in a woman's life, the more likely she is to engage in positive sexual behaviors. Perceived father involvement was associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls. Dating violence was directly associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls, particularly non-White girls. Future studies should use longitudinal models and test theoretically and empirically guided potential mediators. Future studies should also consider father figures such as step-fathers and grandfathers in addition to biological fathers, as having a father figure may be a stronger predictor of adolescent sexual behaviors than having a biological connection. © The Author(s) 2014.
Anger and violence among children has moved from the streets to the schools, with tragic, and well-documented, results. This book addresses anger and violence among children and is, in essence, an anger-management course for teens, written at about an eighth-grade level. Part 1, "The Problems of Violence in Our World," explores human violence. It…
Thaíse Campos Mondin
Full Text Available Abstract This article seeks to analyze the association between sexual violence, manic and depressive episodes, and suicide risk among young adults. This is a cross-sectional population-based study carried out with young people between 18 and 24 years of age in a town in southern Brazil. The sample was selected through clusters. The prevalence of sexual violence, manic, depressive and mixed episodes and suicide risk were evaluated, as well as the association between them. The chi-square test and Poisson regression were used for statistical analysis. The study sample comprised 1,560 subjects. Among these, 3.1% had suffered sexual violence at some point in their life. The prevalence of depressive, mixed episodes, and (hypomanic episodes were 10%, 2.4% and 2.3%, respectively. Suicide risk had a prevalence of 8.6% in the total sample. Young people who have suffered sexual violence are more likely to be subject to mood changes or suicide risk than those who have not (p < 0.05, except for the occurrence of (hypomanic episodes. These results revealed a strong association between sexual violence and depressive and mixed episodes and suicide risk.
Peterman, Amber; Johnson, Kiersten
Obstetric fistula, characterized by urinary or fecal incontinence via the vagina, has begun to receive attention on the international public health agenda, however less attention has been given to traumatic fistula. Field reports indicate that trauma contributes to the burden of vaginal fistula, especially in regions wrought by civil unrest, however evidence is largely anecdotal or facility-based. This paper specifically examines the co-occurrence of incontinence and two potential sources of trauma: sexual violence and female genital cutting using the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys in Malawi, Rwanda, Uganda and Ethiopia. Multivariate selection models are used to control for sampling differences by country. Results indicate that sexual violence is a significant determinant of incontinence in Rwanda and Malawi, however not in Uganda. Simulations predict that elimination of sexual violence would result in from a 7 to a 40% reduction of the total burden of incontinence. In contrast, no evidence is found that female genital cutting contributes to incontinence and this finding is robust for types of cutting and high risk samples. Results point to the importance of reinforcing prevention programs which seek to address prevention of sexual violence and for the integration of services to better serve women experiencing both sexual violence and incontinence.
Sexual violence in armed conflict has traditionally received poor attention until recent years. It has been the "least condemned of war crimes" although, with the inception of the International Criminal Court and various other international courts and tribunals, convictions of high-profile aggressors are increasing. Only recently Charles Taylor, the President of Liberia, was convicted of war crimes and crimes against humanity which included rape and sexual slavery. He was sentenced to 50 years imprisonment. Is prosecution of these crimes sufficient to minimise sexual violence in war? That seems unlikely given the potential for such violence to be a cheap and effective strategy to terrorise a civilian population and "ethnically cleanse" the newly won territory. However, there is a remarkable variation in the levels of sexual violence in armed conflicts. Some, such as the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, have extremely low levels, whereas in Bosnia and many African states the prevalence of sexual violence is at epidemic levels. The reasons for such differences are many, however, some precipitating factors may be improved by strong military discipline, improved gender balance in armed forces, better political awareness by combatants of the aims of a campaign and pre-deployment ethical training.
Ruggles, Kelly V; Rajan, Sonali
To apply discovery-based computational methods to nationally representative data from the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions' Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System to better understand and visualize the behavioral factors associated with gun possession among adolescent youth. Our study uncovered the multidimensional nature of gun possession across nearly five million unique data points over a ten year period (2001-2011). Specifically, we automated odds ratio calculations for 55 risk behaviors to assemble a comprehensive table of associations for every behavior combination. Downstream analyses included the hierarchical clustering of risk behaviors based on their association "fingerprint" to 1) visualize and assess which behaviors frequently co-occur and 2) evaluate which risk behaviors are consistently found to be associated with gun possession. From these analyses, we identified more than 40 behavioral factors, including heroin use, using snuff on school property, having been injured in a fight, and having been a victim of sexual violence, that have and continue to be strongly associated with gun possession. Additionally, we identified six behavioral clusters based on association similarities: 1) physical activity and nutrition; 2) disordered eating, suicide and sexual violence; 3) weapon carrying and physical safety; 4) alcohol, marijuana and cigarette use; 5) drug use on school property and 6) overall drug use. Use of computational methodologies identified multiple risk behaviors, beyond more commonly discussed indicators of poor mental health, that are associated with gun possession among youth. Implications for prevention efforts and future interdisciplinary work applying computational methods to behavioral science data are described.
Bottoms, Bette L; Peter-Hagene, Liana C; Epstein, Michelle A; Wiley, Tisha R A; Reynolds, Carrie E; Rudnicki, Aaron G
Many adult survivors of childhood abuse hide their victimization, avoiding disclosure that could identify perpetrators, end the abuse, and bring help to the victim. We surveyed 1,679 women undergraduates to understand disclosure of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse, and, for the first time, witnessed domestic violence, which many consider to be emotionally abusive. A substantial minority of victims failed to ever disclose their sexual abuse (23%), physical abuse (34%), emotional abuse (20%), and witnessed domestic violence (29%). Overall, abuse-specific factors were better predictors of disclosure than individual-level characteristics. Disclosure of sexual abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and by multiple perpetrators), being more worried about injury and more upset at the time of the abuse, and self-labeling as a victim of abuse. Disclosure of physical abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and multiple perpetrators), being less emotionally close to the perpetrator, being older when the abuse ended, being more worried and upset, and self-labeling as a victim. Disclosure of emotional abuse was associated with being older when the abuse ended, and being more worried and upset. Disclosure was unrelated to victim demographic characteristics or defensive reactions (dissociative proneness, fantasy proneness, repressive coping style, and temporary forgetting), except that among physical and emotional abuse victims, repressors were less likely to disclose than non-repressors. Disclosure of witnessing domestic violence was not significantly related to any factors measured. © The Author(s) 2014.
The study of lethal violence and the study of sexual violence in war have mainly been two distinctive research fields within the literature on civilian victimization. Researchers and academics have tended to isolate these two types of violence, and chosen to focus either on the study of lethal violence or the study of war related sexual violence. Consequently, we have little knowledge about how these two types of violence relate to each other during war. One of the main focuses and questions ...
Zweig, Janine M.; Yahner, Jennifer; Dank, Meredith; Lachman, Pamela
Background: We examined whether substance use, psychosocial adjustment, and sexual experiences vary for teen dating violence victims by the type of violence in their relationships. We compared dating youth who reported no victimization in their relationships to those who reported being victims of intimate terrorism (dating violence involving one…
Alys M. Willman; Crystal Corman
Sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) is the most prevalent form of gender inequality. More than one third of the women in the world have experienced some form of gender based violence. The impacts of such violence extend far beyond the individual survivors, affecting households and communities, and spanning across generations. SGBV is widely recognized as a development constraint that f...
Schroll, Anne-Mette; Tabor, Ann; Kjaergaard, Hanne
To estimate the prevalence of self-reported lifetime violence and to assess whether women exposed to any physical violence or sexual violence (SEV) had a higher risk of having fear of childbirth (FOC) before, during or after delivery compared with women without such history....
Breiding, Matthew J.; Smith, Sharon G.
Objectives. To examine the relative prevalence of recent (past 12 months) penetrative and nonpenetrative sexual violence comparing men and women with and without a disability. Methods. Data are from the 2010 National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, a national telephone survey of US adults, and includes an expansive measure of sexual violence victimization. A total of 9086 women and 7421 men completed the telephone survey in 2010. Results. Compared with persons without a disability, persons with a disability were at increased risk for recent rape for women (adjusted odds ratio = 3.3; 95% confidence interval = 1.6, 6.7), and being made to penetrate a perpetrator for men (adjusted odds ratio = 4.2; 95% confidence interval = 1.6, 10.8). An estimated 39% of women raped in the 12 months preceding the survey had a disability at the time of the rape. For women and men, having a disability was associated with an increased risk of sexual coercion and noncontact unwanted sexual experiences. Conclusions. In this nationally representative sample, men and women with a disability were at increased risk for recent sexual violence, compared to those without a disability. PMID:26890182
Full Text Available Legal consciousness scholars identify the ways in which law is referenced to authorize, define and evaluate behaviors and choices that occur far outside any formal legal framework. They define legality as the “meanings, sources of authority, and cultural practices that are commonly recognized as legal, regardless of who employs them or for what ends.” We use the idea of legality to argue that, in matters of sexual assault and rape, the limits of the law extend beyond the courtroom. Rather than simply influencing or guiding only those who are willing to consult the law in their efforts to seek justice, laws and legal discourse have the potential to frame and constrain any attempt to discuss experiences of sexual violence. #MeToo and other forms of “consciousness-raising” for sexual violence highlight the limiting effects of law and legal discourse on public discussion of sexual violence. We find that, paradoxically, in the case of sexual violence law has the capacity to undermine the goals and benefits of consciousness-raising approaches, privatizing the experience of sexual assault and silencing its victims.
Hines, Denise A; Palm Reed, Kathleen M
Although evidence suggests that bystander prevention programs are promising interventions for decreasing sexual violence and dating violence on college campuses, there have been no studies to date evaluating moderators of bystander program effectiveness. The current study evaluates whether different demographic characteristics, attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors at pretest predict change over a 6-month follow-up for students who participated in a bystander prevention program. Participants in the three assessments (pretest, posttest, 6-month follow-up) included 296 college students who were mandated to attend a bystander program during their first year orientation. Analyses showed that with few exceptions, the bystander program worked best for students who were most at risk given their pretest demographics and levels of attitudes condoning dating violence and sexual violence, bystander efficacy, and bystander behaviors. Results are discussed in terms of suggestions for future research. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.
Scriver, Stacey; Kennedy, Kieran M.
Sexual violence is a serious and prevalent violation that is experienced by as many as one in three people worldwide. Professionals working in areas of health, social work, law, policy-development and other fields engage with survivors of sexual violence. Their knowledge of this issue is an important determinant in how they react towards survivors…
Tharp, Andra Teten; DeGue, Sarah; Lang, Karen; Valle, Linda Anne; Massetti, Greta; Holt, Melissa; Matjasko, Jennifer
Foubert, Godin, and Tatum describe qualitative effects among college men of The Men's Program, a one-session sexual violence prevention program. This article and the program it describes are representative of many sexual violence prevention programs that are in practice and provide an opportunity for a brief discussion of the development and…
José Wilson de Lima; Maria de Fátima Pereira Alberto; Viviane Martinho dos Santos; Kahyna Leite Brito; Suzany Ludimila Gadelha e Silva
This article has as objectives to characterize the cases of sexual violence against children and adolescents found in the records of complaints, notices and prosecutions at the Child and Youth Court in the county of João Pessoa and to analyze the risks to the victims of such violence regarding the decisions, procedures and prosecutions that do not guarantee the protection and enforcement of fundamental rights. The instrument used to collect data was a research protocol analyzed by frequency a...
Powers, Ráchael A; Leili, Jennifer
This study is an exploratory analysis of how bar staff perceive their role in preventing sexual harassment and assault. In particular, through qualitative focus group interviews, this study explores bar staff's attitudes surrounding sexual harassment/assault, how they currently handle these situations, and their opinions regarding programs and policies that currently mandate responsibility. Six major themes emerged including their hesitation to discuss sexual violence, their unique position as a service provider, their lack of knowledge (but eagerness to learn), and their reliance on stereotypical scenarios of sexual violence and interventions. These findings are situated in a framework for understanding barriers to bystander intervention and implications for community-based bystander programs are discussed.
Overstreet, Nicole M.; Willie, Tiara C.; Hellmuth, Julianne C.; Sullivan, Tami P.
BACKGROUND Research has examined how physical and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization increases sexual risk behavior, yet research is lacking on 1) the effect of psychological IPV on sexual risk behavior and 2) factors through which psychological IPV may be linked to sexual risk behavior. METHODS The current study examined the relationship between psychological IPV and sexual risk behavior controlling for other forms of IPV (i.e., physical and sexual) in a sample of 186 HIV-negative community women currently experiencing IPV. Further, this study examined the potential mediating effects of four posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity clusters (i.e., re-experiencing, avoidance, numbing, and hyperarousal) on this relationship. FINDINGS Results revealed that greater severity of psychological IPV was uniquely and directly related to greater sexual risk behavior. Additionally, of the four PTSD symptom severity clusters, only avoidance symptom severity mediated the relationship between psychological IPV and sexual risk behavior. CONCLUSION Implications for addressing psychological IPV and PTSD to improve women’s sexual health outcomes are discussed. PMID:25498762
Overstreet, Nicole M; Willie, Tiara C; Hellmuth, Julianne C; Sullivan, Tami P
Research has examined how physical and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization increases sexual risk behavior, yet research is lacking on 1) the effect of psychological IPV on sexual risk behavior and 2) factors through which psychological IPV may be linked to sexual risk behavior. The current study examined the relationship between psychological IPV and sexual risk behavior controlling for other forms of IPV (i.e., physical and sexual) in a sample of 186 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative community women currently experiencing IPV. Further, this study examined the potential mediating effects of four posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity clusters (i.e., re-experiencing, avoidance, numbing, and hyperarousal) on this relationship. Results revealed that greater severity of psychological IPV was uniquely and directly related to greater sexual risk behavior. Additionally, of the four PTSD symptom severity clusters, only avoidance symptom severity mediated the relationship between psychological IPV and sexual risk behavior. Implications for addressing psychological IPV and PTSD to improve women's sexual health outcomes are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Delziovo, Carmem Regina; Coelho, Elza Berger Salema; d'Orsi, Eleonora; Lindner, Sheila Rubia
This is a study on sexual violence against women in the Brazilian State of Santa Catarina notified to the Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN) in the period 20082013. It aimed to estimate pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) resulting from sexual violence and to test the association between pregnancy, STIs and care provided in health services. In total, 1,230 pregnancy notifications and 1.316 STI notifications were analyzed. Variables were age, schooling, time to receive care, STI prophylaxis, emergency contraception, number of perpetrators and recurrent violence, which were analyzed using proportions and 95% confidence intervals. Associations were tested by adjusted and non-adjusted logistic regression with values expressed in odds ratio. The occurrence of pregnancy was 7.6%. Receiving care within 72 hours and emergency contraception were protective factors. The occurrence of STIs was 3.5%. Care within 72 hours and prophylaxis did not result in lower proportions of STIs. Further studies are required regarding this issue.
Full Text Available This paper reflects on the significance of the legal treatment of sexual violence in contexts of armed conflict. What are the physical and emotional effects of the widespread use of rape as a weapon of war? In what way are women objectified and how are the implications of this projected into the social reference group? In order to answer these questions, first, a review is made of the international standards of legal protection against sexual violence. Then two case studies are analysed: Sepur Zarco in Guatemala and Manta and Vilca in Peru. In these cases,for the first time, national legal systems, based on international humanitarian law, have established a legal basis to punish sexual violence crimes within armed conflict contexts as crimes against humanity.
Hawkins, Stephanie R; Clinton-Sherrod, A Monique; Irvin, Neil; Hart, Laurie; Russell, Sarah Jane
Sexual violence is a growing public health problem, and there is an urgent need to develop sexual violence prevention programs. Logic models have emerged as a vital tool in program development. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded an empowerment evaluation designed to work with programs focused on the prevention of first-time male perpetration of sexual violence, and it included as one of its goals, the development of program logic models. Two case studies are presented that describe how significant positive changes can be made to programs as a result of their developing logic models that accurately describe desired outcomes. The first case study describes how the logic model development process made an organization aware of the importance of a program's environmental context for program success; the second case study demonstrates how developing a program logic model can elucidate gaps in organizational programming and suggest ways to close those gaps.
Powell, Anastasia; Henry, Nicola
Online forms of sexual harassment and abuse as experienced by adults represent an emerging yet under-researched set of behaviors, such that very few studies have sought to estimate the extent of the problem. This article presents the results of an online survey of 2,956 Australian adult (aged 18 to 54 years) experiences of technology-facilitated sexual violence (TFSV) victimization. The prevalence of TFSV was analyzed in relation to a 21-item scale developed in accordance with prior conceptual research identifying multiple dimensions of TFSV including digital sexual harassment, image-based sexual abuse, sexual aggression and/or coercion, and, gender and/or sexuality-based harassment (including virtual sexual violence). Results revealed significant differences in lifetime TFSV victimization for younger (18-24) and non-heterosexual identifying adults. Lifetime TFSV victimization for men and women was not significantly different, though women were more likely to report sexual harassment victimization and men were more likely to report victimization through the distribution of non-consensual images, as well as gender and/or sexuality-based harassment. The authors conclude that although women and men report experiencing similar overall prevalence of TFSV victimization, the nature and impacts of those experiences differ in particular gendered ways that reflect broader patterns in both gender relations and "offline" sexual harassment.
Aline Riboli Marasca
Full Text Available Violence in the affective-sexual relationships of adolescents is a theme that has been highlighted by the literature as a result of its high rates of prevalence. It has different characteristics, while many factors are shown to be associated with its occurrence. The present study investigated the affective-sexual relationships of adolescents, focusing on the experiences as perpetrators and victims of different types of violence between partners. We conducted a quantitative study with a descriptive, comparative and correlational design, with 124 heterosexual adolescents, aged 15 to 18 years (M = 15.94, SD = 0.65. As measurement instruments we used a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Family Background Questionnaire (FBQ, and the Conflict in Adolescent Dating Relationships Inventory (CADRI. The results showed percentages of violence that ranged from 14.7% for relational abuse committed to 97% for verbal/emotional violence suffered. We identified significant gender differences in the dimensions of threatening behavior (t = -3.172, p = 0.002 and physical violence (t = -3.037, p = 0.003 perpetrated by the participant, indicating that it is the girls who report that they practice this type of violence more often. No significant correlation was observed between experiences of violence in the family of origin and in the relationship with the partner (p > 0.05. However, there was an association between the occurrence of violence in the relationships of the adolescents and the presence of violence in the affective-sexual relationships of friends (p < 0.05. We highlight the importance of expanding the field of theory regarding this phenomenon, in order to assist with future interventions.
Choularia, Zoe; Hutchison, Craig; Karatzias, Thanos
Primary objective: The authors sought to summarise and evaluate evidence regarding vicarious traumatisation (VT) in practitioners working with adult survivors of sexual violence and/or child sexual abuse (CSA). Methods and selection criteria: Relevant publications were identified from systematic literature searches of PubMed and PsycINFO. Studies were selected for inclusion if they examined vicarious traumatisation resulting from sexual violence and/or CSA work and were published in English b...
Full Text Available Messages and sign have certain influence toward humans’ cognition, yet different person might perceive them differently. Persuasive message appears to be one type of messages which has the strongest potential in modifying ones’ behavior. Children and anything about them are parents’ biggest proximity. Regarding to the massive exposure of sexual violence cases happened to children, parents demand access to know more information on this issue. This research is intended to see the effect of the exposure on news about sexual violence in children toward cognition route of parents who have daughters, and to see if there is any different cognition route between fathers and mothers in perceiving news related to sexual violence on children. This research employed an experimental method using the one group pre-post test design. This research involved 15 parents who have daughters who were chosen using an accidental sampling method. This reseach was conducted in the computer laboratory of FISIP UB. Sexual violence codes were displayed in some videos which showed some news on sexual violence happened to children. After that, an instrument in the form of central code and peripheral cognition route scale which was developed from the elaboration likegood model (ELM was given to the samples in the form of questionnaires after they watched some persuasive messages. The results of the data were analyzed using t-test of SPSS 22.0 program. The result of this reseach shows that there is an effect of sexual violence news toward parents’ congition route at 0.820 in a level of significance 0.000, while the congiton route of mothers shows higher mean value at 104.66 than fathers at 91.73.
Reed, Elizabeth; Miller, Elizabeth; Raj, Anita; Decker, Michele R; Silverman, Jay G
To investigate teen dating violence (TDV) perpetration (physical, sexual or psychological violence) and association with STI and related sexual risk behaviours among urban male adolescents. Adolescent male survey participants (N=134) were aged 14-20 years, recruited from urban health centres. Using crude and adjusted logistic regression, TDV perpetration was examined in relation to self-reported: STI, having sex with another person when they were only supposed to have sex with their main partner, and consistent condom use. Over one-third of males (45%) reported any TDV; 42% reported sexual violence perpetration, 13% reported perpetrating physical violence against a dating/sexual partner and 11% reported psychological violence, including threats of physical or sexual violence. Approximately 15% of males reported having ever had an STI, one quarter reported having sex with another person when they were only supposed to have sex with their main partner and 36% reported consistent condom use (past 3 months). In adjusted logistic regression models, TDV perpetration was significantly associated with self-reports of an STI (OR=3.3; 95% CI 1.2 to 9.2) and having sex with another person when they were supposed to be only having sex with their main partner (OR=4.8; 95% CI 2.0 to 11.4). There was no significant association between TDV perpetration and consistent condom use. Current study findings are the first within the literature on adolescents to suggest that greater STI and sexual risk behaviours among male adolescents perpetrating TDV may be one mechanism explaining increased STI among female adolescents reporting TDV victimisation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Kennedy, Kieran M
In order for medical practitioners to adequately explain to the court the findings of their clinical examinations of victims of sexual violence, they must have access to research data which will place their findings in to context. Unfortunately, existing research has reported a very wide range of injury prevalence data. This papers aims to provide an explanation for this wide variation in results and, furthermore, this paper aims to establish if it is possible to carry out a meta-analysis of existing research data, pertaining to the prevalence of injury after sexual assault. It is suggested that pooling of individual study results may allow statistically robust determination of the true prevalence of injury in victims of sexual violence. It is concluded that heterogeneity in research methodology, between existing research studies, is responsible for the broad range of reported prevalence rates. Finally, this heterogeneity is seen to preclude robust meta-analysis.
