Hopkins, Christopher D; Tanner, John F; Raymond, Mary Anne
The teen birthrate in the United States is twice that of other industrialized nations. Adolescents in the U.S. are among high-risk groups for HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. As a result, the Department of Health and Human Services changed its policy on the promotion of abstinence to teenagers from a focus on a risk reduction strategy to a focus on a risk avoidance strategy. In order to create more effective risk avoidance as well as risk reduction campaigns, this study proposes a framework to illustrate the distinction that teens make between spontaneous sexual activity and planned sexual activity, as well as those teens that make a commitment to abstinence versus abstinence by default. Furthermore, this study classifies teens into three behavior segments (abstemious, promiscuous and monogamous) and then assesses specific differences that exist within these groups relative to their attitudes and perceptions concerning abstinence, sexual activity, contraception, fear and norms. This change in focus from a risk reduction to a risk avoidance strategy has important implications for social marketing, public policy and marketing theory.
O'Sullivan, Lucia F; Hoffman, Susie; Harrison, Abigail; Dolezal, Curtis
Heterosexual transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections has become a primary health concern worldwide. Gender roles for heterosexual interactions appear to sanction men's sexual risk-taking, especially the pursuit of multiple sexual partners. Using measures developed in this study, the current study assessed the associations between men's and women's relationship attitudes and experiences and their sexual risk encounters. Participants were 104 men and 103 women (18-24 years) from a large, urban college located in a high HIV risk neighborhood of New York City. All completed a survey assessing HIV risk and the battery of relationship measures assessing traditional sexual roles, sexual conflicts, significance of sex, relationship investment, need for relationship, and unwanted sex. For men, greater sexual conflict in their primary relationships was associated with more sexual partners and fewer unprotected vaginal intercourse encounters with a primary partner and across sex partners overall. In addition, men's endorsement of more traditional sexual roles and lower relationship investment were associated with higher numbers of sexual partners. Among women, compliance with men to engage in unwanted sex was associated with higher levels of participation in unprotected sex. For both men and women, greater significance given to sex in a relationship was associated with fewer extradyadic partners. This study demonstrates the utility of measures of relationship attitudes and experiences to characterize sexual risk, especially among men. Findings are discussed in terms of implications for prevention program targeting young urban adults.
Randolph, Mary E.; Torres, Hector; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Lloyd, Bronwyn; McGarvey, Elizabeth L.
Objectives The purpose of the current study was to assess the role of gender and ethnicity in the relationship between alcohol use and risky sexual behavior. Method Sexually active college students (n = 425) reported on alcohol expectancies, perceived risk of HIV, and drinking and sexual behavior in the context of a larger health behavior survey. Results Approximately one-third of participants reported binge drinking 3 or more times in the past two weeks. African American women reported less drinking and less positive alcohol expectancies than other women. Older men engaged more often than younger men in binge drinking and reported more sexual partners in the past year. Younger age and greater perceived risk for HIV were positively associated with condom use for both women and men. Conclusion Collectively, these findings suggest that alcohol abuse and HIV prevention efforts among young adults need to consider gender, ethnicity, and age. PMID:19253158
Full Text Available Thirty years into the HIV&AIDS pandemic, the world is still striving to reduce new HIV infections and halve AIDS related deaths by 2015. However, sub-Saharan Africa still faces the burden of HIV infections as governments and private institutions try out different prevention strategies (UNAIDS 2011. Several scholars have argued that multiple concurrent sexual partnerships (MCSP pose the greatest risk for new HIV infections. Furthermore, research has also linked MCSPs to mobility and migration. This paper draws from the project ‘Sexual identities and HIV&AIDS: an exploration of international university students’ experiences” which employed memory work, photo-voice, drawings and focus group discussions with ten (5male and 5female Post Graduate international students at a South African university. Focussing on the data produced through memory work, I present university students’ lived-experience narratives of mobility and migration in relation to how they perceive MCSPs and HIV risk. The findings show how students construct their gendered and sexual identities in a foreign context and how these constructions intersect with their choices of sexual relationships and HIV risk. I argue from the findings that Higher Education Institutions should be treated as high risk ‘spaces of vulnerability’ and hence health support services and HIV intervention programming policies should be geared towards addressing such vulnerabilities in order to create sustainable teaching and learning environments that allow for all students to explore their full capabilities.
Long-Middleton, Ellen R.; Burke, Pamela J.; Lawrence, Cheryl A. Cahill; Blanchard, Lauren B.; Amudala, Naomi H.; Rankin, Sally H.
Introduction Pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections pose a significant threat to the health and wellbeing of adolescent young women. Abstinence when practiced provides the most effective means in preventing these problems, yet the perspective of abstinent young women is not well understood. The purpose of the investigation was to characterize female adolescents’ motivations for abstinence. Method As part of a larger, cross-sectional quantitative study investigating predictors of HIV risk reduction behaviors, qualitative responses from study participants who never had intercourse were analyzed in a consensus-based process using content analysis and frequency counts. An urban primary care site in a tertiary care center served as the setting, with adolescent young women ages 15–19 years included in the sample. Results Five broad topic categories emerged from the data that characterized motivations for abstinence in this sample: 1) Personal Readiness, 2) Fear, 3) Beliefs and Values, 4) Partner Worthiness and 5) Lack of Opportunity. Discussion A better understanding of the motivations for abstinence may serve to guide the development of interventions to delay intercourse. PMID:22525893
... Fact Sheet 2014 Sexual violence refers to any sexual activity where consent is not obtained or freely given. Anyone can experience or perpetrate sexual violence. Most victims of sexual violence are female. ...
Gates, Madison L; Staples-Horne, Michelle; Cartier, Jeanne; Best, Candace; Walker, Veronica; Schwartz, David; Yoo, Wonsuk
African American women are disproportionately impacted by sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as chlamydia and gonorrhea, which are known risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. STIs, particularly chlamydia and gonorrhea, are even more prevalent among young African American women with a juvenile detention history. The population with experiences with the criminal justice system has greater rates of STIs and is diagnosed more often with mental health issues, often related to sexual abuse or intimate partner violence, compared to peers who have not been detained by law enforcement. Psychosocial factors, especially those related to intimate relationships (ie, the imperativeness of being in a relationship and the power one has in their relationship), have emerged as important explanatory factors for acquiring STIs, including HIV, and a component of risk reduction interventions. To investigate more comprehensively the relationship between psychosocial risk factors and STIs, including HIV, as it relates to reduction and prevention of these diseases. The long-term goal is to improve the effectiveness of evidence-based interventions with a major focus on intimate relationship dynamics. This descriptive study surveys young women (ages 13-17) who have been detained (incarcerated) by a department of juvenile justice. In addition to being female and detained, eligibility criteria include being detained longer than 30 days and being free of cognitive impairments. This study will include young women from one juvenile detention center. The primary outcomes to be measured are STI knowledge, intimate relationship dynamics (ie, imperativeness and power), and high-risk sexual behaviors. High-risk sexual behaviors will be assessed using data extracted from health records. Preliminarily, we have received assent from 26 primarily young African American women. The majority of participants (81%) had inadequate knowledge about STIs, 52% perceived a lack of
Gates, Madison L; Staples-Horne, Michelle; Cartier, Jeanne; Best, Candace; Walker, Veronica; Schwartz, David; Yoo, Wonsuk
Background African American women are disproportionately impacted by sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as chlamydia and gonorrhea, which are known risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. STIs, particularly chlamydia and gonorrhea, are even more prevalent among young African American women with a juvenile detention history. The population with experiences with the criminal justice system has greater rates of STIs and is diagnosed more often with mental health ...
Downing, Martin J; Brown, Dominique; Steen, Jeffrey; Benoit, Ellen
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) remains a critical public health issue among black and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM), as it is associated with multiple negative outcomes including substance misuse, poor mental health, revictimization, and high-risk sexual behavior. Most CSA research with MSM relies on quantitative assessment that often precludes consideration of cultural variations in how formative sexual experiences are understood and is based on inconsistent or overly restrictive definitions of abuse, and therefore may fail to detect certain abusive experiences (eg, those involving female perpetrators), which can have harmful health consequences if they remain unrecognized. The objective of this study is to overcome existing limitations in the literature by drawing on perspectives of black and Latino MSM and men who have sex with men and women (MSMW), as well as relevant service providers to better understand the role of, and the need to include, sexual abuse histories (eg, CSA) in treatment and counseling settings, with the long-term goal of improving assessment and health outcomes. We will conduct mixed-methods interviews, framed by an intersectionality approach, with 80 black and Latino men (40 MSM and 40 MSMW) in New York City (NYC), exploring appraisals of their formative sexual experiences, including those described as consensual but meeting criteria for CSA. We will also interview 30 local service providers representing substance abuse treatment, mental health care, and HIV prevention and outreach. The study was launched in May 2017. This formative research will inform testable approaches to assessing and incorporating sexual abuse history into substance abuse treatment and other health and mental health services used by men with such histories. ©Martin J Downing Jr, Dominique Brown, Jeffrey Steen, Ellen Benoit. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 26.02.2018.
Huebner, David M; Perry, Nicholas S
Behavioral interventions to reduce sexual risk behavior depend on strong health behavior theory. By identifying the psychosocial variables that lead causally to sexual risk, theories provide interventionists with a guide for how to change behavior. However, empirical research is critical to determining whether a particular theory adequately explains sexual risk behavior. A large body of cross-sectional evidence, which has been reviewed elsewhere, supports the notion that certain theory-based constructs (e.g., self-efficacy) are correlates of sexual behavior. However, given the limitations of inferring causality from correlational research, it is essential that we review the evidence from more methodologically rigorous studies (i.e., longitudinal and experimental designs). This systematic review identified 44 longitudinal studies in which investigators attempted to predict sexual risk from psychosocial variables over time. We also found 134 experimental studies (i.e., randomized controlled trials of HIV interventions), but of these only 9 (6.7 %) report the results of mediation analyses that might provide evidence for the validity of health behavior theories in predicting sexual behavior. Results show little convergent support across both types of studies for most traditional, theoretical predictors of sexual behavior. This suggests that the field must expand the body of empirical work that utilizes the most rigorous study designs to test our theoretical assumptions. The inconsistent results of existing research would indicate that current theoretical models of sexual risk behavior are inadequate, and may require expansion or adaptation.
Sterk, Claire E; Klein, Hugh; Elifson, Kirk W
The purposes of this study are to (1) examine the extent to which young adult Ecstasy users recently reported having had multiple sex partners and (2) identify the factors predictive of engaging in this behavior. Potential predictors included demographic characteristics, background and experiences measures, childhood maltreatment experiences, substance use variables, and measures assessing psychological/psychosocial functioning. This research is based on a sample of 283 young adult recurrent users of the drug, Ecstasy. Study participants were recruited in Atlanta, Georgia between August 2002 and August 2004 using a targeted sampling and ethnographic mapping approach. Interviews took approximately two hours to complete. Nearly one-third of the study participants had more than one sex partner during the preceding month, and sexual protection rates tended to be low. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed seven predictors associated with an increased likelihood of having multiple sex partners: (1) being nonwhite, (2) knowing someone who was HIV-positive, (3) younger age of first sexual experience, (4) using Ecstasy for its touch-enhancing qualities, (5) higher self-esteem, (6) handling disagreements more dysfunctionally, and (7) not being involved in a romantic relationship. The HIV prevention- and intervention-related implications of these findings are discussed.
AJRH Managing Editor
lead to an increase in population-wide high-risk sexual behaviour (either because HIV transmission appears to be ... countries reported an increase in high-risk sexual behaviour amongst men who have sex with men ... government and resulted in a fall in the annual number of HIV incidence and a drop in HIV prevalence ...
Lou, Jiunn-Horng; Chen, Sheng-Hwang; Li, Ren-Hau; Yu, Hsing-Yi
The purpose of this study was to test a model of sexual self-concept and sexual risk cognition affecting sexual communication in Taiwanese adolescents. Parent-adolescent sexual communication has been shown to influence adolescent sexual behaviour. Self-concept is an important predictor of human behaviour, especially sexual behaviour. Few researchers have assessed sexual self-concept in adolescents, despite its clear relevance to understanding adolescent sexual behaviour. A cross-sectional survey with convenience sampling was used in this study. In 2009, data were collected by questionnaire from 748 adolescent students at a junior college in Taiwan. The results revealed that the postulated model fits the data from this study well. Sexual self-concept significantly predicts sexual risk cognition and sexual communication. Sexual risk cognition significantly predicts sexual communication and has an intervening effect on the relationship between sexual self-concept and sexual communication. Sexual risk cognition is important in explaining sexuality in adolescents. Sexual self-concept has both direct and indirect effects on sexual communication. Our findings provide concrete directions for school educators in developing sexual health programmes to increase adolescent sexual self-concept and sexual communication with their parents. Future sexual health programmes about sexual self-concept and sexual risk cognition must add for increasing adolescent's sexual communication with their parents. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
.... However, adolescents who are virgins (defined as never having had vaginal intercourse) may still be sexually active and may behave in ways that put them at risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs...
Heerde, Jessica A; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A
Homeless youth commonly report engaging in sexual risk behaviors. These vulnerable young people also frequently report being sexually victimized. This systematic review collates, summarizes, and appraises published studies of youth investigating relationships between homelessness, perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior. A systematic search of seventeen psychology, health, and social science electronic databases was conducted. Search terms included "homeless*," "youth," "offend*," "victimization," "crime," "rape," "victim*," and "sex crimes." Thirty-eight studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. Findings showed homeless youth commonly report being raped and sexually assaulted, fear being sexually victimized, and engage in street prostitution and survival sex. Rates of victimization and sexual risk behavior were generally higher for females. Given the paucity of longitudinal studies and limitations of current studies, it is unclear whether homelessness is prospectively associated with sexual victimization or engagement in sexual risk behavior, and whether such associations vary cross nationally and as a function of time and place. Future prospective research examining the influence of the situational context of homelessness is necessary to develop a better understanding of how homelessness influences the perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior among homeless youth.
Juma, Milka; Alaii, Jane; Bartholomew, L Kay; Askew, Ian; Van den Born, Bart
Background Some studies show orphanhood to be associated with increased sexual risk-taking while others have not established this relationship, but have found factors other than orphanhood as predictors of sexual risk behaviours and outcomes among adolescents. This study examines community members? perceptions of how poverty influences adolescent sexual behaviour and outcomes in four districts of Nyanza Province, Kenya. Methods Eight study sites within the four districts were randomly selecte...
From the mid 1980s onwards HIV/AIDS became a new subject of work reform, with a range of experts producing new knowledges on work and the worker in regard to HIV/AIDS and workplace organizations putting in place workplace HIV/AIDS policies and programmes. To date, much of the discussion in sociology in regard to such policies and programmes has focused on the issue of effectiveness and has been concerned with making such policy 'better'. In this article however, and with particular reference to sexuality, I suggest that such approaches fail to register that workplace HIV/AIDS policies concern new conceptualizations of worker identities. Specifically, I suggest that such policies may be viewed as part of an assemblage of work reforms which are reworking worker identities as risk identities. Thus I argue that workplace HIV/AIDS policies and programmes are best understood as risk rationalities. Further, I consider the alignment between such rationalities and neo-liberal modes of rule, and in particular consider the ways in which workplace HIV/AIDS policies render both HIV/AIDS and sexuality calculable and governable in terms of notions of risk, self-responsibility and self-management.
Buttmann, Nina; Nielsen, Ann; Munk, Christian
Sexual habits and risky sexual behaviour strongly affect public health. Available data indicate that sexually transmitted infections are increasing in many EU countries. Changes in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases across Europe are among other factors suggested to be driven...... by changes in sexual behaviour patterns. The purpose of our study is to assess the occurrence of risky behaviour in men aged 18-45 years from the general population. Furthermore, we aim to examine factors associated with risky sexual behaviour....
This article examines a new dimension in the Nigerian Pentecostal understanding of sexuality, which is influenced by the security gospel emanating from Mountain of Fire and Miracles Ministries in Nigeria. This new dimension is noted in how Mountain of Fire and Miracles Ministries intricately connects sexuality with destiny.
Woodworth, Michael; Freimuth, Tabatha; Hutton, Erin L; Carpenter, Tara; Agar, Ava D; Logan, Matt
High-risk sexual offenders are a complex and heterogeneous group of offenders about whom researchers, clinicians, and law enforcement agencies still know relatively little. In response to the paucity of information that is specifically applicable to high-risk offenders, the present study investigated the potential influence of sexual fantasy, sexual paraphilia, and psychopathy on the offending behaviour of 139 of the highest risk sexual offenders in one province of Canada. The sample included 41 child molesters, 42 rapists, 18 rapist/molesters, 30 mixed offenders, and 6 "other" sexual offenders. Two offenders could not be categorized by type due to insufficient file information. Data analyses revealed significant differences between offender types for a number of criminal history variables including past sexual and nonsexual convictions, number of victims, weapon use, and age of offending onset. Further, there were significant differences between offender types for sexual fantasy themes, paraphilia diagnoses, and levels of psychopathy. For example, results revealed that offenders' sexual fantasies were significantly more likely to correspond with the specific type of index sexual offence that they had committed. Further, offenders scoring high in psychopathy were significantly more likely to have a sadistic paraphilia than offenders with either low or moderate psychopathy scores. Results from the current study provide a refined and informed understanding of sexual offending behaviour with important implications for future research, assessment, and treatment, as well as law enforcement practices when working with high-risk sexual offenders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Li, Xianhong; Lei, Yunxiao; Wang, Honghong; He, Guoping; Williams, Ann Bartley
The Health Belief Model (HBM) has been widely used to explain rationales for health risk-taking behaviors. Our qualitative study explored the applicability of the HBM to understand high-risk sexual behavior in Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM) and to elaborate each component of the model. HIV knowledge and perception of HIV prevalence contributed to perceived susceptibility. An attitude of treatment optimism versus hard life in reality affected perceived severity. Perceived barriers included discomfort using condoms and condom availability. Perceived benefits included prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted illnesses. Sociocultural cues for Chinese MSM were elaborated according to each component. The results demonstrated that the HBM could be applied to Chinese MSM. When used with this group, it provided information to help develop a population- and disease-specific HBM scale. Results of our study also suggested behavioral interventions that could be used with Chinese MSM to increase condom use. Copyright © 2016 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. All rights reserved.
Ullman, Sarah E; Vasquez, Amanda L
This study examined sexual risk behaviors and sexual refusal assertiveness in relationship to child sexual abuse, emotion dysregulation, and adult sexual revictimization. Path analyses of 1,094 survivors who had sex in the past year were done to examine sexual risk behavior and sexual refusal assertiveness mediational pathways by which child sexual abuse severity and emotion dysregulation may affect revictimization over one year in adult female sexual assault survivors. Exchanging sex for money and sexual refusal assertiveness were significantly associated with emotion dysregulation, whereas exchanging sex for money, and not sexual refusal assertiveness, was only significantly related to child sexual abuse severity. Both exchanging sex for money and sex refusal assertiveness mediated the relationship between emotion dysregulation and adult sexual revictimization. Exchanging sex for money mediated the child sexual abuse severity-revictimization relationship. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering both risky and protective sexual behaviors in research and prevention programming that address sexual revictimization in women.
Elkovitch, Natasha; Latzman, Robert D; Hansen, David J; Flood, Mary Fran
Children exhibiting sexual behavior have increasingly gained the attention of child welfare and mental health systems, as well as the scientific community. While a heterogeneous group, children with sexual behavior problems consistently demonstrate a number of problems related to adjustment and overall development. In order to appropriately intervene with these children, a comprehensive understanding of etiology is imperative. The overarching goal of the present paper is to review the extant research on mechanisms associated with the development of problematic sexual behavior in childhood within a developmental psychopathology framework. What is known about normative and nonnormative sexual behavior in childhood is reviewed, highlighting definitional challenges and age-related developmental differences. Further, the relationship between child sexual abuse and child sexual behavior problems is discussed, drawing attention to factors impacting this relationship. Risk factors for child sexual behavior problems, beyond that of sexual abuse, are also reviewed utilizing a transactional-ecological framework. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of implications of a developmental psychopathology perspective on problematic child sexual behaviors to inform future research and intervention efforts. Such implications include the need for attention to normative childhood sexual behavior, developmental sensitivity, and examinations of ecological domain in concert.
Juma, Milka; Alaii, Jane; Bartholomew, L Kay; Askew, Ian; Van den Born, Bart
Some studies show orphanhood to be associated with increased sexual risk-taking while others have not established this relationship, but have found factors other than orphanhood as predictors of sexual risk behaviours and outcomes among adolescents. This study examines community members' perceptions of how poverty influences adolescent sexual behaviour and outcomes in four districts of Nyanza Province, Kenya. Eight study sites within the four districts were randomly selected. Focus group discussions were conducted with a purposive sample of adolescents, parents and caregivers. Key informant interviews were undertaken with a purposive sample of community leaders, child welfare and healthcare workers, and adolescents. The two methods elicited information on factors perceived to predispose adolescent orphans and non-orphans to sexual risks. Data were analysed through line-by-line coding, grouped into families and retrieved as themes and sub-themes. Participants included 147 adolescents and parents/caregivers in 14 focus groups and 13 key informants. Poverty emerged as a key predisposing factor to sexual risk behaviour among orphans and non-orphans. Poverty was associated with lack of food, poor housing, school dropout, and engaging in income generating activities, all of which increase their vulnerability to transactional sex, early marriage, sexual experimentation, and the eventual consequences of increased risk of unintended pregnancies and STI/HIV. Poverty was perceived to contribute to increasing sexual risks among orphan and non-orphan adolescents through survival strategies adopted to be able to meet their basic needs. Policies for prevention and intervention that target adolescents in a generalized poverty and HIV epidemic should integrate economic empowerment for caregivers and life skills for adolescents to reduce vulnerabilities of orphan and non-orphan adolescents to sexual risk behaviour.
Baumgartner, S.E.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.; Yan, Z.
In recent years, there have been growing concerns about online sexual solicitations and online sexual risk behaviors. Recent studies suggest that only a minority of adolescents is confronted with online sexual solicitations or engages in online sexual risk behavior. Whereas more girls encounter
Gonzalez-Blanks, Ana; Yates, Tuppett M
Foster youth evidence shows elevated rates of risk behaviors, including sexual risk-taking (e.g., unprotected sex). Some studies have identified child maltreatment, particularly sexual abuse, as a risk for later sexual risk-taking, but none have examined how child welfare placement experiences relate to youth's sexual risk-taking. This study investigated relations among child maltreatment, child welfare placements, and sexual risk-taking among 114 recently emancipated female foster youth. Sexual abuse and failed reunifications with parents were associated with greater sexual risk-taking. Moreover, dissociative symptoms exacerbated the relation between sexual abuse and sexual risk-taking. These findings highlight the need for greater consideration of risks associated with emancipated youth's sexual risk-taking and for more research to understand how youth experience unsuccessful family reunifications. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2015 Society for Research on Adolescence.
Abara, Winston; Annang, Lucy; Spencer, S Melinda; Fairchild, Amanda Jane; Billings, Debbie
Internet sex-seeking is common among young men who have sex with men (MSM). However, research examining its association with risky sexual behaviour has produced mixed findings, possibly due to various operational definitions of internet sex-seeking which fail to account for its multi-dimensionality. This study purposed to: (1) examine if the way internet sex-seeking behaviour is operationalised influences its association with risky sexual behaviour (unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) and casual sex) and (2) determine the association of each operational definition with sexual risk. We recruited 263 sexually-experienced young MSM (18-29 years) and operationalised internet sex-seeking behaviour in four ways: (i) ever used the internet to meet other men, (ii) currently own a profile on a website dedicated to meeting other men, (iii) ever physically met a man you initially met online and (iv) ever had sex with a man you met online. Using binomial regression, we examined the association of each operationalisation with UAI and casual sex. Only MSM who reported physically meeting a man they met online and those who ever had sex with a man they met online were more likely to report a history of UAI (psex-seeking were more likely to engage in casual sex (psex-seeking is operationalised in research is differentially associated with sexual risk. Against this backdrop, the utility of these operational definitions in future research and inferences drawn from such research must be interpreted with caution. Findings have important implications for sexual health research and methodology, survey development, sexual health prevention interventions, and evaluating sexual risk among young MSM. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Ullman, Sarah E.; Vasquez, Amanda L.
This study examined sexual risk behaviors and sexual refusal assertiveness in relationship to child sexual abuse (CSA), emotion dysregulation, and adult sexual revictimization. Path analyses of 1,094 survivors who had sex in the past year were done to examine sexual risk behavior, and sexual refusal assertiveness mediational pathways by which CSA severity and emotion dysregulation may affect revictimization over one year in adult female sexual assault survivors. Exchanging sex for money and sexual refusal assertiveness were significantly associated with emotion dysregulation, whereas exchanging sex for money, and not sexual refusal assertiveness, was only significantly related to CSA severity. Both exchanging sex for money and sex refusal assertiveness mediated the relationship between emotion dysregulation and adult sexual revictimization. Exchanging sex for money mediated the CSA severity-revictimization relationship. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering both risky and protective sexual behaviors in research and prevention programming that address sexual revictimization in women. PMID:25942287
McLaurin-Jones, TyWanda L.; Lashley, Maudry-Beverley; Marshall, Vanessa J.
Background: Young African American women are disproportionately affected with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintentional pregnancies. Despite adequate knowledge, assertiveness, and negotiation skills, consistent condom use remains low. Aims: We sought to assess the role of pregnancy and STI risk perception in condom decision making…
Ly, Thanh; Murphy, Lisa; Fedoroff, J Paul
In the past three decades, there has been an exponential increase in the worldwide availability of Internet access and devices that are able to access online materials. This literature review investigated whether increased accessibility of Internet child pornography (CP) increases the risk of in-person child sexual exploitation. The current review found little to no evidence that availability of the Internet has increased the worldwide incidence or prevalence of in-person child sexual abuse. In fact, during the time period in which the Internet has flourished, international crime statistics have shown a steady decrease of in-person child sexual abuse. The only exception to this trend is an increase in Internet child pornography or luring offenses (e.g., Stats Can, 2014), which involves child abuse by definition. This article reviews the impact of the Internet on child sexual abuse. It also reviews the characteristics of online CP offenders. Treatment of these offenders and prevention of such offenses is also discussed.
Risk assessment can be an effective pedagogical strategy for sexuality education. Objectives: After learning about the modes of transmission and prevention strategies of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), students engaged in this teaching technique will define sexual intercourse and sexual activity, assess the level of STI risk associated…
Ayala, George; Paul, Jay; Choi, Kyung-Hee
While many studies have established the relationship between experiences of racism and sexual risk among men who have sex with men of colour, the pathways by which this occurs are underdeveloped. To address this gap, we must better investigate the lived realities of racism in the gay community. In this study, we had the unique opportunity to examine experiences of racism among African American, Latino and Asian/Pacific Islander men who have sex with men living in Los Angeles through focus groups and individual in-depth interviews. We found three themes of racism: exclusion from West Hollywood and the mainstream gay community, sexual rejection based on race/ethnicity, and sexual stereotypes. There were differences across the three racial groups in the experiences of each theme, however. We then considered how racism impacted partner selection and found that race played a salient role in determining power differentials within mixed-race partnerships. Finally, we discussed several future areas for research that can better establish pathways between racism and sexual risk. PMID:23659363
Ro, Annie; Ayala, George; Paul, Jay; Choi, Kyung-Hee
While many studies have established the relationship between experiences of racism and sexual risk among men of colour who have sex with men, the pathways by which this occurs are underdeveloped. To address this gap, we must better investigate the lived realities of racism in the gay community. In this study, we had the unique opportunity to examine experiences of racism among African American, Asian/Pacific Islander and Latino men who have sex with men living in Los Angeles through focus groups and individual in-depth interviews. We found three themes of racism: exclusion from West Hollywood and the mainstream gay community, sexual rejection based on race/ethnicity and sexual stereotypes. There were differences across the three racial groups in the experiences of each theme, however. We then considered how racism impacted partner selection and found that race played a salient role in determining power differentials within mixed-race partnerships. Finally, we discussed several future areas for research that can better establish pathways between racism and sexual risk.
Lopez, Vera; Kopak, Albert; Robillard, Alyssa; Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Holliday, Rhonda C.; Braithwaite, Ronald L.
Sexual risk taking among female delinquents represents a significant public health problem. Research is needed to understand the pathways leading to sexual risk taking among this population. This study sought to address this issue by identifying and testing two pathways from child maltreatment to non-condom use among 329 White and 484 African…
Walker, Dave P; Messman-Moore, Terri L; Ward, Rose Marie
In previous studies, number of sexual partners and sexual assertiveness were examined as independent risk factors for sexual victimization among college women. Using a sample of 335 college women, this study examined the interaction of number of sexual partners and sexual assertiveness on verbal sexual coercion and rape. Approximately 32% of the sample reported unwanted sexual intercourse, 6.9% (n = 23) experienced verbal sexual coercion, 17.9% (n = 60) experienced rape, and 7.2% (n = 24) experienced both. As number of sexual partners increased, instances of verbal sexual coercion increased for women low in relational sexual assertiveness but not for women high in relational sexual assertiveness. A similar relationship was not found for rape. Among women who experienced both verbal sexual coercion and rape, increases in number of partners in the context of low refusal and relational assertiveness were associated with increases in verbal sexual coercion and rape. Findings suggest sexual assertiveness is related to fewer experiences of sexual coercion.
This article argues that institutions need to take more risks to improve sexuality education. Understanding how risk structures sexuality may help make sexuality education more attuned to the needs of diverse students. Situating sexuality in the context of human rights can help to demonstrate the kinds of social and institutional risks that are…
Rosengard, Cynthia; Tannis, Candace; Dove, David C.; van den Berg, Jacob J.; Lopez, Rosalie; Stein, L. A. R.; Morrow, Kathleen M.
Background: Sources of sexual health information exert strong influence on adolescents' sexual behavior. Purpose: The current study was undertaken to understand how family serve as sexual information sources, the messages adolescents recall from family, and how family learning experiences affect sexual behavior among at-risk adolescents. Methods:…
Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen
This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide number of psychological sequelae, including low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Numerous studies have noted that child sexual abuse victims are vulnerable to later sexual revictimization, as well as the link between child sexual abuse and later engagement in high-risk sexual behaviour. Survivors of child sexual abuse are more likely to have multiple sex partners, become pregnant as teenagers, and experience sexual assault as adults. Various models which attempt to account for this inter-relationship are presented; most invoke mediating variables such as low self-esteem, drug/alcohol use, PTSD and distorted sexual development. Prevention strategies for child sexual abuse are examined including media campaigns, school-based prevention programmes, and therapy with abusers. The results of a number of meta-analyses are examined. However, researchers have identified significant methodological limitations in the extant research literature that impede the making of recommendations for implementing existing therapeutic programmes unreservedly.
Champion, J D; Shain, R N; Piper, J; Perdue, S T
The relationship between sexual abuse and sexually transmitted disease (STD) represents an important and underinvestigated context of domestic violence. This study examined the association between sexual abuse, sexual risk behaviors, and risk for reinfection and HIV among minority women with STD. Mexican American and African American women (n = 617) with active STD entered a randomized study of behavioral intervention to reduce STD recurrence. Each underwent questioning at entry regarding sexual abuse and sexual risk behaviors. Comparisons of these behaviors using chi-square, t tests, and logistic regression were made by history of sexual abuse. Sexually abused women were more likely to have lower incomes, earlier coitus, STD history, currently abusive partners, new sex partners, anal sex, and bleeding with sex, placing them at increased risk for STD reinfection and HIV. Due to this association with sexual risk behavior, assessment for sexual abuse is essential in programs focusing on STD/HIV prevention.
Quinn, Katherine; Ertl, Allison
This study explores the characteristics and risk behaviors of sexual minority high school students using the 2011 Wisconsin Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Among 3,043 students surveyed, 8% of students identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or unsure, and 7% reported having contact with same-sex partners. Findings indicate sexual minority students…
Bowleg, Lisa; Burkholder, Gary J; Noar, Seth M; Teti, Michelle; Malebranche, David J; Tschann, Jeanne M
Sexual scripts are widely shared gender and culture-specific guides for sexual behavior with important implications for HIV prevention. Although several qualitative studies document how sexual scripts may influence sexual risk behaviors, quantitative investigations of sexual scripts in the context of sexual risk are rare. This mixed methods study involved the qualitative development and quantitative testing of the Sexual Scripts Scale (SSS). Study 1 included qualitative semi-structured interviews with 30 Black heterosexual men about sexual experiences with main and casual sex partners to develop the SSS. Study 2 included a quantitative test of the SSS with 526 predominantly low-income Black heterosexual men. A factor analysis of the SSS resulted in a 34-item, seven-factor solution that explained 68% of the variance. The subscales and coefficient alphas were: Romantic Intimacy Scripts (α = .86), Condom Scripts (α = .82), Alcohol Scripts (α = .83), Sexual Initiation Scripts (α = .79), Media Sexual Socialization Scripts (α = .84), Marijuana Scripts (α = .85), and Sexual Experimentation Scripts (α = .84). Among men who reported a main partner (n = 401), higher Alcohol Scripts, Media Sexual Socialization Scripts, and Marijuana Scripts scores, and lower Condom Scripts scores were related to more sexual risk behavior. Among men who reported at least one casual partner (n = 238), higher Romantic Intimacy Scripts, Sexual Initiation Scripts, and Media Sexual Socialization Scripts, and lower Condom Scripts scores were related to higher sexual risk. The SSS may have considerable utility for future research on Black heterosexual men's HIV risk.
Mahlangu, Vimbi Petrus
This paper highlights legal understanding of quid pro quo sexual harassment in schools. Quid pro quo sexual harassment implies abuse of authority or position to gain something sexual. A duty of care rests on teachers, Schools Governing Bodies and the Department of Education to provide and maintain safe schools that are free from all forms of…
Rosengard, Cynthia; Tannis, Candace; Dove, David C; van den Berg, Jacob J; Lopez, Rosalie; Stein, L A R; Morrow, Kathleen M
Sources of sexual health information exert strong influence on adolescents' sexual behavior. The current study was undertaken to understand how family serve as sexual information sources, the messages adolescents recall from family, and how family learning experiences affect sexual behavior among at-risk adolescents. Individual interviews were conducted with 69 teens, ages 15-18 years, from an alternative high school and a juvenile correctional facility to capture adolescents' early sexual health learning experiences involving family and evaluate their association with teens' recent sexual behavior. Sexual learning narratives were compared among gender and sexual experience groups. Many participants identified family as sexual health information sources. Primary messages recalled: risks of sex, protection, and relationship advice. Many adolescents portrayed learning experiences as negative, cautionary, lacking detail and not always balanced with positive messages. Participants who reported four or more sexual risks were the only group to identify pornography as a sexual health information source. Participants who reported fewer than four sexual risks were most likely to identify family sexual health information sources. Participants identified family members as sources of sexual health information, with variations by gender. Negative/cautionary messages require teens to seek additional sexual information elsewhere (primarily friends/media). Males, in particular, appear to often lack familial guidance/education. Sexual health messages should be tailored to adolescents' needs for practical and sex-positive guidance regarding mechanics of sex and formation of healthy relationships, and balanced with cautions regarding negative consequences.
Sidibe, Turquoise; Turner, Kea; Sparks, Alicia; Woods-Jaeger, Briana; Lightfoot, Alexandra
African Americans have the highest rate of new HIV infection in the United States. This photovoice study explored the perspectives and experiences of African American female youth and sought to understand how adolescent development impacts HIV risk. This study used the photovoice methodology with seven African American or Biracial female youth, in…
Hong, Jun Sung; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Kral, Michael J.
This article examines major risk factors for suicide among sexual minority youth using Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory. Although suicidal behavior among sexual minority youth is a major public concern in the United States, understanding of this phenomenon has been limited since the majority of empirical research studies have addressed…
Nye, Christopher D; Brummel, Bradley J; Drasgow, Fritz
Sexual harassment has received a substantial amount of empirical attention over the past few decades, and this research has consistently shown that experiencing these behaviors has a detrimental effect on employees' well-being, job attitudes, and behaviors at work. However, these findings, and the conclusions that are drawn from them, make the implicit assumption that the empirical models used to examine sexual harassment are properly specified. This article presents evidence that properly specified aggregate construct models are more consistent with theoretical structures and definitions of sexual harassment and can result in different conclusions about the nomological network of harassment. Results from 3 large samples, 2 military and 1 from a civilian population, are used to illustrate the differences between aggregate construct and reflective indicator models of sexual harassment. These analyses suggested that the factor structure and the nomological network of sexual harassment differ when modeling harassment as an aggregate construct. The implications of these results for the continued study of sexual harassment are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Jun 17, 2016 ... of abstinence across adolescents, and this study sought to explore the understanding of sexual abstinence among both male and female learners in a ... of premarital sex and childbearing by young people (Kabiru &. Ezeh 2007). ... ing programs in reducing risky sexual behaviors among young people, with ...
English in schools is a productive curriculum space for young people to learn about sexuality, to develop a sense of their identity as sexual beings, and to understand the importance of equality and social justice. Drawing on John Dixon's theory of "personal growth," the author (a British educator) explains how teachers' attitudes about learning…
Fishman, J M; Holt, T
Risk reduction must go beyond safe sex guidelines and encompass the ongoing process of sexual negotiation. Therapists can play a role in assisting clients to safely navigate sexual activity. Several case scenarios of therapy related to sexual risk, particularly among gay and bisexual men, are discussed. For the sexually compulsive client, sex often camouflages depression, hopelessness, anxiety, or rage. Alan, a 41-year old seronegative lawyer, presents with complaints about compulsive, high-risk sex. His therapist might negotiate a contract around sexual acting out, interpret and explore the specific meanings of acting out, and suggest the possibility of couples' counseling. The second case scenario involves an uninfected couple, Phil and Tom, who are exploring non-monogamy. The therapist can assist the couple in negotiating a relationship contract that requires the trust that partners will keep their agreements and disclose breaches in sexual behavior. Sam and Peter, a second couple, are having a problem with sexual negotiation. Sam wants to have unprotected sex with Peter. Peter is angry that unsafe sex is so important to Sam. Their therapist needs to explore individual and relationship issues, educate them about the meanings of sexual behaviors, and address the level and history of trust in the relationship. Overall, to help clients navigate sexual activity, therapists must blend together their clients' psychodynamic histories, the social meaning of sex for gay men, and the medical and ethical context in which particular behaviors take place.
Whitaker, D J; Miller, K S; May, D C; Levin, M L
Teenagers' communication with their partners about sex and their use of condoms may be influenced by the discussions teenagers have with their parents about sex. However, little is known about the process of parent-teenager communication on this topic. Understanding both what parents discuss with their children and how they discuss it may lead to a greater understanding of teenagers' sexual behavior. Interviews were conducted with 372 sexually active black and Hispanic youth aged 14-17 from Alabama, New York and Puerto Rico. Regression analyses were used to examine parent-teenager discussions about sexuality and about sexual risk, and parental communication skills as predictors of teenagers' discussions about sexual risk with a partner and teenagers' condom use. Parent-teenager discussions about sexuality and sexual risk were associated with an increased likelihood of teenager-partner discussions about sexual risk and of teenagers' condom use, but only if parents were open, skilled and comfortable in having those discussions. Teenagers' communication with their partner about sexual risk also was associated with greater condom use, but the relationship between parent-teenager communication and teenagers' condom use was independent of this association. The influence on teenagers of parent-teenager discussions about sexuality and sexual risk depends on both what parents say and how they say it. Programs that foster parent-teenager communication about sexuality and sexual risk must emphasize both of these aspects.
Benotsch, Eric G; Snipes, Daniel J; Martin, Aaron M; Bull, Sheana S
Cell phone use has become more widespread over the past decade. Young adults are frequently early adopters of new technologies, including cell phones. Most previous research examining sexting, the act of sending sexually explicit or suggestive images via text message, has focused on the legal or social consequences of this behavior. The current study focused on the public health implications of sexting by examining associations between sexting, substance use, and sexual risk behavior in youth. Young adults (N = 763) completed online questionnaires assessing demographics, cell phone use (e.g., texting, sexting), substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. Sexting was reported by a substantial minority of participants (44%). Compared with their nonsexting counterparts, participants who engaged in sexting were more likely to report recent substance use and high-risk sexual behaviors, including unprotected sex and sex with multiple partners. Of those who engaged in sexting, a considerable percentage (31.8%) reported having sex with a new partner for the first time after sexting with that person. In multivariate analyses, sexting was associated with high-risk sexual behavior, after accounting for demographic factors, total texting behaviors, and substance use. Results suggest that sexting is robustly associated with high-risk sexual behavior. Many individuals exchange explicit or provocative photos with long-term sexual partners, but at least some participants in this study were incurring new sexual risks after sexting. Additional research is needed to understand the contexts in which sexting occurs, motivations for sexting, and relationship of sexting to risk behavior. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available BackgroundThere is a large controversy in the literature about the inter-relations between perceived risk, knowledge and risk behavior in different settings, and people at HIV risk are not an exception.Aim To assess additive and multiplicative effect of perceived HIV risk and HIV knowledge on sexual risk behavior of Injecting Drug Users (IDUs.MethodWe enrolled 162 street based IDUs to this analysis. Data came from a national survey of IDUs in Iran, with a cross sectional design. Socio-demographics (employment, education, marital status, HIV knowledge, perceived HIV risk and four different sexual risk behavior were registered. In the first step, using spearman test, the association of HIV knowledge and risk behavior were tested, then possible moderating effect of perceived HIV risk on this association was determined.ResultsAlthough among IDUs with low perceived HIV risk, HIV knowledge was negatively associated with sexual risk behavior (P<0.05 for all, this association was not significant among IDUs with high perceived HIV risk (P>0.05 for all. Thus perceived HIV risk moderated the association between HIV knowledge and sexual risk behavior.ConclusionPerceived risk should be taken into consideration when studying the effect of HIV knowledge on sexual risk behavior of IDUs. Findings may help us better understand negative effects of fear arousing interventions as a part of HIV prevention media campaigns.
Rojas-Guyler, Liliana; King, Keith A.
This study investigated sexuality topics discussed by parents, sources of sexuality education, sexual risk behaviors, and attitudes about who should educate children about sexuality among a sample of 204 adult Latinas. Nearly half of sexually active women (having ever had sex) reported condom use and 36.7% reported discussing sexual history with…
Frye, Victoria; Nandi, Vijay; Egan, James; Cerda, Magdalena; Greene, Emily; Van Tieu, Hong; Ompad, Danielle C; Hoover, Donald R; Lucy, Debbie; Baez, Eduardo; Koblin, Beryl A
Understanding what social factors are associated with risk of HIV acquisition and transmission among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) is a critical public health goal. Experiencing discrimination may increase risk of HIV infection among MSM. This analysis assessed relations between experiences of sexual orientation- and race-based discrimination and sexual HIV risk behavior among MSM in New York City. 1,369 MSM completed a self-administered computerized assessment of past 3-month sexual behavior, experience of social discrimination and other covariates. Regression models assessed relations between recent experience of discrimination and sexual HIV risk behavior. Mean age was 32 years; 32 % were white; 32 % Latino/Hispanic; 25 % African American/Black. Of MSM who self-reported HIV-positive or unknown status (377), 7 % (N = 27) reported having unprotected insertive anal intercourse with an HIV-negative or unknown status partner ("HIV transmission risk"). Of MSM who self-reported HIV-negative status (992), 11 % (110) reported unprotected receptive anal intercourse with an HIV-positive or unknown status partner ("HIV acquisition risk"). HIV acquisition risk was positively associated with sexual orientation-based discrimination in home or social neighborhoods, but not race-based discrimination. We observed that sexual orientation-based discrimination was associated with sexual HIV risk behavior among urban-dwelling MSM. Addressing environmental sources of this form of discrimination, as well as the psychological distress that may result, should be prioritized in HIV prevention efforts.