Nye, Christopher D; Brummel, Bradley J; Drasgow, Fritz
Sexual harassment has received a substantial amount of empirical attention over the past few decades, and this research has consistently shown that experiencing these behaviors has a detrimental effect on employees' well-being, job attitudes, and behaviors at work. However, these findings, and the conclusions that are drawn from them, make the implicit assumption that the empirical models used to examine sexual harassment are properly specified. This article presents evidence that properly specified aggregate construct models are more consistent with theoretical structures and definitions of sexual harassment and can result in different conclusions about the nomological network of harassment. Results from 3 large samples, 2 military and 1 from a civilian population, are used to illustrate the differences between aggregate construct and reflective indicator models of sexual harassment. These analyses suggested that the factor structure and the nomological network of sexual harassment differ when modeling harassment as an aggregate construct. The implications of these results for the continued study of sexual harassment are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Rau, Thea; Ohlert, Jeannine; Fegert, Jörg M; Allroggen, Marc
Disclosure of Adolescents in Residential Care Institutions and Boarding Schools after Exposure to Sexual Violence In international research, many papers exist about the issue of disclosure after having experienced sexual violence. However, specific research regarding disclosure processes of children and adolescents in institutional care are missing, even though those are particularly often affected by sexual violence. In the Germany-wide study "Sprich mit!", adolescents from the age of 15 up (n = 322; average age 16,69 (SD = 1,3); 57,1 % males) who live in residential care or boarding schools were asked for experiences of sexual violence and their consequences by means of a self-report questionnaire. Results showed that the majority of the adolescents (82 %) entrusted themselves to someone, mostly towards peers (56 %) and less frequent towards adults (24 %). Boys and girls opened up equally often, regardless of the severity of the experienced violence. Adolescents who entrusted themselves towards their peers indicated retrospectively more satisfaction than those entrusting themselves towards adults, even if there were no consequences following the disclosure. Considering that the disclosure towards peers did not initiate a process of help, adolescents in institutional care should be better informed about relevant possibilities to entrust themselves and receive support.
Atim, Teddy; Mazurana, Dyan; Marshak, Anastasia
Girls and women who bear children owing to wartime sexual violence committed by armed actors face challenges in gaining acceptance on return to their families and societies. This study analyses the lives of women survivors and their children born of wartime sexual violence in Uganda. It draws on a population-based survey of 1,844 households in the Acholi and Lango sub-regions of northern Uganda, as well as on in-depth qualitative interviews conducted in 2014 and 2015 with 67 purposefully selected women survivors of wartime sexual violence. The study finds that: stigma is linked to broader gender discriminatory sociocultural norms and practices and changes under different circumstances; women's economic agency is essential to reducing stigma; households with members who suffered war-related sexual violence experienced significantly higher rates of violence post conflict than did other households; and the passage of time is less of a determining factor in their acceptance and reintegration than previously thought. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.
Stockman, Jamila K.; Lucea, Marguerite B.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.
Coerced or forced sexual initiation and sexual intimate partner violence (sexual IPV) contribute significantly to a woman’s risk for HIV infection. This review systematically examines global research (n=21 studies) published since 2000 on the role of coerced/forced sexual initiation and sexual IPV on HIV risk in women. In predominantly low- and middle-income countries, coerced/forced sexual initiation was associated with HIV/STIs, multiple and high-risk sex partners, and no condom use. Most studies using behaviorally specific terms for sexual IPV found strong associations between sexual IPV and HIV risk behaviors. In contrast, studies using less specific definitions often failed to find these significant associations. To develop more comprehensive HIV prevention programs, future efforts should integrate behaviorally specific terms into assessing prevalence of sexual IPV and its association with HIV risk, consider cultural differences, and identify causal pathways between coerced or forced sexual initiation, HIV risk behaviors and HIV/STI infection. PMID:23143750
Wang, Tianfu; Parish, William L; Laumann, Edward O; Luo, Ye
Using data from a nationally representative survey in China, this article examines the prevalence and risk factors for partner violence with a special focus on the important role of sexual jealousy. Among women aged 20 to 49, 7.2% reported that they were hit by their partners in the past year. Comparison shows that the Chinese prevalence is modestly below the overall median for other societies. Net of other factors, jealousy exacerbates hitting for both men and women in a reactive pattern, with the jealous partner getting hit. This suggests a rethinking of the role of sexual jealousy in spousal violence in some social settings.
Cruz, Theresa H; Hess, Julia Meredith; Woelk, Leona; Bear, Samantha
Sexual violence is of special concern in New Mexico because of the presence of large priority populations in which its prevalence is high. This article describes a 3-component approach to developing a strategic plan to prevent sexual violence in the state that consisted of an advisory group, subject matter experts, and focus groups from geographically and demographically diverse communities. Both common and community-specific themes emerged from the focus groups and were included in the strategic plan. By incorporating community needs and experiences, this approach fosters increased investment in plan implementation.
Gabbay, Nicolas; Lafontaine, Marie-France
This study tested a serial mediation model examining how dyadic trust and sexual intimacy mediate the relationship between insecure romantic attachment and perpetrated sexual violence occurring between same sex intimate partners (sexual SSIPV). A community sample of adults ( N = 310; 203 women, 107 men) involved in a committed (6 months or longer) same sex romantic relationship completed an encrypted online questionnaire package which included psychometric measures designed to assess the aforementioned variables. Controlling for gender effects, analyses conducted using bootstrapping procedures supported full mediation pathways for both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance. That is, attachment anxiety and avoidance were both directly associated to the perpetration of sexual SSIPV, and these relationships were both fully mediated by dyadic trust and sexual intimacy, in that respective order.
Profile of women treated in the municipal program of treatment of women who are victims of sexual violence in Londrina-PR and the circumstances of the sexual violence suffered by them: from October 2001 to august 2004
Paula Men de Oliveira; Marta Lúcia de Oliveira Carvalho
Sexual violence is one of the most serious ways of violence that affects women. Considered as hideous crimes, rape and violent assault are characterized by a not-allowed sexual contact. The consequences caused by these acts are: early sexual experience, physical traumas, HIV/STDs infections, unwanted pregnancies to psychic sequels that fit into post-traumatic stress disturb. The purpose of this paper is to bring up the profile of the population treated in the Program of Treatment of Women who...
Elouard, Yajna; Weiss, Carine; Martin-Hilber, Adriane; Merten, Sonja
The study aimed to examine associations between experience of sexual violence and family planning-related outcomes. A multi-stage cluster survey was conducted among a representative sample of 744 young women aged 15-24 in eight provinces in Burundi. The prevalence of young women who reported having ever been physically forced to have sexual intercourse was 26.1%. Young women who had experienced sexual violence (ever) were 2.5 times more likely not to have used any modern contraceptives in the 12 months preceding the survey. They were also 2.3 times more likely to report that their last pregnancy was unplanned. Higher odds of not being able to negotiate contraceptive use with their partners were only reported by young women having experienced sexual violence in the 12 months prior to the survey when adjusted for confounders. Sexual violence was found to be significantly associated with contraceptive negotiation and use as well as unplanned pregnancy. Weak perceived ability to negotiate contraceptive use highlights gender inequalities leaving young women vulnerable to unprotected sex and thus unplanned pregnancies.
Full Text Available The familial violence is any violent action based on sexual dispute that result in somatic, sexual or psychiatric hurts or pain. One of the familial violence is child and spouse abuse that result in depression, anxiety and PTSD. The aim of this article is study of familial violence phenomena from different psychiatric and social views and the rate of appearance and epidemiology and clinical character of PTSD as the result of sexual rape. This study is based on review of literature and antecedent & internal and external investigations from 1989 to 2004 from internet sites like NC PTSD psychilt – psych Info. Conclusions of different accidental and nonaccidental studies sign the rate of 25 – 30% psychiatric side effects as the result of somatic and sexual abuse and appearance of PTSD-Depression and Anxiety. Because the phenomena of familial and sexual violence has social and psychiatric nature, It is necessary to take health care and educative and preventive methods for prevention of appearance of such injuries in society and support from familial and social network.
... gov home / Home Relationships Dealing with conflict Violence Violence Violence among young people is a serious problem. ... according to a recent national survey Types of violence top Youth violence can include: Hitting, pinching, punching, ...
Casey, Erin A; Querna, Katherine; Masters, N Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Wells, Elizabeth A; Morrison, Diane M; Hoppe, Marilyn J
Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is linked to sexual risk exposure among women. However, less is known about the intersection of IPV perpetration and sexual risk behavior among men. This study used data from a diverse, community sample of 334 heterosexually active young men, aged 18 to 25, across the United States to examine whether and how men with distinct IPV-related behavior patterns differed in sexual risk-related behavior and attitudes. Participants were recruited and surveyed online, and grouped conceptually based on the types of IPV perpetration behavior(s) used in a current or recent romantic relationship. Groups were then compared on relevant sexual risk variables. Men reporting both physical abuse and sexual coercion against intimate partners reported significantly higher numbers of lifetime partners, higher rates of nonmonogamy, greater endorsement of nonmonogamy, and less frequent condom use relative to nonabusive men or those reporting controlling behavior only. This group also had higher sexually transmitted infection (STI) exposure compared to men who used controlling behavior only and men who used sexual coercion only. Findings suggest that interventions with men who use physical and sexual violence need to account for not only the physical and psychological harm of this behavior but also the sexual risk to which men may expose their partners.
O'Malley Olsen, Emily; Kann, Laura; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana; Kinchen, Steve; McManus, Tim
School-based victimization has short- and long-term implications for the health and academic lives of sexual minority students. This analysis assessed the prevalence and relative risk of school violence and bullying among sexual minority and heterosexual high school students. Youth Risk Behavior Survey data from 10 states and 10 large urban school districts that assessed sexual identity and had weighted data in the 2009 and/or 2011 cycle were combined to create two large population-based data sets, one containing state data and one containing district data. Prevalence of physical fighting, being threatened or injured with a weapon, weapon carrying, and being bullied on school property and not going to school because of safety concerns was calculated. Associations between these behaviors and sexual identity were identified. In the state data, sexual minority male students were at greater risk for being threatened or injured with a weapon, not going to school because of safety concerns and being bullied than heterosexual male students. Sexual minority female students were at greater risk than heterosexual female students for all five behaviors. In the district data, with one exception, sexual minority male and female students were at greater risk for all five behaviors than heterosexual students. Sexual minority students still routinely experience more school victimization than their heterosexual counterparts. The implementation of comprehensive, evidence-based programs and policies has the ability to reduce school violence and bullying, especially among sexual minority students. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Lohman, Brenda J.; Neppl, Tricia K.; Senia, Jennifer M.; Schofield, Thomas J.
The intergenerational transmission of violence directed toward intimate partners has been documented for the past three decades. Overall, the literature shows that violence in the family of origin leads to violence in the family of destination. However, this predominately cross–sectional or retrospective literature is limited by self–selection, endogeneity, and reporter biases as it has not been able to assess how individual and family behaviors simultaneously experienced during adolescence influence intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. The present study used data from the Iowa Youth and Families Project (IYFP; N = 392; 52 % Female), a multi–method, multi–trait prospective approach, to overcome this limitation. We focused on psychological intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood (19 – 23 years) and adulthood (27 – 31 years), and include self and partner ratings of violence as well as observational data in a sample of rural non-Hispanic white families. Controlling for a host of individual risk factors as well as interparental psychological violence from adolescence (14 – 15 years), the results show that exposure to parent–to–child psychological violence during adolescence is a key predictor of intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. In addition, negative emotionality and the number of sexual partners in adolescence predicted intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood and adulthood. Exposure to family stress was associated positively with intimate partner violence in adulthood but not in emerging adulthood, whereas academic difficulties were found to increase violence in emerging adulthood only. Unlike previous research, results did not support a direct effect of interparental psychological violence on psychological violence in the next generation. Gender differences were found only in emerging adulthood. Implications of these findings are discussed in light of the current literature and future directions
Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Eaton, Lisa A; Cain, Demetria; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Skinner, Donald; Watt, Melissa H; Pieterse, Desiree
Gender-based violence is a well-recognized risk factor for HIV infection among women. Alcohol use is associated with both gender-based violence and sexual risk behavior, but has not been examined as a correlate of both in a context of both high HIV risk and hazardous drinking. The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between recent abuse by a sex partner with alcohol and sexual risk behavior among female patrons of alcohol serving venues in South Africa. Specifically, the aim of this study is to determine whether sexual risk behaviors are associated with gender-based violence after controlling for levels of alcohol use. We surveyed 1,388 women attending informal drinking establishments in Cape Town, South Africa to assess recent history of gender-based violence, drinking, and sexual risk behaviors. Gender-based violence was associated with both drinking and sexual risk behaviors after controlling for demographics among the women. A hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that after controlling for alcohol use sexual risk behavior remained significantly associated with gender-based violence, particularly with meeting a new sex partner at the bar, recent STI diagnosis, and engaging in transactional sex, but not protected intercourse or number of partners. In South Africa where heavy drinking is prevalent women may be at particular risk of physical abuse from intimate partners as well as higher sexual risk. Interventions that aim to reduce gender-based violence and sexual risk behaviors must directly work to reduce drinking behavior.
Bartels, Susan A; Scott, Jennifer A; Leaning, Jennifer; Kelly, Jocelyn T; Joyce, Nina R; Mukwege, Denis; Vanrooyen, Michael J
One of the most striking features of the ongoing conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is the use of sexual violence. In spite of the brutality of these crimes, the experiences of women affected by sexual violence in Eastern DRC remain poorly characterized. This analysis aimed to (1) provide detailed demographics of sexual violence survivors presenting to Panzi Hospital; (2) examine how demographic factors might impact patterns of sexual violence; and (3) describe care-seeking behavior among sexual violence survivors. The demographics and care-seeking behavior of sexual violence survivors in South Kivu Province were described from a retrospective registry-based study of sexual violence survivors presenting to Panzi Hospital (2004-2008). A total of 4311 records were reviewed. The mean age of survivors was 35 years. Most women (53%) were married, self-identified with the Bashi tribe (65%), and reported agriculture as their livelihood (74%). The mean time delay between sexual assault and seeking care was 10.4 months. Five reasons were identified to help explain the lengthy delays to seeking care: waiting for physical symptoms to develop or worsen before seeking medical attention, lack of means to access medical care, concerns that family would find out about the sexual assault, stigma surrounding sexual violence, and being abducted into sexual slavery for prolonged periods of time. Many sexual assault survivors have very delayed presentations to medical attention. Promoting timely access of medical care may best be facilitated by reducing stigma and by educating women about the benefits of early medical care, even in the absence of injuries or symptoms.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The war in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo has been the subject of numerous studies related to the problem of sexual violence. Historically, such violence is known to be part of strategic war plans to conquer and destroy communities, but it is now unfortunately prevalent in times of relative calm. Methods We describe the characteristics and consequences of sexual violence in Ituri province of Democratic Republic of Congo through the retrospective analysis of 2,565 patients who received medical care in the Médecins Sans Frontières sexual violence clinic in the capital of Ituri province, Bunia, between September 2005 and December 2006. Using a standardised questionnaire, we report patients' demographics, number and status of aggressor(s, forced detention and violent threats among other variables for all patients presenting for medical consultation after a sexually violent event during this period. Results Ninety-six percent of our cohort were female and 29.3% minors, 18-29 years was the most represented age group. Acts of sexual violence (n = 2,565 were reported to be mainly perpetrated by men with military affiliations (73%, although civilians were implicated in 21% of crimes. The attack was perpetrated by two or more persons in over 74% of cases and most commonly perpetrators were unknown armed males, (87.2%. Male victims accounted for 4% (n = 103 of our cohort. Forty-eight percent of our patients reported being attacked whilst performing daily domestic duties outside the home and 18% of victims being detained by their perpetrators, the majority of whom were held for less than 2 weeks (61.6%. Conclusions The characteristics of sexually violent acts in Ituri province during this period cannot be simply explained as a 'weapon of war' as described in the literature, meaning the use of sexual violence within a military strategy where it is employed under the orders of a commander to harm a particular community. Whilst the
Gatuguta, Anne; Merrill, Katherine G; Colombini, Manuela; Soremekun, Seyi; Seeley, Janet; Mwanzo, Isaac; Devries, Karen
In Kenya, most sexual violence survivors either do not access healthcare, access healthcare late or do not complete treatment. To design interventions that ensure optimal healthcare for survivors, it is important to understand the characteristics of those who do and do not access healthcare. In this paper, we aim to: compare the characteristics of survivors who present for healthcare to those of survivors reporting violence on national surveys; understand the healthcare services provided to survivors; and, identify barriers to treatment. A mixed methods approach was used. Hospital records for survivors from two referral hospitals were compared with national-level data from the Kenya Demographic and Health Survey 2014, and the Violence Against Children Survey 2010. Descriptive summaries were calculated and differences in characteristics of the survivors assessed using chi-square tests. Qualitative data from six in-depth interviews with healthcare providers were analysed thematically. Among the 543 hospital respondents, 93.2% were female; 69.5% single; 71.9% knew the perpetrator; and 69.2% were children below 18 years. Compared to respondents disclosing sexual violence in nationally representative datasets, those who presented at hospital were less likely to be partnered, male, or assaulted by an intimate partner. Data suggest missed opportunities for treatment among those who did present to hospital: HIV PEP and other STI prophylaxis was not given to 30 and 16% of survivors respectively; 43% of eligible women did not receive emergency contraceptive; and, laboratory results were missing in more than 40% of the records. Those aged 18 years or below and those assaulted by known perpetrators were more likely to miss being put on HIV PEP. Qualitative data highlighted challenges in accessing and providing healthcare that included stigma, lack of staff training, missing equipment and poor coordination of services. Nationally, survivors at higher risk of not accessing
English in schools is a productive curriculum space for young people to learn about sexuality, to develop a sense of their identity as sexual beings, and to understand the importance of equality and social justice. Drawing on John Dixon's theory of "personal growth," the author (a British educator) explains how teachers' attitudes about learning…
... girls. This is also the age where their peers and the media begin to have a bigger influence on sexual attitudes. If you aren't a reliable resource, your child may turn to a peer or perhaps an older child for information about ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the grave consequences of sexual violence, and it's persistence both within and outside marriages, this subject has received relatively little attention from researchers, policy makers, and programme managers in Nepal. This paper explores the definition of sexual violence and its various forms and consequences as reported by young married women in Nepal. In addition, it describes the coping mechanisms used by young married women to avoid sexual violence perpetrated against them by their husbands. Methods This paper analyzes data collected during the qualitative study on "Sexual violence among young couples in Nepal", conducted amongst two major ethnic groups - Brahmin/Chhetri and Tharu - between 2006 and 2007. The data is comprised of 39 free-lists and 15 in-depth case histories with married women aged 15-24 years. The average rank and Smith's Salience were calculated from the free-listing data. The thematic analysis approach was used for the analysis of information from the case histories. Results Approximately three-quarters (74% of the young women mentioned 'sex against one's wishes' as sexual violence within marriage (SVWM. Sixty-two percent of respondents described 'forced sex during illness' and 'forced sex after consumption of alcohol' as SVWM. About half of young women (48.7% who participated in the free-listing exercise reported having experienced SVWM. The types of SVWM ranged from unwanted sexual touch to forced sex. Backache, headache, lower abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding and thoughts of suicide were the most commonly reported negative physical and psychological health consequences of SVWM. Women reported various coping strategies including 'trying to convince husbands', 'sleeping in a separate room', 'visiting maternal home', 'waking up the children', and 'using pretexts such as being ill or menstruating', to avoid SVWM. However, in most cases, women reported that these coping strategies were
Bentley, Tim A; Catley, Bevan; Forsyth, Darryl; Tappin, David
Workplace violence is a leading form of occupational injury and fatality, but has received little attention from the ergonomics research community. The paper reports findings from the 2012 New Zealand Workplace Violence Survey, and examines the workplace violence experience of 86 New Zealand organisations and the perceptions of occupational health and safety professionals from a systems perspective. Over 50% of respondents reported violence cases in their organisation, with perpetrators evenly split between co-workers and external sources such as patients. Highest reported levels of violence were observed for agriculture, forestry and construction sectors. Highest risk factor ratings were reported for interpersonal and organisational factors, notably interpersonal communication, time pressure and workloads, with lowest ratings for environmental factors. A range of violence prevention measures were reported, although most organisations relied on single control measures, suggesting unmanaged violence risks were common among the sample. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
Collins Fantasia, Heidi; Sutherland, Melissa A; Kelly-Weeder, Susan
The purpose of this study was to use an ecological lens to explore gender differences in risky sexual behavior among urban adolescents exposed to violence. This was a secondary analysis of data from a larger behavioral intervention trial that targeted drinking behaviors among adolescents. Data from a total of 2,560 male and female urban adolescents between the ages of 14 and 21 were analyzed for personal, interpersonal, and community exposure to violence and risky sexual behavior. Violence has an impact on sexual risk. For females, carrying a weapon (p= 0.020) and feeling safe in intimate relationships (p= 0.029) were individual correlates of risky sexual behavior, while for males, race/ethnicity (p= 0.019) and being in a physical fight (p= 0.001) were significant correlates of risky sexual behavior. Risky sexual behavior among adolescents may lead to negative reproductive health outcomes. Nurse practitioners are in an excellent position to affect change in this population through their frequent contact with adolescents in a variety of community and school-based venues. Nurse practitioners are also well-prepared to identify at-risk adolescents and provide them with individualized care, education, and support. ©2012 The Author(s) Journal compilation ©2012 American Academy of Nurse Practitioners.
Full Text Available Sexual violence against females is a public health problem. This descriptive cross-sectional study sought to determine the prevalence of sexual violence among out-of-school female adolescents in Lagos, Nigeria and examine the context in which it occurs. Three hundred and fifty adolescents, between the ages of 10 and 19 years, working in Sandgrouse market, Lagos, were selected using cluster sampling. Data were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Almost half (42.9% of the respondents have had sexual intercourse, and median age at initiation was 17 years. Forced initiation was reported by 15.8%, and 36.3% reported that first intercourse was due to coercion. Among the sexually active, only 12.3% stated that “it is what they desire.” Majority of respondents (64.1% believe that rape is common in their community, and 18% of the sexually active have experienced rape. Out-of-school adolescents in this community are at risk of sexual violence. The factors that make them vulnerable need to be addressed.