Henrich, Christopher C; Brookmeyer, Kathryn A; Shrier, Lydia A; Shahar, Golan
To examine the longitudinal associations between supportive relationships with friends and parents and sexual risk behavior in adolescence based on an ecological-transactional perspective. Analyses were conducted on 2,652 sexually active adolescents from the first two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). African-American adolescents had lower risk for sexual risk behavior. Supportive friendships and parent connectedness interacted in predicting decreased likelihood of sexual risk behavior. Mother-child communication about sex contributed to decreased likelihood of sexual risk only for girls. There were also small reciprocal effects of sexual risk behavior on decreased relationship quality over time. To better understand the parents' role in adolescent sexual risk behavior, multiple facets of parenting, the social contexts of parenting and adolescents' peers, and the effects of adolescents' behavior on these relationships should be taken into consideration.
Rosengard, Cynthia; Tannis, Candace; Dove, David C.; van den Berg, Jacob J.; Lopez, Rosalie; Stein, L. A. R.; Morrow, Kathleen M.
Background Sources of sexual health information exert strong influence on adolescents’ sexual behavior. Purpose The current study was undertaken to understand how family serve as sexual information sources, the messages adolescents recall from family, and how family learning experiences affect sexual behavior among at-risk adolescents. Methods Individual interviews were conducted with 69 teens, ages 15–18 years, from an alternative high school and a juvenile correctional facility to capture adolescents’ early sexual health learning experiences involving family and evaluate their association with teens’ recent sexual behavior. Sexual learning narratives were compared among gender and sexual experience groups. Results Many participants identified family as sexual health information sources. Primary messages recalled: risks of sex, protection, and relationship advice. Many adolescents portrayed learning experiences as negative, cautionary, lacking detail and not always balanced with positive messages. Participants who reported four or more sexual risks were the only group to identify pornography as a sexual health information source. Participants who reported fewer than four sexual risks were most likely to identify family sexual health information sources. Discussion Participants identified family members as sources of sexual health information, with variations by gender. Negative/cautionary messages require teens to seek additional sexual information elsewhere (primarily friends/media). Males, in particular, appear to often lack familial guidance/education. Translation to Health Education Practice Sexual health messages should be tailored to adolescents’ needs for practical and sex-positive guidance regarding mechanics of sex and formation of healthy relationships, and balanced with cautions regarding negative consequences. PMID:27882190
Senn, Theresa E; Walsh, Jennifer L; Carey, Michael P
Prior research shows that violence is associated with sexual risk behavior, but little is known about the relation between community violence (i.e., violence that is witnessed or experienced in one's neighborhood) and sexual risk behavior. To better understand contextual influences on HIV risk behavior, we asked 508 adult patients attending a publicly funded STI clinic in the U.S. (54 % male, M age = 27.93, 68 % African American) who were participating in a larger trial to complete a survey assessing exposure to community violence, sexual risk behavior, and potential mediators of the community violence-sexual risk behavior relation (i.e., mental health, substance use, and experiencing intimate partner violence). A separate sample of participants from the same trial completed measures of sexual behavior norms, which were aggregated to create measures of census tract sexual behavior norms. Data analyses controlling for socioeconomic status revealed that higher levels of community violence were associated with more sexual partners for men and with more episodes of unprotected sex with non-steady partners for women. For both men and women, substance use and mental health mediated the community violence-sexual risk behavior relation; in addition, for men only, experiencing intimate partner violence also mediated this relation. These results confirm that, for individuals living in communities with high levels of violence, sexual risk reduction interventions need to address intimate partner violence, substance use, and mental health to be optimally effective.
Wells, Brooke E; Starks, Tyrel J; Robel, Erika; Kelly, Brian C; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Golub, Sarit A
Among women and gay and bisexual men, sexual assault is associated with increased rates of sexual risk behavior and negative sexual health outcomes. Although the mechanisms of these effects are potentially myriad, the current analyses examine the role of perceived partner pressure for condomless sex in mediating the association between adult sexual assault (ASA) and recent anal or vaginal sex without a condom. In a sample of 205 young adult women and gay and bisexual men, ASA was indirectly associated with condomless anal and/or vaginal sex via perceptions of partner pressure for condomless sex, χ 2 (1) = 5.66, p = .02, after controlling for race, age, gender and sexual identity, and relationship status. The elucidation of this relational mechanism points to several potential intervention and prevention strategies that may reduce actual and perceived pressure for sex without a condom, including strategies designed to facilitate the prioritization of health and safety over relational goals and the improvement of partner selection and perceptions of partner pressure. © The Author(s) 2015.
Lee, Joseph K. P.; Jackson, Henry J.; Pattison, Pip; Ward, Tony
A study involving 64 Australian sex offenders and 33 non-sex offenders found childhood emotional abuse and family dysfunction, childhood behavior problems, and childhood sexual abuse were developmental risk factors for paraphilia. Emotional abuse and family dysfunction was found to be a risk factor for pedophilia, exhibitionism, rape, or multiple…
Fitzpatrick, Kathleen Kara; Euton, Stephanie J; Jones, Jamie N; Schmidt, Norman B
There has been interest in the relationship between homosexuality, gender role and suicide risk. Though homosexuals are more likely to identify as cross-gender, research has not simultaneously examined sexual orientation and gender role in assessing suicide risk. In the current study, the unique and interactive effects of sexual orientation and gender role were assessed in regard to suicidal ideation, related psychopathology and measures of coping. 77 participants were recruited from an undergraduate psychology subject pool (n=47) or from gay, lesbian and transgender student organizations (n=30) and assessed on measures of gender role, homosexuality, and psychopathology. Consistent with expectations, cross-gender role (i.e., personality traits associated with the opposite sex) is a unique predictor of suicidal symptoms. Moreover, gender role accounted for more of the overall variance in suicidal symptoms, positive problem orientation, peer acceptance and support, than sexual orientation. After accounting for gender role, sexual orientation contributed little to the variance in suicidal symptoms, associated pathology and problem-solving deficits. There was no support for gender role by sexual orientation interaction effects. The cross-sectional nature of the data limits statements regarding causality. Cross-gendered individuals, regardless of sexual orientation, appear to have higher risk for suicidal symptoms. Researchers and clinicians should assess gender role in evaluations of youth samples.
Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Vanable, Peter A.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia; Urban, Marguerite A.
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with a wide range of negative outcomes. The authors investigated the relation between CSA and sexual risk behavior in 827 patients recruited from a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic. Overall, CSA was reported by 53% of women and 49% of men and was associated with greater sexual risk behavior,…
Ancheta, Rosedelia; Hynes, Colin; Shrier, Lydia A
The objective of this study was to explore the associations of sources, content, and timing of reproductive health education with cognitive and behavioral sexual risk in a sample of high-risk female adolescents and young adults. Female adolescents and young adults (n=113, median age 17 years) receiving treatment for a sexually transmitted disease (STD) reported sources of reproductive health education, topics covered, and when first formal education occurred. Dependent variables included sexual risk knowledge; condom attitudes, negotiation skills, and use (consistent and at last sex); and number of sexual partners. Most participants reported receiving reproductive health education from both parental (80%) and formal sources (92%). Parents discussed the menstrual cycle (94%) more frequently than other sex education topics, while formal sources focused most on teaching about STDs (91%). Although median age of first formal instruction was 12 years, 26% of girls received their first formal education during or after the year they initiated coitus. Girls with a parental source of education and those receiving formal instruction on pregnancy reported greater ability to negotiate condom use. Girls who received education later in relation to the onset of sexual activity and those with a parental source of education reported more sexual partners. Early reproductive health education and education from both parental and formal sources is associated with reduced sexual risk among high-risk adolescent girls. Interestingly, receiving parental education is also associated with more sexual partners, suggesting that parental educational efforts may be reactive to their daughters' increasing sexual risk behavior. Future research should examine multiple sources of reproductive health education and the timing of education from these sources to enhance understanding the dynamic interactions between reproductive health education and adolescent sexual risk.
Oswalt, Sara B.; Wyatt, Tammy J.
Sexual health programs on college campuses are often directed toward single individuals with a focus on sexual risk. Using a sample of college students, this study examines how relationship status relates to sexual behaviors and may be a factor for sexual risk. Based on the study's results, expansion of sexual health programming on college…
International agreements recognizing different forms of violence as violations of human rights and the definition provided by the 1993 UN Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women are taken as a starting point and its implications analyzed, emphasizing gender roles and stereotypes. Violence against women is related to violence in general, to the so-called culture of violence. Factors influencing a culture of violence are discussed, as well as the differences between public and private violence, emphasizing the need to understand their interaction to be effective in preventing violence against women. It is concluded that all violence stems from unbalanced exercise of power, creating injustice and lack of real democratic interaction. When left unchallenged such situations become part of the culture of individuals and societies, reinforcing the use of violence to solve conflicts. Hence, preventing violence against women requires cultural, social, economic, and political changes that are only possible by mobilizing society as a whole.
Vimbi Petrus Mahlangu
Full Text Available Paper highlights legal understanding of quid pro quo sexual harassment in schools. Quid pro quo sexual harassment implies abuse of authority or position to gain something sexual. A duty of care rests on teachers, Schools Governing Bodies and the Department of Education to provide and maintain safe schools that are free from all forms of victimisation and abuse. However, there seems to be an abuse of power by all those who are supposedly to protect learners in schools. Paper used an abuse of organisational power theory and conceptualisation framework as a lens used in analysing various forms of victimisation and abuse with an effort to provide a better understanding of behaviour that amounts to abuse. Paper concludes with guidelines for handling harassment and bullying in the school contexts.
O'Hara, Ross E; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D
Early sexual debut is associated with risky sexual behavior and an increased risk of unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections later in life. The relations among early movie sexual exposure (MSE), sexual debut, and risky sexual behavior in adulthood (i.e., multiple sexual partners and inconsistent condom use) were examined in a longitudinal study of U.S. adolescents. MSE was measured using the Beach method, a comprehensive procedure for media content coding. Controlling for characteristics of adolescents and their families, analyses showed that MSE predicted age of sexual debut, both directly and indirectly through changes in sensation seeking. MSE also predicted engagement in risky sexual behaviors both directly and indirectly via early sexual debut. These results suggest that MSE may promote sexual risk taking both by modifying sexual behavior and by accelerating the normal rise in sensation seeking during adolescence.
Watson, Laurel B.; Matheny, Kenneth B.; Gagne, Phill; Brack, Greg; Ancis, Julie R.
The purpose of our study was to examine the role that child sexual abuse may play in body surveillance and sexual risk behaviors among undergraduate women. First, a measured variable path analysis was conducted, which assessed the relations among a history of child sexual abuse, body surveillance, and sexual risk behaviors. Furthermore, body…
Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen
This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide numbe...
Archer, C Ruth; Hunt, John
Aging evolved because the strength of natural selection declines over the lifetime of most organisms. Weak natural selection late in life allows the accumulation of deleterious mutations and may favor alleles that have positive effects on fitness early in life, but costly pleiotropic effects expressed later on. While this decline in natural selection is central to longstanding evolutionary explanations for aging, a role for sexual selection and sexual conflict in the evolution of lifespan and aging has only been identified recently. Testing how sexual selection and sexual conflict affect lifespan and aging is challenging as it requires quantifying male age-dependent reproductive success. This is difficult in the invertebrate model organisms traditionally used in aging research. Research using crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllidae), where reproductive investment can be easily measured in both sexes, has offered exciting and novel insights into how sexual selection and sexual conflict affect the evolution of aging, both in the laboratory and in the wild. Here we discuss how sexual selection and sexual conflict can be integrated alongside evolutionary and mechanistic theories of aging using crickets as a model. We then highlight the potential for research using crickets to further advance our understanding of lifespan and aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Turchik, Jessica A; Garske, John P
Current measures of sexual risk taking are either too narrowly focused to be used with college students or do not have adequate psychometric properties. The goal of the current study was to develop a broad and psychometrically sound measure of sexual risk taking. A total of 613 undergraduate students (302 men, 311 women) at a mid-sized Midwestern university in the U.S. were surveyed to develop and gather reliability and validity information on a new measure of sexual risk, the Sexual Risk Survey (SRS). The measure was found to be multifactorial with five factors. The measure was found to have good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The SRS also demonstrated evidence of convergent and concurrent validity by its relationships with reported number of sexual partners and history of infidelity as well as measures of sensation seeking, sexual desire, substance use, sexual excitation and inhibition, and sexual health consequences. Social desirability was not found to be related to sexual risk taking scores and threat of sexual disclosure was only weakly related. An investigation of sex differences revealed that men reported greater intentions to engage in sexual risk behaviors and greater overall sexual risk taking behavior compared to women. The SRS provides researchers with a valid and comprehensive measure of sexual risk taking that can be used to clarify inconsistent findings in the literature and to assess outcome in programs designed to prevent and reduce sexual risk behaviors among college students.
Davies, Eryl A; Jones, Alyson C
To quantify the incidence of child sexual abuse allegations referred to a forensic examination centre; to identify possible risk factors predisposing children to sexual abuse by measuring their prevalence among the complainant population. The records of children involved in sexual abuse allegations presenting over a 12 month period were reviewed retrospectively. Demographic data such as nature of case, sex, ethnicity, number of previous allegations, assailant relationship, month of presentation, and age were compiled. Potential risk factors such as alcohol or drug use, being 'looked after', physical disability, learning disability, previous consensual sexual intercourse, past psychiatric history, and history of psychiatric support were compiled. Descriptive statistics were calculated. 138 cases were recorded, of which the majority were acute. Epidemiological data demonstrated a higher incidence in females and most complainants were of White British origin. Most of the cases were of first allegations and the assailant relationship was most frequently an acquaintance. The incidence was highest in January. The modal age was 15 years and age distribution was positively skewed. Of the potential risk factors studied, alcohol and drug use was the most prevalent. Prevalence increased with age for the majority of factors studied. Alcohol and drug use may be an area in which preventative strategies would be beneficial. Ethnic minorities may hold a large amount of unreported cases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
This paper contends that sexuality research has paid far too limited attention to the phenomenology of sexual experience, thus failing to recognize the importance of embodied sensory experience for sexual perceptions and practices in general and for sexual risk-taking in particular. In order to comprehend the cultural rationales of sexual risk-taking among urban Vietnamese youth, the author presents an analysis which combines a detailed attention to the phenomenology of sexual experience with a social analysis of the wider socio-economic contexts within which sexual practices are embedded. It is demonstrated that the sexual encounters of Vietnamese youth involve much more than strivings for intimacy and pleasure: at stake are also fundamental questions of the moral integrity of the self and the socio-political shaping of intimate relations. Moreover, obstacles to safer sex stem not only from individual choices or intimate interpersonal interactions, but also from larger systems of moral meaning and social constraint. While the acknowledgement of individual capacities for action in the sexual sphere is important, it is equally important to recognize the responsibility of communities and political systems for the shaping of sexual interactions. Current limitations in the understanding of sexual experience and practice have consequences which seriously affect health interventions and education programmes targeting high-risk sexual behaviour. In order to develop more appropriate sexual health interventions, cultural transformations at the levels of both individual practice and societal organization are needed.
Sexual risk behaviors among HIV-positive persons place their partners at risk for HIV transmission and other sexually transmitted infections. Stopping transmission acts among HIV-positive people is crucial in reversing HIV incidence. Objective: This study aimed to assess the prevalence and predictors of sexual risk ...
Caldwell, Michael F
States have increasingly subject juvenile sexual offenders to sex offender registration and commitment under sexual predator laws in recent years. These statutes assume that sexual offenders present a sustained risk to recommit sexually violent crimes over an extended time period. Implicit in this assumption is that criminal sexual behavior is a product of some form of stable trait or condition that continues to push the juvenile toward sexually violent behaviors as they get older. This article examines these assumptions in light of the available research on the stability of sexually offending behavior in juveniles. The difficulties attendant to applying adult offender risk assessment models to juvenile sexual offenders are addressed. The available evidence indicates that the development and persistence of sexually criminal behavior is poorly understood, making the prediction of sustained sexual offending in juveniles that is required by some sexual predator statutes a particularly difficult task.
... older. Family history. Having a father, brother, or son with prostate cancer increases your risk. Having one immediate family member with prostate cancer doubles a man's own risk. A man who has 2 or ...
Colon cancer - prevention; Colon cancer - screening ... We do not know what causes colon cancer, but we do know some of the things that may increase the risk of getting it, such as: Age. Your risk increases ...
Hillson, David; Murray-Webster, Ruth
... This book highlights how risk attitude factors influence the human psyche, and carefully explains the impacts. Organisations seeking to dramatically improve the effectiveness of their risk management process will want to use this book's insights. Craig Peterson, President, PMI Risk Management SIG This book has prompted me to think more deeply as a change d...
Diclemente, Ralph J; Alexander, Adannaa O; Braxton, Nikia D; Ricks, Janelle M; Seth, Puja
Media is a social determinant of HIV and sexually transmissible infection (STI) risk. However, limited empirical data have examined men's media exposure and their sexual attitudes and behaviour towards women. Eighty heterosexual African-American men were assessed on their exposure to music videos, sexual attitudes and behaviour. They also were tested for STIs. Findings indicated that men influenced by music videos reported more sexual adventurism, more condom barriers, more lifetime sexual partners, more condom request refusals, substance abuse and a history of incarceration. Further longitudinal research is needed to better understand this relationship and to address the role of media in HIV and STI prevention interventions.
This commentary discusses the contributions of Drs. Antonia Abbey and Catherine Kaukinen to our understanding of risk factors for sexual and physical aggression among college students. Major contributions of their work are outlined. These include Abbey's contributions to our understanding of trajectories of sexually aggressive behavior among college men, risk factors for engaging in sexual aggression among men, and the role of alcohol in sexual aggression. In addition, Kaukinen's work has increased our understanding of the frequency of violence in college dating relationships as well as the association of violent relationships with health risk behaviors. Directions for future research are also outlined including a need to identify trajectories of violence risk as well as a need to understand the complex interrelationships among health risk behaviors and interpersonal violence. Finally, implications for practice and university policy are discussed, including a focus on the development of effective preventive strategies and proactive responses to violence. © The Author(s) 2014.
Teitelman, Anne M; Bohinski, Julia M; Boente, Alyssa
Sexually transmitted infections including HIV and teenage pregnancy have resulted in considerable morbidity and mortality among girls in the United States. There is a need to further strengthen prevention efforts against these persistent epidemics. In order to promote girls' sexual health and most effectively reduce sexual risk, it is important to understand the social factors that influence the development of a girl's sexuality. The purpose of this study was to begin to fill a void in the literature by exploring girls' perspectives about the social context in which they learn about sex, sexuality, and relationships. Coding and content analysis was used to identify patterns and themes in 33 individual interviews with African American and Euro-American girls. Participants identified family, friends/peers, partners, school, and the media as the most common sources for learning about sexual health. Girls sought out different types of information from each source. Many girls experienced conflicting messages about their sexual health and struggled to integrate the disparate cultural references to sex, sexuality, and relationships that emerged from these different spheres of social life. Girls often had to navigate the journey of their sexual development with little room for reflection about their own thoughts, feelings, desires, and decisions. Health care providers, especially those in mental health, are in an optimal position to promote girls' physical, developmental, and emotional sexual health.
Hipwell, A E; Stepp, S D; Keenan, K; Allen, A; Hoffmann, A; Rottingen, L; McAloon, R
To examine the association between dating violence perpetration and victimization and sexually risky behaviors among sexual minority and heterosexual adolescent girls. Adolescent girls reported on sexual orientation, sexual behaviors, and risk-taking, and their use of, and experience with, dating violence in the past year. Data were analyzed using multinomial regression adjusted for race, poverty, living in a single parent household, and gender of current partner to examine (1) whether sexual minority status was associated with sexual risk behaviors after sociodemographic correlates of sexual risk were controlled; and (2) whether dating violence context accounted for elevated risk. Urban, population-based sample of girls interviewed in the home. 1,647 adolescent girls (38% European American, 57% African American, and 5% other) aged 17 years. Over one-third of the sample lived in poverty. None. Sexual risk-taking. Sexual minority status differentiated girls engaging in high sexual risk-taking from those reporting none, after controlling for sociodemographic and relationship characteristics. Dating violence perpetration and victimization made unique additional contributions to this model and did not account for the elevated risk conferred by sexual minority status. Sexual minority girls (SMGs) were more likely than heterosexual girls to report high sexual risk-taking and teen dating violence victimization. As with heterosexual girls, sexual risk-taking among SMGs was compounded by dating violence, which was not explained by partner gender. Adolescent girls' risky sexual behavior may be reduced by interventions for teen dating violence regardless of sexual minority status. Copyright © 2013 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Looman, Jan; Abracen, Jeffrey
Data for both sexual and violent recidivism for the Static-99, Risk Matrix 2000 (RM 2000), Rapid Risk Assessment for Sex Offense Recidivism (RRASOR), and Static-2002 are reported for 419 released sexual offenders assessed at the Regional Treatment Centre Sexual Offender Treatment Program. Data are analyzed by offender type as well as the group as…
Sexual coercion affects the individual through multiple short- and long-term medical, emotional, psychological and social consequences, and adolescents are particularly at high risk. Sexual coercion is hypothesised to negatively affect adolescents' decision-making around their sexual behaviours and other risk behaviours.
Purpose: Several studies have documented the high sexual activities and risky sexual behaviours among adolescents in most parts of the world thus putting them at high risk of contacting the HIV infection and other complications. This study aimed to determine sexual risk factors among adolescents in secondary schools in ...