Full Text Available The legal and criminal law protection of children from sexual violence is a major element of the combat against this complex form of crime. Well-designed laws, consistency in their implementation, evaluation of effects and effectiveness of the measures envisaged by the laws are only some steps that must be made if the positive results are expected in opposing any crime, and therefore to sexual violence. Moreover, if we consider the consequences of attempted and/or committed sexual violence for the victim, which, if they reach the public evoke strong reaction, it is clear why the parts of the relevant legislation that regulate this matter are worthy of special attention to scientific and professional public. However, the mission of finding a fair legislative solution is not simple. In this sense, the United States of America have the richest experience, and we shall just try to point out the importance and complexity of the regulation of criminal law protection of children from sexual violence through critical analysis of their proposals and already adopted solutions, as well as through analysis of certain elements of domestic legislation. The aim of this study is review and critical analysis of selected proposals and existing solutions in the sphere of legal and criminal law protection of children from sexual violence: the U.S. law that regulates formation of the registry of sex offenders which is available to the public ('Megan's law', legal solutions that provide chemical castration of 'pedophiles', as well as those related to the question of establishing the age limit that determines possibility of entering into consensual sexual relations with a minor.
Keygnaert, Ines; Guieu, Aurore
In Europe, refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants are more vulnerable to sexual victimisation than European citizens. They face more challenges when seeking care. This literature review examines how legal and policy frameworks at national, European and international levels condition the prevention of and response to sexual violence affecting these vulnerable migrant communities living in the European Union (EU). Applying the Critical Interpretive Synthesis method, we reviewed 187 legal and policy documents and 80 peer-reviewed articles on migrant sexual health for elements on sexual violence and further analysed the 37 legal and 12 peer-reviewed articles among them that specifically focused on sexual violence in vulnerable migrants in the EU-27 States. Legal and policy documents dealing with sexual violence, particularly but not exclusively in vulnerable migrants, apply 'tunnel vision'. They ignore: a) frequently occurring types of sexual violence, b) victimisation rates across genders and c) specific risk factors within the EU such as migrants' legal status, gender orientation and living conditions. The current EU policy-making paradigm relegates sexual violence in vulnerable migrants as an 'outsider' and 'female only' issue while EU migration and asylum policies reinforce its invisibility. Effective response must be guided by participatory rights- and evidence-based policies and a public health approach, acknowledging the occurrence and multiplicity of sexual victimisation of vulnerable migrants of all genders within EU borders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Barbaro, Nicole; Shackelford, Todd K
Male-perpetrated female-directed violence (FDV) may be associated with greater sexual access to a female. Accordingly, FDV is expected to be associated with greater copulation frequency. Research on nonhuman primates affirms this hypothesis, but no previous research has investigated this relationship in humans (Homo sapiens). The current research tests the hypothesis that FDV is associated with in-pair copulation frequency and, thus, may function as a form of sexual coercion. It was predicted that men who perpetrate FDV will secure more in-pair copulations than men who do not perpetrate violence (Prediction 1a), and that average monthly rates of FDV would positively correlate with in-pair copulation frequency (Prediction 1b). Male participants (n = 355) completed a survey, reporting limited demographic information (e.g., age, relationship length), in-pair copulation frequency, and history of physical violence perpetration. As predicted, violent men secured more in-pair copulations, on average, than nonviolent men, and monthly rates of violence positively correlated with in-pair copulation frequency. In humans, as in nonhuman primates, FDV by males may facilitate greater sexual access to a female. We discuss the implications of the current research for an evolutionary perspective on partner violence, and draw on research on nonhuman primates to highlight profitable avenues of research on FDV in humans. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
José Wilson de Lima
Full Text Available This article has as objectives to characterize the cases of sexual violence against children and adolescents found in the records of complaints, notices and prosecutions at the Child and Youth Court in the county of João Pessoa and to analyze the risks to the victims of such violence regarding the decisions, procedures and prosecutions that do not guarantee the protection and enforcement of fundamental rights. The instrument used to collect data was a research protocol analyzed by frequency and thematic content analysis. The risk factors are characterized among life circumstances that precede the sexual violence and are originated due to the referrals that happened after the complaint. 30 cases of sexual violence were found, most of them happened inside institutions under the State’s responsibility; there were also risk of negligence, exploitation and others forms of violence; lack of information in the documents about aggressor, complaint, referral and accountability. The procedures and prosecutions are not able to punish, educate or solve the issue and can cause damage to dignity, to the victims and their fundamental rights.
Zweig, Janine M; Yahner, Jennifer; Dank, Meredith; Lachman, Pamela
We examined whether substance use, psychosocial adjustment, and sexual experiences vary for teen dating violence victims by the type of violence in their relationships. We compared dating youth who reported no victimization in their relationships to those who reported being victims of intimate terrorism (dating violence involving one physically violent and controlling perpetrator) and those who reported experiencing situational couple violence (physical dating violence absent the dynamics of power and control). This was a cross-sectional survey of 3745 dating youth from 10 middle and high schools in the northeastern United States, one third of whom reported physical dating violence. In general, teens experiencing no dating violence reported less frequent substance use, higher psychosocial adjustment, and less sexual activity than victims of either intimate terrorism or situational couple violence. In addition, victims of intimate terrorism reported higher levels of depression, anxiety, and anger/hostility compared to situational couple violence victims; they also were more likely to report having sex, and earlier sexual initiation. Youth who experienced physical violence in their dating relationships, coupled with controlling behaviors from their partner/perpetrator, reported the most psychosocial adjustment issues and the earliest sexual activity. © 2016, American School Health Association.
Teitelman, Anne M; Bellamy, Scarlett L; Jemmott, John B; Icard, Larry; O'Leary, Ann; Ali, Samira; Ngwane, Zolani; Makiwane, Monde
Intimate partner violence directed at women by men continues to be a global concern. However, little is known about the factors associated with perpetrating intimate partner violence among heterosexual men. History of childhood sexual abuse and other sociodemographic variables were examined as potential factors associated with severe intimate partner violence perpetration toward women in a sample of heterosexual men in South Africa. Longitudinal logistic generalized estimating equations examined associations of childhood sexual abuse and sociodemographic variables at baseline with intimate partner violence perpetration at subsequent time points. Among participants with a steady female partner, 21.81 % (190/ 871) reported perpetrating intimate partner violence in the past year at baseline. Having a history of childhood sexual abuse (p sexual impulses in order to use a condom (p = .006) at baseline were associated with self-reported intimate partner violence perpetration in the past year at subsequent time points. With high levels of recent severe physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence perpetration in South Africa, comprehensive interventions are urgently needed. To more fully address gender-based violence, it is important to address associated factors, including exposure to childhood sexual abuse that could impact behavior later in life and that have long-lasting and deleterious effects on men and their female partners.
Henry, Nicola; Powell, Anastasia
Technology-facilitated sexual violence (TFSV) refers to a range of behaviors where digital technologies are used to facilitate both virtual and face-to-face sexually based harms. Such behaviors include online sexual harassment, gender- and sexuality-based harassment, cyberstalking, image-based sexual exploitation, and the use of a carriage service to coerce a victim into an unwanted sexual act. This article reviews the current state of knowledge on these different dimensions, drawing on existing empirical studies. While there is a growing body of research into technology-facilitated harms perpetrated against children and adolescents, there is a dearth of qualitative and quantitative research on TFSV against adults. Moreover, few of the existing studies provide reliable data on the nature, scope, and impacts of TFSV. Preliminary studies, however, indicate that some harms, much like sexual violence more broadly, may be predominantly gender-, sexuality-, and age-based, with young women being overrepresented as victims in some categories. This review collects the empirical evidence to date regarding the prevalence and gender-based nature of TFSV against adults and discusses the implications for policy and programs, as well as suggestions for future research.
Espelage, Dorothy L.; Basile, Kathleen C.; De La Rue, Lisa; Hamburger, Merle E.
Bullying perpetration and sexual harassment perpetration among adolescents are major public health issues. However, few studies have addressed the empirical link between being a perpetrator of bullying and subsequent sexual harassment perpetration among early adolescents in the literature. Homophobic teasing has been shown to be common among middle school youth and was tested as a moderator of the link between bullying and sexual harassment perpetration in this 2-year longitudinal study. More specifically, the present study tests the Bully–Sexual Violence Pathway theory, which posits that adolescent bullies who also participate in homophobic name-calling toward peers are more likely to perpetrate sexual harassment over time. Findings from logistical regression analyses (n = 979, 5th–7th graders) reveal an association between bullying in early middle school and sexual harassment in later middle school, and results support the Bully–Sexual Violence Pathway model, with homophobic teasing as a moderator, for boys only. Results suggest that to prevent bully perpetration and its later association with sexual harassment perpetration, prevention programs should address the use of homophobic epithets. PMID:25315484
Espelage, Dorothy L; Basile, Kathleen C; De La Rue, Lisa; Hamburger, Merle E
Bullying perpetration and sexual harassment perpetration among adolescents are major public health issues. However, few studies have addressed the empirical link between being a perpetrator of bullying and subsequent sexual harassment perpetration among early adolescents in the literature. Homophobic teasing has been shown to be common among middle school youth and was tested as a moderator of the link between bullying and sexual harassment perpetration in this 2-year longitudinal study. More specifically, the present study tests the Bully-Sexual Violence Pathway theory, which posits that adolescent bullies who also participate in homophobic name-calling toward peers are more likely to perpetrate sexual harassment over time. Findings from logistical regression analyses (n = 979, 5th-7th graders) reveal an association between bullying in early middle school and sexual harassment in later middle school, and results support the Bully-Sexual Violence Pathway model, with homophobic teasing as a moderator, for boys only. Results suggest that to prevent bully perpetration and its later association with sexual harassment perpetration, prevention programs should address the use of homophobic epithets. © The Author(s) 2014.
Of those cases, 80% were rapes, 9% physical assaults, 7% domestic violence, ... This study explores strategies that will reduce the vulnerability of women to SGBV ... The research findings will be used to strengthen linkages between Kenya's ...
Yoshimura, Christina Granato; Campbell, Kimberly Brown
A university in the United States Mountain West utilized grant resources to track counseling services for students who were currently experiencing or who had historically experienced relationship violence, sexual assault and/or stalking. This report reflects on the first 2 years of this program, including an overview of prevalence and reporting…
Morse, Andrew; Sponsler, Brian A.; Fulton, Mary
NASPA--Student Affairs Administrators in Higher Education and Education Commission of the States (ECS) have partnered to address legislative developments and offer considerations for leaders in higher education and policy on two top-level safety issues facing the higher education community: campus sexual violence and guns on campus. The first in a…
Regehr, Cheryl; Alaggia, Ramona; Dennis, Jane; Pitts, Annabel; Saini, Michael
Objectives: This article presents a systematic evaluation of the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing distress in adult victims of rape and sexual violence. Method: Studies were eligible for the review if the assignment of study participants to experimental or control groups was by random allocation or parallel cohort design. Results:…
Halstead, Valerie; Williams, Jessica R.; Gattamorta, Karina; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa
Objective: The purpose of this study is to describe current sexual violence screening practices of student health centers located on universities in Florida. Participants: Institutional level data was collected from 33 student health centers from November 2015 through January 2016. The student health centers were located on public or private…
Linder, Chris; Myers, Jess S.; Riggle, Colleen; Lacy, Marvette
Using Internet-related ethnography (Postill & Pink, 2012), we examined the role of social media in campus sexual violence activism. Based on observations of online activist communities and interviews with 23 activists, we highlight raising awareness, community building, and interrupting power dynamics as activism strategies enhanced by social…
Onsrud, Mathias; Sjøveian, Solbjørg; Luhiriri, Roger; Mukwege, Dennis
To determine the magnitude of traumatic gynecologic fistulas caused by sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo. A retrospective analysis of hospital records from 604 consecutive patients who received treatment for gynecologic fistulas at Panzi Hospital between November 2005 and November 2007. Of the 604 patients, 24 (4%) reported that their fistulas had been caused by sexual violence; of these, 5 (0.8%) had developed fistulas as a direct result of forced penetration with foreign objects and/or gang rapes. Of the remaining patients, 6 had a fistula before they were raped, 9 developed iatrogenic fistulas following inappropriate instrumentation to manage rape-induced spontaneous abortion or stillbirth, or after abdominal hysterectomy, and 4 developed fistulas after prolonged and obstructed labor. Traumatic fistulas are rare compared to obstetric fistulas. Fistulas indirectly related to sexual violence are likely to be more common than those directly related. All fistulas resulting from sexual violence, whether direct or indirect, should be considered traumatic and special care should be given to these women.
Keygnaert, I.; Dias, S.F.; Degomme, O.; Devillé, W.; Kennedy, P.; Kovats, A.; Meyer, S. de; Vettenburg, N.; Roelens, K.; Temmerman, M.
Background: Refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants are at risk of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) and subsequent ill-health in Europe; yet, European minimum reception standards do not address SGBV. Hence, this paper explores the nature of SGBV occurring in this sector and
Keygnaert, I.; Dias, S.F.; Degomme, O.; Devillé, W.; Kennedy, P.; Kováts, A.; De Meyer, S.; Vettenburg, N.; Roelens, K.; Temmerman, M.
Background: Refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants are at risk of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) and subsequent ill-health in Europe; yet, European minimum reception standards do not address SGBV. Hence, this paper explores the nature of SGBV occurring in this sector and
Keygnaert, Ines; Dias, Sonia F.; Degomme, Olivier; Devillé, Walter; Kennedy, Patricia; Kováts, András; De Meyer, Sara; Vettenburg, Nicole; Roelens, Kristien; Temmerman, Marleen
Background: Refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants are at risk of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) and subsequent ill-health in Europe; yet, European minimum reception standards do not address SGBV. Hence, this paper explores the nature of SGBV occurring in this sector and
This article evaluates whether the concerns expressed by feminist authors in the 1990s that the traditional construction of torture articulated in Article 1 of the Convention against Torture may prevent the Committee against Torture from adequately responding to sexual violence against women, in
Lee, Sara H; Stark, Amrita K; O'Riordan, Mary Ann; Lazebnik, Rina
This study examined awareness among adolescents of a local rape crisis center as well as their knowledge about sexual violence. The Cleveland Rape Crisis Center (CRCC) conducts sexual violence prevention programs for high school students. A written, anonymous survey was distributed to students prior to the start of the program. Students were asked if they had heard of the CRCC; knowledge about sexual violence was assessed with a series of 7 statements (rape myths) that participants identified as true or false. Surveys were reviewed retrospectively. Analyses were carried out for individual questions and frequencies compared using chi-square analysis. A total of 1633 surveys were collected; 1118 (68.5%) participants were female and 514 (31.5%) were male; ages ranged from 12 to 19 years. Respondents described themselves as being of European descent (45.9%), African descent (26.2%), or mixed race (17.7%). Just over half (863, 52.9%) of survey respondents had heard of the CRCC. Over half (950, 58.2%) of participants answered 5 or more questions correctly (range of correct answers 0 to 7). In general, more participants who were aware of the CRCC were able to identify statements about rape correctly (P rape. Females were consistently more likely to get an answer correct, as were participants of European descent. Awareness of the CRCC was associated with increased knowledge about sexual violence. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Alink, L.R.A.; Euser, S.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.
Background: Residential or group care social workers appear to be at increased risk for experiencing physical violence at work. However, little is known about sexual harassment in addition to physical victimization of social workers in youth residential or group care. Objective: We investigated the
Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Euser, Saskia; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.
Background: Residential or group care social workers appear to be at increased risk for experiencing physical violence at work. However, little is known about "sexual harassment" in addition to physical victimization of social workers in "youth" residential or group care. Objective We investigated the prevalence of physical and…
The potential repercussions of community denial of the sexual violence are addressed. These include lack of access by survivors to information on HIV, testing and care; refusal to face up to the possible infection of survivors, their husbands and unborn children, and to the psychological, social and economic impacts of ...
Herrera, Veronica M; McCloskey, Laura Ann
The current study examines the effects of three forms of childhood victimization on self-reported delinquency and aggression in adolescent girls. These analyses are based on a longitudinal sample of 141 mother-daughter pairs participating in a study about marital violence and child development. When the children were school aged, mothers and children provided reports describing (a) child exposure to marital violence, (b) escalated physical abuse against the child, and (c) child sexual abuse. Children were followed up into adolescence and re-interviewed. Self-reports of delinquency (violent and nonviolent), running away, and violence against parents were collected. Results indicate that out of the three forms of victimization, child sexual abuse emerged as the strongest predictor of girls' violent and nonviolent criminal behavior. Girls with a history of physical abuse in childhood were most likely to assault their parents. Witnessing marital violence failed to contribute further to delinquency, beyond the adverse association with childhood sexual abuse. Findings highlight a unique avenue for delinquency in girls via childhood sexual exploitation.
Groff Stephens, Sara; Wilke, Dina J.
Objective: To examine the relationships between sexual violence experiences, inaccurate body weight perceptions, and the presence of eating disorder (ED) indicators in a sample of female US college students. Participants: Participants were 6,090 college females 25 years of age and younger. Methods: A secondary analysis of National College Health…
Kouta, Christiana; Pithara, Christalla; Zobnina, Anna; Apostolidou, Zoe; Christodoulou, Josie; Papadakaki, Maria; Chliaoutakis, Joannes
Women from marginalized groups working in occupations such as domestic work are at increased risk for sexual violence. Scarce evidence exists about training interventions targeting such groups. The article aims to identify community and workplace-based training interventions aiming to increase capacity among marginalized at-risk women to deal with sexual violence. A systematic review was applied. Inclusion criteria were English language published between 2003 and 2013; reporting on delivery and/or evaluation; focusing on any form of sexual violence; delivered to professionals, affected or at-risk women; targeting migrant, at-risk women or domestic workers. Data were extracted on the setting, content, evaluation process and target population. Four studies which focused on prevention or responding to sexual violence were included. One study provided sexual violence training to vulnerable female and one provided a HIV prevention intervention to marginalized women. Learning objectives included increasing knowledge around issues of sexual violence and/or gender and human rights, prevention and response strategies. Two studies aimed to train trainers. All studies conducted an outcome evaluation and two a process evaluation. It seems there is a gap on participatory empowerment training for marginalized women. Community train-the-trainer interventions are imperative to protect themselves and deal with the risk of sexual violence. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Fontenot, Holly B; Fantasia, Heidi Collins; Lee-St John, Terrence J; Sutherland, Melissa A
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV among women, but less is known about mechanisms of this association and if length of relationship violence is a factor. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the duration of IPV and both individual and partner-related sexual risk factors that may increase women's risk for STIs and HIV. This was a secondary analysis of data collected from the medical records of 2000 women. Four distinct categories defined the duration of partner violence: violence in the past year only, past year and during the past 5 years, past year plus extending for greater than 5 years, and no past year violence but a history of partner violence. Logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between the duration of partner violence and individual sexual risk behaviors (eg, number of sexual partners, drug and/or alcohol use, anal sex) and partner-related sexual risk factors (eg, nonmonogamy, STI risk, condom nonuse). Nearly 30% of the women in the study reported a history of partner violence during their lifetime. All of the individual risk factors, as well as partner-related risk factors, were significantly associated (P violence and duration of violence. The study findings extend the knowledge related to partner violence as a risk factor for STIs/HIV, highlighting the effects of partner violence duration on the health of women. Assessing for lifetime experiences of partner violence may improve outcomes for women and their families. © 2014 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.
Berman, H; McKenna, K; Arnold, C T; Taylor, G; MacQuarrie, B
Sexual harassment is one of the most insidious, yet pervasive, forms of violence that affects all girls, not merely those traditionally thought to be vulnerable or at risk. Although harassment in the workplace has been the focus of considerable attention during the last decade, there is a growing recognition that girls experience varied forms of sexual harassment, and that this behavior begins at a surprisingly early age. This article examines the plight of the "girl child" and presents findings from the first phase of a national action research project currently being conducted by the Canadian Alliance of Five Research Centres on Violence. A major objective of this project is to examine how violence becomes "normalized" in the lives of girls and young women. Implications for nurses, including strategies aimed at encouraging resistance among this population, are addressed.
Full Text Available This article evaluates whether the concerns expressed by feminist authors in the 1990s that the traditional construction of torture articulated in Article 1 of the Convention against Torture may prevent the Committee against Torture from adequately responding to sexual violence against women, in particular by non-state actors, are justified today. The first half of the article assesses how the Committee against Torture treats the ‘severe pain and suffering’ and ‘prohibited purpose’ requirements in the definition of torture in cases regarding violence against women. The second half of the article evaluates the Committee’s approach to violence against women by non-state actors. It does this by seeking to better understand how the Committee approaches the terms ‘acquiescence’ and ‘consent’ in the definition of torture in Article 1. An analysis of the Committee’s Conclusions and Recommendations indicates that it is willing to interpret the term acquiescence broadly so as to ensure that it is able to properly address violence against women by non-state actors.
Nyokangi, Doris; Phasha, Nareadi
This paper reports part of the findings of a study which exposed sexual violence in schools for learners with mild intellectual disability in South Africa. Special attention was paid on factors contributing to such a problem. Data were collected using focus groups and individual interviews with 16 learners with mild intellectual disability at two special schools in South Africa. This was followed by individual interviews with the school nurse and social worker, and an analysis of schools' books of incidents. Factors contributing to sexual violence at schools for learners with mild intellectual disability included: (i) peer pressure, (ii) concealment of reported incidents of sexual violence, (iii) unsupervised areas linked to schools and (iv) arranged relationships. The following suggestions are put forth: (i) awareness programmes, (ii) sensitization of teachers about the consequences and prevention of sexual violence, (iii) boundaries within which the arranged relationship occurs, (iv) intensification of sexuality education and (v) supervision around the school premises. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Alleyne, Binta; Coleman-Cowger, Victoria H.; Crown, Laurel; Gibbons, Maya A.; Vines, Linda N.
This study examines the relationship between dating violence, forced sexual intercourse (FSI), and four measures of sexual risk taking (i.e., age at first sex, number of recent (within the last three months) sex partners, alcohol/drug use at last sex, and condom use at last sex) among a sample of 1124 ethnically diverse sexually active adolescents…
Salazar, Laura F; Swartout, Kevin M; Swahn, Monica H; Bellis, Alexandra L; Carney, Jhetari; Vagi, Kevin J; Lokey, Colby
Sexual violence (SV) perpetration on college campuses is a serious and prevalent public health issue in the U.S. In response, incoming male freshmen are mandated to receive SV prevention programming. To provide a more effective response, however, we need to understand the SV behaviors of male freshmen before they arrive on campus and the associated factors that contribute to risk and that afford protection, areas that have received limited attention. Male freshmen (N = 1,133) across 30 selected 4-year colleges and universities throughout the state of Georgia were recruited for a longitudinal study on SV perpetration. Levels of precollege SV as well as a range of covariates were assessed at baseline. Self-reported SV perpetrators were compared with nonperpetrators on demographic and hypothesized covariates deemed either risk or protective; then risk and protective models were analyzed using binary logistic regression. Weighted analyses revealed that 19.3% self-reported perpetrating SV before college. Before starting college, young men who reported more sexual media consumption, heavy episodic drinking, hypermasculine beliefs, and peers who endorsed SV were more likely to have a history of SV perpetration at college matriculation. Alternatively, men with more knowledge of effective sexual consent and stronger family functioning were less likely to arrive to college with an SV perpetration history. A significant proportion of incoming male freshmen have perpetrated SV previously. Colleges and universities need to assess incoming freshmen for risk behaviors and negative beliefs and to offer both primary and secondary preventions to more effectively reduce further perpetration. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.