Marengo, Eliana; Martino, Diego J; Igoa, Ana; Fassi, Guillermo; Scápola, María; Urtueta Baamonde, Mariana; Strejilevich, Sergio A
The aim of this study was to investigate sexual health and sexual risk behaviors for sexually transmitted infections (STI) among women with bipolar disorder (BDW). Sixty-three euthymic women diagnosed with bipolar disorder type I, II or not otherwise specified were included and matched with a control group of 63 healthy women. Demographic and clinical data, structured sexual health measures and extensive assessment of sexual risk behavior were obtained and compared between groups. BDW had casual partners, were in non-monogamous sexual partnerships and had sex with partners with unknown HIV condition more frequently than healthy control women. History of two or more STI was more frequent among BDW. Inclusion of sexual behavior risk assessment among BDW in treatment is necessary to better identify those women with higher risk for STI and to take measures to improve their sexual health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
In South Africa, new HIV infections are concentrated among persons aged 15–24 years. The university population falls within this age group and are prone to higher-risk behaviours that place them at risk of acquiring HIV. In a study to assess this risk among sexually active students, we classified higher-risk sexual ...
Engstrom, Malitta; Winham, Katherine; Gilbert, Louisa
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is often considered an important distal factor in HIV sexual risk behaviors; however, there are limited and mixed findings regarding this relationship among women experiencing substance use problems. In addition, research with this population of women has yet to examine differences in observed CSA-HIV sexual risk behaviors relationships by CSA type and characteristics. This study examines relationships between CSA coding, type, and characteristics and HIV sexual risk behaviors with main intimate partners among a random sample of 390 women in methadone treatment in New York City who completed individual interviews with trained female interviewers. Findings from logistic regression analyses indicate that CSA predicts substance use with sexual activity, with variations by CSA coding, type, and characteristics; however, the role of CSA is more limited than expected. Having a main partner with HIV risk mediates some relationships between CSA and drinking four or more drinks prior to sex. Intimate partner violence is the most consistent predictor of sexual risk behaviors. Other salient factors include polysubstance use, depression, social support, recent incarceration, relationship characteristics, and HIV status. This study contributes to understanding of relationships between CSA and HIV sexual risk behaviors and key correlates associated with HIV sexual risk behaviors among women in methadone treatment. It also highlights the complexity of measuring CSA and its association with sexual risk behaviors and the importance of comprehensive approaches to HIV prevention that address psychological, relational, situational, and substance use experiences associated with sexual risk behaviors among this population.
Black, Sandra R; Schmiege, Sarah; Bull, Sheana
Perception of peer behaviors is an important predictor of actual risk behaviors among youth. However, we lack understanding of peer influence through social media and of actual and perceived peer behavior concordance. The purpose of this research is to document the relationship between individual perception of and actual peer sexual risk behavior using online social networks. The data are a result of a secondary analysis of baseline self-reported and peer-reported sexual risk behavior from a ...
... provider about the risks and benefits before taking hormone therapy . You may want to avoid taking estrogen combined with progesterone or progestin. If you have a family history of breast cancer, ask your provider about genetic ...
As internet penetration surges in different parts of the world, access to a wide range of subject matters also increases. Matters of sexuality are no exceptions. While there is ample empirical evidence that youths seek knowledge about sexuality, and get involved in sexually stimulating and/or gratifying activities on the internet, ...
Danielson, Carla Kmett; Walsh, Kate; McCauley, Jenna; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Brown, Jennifer L; Sales, Jessica M; Rose, Eve; Wingood, Gina M; Diclemente, Ralph J
Latent class analysis (LCA) is a useful statistical tool that can be used to enhance understanding of how various patterns of combined sexual behavior risk factors may confer differential levels of HIV infection risk and to identify subtypes among African American adolescent girls. Data for this analysis is derived from baseline assessments completed prior to randomization in an HIV prevention trial. Participants were African American girls (n=701) aged 14-20 years presenting to sexual health clinics. Girls completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview, which assessed a range of variables regarding sexual history and current and past sexual behavior. Two latent classes were identified with the probability statistics for the two groups in this model being 0.89 and 0.88, respectively. In the final multivariate model, class 1 (the "higher risk" group; n=331) was distinguished by a higher likelihood of >5 lifetime sexual partners, having sex while high on alcohol/drugs, less frequent condom use, and history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), when compared with class 2 (the "lower risk" group; n=370). The derived model correctly classified 85.3% of participants into the two groups and accounted for 71% of the variance in the latent HIV-related sexual behavior risk variable. The higher risk class also had worse scores on all hypothesized correlates (e.g., self-esteem, history of sexual assault or physical abuse) relative to the lower risk class. Sexual health clinics represent a unique point of access for HIV-related sexual risk behavior intervention delivery by capitalizing on contact with adolescent girls when they present for services. Four empirically supported risk factors differentiated higher versus lower HIV risk. Replication of these findings is warranted and may offer an empirical basis for parsimonious screening recommendations for girls presenting for sexual healthcare services.
Shaw, Stacey A; El-Bassel, Nabila
This systematic review examines the relationship between religion and sexual HIV risk behavior. It focuses primarily on how studies have conceptualized and defined religion, methodologies, and sexual risk outcomes. We also describe regions where studies were conducted and mechanisms by which religion may be associated with sexual risk. We included 137 studies in this review, classifying them as measuring: (1) only religious affiliation (n = 57), (2) only religiosity (n = 48), and (3) both religious affiliation and religiosity (n = 32). A number of studies identified lower levels of sexual HIV risk among Muslims, although many of these examined HIV prevalence rather than specific behavioral risk outcomes. Most studies identified increased religiosity to be associated with lower levels of sexual HIV risk. This finding persists but is weaker when the outcome considered is condom use. The paper reviews ways in which religion may contribute to increase and reduction in sexual HIV risk, gaps in research, and implications for future research on religion and HIV.
Mittal, Mona; Senn, Theresa E; Carey, Michael P
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with a wide range of negative outcomes, including sexual risk behavior. This cross-sectional study explored mediators of the relationship between IPV and risky sexual behavior in 717 women recruited from a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic. Participants were recruited from a public STD clinic in upstate New York as part of a randomized controlled trial that was designed to evaluate several sexual risk reduction interventions. They completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview in a private room. Among these women, 18% reported IPV in the past 3 months and 57% reported lifetime experience of IPV. Recent IPV was associated with greater sexual risk, as measured by more episodes of unprotected sex (overall and with a steady partner). Although IPV was associated with depressive symptoms and drug use before sex, these variables did not mediate the relationship between IPV and sexual risk behavior. The results indicate that IPV is common among women who attend an STD clinic and warrants increased attention. Research is needed to better understand the pathways linking IPV and HIV risk in women, to optimize the design of effective interventions.
Jones, Jamal; Salazar, Laura F; Crosby, Richard
Young Black men (YBM), aged 13 to 24 years, face a disproportionate burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). STI acquisition among YBM is due to incorrect and inconsistent condom use and is exacerbated by multiple sexual partners. Sexual and reproductive health is influenced by a complex interaction of biological, psychological, and social determinants that contribute to increased risk for STI acquisition. However, there are key social determinants of sexual health that play a major role in adolescent sexual risk-taking behaviors: gender norms, environment, peers, and families as well as a desire to impregnate a woman. Associations between contextual factors (risky environmental context, desire to impregnate a woman, and peer norms supportive of unsafe sex) and sexual risk behaviors were examined among a sample of YBM attending adolescent health clinics. This study used baseline data from a randomized controlled trial ( N = 702). Parental monitoring was also examined as an effect modifier of those associations. Sexual risk behaviors were the frequency of condomless vaginal sex, number of sexual partners within the previous 2 months, and lifetime number of sexual partners. Mean age was 19.7. In the adjusted model, peer norms was the only significant predictor for all sexual risk outcomes ( p < .05). Parental monitoring was an effect modifier for the perceived peer norms and lifetime sexual partners association ( p = .053) where the effect of peer norms on lifetime sexual partners was lower for participants with higher levels of perceived parental monitoring.
Normand, Claude L; Sallafranque-St-Louis, François
Studies demonstrate that youth are vulnerable to online sexual solicitation. However, no study has estimated this risk for youth diagnosed with an intellectual or developmental disability (IDD). A literature review of the risk factors associated with online sexual solicitation in youths was done using electronic databases, such as PsychInFO, ERIC, MEDLINE and Scopus. Fifty-seven published papers were found relevant. However, only two pertained to the population with IDD. Sexual and physical abuse, social isolation, loneliness, depression, and chatting were found to increase the risk of being prey to sexual solicitation on the Internet. Many of these risk factors are even more prevalent in youth with IDD than in the general population. Recommendations are made for future research to help understand and prevent sexual cybersolicitation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Aim The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate the association between mental disorder and risk of sexual HIV transmission in a low-income country with a generalized HIV epidemic. Specific objectives were to investigate in Uganda, (1) the association between common mental disorder and sexual risk behaviour, (2) how severe mental disorder could influence sexual risk behaviour, (3) the prevalence of HIV in persons with severe mental disorder, and (4) the association of severe mental d...
Gras, M. J.; Weide, J. F.; Langendam, M. W.; Coutinho, R. A.; van den Hoek, A.
To study (1) HIV prevalence; (2) sexual risk behaviour; (3) sexual mixing patterns; (4) determinants of disassortative (between-group) mixing among migrant groups in Amsterdam, the Netherlands and to gain insight into the potential for heterosexual spread of HIV/sexually transmitted diseases.
Schry, Amie R.; White, Susan W.
Sexual victimization is prevalent among college women and is associated with adverse psychological consequences. Social anxiety, particularly related to interpersonal interaction, may increase risk of sexual victimization among college women by decreasing sexual assertiveness and decreasing the likelihood of using assertive resistance techniques.…
This study is an ongoing project related the problem of sexual harassment in academic setting. The objectives are (i) to determine the awareness of sexual harassment among students in higher learning institutions, (ii) to identify the existence of sexual harassment in higher learning institutions, and (iii) to investigate the risk ...
May 27, 2013 ... such as forced sex have been reported.7,9 Unprotected sexual intercourse among adolescents is prevalent, plac- ing them at risk for HIV infection, other sexually trans- mitted disease and unintended pregnancy.10. Hormones have effects on sexual motivation and behav- ior and in both sexes these effects ...
Martyn, Kristy K.; Darling-Fisher, Cynthia; Pardee, Michelle; Ronis, David L.; Felicetti, Irene L.; Saftner, Melissa A.
This study was conducted to explore the effects of an event history calendar (EHC) approach on adolescent sexual risk communication and sexual activity. Adolescent school-linked health clinic patients (n = 30) who reported sexual activity self-administered the EHC that was used by nurse practitioners (NPs; n = 2) during a clinic visit. Immediately…
In Australia, there is a growing expectation that sexuality education should reduce the risks associated with youth sex by providing young people with information on protecting their sexual health. However, this information may be insufficient to ensure that young people make choices that support their sexual safety and autonomy. This paper…
Method: A total of 300 randomly selected migrant oil workers were assessed using structured questionnaires to evaluate key high – risk sexual behavioral parameters such as multiplicity of sexual partners, bisexuality (closet homosexuality), high grade sexual behaviour and lesbianism. Sampling period was two months with ...
Champion, J D; Piper, J; Shain, R N; Perdue, S T; Newton, E R
Mexican American and African American women (N = 617) with a sexually transmitted disease (STD) underwent a targeted physical exam and questioning regarding sexual abuse, current genitourinary symptomatology, and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) risk behaviors to determine the relationship between sexual abuse and risk for PID. Sexually abused women (n = 194) reported higher PID risk behaviors, including earlier coitus, more sex partners, higher STD recurrence, and a tendency toward delayed health-seeking behavior. They also reported more severe genitourinary symptomatology, confirmed by physical exam, and presumptive diagnoses of PID. These characteristics identify sexually abused women at high risk for PID. Because of its considerable impact on risk for PID, assessment for sexual abuse is essential in clinical management of women with STD and for diagnosis of PID. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Dwyer, J M
This article describes the sexual behaviours of some pregnant women that contribute to vaginal and cervical infections, and describes their lack of awareness about the dangers associated with sexually transmitted infections during pregnancy. It presents a subanalysis of data from a principal epidemiological study of the association between preterm delivery and genital hygiene habits and sexual behaviour during pregnancy. One-hundred and nine postpartum women were questioned about high-risk sexual behaviours during their pregnancies, their partner's sexually transmitted disease status and their knowledge about the effect of sexually transmitted infections on their pregnancy. Global concerns about the prevalence, diagnosis and treatment of cervical and vaginal infection from sexually transmitted diseases are discussed. The dangers associated with high-risk sexual behaviours during pregnancy, and recommendations for clinicians, are included.
Cooper, Lynne P.
Standard approaches to risk management in projects depend on the ability of teams to identify risks and quantify the probabilities and consequences of these risks (e.g., the 5 x 5 risk matrix). However, long before quantification does - or even can - occur, and long after, teams make decisions based on their pre-quantitative understanding of risk. These decisions can have long-lasting impacts on the project. While significant research has looked at the process of how to quantify risk, our understanding of how teams conceive of and manage pre-quantitative risk is lacking. This paper introduces the concept of pre-quantitative risk and discusses the implications of addressing pre-quantitative risk in projects.
Lorvick, Jennifer; Bourgois, Philippe; Wenger, Lynn D.; Arreola, Sonya G.; Lutnick, Alexandra; Wechsberg, Wendee M.; Kral, Alex H.
Background The intersection of drug use, sexual pleasure and sexual risk behavior is rarely explored when it comes to poor women who use drugs. This paper explores the relationship between sexual behavior and methamphetamine use in a community-based sample of women, exploring not only risk, but also desire, pleasure and the challenges of overcoming trauma. Methods Quantitative data were collected using standard epidemiological methods (N=322) for community-based studies. In addition, using purposive sampling, qualitative data were collected among a subset of participants (n=34). Data were integrated for mixed methods analysis. Results While many participants reported sexual risk behavior (unprotected vaginal or anal intercourse) in the quantitative survey, sexual risk was not the central narrative pertaining to sexual behavior and methamphetamine use in qualitative findings. Rather, desire, pleasure and disinhibition arose as central themes. Women described feelings of power and agency related to sexual behavior while high on methamphetamine. Findings were mixed on whether methamphetamine use increased sexual risk behavior. Conclusion The use of mixed methods afforded important insights into the sexual behavior and priorities of methamphetamine-using women. Efforts to reduce sexual risk should recognize and valorize the positive aspects of methamphetamine use for some women, building on positive feelings of power and agency as an approach to harm minimization. PMID:22954501
Jones, Jamal; Salazar, Laura F.; Crosby, Richard
Young Black men (YBM), aged 13 to 24 years, face a disproportionate burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). STI acquisition among YBM is due to incorrect and inconsistent condom use and is exacerbated by multiple sexual partners. Sexual and reproductive health is influenced by a complex interaction of biological, psychological, and social determinants that contribute to increased risk for STI acquisition. However, there are key social determinants of sexual health that play a major ...
Hsu, Hsiu-Yueh; Yu, Hsing-Yi; Lou, Jiunn-Horng; Eng, Cheng-Joo
Sexual self-efficacy plays an important role in adolescents' sexual health. The aim of this study was to test a cause-and-effect model of sexual self-concept and sexual risk cognition toward sexual self-efficacy in adolescents. The study was a cross-sectional survey. Using a random sampling method, a total of 713 junior nursing students were invited to participate in the study, and 465 valid surveys were returned, resulting in a return rate of 65.2%. The data was collected using an anonymous mailed questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used to test the relationships among sexual self-concept, sexual risk cognition, and sexual self-efficacy, as well as the mediating role of sexual risk cognition. The results revealed that the postulated model fits the data well. Sexual self-concept significantly predicted sexual risk cognition and sexual self-efficacy. Sexual risk cognition significantly predicted sexual self-efficacy and had a mediating effect on the relationship between sexual self-concept and sexual self-efficacy. Based on social cognitive theory and a structural equation model technique, this study confirmed the mediating role of sexual risk cognition in the relationship between sexual self-concept and sexual self-efficacy. Also, sexual self-concept's direct and indirect effects explaining adolescents' sexual self-efficacy were found in this study. © 2014 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2014 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.
Full Text Available Background. Several authors have examined the risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI, but no study has yet analyzed it solely in relation with sexual behaviour in women. We analyzed the association of sexual behaviour with STI risk in female university students of healthcare sciences. Methods. We designed a cross-sectional study assessing over three months vaginal intercourse with a man. The study involved 175 female university students, without a stable partner, studying healthcare sciences in Spain. Main outcome variable: STI risk (not always using male condoms. Secondary variables: sexual behaviour, method of orgasm, desire to increase the frequency of sexual relations, desire to have more variety in sexual relations, frequency of sexual intercourse with the partner, and age. The information was collected with an original questionnaire. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (ORs in order to analyze the association between the STI risk and the study variables. Results. Of the 175 women, 52 were positive for STI risk (29.7%, 95% CI [22.9–36.5%]. Factors significantly associated with STI risk (p < 0.05 included: orgasm (not having orgasms →OR = 7.01, 95% CI [1.49–33.00]; several methods →OR = 0.77, 95% CI [0.31–1.90]; one single method →OR = 1; p = 0.008 and desiring an increased frequency of sexual activities (OR = 0.27, 95% CI [0.13–0.59], p < 0.001. Conclusions. Women’s desire for sexual activities and their sexual function were significant predictors of their risk for STI. Information about sexual function is an intrinsic aspect of sexual behaviour and should be taken into consideration when seeking approaches to reduce risks for STI.
With every Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders that has been published, there has been controversy within controversy; however, what appears to be lacking is the importance of truly understanding what, why, and how the changes impact the community at large. Issues such as homosexuality, the five axial diagnostic system, and transitioning from a medical model to a biopsychosocial model have been hot topics that have led clinicians to challenge the reliability and validity of the manual throughout history. As clinicians and medical professionals, it is important to objectively look at the manual and become educated on how and why these changes exist. With that being said, this commentary aims to challenge the article " Problems with the Sexual Disorders Sections of DSM-5" by Colin A. Ross (2015). The structure of this commentary purposefully mirrors the structure of the commentary that it is challenging.
Fisher, Colleen M.
Young sexual minority males are among those at highest risk for HIV infection, yet we know relatively little about the impact of sexual identity development on HIV risk. This study used cross-sectional data to investigate factors associated with HIV-related sexual risk among a sample of sexual minority males (n = 156), ages 14 to 21 years, using…
Hill, Danielle C; Stein, L A R; Rossi, Joseph S; Magill, Molly; Clarke, Jennifer G
Rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among adolescents are on the rise. The majority of adolescents who contract STIs do so through risky sexual behavior. Previous literature has identified multiple correlates of risky sexual behaviors among adolescents, including physical and sexual victimization, mental health concerns, and substance use. Few studies, however, have examined these relationships together in a comprehensive model. The primary purpose of this study was to examine whether relationship violence was related to risky sexual behavior, and whether mental health symptoms and substance use mediated this relationship. A cross-sectional design was used, and adolescent females (N = 179), recruited from social service agencies, were 18.9 years old on average and were 37.2% White, 19.3% Black, 37.9% multiracial, and 5.6% other. Regression results revealed that females who were physically assaulted and sexually victimized by their intimate partners did engage in more sex without condoms. Mediational analyses indicated that PTSD symptoms significantly influenced the relationship between (1) physical assault and risky sexual behavior and (2) sexual victimization and risky sexual behavior. Contrary to expectations, PTSD may act to reduce risk perhaps by reducing interest in sex. It is important to address victimization, PTSD, and sexual risk in young women. More work is needed to understand these complex relationships using longitudinal designs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Quinn, Katherine; Broaddus, Michelle; Pacella, Maria
High-risk sexual behaviours include practices such as relationship violence and substance use, which often cluster together among young people in high-risk settings. Youth gang members often show high rates of such behaviours, substance use and relationship violence. This paper draws on data from in-depth interviews with male and female gang members from six different gangs to explore the role of powerful socialising peer groups that set gender, sexual and relationship roles and expectations for their male and female members. High-risk sexual behaviours among gang members included sex with multiple partners and group sex. Gang norms included the belief that male members were sexually insatiable with multiple sexual partners and that female gang members should be sexually available to male members. Alcohol and drugs were seen to have a large influence on sexual desire and the inability to use condoms. Much sexual behaviour with gangs, such as group sex, was viewed with ambivalence and seen as somewhat coercive. Finally, gendered sexual expectations (boys as sexually insatiable and girls as sexually available) made forming long-term romantic relationships problematic for gang members. The influence of gang norms such as these must be addressed in future programmes and interventions with gang members.
... individual's religion and marital status will have significant impact on the sexual risk cognition of such an individual. Psychologists, Teachers and Counselors should therefore pay attention to these variables in helping students improve their sexual risk cognition. African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues ...
It becomes a great concern if mental health status has something to do with high sexual risk behaviour in this population. For a more specific and dynamic intervention in reducing cases of HIV and AIDS in Nigeria, the study therefore examines depression, anxiety and stress as mental health variables influencing sexual risk ...
Background: In adolescents sexual risk behaviours are believed to enhance the transmission of HIV infection. This study, therefore aims to examine prevalent sexual risk behaviours of adolescents in secondary schools in a town in northern Nigeria and its relation to HIV infection. Method: A total of 883 subjects drawn from ...
Alcohol consumption has been associated with high risk sexual behaviour among key populations such as female sex workers. We explored the drivers of alcohol consumption and its relationship to high risk sexual behaviour. Participants were drawn from a cohort of 1 027 women selected from 'hot spots' in the suburbs of ...
Oidtman, Jessica; Sherman, Susan G; Morgan, Anthony; German, Danielle; Arrington-Sanders, Renata
First sex may be a sentinel event crucial to understanding sexual health trajectories of young Black same-sex attracted men (YBSSAM). We sought to understand whether satisfaction, condomless anal sex, and contextual factors during first sex were associated with sexual risk and recent condom use in YBSSAM. A total of 201 YBSSAM aged 15-24 years completed an Internet survey exploring first sex, current condom use, and sexual risk. High risk was defined as ≥3 of the following: new/concurrent sex partners, STI history, and no/inconsistent condom use. Multivariate logistic regression assessed the association between predictor (satisfaction and first condomless anal sex) and outcome (sexual risk and condomless sex in the past 3 months) variables. Mean age at first sex was 15.2 (SD = 2.9) years, and emotional satisfaction (51.7 %), physical satisfaction (63.7 %), and condomless first anal sex (55.2 %) were common. YBSSAM describing high levels of satisfaction were no more likely to be at high risk or engage in recent condomless sex. Condomless first sex (AOR = 4.57, p = .001), younger age (AOR = 3.43, p = .02), and having a partner >5 years older (AOR = 2.78, p = .03) at first sex were significantly associated with increased risk. Only condomless first sex (AOR = 4.28, p Satisfaction at first sex may not influence later sexual risk in YBSSAM. However, context of first sex, including condom use at first sex, may play an important role in subsequent risk. Prevention strategies on condom negotiation prior to first sex may help to mitigate HIV burden in YBSSAM.
Ahmed Fouad Kotb
Full Text Available Introduction: Sexual activity can affect prostate cancer pathogenesis in a variety of ways; including the proposed high androgen status, risk of sexually transmitted infections and the potential effect of retained carcinogens within the prostatic cells. Methods: PubMed review of all publications concerning sexual activity and the risk of prostate cancer was done by two researchers. Results: Few publications could be detected and data were classified as a prostate cancer risk in association with either heterosexual or homosexual activities. Conclusion: Frequent ejaculation seems to be protective from the development of prostate cancer. Multiple sexual partners may be protective from prostate cancer, excluding the risk of sexually transmitted infections. Homosexual men are at a greater risk for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
Logan, T K; Walker, Robert; Cole, Jennifer
This article has two overall goals. First, to examine the current state of sexual violence research to highlight several shortcomings in the knowledge on partner sexual violence. Second, to describe several factors to consider in future research to facilitate a more in-depth understanding of partner sexual violence. Shortcomings of the research on partner sexual violence include (1) overreliance on dichotomous yes/no representations of sexual violence experiences; (2) lack of, or inadequate documentation of the scope and nature of partner sexual violence; (3) inadequate ways to account for impairment of consent under different circumstances; (4) difficulties in discriminating unwanted from nonconsensual sexual activities; and (5) limited information about the role sexual violence plays in the larger context of coercive control. In order to facilitate a more in-depth understanding of partner sexual assault, there is a need (1) to better understand the scope and nature of partner sexual assault and (2) to better understand the role partner sexual violence plays in coercive control. By improving the measurement of this phenomenon, victims, researchers, practitioners, and those involved in the justice system might be better equipped to respond to sexual violence among intimate partners. © The Author(s) 2013.
Harris, Taylor; Rice, Eric; Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey; Wenzel, Suzanne
Experiencing sexual victimization prior to becoming homeless is common among homeless youth and is associated with increased HIV risk behavior. This study examined mediating variables that underlie this association, adding to the understanding of gender differences in these paths. Participants were homeless youth in Los Angeles recruited through service access centers who completed a computerized self-administered interview in English or Spanish using an iPad. Findings indicate a high presence of sexual victimization across both genders. Female participants experienced posttraumatic stress disorder and subsequent engagement with exchange sex, whereas male participants were primarily involved in substance use risk pathways. Results indicate paths in the association between sexual victimization and HIV risk behavior differ between male and female homeless youth. Gender-specific, mental-health-informed interventions targeting sexual risk reduction are warranted.
Heerde, Jessica A; Hemphill, Sheryl A
The use of substances among youth experiencing homelessness is an important issue in the context of addressing the developing burden of morbidities arising due to illness, injury, physical and mental health concerns, and low rates of health care utilization among this population group. Youth experiencing homelessness report engaging in and being victimized by various forms of sexual behavior. Of interest in this systematic review were published studies investigating substance use in its association with perpetration of sexual offenses, engagement in sexual risk behavior, or experience of sexual victimization among homeless youth. A systematic search of 12 psychology, health, and social science electronic databases was conducted. Search terms included "homeless*," "youth," "sex crimes," "sexual victimization," "survival sex," "rape," "drugs," and "substance abuse." Twenty-three studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. No studies statistically examining substance use in its association with perpetrating sexual offenses were located. Findings showed substance use was generally associated with sexual risk behavior or sexual victimization; however, it remains unclear whether substance use precedes or follows these behaviors and experiences. It is possible substances are used by homeless youth as a means of coping with sexual risk behavior and victimization. Implications of the review findings in relation to prevention and intervention approaches aimed to decrease the incidence and severity of health concerns among homeless youth are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.
Blom, Helena; Högberg, Ulf; Olofsson, Niclas; Danielsson, Ingela
To address the associations between emotional, physical and sexual violence, specifically multiple violence victimisation, and sexual ill health and sexual risk behaviours in youth, as well as possible gender differences. A cross-sectional population-based survey among sexually experienced youth using a questionnaire with validated questions on emotional, physical, and sexual violence victimisation, sociodemographics, health risk behaviours, and sexual ill health and sexual risk behaviours. Proportions, unadjusted/adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. The participants comprised 1192 female and 1021 male students aged 15 to 22 years. The females had experienced multiple violence (victimisation with two or three types of violence) more often than the males (21% vs. 16%). The associations between multiple violence victimisation and sexual ill health and sexual risk behaviours were consistent for both genders. Experience of/involvement in pregnancy yielded adjusted ORs of 2.4 (95% CI 1.5-3.7) for females and 2.1 (95% CI 1.3-3.4) for males, and early age at first intercourse 2.2 (95% CI 1.6-3.1) for females and 1.9 (95% CI 1.2-3.0) for males. No significantly raised adjusted ORs were found for non-use of contraceptives in young men or young women, or for chlamydia infection in young men. Several types of sexual ill health and sexual risk behaviours are strongly associated with multiple violence victimisation in both genders. This should be taken into consideration when counselling young people and addressing their sexual and reproductive health.
P Fitzgibbons, Richard
Transsexual issues and sexual reassignment surgery (SRS) are receiving a great deal of attention and support in the media, schools, and government. Given the early age at which youth seek treatment for transsexual attractions (TSA) and gender dysphoria and given the serious risks associated with such treatment, it is essential that family and youth be advised about these risks and alternative treatment options. Physicians and mental-health professionals have a professional responsibility to know and communicate the serious risks, in particular risk of suicide, that are associated with SRS; the spontaneous resolution of TSA in youth; the psychological conflicts that have been identified in such patients and in their parents; the successful treatment of conflicts associated TSA and the regrets of those who have been through SRS. SRS and gender theory are also viewed from the faith perspective of Pope Francis and Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI. Lay summary: Transsexuals and sex-change operations are receiving a great deal of attention. Young people may seek treatment for transsexual attractions at an early age even though these attractions may go away on their own. Psychological conflicts have been identified in these patients and their parents and may be successfully treated. There are serious risks associated with sex change. They include the risk of depressive illness and suicide. Physicians and mental-health professionals should know these risks and the regrets of those who have been through sex-change operations. These patients and their families also should be informed of other treatment options.
Secor-Turner, Molly; McMorris, Barbara; Sieving, Renee; Bearinger, Linda H.
CONTEXT Understanding the interplay of multiple contexts of adolescents’ sexual risk behaviors is essential to helping them avoid pregnancy and STDs. Although a body of research has identified multiple individual- and family-level variables associated with adolescents’ sexual risk behaviors, relatively few studies have examined relationships between these behaviors and latent indicators of unstable, chaotic environments. METHODS In 2007–2008, a sample of 241 sexually active adolescent females who were at high risk for pregnancy and STDs were recruited through two school-based clinics and two community clinics in Minneapolis and St. Paul. Confirmatory factor analysis was used with baseline data to specify latent constructs of individual risk and family disengagement. Structural equation models examined longitudinal relationships between baseline measures of these constructs and sexual risk behaviors assessed six months later. RESULTS The latent construct of individual risk encompassed substance use, violence perpetration, violence victimization and having witnessed violence; that of family disengagement included family disconnection, poor family communication and perceived lack of safety at home. Baseline level of individual risk was positively associated with number of male sex partners six months later (path coefficient, 0.2); it was not associated with consistent condom use at follow-up. Level of family disengagement was negatively associated with condom use consistency six months later (−0.3), but was not associated with number of male sex partners. CONCLUSIONS To meet the health needs of vulnerable adolescents, health systems should incorporate coordinated and interdisciplinary services that acknowledge adolescents’ relevant familial and social contexts. PMID:23750624
Fazel, Seena; Sjöstedt, Gabrielle; Långström, Niklas; Grann, Martin
Sexual offenders constitute a substantial proportion of the older male prison population. Recent research findings, with potential consequences for risk management, indicate that recidivism risk might be lower in older sexual offenders. We followed up all adult male sexual offenders released from prison in Sweden during 1993-1997 (N=1,303) for criminal reconviction for an average of 8.9 years. We studied rates of repeat offending (sexual and any violent) by four age bands (<25, 25-39, 40-54, and 55+years), and examined whether risk factors for recidivism remained stable across age groups. Results showed that recidivism rates decreased significantly in older age bands. In addition, the effect of certain risk factors varied by age band. These findings on recidivism rates in older sexual offenders concur with studies from the United Kingdom, United States, and Canada and may suggest some generalizability in Western settings. Further research is needed to address underlying mechanisms.
Tsui, Emma K; Leonard, Lori; Lenoir, Chavonne; Ellen, Jonathan M
This paper is about sexual concurrency, or maintaining multiple sexual partnerships that overlap in time. Sexual concurrency is a concept that is used in the field of public health to explain the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. Sexual concurrency has also been proposed as a site of intervention to reduce sexually transmitted infection (STI) rates, particularly among those populations who carry the heaviest STI burden: adolescents and African Americans. In this paper, we use ethnographic data collected from a group of African American adolescents living in Baltimore to examine the socially produced configurations of risks and relationships that are obscured by the term sexual concurrency. The data we present show the limits of this concept, and suggest that structural reforms, including improvements to education, drug treatment, and work opportunities, are necessary to reduce racial disparities in STI rates.
Rice, Eric; Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey; Sanchez, Monica; Montoya, Jorge; Plant, Aaron; Kordic, Timothy
Sexting (sending/receiving sexually explicit texts and images via cell phone) may be associated with sexual health consequences among adolescents. However, to date, no published data from a probability-based sample has examined associations between sexting and sexual activity. A probability sample of 1839 students was collected alongside the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey in Los Angeles high schools. Logistic regressions were used to assess the correlates of sexting behavior and associations between sexting and sexual risk-taking. Fifteen percent of adolescents with cell phone access reported sexting, and 54% reported knowing someone who had sent a sext. Adolescents whose peers sexted were more likely to sext themselves (odds ratio [OR] = 16.87, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.62-29.59). Adolescents who themselves sexted were more likely to report being sexually active (OR = 7.17, 95% CI: 5.01-10.25). Nonheterosexual students were more likely to report sexting (OR = 2.74, 95% CI: 1.86-4.04), sexual activity (OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.07-2.15), and unprotected sex at last sexual encounter (OR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.17-2.89). Sexting, rather than functioning as an alternative to "real world" sexual risk behavior, appears to be part of a cluster of risky sexual behaviors among adolescents. We recommend that clinicians discuss sexting as an adolescent-friendly way of engaging patients in conversations about sexual activity, prevention of sexually transmitted infections, and unwanted pregnancy. We further recommend that discussion about sexting and its associated risk behavior be included in school-based sexual health curricula.
Houck, Christopher D; Barker, David; Rizzo, Christie; Hancock, Evan; Norton, Alicia; Brown, Larry K
This study aimed to examine the prevalence of sexting behaviors (sexually explicit messages and/or pictures) among an at-risk sample of early adolescents as well as the associations between sexting behaviors and sexual behaviors, risk-related cognitions, and emotional regulation skills. It also aimed to determine whether differences in risk were associated with text-based versus photo-based sexts. Seventh-grade adolescents participating in a sexual risk prevention trial for at-risk early adolescents completed a computer-based survey at baseline regarding sexting behavior (having sent sexually explicit messages and/or pictures), sexual activities, intentions to have sex, perceived approval of sexual activity, and emotional regulation skills. Twenty-two percent of the sample reported having sexted in the past 6 months; sexual messages were endorsed by 17% (n = 71), sexual messages and photos by 5% (n = 21). Pictures were endorsed significantly more often by females (χ(2) = 7.33, P = .03) and Latinos (χ(2) = 7.27, P = .03). Sexting of any kind was associated with higher rates of engaging in a variety of sexual behaviors, and sending photos was associated with higher rates of sexual activity than sending text messages only. This was true for a range of behaviors from touching genitals over clothes (odds ratio [OR] = 1.98, P = .03) to oral sex (OR = 2.66, P Sexting behavior (both photo and text messages) was not uncommon among middle school youth and co-occurred with sexual behavior. These data suggest that phone behaviors, even flirtatious messages, may be an indicator of risk. Clinicians, parents, and health programs should discuss sexting with early adolescents.
Lanza, Stephanie T.; Kugler, Kari C.; Mathur, Charu
Understanding the multiple factors that place individuals at risk for sexual risk behavior is critical for developing effective intervention programs. Regression-based methods are commonly used to estimate the average effects of risk factors, however such results can be difficult to translate to prevention implications at the individual level. Although differential effects can be examined to some extent by including interaction terms, as risk factors and moderators are added to the model inte...
Fogler, Jason M.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Rowe, Erin; Jensen, Jennifer; Clarke, Stephanie
Incorporating elements from broadband theories of psychological adaptation to extreme adversity, including Summit's (1983) Child Sexual Abuse Accommodation Syndrome, Finkelhor and Browne's (1986) Traumagenic Dynamics Model of sexual abuse, and Pyszczynski and colleagues' (1997) Terror Management Theory, this paper proposes a unified theoretical…
Levesque, Maurice J.; Nave, Christopher S.; Lowe, Charles A.
Research has shown that, after brief opposite-gender interactions, men perceive women more sexually than women perceive men (e.g., Abbey, 1982). This study examined interpersonal perceptions following dyadic cross-gender interactions between unacquainted individuals. Of particular concern were perceptions of sexual traits, interaction qualities,…
Munro-Kramer, Michelle L.; Dulin, Alexandra C.; Gaither, Caroline
Objective: Sexual assault is a pervasive crime on our college campuses and many survivors do not seek post-assault resources. This study will explore components of alternative interventions to consider in the development of campus-based interventions for sexual assault survivors. Participants: Three stakeholder groups including survivors (n = 8),…
Barriers to sexual abstinence include peer pressure, myths and wrong perceptions about sex, influence of drugs and alcohol and the influence of television. Based on how it is delivered, school-based sex education was viewed as both an enabler and barrier to sexual abstinence. It is recommended that programs to ...
Testa, Maria; Hoffman, Joseph H.; Livingston, Jennifer A.
Objective: Women who experience sexual victimization, whether in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood, are at elevated risk of sexual revictimization. The mechanism responsible for this robust association is unclear, however. The present study proposed and tested a prospective, mediated model that posited that the association between adolescent…
Secor-Turner, Molly; Sieving, Renee E.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Skay, Carol
The objective of this study was to describe prevalent informal sources of information about sex and examine associations between informal sources of information about sex and sexual risk outcomes among sexually experienced adolescents. Work involved the secondary analysis of data from the Minnesota Student Survey, a statewide survey to monitor…
Træen, B.; Hald, Gert Martin; Noor, S. W.
-related sexual risk behavior is mediated by men's sexual self-esteem, and 3) the relationship between SEM consumption and sexual risk behavior is mediated by condom use self-efficacy. A cross-sectional, Internet-based survey on exposure to SEM and sexual behavior of 1,391 MSM in the USA was conducted in 2011...... was mediated by condom use self-efficacy in an indirect path. However, SEM did not influence sexual risk behavior via sexual self-esteem. To promote STI prevention, the actors in SEM may be used as role models in managing condom use in sexual contexts....
While many studies confirm the association between HIV, alcohol and injecting drug use by female sex workers (FSWs), little is known about their use of marijuana, khat and other substances and the association of these substances with HIV, risky sexual behaviour, and sexual violence. To better understand this association, ...
Turner, Daniel; Rettenberger, Martin; Yoon, Dahlnym; Klein, Verena; Eher, Reinhard; Briken, Peer
Child sexual abuse occurring in a child- or youth-serving institution or organization has attracted great public and scientific attention. In light of the particular personal and offense-related characteristics of men who have abused children within such an institution or organization, it is of special importance to evaluate the predictive performance of currently applied risk assessment instruments in this offender population. Therefore, the present study assessed the risk ratings and predictive performance of four risk assessment instruments and one instrument assessing protective factors concerning any, violent and sexual recidivism in child sexual abusers working with children (CSA-W) in comparison with extra-familial child sexual abusers (CSA-E) and intra-familial child sexual abusers (CSA-I). The results indicate that CSA-W mostly recidivate with a sexual offense. Although all included risk measures seem to function with CSA-W, the Static-99 seems to be the instrument that performs best in predicting sexual recidivism in CSA-W. CSA-W had the most protective factors measured with the Structured Assessment of PROtective Factors (SAPROF). While the SAPROF could not predict desistance from recidivism in CSA-W, it predicted desistance from any recidivism in all CSA. As CSA-W frequently hold many indicators for pedophilic sexual interests but only a few for antisocial tendencies, it can be suggested that CSA-W are at an increased risk for sexual recidivism and thus risk measures especially designed for sexual recidivism work best in CSA-W. Nevertheless, CSA-W also hold many protective factors; however, their impact on CSA-W is not clear yet and needs further study. © The Author(s) 2014.
There was a significant association between alcohol-related problems and risky sexual behavior. Alcohol-related problems are fairly common in people already infected with HIV/AIDS and are associated with high-risk sexual behavior. Thus, screening and treatment should be part of an effective HIV intervention program.
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Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are responsible for a variety of health problems especially among the youth who engage in risky sexual behavior. There are few studies that describe STIs among the youths in Northern Nigeria. The objective of the study was to assess knowledge of STIs and risk factors ...
Sep 3, 2017 ... Abstract. Background: Early adolescent sexual activity remains a recurring problem with negative psychosocial and health outcomes. The age at sexual debut varies from place to place and among different individuals and is associated with varying factors. The aim was to determine the prevalence and risk ...
The issue of homosexuality attracts global debate, given that this constitutes risk factor for sexually transmitted diseases. An exploration of socio-cultural, religious and sexual activities of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex sector would inform future Human Immunodeficiency Virus programming.
Pascoal, Patrícia M.; Byers, E. Sandra; Alvarez, Maria-João; Santos-Iglesias, Pablo; Nobre, Pedro J.; Pereira, Cicero Roberto; Laan, Ellen
Researchers have demonstrated that several dimensions of sexual functioning (e.g., sexual desire, arousal, orgasm) are associated with the sexual satisfaction of individuals in a committed mixed-sex (male-female) relationship. We extended this research by comparing a dyadic model that included both
Conley, Terri D; Peplau, Letitia Anne
Research shows that in most situations, women perceive themselves to be at greater risk of harm than do men. Gustafson's gender role perspective on risk perception suggests that this is because women are socialized to feel that they need protection, especially from men. Based on Gustafson's gender role perspective on sex differences in risk perception, we predicted that in at least one context, perception of romantic partners' sexual risk, this gender difference would be reversed. Specifically, women should rate boyfriends as having lower risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) than boyfriends rate themselves having. In two studies, we examined heterosexual couples and compared women's perceptions of their boyfriends' sexual risk level with the boyfriend's self-perception of sexual risk. Self-reported measures of risk for STIs, perception of romantic partners' risk for STIs. On multiple measures, women rated their boyfriends as having a lower risk for STIs than the men rated themselves. Men did not show this pattern and, in some cases, showed the reverse pattern of perceiving their girlfriends to have a greater level of risk than girlfriends themselves believed they had. Consistent with Gustafson's gender role perspective on risk perception, heterosexual women perceived their romantic partners as relatively less risky in terms of STI risk than men perceived themselves. One potential implication of this finding is that women may be less likely to protect themselves against disease in close romantic relationships because they believe that their partners are low risk, regardless of the partners' actual risk levels.
Felder, C; Tucker, J
Because sexuality education for teenage men may affect contraceptive use, there is an increased emphasis in family planning clinics on sexuality education for young men. Friends are the primary source of sexual learning for young males, rather than families or schools. Yet, teenage pregnancy can seriously affect a young man's life in financial and career-limiting ways. Sex role stereotypes, especially the masculinity role, contributes to males' reluctance to obtain information about sexuality and contraception. Stereotyping reinforces the devaluation of the female as a sexual object, and increases males' homophobia. The peer pressure young males feel to initiate sexual activity is intense. This makes young males reluctant to refuse or delay sexual activity. The idea of delaying or refusing intercourse needs to be presented as an action that can be done without the threat of damaging one's self-image or losing peers' respect. Better communication with sexual partners would serve to improve the effective use of contraceptives. Promotion of family planning as a "man's issue" would involve men in the decision to use contraception, a decision that is largely seen as determined solely by women. Within today's teen culture, sex is acceptable, but birth control is not. However, the condom is an easy, effective birth control method for use by teen males. Condoms do not require a prescription, are safe, easy to use, and can prevent the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. Parents, schools, and family planning clinics need to involve men in family planning and help them to feel more positive about contraception. Male involvement planning has an important part to play in broadening young people's perceptions of their roles in society.
McCall, George J.
Sexual assault prevention programming remains a confused, scattered, and sporadic enterprise with little scientific underpinning. Sexual assault prevention suffers because it neither fits the traditional crime prevention model, nor the traditional public health model of prevention programming. Traces political and technical consequences, and…
Becnel, J N; Zeller, M H; Noll, J G; Sarwer, D B; Reiter-Purtill, J; Michalsky, M; Peugh, J; Biro, F M
There is an increasing adolescent population with severe obesity with impairments in social and romantic relationships that are seeking clinical weight management, including weight loss surgery (WLS). To document romantic, sexual and sexual risk behaviours in a clinical sample of adolescent females with severe obesity (BMI > 40 kg/m 2 ) compared to those of healthy weight (HW). This multi-site study-an ancillary to a prospective longitudinal observational study documenting health in adolescents having WLS-presents pre-operative/baseline data from 108 females undergoing WLS, 68 severely obese seeking lifestyle intervention and 118 of HW. Romantic and sexual risk behaviour and birth control information sources were assessed using the Sexual Activities and Attitudes Questionnaire (SAAQ). Severely obese females reported engaging in fewer romantic and sexual behaviours compared to HW. Similar to HW, a subgroup (25%) of severely females were engaging in higher rates of sexual risk behaviours and reported pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). A considerable number (28-44%) reported receiving no birth control information from physicians. Discussion topics with the adolescent patient should extend beyond reproductive health needs (e.g. contraception, unintended pregnancies) to include guidance around navigating romantic and sexual health behaviours that are precursors to these outcomes. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.