Goicolea, Isabel; Öhman, Ann; Salazar Torres, Mariano; Morrás, Ione; Edin, Kerstin
This study aims to explore young men's understanding of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Ecuador, examining similarities and differences between how ordinary and activist young men conceptualize IPV against women. We conducted individual interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs) with 35 young men--five FGDs and five interviews with ordinary young men, and 11 interviews with activists--and analysed the data generated using qualitative content analysis. Among the ordinary young men the theme 'too much gender equality leads to IPV' emerged, while among the activists the theme 'gender inequality is the root of IPV'. Although both groups in our study rejected IPV, their positions differed, and we claim that this is relevant. While activists considered IPV as rooted in gender inequality, ordinary young men understood it as a response to the conflicts generated by increasing gender equality and women's attempts to gain autonomy.
Goicolea, Isabel; Öhman, Ann; Salazar Torres, Mariano; Morrás, Ione; Edin, Kerstin
Background This study aims to explore young men’s understanding of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Ecuador, examining similarities and differences between how ordinary and activist young men conceptualize IPV against women. Methods We conducted individual interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs) with 35 young men – five FGDs and five interviews with ordinary young men, and 11 interviews with activists – and analysed the data generated using qualitative content analysis. Results Among the ordinary young men the theme ‘too much gender equality leads to IPV’ emerged, while among the activists the theme ‘gender inequality is the root of IPV’. Although both groups in our study rejected IPV, their positions differed, and we claim that this is relevant. While activists considered IPV as rooted in gender inequality, ordinary young men understood it as a response to the conflicts generated by increasing gender equality and women’s attempts to gain autonomy. PMID:22723767
Chacham, Alessandra Sampaio; Simão, Andrea Branco; Caetano, André Junqueira
In this article, we investigate how gender-based violence (GBV) affects the sexual and reproductive health of impoverished adolescents and young adults. We analyse data from a 2011 survey of 450 young women and 300 young men aged 15-29, living in poor neighbourhoods of three middle-sized cities in Minas Gerais, Brazil. In this survey we used a closed-ended questionnaire to collect data from 150 women and 100 men in each city. Our main goal was to explore the relationship between GBV and young women's autonomy in relation to their sexuality, using indicators appropriate to Brazil. Our results showed a decreased prevalence of condom use at first intercourse and an increased prevalence of teenage pregnancies among young women who were in a relationship with a controlling and violent partner. Lower condom use was observed mostly among young men who acknowledged being violent and controlling towards a partner and they also were more likely to have made a partner pregnant as teenagers themselves. We conclude that some variables utilized here as indicators of control and violence from a partner and of young women's autonomy can help us to understand how GBV inside relationships affects the reproductive and sexual health of young men and women, and how empowering them can reduce their susceptibility to unwanted pregnancies and HIV and other STI infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: This study aims to explore young men's understanding of intimate partner violence (IPV in Ecuador, examining similarities and differences between how ordinary and activist young men conceptualize IPV against women. Methods: We conducted individual interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs with 35 young men – five FGDs and five interviews with ordinary young men, and 11 interviews with activists – and analysed the data generated using qualitative content analysis. Results: Among the ordinary young men the theme ‘too much gender equality leads to IPV’ emerged, while among the activists the theme ‘gender inequality is the root of IPV’. Although both groups in our study rejected IPV, their positions differed, and we claim that this is relevant. While activists considered IPV as rooted in gender inequality, ordinary young men understood it as a response to the conflicts generated by increasing gender equality and women's attempts to gain autonomy.Background: This study aims to explore young men's understanding of intimate partner violence (IPV in Ecuador, examining similarities and differences between how ordinary and activist young men conceptualize IPV against women. Methods: We conducted individual interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs with 35 young men – five FGDs and five interviews with ordinary young men, and 11 interviews with activists – and analysed the data generated using qualitative content analysis. Results: Among the ordinary young men the theme ‘too much gender equality leads to IPV’ emerged, while among the activists the theme ‘gender inequality is the root of IPV’. Although both groups in our study rejected IPV, their positions differed, and we claim that this is relevant. While activists considered IPV as rooted in gender inequality, ordinary young men understood it as a response to the conflicts generated by increasing gender equality and women's attempts to gain autonomy.
Williams, M F
This study sought to determine the prevalence and impact of violence and sexual harassment experienced by registered nurses (RNs) in their workplaces in Illinois. A random sample of 1,130 RNs were selected to participate in the mail survey. The instrument used was the Nurse Assault Survey originally developed by the Nurse Assault Project Team in Ontario, Canada, and modified by the author. Three hundred forty-five subjects completed the survey (response rate: 30%). Fifty-seven percent of those responding reported personal experience with some aspect of sexual harassment, and 26% reported being victimized by physical assault while on the job. About one third of those who indicated they had been sexually harassed also had been physically assaulted. Patients/clients were the most frequent perpetrators of sexual harassment and physical assault, while physicians committed over half of the sexual assaults. Bivariate analysis showed a significant relationship between physical assault and levels of job satisfaction. A significant relationship also was found between sexual harassment and levels of job satisfaction. Results demonstrate that nurses need to take and active role in fostering a work environment free from violence and sexual harassment. They should be knowledgeable about institutional policies and, where none exist, they should work with administrators to develop them. Prevention and intervention programs should be developed for both student and registered nurses.
Kelly V Ruggles
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To apply discovery-based computational methods to nationally representative data from the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions' Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System to better understand and visualize the behavioral factors associated with gun possession among adolescent youth. RESULTS: Our study uncovered the multidimensional nature of gun possession across nearly five million unique data points over a ten year period (2001-2011. Specifically, we automated odds ratio calculations for 55 risk behaviors to assemble a comprehensive table of associations for every behavior combination. Downstream analyses included the hierarchical clustering of risk behaviors based on their association "fingerprint" to 1 visualize and assess which behaviors frequently co-occur and 2 evaluate which risk behaviors are consistently found to be associated with gun possession. From these analyses, we identified more than 40 behavioral factors, including heroin use, using snuff on school property, having been injured in a fight, and having been a victim of sexual violence, that have and continue to be strongly associated with gun possession. Additionally, we identified six behavioral clusters based on association similarities: 1 physical activity and nutrition; 2 disordered eating, suicide and sexual violence; 3 weapon carrying and physical safety; 4 alcohol, marijuana and cigarette use; 5 drug use on school property and 6 overall drug use. CONCLUSIONS: Use of computational methodologies identified multiple risk behaviors, beyond more commonly discussed indicators of poor mental health, that are associated with gun possession among youth. Implications for prevention efforts and future interdisciplinary work applying computational methods to behavioral science data are described.
Miedema, Stephanie S; Yount, Kathryn M; Chirwa, Esnat; Dunkle, Kristin; Fulu, Emma
Men's perpetration of gender-based violence remains a global public health issue. Violence prevention experts call for engagement of boys and men to change social norms around masculinity in order to prevent gender-based violence. Yet, men do not comprise a homogenous category. Drawing on probability estimates of men who report same-sex practices and preferences captured in a multi-country gender-based violence prevention survey in the Asia-Pacific region, we test the effects of sexuality-related factors on men's adverse life experiences. We find that sexual minority men face statistically higher risk of lifetime adversity related to gender-based violence, stemming from gender inequitable norms in society. Sexuality is thus a key axis of differentiation among men in the Asia-Pacific region, influencing health and wellbeing and reflecting men's differential engagement with dominant norms of masculinity. Integrating awareness of male sexual diversity into gender-based violence prevention interventions, particularly those that work with boys and men, and bridging violence prevention programming between sexual minority communities and women, are essential to tackle the root drivers of violence.
Gatuguta, Anne; Katusiime, Barbra; Seeley, Janet; Colombini, Manuela; Mwanzo, Isaac; Devries, Karen
Sexual violence is widespread, yet relatively few survivors receive healthcare or complete treatment. In low and middle-income countries, community health workers (CHWs) have the potential to provide support services to large numbers of survivors. The aim of this review was to document the role of CHWs in sexual violence services. We aimed to: 1) describe existing models of CHWs services including characteristics of CHWs, services delivered and populations served; 2) explore acceptability of CHWs' services to survivors and feasibility of delivering such services; and 3) document the benefits and challenges of CHW-provided sexual violence services. Quantitative and qualitative studies reporting on CHWs and other community-level paraprofessional volunteer services for sexual violence were eligible for inclusion. CHWs and sexual violence were defined according to WHO criteria. The review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Quality of included studies was assessed using two quality assessment tools for quantitative, and, the methodology checklist by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence for qualitative studies. Data were extracted and analysed separately for quantitative and qualitative studies and results integrated using a framework approach. Seven studies conducted in six countries (Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Burma, United States of America, Scotland, Israel) met the inclusion criteria. Different models of care had diverse CHWs roles including awareness creation, identifying, educating and building relationships with survivors, psychosocial support and follow up. Although sociocultural factors may influence CHWs' performance and willingness of survivors to use their services, studies often did not report on CHWs characteristics. Few studies assessed acceptability of CHWs' to survivors or feasibility of delivery of services. However, participants mentioned a range
Parent, Sylvie; Lavoie, Francine; Thibodeau, Marie-Ève; Hébert, Martine; Blais, Martin
This is the first study to report the prevalence of sexual violence perpetrated by a sport coach within a representative sample of the general population of adolescents aged between 14 and 17 years (N = 6 450). The questionnaire administered in high schools includes self-reported measures on a variety of dimensions relevant to the study of victimization, including sexual abuse, sexual contacts perceived as consensual, sexual harassment and involvement in an organized sport context. Descriptive and chi-square analyses were performed. The results show that 0.5% of adolescents experienced sexual abuse involving a coach. When considering all adolescents who experienced sexual abuse in their lifetime (10.2%), it appears that 5.3% of them were victims of sexual abuse by a coach. Participants also reported experiencing sexual harassment from a coach (0.4%) and consensual sexual contacts (1.2%) with a coach in the 12 months preceeding the study. Questions are raised on the overrepresentation of boys in situations of sexual victimization experiences in an organized sport context. PMID:25873593
Foster, Jill; Núñez, Ana; Spencer, Susan; Wolf, Judith; Robertson-James, Candace
Victims of domestic violence (DV) are not only subject to physical and emotional abuse but may also be at increased risk for less recognized dangers from infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted pathogens. Because of the close link between DV and sexual risk, women need to be educated about the consequences of acquiring a life-threatening sexually transmitted infection, risk reduction measures, and how to access appropriate HIV services for diagnosis and treatment. It is therefore critical for DV workers to receive sufficient training about the link between DV and HIV risk so that sexual safety planning can be incorporated into activities with their clients in the same way as physical safety plans. In this article, we discuss how the Many Hands Working Together project provides interactive training for workers in DV and DV-affiliated agencies to increase their knowledge about HIV and teach sexual safety planning skills to achieve HIV risk reduction.
Anderson, C.A.; Bushman, B.J.
This article places media violence research into a broader context than the typical public debate about whether violent video games (or TV programs, or movies) are “the” cause of school shootings and other extreme acts of violence. We describe how scientists today decide whether one variable (e.g.,
The study draws from a prominent criminology theory – routine activities theory to analyse the necessary conditions under which sexual predators select potential targets or victims. These conditions include the availability of three essential factors: existence of a motivated offender (sexual predator), an attractive target, and ...
Pöllänen, Katri; de Vries, Hein; Mathews, Catherine; Schneider, Francine; de Vries, Petrus J
Sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health problem worldwide. Research regarding beliefs about perpetrating sexual IPV is, however, limited. This study investigated attitudes, social influence, and self-efficacy beliefs and intentions toward perpetrating sexual IPV among Grade 8 adolescents ( M age = 13.73, SD = 1.04) in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The study sample was taken from the baseline data of the Promoting sexual and reproductive health among adolescents in Southern and Eastern Africa (PREPARE) study, a cluster-randomized controlled trial. Young adolescents ( N = 2,199), from 42 randomly selected high schools, participated in the study and answered a paper-and-pencil questionnaire. Multivariate ANOVA were conducted to assess differences in beliefs and intention toward perpetrating sexual IPV between boys and girls, and between perpetrators and nonperpetrators. Results showed that boys were more frequently perpetrators (11.3% vs. 3.2%) and victims (13.6% vs. 6.4%) of sexual IPV than girls. Boys' attitudes toward perpetrating sexual IPV were more supportive than girls'. Boys perceived their social network to be more likely to think that putting pressure on a boyfriend or girlfriend to have sex is okay, and boys had a lower self-efficacy to refrain from pressuring a boyfriend or girlfriend to have sex compared with girls. Both boys and girls, who have perpetrated sexual IPV, had more tolerant attitude, social influence, and self-efficacy beliefs toward sexual IPV perpetration, compared with nonperpetrators. Intention not to perpetrate sexual IPV did not differ between boys and girls, or between perpetrators and nonperpetrators. Our findings suggest that interventions should address attitude and social influence beliefs regarding sexual IPV perpetration. More attention should be given to sexual IPV perpetration among boys. Given that sexual IPV victimization and perpetration are significantly linked, prevention of sexual IPV
Full Text Available Lately Indonesia is facing a lot of tremendous experience about religious violence. Indonesian Islam which is previously assumed as peaceful religion is suddenly changing to be frightening religion. The destruction in some places such as Bali Bombing, JW Marriot Bombing, and Sampang riot in some places Islam is the trigger of religious violence. This paper discusses the repetition of religious violence in Indonesia especially after New Order era. The writer argues that religious violence in Indonesia is as natural disaster, historical process in human evolution and as close experience that presenting and relating to human history. It may be caused by political condition and the response to economic injustice. In doing so, it is kind of social acceleration toward the process of change and also being a factor of the emergence of new agenda. This is because every disaster, including religious violence, requires an adjustment and a new formulation of the functions that have been damaged.
Vieira, Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza; Silva, Raimunda Magalhães da; Cavalcanti, Ludmila Fontenele; Deslandes, Suely Ferreira
This article analyzes the training offered to municipal public employees to confront sexual violence against children and adolescents in four Brazilian capitals. Based on a multiple case study, it focuses on the training programs offered in the 2010-2011 biennium by the municipal government for professionals and managers in the public health network. We analyzed 66 semi-structured interviews and written documents pertaining to the training actions. We observed an unequal investment among the capitals and a lack of specificity in the treatment of the themes. There is a considerable lack of institutional memory which complicates the analysis of professional training strategies. Healthcare was the field which trained their professionals the most, including the subject of notification in training content. We noted little investment in training oriented toward the prevention of violence and the promotion of protective relationships and links. We emphasized the inductive role of federal and state programs in the areas of Tourism and Education. Few initiatives included the participation of more than one public sector. We suggest the creation of a training plan about violence and the sexual rights of children and adolescents, and in particular about sexual violence.
Myers, Wade C; Eggleston, Chris F; Smoak, Pamela
No follow-up studies exist on how minors who commit sexual homicides adjust once released back into the community. This is an important question given the extreme nature of their crimes, lack of recidivism data, and the expectation that one-half of them will be freed from prison by mid-life. Likewise, no studies exist on the role our culture's pervasive media violence plays in these offenses. This report describes a 13-year-old boy who committed a witnessed media violence-inspired sexual homicide. Follow-up information is provided on his community adjustment as an adult four years after release from prison. He had multiple indicators of brain dysfunction, and watched a "slasher" film just before committing the blitz style crime upon a female neighbor. Media violence literature is reviewed--against a backdrop of developmental abnormalities, neuropsychiatric vulnerabilities, family dysfunction, and mental illness. This case illustrates how the confluence of such variables, combined with the tinder of erotic screen violence, may lead to sexual murder.
Terzioglu, Fusun; Kok, Gulsah; Guvenc, Gulten; Ozdemir, Funda; Gonenc, Ilknur Munevver; Hicyilmaz, Basak Demirtas; Sezer, Neslihan Yılmaz
This descriptive study was aimed to evaluate the attitudes of the engaged men and women who are of legal age to marry towards gender roles and acceptance of couple violence, and determine their sexual/reproductive health education needs. It was conducted in two marriage registry offices in Ankara, Turkey. The study sample consisted of 740 participants. Data were collected by using semi-structured form, Gender Roles Attitude Scale and Acceptance of Couple Violence Scale. It was found that the engaged couples had educational needs concerning sexual/reproductive health; socio-demographic characteristics such as gender, age, education, residence, and income level created significant differences in the attitudes related to accepting gender roles and violence; and having an egalitarian attitude towards gender roles decreased the rate of accepting violence between the couples. Results indicate that premarital counseling is a promising strategy to support engaged couples' sexual/reproductive health needs, and increase their awareness about gender based couple violence in communities.
Lyons, Carrie E; Grosso, Ashley; Drame, Fatou M; Ketende, Sosthenes; Diouf, Daouda; Ba, Ibrahima; Shannon, Kate; Ezouatchi, Rebecca; Bamba, Amara; Kouame, Abo; Baral, Stefan
Violence is a human rights violation, and an important measure in understanding HIV among female sex workers (FSW). However, limited data exist regarding correlates of violence among FSW in Côte d'Ivoire. Characterizing prevalence and determinants of violence and the relationship with structural risks for HIV can inform development and implementation of comprehensive HIV prevention and treatment programs. FSW > 18 years were recruited through respondent driven sampling (RDS) in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. In total, 466 participants completed a socio-behavioral questionnaire and HIV testing. Prevalence estimates of violence were calculated using crude and RDS-adjusted estimates. Relationships between structural risk factors and violence were analyzed using χ tests and multivariable logistic regression. The prevalence of physical violence was 53.6% (250/466), and sexual violence was 43.2% (201/465) among FSW in this study. Police refusal of protection was associated with physical (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR]: 2.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.7 to 4.4) and sexual violence (aOR: 3.0; 95% CI: 1.9 to 4.8). Blackmail was associated with physical (aOR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.5 to 4.2) and sexual violence (aOR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.5 to 4.0). Physical violence was associated with fear (aOR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3 to 3.1) and avoidance of seeking health services (aOR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.5 to 3.8). Violence is prevalent among FSW in Abidjan and associated with features of the work environment and access to care. These relationships highlight layers of rights violations affecting FSW, underscoring the need for structural interventions and policy reforms to improve work environments, and to address police harassment, stigma, and rights violations to reduce violence and improve access to HIV interventions.
and child marriage; and harmful traditional practices such as female genital .... that GBV could be committed at home (domestic violence), at workplace or within the ... economic empowerment of women appears to increase in the short term run ..... they constituted a threat to the girls‟ good school performance as the current.
Rights (FIDH), Violence Against Women in Syria: Breaking the Silence, Briefing. Paper Based on an .... not perceived as the church's concern”, Silent No More, p. 8. .... travel all night to retrieve the bodies and bury them with dignity.23 In the.
Sutherland, Melissa A; Hutchinson, M Katherine
Female college students experience higher rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual violence (SV) compared to men of all ages, older women and young women who are not attending college. Experts and medical organizations have issued recommendations that health care providers should routinely screen women for IPV and SV. However, most female college students report they are not being screened for IPV and SV at college health centers. This exploratory study sought to examine the IPV and SV screening practices of college health care providers and identify individual and organizational influences using a cross-sectional, quantitative survey design. Sixty-four health care providers (physicians, nurse practitioners and registered nurses) from five colleges and universities in the northeastern U.S. were invited to participate in an anonymous, web-based survey about their IPV/SV-related screening practices and beliefs, and organizational characteristics of their college health centers. Twenty-six health care providers completed surveys (56% response rate). The median reported IPV/SV screening rate was 15%. More IPV/SV screening was reported by nurse practitioners, providers at state colleges, and by those in health centers that prioritized IPV/SV screening and had greater organizational capacity for change. College health centers represent unique, yet often missed, opportunities to screen for IPV/SV in a high-risk population. Provider- and organization-level influences should be incorporated into future interventions to improve IPV/SV screening in college health centers. Future studies with larger numbers of colleges and providers are needed to better understand organizational influences and identify mediators and moderators of effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Koss, Mary P; White, Jacquelyn W; Lopez, Elise C
Internationally and in the United States many victims of sexual assault and domestic violence are unserved, underserved, or ill-served, especially those from the most vulnerable populations. Programs developed in the United States are routinely exported to developing countries but often without success. Notably, the failures seen internationally resemble those in the United States and are related to structural and attitudinal-cultural factors. Many victims do not disclose, and if they do seek services, they often report that available options mismatch their objectives, present accessibility challenges, disempower their pursuit of justice, and fail to augment needed resources. A deeper understanding of obstacles to effective service provision is needed if the United States is to continue to be an international partner in victim response and violence prevention. This article builds on what is known about service delivery challenges in U.S. programs to envision a path forward that concomitantly accommodates anticipation of shrinking resources, by (a) reviewing illustrative services and feedback from victims about utilizing them; (b) examining structural inequalities and the intersections of personal and contextual features that both increase vulnerability to victimization and decrease accessibility and acceptability of services; (c) advocating for reintroduction of direct victim voice into response planning to enhance reach and relevance; and (d) reorienting delivery systems, community partnerships, and Coordinated Community Response teams. The authors suggest as the way forward pairing direct victim voice with open-minded listening to expressed priorities, especially in vulnerable populations, and designing services accordingly. Through a process that prioritizes adaptation to diverse needs and cultures, U.S models can increase desirability, equity, and thrift at home as well as enhance international relevance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights
Background Indonesia has the fourth largest population in the world. Few studies have identified the risk factors of Indonesian women for domestic violence. Such research will be useful for the development of prevention programs aiming at reducing domestic violence. Our study examines associations between physical and sexual violence among rural Javanese Indonesian women and sociodemographic factors, husband's psychosocial and behavioral characteristics and attitudes toward violence and gender roles. Methods A cohort of pregnant women within the Demographic Surveillance Site (DSS) in Purworejo district, Central Java, Indonesia, was enrolled in a longitudinal study between 1996 and 1998. In the following year (1999), a cross-sectional domestic violence household survey was conducted with 765 consenting women from that cohort. Female field workers, trained using the WHO Multi-Country study instrument on domestic violence, conducted interviews. Crude and adjusted odds ratios at 95% CI were applied for analysis. Results Lifetime exposure to sexual and physical violence was 22% and 11%. Sexual violence was associated with husbands' demographic characteristics (less than 35 years and educated less than 9 years) and women's economic independence. Exposure to physical violence among a small group of women (2-6%) was strongly associated with husbands' personal characteristics; being unfaithful, using alcohol, fighting with other men and having witnessed domestic violence as a child. The attitudes and norms expressed by the women confirm that unequal gender relationships are more common among women living in the highlands and being married to poorly educated men. Slightly more than half of the women (59%) considered it justifiable to refuse coercive sex. This attitude was also more common among financially independent women (71%), who also had a higher risk of exposure to sexual violence. Conclusions Women who did not support the right of women to refuse sex were more likely
Hayati Elli N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Indonesia has the fourth largest population in the world. Few studies have identified the risk factors of Indonesian women for domestic violence. Such research will be useful for the development of prevention programs aiming at reducing domestic violence. Our study examines associations between physical and sexual violence among rural Javanese Indonesian women and sociodemographic factors, husband's psychosocial and behavioral characteristics and attitudes toward violence and gender roles. Methods A cohort of pregnant women within the Demographic Surveillance Site (DSS in Purworejo district, Central Java, Indonesia, was enrolled in a longitudinal study between 1996 and 1998. In the following year (1999, a cross-sectional domestic violence household survey was conducted with 765 consenting women from that cohort. Female field workers, trained using the WHO Multi-Country study instrument on domestic violence, conducted interviews. Crude and adjusted odds ratios at 95% CI were applied for analysis. Results Lifetime exposure to sexual and physical violence was 22% and 11%. Sexual violence was associated with husbands' demographic characteristics (less than 35 years and educated less than 9 years and women's economic independence. Exposure to physical violence among a small group of women (2-6% was strongly associated with husbands' personal characteristics; being unfaithful, using alcohol, fighting with other men and having witnessed domestic violence as a child. The attitudes and norms expressed by the women confirm that unequal gender relationships are more common among women living in the highlands and being married to poorly educated men. Slightly more than half of the women (59% considered it justifiable to refuse coercive sex. This attitude was also more common among financially independent women (71%, who also had a higher risk of exposure to sexual violence. Conclusions Women who did not support the right of women to
Vimbi Petrus Mahlangu
Paper highlights legal understanding of quid pro quo sexual harassment in schools. Quid pro quo sexual harassment implies abuse of authority or position to gain something sexual. A duty of care rests on teachers, Schools Governing Bodies and the Department of Education to provide and maintain safe schools that are free from all forms of victimisation and abuse. However, there seems to be an abuse of power by all those who are supposedly to protect learners in schools. Paper used an abuse of o...