Mollborn, Stefanie; Everett, Bethany
National studies have not analyzed sexual identity disparities in high school completion, college enrollment, or college completion in the United States. Using Add Health data, we document the relationship between adult sexual orientation and each of these outcomes. Many sexual minority respondents experienced disadvantages in adolescent academic achievement, school experiences, and social environments. This translates into educational attainment in complex, gendered ways. We find that the socially privileged completely heterosexual identity predicts higher educational attainment for women, while for men it is often a liability. Mostly heterosexual and gay identities are educationally beneficial for men but not women. There are college completion disparities between gay and mostly heterosexual women and their completely heterosexual counterparts. Bisexual respondents, especially women, have particularly problematic outcomes. Adolescent experiences, attitudes, and social contexts explain some of these differences. From adolescence through college, sexual minority groups, but especially females, need intervention to reduce substantial educational disparities. PMID:26257457
Mollborn, Stefanie; Everett, Bethany
National studies have not analyzed sexual identity disparities in high school completion, college enrollment, or college completion in the United States. Using Add Health data, we document the relationship between adult sexual orientation and each of these outcomes. Many sexual minority respondents experienced disadvantages in adolescent academic achievement, school experiences, and social environments. This translates into educational attainment in complex, gendered ways. We find that the socially privileged completely heterosexual identity predicts higher educational attainment for women, while for men it is often a liability. Mostly heterosexual and gay identities are educationally beneficial for men but not women. There are college completion disparities between gay and mostly heterosexual women and their completely heterosexual counterparts. Bisexual respondents, especially women, have particularly problematic outcomes. Adolescent experiences, attitudes, and social contexts explain some of these differences. From adolescence through college, sexual minority groups, but especially females, need intervention to reduce substantial educational disparities.
AJRH Managing Editor
1Demography and Population Studies Programme, Schools of Public Health and Social Sciences, University of Witwatersrand, ... understanding of the relationship between family characteristics, poverty rating and risky sexual behaviour among students. (Afr. J Reprod ...... behavioral change between the adolescent and.
Full Text Available Pathogens often follow more than one transmission route during outbreaks-from needle sharing plus sexual transmission of HIV to small droplet aerosol plus fomite transmission of influenza. Thus, controlling an infectious disease outbreak often requires characterizing the risk associated with multiple mechanisms of transmission. For example, during the Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa, weighing the relative importance of funeral versus health care worker transmission was essential to stopping disease spread. As a result, strategic policy decisions regarding interventions must rely on accurately characterizing risks associated with multiple transmission routes. The ongoing Zika virus (ZIKV outbreak challenges our conventional methodologies for translating case-counts into route-specific transmission risk. Critically, most approaches will fail to accurately estimate the risk of sustained sexual transmission of a pathogen that is primarily vectored by a mosquito-such as the risk of sustained sexual transmission of ZIKV. By computationally investigating a novel mathematical approach for multi-route pathogens, our results suggest that previous epidemic threshold estimates could under-estimate the risk of sustained sexual transmission by at least an order of magnitude. This result, coupled with emerging clinical, epidemiological, and experimental evidence for an increased risk of sexual transmission, would strongly support recent calls to classify ZIKV as a sexually transmitted infection.
Remien, R H; Carballo-Diéguez, A; Wagner, G
Several studies have demonstrated individual-level determinants of HIV sexual risk behaviour. Very little research has been conducted to identify couple-level factors associated with unsafe sexual behaviour. As part of a three-year study of more than 100 serodiscordant male couples, we conducted an in-depth qualitative study of 15 Latino and non-Latino male couples via focus groups and a follow-up telephone survey. We identified the sexual risk behaviour that occurs in these male couples, their perceptions of susceptibility for HIV transmission, and numerous couple-level and intrapsychic factors associated with their risk behaviour. We also describe the challenges confronted by these couples and barriers to emotional intimacy and couple satisfaction. Finally, we provide suggestions for ways of intervening to facilitate improved couple functioning, pleasure, satisfaction, and communication, and ways of reducing sexual risk behaviour without loss of emotional intimacy.
Perceived risk of reinfection among individuals treated for sexually transmitted infections in Northern Ethiopia: implication for use in clinical practice. Mache Tsadik, Yemane Berhane, Alemayehu Worku, Wondwossen Terefe ...
María Virginia Pinzón Fernández
Full Text Available Objective. To describe risks for sexual transmitted infections STI/HIV in school-children at public schools in Popayán. Methods. Cross-sectional study; 5.000 surveys were randomly applied to students aged 10 to 19. The survey contained sociodemographic, sexual health and risk variables. A descriptive statistical analysis and correlation were applied. Results. 46.6% were men and 53.4% were women; 39.2% reported having started sexual intercourse at the age of 13.2 years on average; Only 41.3% reported using condoms consistently; 29% of men reported having had 3 or more sexual partners in the past year; 23% have ITS and 39,1% consumed a psychoactive substance or alcohol. The correlation model showed a strong relation between the age of onset of sexual relations and school level. Conclusion. This study showed conditions related to sexual health practices and behaviors that may favor the risk of acquiring STI/HIV in adolescents living in contexts of vulnerability, such as low condom use, number of sexual partners, type of sexual relations and consumption of psychoactive substances.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This longitudinal study examined psychosocial factors associated with risky sexual behavior in early adolescence. Methods Data were collected through a self-report survey, the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA, which was administered in three waves between 2001 and 2003 to a cohort of incoming sixth grade students in the public school system (149 classes at 17 middle and high schools, N = 1,175 of a small northeastern city in the United States. We first examined whether internalizing and externalizing problems in sixth grade, and the rate of change in these factors during middle school, were predictive of sexual initiation two years later, when most of the sample was in eighth grade. We then assessed whether internalizing and externalizing problems in sixth grade, and the rate of change in these factors during middle school, were predictive of engaging in high risk sexual behavior over the subsequent two years. Results Externalizing factors are more predictive of sexual risk in early adolescence than are internalizing factors. Specifically, substance use and violent delinquency over the course of middle school were associated with higher, while anxiety with lower, sexual initiation rates during middle school. Additionally, increased substance use over the course of middle school was associated with greater likelihood of engaging in high risk sexual behavior. Conclusion By identifying particular psychosocial risk factors among young adolescents, the findings of this study have implications for designing multi-dimensional programs aimed at preventing health-compromising sexual behavior among young teens.
Pollack, Lance M; Boyer, Cherrie B; Weinstein, Neil D
Research on the relationship between sexual risk behavior and perceived risk for contracting a sexually transmitted infection (STI) has yielded mixed results. The objective of this study is to investigate the extent to which 3 measures of perceived risk accurately reflect 5 sexual risk behaviors in a sample of healthy, sexually active young adult women. A positive monotonic relationship between sexual risk behavior and perceived risk for STIs is hypothesized. A sample of 1192 female U.S. Marine Corps on their first duty assignment 10 to 11 months (on average) after graduation from recruit training answered a self-administered paper-and-pencil questionnaire as part of a larger study evaluating an intervention to prevent STIs and unintended pregnancy that was administered during recruit training. All but 1 of the 15 bivariate associations between sexual risk behavior and perceived risk for STIs was statistically significant. The expected positive monotonic relationship was observed except for condom use. Women who never used condoms during intercourse reported lower levels of perceived risk than occasional users and, in some subgroups, consistent condom users. Multivariate analyses further explored the relationship between condom use and perceived risk. The results suggest that interventions directed at raising awareness of susceptibility to STIs should emphasize how the individual's own behavior puts them at risk, regardless of situation or context.
To determine the association between mental health, substance use and HIV sexual risk behaviour among a sample of university ... analysis, HIV risk behaviour was associated with, among men, hazardous or harmful alcohol use and having screened positive for PTSD, and ..... risk behaviors among U.S. adolescents.
Rice, Eric; Winetrobe, Hailey; Holloway, Ian W; Montoya, Jorge; Plant, Aaron; Kordic, Timothy
Online partner seeking is associated with sexual risk behavior among young adults (specifically men who have sex with men), but this association has yet to be explored among a probability sample of adolescents. Moreover, cell phone internet access and sexual risk taking online and offline have not been explored. A probability sample (N = 1,831) of Los Angeles Unified School District high school students was collected in 2011. Logistic regression models assessed relationships between specific sexual risk behaviors (online sexual solicitation, seeking partners online, sex with internet-met partners, condom use) and frequency of internet use, internet access points, and demographics. Students with cell phone internet access were more likely to report being solicited online for sex, being sexually active, and having sex with an internet-met partner. Bisexual-identifying students reported higher rates of being approached online for sex, being sexually active, and not using condoms at last sex. Gay, lesbian, and questioning (GLQ) students were more likely to report online partner seeking and unprotected sex at last sex with an internet-met partner. Additionally, having sex with an internet-met partner was associated with being male, online sexual solicitation, and online partner seeking. Internet- and school-based sexual health programs should incorporate safety messages regarding online sexual solicitation, seeking sex partners online, and engaging in safer sex practices with all partners. Programs must target adolescents of all sexual identities, as adolescents may not yet be "out," and bisexual and GLQ adolescents are more likely to engage in risky sex behaviors.
Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Campbell, Benjamin; Agnew, Christopher R; Thompson, Vaida; Udry, J Richard
Release of the hormone cortisol represents a distress response to novel or stressful situations. Individual differences in such reactivity have been conceptualized as representing a relatively enduring, generalizable trait. In this study, cortisol responses to two experimentally manipulated "sexual" and "nonsexual" stressors were used to examine whether stress reactivity is related to sexual and nonsexual risk behavior in young adult males. Analyses were based on 150 males 18 to 25 years old; risk behavior was assessed in confidential, self-administered questionnaires. Analyses indicated that both stressors effectively elicited cortisol increases. Generalized reactivity, defined as a cortisol response to both stressors, was inversely associated with deviance (e.g., theft, substance use) and with two indicators of sexual risk taking (lifetime number of intercourse partners and frequency of condom use). Findings are discussed in terms of cross-situational consistency of stress responses, the utility of stress reactivity for understanding individual differences in risk taking, and the interpretive limitations imposed by study design.
Jerves, Elena; López, Silvia; Castro, Cecilia; Ortiz, William; Palacios, María; Rober, Peter; Enzlin, Paul
Parents' contribution to sex education is increasingly receiving research attention. This growing interest stems from recognition of the influence that parental attitudes may have both on young people's sexual attitudes and behaviour, and on school-based sex education. Studies regarding parental attitudes towards sexuality are, however, still rare. The two main objectives of this study were to explore parental views about sexuality and to understand parental attitudes towards sex education. F...
Senn, Theresa E; Carey, Michael P; Coury-Doniger, Patricia
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with sexual risk behavior in adulthood, but little research has investigated processes that might mediate this relation. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether constructs suggested by the traumagenic dynamics (TD) model (a theory of the effects of CSA) or constructs suggested by the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model (a theory of the antecedents of sexual risk behavior) better mediated the relation between CSA and sexual risk behavior in adulthood. Participants were 481 women attending a sexually transmitted infection clinic (66% African American) who completed a computerized survey as well as behavioral simulations assessing condom application and sexual assertiveness skills. Forty-five percent of the sample met criteria for CSA and CSA was associated with sexual risk behavior in adulthood. In multiple mediator models, the TD constructs mediated the relation between CSA and the number of sexual partners whereas the IMB constructs mediated the relation between CSA and unprotected sex. In addition, the TD constructs better mediated the relation between CSA and the number of sexual partners; the TD and IMB constructs did not differ in their ability to mediate the relation between CSA and unprotected sex. Sexual risk reduction interventions for women who were sexually abused should target not only the constructs from health behavior models (e.g., motivation and skills to reduce sexual risk), but also constructs that are specific to sexual abuse (e.g., traumatic sexualization and guilt).
Wu, Ying; Burns, James J; Stanton, Bonita F; Li, Xiaoming; Harris, Carole V; Galbraith, Jennifer; Wei, Liang
To identify correlates of sexual risk variations among African-American adolescents, and to examine the influence of prior sexual experience on response to a HIV risk-reduction intervention. Eight hundred seventeen African-American youth aged 13 to 16 years living in and around urban public housing in Baltimore were recruited to participate in a HIV risk-reduction intervention targeting multiple risk behaviors. An instrument designed to measure three levels of sexual risk ("abstinent," "protected sex" [having sex with a condom], and "unprotected sex" [having sex without a condom]) was administered at baseline, 6 months and 12 months postintervention. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to identify predictors of the degree of sexual risk using longitudinal data. Repeated measure analyses were conducted to assess behavioral changes over time among the three groups. Data confirmed the co-variation of sexual risk behavior and other problem behaviors among adolescents, cross-sectionally and longitudinally. After exposure to an 8-session risk-reduction intervention, youth engaging in the highest degree of sexual risk demonstrated the greatest reduction in both sexual risk and other risks. These improvements were seen at both 6 months and 12 months postintervention. Youth who were abstinent at baseline maintained the lowest levels in risk involvement throughout the study period when compared with sexually active youth. However, abstinent youth risk involvement significantly increased at 6 months and 12 months after baseline. Youth engaging in protected sex at baseline demonstrated a significant increase in non-condom use and a significant decrease in multiple risk involvement over time. Results support HIV risk-reduction intervention efforts that target multiple risk behaviors. Response of adolescents to the intervention is directly related to the sexual risk behavior at baseline. These data may suggest that the response to risk behavior intervention depends in
Breyer, Benjamin N; Shindel, Alan W
What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Most of the medical literature regarding recreational urethral sounding pertains to foreign body retrieval. Very little is known about men who perform sounding and do not require medical attention. Of >2000 men, who responded to a urinary and sexual wellness survey, 10% had a history of recreational urethral sounding. Compared with men who did not sound, men who did reported higher risk sexual behaviours such as multiple sexual partners, sex with strangers and reported more sexually transmitted infections. Men who seek medical attention for complications resulting from sounding should be counselled regarding the hazards of the practice. Realistic strategies for risk reduction should be discussed with men who engage in recreational sounding. To determine whether men who perform recreational sounding are at increased risk of engaging in unsafe sexual behaviours, developing sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). In a cross-sectional, international, internet-based survey of the sexual practices of >2000 men who have sex with men, subjects were asked if they had engaged in urethral sounding for sexual gratification. We compared ethnodemographic and health-related variables between the sounding and non-sounding populations. The International Prostate Symptom Score and a modified validated version of the International Index of Erectile Function were used to quantify LUTS and erectile dysfunction (ED) in both populations. There were 2122 respondents with complete data, 228 (10.7%) of whom had engaged in recreational sounding. Men who had engaged in sounding were more likely to report certain high risk sexual behaviours (e.g. multiple sexual partners and sex with partners who were not well known) and had increased odds of reporting STIs. Men who had engaged in sounding had a slight but statistically significant increase in LUTS but no significant difference in prevalence of ED
Lundberg, Patric; Johansson, Eva; Okello, Elialilia; Allebeck, Peter; Thorson, Anna
Persons with severe mental illness (SMI) engage in risky sexual behaviours and have high prevalence of HIV in high-income countries. Little is known about sexual behaviours and HIV risk among persons with SMI in sub-Saharan Africa. In this qualitative study we explored how SMI may influence sexual risk behaviours and sexual health risks in Uganda. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 7 male and 13 female psychiatric patients aged 18-49 years. Participants were interviewed in hospital when clinically stable and capable of giving informed consent. Interview transcripts were analysed using manifest content analysis, generating the categories: (1) casual sex during illness episodes, (2) rape by non-partners, (3) exploitation by partners, (4) non-monogamous partners, and (5) sexual inactivity. Our findings suggest that SMI exacerbated sexual vulnerability in the women interviewed, by contributing to casual sex, to exploitative and non-monogamous sexual relationships, and to sexual assault by non-partners. No link could be established between SMI and increased sexual risk behaviours in the men interviewed, due to a small sample of men, and given that men's accounts showed little variability. Our findings also suggest that SMI caused sexual inactivity due to decreased sexual desire, and in men, due to difficulties forming an intimate relationship. Overall, our study highlights how SMI and gender inequality can contribute to the shaping of sexual risk behaviours and sexual health risks, including HIV risk, among persons with SMI in this Ugandan setting.
Full Text Available Persons with severe mental illness (SMI engage in risky sexual behaviours and have high prevalence of HIV in high-income countries. Little is known about sexual behaviours and HIV risk among persons with SMI in sub-Saharan Africa. In this qualitative study we explored how SMI may influence sexual risk behaviours and sexual health risks in Uganda. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 7 male and 13 female psychiatric patients aged 18-49 years. Participants were interviewed in hospital when clinically stable and capable of giving informed consent. Interview transcripts were analysed using manifest content analysis, generating the categories: (1 casual sex during illness episodes, (2 rape by non-partners, (3 exploitation by partners, (4 non-monogamous partners, and (5 sexual inactivity. Our findings suggest that SMI exacerbated sexual vulnerability in the women interviewed, by contributing to casual sex, to exploitative and non-monogamous sexual relationships, and to sexual assault by non-partners. No link could be established between SMI and increased sexual risk behaviours in the men interviewed, due to a small sample of men, and given that men's accounts showed little variability. Our findings also suggest that SMI caused sexual inactivity due to decreased sexual desire, and in men, due to difficulties forming an intimate relationship. Overall, our study highlights how SMI and gender inequality can contribute to the shaping of sexual risk behaviours and sexual health risks, including HIV risk, among persons with SMI in this Ugandan setting.
The purpose of this phenomenological exploration was to shed light on the constellation of factors anteceding young women's sexual risk taking during their tourist experiences. A total of 15 in-depth interviews (1.5 to 2.5 hours each) with 13 women were conducted and analyzed through the lens of transcendental phenomenology. An analysis of antecedent factors revealed a confluence of sociopersonal characteristics (e.g., sexual definitions, attitudes, double standards, and age) and touristic attributes (e.g., the sense of temporariness/ephemerality, anonymity, and fun-oriented mentality depending on length, destination, and type of tourist experience) that underlie women's proclivity for and perceptions of sexual risk taking in certain travel scenarios. These result in myriad effects on physical, sexual health, sociocultural, mental, and emotional aspects of women's health and well-being. While the sociopersonal antecedents highlight the cross-pollination between sex-related perceptions in everyday life and touristic environments, the touristic antecedents emphasize the uniqueness of tourist experiences as the contexts for sexual risk taking. The findings address an underresearched topic in sex and tourism scholarship and offer implications for health education and intervention programs, pointing to the value of constructing the context-specific and gender-sensitive sexual health messages underpinned by the ideas of women's empowerment and sexual agency.
Wang, Bo; Stanton, Bonita; Deveaux, Lynette; Li, Xiaoming; Lunn, Sonja
Considerable research has examined reciprocal relationships between parenting, peers and adolescent problem behavior; however, such studies have largely considered the influence of peers and parents separately. It is important to examine simultaneously the relationships between parental monitoring, peer risk involvement and adolescent sexual risk behavior, and whether increases in peer risk involvement and changes in parental monitoring longitudinally predict adolescent sexual risk behavior. Four waves of sexual behavior data were collected between 2008/2009 and 2011 from high school students aged 13-17 in the Bahamas. Structural equation and latent growth curve modeling were used to examine reciprocal relationships between parental monitoring, perceived peer risk involvement and adolescent sexual risk behavior. For both male and female youth, greater perceived peer risk involvement predicted higher sexual risk behavior index scores, and greater parental monitoring predicted lower scores. Reciprocal relationships were found between parental monitoring and sexual risk behavior for males and between perceived peer risk involvement and sexual risk behavior for females. For males, greater sexual risk behavior predicted lower parental monitoring; for females, greater sexual risk behavior predicted higher perceived peer risk involvement. According to latent growth curve models, a higher initial level of parental monitoring predicted decreases in sexual risk behavior, whereas both a higher initial level and a higher growth rate of peer risk involvement predicted increases in sexual risk behavior. Results highlight the important influence of peer risk involvement on youths' sexual behavior and gender differences in reciprocal relationships between parental monitoring, peer influence and adolescent sexual risk behavior.
Mohamed, A.A.; van Nes, A.
EIncidents of sexual harassment are unequally distributed in the Greater Cairo Region because cities, generally speaking, have uneven patterns of movement and activity with higher rates of pedestrian and vehicular movement and activities in some quarters than others. Central areas usually have
Pérez-Morente, María Ángeles; Cano-Romero, Esperanza; Sánchez-Ocón, María Teresa; Castro-López, Esperanza; Jiménez-Bautista, Francisco; Hueso-Montoro, César
Describing determinants factors in Sexually Transmitted Diseases is necessary to evaluate and design effective measures for prevention and treatment. The aim of this research was to determine the sexual risk factors of people who are treated at Sexually Transmitted Diseases Centre and to analyze differences based on gender. Cross-sectional study on 496 clinical reports, period of time 2010 to 2014, of people who come to the Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Sexual Orientation Centre of Granada, for suspected of Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Sociodemographic, clinical and sexual patterns data were collected. Calculation of descriptive statistics and Chi-square test to compare proportions were performed. 56% men and 44% women. The mean age was 29,01 years (SD=9,07). Most of the sample were single (85,9%). 54,2% had a higher education level. The most prevalent infections were the Human Papilloma-virus (18,8%), followed Molluscum contagiosum (5,6%) and Candidiasis (3,8%). Significant differences were found by sex with sexual behavior, there are more gay men (n=89) and bisexual (n=22) than women (n=4, n=7, respectively) (p smaller than 0,001); differences between sex and sexual life were also found, finding higher prevalence of men with 10-20 couples (n=23) and more than 20 couples (n=20) than women (n=10, n=4, respectively). The user profile is a young, single, with higher education. The most prevalent infection is the Human Papillomavirus. Men are a vulnerable population for contracting sexually transmitted diseases because of their sexual practices.