Dünser Martin W
Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1998, the Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo has been torn by a military conflict. A particular atrocity of the war is widespread sexual violence. Methods In this combined retrospective analysis and prospective survey, we sought to identify hospital facilities and resources available to treat victims of sexual violence in Goma, the capital city of the North Kivu province. Results Of twenty-three acute care hospitals registered in the area of Goma, four (17% regularly cared for victims of sexual violence. One hospital had all resources always available to appropriately care for victims of sexual violence. From Jan 2009 until Oct 2010, 7,048 females sought medical care because of physical or psychological sequelae from sexual violence in the four hospitals of Goma. Only half of the hospitals had physicians specialized in gynaecology or gynaecological surgery available. Similarly, anaesthetists and psychiatrists/psychologists were available in two (50% and one (25% hospital, respectively. Post-discharge care facilities, material resources, such as surgical and anaesthesiological equipment and drugs, were inconsistently available in the hospitals caring for sexually abused females. At one selected hospital, acyclovir and/or antibiotics were administered to 1,202 sexually abused females (89.5%, whereas post-exposure HIV prophylaxis and surgery because of vesico-vaginal fistula was provided to only 75 (5.6% and 121 (9% patients, respectively. Conclusions This study provides data that only few hospitals in Goma care for victims of sexual violence. In addition, these hospitals suffer from a relevant shortage of human and material resources to provide adequate care for sexually abused females. Aside from establishment of adequate protection strategies, steps must be taken to increase the availability of trained health care professionals and resources to provide adequate care for victims of sexual violence in Goma and the
Hsieh, Hsiu-Fen; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Chang, Shu-Chen
Forensic nursing is a new nursing specialty that provides forensic nursing service to domestic violence victims and offenders. Development of the role of forensic nurses has become urgent and necessary. The high rates of domestic violence and sexual assault in Taiwan suggest that forensic nurses have an important role to play in domestic healthcare. This article highlights the significance of forensic nursing in Taiwan in the future in terms of its origin, definitions, models, roles and functions, training and education, and previous studies. Through cooperation among academia, government, industry, and law enforcement agencies, it is expected that forensic nursing will be a positive and important area of expansion for professional nursing.
Controlling behavior is more common and can be equally or more threatening than physical or sexual violence. This study sought to determine the role of husband/partner controlling behavior and power relations within intimate relationships in the lifetime risk of physical and sexual violence in Nigeria. This study used secondary data from a cross-sectional nationally-representative survey collected by face-to-face interviews from women aged 15 - 49 years in the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. Utilizing a stratified two-stage cluster sample design, data was collected frrm 19 216 eligible with the DHS domestic violence module, which is based on the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the role of husband/partner controlling behavior in the risk of ever experiencing physical and sexual violence among 2877 women aged 15 - 49 years who were currently or formerly married or cohabiting with a male partner. Women who reported controlling behavior by husband/partner had a higher likelihood of experiencing physical violence (RR = 3.04; 95% CI: 2.50 - 3.69), and women resident in rural areas and working in low status occupations had increased likelihood of experiencing physical IPV. Controlling behavior by husband/partner was associated with higher likelihood of experiencing physical violence (RR = 4.01; 95% CI: 2.54 - 6.34). In addition, women who justified wife beating and earned more than their husband/partner were at higher likelihood of experiencing physical and sexual violence. In contrast, women who had decision-making autonomy had lower likelihood of experiencing physical and sexual violence. Controlling behavior by husband/partner significantly increases the likelihood of physical and sexual IPV, thus acting as a precursor to violence. Findings emphasize the need to adopt a proactive integrated approach to controlling behavior and intimate partner violence within the society.
Rio Navarro, Javier; Cohen, Julien; Rocillo Arechaga, Eva; Zuniga, Edgardo
To establish the prevalence of exposure to physical and sexual violence, mental health symptoms, and medical treatment-seeking behavior among three street-based subpopulation groups in Tegucigalpa, Honduras, and to assess the association between sociodemographic group, mental health indicators, and exposure to violence. An anonymous, cross-sectional survey among randomly selected street-based adolescents, adults, and commercial sex workers (CSWs) was undertaken at the end of 2010 in Tegucigalpa. Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) mapped places where the study population gathers. Stratified probability samples were drawn for all groups, using two-stage random sampling. Trained MSF staff administered on-site standardized face-to-face questionnaires. Self-reported exposure to severe physical violence in the previous year was 20.9% among street-based adolescents, 28.8% among adults, and 30.6% among CSWs. For the physical violence event self-defined as most severe, 50.0% of the adolescents, 81.4% of the adults, and 70.6% of the CSWs sought medical treatment. Their exposure to severe sexual violence was 8.6%, 28.8%, and 59.2%, respectively. After exposure to the self-defined most severe sexual violence event, 14.3% of adolescents, 31.9% of adults, and 29.1% of CSWs sought treatment. Common mental health and substance abuse symptoms were highly prevalent and strongly associated with exposure to physical (odds ratio 4.5, P < 0.0001) and sexual (odds ratio 3.7, P = 0.0001) violence. Exposure to physical and sexual violence reached extreme levels among street-based subpopulations. Treatment-seeking behavior, particularly after severe sexual violence, was limited. The association of mental health and substance abuse symptoms with exposure to violence could lead to further victimization. Medical and psychological treatments targeting these groups are needed and could help decrease their vulnerability.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Controlling behavior is more common and can be equally or more threatening than physical or sexual violence. This study sought to determine the role of husband/partner controlling behavior and power relations within intimate relationships in the lifetime risk of physical and sexual violence in Nigeria. Methods This study used secondary data from a cross-sectional nationally-representative survey collected by face-to-face interviews from women aged 15 - 49 years in the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. Utilizing a stratified two-stage cluster sample design, data was collected frrm 19 216 eligible with the DHS domestic violence module, which is based on the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the role of husband/partner controlling behavior in the risk of ever experiencing physical and sexual violence among 2877 women aged 15 - 49 years who were currently or formerly married or cohabiting with a male partner. Results Women who reported controlling behavior by husband/partner had a higher likelihood of experiencing physical violence (RR = 3.04; 95% CI: 2.50 - 3.69, and women resident in rural areas and working in low status occupations had increased likelihood of experiencing physical IPV. Controlling behavior by husband/partner was associated with higher likelihood of experiencing physical violence (RR = 4.01; 95% CI: 2.54 - 6.34. In addition, women who justified wife beating and earned more than their husband/partner were at higher likelihood of experiencing physical and sexual violence. In contrast, women who had decision-making autonomy had lower likelihood of experiencing physical and sexual violence. Conclusion Controlling behavior by husband/partner significantly increases the likelihood of physical and sexual IPV, thus acting as a precursor to violence. Findings emphasize the need to adopt a proactive integrated approach to controlling behavior and
Wildan Sena Utama
Full Text Available Book Review of the monograph: Pohlman, Annie (2015, Women, Sexual Violence and the Indonesian Killings of 1965â€“66. Abingdon and New York: Routledge (= ASAA Women in Asia Series; 36, ISBN: 9780415838870, 188 pages
Bjørnseth, Ingunn; Szabo, Attila
Sexual violence against children in sports receives little research attention. The aim of this Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses-based systematic literature review was to synthesize the up-to-date knowledge and identify the already known and the still unknown information in this area. The literature search yielded seven eligible studies for inclusion. Their key outcomes suggest that sexual violence against children in sports is prevalent. Girls are more often the victims than boys, but gender appears to mediate the disclosure. Minority groups are at higher risk for sexual violence, and athletes at higher levels of competition seem to be more vulnerable for grooming. While the coach is often seen as the perpetrator, new research suggests that peer-athletes may precede the coach. Disclosure is a problem, due to personal and interpersonal concerns, which deters scholastic research in this area. In the final section of the review, a "what we know" and "what we need to know" list of highlights is offered as the concluding summary of the review. These factual points could raise the awareness of parents and/or guardians about the vulnerability of their children to sexual abuse if they are involved in sports. They could also attract the attention of the policy makers to the urgent need of developing and implementing preventive measures to make sports and exercise environments pleasurable and safe for children.
Kleinsasser, Anne; Jouriles, Ernest N; McDonald, Renee; Rosenfield, David
Because of its high prevalence and serious consequences for victims, sexual violence is a significant problem on college campuses. Sexual assault prevention programs based on the bystander intervention model have been shown to be effective; however, current programs are limited in terms of ease of distribution. To address this issue, we developed and evaluated "Take Care," an online bystander intervention program. To our knowledge, this is the first empirical evaluation of an online bystander intervention program designed to prevent sexual violence. Ninety-three participants (80.6% female, 19.4% male) recruited from social psychology classes at a mid-size university were randomly assigned to view one of two online programs: Take Care or a control program on study skills. Before viewing the programs, participants completed measures of bystander behaviors and feelings of efficacy for performing such behaviors. Measures were administered again post-intervention and at a two-month follow-up assessment. Participants who viewed Take Care reported greater efficacy for engaging in bystander behaviors at post-treatment and two months following treatment, compared to those who viewed the control program. In addition, participants who viewed Take Care reported performing relatively more bystander behaviors for friends at the two-month follow-up assessment, compared to participants who viewed the control program. These results suggest that sexual violence prevention programs may be effectively adapted to an online format.
Healey, Gwen K
To explore Inuit family understandings of sexual health and relationships in order to inform responsive public health interventions that are designed to meet the needs of Nunavummiut. A qualitative indigenous knowledge approach was used for this study with a focus on Inuit epistemology and methodology, as described in the Piliriqatigiinniq Community Health Research Partnership Model. Interviews were conducted with 20 parents in three Nunavut communities in 2011. An immersion and crystallization analytical approach was used to analyze the data and to identify groupings or themes in the data. The stories shared by parents are honoured, keeping their words intact as often as possible in the presentation of results. Parents in this study largely discussed sexual health in the context of historical community events related to settlement and/or residential schools. Residential schools and forced settlement into communities were linked to trauma, family separation, hardship and grief. These experiences were prominent in participants' understandings of sexual health and perceptions of sexual health behaviours among youth in the community. This study highlights the complexity of the landscape of sexual health in Nunavut and the need for public health approaches that are inclusive of Inuit family perspectives on sexual health. Greater understanding of historical and community context can contribute to the development of pertinent, evidence-based public health interventions that will meet the needs of the population.
coercion, physical threats, psychological abuse and controlling actions such as ... sexual risk behavior (Lang, Sales & Salazar, 2011: Exner-Cortens, Eckenrode & .... 25.0. 20.3. 657. 2288. Educational level. Primary. Secondary. Higher. 24.5***.
Basow, Susan A.; Thompson, Janelle
In this online vignette study, a national sample of domestic violence shelter service providers (N = 282) completed a 10-item questionnaire about a woman experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV). Scenarios varied in terms of couple sexual orientation (heterosexual or lesbian) and type of abuse (physical or nonphysical). Results indicate that…
Chan, Ko Ling; Yan, Elsie; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Tiwari, Agnes; Fong, Daniel Y. T.
This study investigated the prevalence and impact of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on future intimate partner violence (IPV) in dating relationship in Hong Kong, China. A total of 1,154 Chinese adult respondents engaged in dating relationships were interviewed face-to-face about their CSA histories, childhood witnessing of parental violence, adult…
McGee, Hannah; Garavan, Rebecca; Byrne, Joanne; O'Higgins, Madeleine; Conroy, Ronán M
BACKGROUND: Sexual violence is a worldwide problem affecting children and adults. Knowledge of trends in prevalence is essential to inform the design and evaluation of preventive and intervention programmes. We aimed to assess the prevalence of lifetime sexual violence for both sexes and to document the prevalence of adult and child abuse by birth year in the general population. METHODS: National cluster-randomized telephone interview study of 3120 adults in Ireland was done. RESULTS: C...
Over the last decades, there has been increased attention towards women s and girls protection and participation during conflict, peace processes, and peacebuilding. In the wake of this attention, sexual violence during conflict and in post conflict settings has been put on the international agenda. Both scholars and NGOs share a concern about the possible negative impact sexual violence may have both for the individual survivor as well as for the society as a whole. The Democratic Republic ...
Verelst, A; De Schryver, M; De Haene, L; Broekaert, E; Derluyn, I
This study aims to explore the factors that explain the mental sequelae of war-related sexual violence and focuses in particular on the role of stigmatization. Drawing on a large-scale quantitative survey undertaken in the war-affected region of eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, we analyze how stigmatization mediates the mental health impact of sexual violence on adolescent girls who were victims of rape. Twenty-two secondary schools were randomly selected out of a stratified sample in Bunia, Eastern Congo. In a cross-sectional, population-based survey, 1,305 school-going adolescent girls aged 11-23 completed self-report measures assessing war-related traumatic events, experiences of sexual violence, stigmatization, and mental health symptoms. Of the 1,305 participants, 38.2% (n=499) reported experiences of sexual violence. Victims of sexual violence reported more war-related traumatic events and more stigmatization experiences. Several hierarchical regression analyses examined the mediating impact of stigmatization on the relationship between sexual violence and mental health outcomes, thereby controlling for sociodemographics (age, parental availability, and socioeconomic status) and war-related traumatic exposure. Our findings show that this stigmatization largely explains the mental health impact of sexual violence, in particular, on adolescent girls' reported symptoms of depression (full mediation) and posttraumatic stress (avoidance and total PTSD: full mediation; hyperarousal: partial (40%) mediation). No evidence of mediation by stigmatization was found for symptoms of anxiety and intrusion. Stigmatization plays thus an important role in shaping the mental sequelae of sexual violence, a finding with major consequences for clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Establishing domestic violence Memoranda of Understanding. 635.30 Section 635.30 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.30 Establishing domestic violence...
Zhuoran, Wang; Wanpeng, Liu; Tao, Peng; Coates, Rosemary
Family physicians play an important role in the initial counselling and evaluation of infertility. Despite infertility regarded as a stressor and a life crisis for individuals or couples, little is known about the psychosexual aspects of infertility. On the basis that sexuality is a crucial part of quality of life, it is worthwhile to give more attention to sexuality of infertile couples during their time of experiencing infertility. This study aimed to gain insight into the dynamic features of the sexuality of infertile couples and to provide meaningful evidence for improving their quality of life. We employed a qualitative approach to conduct this study. Utilizing purposive sampling method, 56 participants (28 infertile Chinese couples) were recruited from the reproductive medicine centre of a general hospital, and in-depth interviews were conducted with each participant. Thematic content analysis was used to analyse the transcripts. Four themes emerged from the respondents' narratives; these themes relate to the infertile couples' understanding of sexuality: (i) gender identity, (ii) communication about sex, (iii) sexual life and (iv) sexual satisfaction. It was further found that Chinese culture's values of fertility, perceptions about sexuality and sex, social norms regarding gender, and expectations about marital sexual life can have significant effects on infertile Chinese couples' sexuality. These findings should be highly considered by family physicians in their practice to provide infertile couples with information related to sexual well-being, coping styles, relationship, etc. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Sales, Jessica McDermott; Salazar, Laura F; Wingood, Gina M; DiClemente, Ralph J; Rose, Eve; Crosby, Richard A
To examine the prevalence of sexual violence among young African American females and to explore the mediating role that partner communication plays on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted disease-associated risk behaviors among youth with a history of sexual violence relative to those without. Only data from baseline, before randomization, were used for this analysis. A clinic-based sample of young females enrolled in a randomized trial of an HIV-prevention program in Atlanta, Georgia, from March 2002 to August 2004. African American females aged 15 to 21 years who reported sexual activity in the previous 60 days. Of 1558 screened, 874 females were eligible and 82% (n = 715) participated at baseline. History of sexual violence as well as (1) sexual partner communication skills, (2) current sexual behaviors, and (3) psychological well-being. Lifetime prevalence of sexual violence was 26%. Communication skills partially mediated the relationship between sexual violence and psychological well-being and sexual behavior outcomes. Given the lifetime prevalence of sexual violence and its adverse sexual, psychological, and relational sequelae, it is paramount that effective interventions are developed. Based on our findings, improving partner communications skills is one particularly important area for HIV/sexually transmitted disease risk-reduction interventions for youths with a history of sexual violence.
Background Despite the signing of international peace agreements, a deadly war continues in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and sexual violence is a prominent modus operandi of many military groups operating in the region. Methods Retrospective cohort study of women who presented to Panzi Hospital in 2006 requesting post-sexual violence care. Data was extracted and analyzed to describe the patterns of sexual violence. Results A total of 1,021 medical records were reviewed. A majority of attacks occurred in individual homes (56.5%), with the fields (18.4%) and the forest (14.3%) also being frequent locations of attack. In total, 58.9% of all attacks occurred at night. Of the four primary types of sexual violence, gang rape predominated (59.3%) and rape Not Otherwise Specified (NOS) was also common (21.5%). Sexual slavery was described by 4.9% of the survivors and a combination of gang rape and sexual slavery was described by 11.7%. The mean number of assailants per attack was 2.5 with a range of one to > 15. There were several demographic predictors for sexual slavery. Controlling for age, education level and occupation, a marital status of "single" increased the risk of sexual slavery (OR = 2.97, 95% CI = 1.12-7.85). Similarly, after controlling for other variables, age was a significant predictor of sexual slavery with older women being at a slightly reduced risk (OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.92-0.99). Women who experienced sexual slavery were 37 times more likely to have a resultant pregnancy in comparison to those who reported other types of sexual violence (OR = 37.50, 95% CI = 14.57-99.33). Conclusions Among sexual violence survivors presenting to Panzi Hospital in 2006, the majority of attacks occurred in women's own homes, often at night. This represents a pattern of violence that differs from other conflict settings and has important implications regarding protection strategies. Sexual violence in South Kivu was also marked with a predominance of gang rape
Lipton Robert I
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the signing of international peace agreements, a deadly war continues in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC and sexual violence is a prominent modus operandi of many military groups operating in the region. Methods Retrospective cohort study of women who presented to Panzi Hospital in 2006 requesting post-sexual violence care. Data was extracted and analyzed to describe the patterns of sexual violence. Results A total of 1,021 medical records were reviewed. A majority of attacks occurred in individual homes (56.5%, with the fields (18.4% and the forest (14.3% also being frequent locations of attack. In total, 58.9% of all attacks occurred at night. Of the four primary types of sexual violence, gang rape predominated (59.3% and rape Not Otherwise Specified (NOS was also common (21.5%. Sexual slavery was described by 4.9% of the survivors and a combination of gang rape and sexual slavery was described by 11.7%. The mean number of assailants per attack was 2.5 with a range of one to > 15. There were several demographic predictors for sexual slavery. Controlling for age, education level and occupation, a marital status of "single" increased the risk of sexual slavery (OR = 2.97, 95% CI = 1.12-7.85. Similarly, after controlling for other variables, age was a significant predictor of sexual slavery with older women being at a slightly reduced risk (OR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.92-0.99. Women who experienced sexual slavery were 37 times more likely to have a resultant pregnancy in comparison to those who reported other types of sexual violence (OR = 37.50, 95% CI = 14.57-99.33. Conclusions Among sexual violence survivors presenting to Panzi Hospital in 2006, the majority of attacks occurred in women's own homes, often at night. This represents a pattern of violence that differs from other conflict settings and has important implications regarding protection strategies. Sexual violence in South Kivu was also marked with a
Espelage, Dorothy L; Basile, Kathleen C; Leemis, Ruth W; Hipp, Tracy N; Davis, Jordan P
The Bully-Sexual Violence Pathway theory has indicated that bullying perpetration predicts sexual violence perpetration among males and females over time in middle school, and that homophobic name-calling perpetration moderates that association among males. In this study, the Bully-Sexual Violence Pathway theory was tested across early to late adolescence. Participants included 3549 students from four Midwestern middle schools and six high schools. Surveys were administered across six time points from Spring 2008 to Spring 2013. At baseline, the sample was 32.2% White, 46.2% African American, 5.4% Hispanic, and 10.2% other. The sample was 50.2% female. The findings reveal that late middle school homophobic name-calling perpetration increased the odds of perpetrating sexual violence in high school among early middle school bullying male and female perpetrators, while homophobic name-calling victimization decreased the odds of high school sexual violence perpetration among females. The prevention of bullying and homophobic name-calling in middle school may prevent later sexual violence perpetration.
Clinton-Sherrod, A Monique; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A; Gibbs, Deborah; Hawkins, Stephanie R; Hart, Laurie; Ball, Barbara; Irvin, Neil; Littler, Nicole
This study extends past research by examining factors associated with changes in attitudes, knowledge, and intended behaviors related to sexual assault. This study included 1,182 participants from four unique multiple-session school-based sexual violence interventions. Implementation and participant factors examined include single- versus mixed-gender groups, group setting versus classroom lecture setting, and participant gender. Participants completed self-administered, paper-and-pencil pre- and postsurveys. A significant desired overall effect was found on participants' reports of positive attitudes, beliefs, and behavior regarding sexual harassment and personal boundaries and positive dating relationship norms (from pretest to posttest). There were steeper increases over time in both measures, with larger mixed-gender/single-gender differences among boys than among girls. Differences in the impact of participating in mixed- versus single-gender groups depended on classroom versus small group settings. The implications of these findings are discussed for sexual assault prevention programs.
Godier, Lauren R; Fossey, M
Despite media interest in alleged sexual violence and harassment in the UK military, there remains a paucity of UK-based peer-reviewed research in this area. Ministry of Defence and service-specific reports support the suggestion that UK service personnel may be at risk of experiencing sexual harassment. These reports however highlight a reluctance by service personnel to report sexual harassment through official channels. In this article, we discuss the paucity of UK-based research pertaining to the prevalence and impact of sexual harassment in the military, explore potential reasons for this gap in knowledge and outline future directions and priorities for academic research. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Delziovo, Carmem Regina; Bolsoni, Carolina Carvalho; Nazário, Nazaré Otília; Coelho, Elza Berger Salema
Sexual violence against women is a form of gender violence and both a severe human rights violation and public health problem. This ecological, descriptive, and temporal series study aims to analyze sexual violence against pre-adolescent, adolescent, and adult females in Santa Catarina State, Brazil, based on data from the Information System for Notifiable Diseases, in order to describe the characteristics of cases of sexual violence perpetrated against women, reported by health professionals from 2008 a 2013. A total of 15,508 cases of violence were reported, including 2,010 cases of sexual violence (12.9%). Cases of violence totaled 950 reports in the 10 to 14 year bracket (47.3%), 450 in the 15 to 19 year bracket (22.4%), and 610 (30.3%) in women 20 years or older (adults). Adolescent females suffered violence by a single aggressor, at home, at night, with vaginal penetration, and with greater tendency to repeated assault and pregnancy as a result. For females 10 to 14 and 15 to 19 years of age, the aggressors were unknown in 32.9% and 33.1% of the reports, respectively. Adult women were sexually assaulted either at home or on public byways, at night or in the early morning hours, by a single aggressor, with vaginal penetration in more than half of the cases, with more physical injuries, and with more subsequent suicide attempts. The information should contribute to awareness-raising of policymakers, health professionals, researchers, and health field professors concerning the importance of reporting violence in order to help develop interventions to prevent such violence against women.
Alex Sandro Gomes Pessoa
Full Text Available Abstract: This study examines the school context of adolescents with a sexual violence history, highlighting their perceptions of protective and vulnerability mechanisms within a social ecological resilience framework. The study was conducted in a youth service agency located in a mid-sized city in the inner of Sao Paulo state. Initially, 31 male and female adolescents victims of sexual violence, aged 12-18, answered survey items assessing resilience processes. Based on their responses, a subgroup of seven adolescents was selected to participate in individual semi-structured interviews addressing the role of school in their lives. Five key themes were identified in the data, with two overarching categories emerging: ‘evaluation of school structure’ and ‘formative processes through diversity and difference’. Exploration of interview excerpts within these categories revealed that schools occupy an ambivalent space in terms of risk and protective factors in the participants’ lives, with predominately negative social indicators emerging.
María Elena Meza-de-Luna
Full Text Available Abstract This study analyzed stereotypes on intimate partner violence (IPV of heterosexual and same-sex couples. The participants, 232 Mexican college students, evaluated physical and psychological IPV exerted by men and women with different sexual orientations. The data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon test. The results indicate that men evaluated women and gay men as having a similar IPV, while men´s perceptions of IPV for these groups were higher than those of women. Women viewed heterosexual men as the most violent and evaluated the other groups with different degrees of IPV. Physical violence is regarded as natural in men, both gay and heterosexual. To conclude, the results suggest that IPV stereotypes are affected by the sex of the evaluators and by their sexual orientation. It is relevant to expand the scope of prevention programs.
The aim of this thesis is to explore a new way of estimating to what degree the conflicts in eastern Congo, more specifically the Kivu regions, have altered the risk of experiencing sexual violence. I estimate this conflict-effect by combining two methods. These are event history analysis and the synthetic control group method. The first method has earlier been used to study the effect of conflict on age at sexual debut in a case study concerning the genocide in Rwanda (Elveborg Lindskog, 201...
Full Text Available Conducting research in the area of sexual violence has complex ethical and practical challenges for the researcher. Managing ethical issues in sexual violence is important and can be achieved through the use of pilot studies. The primary purpose of the pilot study was to identify and manage potential ethical and practical problems that could jeopardise the main study or violate the ethical and human rights of participants in the main study on women’s journey of recovery from sexual assault. The secondary purpose was to collect preliminary data in order to determine the human, financial and time resources needed for a planned study. The methods and processes used in conducting the pilot study in the study on women’s journey of recovery are discussed according to each of the objectives of the pilot study, methods used to achieve the objective, observations or findings made during the pilot study, and implications for the main study. This article aims to demonstrate how a pilot study was used to manage identified potential ethical and practical research issues during the recruitment of participants and data collection for the research that was conducted by the first author to investigate women’s journey of recovery from sexual assault trauma within the first week following sexual assault.
Eizirik,Mariana; Schestatsky,Sidnei; Kruel,Letícia; Ceitlin,Lúcia Helena Freitas
OBJECTIVE: To identify demographic and clinical correlates associated with therapists' countertransference feelings on the first visit of women victims of sexual violence. METHOD: Forty patients were seen by 26 therapists, during 2 consecutive years, at the Center for the Study and Treatment of Psychological Trauma, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre , Brazil. After the first visit with the patient, the therapist completed the Assessment of Countertransference Scale and the patient was eval...
Fitzgerald, L F
Sexual harassment has been a fixture of the workplace since women first began to work outside the home. Although true epidemiological studies do not exist, large-scale surveys of working women suggest that approximately 1 of every 2 women will be harassed at some point during their academic or working lives. The data indicate that harassment is degrading, frightening, and sometimes physically violent; frequently extends over a considerable period of time; and can result in profound job-related, psychological; and health-related consequences. This article provides a brief review of the prevalence and consequences of sexual harassment and outlines social policy implications for research, legislation, and primary prevention.
Elena Hernández González
Full Text Available This study analyzes the tactics of sexual coercion among university couples, and their association with the type of commitment with the relationship and experienced physical and sexual violence. Participants were 175 college students,79 women and 96 men. A new sexual coercion scale was developed, based on the DeGue and DiLillo´s (2005 proposal. The exploratory factor analyses showed three components: Insistence, Emotional Manipulation, and Blame. Sexual assault was measured with a single item. Commitment and experienced Physical Violence were measured using existing scales. Discriminant analysis confirmed that participants from the victimized group significantly differedfrom those of the non-victimized group. The variables that significantly contributed to the classification were Negative Commitment and Insistence for the victimized group and Positive Commitment for the non-victimized group. We discuss the implications of the results to prevent partner violence.
Eriksen, Astrid M A; Hansen, Ketil Lenert; Javo, Cecilie; Schei, Berit
To assess the prevalence and investigate ethnic differences of emotional, physical and sexual violence among a population of both Sami and non-Sami in Norway. Our study was based on the SAMINOR 2 study, a population-based survey on health and living conditions in multiethnic areas with both Sami and non-Sami populations in Central and Northern Norway. Our study includes a total of 11,296 participants: 2197 (19.4%) Sami respondents and 9099 (80.6 %) non-Sami respondents. Almost half of the Sami female respondents and one-third of the non-Sami female respondents reported any violence (any lifetime experience of violence). Sami women were more likely to report emotional, physical and sexual violence than non-Sami women. More than one-third of the Sami men compared with less than a quarter of non-Sami men reported having experienced any violence in their life. Sami men were more likely to report emotional and physical violence than non-Sami men. However, ethnicity was not significantly different regarding sexual violence experienced among men. Violence was typically reported to have occurred in childhood. Sami participants were more likely to report having experienced violence in the past 12 months. For all types of violence, the perpetrator was typically known to the victim. Regardless of gender, Sami respondents were more likely to report interpersonal violence. The prevalence of any violence was substantial in both ethnic groups and for both genders; it was highest among Sami women. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.
Kuwert, Philipp; Glaesmer, Heide; Eichhorn, Svenja; Grundke, Elena; Pietrzak, Robert H; Freyberger, Harald J; Klauer, Thomas
The aim of the study was to compare the long-term effects of conflict-related sexual violence experienced at the end of World War II (WWII) with non-sexual WWII trauma (e.g., being exposed to shell shock or physical violence). A total of 27 elderly wartime rape survivors were compared to age- and gender-matched control subjects who were drawn from a larger sample of subjects over 70 years of age who had experienced WWII-related trauma. A modified version of the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale was used to assess trauma characteristics and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 was used to assess current psychopathology. Additionally, measures of posttraumatic growth (Posttraumatic Growth Inventory) and social acknowledgement as a trauma survivor (Social Acknowledgement Questionnaire) were used to assess two mediating variables in post-trauma conditions of rape victims. Women exposed to conflict-related sexual violence reported greater severity of PTSD-related avoidance and hyperarousal symptoms, as well as anxiety, compared with female long-term survivors of non-sexual WWII trauma. The vast majority (80.9 %) of these women also reported severe sexual problems during their lifetimes relative to 19.0 % of women who experienced non-sexual war trauma. Women exposed to conflict-related sexual violence also reported greater posttraumatic growth, but less social acknowledgement as trauma survivors, compared to survivors of non-sexual war trauma. The results were consistent with emerging neurobiological research, which suggests that different traumas may be differentially associated with long-term posttraumatic sequelae in sexual assault survivors than in other survivor groups and highlights the need to treat (or better prevent) deleterious effects of conflict-related sexual violence in current worldwide crisis zones.
Intan Noor Khalifah; Argyo Demartoto; Harsono Salimo
Background: Street children are at high risk of sexual violence. Necessary measures should be undertaken to address deleterious biopsychosocial impacts of sexual violence. This study aimed to analyze the preventive behaviors to address biopsychosocial impacts of sexual violence among street children in Yogyakarta using Health Belief Model and Labelling Theory.Subjects and Method: This study was qualitative descriptive with phenomenology approach. The key informants for this study included Hea...
Robertson, Hillary A; Chaudhary Nagaraj, Nitasha; Vyas, Amita N
Family violence, including child sexual abuse (CSA), is a significant public health problem in the United States. It is particularly difficult to assess family violence and CSA among South Asians because it is often hidden due to cultural and familial stigma. A web-based survey was administered to a convenience sample (n = 368) of South Asian adults in the US. One-fourth (25.2 %) of the sample reported CSA; 13.8 % reported abuse involving exposure; 21.5 % reported abuse involving touching; 4.5 % reported attempted sexual intercourse; and 3.5 % reported forced sexual intercourse. Adjusted odds ratios found that participants who reported any relationship violence were significantly more likely to have experienced CSA (OR 2.28; 95 % CI 1.26-4.13); and suicide attempt was significantly associated with CSA (OR 3.96; 95 % CI 1.27-12.3). The findings presented in this formative study will assist in guiding future studies and interventions for South Asians in the United States.
Edwards, Katie M; Rodenhizer, Kara Anne; Eckstein, Robert P
We examined school personnel's engagement in bystander action in situations of teen dating violence (DV), sexual violence (SV), and sexual harassment (SH). We conducted focus groups with 22 school personnel from three high schools in New Hampshire. School personnel identified their own barriers to intervening in situations of teen DV, SV, and SH (e.g., not having the time or ability to intervene). School personnel also discussed the ways in which they intervened before (e.g., talking with teens about healthy relationships), during (e.g., breaking up fights between dating partners) and after (e.g., comforting victims) instances of teen DV, SV, and SH. These data can be used to support the development of bystander training for school personnel as one component of comprehensive DV, SV, and SH prevention for teens. In addition, these data provide information that can be used to develop measures that assess school personnel bystander action barriers and behaviors in instances of teen DV, SV, and SH.
Vimbi Petrus Mahlangu
Full Text Available Paper highlights legal understanding of quid pro quo sexual harassment in schools. Quid pro quo sexual harassment implies abuse of authority or position to gain something sexual. A duty of care rests on teachers, Schools Governing Bodies and the Department of Education to provide and maintain safe schools that are free from all forms of victimisation and abuse. However, there seems to be an abuse of power by all those who are supposedly to protect learners in schools. Paper used an abuse of organisational power theory and conceptualisation framework as a lens used in analysing various forms of victimisation and abuse with an effort to provide a better understanding of behaviour that amounts to abuse. Paper concludes with guidelines for handling harassment and bullying in the school contexts.
violence can cause serious bodily harm or mental harm to members of the group (International Criminal Court 2002, 3; Ellis 2007). Under crimes against...population was subjugated to Japanese 46 rule and were provided with horrific visual, physical, and emotional reminders of the futility of any...maps.google.com/ maps /ms?msid=214870171076954118166.0004b9bcb533b0ee2c1f8&msa=0&ie= UTF8&ll=12.848235,58.136902&spn=43.135476,135.258178&t=m&output=em bed
Owiso, Michael Omondi
Ethnicity has come to be widely used as an explanation to electoral violence in Kenya. Research on electoral violence has been limited to electoral related violence in relation to the manipulation of the multi-ethnic composition of the country by the political elite. In light of this, this study......, but at the same time expose the disconnect in electoral violence studies. The study is based on desk research and digs into books, journals, memoirs, newspapers and official government documents to unearth the underlying structure of Kenya (the actors, institutions, cultural hegemony, history and ideologies...... wishes to move beyond this otherwise simplistic view of electoral conflict in Kenya and relate these occurrences to the wider problem that the country faces. Taking a structural view, this contribution seeks to join other studies that have emphasized the structural causes of conflict in Kenya...
Platt, Vanessa Borges; Back, Isabela de Carlos; Hauschild, Daniela Barbieri; Guedert, Jucélia Maria
The scope of this study was to identify the characteristics of sexual abuse against children including the profiles of the victims and the perpetrators, and associated factors notified in a health service of reference with the database of the Brazilian Case Registry Database, in a city in the south of Brazil. Categorical variables are presented in prevalence with 95% confidence intervals. There were 489 notifications from 2008 to 2014 of confirmed or suspected child sexual abuse. The majority was related to female victims, but the repeated abuse was reported mainly with male victims. In most cases, the abuse took place at the victims' or perpetrators' homes and the main perpetrators of abuse were male and acquainted with the victims. Twelve victims have contracted sexually transmitted infections; pregnancies were six, five of them legally terminated. This study highlights that the child sexual abuse profiles were similar in almost all of Brazilian regions, showing that it is possible to have a coordinated national action to prevent this offence.
Christensen, M. Candace
This study explores the experiences of male college students who participated in a theatre-based, peer-education, sexual assault prevention presentation. The program was established through the use of Pedagogy of the Oppressed and Theatre of the Oppressed, as well as multicultural feminist theory and approaches. These models emphasize subverting…
McCartney, J R; Severson, K
Little is known of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in older people. No literature exists on this disorder in older women exposed to sexual assault. A case of apparent PTSD in a demented woman raises questions of the anatomy and phenomenology of this disorder. Difficulties in diagnosis in a demented population may cloud the issues or prevent a proper therapeutic outcome.
After1994 several pieces of legislation were passed in South Africa to ensure equity in education and equal opportunities for all learners. Some shocking reports have indicated that sexual harassment of girls is a serious problem in many of our schools. These girls are denied equal opportunities and effective education in ...
Fenlon, Michael J.; Mufson, Susan A.
Researchers describe here the traumatic stress reactions of a group of fifth-grade children to the sexual assault of their classmate. The children's "secondary trauma"--trauma caused by empathizing or identifying with the victim--presented a distinct yet variable etiology. The authors offer suggestions for working with child secondary…
The present study used World Health Organization definition “SV is serious public health human rights problem with short‑ and long‑term consequences on women's physical, mental, sexual, reproductive health. Whether SV occurs in context of intimate partnership, within larger family or community structure, or during times ...
Heinze, Justin E.; Miller, Alison L.; Stoddard, Sarah A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.
Previous research on the association between violence and biological stress regulation has been largely cross-sectional, and has also focused on childhood. Using longitudinal data from a low-income, high-risk, predominantly African-American sample (n = 266; 57 % female), we tested hypotheses about the influence of cumulative exposure to violence during adolescence and early adulthood on cortisol responses in early adulthood. We found that cumulative exposure to violence predicted an attenuated cortisol response. Further, we tested whether sex, mothers’ support, or fathers’ support moderated the effect of exposure to violence on cortisol responses. We found that the effect of cumulative exposure to violence on cortisol was modified by sex; specifically, males exposed to violence exhibited a more attenuated response pattern. In addition, the effect of cumulative exposure to violence on cortisol was moderated by the presence of fathers’ support during adolescence. The findings contribute to a better understanding of how cumulative exposure to violence influences biological outcomes, emphasizing the need to understand sex and parental support as moderators of risk. PMID:24458765
Nelson, Atiba; Lewy, Robin; Ricardo, Francine; Dovydaitis, Tiffany; Hunter, Amber; Mitchell, Ashley; Loe, Claire; Kugel, Candace
Designed by Migrant Clinicians Network, the Hombres Unidos Contra La Violencia Familiar (Men United Against Family Violence) Project used facilitated discussion groups as the method to encourage self-reflection and behavior change. Male participants were not taught to rectify any past sexual or intimate partner violence (SV/IPV) 'tendencies', rather the discussion facilitation allowed them to reflect on the SV/IPV that was present in their lives and in the Hispanic community. Subsequently, the sessions and self-reflection, coupled with the discussions with other participating males, empowered several participants to have further interactions about SV/IPV with individuals in their community. The discussions led participants to realize that SV/IPV existed in their community, but that there were males within their community that wanted to change. The Hombres Unidos Contra La Violencia Familiar project demonstrated that behavior change does not need to be actively persuaded, but that self-reflection, which elicits behavior change, can be achieved through facilitated discussion and by permitting the facilitators to become participants. By creating sessions that allow participants to construct their own understanding of the perceived problem while reflecting on their past behavior, true behavior change that is initiated by the participant can be achieved. Through discussion facilitation, a targeted and structured behavior change intervention can assist participants in realizing that their past actions were damaging to themselves and their community, while aiding the participant in employing self-initiated responses, learned within the discussions, to alter their behaviors.
Lewis, Robin J.; Mason, Tyler B.; Winstead, Barbara A.; Kelley, Michelle L.
Objective This study proposed and tested the first conceptual model of sexual minority specific (discrimination, internalized homophobia) and more general risk factors (perpetrator and partner alcohol use, anger, relationship satisfaction) for intimate partner violence among partnered lesbian women. Method Self-identified lesbian women (N=1048) were recruited from online market research panels. Participants completed an online survey that included measures of minority stress, anger, alcohol use and alcohol-related problems, relationship satisfaction, psychological aggression, and physical violence. Results The model demonstrated good fit and significant links from sexual minority discrimination to internalized homophobia and anger, from internalized homophobia to anger and alcohol problems, and from alcohol problems to intimate partner violence. Partner alcohol use predicted partner physical violence. Relationship dissatisfaction was associated with physical violence via psychological aggression. Physical violence was bidirectional. Conclusions Minority stress, anger, alcohol use and alcohol-related problems play an important role in perpetration of psychological aggression and physical violence in lesbian women's intimate partner relationships. The results of this study provide evidence of potentially modifiable sexual minority specific and more general risk factors for lesbian women's partner violence. PMID:28239508
Lewis, Robin J; Mason, Tyler B; Winstead, Barbara A; Kelley, Michelle L
This study proposed and tested the first conceptual model of sexual minority specific (discrimination, internalized homophobia) and more general risk factors (perpetrator and partner alcohol use, anger, relationship satisfaction) for intimate partner violence among partnered lesbian women. Self-identified lesbian women ( N =1048) were recruited from online market research panels. Participants completed an online survey that included measures of minority stress, anger, alcohol use and alcohol-related problems, relationship satisfaction, psychological aggression, and physical violence. The model demonstrated good fit and significant links from sexual minority discrimination to internalized homophobia and anger, from internalized homophobia to anger and alcohol problems, and from alcohol problems to intimate partner violence. Partner alcohol use predicted partner physical violence. Relationship dissatisfaction was associated with physical violence via psychological aggression. Physical violence was bidirectional. Minority stress, anger, alcohol use and alcohol-related problems play an important role in perpetration of psychological aggression and physical violence in lesbian women's intimate partner relationships. The results of this study provide evidence of potentially modifiable sexual minority specific and more general risk factors for lesbian women's partner violence.
Fowler, Shannon K.; Blackburn, Ashley G.; Marquart, James W.; Mullings, Janet L.
Effective strategies aimed at prison sexual assault require inmates to possess the same definition of sexual assault as prison administrations. This article argues that prison culture is rape-supportive and inmates may not define sexual assault as such. After analyzing questionnaire responses given by male and female inmates in a large Southern…
Archer, C Ruth; Hunt, John
Aging evolved because the strength of natural selection declines over the lifetime of most organisms. Weak natural selection late in life allows the accumulation of deleterious mutations and may favor alleles that have positive effects on fitness early in life, but costly pleiotropic effects expressed later on. While this decline in natural selection is central to longstanding evolutionary explanations for aging, a role for sexual selection and sexual conflict in the evolution of lifespan and aging has only been identified recently. Testing how sexual selection and sexual conflict affect lifespan and aging is challenging as it requires quantifying male age-dependent reproductive success. This is difficult in the invertebrate model organisms traditionally used in aging research. Research using crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllidae), where reproductive investment can be easily measured in both sexes, has offered exciting and novel insights into how sexual selection and sexual conflict affect the evolution of aging, both in the laboratory and in the wild. Here we discuss how sexual selection and sexual conflict can be integrated alongside evolutionary and mechanistic theories of aging using crickets as a model. We then highlight the potential for research using crickets to further advance our understanding of lifespan and aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Austin, S. Bryn; Roberts, Andrea L.; Corliss, Heather L.; Molnar, Beth E.