Harris, Taylor; Kintzle, Sara; Wenzel, Suzanne; Castro, Carl Andrew
To advance large-scale efforts to end veteran homelessness, an understanding of factors that contribute to housing insecurity is necessary. Common risk behaviors (e.g., substance use and risky sexual practices) are associated with lengthier experiences of homelessness among the general homeless population, but less understood among homeless veterans. Additionally, whether emerging risk behaviors among veterans (e.g., sensation seeking and aggression) are associated with lengthy homeless experiences is unknown. Data were drawn from a sample of Los Angeles County veterans surveyed using a mixed nonprobability sampling strategy, which included recruiting veterans via national and local veterans service organizations, college organizations, and social media campaigns. Measures aligning with factors of sensation seeking (reckless driving, gambling, suicidal ideation); substance use (alcohol misuse, tobacco use, driving while intoxicated); risky sexual practices (risking getting a sexually transmitted disease); and aggression (looking to start a fight) were tested in multivariate, multinomial logistic regression analyses to determine their association with varying lengths of homelessness in the past year (less than 1 month, 2-6 months, 6 months to 1 year). Risking getting a sexually transmitted disease, gambling, suicidal ideation, alcohol misuse, tobacco use, driving while intoxicated, and looking to start a fight were associated with 6 or more months of homelessness. Several indicators of risk were associated with brief periods of homelessness, including gambling and looking to start a fight. Although a clear exposure-response effect was not detected with risk behaviors, results suggested there may be some wavering of engagement in risk behaviors over time. Findings suggest sensation seeking and aggression risk behaviors should be included in risk assessments and prevention efforts along with substance use and risky sexual practices to reduce veterans' risk of becoming
Miner, Martin M
An office evaluation of men's health in primary care requires a thorough understanding of the implications of male sexual dysfunctions, hypogonadism, and cardiometabolic risk stratification and aggressive risk management. The paradigm of the men's health office visit in primary care is the recognition and assessment of male sexual dysfunction, specifically erectile dysfunction, and its value as a signal of overall cardiometabolic health, including the emerging evidence linking low testosterone and the metabolic syndrome. Indeed, erectile dysfunction may now be thought of as a harbinger of cardiovascular clinical events and other systemic vascular diseases in some men. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Szlachta, Alaina
The HIV testing, disclosure, and sexual practices of ethnic minority men suggest that addressing sexual risk behavior and the underlying reasons for not receiving HIV testing or disclosing HIV-infection status-unique to differing populations-would improve public health interventions. Descriptive behaviors and underlying perspectives reported in our study suggest that public health interventions for HIV-infected Latino men who self-identify as heterosexual should explicitly identify substance use, needle sharing, and unprotected sex to current partners as behaviors placing both oneself and one's partners at high risk for contracting HIV. However, diversity of sexual behavior among gay, straight, and bisexual HIV-infected Latino men in our study ultimately suggested that clinicians should not rely on simplistic conceptions of sexuality in assessment of self-care needs. Care in presentation and discussion of self-identified sexual preference and sexual behavior is indicated, as these do not determine actual sexual orientation or behavior and vice versa. Copyright © 2016 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Decker, Michele R; McCauley, Heather L; Phuengsamran, Dusita; Janyam, Surang; Silverman, Jay G
The trafficking of women and girls for sexual exploitation is an internationally recognised form of gender-based violence, and is thought to confer unique sexual and reproductive health vulnerabilities. To date, little research has compared sexual risk or health outcomes among female sex workers (FSWs) on the basis of experiences of sex trafficking. To compare experiences of sexual risk and sexual and reproductive health outcomes among FSWs on the basis of experiences of trafficking as an entry mechanism to sex work. Data from a national sample of FSWs in Thailand (n=815) was used to assess (a) the prevalence of sex trafficking as an entry mechanism into sex work and (b) associations of sex trafficking with sexual risk and health outcomes. Approximately 10% of FSWs met criteria for trafficking as an entry mechanism to sex work. Compared with their non-trafficked counterparts, sex-trafficked FSWs were more likely to have experienced sexual violence at initiation to sex work (adjusted risk ratio (ARR) 2.29, 95% CI 1.11 to 4.72), recent workplace violence or mistreatment (ARR 1.38, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.67), recent condom failure (ARR 1.80, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.80), condom non-use (ARR 3.35, 95% CI 1.49 to 7.52) and abortion (ARR 2.83, 95% CI 1.48 to 5.39). Both the prevalence of sex trafficking as an entry mechanism to sex work and the threats to sexual and reproductive health observed on the basis of trafficking status show the need for comprehensive efforts to identify and support this vulnerable population. Moreover, existing STI/HIV-prevention programming may be stymied by the limited condom-use capacity and high levels of violence observed among those trafficked into sex work.
Krantz, Megan; Goldstein, Tina; Rooks, Brian; Merranko, John; Liao, Fangzi; Gill, Mary Kay; Diler, Rasim; Hafeman, Danella; Ryan, Neal; Goldstein, Benjamin; Yen, Shirley; Hower, Heather; Hunt, Jeffrey; Keller, Martin; Strober, Michael; Axelson, David; Birmaher, Boris
This study aims to document rates of sexual activity among youth with bipolar spectrum disorder (BD) and to examine demographic and clinical factors associated with first sexual activity and sexual risk behavior during follow-up. The sample was drawn from the Course and Outcome of Bipolar Youth (COBY) study of 413 youth 7 to 17 years at baseline who met criteria for bipolar spectrum disorder according to the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children. Psychiatric symptoms during follow-up were assessed using the Adolescent Longitudinal Interview Follow-Up Evaluation (ALIFE). Sexual behavior and level of sexual risk (e.g., unprotected sex, multiple partners, and/or partners with known sexually transmitted infections) were assessed by trained evaluators using the ALIFE Psychosocial Functioning Scale. Analyses were conducted in relation to first sexual behavior during follow-up and then to subsequent sexual behaviors (mean 9.7 years, standard deviation 3.2). Sexually active COBY youth (n = 292 of 413; 71%) were more likely females, using substances, and not living with both parents. Consistent with findings among healthy youth, earlier first sexual activity in the sample was significantly associated with low socioeconomic status, female sex, comorbid disruptive behavior disorder, and substance use. As with healthy youth, sexual risk behavior during follow-up was significantly associated with non-Caucasian race, low socioeconomic status, substance use, and history of sexual abuse. Of those COBY youth who were sexually active, 11% reported sexual assault or abuse, 36% reported becoming pregnant (or the significant other becoming pregnant), and 15% reported having at least 1 abortion (or the significant other having an abortion) during follow-up. Hypomanic symptoms during follow-up were temporally associated with the greatest risk for sexual risk behavior. Demographic and clinical factors could help identify youth with bipolar spectrum
Bellamy, Gary; Gott, Merryn; Hinchliff, Sharron
To explore women's understandings of sexual problems. Prevailing knowledge about women's sexual problems has prioritised the material body. Particular attention is given to the importance of penetrative sexual intercourse, orgasm and the reproductive imperative, which fail to take account of contextual factors that contribute to women's experiences of sexual problems. Qualitative in-depth interview study. Individual in-depth interviews conducted with 23 women aged 23-72 years, recruited from members of the general public and a psychosexual clinic. The findings suggest that sexual problems are bodily experienced and socially and psychologically mediated. Women's views were influenced by the relational context of their experiences. At the same time, their views were deeply embedded within a patriarchal framework to make sense of their own sexual functioning and satisfaction. This study presents a challenge in the drive to medicalise women's sexual problems via the female sexual dysfunction label. It problematises the current diagnostic criteria for sexual problems outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, which presupposes a highly individualised framework and favours a more nuanced approach. Rather than adopting or eschewing an entirely medical or psychosocial model, women presenting with sexual problems should be seen by a clinician whose assessment is holistic and takes into account relational, cultural, psychosocial and health-related concerns. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Degue, Sarah; DiLillo, David
Sexual coercion is defined here as a form of male sexual misconduct in which nonphysical tactics (e.g., verbal pressure) are utilized to gain sexual contact with an unwilling female partner. This study compares the risk characteristics of sexually coercive (n=81) and nonoffending college males (n=223) across several domains. Results revealed that sexual coercers differed from nonoffenders in that they more often subscribed to rape myths, viewed interpersonal violence as more acceptable, reported greater hostility toward females, and perceived male-female relationships as more inherently adversarial. In addition, compared to nonoffenders, sexually coercive males showed stronger indicators of promiscuity and delinquency, reported more psychopathic personality traits, had more empathic deficits, and were more likely to have experienced certain forms of childhood abuse. In most respects, coercers did not differ from those who reported engaging in more severe forms of sexual assault involving the use of physical force. These results suggest important differences between nonoffending males and those who "cross the line" by engaging in sexually coercive acts. In addition, consistent parallels can be drawn between the predictors of sexual coercion identified in this study and those documented in the sexual aggression (e.g., forcible rape) literature.
Cervix cancer is the cancer that causes most female deaths in South Africa. Little is known about the sexual and menstrual practices in high-risk communities in South Africa. Knowledge of the risks inherent in these practices might lead to changed behaviour. The purpose of this study was to investigate if there are inherent ...
Hickey, Mary T; Cleland, Chuck
To describe perceived risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and sexual risk behavior among sexually active female college students. An online, anonymous survey was used to collect data from 458 sexually active female students between the ages of 18-24 enrolled at a private, suburban university in the mid-Atlantic region. Most women in this study did not consider themselves at risk for contracting an STI, despite low levels of condom use. Perceiving no risk and never using condoms were both more common among women with just one sex partner. Further investigation of factors contributing to individual risk perception is warranted in order to develop effective prevention programs. Nurses and advanced practice nurses who work with women, particularly at-risk women, should be aware of low levels of risk perception for STIs, despite engaging in risk-taking behaviors. Education regarding strategies to reduce and prevent contracting STIs should be incorporated into encounters with women seeking health care, and in health promotion settings. ©2012 The Author(s) ©2012 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.
Introduction: As part of the young age bracket, undergraduate university students are exposed to a range of risky behaviors including HIV/AIDS. Given the paucity of data among the risk behaviors of African university students, this study was conducted to examine the sexual risk behaviors of this group in Ethiopia. Methods: ...
The study seeks to examine the prevalence of date fighting and its role in sexual risk behaviours among 1079 boys and 1211 girls in 22 public secondary schools in Ibadan Nigeria. About 60% (1367) reported to have ever experienced at least a form of date fighting. Risk factors for date fighting in boys include, non use of ...
Odimegwu, Clifford O; Mutanda, Nyasha
Since the advent of HIV/AIDS, sexuality studies in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have focused mainly on the sexual behaviour of the younger generation (15-49 years) and little has been done to understand the sexual behaviour of those a 50 years and above. The objective of this study is therefore to examine the covariates of high-risk sexual behaviour among men aged 50 years plus within the SSA region. Data from Demographic and Health Surveys of 10 SSA countries were pooled together and a sample of 5394 men aged 50 years plus who have ever had sex was analysed. Findings show that in SSA, a large proportion of men aged 50 years plus (74%) were sexually active and a substantial proportion of these men engaged in unsafe sexual behaviours, such as having multiple sexual partners and unprotected sex. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that involvement with multiple sexual partners was significantly associated with older age, urban residence, religion, having primary or secondary education, and ever taken an HIV test. Condom use at last sex was significantly associated with age at first sex, multiple sexual partners, level of education and ever been tested for HIV. These results suggest that HIV prevention and intervention programmes should also target older men as they are also sexually active and at risk of being infected because of unsafe sexual practices.
Schry, Amie Rebecca
Sexual victimization is a significant problem on college and university campuses, and it is important to evaluate risk factors for sexual victimization in order to attempt to reduce womenâ s risk of victimization. This study investigated social interaction anxiety as a risk factor for sexual victimization. It was hypothesized that social interaction anxiety may increase risk of sexual victimization by decreasing sexual assertiveness and increasing alcohol-related problems. College women (...
Nkomazana, Njabulo; Maharaj, Pranitha
Abstract The study sought to establish university students' perceptions of risk of HIV infections. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 345 sexually active students at two universities in Zimbabwe (one state and one private). Results revealed that above a quarter of the respondents felt at risk of getting HIV due to their regular partners' sexual behaviours and more than half felt at risk of getting HIV due to their casual partners' sexual behaviours. In addition, a third of the respondents acknowledged the HIV risk due to their own sexual behaviours. More state university respondents felt exposed to HIV infections due to own sexual behaviours than their private university counterparts. Despite these revelations, only 66.56% had earlier thought of their chances of getting infected with HIV. Personal HIV risk perceptions were low, reported by 27.76% of the sexually active respondents. Almost all respondents described their fellows' sexual behaviours as either risky or very risky. PMID:24921968
Dodd, Julia; Littleton, Heather
Sexual victimization is associated with risky sexual behaviors. Limited research has examined mechanisms via which victimization affects risk behaviors, particularly following different types of sexual victimization. This study examined self-worth as a mediator of the relationship between sexual victimization history: contact childhood sexual abuse (CSA), completed rape in adolescence/adulthood (adolescent/adulthood sexual assault [ASA]), and combined CSA/ASA, and two sexual risk behaviors: past year partners and one-time encounters. Participants were diverse (57.9% African American), low-income women recruited from an OB-GYN waiting room (n = 646). Women with a history of sexual victimization, 29.8% (n = 186) reported lower self-worth, t(586) = 5.26, p < .001, and more partners, t(612) = 2.45, p < .01, than nonvictims. Self-worth was a significant mediator only among women with combined CSA/ASA histories in both risk behavior models.
De Santis, Joseph P; Hauglum, Shayne D; Deleon, Diego A; Provencio-Vasquez, Elias; Rodriguez, Allan E
Transgender women experience a variety of factors that may contribute to HIV risk. The purpose of this study was to explore links among HIV risk perception, knowledge, and sexual risk behaviors of transgender women. A descriptive, correlational study design was used. Fifty transgender women from the South Florida area were enrolled in the study. Transgender women completed a demographic questionnaire and standardized instruments measuring HIV risk perception, knowledge, and sexual risk behaviors. Transgender women reported low levels of HIV risk perception, and had knowledge deficits regarding HIV risk/transmission. Some participants engaged in high-risk sexual behaviors. Predictors of sexual risk behaviors among transgender women were identified. More research is needed with a larger sample size to continue studying factors that contribute to sexual risk behaviors in the understudied population of transgender women. Evidence-based guidelines are available to assist public health nurses in providing care for transgender women. Nurses must assess HIV perception risk and HIV knowledge and provide relevant education to transgender women on ways to minimize sexual risk. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Assis, Simone Gonçalves de; Gomes, Romeu; Pires, Thiago de Oliveira
To analyze the relationships between sexual behavior and risk factors to physical and mental health in adolescents. Study of 3,195 pupils aged 15 to 19 in secondary education, in public and private schools in 10 state capitals in Brazil between 2007 and 2008. Multi-stage (schools and pupils) cluster sampling was used in each city and public and private educational network. All of the students selected completed a questionnaire on the following items: socioeconomic and demographic data; sexual behavior; having sex with those of the same sex, the opposite sex, or both; alcohol and cannabis use; using condoms; traumatic sexual experiences as a child or adolescent; suicidal thoughts. The analysis included describing frequencies, Chi-square test, analysis of multiple and cluster correspondence. Responses to an open ended question in which the adolescent expressed general comments about themselves and their lives were qualitatively analyzed using content analysis. Around 3.0% of adolescents reported homosexual or bisexual behavior, with no difference according to sex, age, skin color, social status family structure or educational network. Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior, compared to their heterosexual peers, reported: (p homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior reported that they used condoms less frequently (74.2%) than their heterosexual peers (48.6%, p homosexual/bisexual behavior and experiencing risk factors; suffering sexual violence, never using a condom, suicidal thoughts, frequent cannabis use; another composed of occasional cannabis and condom users, who got drunk frequently, and adolescents with heterosexual behavior and none of the risk factors investigated. More of the risk factors were found in adolescents with homosexual/bisexual behavior compared with those with heterosexual behavior. Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior were more likely to talk about their positive personal experiences and negative relationship experiences
Stahlman, Shauna; Javanbakht, Marjan; Cochran, Susan; Hamilton, Alison B; Shoptaw, Steven; Gorbach, Pamina M
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are prevalent in the U.S. military. However, there are limited data on risk-factor differences between sexes. We used data from the 2008 Department of Defense Survey of Health Related Behaviors among active duty military personnel to identify risk factors for self-reported STIs within the past 12 months and multiple sexual partners among sexually active unmarried service members. There were 10,250 active duty personnel, mostly white (59.3%) aged 21 to 25 years (42.6%). The prevalence of any reported STI in the past 12 months was 4.2% for men and 6.9% for women. One-fourth of men and 9.3% of women reported 5 or more sexual partners in the past 12 months. Binge drinking, illicit substance use, and unwanted sexual contact were associated with increased report of sexual partners among both sexes. Family/personal-life stress and psychological distress influenced number of partnerships more strongly for women than for men (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]=1.58, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]=1.18-2.12 and AOR=1.41, 95% CI=1.14-1.76, respectively). After adjusting for potential confounders, we found that the report of multiple sexual partners was significantly associated with the report of an STI among men (AOR, 5.87 [95% CI, 3.70-9.31], for ≥5 partners; AOR, 2.35 [95% CI, 1.59-3.49], for 2-4 partners) and women (AOR, 4.78 [95% CI, 2.12-10.80], for ≥5 partners; AOR, 2.35 [95% CI, 1.30-4.25], for 2-4 partners). Factors associated with the report of increasing sexual partnerships and report of an STI differed by sex. Sex-specific intervention strategies may be most effective in mitigating the factors that influence risky sexual behaviors among military personnel.
Winandy, L; Denoël, M
Secondary sexual traits may evolve under the antagonistic context of sexual and natural selection. In some polymorphic species, these traits are only expressed during the breeding period and are differently expressed in alternative phenotypes. However, it is unknown whether such phenotypes exhibit phenotypic plasticity of seasonal ornamentations in response to environmental pressures such as in the presence of fish (predation risk). This is an important question to understand the evolution of polyphenisms. We used facultative paedomorphosis in newts as a model system because it involves the coexistence of paedomorphs that retain gills in the adult stage with metamorphs that have undergone metamorphosis, but also because newts exhibit seasonal sexual traits. Our aim was therefore to determine the influence of fish on the development of seasonal ornamentation in the two phenotypes of the palmate newt (Lissotriton helveticus). During the entire newt breeding period, we assessed the importance of phenotype and fish presence with an information-theoretic approach. Our results showed that paedomorphs presented much less developed ornamentation than metamorphs and those ornamentations varied over time. Fish inhibited the development of sexual traits but differently between phenotypes: in contrast to metamorphs, paedomorphs lack the phenotypic plasticity of sexual traits to environmental risk. This study points out that internal and external parameters act in complex ways in the expression of seasonal sexual ornamentations and that similar environmental pressure can induce a contrasted evolution in alternative phenotypes. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.
Bowleg, Lisa; Fitz, Caroline C; Burkholder, Gary J; Massie, Jenne S; Wahome, Rahab; Teti, Michelle; Malebranche, David J; Tschann, Jeanne M
In light of evidence that racial discrimination and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are neither rare nor extraordinary for many Black urban men, we examined the relationship between everyday racial discrimination and sexual HIV risk behaviors in a predominantly low-income sample of 526 urban Black heterosexually identified men; 64% of whom were unemployed and 55% of whom reported a history of incarceration. We tested the hypothesis that PTSS would mediate the relationship between everyday racial discrimination and sexual risk. Participants in the predominantly low-income urban sample ranged in age from 18 to 45 (M = 28.80, SD = 7.57). Three multiple regression models were used to test the study's mediational model. As hypothesized, PTSS mediated the relationship between everyday racial discrimination and sexual risk behaviors. Most participants (97%) reported experiences with everyday racial discrimination. Results empirically support the notion of racial discrimination-based traumatic stress as a pathway to Black heterosexual men's increased sexual risk behaviors. Results also highlighted key demographic differences with older men reporting fewer PTSS and sexual risk behaviors compared with younger men. Incarceration was related to both PTSS and sexual risk, underscoring the role that incarceration may play in Black heterosexual men's adverse health outcomes. Our study highlights the need for more qualitative and quantitative research to understand the nature of PTSS in Black heterosexual men and mechanisms such as substance use that may link traumatic experiences and sexual risk. Future research could also assess experiences with childhood sexual abuse, violence, and incarceration to gain a more in-depth understanding of the sources of traumatic stress in Black heterosexual men's lives. We advocate for the development of community-based individual and structural-level interventions to help Black heterosexual men in urban areas develop effective strategies to
Cour, F; Robain, G; Claudon, B; Chartier-Kästler, E
To understand and manage the sequels of childhood sexual abuse on sexual, anorectal and lower urinary tract functions. Review of articles published in the Medline database, selected according to their scientific relevance and published guidelines on this subject together with our own experience. A history of sexual abuse is frequently found when assessing dysfunction or symptoms of the lower urinary tract. In this context, urinary stress incontinence is rarely involved but it can be linked by epidemiological factors. Dysuria with urgency is the most frequent expressed symptom. When associated with anorectal disorders and pelvic pain or a sexual disorder in particular dyspareunia, a sexual abuse should be evoked and specific questions asked to the patient. Although these symptoms are frequently encountered in 12 to 33% of women, and 8 to 16% of men, few practitioners, whatever their speciality ask about them as routine. It is important that the physician diagnose the existence of sexual abuse, in particular when the symptoms mentioned by the patient are not conclusive, in spite of thorough urological assessment. Patients finding the initial examination difficult and painful and the failure of the initial treatment should lead to questions concerning abuse, if neglected by the initial medical inquiry. Clinicians involved in perineal functional pathology are able to acquire standardized modalities of inquiry about child sexual abuse for a better time management and efficacy in the therapeutic approach. The interest of a multidisciplinary diagnostic and therapeutic approach is primordial, associating psychological therapy and if necessary perineal re-education. This can avoid unnecessary tests and out-patient visits. Directing patients towards a multidisciplinary approach is highly advisable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Mosack, Katie E.; Randolph, Mary E.; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Abbott, Maryann; Smith, Ellen; Weeks, Margaret R.