Objectives. We sought to examine sexual violence victimization in childhood and sexual risk indicators in young adulthood in a primarily Latina and Black cohort of “mostly heterosexual” and heterosexual women in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). Methods. In 2000, a comprehensive survey that assessed sexual orientation, sexual risk indicators, and sexual abuse victimization was completed by 391 young women (aged 18 to 24 years) who had participated in PHDCN. We used multivariable regression methods to examine sexual orientation group differences in sexual risk indicators and to assess whether childhood sexual abuse may mediate relationships. Results. Compared with self-reported heterosexual women, self-reported “mostly heterosexual” women were more likely to report having been the victim of childhood sexual abuse, to have had a sexually transmitted infection, to report an earlier age of first sexual intercourse, and to have had more sexual partners. Childhood sexual abuse did not mediate relationships between sexual orientation and sexual risk indicators. Conclusions. Our findings add to the evidence that “mostly heterosexual” women experience greater health risk than do heterosexual women. In addition, “mostly heterosexual” women are at high risk for having experienced childhood sexual abuse. PMID:17901440
Austin, S Bryn; Roberts, Andrea L; Corliss, Heather L; Molnar, Beth E
We sought to examine sexual violence victimization in childhood and sexual risk indicators in young adulthood in a primarily Latina and Black cohort of "mostly heterosexual" and heterosexual women in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). In 2000, a comprehensive survey that assessed sexual orientation, sexual risk indicators, and sexual abuse victimization was completed by 391 young women (aged 18 to 24 years) who had participated in PHDCN. We used multivariable regression methods to examine sexual orientation group differences in sexual risk indicators and to assess whether childhood sexual abuse may mediate relationships. Compared with self-reported heterosexual women, self-reported "mostly heterosexual" women were more likely to report having been the victim of childhood sexual abuse, to have had a sexually transmitted infection, to report an earlier age of first sexual intercourse, and to have had more sexual partners. Childhood sexual abuse did not mediate relationships between sexual orientation and sexual risk indicators. Our findings add to the evidence that "mostly heterosexual" women experience greater health risk than do heterosexual women. In addition, "mostly heterosexual" women are at high risk for having experienced childhood sexual abuse.
Gursoy, Elif; McCool, William F; Sahinoglu, Serap; Yavuz Genc, Yasemin
This study explored Turkish university students' views of women-related issues--gender roles, sexuality, and violence against women. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 605 students--337 females and 268 males--at Ankara University, Turkey. A survey exploring students' views of female sexuality and violence was used. Comparisons of responses were made among groups based on sex, year of study at the university, and field of study at the university. Three relevant findings were found: male students had more traditional, nonegalitarian approaches toward women's issues than female students; educational levels and fields of study did not significantly influence students' views of women; and a small percentage of students approve of violence against women. These results show that patriarchal values in Turkish society influence the formation of students' opinions, and university education alone cannot affect everyone's views of gender roles, women's sexuality, and violence against women. © The Author(s) 2014.
sexual assault had negative impacts on the career, reputation, and overall welfare of the victims (Bergman, Palmiere, Cortina, & Fitzgerald, 2002, p...women sexually, non-sexually, or both. The team evaluated subjects based on home environment, delinquency , sexual promiscuity, attitudes supporting...The findings suggest that “hostile childhood experiences affect involvement in delinquency and lead to aggression through two paths: hostile
Ybarra, Michele L; Mitchell, Kimberly J
IMPORTANCE Sexual violence can emerge in adolescence, yet little is known about youth perpetrators-especially those not involved with the criminal justice system. OBJECTIVE To report national estimates of adolescent sexual violence perpetration and details of the perpetrator experience. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Data were collected online in 2010 (wave 4) and 2011 (wave 5) in the national Growing Up With Media study. Participants included 1058 youths aged 14 to 21 years who at baseline read English, lived in the household at least 50% of the time, and had used the Internet in the last 6 months. Recruitment was balanced on youths' biological sex and age. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Forced sexual contact, coercive sex, attempted rape, and completed rape. RESULTS Nearly 1 in 10 youths (9%) reported some type of sexual violence perpetration in their lifetime; 4% (10 females and 39 males) reported attempted or completed rape. Sixteen years old was the mode age of first sexual perpetration (n = 18 [40%]). Perpetrators reported greater exposure to violent X-rated content. Almost all perpetrators (98%) who reported age at first perpetration to be 15 years or younger were male, with similar but attenuated results among those who began at ages 16 or 17 years (90%). It is not until ages 18 or 19 years that males (52%) and females (48%) are relatively equally represented as perpetrators. Perhaps related to age at first perpetration, females were more likely to perpetrate against older victims, and males were more likely to perpetrate against younger victims. Youths who started perpetrating earlier were more likely than older youths to get in trouble with caregivers; youths starting older were more likely to indicate that no one found out about the perpetration. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Sexual violence perpetration appears to emerge earlier for males than females, perhaps suggesting different developmental trajectories. Links between perpetration and violent sexual
Cares, Alison C; Banyard, Victoria L; Moynihan, Mary M; Williams, Linda M; Potter, Sharyn J; Stapleton, Jane G
Bystander approaches to reducing sexual violence train community members in prosocial roles to interrupt situations with risk of sexual violence and be supportive community allies after an assault. This study employs a true experimental design to evaluate the effectiveness of Bringing in the Bystander™ through 1-year post-implementation with first-year students from two universities (one rural, primarily residential; one urban, heavily commuter). We found significant change in bystander attitudes for male and female student program participants compared with the control group on both campuses, although the pattern of change depended on the combination of gender and campus. © The Author(s) 2014.
Intimate Partner Violence, Relationship Power Inequity and the Role of Sexual and Social Risk Factors in the Production of Violence among Young Women Who Have Multiple Sexual Partners in a Peri-Urban Setting in South Africa
Zembe, Yanga Z.; Townsend, Loraine; Thorson, Anna
INTRODUCTION: This paper aims to assess the extent and correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV), explore relationship power inequity and the role of sexual and social risk factors in the production of violence among young women aged 16-24 reporting more than one partner in the past three......-urban settings in South Africa, not much is known about how it manifests among women who engage in concomitantly high HIV risk behaviours such as multiple sexual partnering, transactional sex and age mixing. We know even less about how such women negotiate power and control if exposed to violence in such sexual...... networks. METHODS: Two hundred and fifty nine women with multiple sexual partners, residing in a predominantly Black peri-urban community in the Western Cape, South Africa, were recruited into a bio-behavioural survey using Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS). After the survey, focus group discussions...
Abuya, Benta A.; Onsomu, Elijah O.; Moore, DaKysha; Sagwe, Jackline
In 2003, 31% of young Kenyan women ages 15-24 reported sexual harassment and violence (SHV), with a majority experiencing sexual debut due to coercion (Central Bureau of Statistics, 2004). Data were obtained from a sample of 20 girls attending school in Kamu and Lafamu (pseudonyms used for the study sites), 10 girls who had dropped out of school,…
Amone-P'Olak, Kennedy; Elklit, Ask; Dokkedahl, Sarah Bøgelund
Previous studies have mainly considered war-affected youth as a homogenous group yet several subpopulations of war-affected youth, such as survivors of sexual violence, exist with unique mental health problems and treatment needs. This study aimed to assess posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), perceptions and meaning of mental illness, and access and barriers to mental health care among survivors of sexual violence. Data were collected from survivors of sexual violence during war (N = 181) who are participants in the longitudinal War-Affected Youth Survey (WAYS) study in Northern Uganda. Chi-square tests of independence and binary logistic regression were used to compute participants' characteristics and assess relations between exposure to sexual violence and PTSD. Sixty-six (n = 119, 66%) reported sexual abuse: 35% (n = 63) of whom returned from captivity with at least 1 child, and 43% (n = 78) met the criteria for PTSD (Impact of Events Scale-Revised score [IES-R] ≥33). Those who reported sexual abuse scored significantly higher on PTSD (OR = 3.23; 95% CI [2.09, 6.93]), perceived more stigma, reported more barriers to seeking care, and viewed mental illness as futile and fatal compared with their peers without a history of sexual abuse. Survivors of sexual violence are at risk of PTSD and report major obstacles to treatment and care. More resources should be allocated for interventions to improve access to care for survivors of sexual violence. Psychoeducation to create awareness, demystify myths and public stigma about mental illness, and trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapies to reduce PTSD among survivors are recommended. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Banyard, Victoria L; Cross, Charlotte
Increasing attention has been given to the problem of teen dating violence with more research needed on mediating and moderating factors in the relationship between victimization and negative consequences. This article explores mental health and educational consequences of physical and sexual abuse by peers in a convenience sample of adolescents. Dating violence was associated with higher levels of depression, suicidal thoughts, and poorer educational outcomes. The use of alcohol and depression complicated the relationship between victimization and outcomes. Sex differences in patterns of perceived social support as a moderator were also examined with more significant effects for girls.
Full Text Available Background: Gender-based violence is universal, differing only in scope from one society to the other. The most common form of violence against women is domestic violence or violence within families. Objectives: 1. To study the prevalence and different forms of domestic violence perpetrated by intimate partner against married women. 2. To study socio economic and demographic factors which affect the victimization of woman for domestic violence. 3.To study prevalence of sexually transmitted infection and its association with domestic violence in the study group. Methods: Based on a pilot study results, a sample size of 257 was determined. Total 257 currently married women in the reproductive age group (15-49 yrs were interviewed by systematic random sampling with prior consent using a well designed, pre- tested questionnaire . All the women were screened for sexually transmitted infections as per the WHO guidelines by syndromic approach. The data was analyzed by percentages and chi-square test. Results: Prevalence of domestic violence was found to be 29.57% in the study group. Verbal abuse was reported by 81.58% of the women, Physical abuse by 31.58% of the women ,Psychological abuse by 27.63% of the women and Sexual abuse by 10.53% of the women. Among the 76 victimized women none of them reported to the police. Interpretation and conclusions: The vulnerability to domestic violence was found significantly associated with age at marriage, duration of marriage and addiction of husband to alcohol. The association between domestic violence and sexually transmitted infections was also found significant.
Full Text Available Background: Although various types of intimate partner violence (IPV tend to co-occur, risk factors of each type of IPV may differ. At the same time, most of the existing literature on risk factors of IPV among minorities has used a cross-sectional design and has focused on physical rather than sexual IPV. We conducted the current study to compare Black and Hispanic women for psychological predators of change in sexual IPV over time. Methods: Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS, this study followed 561 Black and 475 Hispanic women with their male partners for four years. Independent variables included male partners’ depression, anxiety, problem alcohol use, and male-to-female physical and psychological IPV perpetration. The dependent variable was sexual IPV reported by female partners, measured at baseline, two years, and four years later. Covariates included age, income, marital status and educational level. We used a multi-group latent growth curve model (LGCM to explain intercept, linear, and quadratic slopes, which represent the baseline, and linear and curvilinear trajectories of male-to-female sexual IPV, where groups were defined based on ethnicity. Results: Psychological IPV was associated with sexual IPV at baseline among both ethnic groups. The male partner’s depression was a risk factor for an increase in sexual IPV over time among Black but not Hispanic women. Anxiety, problem alcohol use and physical IPV did not have an effect on the baseline or change in sexual IPV over time. Psychological IPV was not associated with an increase in sexual IPV over time in either ethnic groups. Conclusions: There is a need for screening of sexual IPV in the presence of psychological IPV among minority women. There is also a need for screening and treatment of male partners’ depression as a strategy to reduce sexual IPV among Black women.
Preiser, Brianna; Assari, Shervin
Background: Although various types of intimate partner violence (IPV) tend to co-occur, risk factors of each type of IPV may differ. At the same time, most of the existing literature on risk factors of IPV among minorities has used a cross-sectional design and has focused on physical rather than sexual IPV. We conducted the current study to compare Black and Hispanic women for psychological predators of change in sexual IPV over time. Methods: Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS), this study followed 561 Black and 475 Hispanic women with their male partners for four years. Independent variables included male partners' depression, anxiety, problem alcohol use, and male-to-female physical and psychological IPV perpetration. The dependent variable was sexual IPV reported by female partners, measured at baseline, two years, and four years later. Covariates included age, income, marital status and educational level. We used a multi-group latent growth curve model (LGCM) to explain intercept, linear, and quadratic slopes, which represent the baseline, and linear and curvilinear trajectories of male-to-female sexual IPV, where groups were defined based on ethnicity. Results: Psychological IPV was associated with sexual IPV at baseline among both ethnic groups. The male partner's depression was a risk factor for an increase in sexual IPV over time among Black but not Hispanic women. Anxiety, problem alcohol use and physical IPV did not have an effect on the baseline or change in sexual IPV over time. Psychological IPV was not associated with an increase in sexual IPV over time in either ethnic groups. Conclusions: There is a need for screening of sexual IPV in the presence of psychological IPV among minority women. There is also a need for screening and treatment of male partners' depression as a strategy to reduce sexual IPV among Black women.
Barbara Lou da Costa Veloso Dias
Full Text Available This article has as his main object of study the juridification process of sexuality and its relationship with the male symbolic violence. Therefore, initially it was made explanations about sexuality juridification process, with the illustration of that process by analyzing three bills; followed by exposure of the main aspects of the Pierre Bourdieu's theory of male domination, especially the concepts of Symbolic Domination, Symbolic Power, Symbolic Violence and Habitus; highlighting, at a later time, the incorporation of that domination by subversive movements; to the end, analyze a possible relationship between the quoted sexuality juridification process and symbolic violence, in accordance with the wisdom of Pierre Bourdieu. The objectives are, initially, conceptualize and illustrate the sexuality of juridification process; expose the main elements of the Male Domination's theory written by Pierre Bourdieu; examine the idea of incorporation of domination from the theoretical background discussed in the previous section; and to investigate the relationship between that sexuality juridification process and the male symbolic violence. These objectives have the purpose of analyze the hypothesis of this present article, which consists of the view that the jurification of sexuality process incorporates a male symbolic violence, even this having a subversive nature.
Scott Cunningham; Manisha Shah
Most governments in the world including the United States prohibit prostitution. Given these types of laws rarely change and are fairly uniform across regions, our knowledge about the impact of decriminalizing sex work is largely conjectural. We exploit the fact that a Rhode Island District Court judge unexpectedly decriminalized indoor prostitution in 2003 to provide the first causal estimates of the impact of decriminalization on the composition of the sex market, rape offenses, and sexuall...
Bruening, Rebecca A; Strazza, Karen; Nocera, Maryalice; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Casteel, Carri
Worksite wellness, safety, and violence prevention programs have low penetration among small, independent businesses. This study examined barriers and strategies influencing small business participation in workplace violence prevention programs (WVPPs). A semistructured interview guide was used in 32 telephone interviews. The study took place at the University of North Carolina Injury Prevention Research Center. Participating were a purposive sample of 32 representatives of small business-serving organizations (e.g., business membership organizations, regulatory agencies, and economic development organizations) selected for their experience with small businesses. This study was designed to inform improved dissemination of Crime Free Business (CFB), a WVPP for small, independent retail businesses. Thematic qualitative data analysis was used to identify key barriers and strategies for promoting programs and services to small businesses. Three key factors that influence small business engagement emerged from the analysis: (1) small businesses' limited time and resources, (2) low salience of workplace violence, (3) influence of informal networks and source credibility. Identified strategies include designing low-cost and convenient programs, crafting effective messages, partnering with influential organizations and individuals, and conducting outreach through informal networks. Workplace violence prevention and public health practitioners may increase small business participation in programs by reducing time and resource demands, addressing small business concerns, enlisting support from influential individuals and groups, and emphasizing business benefits of participating in the program.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite a history of conflicts and widespread human rights violation in sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about the prevalence of interpersonal violence among the population in this region. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that exposure to violence has mental health consequences and violence also has associations with experiences of sexual coercion. AIMS: This study sought to investigate the prevalence of physical and perceived threats of violence among university students in Uganda and to assess the possible relationship between such violence, sexual coercion, and symptoms of anxiety, depression, and psychoticism, respectively. METHOD: In 2005, 980 Ugandan university students responded to a self-administered questionnaire (response rate 80% that assessed socio-demographic factors, social capital, importance of religion, mental health, experience of violence and sexual coercion, and sexual behaviour factors. Logistic regression analysis was applied as the main analytical tool. RESULTS: Of those who responded, 28% reported perceived threats/threats of violence and 10% exposure to actual physical violence over the previous 12 months, with no significant gender differences in exposure history. Exposure to violence was significantly associated with the experience of sexual coercion among both males and females. Sexual coercion and threats/threats of violence were both significantly associated with poor mental health in males and females, but only males showed a strong association between exposure to physical violence and poor mental health. CONCLUSION: The current study suggests that in terms of general exposure, both males and females in the study population are equally exposed to sexual coercion and interpersonal violence, and both male and female students show generally similar mental health effects of exposure to such violence. The prevalence of interpersonal violence found in our study population may have long
Lueger-Schuster, Brigitte; Glück, Tobias M; Tran, Ulrich S; Zeilinger, Elisabeth L
Wartime rape is an atrocity with long-lasting impacts not only on victims but whole societies. In this brief report, we present data on experience and witness of sexual violence during World War II (WWII) and subsequent time of occupation and on indicators of mental health in a sample of elderly Austrians. Interviews of 298 elderly Austrians from a larger epidemiological study on WWII traumatization were analyzed for the impact of experience and witness of sexual violence during the wartime committed by occupational forces. Interviews comprised a biographical/historical section and psychological measures (BSI, TLEQ, PCL-C). Participants were recruited in all nine provinces of Austria with respect to former zones of occupation (Western Allied/Soviet). Twelve persons reported direct experience of sexual violence, 33 persons witnessed such atrocities. One third of the victims and 18.2% of the witnesses reported post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD full/subthreshold). Sexual violence occurred more often in the former Soviet zone. Victims and witnesses displayed higher odds of post-traumatic symptoms and symptoms of depression and phobic fear than non-victims. Furthermore, witnesses displayed higher levels of aggression compared to victims and non-witnesses. Our results corroborate previous findings that wartime rape has long-lasting effects over decades on current mental health and post-traumatic distress in victims and witnesses. We recommend integration of psychotraumatological knowledge on consequences of sexual violence on mental health into geriatric care and the education of dedicated personnel.
Blosnich, John R; Horn, Kimberly
Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (i.e., sexual minority) populations have higher smoking prevalence than their heterosexual peers, but there is a lack of empirical study into why such disparities exist. This secondary analysis of data sought to examine associations of discrimination and violence victimization with cigarette smoking within sexual orientation groups. Data from the Fall 2008 and Spring 2009 National College Health Assessments were truncated to respondents of 18-24 years of age (n = 92,470). Since heterosexuals comprised over 90% of respondents, a random 5% subsample of heterosexuals was drawn, creating a total analytic sample of 11,046. Smoking status (i.e., never-, ever-, and current smoker) was regressed on general (e.g., not sexual orientation-specific) measures of past-year victimization and discrimination. To examine within-group differences, two sets of multivariate ordered logistic regression analyses were conducted: one set of models stratified by sexual orientation and another set stratified by gender-by-sexual-orientation groups. Sexual minorities indicated more experiences of violence victimization and discrimination when compared with their heterosexual counterparts and had nearly twice the current smoking prevalence of heterosexuals. After adjusting for age and race, lesbians/gays who were in physical fights or were physically assaulted had higher proportional odds of being current smokers when compared with their lesbian/gay counterparts who did not experience those stressors. When possible, lesbian/gay and bisexual groups should be analyzed separately, as analyses revealed that bisexuals had a higher risk profile than lesbians/gays. Further research is needed with more nuanced measures of smoking (e.g., intensity), as well as examining if victimization may interact with smoking cessation.
Luc Malemo Kalisya
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The epidemic of gender-based violence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC has garnered popular media attention, but is incompletely described in the medical literature to date. In particular, the relative importance of militarized compared to civilian rape and the impact on vulnerable populations merits further study. We describe a retrospective case series of sexual abuse among children and youth in eastern DRC. METHODS: Medical records of patients treated for sexual assault at HEAL Africa Hospital, Goma, DRC between 2006 and 2008 were reviewed. Information extracted from the chart record was summarized using descriptive statistics, with comparative statistics to examine differences between pediatric (≤ 18 yrs and adult patients. FINDINGS: 440 pediatric and 54 adult sexual abuse cases were identified. Children and youth were more often assaulted by someone known to the family (74% vs 30%, OR 6.7 [95%CI 3.6-12], p72 hours after the assault was more common in pediatric patients (53% vs 33%, OR 2.2 [95%CI 1.2-4.0], p = 0.007. Physical signs of sexual abuse, including lesions of the posterior fourchette, hymeneal tears, and anal lesions, were more commonly observed in children and youth (84% vs 69%, OR 2.3 [95%CI 1.3-4.4], p = 0.006. Nine (2.9% pediatrics patients were HIV-positive at presentation, compared to 5.3% of adults (p = 0.34. INTERPRETATION: World media attention has focused on violent rape as a weapon of war in the DRC. Our data highlight some neglected but important and distinct aspects of the ongoing epidemic of sexual violence: sexual abuse of children and youth.
Willie, Tiara C; Callands, Tamora A; Kershaw, Trace S
The transition to parenthood is a stressful time for young couples and can put them at risk for acquiring STDs. Mechanisms underlying this risk-particularly, intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual autonomy-have not been well studied. Between 2007 and 2011, a prospective cohort study of the relationships and health of pregnant adolescents and their male partners recruited 296 couples at four hospital-based obstetrics and gynecology clinics in the U.S. Northeast; participants were followed up six and 12 months after the birth. Structural equation modeling identified associations among IPV at baseline and six months, sexual autonomy at six months and STD acquisition at 12 months. Mediating effects of sexual autonomy were tested via bootstrapping. Females were aged 14-21, and male partners were 14 or older. For females, IPV victimization at baseline was positively associated with the likelihood of acquiring a postpartum STD (coefficient, 0.4); level of sexual autonomy was inversely associated with the likelihood of acquiring an STD and of having a male partner who acquired one by the 12-month follow-up (-0.4 for each). For males, IPV victimization at baseline was negatively correlated with a female partner's sexual autonomy (-0.3) and likelihood of acquiring an STD (-0.7); victimization at six months was positively related to a partner's sexual autonomy (0.2). Sexual autonomy did not mediate these relationships. Females' sexual autonomy appears to protect against postpartum STDs for both partners. Future research should explore the efficacy of IPV-informed approaches to improving women's sexual and reproductive health. Copyright © 2018 by the Guttmacher Institute.
Gregg S Gonsalves
Full Text Available Sexual violence is a major public health issue, affecting 35% of women worldwide. Major risk factors for sexual assault include inadequate indoor sanitation and the need to travel to outdoor toilet facilities. We estimated how increasing the number of toilets in an urban township (Khayelitsha, South Africa might reduce both economic costs and the incidence and social burden of sexual assault.We developed a mathematical model that links risk of sexual assault to the number of sanitation facilities and the time a woman must spend walking to a toilet. We defined a composite societal cost function, comprising both the burden of sexual assault and the costs of installing and maintaining public chemical toilets. By expressing total social costs as a function of the number of available toilets, we were able to identify an optimal (i.e., cost-minimizing social investment in toilet facilities.There are currently an estimated 5600 toilets in Khayelitsha. This results in 635 sexual assaults and US$40 million in combined social costs each year. Increasing the number of toilets to 11300 would minimize total costs ($35 million and reduce sexual assaults to 446. Higher toilet installation and maintenance costs would be more than offset by lower sexual assault costs. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis shows that the optimal number of toilets exceeds the original allocation of toilets in the township in over 80% of the 5000 iterations of the model.Improving access to sanitation facilities in urban settlements will simultaneously reduce the incidence of sexual assaults and overall cost to society. Since our analysis ignores the many additional health benefits of improving sanitation in resource-constrained urban areas (e.g., potential reductions in waterborne infectious diseases, the optimal number of toilets identified here should be interpreted as conservative.
Aim The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate the association between mental disorder and risk of sexual HIV transmission in a low-income country with a generalized HIV epidemic. Specific objectives were to investigate in Uganda, (1) the association between common mental disorder and sexual risk behaviour, (2) how severe mental disorder could influence sexual risk behaviour, (3) the prevalence of HIV in persons with severe mental disorder, and (4) the association of severe mental d...
Shorey, Ryan C; Fite, Paula J; Cohen, Joseph R; Stuart, Gregory L; Temple, Jeff R
The objective of this study was to examine the stability of physical and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration from adolescence to emerging adulthood among sexual minorities. Adolescents who identified as a sexual minority (N = 135; 71.1% female; mean age = 15.02, standard deviation=.77; 34.1% African-American/black, 26.7% white, 22.2% Hispanic) from southeast Texas were assessed annually for 6 years on their IPV perpetration. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that physical IPV perpetration was modestly stable across years 1-4 (24.6%, 24.6%, 26.4%, and 21.6%, respectively), decreased in year 5 (18.6%), and increased in year 6 (24.5%). The stability of sexual IPV perpetration was high across all 6 years (14.3%, 13%, 14.9%, 10.8%, 12.4%, and 14.4%). This is the first study to examine the stability of IPV perpetration among sexual minority adolescents. Findings suggest that the development of interventions for IPV among sexual minority adolescents is needed, as IPV is unlikely to desist from adolescence to emerging adulthood. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Allroggen, Marc; Ohlert, Jeannine; Rau, Thea; Fegert, Jörg M
Adolescents in institutionalized care are at a particularly high risk of exhibiting sexually aggressive behavior including sexual harassment. So far, however, studies about the prevalence of sexually aggressive behavior in institutions are lacking. In this survey, 322 adolescents (43% female, average age 16.7 years) from 32 residential care facilities and boarding schools across Germany were asked about sexually aggressive behavior via a standardized questionnaire. Overall, 23.5% of the participants engaged in some form of sexually aggressive behavior in their lives, and 4.6% reported having committed a sexual assault with (actual or attempted) penetration. A closer look at the circumstances of those offenses shows that the victims were in most cases acquainted with and of the same age as the offenders, that threats and violence were used in some cases, and especially in the case of actual or attempted penetration, and that only a minority of offenders suffered any consequences for their acts. The implementation of protective measures for institutions and the treatment of adolescents in institutions will be discussed.
BASILE, KATHLEEN C.; SMITH, SHARON G.; WALTERS, MIKEL L.; FOWLER, DAWNOVISE N.; HAWK, KATHRYN; HAMBURGER, MERLE E.
This study sought to add to the limited information currently available on circumstances of sexual violence victimization and associated negative health experiences among Hispanic women. Data come from a community sample of mostly Mexican women in an urban southwestern city. Household interviews were completed with a sample of 142 women during 3 months in 2010. Findings indicate that 31.2% of women reported rape victimization and 22.7% reported being sexually coerced in their lifetime. Victims of rape and/or sexual coercion were significantly more likely to report symptoms of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) during their lifetime. Among victims whose first unwanted sexual experience resulted in rape and/or sexual coercion, perpetrators were almost always someone known to the victims, and were mostly family members or intimate partners, depending on the victim’s age. About one-fifth of victims were injured and 17.1% needed medical services. These findings suggest the need for more attention to the physical and mental health needs of sexually victimized Hispanic women. PMID:26752978
Mercer, Dave; Parkinson, Denis
This article reports findings from a qualitative study into how forensic nurses, and male personality disordered sexual offenders, talked about "pornography" in one U.K. high-security hospital. Research rationale was rooted in current professional and political debates, adopting a discourse analytic design to situate the project in a clinical context. Semistructured interviews, as co-constructed accounts, explored talk about sexual media, offending, treatment, and risk. Data were analyzed using a version of discourse analysis popular in healthcare research, identifying discursive repertoires, or collective language use, characteristic of the institutional culture. Findings revealed that masculine discourse marginalized female nurses and contradicted therapeutic goals, where men's talk about pornography, sex, and sexual crime represented discriminatory and gendered language. Nursing definitions of pornography were constructed in the context of the client group and an organizational need to manage risk. In a highly controlled environment, with a long-stay population, priority in respondent talk was given to mainstream commercial sexual media and everyday items/images perceived to have embedded sexual meaning. However, little mention was made of contemporary modes of producing/distributing pornography, where sex and sexual violence are enacted in virtual realities of cyberspace. Failure to engage with information technology, and globally mediated sex, is discussed as a growing concern for forensic health workers.
Full Text Available Violence in South African society has reached epidemic levels and has permeated the walls of the workplace. The aim of the study was to gain a deeper understanding of how nurses experience and understand workplace violence perpetrated by patients, and to make recommendations to reduce this type of violence. A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive study was conducted to explore the experiences and coping mechanisms of nurses regarding workplace violence. The purposive sample comprised eight nurses working in the Trauma and Emergency Department in the Western Cape, South Africa. Thematic analysis was done of the semi-structured interviews. Four main themes and 10 categories were identified. Nurses are experiencing physical threats, verbal abuse and psychological and imminent violence on a regular basis. They tend to ‘normalise’ abusive patient behaviour because of the perception that workplace abuse ‘comes with the territory’, which resulted in under-reporting. However, perpetrators received compromised care by being avoided, ignored or given only minimal nursing care. Coping mechanisms ranged from using colleagues as sounding boards, helping out with duties, taking a smoke break and using friends and family to get it ‘off their chest’. The tolerance of non-physical violence and the absence of policies to deal with the violence, contribute to under-reporting.
Luedke, Alicia Elaine; Logan, Hannah Faye
One of the most widely covered aspects of the current conflict in South Sudan has been the use sexual violence by rival factions of the Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) and other armed groups. While this has had the positive effect of ensuring that sexual violence is an integral component of intervention strategies in the country, it has also had a number of unintended consequences. This paper demonstrates how the narrow focus on sexual violence as a 'weapon of war', and the broader emergency lens through which the plight of civilians, especially women, has been viewed, are overly simplistic, often neglecting the root causes of such violence. More specifically, it highlights how dominant discourses on sexual violence in South Sudan's conflict have disregarded the historically violent civil-military relations that have typified the SPLM/A's leadership, and the structural violence connected with the local political economy of bride wealth and the associated commodification of feminine identities and bodies. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.
Souder, William C., III
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Using the 2014 RAND Military Workplace Study, this thesis studies the effects of demographics, prior victimization, deployment status, and workplace characteristics—specifically, command climate, leadership and training quality—on both incidence and reporting of sexual assault and sexual harassment. Sexual assault consists of a nonconsensual sexual act coupled with a use of force or threat thereof that is likely to cause physical harm ...
Wekerle, Christine; Vakili, Negar; Stewart, Sherry H; Black, Tara
Researchers in violence prevention areas seek to disseminate work for impact to practice and policy. Knowledge transfer, exchange, and mobilization are common terms for research knowledge utilization where public communication platforms are playing an increasing role, having unique capacity to connect stakeholders in advocacy and lived experience, academia, non-governmental organizations, government-supported organizations, such as child welfare, and research funding bodies. Social networking platforms provide a communication intervention opportunity to test the effectiveness of the research reach. A Canadian Institutes of Health Research- funded team grant in boys' and men's health, focusing on sexual violence (SV) victimization, health, and resilience undertook an evaluation to examine whether a strategic approach involving a cadre of SV experts (n = 46) and their research increased engagement. Using a unique identifier (#CIHRTeamSV) content was shared on social media (Twitter) within an ABABAB experimental monthly format (A = no sharing; B = sharing content), following a baseline entry of researchers. Active Twitter engagement lead to increases in the number of individuals' profile views, article downloads, and citations. These findings encourage further research into the utility of social media for disseminating sexual violence research, and that social media has developed as a forum for evidence-based conversation on sensitive topics of public health import. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Edwards, Katie M
The purpose of this study was to examine rates of dating violence (DV) victimization and DV victimization outcomes as a function of sex and sexual orientation. Participants were 25,122 high school students who participated in the 2013 New Hampshire Youth Risk Behavior Survey study. Heterosexual youth, especially heterosexual male youth, were less likely to report experiencing physical and sexual DV victimization than lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning (LGBQ) girls and boys. Among LGBQ girls and boys, there was little variability in rates of DV victimization with the exception of questioning boys being significantly more likely to experience physical and sexual DV victimization than several other LGBQ sub-groups. Furthermore, LGBQ DV victims reported worse outcomes than heterosexual DV victims on measures of depression, binge drinking, and poor academic performance. At the sub-group level, bisexual and questioning female victims were most at risk for depression; bisexual and questioning male victims were most at risk for binge drinking; bisexual male victims were most at risk for poor academic performance. The findings underscore the importance of better understanding variability in DV incidence and outcomes within the LGBQ population and using this information to inform clinical intervention and prevention efforts.
Glenn, Lily; Fidler, Laura; O'Connor, Meghan; Haviland, Mary; Fry, Deborah; Pollak, Tamara; Frye, Victoria
Sexual violence is a public health problem associated with short- and long-term physical and mental health consequences. Most interventions that aim to prevent sexual violence before it occurs target individual-level change or promote bystander training. Community-level interventions, while increasingly recommended in the sexual violence prevention field, are rarely documented in peer-reviewed literature. This paper is a targeted process evaluation of Project Envision, a 6-year pilot initiative to address social norms at the root of sexual violence through coalition building and community mobilization in three New York City neighborhoods, and reflects the perspectives of those charged with designing and implementing the program. Evaluation methods included a systematic literature review, archival source document review, and key informant interviews. Three themes emerged from the results: community identity and implications for engagement; capacity and readiness for community mobilization and consequences for implementation; and impacts on participants. Lessons learned include the limitations of using geographic boundaries to structure community interventions in urban settings; carefully considering whether communities should be mobilized around an externally-identified issue; translating theoretical frameworks into concrete tasks; assessing all coalition partners and organizations for readiness; critically evaluating available resources; and recognizing that community organizing is a skill that requires investment from funders. We conclude that Project Envision showed promise for shifting institutional norms towards addressing root causes of sexual violence in addition to providing victim services. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dumbili, Emeka W; Williams, Clare
Most research on alcohol consumption and related sexual violence focuses on Western societies. Drawing on traditional masculinity scripts, this article contributes to the culturally specific understanding of how Nigerian sociocultural constructions of alcohol consumption facilitate sexual violence against women. In-depth interviews were conducted with 31 male and female undergraduate students (aged 19-23 years), exploring how the gendering of alcoholic beverages facilitates men's perpetration of sexual violence against women in a Nigerian university. Thematic analysis was conducted using NVivo 10 software. Men were found to exclude women from consuming beer, which they described as "inappropriate" feminine behavior, confining them to drinking sweetened/flavored alcoholic beverages. To maintain a notion of "respectable" femininity, women consumed these drinks, but this created gender-specific risks. In comparison with beer, sweetened alcoholic beverages have a higher alcohol content, which many of the men were aware of, unlike the women interviewed. Some men admitted buying such drinks for women, pressuring them to drink above their limits and raping them when they were inebriated. Public health interventions that focus on the deep-seated gendered consumption rituals anchored in patriarchal beliefs, the commodification of women's bodies, and the stigmatization of rape victims should be pursued more vigorously in Nigeria and other non-Western societies.
Weingarten, Christine; Rabago, Jina; Reynolds, Jasmine; Gates, Kalani; Yanagida, Evie; Baker, Charlene
Rates of childhood sexual abuse are unacceptably high, with potentially long-lasting consequences for those who have been victimized. Currently, there are a number of sexual violence prevention programs that have been developed to lower rates of victimization, increase awareness, and connect victims with resources. Within this area of research, there has been less focus on effective methods of program dissemination. For example, school-based sexual violence prevention programs have had positive outcomes; however, little is known about how these programs are disseminated. The train-the-trainer model of dissemination utilizes master trainers to equip others to implement programs, thereby allowing more adults to teach and subsequently more children to receive the program. This study used survey data from teachers and other school personnel (n = 127) to analyze the utility of a train-the-trainer model of dissemination for a sexual violence prevention program in the state of Hawai'i. Through responses of people who were trained to implement the program (59.8% of whom did implement), aspects of the training, the program itself, and factors affecting whether a person implemented the program were explored. Results suggest that time spent in training, job position, and time in that position predicted whether a person trained to implement the sexual violence prevention program followed through with teaching the program to students. Additionally, 54.7% of people who did implement the program had at least one student disclose sexual violence to them, indicating the importance of sexual violence prevention programming and dissemination of these programs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zakrison, Tanya L; Rattan, Rishi; Milian Valdés, Davel; Ruiz, Xiomara; Gelbard, Rondi; Cline, John; Turay, David; Luo-Owen, Xian; Namias, Nicholas; George, Jessica; Yeh, Dante; Pust, Daniel; Williams, Brian H
A recent EAST-supported, multicenter trial demonstrated a similar rate of intimate partner and sexual violence (IPSV) between male and female trauma patients, regardless of mechanism. Our objective was to perform a subgroup analysis of our affected male cohort as this remains an understudied group in the trauma literature. We conducted a recent EAST-supported, cross-sectional, multicenter trial over one year (03/15-04/16) involving four Level I trauma centers throughout the United States. We performed universal screening of adult trauma patients using the validated HITS (Hurt, Insult, Threaten, Scream) and SAVE (sexual violence) screening surveys. Risk factors for male patients were identified. Chi-squared test compared categorical variables with significance at p<0.05. Parametric data is presented as mean +/-standard deviation. A total of 2,034 trauma patients were screened, of which 1,281 (63%) were men. Of this cohort, 119 men (9.3%) screened positive for intimate partner violence, 14.1% for IPSV and 6.5% for sexual violence. On categorical analysis of the HITS screen, the proportion of men that were physically hurt was 4.8% compared to 4.3% for women (p = 0.896). A total of 4.8% of men screened positive for both intimate partner and sexual violence. The total proportion of men who presented with any history of intimate partner violence, sexual violence or both (IPSV) was 15.8%. More men affected by penetrating trauma screened positive for IPSV (p < 0.00001). IPSV positivity in men was associated with mental illness, substance abuse, and trauma recidivism. One out of every twenty men that present to trauma centers is a survivor of both intimate partner and sexual violence, with one out of every six men experiencing some form of violence. Men are at similar risk for physical abuse as women when this intimate partner violence occurs. IPSV is associated with penetrating trauma in men. Support programs for this population may potentially impact associated mental
Greenwood, Marc D
The effectiveness of the SANE program is borne out by the following testimonies: "The emotional support required by these victims is best rendered by a SANE. This frees the ED nurse to care for other patients, while sexual assault victims receive a high level of care," says Nancy Donel, RN manager at St. Thomas Hospital ED. "The DOVE program benefits not only the emergency physician, but the EMS system as well. It gives us a resource and a specifically identified program with well-trained, qualified providers. Through their training and knowledge, SANEs not only help victims, but also increase the number of legal convictions that take assailants off the streets. This improves the health and safety of the communities in which we live and serve," says Michael Mackan, MD, of the Summa Health System.
Murray, Sarah McIvor; Robinette, Katie L; Bolton, Paul; Cetinoglu, Talita; Murray, Laura K; Annan, Jeannie; Bass, Judith K
Stigma related to sexual violence (SV) is associated with many negative physical and social outcomes. We sought to create a contextually relevant measure of SV-related stigma for women in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and assess itspsychometrics and validity. Using baseline screening data from two randomized controlled trials of services for female SV survivors in Eastern DRC ( n = 1,184), we conducted exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to test the measurement model. Cronbach's alphas and Kuder-Richardson 20 (KR-20) statistics were used to evaluate internal consistency. Logistic and linear regressions of the stigma measures with related constructs were used to assess construct validity. Two distinct but related scales were developed based on factor analyses: a four-item scale of discrimination-related stigma (i.e., enacted stigma) and an eight-item scale of combined perceived and internalized stigma (i.e., felt stigma). Both scales showed good internal consistency (KR-20 = .68; α = .86). A higher felt stigma score was associated with significant increases in combined depression and anxiety and trauma symptoms, as well as functional impairment ( p < .001). Having a child as a result of SV was associated with both significantly higher enacted and felt stigma ( p < .001). Neither SV stigma scale was associated with medical care seeking. To address harmful ramifications of stigma among SV survivors, locally relevant quantitative measures are necessary to understand the nature and severity of stigma they experience. Our process of scale creation and evaluation can serve as an example for developing locally relevant SV-related stigma measures.
Nightingale, Vienna R; Tran, Bonnie R; Harbertson, Judith; Langa, Antonio; Grillo, Michael; Kalombo, Olivier; Thomas, Anne G
While sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) is recognized as an important factor driving the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa, attitudes toward and prevalence of SGBV within sub-Saharan African military populations are unknown. Data on SGBV were collected from military service members of nine sub-Saharan African militaries. Attitudes related to SGBV and characteristics of those who commit and experience SGBV are reported. Data for 8815 service members (8165 men and 650 women) aged 18 years or older who voluntarily participated in the Seroprevalence and Behavioral Epidemiology Risk Surveys from 2009 to 2014 were included in this secondary data analysis. Data were collected on demographics, HIV prevalence, SGBV attitudes, and experiences. Descriptive and bivariate statistical analyses were performed. 5% of men and 9% of women reported experiencing SGBV, and 6% of men reported they had ever committed SGBV. Men and women who had experienced SGBV were significantly more likely to agree with negative gender attitudes toward SGBV, and the majority of those who reported experiencing SGBV reported that SGBV was committed by someone outside of the military. This is the first study to examine SGBV in sub-Saharan military populations during periods of limited conflict. It provides evidence that SGBV is experienced by both male and female service members at rates not typically found in previous research examining SGBV in other military populations. A better understanding of SGBV in sub-Saharan military service members is necessary to ensure appropriate services and interventions are part of the military infrastructure. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Julia Luiza Schäfer
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective The purpose of this study was to estimate the association between exposure to physical and sexual violence, and suicidal ideation in Brazilian Schoolchildren, accounting for confounding variables of religious practice, and problems with alcohol and other drugs. Methods This study consists of a cross-sectional analytical approach of a larger school-based study conducted in 2012 in two medium-sized municipalities in south of Brazil. Participants were 3,547 students aging 12 to 17 years old who answered an assembled questionnaire. Descriptive and Logistic Regression analyses were conducted with suicide ideation outcome testing prediction models stratified by sex. Results Suicide ideation prevalence in the sample was of 21.7%, and regression analysis indicated that girls and boys exposed to physical or sexual violence had 3.42 and 3.14 times more probability of referring suicidal ideation in the past 30 days. Adjusted analyses showed little interference of religious practice, while problems with alcohol and other drugs seemed to also explain suicidal ideation in the sample. Conclusion We highlight the importance of future longitudinal studies to investigate the mechanisms through which exposure to physical or sexual abuse influence suicidal ideation among boys and girls, as well as mediation studies that could enlighten the role of drug and alcohol use in this relationship.
Jerlie Loko Roka
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Outcomes of sexual violence care programmes may vary according to the profile of survivors, type of violence suffered, and local context. Analysis of existing sexual violence care services could lead to their better adaptation to the local contexts. We therefore set out to compare the Médecins Sans Frontières sexual violence programmes in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC in a zone of conflict (Masisi, North Kivu and post-conflict (Niangara, Haut-Uélé. METHODS: A retrospective descriptive cohort study, using routine programmatic data from the MSF sexual violence programmes in Masisi and Niangara, DRC, for 2012. RESULTS: In Masisi, 491 survivors of sexual violence presented for care, compared to 180 in Niangara. Niangara saw predominantly sexual violence perpetrated by civilians who were known to the victim (48% and directed against children and adolescents (median age 15 (IQR 13-17, while sexual violence in Masisi was more directed towards adults (median age 26 (IQR 20-35, and was characterised by marked brutality, with higher levels of gang rape, weapon use, and associated violence; perpetrated by the military (51%. Only 60% of the patients in Masisi and 32% of those in Niangara arrived for a consultation within the critical timeframe of 72 hours, when prophylaxis for HIV and sexually transmitted infections is most effective. Survivors were predominantly referred through community programmes. Treatment at first contact was typically efficient, with high (>95% coverage rates of prophylaxes. However, follow-up was poor, with only 49% of all patients in Masisi and 61% in Niangara returning for follow-up, and consequently low rates of treatment and/or vaccination completion. CONCLUSION: This study has identified a number of weak and strong points in the sexual violence programmes of differing contexts, indicating gaps which need to be addressed, and strengths of both programmes that may contribute to future models of context