This study investigated the mechanisms of risk for urban women at high risk for HIV with and without childhood sexual abuse histories. Childhood sexual abuse survivors reported more unprotected intercourse and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The association of STI locus of control with frequency of unprotected sex was fully mediated by…
Muzny, Christina A; Austin, Erika L; Harbison, Hanne S; Hook, Edward W
African American women who have sex with women (WSW) are emerging as a population at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The objectives of this study were to explore partnership characteristics for a cohort of African American WSW and evaluate those characteristics as potential risk factors for STIs. In addition, we aimed to determine STI diagnoses and identify predictors of STI infection. Women who have sex with women presenting to a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Birmingham, AL, completed a questionnaire and were tested for bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, Mycoplasma genitalium, syphilis, HIV, and herpes simplex virus type 2. A total of 163 women were enrolled: 78 WSW and 85 women who have sex with women and men (WSWM) (based on report of past year sexual behavior). Both WSW and WSWM reported similar numbers of female partners over the lifetime, past year, and past month; however, WSWM reported significantly more lifetime male partners, thus having a higher overall number of sexual partners. Women who have sex with women and men were more likely to report new or casual partner(s), group sex, history of STIs, and sex with partner(s) known to have STIs. Overall, WSWM were more likely to have a current diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis, a current diagnosis of a curable STI, or a diagnosis of a noncurable STI (85% vs. 56%, P sexual health may be directly or indirectly influenced by male partners. A better understanding of the distinctions and differences between African American WSW and WSWM will enable health care providers to improve the quality of care provided.
Jackson, Dawnyéa D.; Ingram, Lucy Annang; Boyer, Cherrie B.; Robillard, Alyssa; Huhns, Michael N.
College students represent an important population for studying and understanding factors that influence sexual risk given the populations' high risk of sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies. Using a quasi-experimental design, the efficacy of a brief and theory-driven mobile application intervention designed to decrease sexual…
Mazeingia, Yohannes Teka; Olijjira, Lemessa; Dessie, Yadeta
Female sex workers have been disproportionately affected with HIV and anal sexual experience elevate their vulnerability. Anal intercourse has more risk of HIV transmission than vaginal intercourse for receptors that coupled with low condom and proper lubricant use behavior during anal sex. Besides majority of them did not understand HIV transmission risk of anal intercourse. In Ethiopia, studies on anal sexual experience is almost none existent, so the purpose of this study is to explored anal sexual experience and HIV transmission risk awareness among female sex worker in Dire Dawa, Eastern Ethiopia. Qualitative study with thematic analysis approach was conducted among 18 female sex workers and recruitment of study participants performed until saturation of information. The principal investigator conducted in-depth interviews using local language (Amharic) and it was recorded on audio recorder. Tape recorded data was transcribed and translated to English and entered into open code version 3.4 for coding and theme identification. Data collection conducted simultaneously with data analysis. Female sex workers practiced anal sex for different themes like financial influence, coercion, intentionally, peer pressure and as a sign of intimacy and love. Coercion, negative attitudes, poor awareness about HIV transmission risks of anal sex and protection capacity of condom and proper lubricants are the identified themes for not using condom and proper lubricants during anal sex by female sex workers. Inaccessibility and unavailability of health services for issues related to anal sex was the core reason for female sex workers' misperception and risk anal sexual experience. Female sex workers practiced anal sex without risk reduction approaches and they did not understand exacerbated risk of anal sex to HIV transmission. Stakeholders including ministry of health need to incorporate potential awareness raising tasks and programs about risk of anal sex and methods of risk
Samek, Diana R; Iacono, William G; Keyes, Margaret A; Epstein, Marina; Bornovalova, Marina A; McGue, Matt
Research has demonstrated a consistent relationship between early sexual experience and subsequent sexual risk-taking behaviors. We hypothesized that this relationship is due to a general predisposition toward behavioral disinhibition (BD), and that relationships among BD, early sex, and subsequent risky sexual behavior may be influenced by common genetic influences for males and common environmental influences for females. A prospective sample of 1,512 same-sex adolescent twins (50.2% female) was used. Adolescent BD was measured by clinical symptom counts of conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and self-reported delinquent behavior (age 14). Age of sexual initiation was defined as first age of consensual oral or penetrative sex (mean age ~17). Adult risky sexual behavior was defined by sexual behaviors under the influence of drugs and alcohol and number of casual sexual partners in the past year (age 24). Multivariate analyses showed evidence for substantial common genetic variance among age 14 BD, age at sexual initiation, and adult risky sexual behavior for males, but not females. There was no significant difference in the degree of common environmental influence on these variables for females compared to males. Notably, age of sexual initiation was not significantly correlated with age 24 risky sexual behavior for females. The relationship between early sex and later risky sex can be better understood through a general liability toward BD, which is influenced primarily by genetic factors for males. The association between age 14 BD and age of sexual initiation was influenced through a combination of genetic and environmental factors for females; however, age of sexual initiation does not appear to be a salient predictor of adult women’s sexual risk-taking behavior. Findings suggest that prevention programs aimed at reducing sexual risk behavior might target youth exhibiting BD by age 14, particularly males. More research is needed on what predicts
Caballero-Hoyos, Ramiro; Villaseñor-Sierra, Alberto; Millán-Guerrero, Rebeca; Trujillo-Hernández, Benjamín; Monárrez-Espino, Joel
Indigenous migrant workers (IMWs) have a high vulnerability to HIV and STDs due to poverty and marginalization. This study examined factors associated with sexual risk behavior (SRB) according to type of partner in transnational young male IMWs at a sugar cane agro-industrial complex in western Mexico. A total of 192 sexually active IMWs were recruited from four laborer shelters to participate in a sexual partner survey. The IMWs were interviewed about their sexual partners and practices over the last 12 months during which it emerged that they had had a total of 360 sexual partners. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to identify factors related to SRB in 222 main (spouse, mistress and girlfriend) and 138 casual partners (colleague, friend, casual encounter and sex worker). Results showed a significantly higher SRB score with casual partners. For the main partner regression model, prior exposure to HIV- and STD-preventive information and sexual intercourse with higher employment status partners (formal workers vs. self-employed in informal activities and unemployed) were associated with lower SRB scores, but if the sexual relations occurred in Mexico (vs. the U.S.), the SRB scores increased. For the casual partner model, the practice of survival sex (sex in exchange for basic needs), sexual relations in Mexico (vs. the U.S.), and being a circular migrant (person traveling for temporary work to return home when the contract is over) were related to higher SRB scores. Findings support the implementation of preventive interventions using different messages depending on the type of partners, main or casual, within the labor migrant context.
Mason, Gillian E.; Ullman, Sarah; Long, Susan E.; Long, LaDonna; Starzynski, Laura
Limited research on revictimization has examined the role of social support, which is known to affect sexual assault survivors' psychological recovery. Measuring social support also provides a more ecological approach to understanding revictimization, as it assesses the possible role of those in the survivors' environment. The current study…
Senn, Theresa E; Braksmajer, Amy; Hutchins, Heidi; Carey, Michael P
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with sexual risk behavior in adulthood. Traditional sexual risk reduction interventions do not meet the unique needs of women who have been sexually abused. In the current paper, we describe the four-stage process we followed to develop and refine a targeted sexual risk reduction intervention for this population. First, initial quantitative work revealed that the intervention should address how maladaptive thoughts related to traumatic sexualization, trust, powerlessness, and guilt/shame (traumagenic dynamics constructs) influence current sexual behavior. Second, qualitative interviews with 10 women who reported a history of CSA ( M age = 34 years; 90% African American) as well as current sexual risk behavior provided support for targeting maladaptive thoughts associated with these traumagenic dynamics constructs. Third, based on the qualitative and quantitative results, we developed a 5-session, group-delivered intervention to address the maladaptive thoughts that occurred as a result of CSA, as well as the cognitive-behavioral determinants of sexual risk behavior. This intervention drew heavily on cognitive behavioral techniques to address cognitions associated with CSA and the links between these cognitions and current sexual risk behavior. Techniques from trauma-based therapies, as well as motivational techniques, were also incorporated into the intervention. Finally, we refined the intervention with 24 women ( M age = 33 years; 79% African American), and assessed feasibility and acceptability. These women reported high levels of satisfaction with the intervention. The resultant intervention is currently being evaluated in a small, randomized controlled trial.
Quinn, Chris; Happell, Brenda
Patients utilising forensic mental health inpatient services experience a range of sexual risks, including vulnerability to sexual exploitation and exposure to sexually transmissible infections. However, there is a paucity of research exploring the issue of sexual risks from the standpoint of patients and the nurses who work closely with them in inpatient secure settings. This article presents findings from a qualitative exploratory study, which investigated the views of patients and nurses about sexual relationships in forensic mental health settings. Risk was a major theme arising from the data and is the focus of this article. Subthemes from nurse participants included sexual safety, sexual vulnerability, unplanned pregnancies, and male sexuality issues. Subthemes from patients included risks associated with sexual activity, access to information and sexual health care, unplanned pregnancies, vulnerability, and male sexuality issues. Knowledge about these sexual risks by patients and nurses were well articulated, however information and assistance were considered by patients to be less than satisfactory in improving their knowledge or in providing the support they considered important to reduce sexual risks. The issue of risk needs to be addressed, and nurses would be well placed to contribute; however they require education to improve their ability to provide sexual health education to patients along with strategies to ensure patients receive the support and services they require to reduce their exposure to sexual risks.
Mar 1, 2012 ... tics, HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs and sexual risk behaviours. Results: Forty-four .... The ques- tionnaire covered various topics such as demographic characteristics; health information (including most re- cent CD4 cell count, current health status, year partici- pants first tested HIV positive, HIV ...
Risk from the frontlines of a hidden epidemic sexuality, masculinities and social pressures among men who have sex with men in South Africa: an overview. ... These factors are discussed in this paper with stress put particularly on the hiddenness of the MSM HIV epidemic, and it is concluded that the complex mix of factors ...
HIV knowledge and sexual risk behavior among street adolescents in rehabilitation centres in Kinshasa; DRC: gender differences. ... Background: Street children, common in Africa, are increasingly vulnerable to alcohol and drugs of abuse and lack access to both healthcare and knowledge about HIV and AIDS. Hence, this ...
Robinson, Sally; Robinson, Carol
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to outline the development of a resource designed to support practitioners, who are not sexual health specialists, but who work with young people who may be at risk of teenage pregnancy or parenthood. Its aim was to enable practitioners to carry out an assessment using a screening tool, and to use educational…
The aim of the study is to investigate sexual abuse, violence and HIV risk among a sample of South African adolescents. The sample included 400 male and 400 female 16 or 17 year-olds; 400 were from rural and 400 from urban areas, and almost all from African descent. Participants were chosen by multi-stage cluster and ...
4Department of Psychiatry & Mental Health, University of Cape Town, South Africa. Abstract ... review research conducted in Cape Town on the link between methamphetamine use and sexual risk behaviour. Method: A ... in school, out of school youth, adults in the community, men who have sex with men and sex workers.
Dec 1, 2006 ... Condom use with casual partners increased from 53% among the men and 46% among the women before the diagnosis ... Conclusions. The ART had an overall positive effect on health with no increase of sexual risk behaviour. ... were calculated by a statistician using the computer program for binominal ...
Sexual and reproductive health risk behaviours among South African university students: results from a representative campus-wide survey. Susie Hoffman, Michael Levasseur, Joanne E. Mantell, Mags Beksinska, Zonke Mabude, Claudia Ngoloyi, Elizabeth A. Kelvin, Theresa Exner, Cheng-Shiun Leu, Lavanya Pillay, ...
Early sexual debut: prevalence and risk factors among secondary school students in Ido-ekiti, Ekiti state, South-West Nigeria. Kabir Adekunle Durowade, Oluwole Adeyemi Babatunde, Lukman Omotayo Omokanye, Olusegun Elijah Elegbede, Lawrence Majekodunmi Ayodele, Kayode Razaq Adewoye, Stella Adetokunbo, ...
They could also be easily reached with health education interventions. There is as yet no global consensus on the nature, content and effectiveness of this intervention among this group. It is also not known how effective this intervention is in reducing sexual risk behaviour among secondary school students in our ...
If health awareness campaigns have an effect on behavioural change, one would expect the youth to abstain from sex and be involved in stable sexual relationships. This quantitative survey, conducted among a sample of 226 Johannesburg youths, was aimed at ascertaining their exposure to sex risks and their stability in ...
To assess sexual behaviour, attitudes and risk perception about HIV/AIDS among out-of-school anti-AIDS club member and non-member youths in Mettu and Bedelle towns. The study applied a case control study design. The cases are club members those registered in the out-of-school anti-AIDS clubs and actively ...
Logistic Regression Analysis shows that among all the participants, `parent haven gone into a psychiatric hospital for psychiatric problems', `parent hitting or beating up another parent' and parent having problems with drugs or alcohol' are risk factors for child sexual, physical and emotional abuse respectively.
Xu, Wenjian; Zheng, Lijun; Liu, Yong; Zheng, Yong
High-risk sexual behaviours (HRSBs), such as having male casual sexual partners (MCSPs) and unprotected anal intercourse (UAI), are combined with a high prevalence of HIV infection among gay/bisexual men. Sexual sensation seeking (SSS) and sexual compulsivity (SC), which are intrapersonal factors, were observed to have associations with HRSB among gay/bisexual men in Western nations. The aim of the study was to examine the relationships between SSS, SC, socio-demographic factors, and HRSB (defined as having MCSP and UAI with MCSP) among self-identified gay and bisexual men in Southwest China. The study was cross-sectional, with a sample of 436 respondents. And their mean age was 24.5 years. The results confirmed that SSS, SC, and sexual attitude are associated with both having MCSP and UAI with MCSP in the Chinese cultural context, among the subgroup of men who have sex with men. Being older, not a student, and having transactional sex in the last 6 months were independently associated with having MCSP. Lower educational level, unemployed, having a relationship with a man, and an unsure HIV status were independently associated with UAI with MCSP. This study indicates that SSS and SC are cross-cultural personality traits related to HRSB. The results of this study may shed light on HIV prevention among gay/bisexual men in China.
Rafael Alves Guimarães
Full Text Available AbstractObjectives: to investigate the prevalence and risk behaviors by means of reporting of sexually transmitted diseases among crack users.Method: cross-sectional study carried out with 588 crack users in a referral care unit for the treatment of chemical dependency. Data were collected by means of face-to-face interview and analyzed using Stata statistical software, version 8.0.Results: of the total participants, 154 (26.2%; 95% CI: 22.8-29.9 reported antecedents of sexually transmitted diseases. Ages between 25 and 30 years (RP: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.0-4.0 and over 30 years (RP: 3.8; 95% CI: 2.1-6.8, alcohol consumption (RP: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.1-3.3, antecedents of prostitution (RP: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.3-2.9 and sexual intercourse with person living with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS (RP: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.8-4.2 were independently associated with reporting of sexually transmitted diseases.Conclusion: the results of this study suggest high risk and vulnerability of crack users for sexually transmitted diseases.
Benotsch, Eric G; Seeley, Salvatore; Mikytuck, John J; Pinkerton, Steven D; Nettles, Christopher D; Ragsdale, Kathleen
The objective of the study was to examine correlates of sexual risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM) traveling for leisure. MSM (N = 304) visiting popular tourist areas completed a brief survey assessing sexual behavior and substances used while on vacation, including the use of erectile dysfunction medications (e.g., Viagra). Forty-seven percent of the respondents were sexually active during their vacation, with a mean of 1.33 unprotected anal sex acts during their brief stay (mean = 3.6 days). More than half of the sexually active men reported sex with a partner of unknown HIV status. Individuals reporting substance use or taking erectile dysfunction medications reported higher rates of sexual risk behaviors. Many MSM travelers report behaviors that may put their health at risk, including substance use and unprotected sexual activity. Interventions designed to reduce risk behaviors among MSM tourists are needed.
Grund, Jonathan M; Hennink, Monique M
Male circumcision has been shown to reduce the risk of heterosexual transmission of HIV infection in men by up to 60% in three randomized controlled trials. Less is known, however, about sexual behavior change in men who have been circumcised and whether male circumcision's protective effect leads to riskier sexual behaviors. This study used qualitative in-depth interviews to understand men's sexual behavior after circumcision and to determine whether and how men participated in riskier sexual behaviors following male circumcision. Men in urban Swaziland, circumcised in the previous 12 months, were recruited and asked about their perceptions of sexual risk and sexual behavior post-circumcision. Results showed that following circumcision, men experience changes in both their sexual attitudes and behavior, which can be considered both protective and risky for HIV transmission. Most of them described protective changes (e.g., more responsible attitudes towards safe sex, reducing sexual temptation and partners, easier condom use). A minority, however, experienced increased sexual risk-taking, typically during a brief period of sexual experimentation shortly after circumcision. HIV counseling and counseling throughout the circumcision process is shown to be critical in influencing protective behaviors. Findings in this study confirm the existence of risk compensation following circumcision; however, this study adds important contextual insight about precisely when and why such risk-taking occurs. Nevertheless this study suggests that male circumcision scale-up as an HIV prevention strategy is likely to foster protective behavior change among men. The integration of HIV counseling with circumcision provision remains critical for effectively mitigating HIV risk behavior as male circumcision gains momentum as a viable HIV prevention tool.
Full Text Available We examined the difference in prevalence of substance use and sexual risk behaviors among at-risk youth participants in programs offered by community-based organizations in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, by gender and organization type (governmental vs. non-governmental. 388 adolescents were recruited from 25 intervention-based organizations servicing at-risk youth between the ages of 12 and 17 in Juiz de Fora. Participants completed a 15-item survey assessing substance use and sexual risk behaviors, along with socio-demographic predictors of these behaviors. Males were more likely to report drug and alcohol use associated with homelessness and abandonment. Females were more likely to report sexual risk taking associated with neighborhood crime. Participants from non-governmental organizations were less likely to engage in all measured risk behaviors. The present analysis points to the need to understand how Brazil’s Child and Adolescent Act is being applied and the implications this has for intervention and the promotion of positive health outcomes for young people.
Ybarra, Michele L.; Mitchell, Kimberly J.
Objective To examine the relation between “sexting,” (sending and sharing sexual photos online via text messaging and in-person) with sexual risk behaviors and psychosocial challenge in adolescence. Methods Data were collected online between 2010 and 2011 with 3,715 randomly selected 13- to 18-year-old youth across the United States. Results Seven percent of youth reported sending or showing someone sexual pictures of themselves, where they were nude or nearly nude, online, via text messaging, or in-person, during the past year. Although females and older youth were more likely to share sexual photos than males and younger youth, the profile of psychosocial challenge and sexual behavior was similar for all youth. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, sharing sexual photos was associated with all types of sexual behaviors assessed (e.g., oral sex, vaginal sex) as well as some of the risky sexual behaviors examined—particularly having concurrent sexual partners and having more past-year sexual partners. Adolescents who shared sexual photos also were more likely to use substances and less likely to have high self-esteem than their demographically similar peers. Conclusions While the media has portrayed “sexting” as a problem caused by new technology, health professionals may be more effective by approaching it as an aspect of adolescent sexual development and exploration and, in some cases, risk-taking and psychosocial challenge. PMID:25266148
Ybarra, Michele L; Mitchell, Kimberly J
To examine the relation between "sexting" (sending and sharing sexual photos online, via text messaging, and in person) with sexual risk behaviors and psychosocial challenge in adolescence. Data were collected online between 2010 and 2011 with 3,715 randomly selected 13- to 18-year-old youth across the United States. Seven percent of youth reported sending or showing someone sexual pictures of themselves, in which they were nude or nearly nude, online, via text messaging, or in person, during the past year. Although females and older youth were more likely to share sexual photos than males and younger youth, the profile of psychosocial challenge and sexual behavior was similar for all youth. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, sharing sexual photos was associated with all types of sexual behaviors assessed (e.g., oral sex, vaginal sex) as well as some of the risky sexual behaviors examined-particularly having concurrent sexual partners and having more past-year sexual partners. Adolescents who shared sexual photos also were more likely to use substances and less likely to have high self-esteem than their demographically similar peers. Although the media has portrayed sexting as a problem caused by new technology, health professionals may be more effective by approaching it as an aspect of adolescent sexual development and exploration and, in some cases, risk-taking and psychosocial challenge. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bishop, Simon; Limmer, Mark
Every year thousands of Western men travel to Thailand as sex tourists to participate in paid-for sex. Although many of these men will use condoms to protect themselves against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), others will not, despite the risks. By applying Steven Lyng's (1990) concept of edgework to data collected from 14 face-to-face interviews with male sex tourists in Pattaya, Thailand, and 1,237 online discussion board posts, this article explores the ways in which these men understood and sought to rationalize the sexual risks they took. We argue that notions of likelihood of infection and significance of consequence underpin these behaviors, and we identify the existence of understandings of sexual risk that reject mainstream safer-sex messages and frame condomless sex as a broadly safe activity for heterosexual men. The article concludes by summarizing the difficulties inherent in driving behavior change among this group of men, for whom sexual risks appear to be easily rationalized away as either inconsequential or irrelevant.
Full Text Available Recent studies reveal that teachers are more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behavior compared to the rest of the adult population. Yet the education sector could be a major vehicle for imparting knowledge and skills of avoiding and/or coping with the pandemic. This study set out to establish HIV risk behaviors among teachers in Uganda, to inform the design of a behavior change communication strategy for HIV prevention among teachers. It was a cross sectional rapid assessment conducted among primary and secondary school teachers in Kampala and Kalangala districts, in Uganda. A total of 183 teachers were interviewed. HIV risk behavior, in this study was measured as having multiple sexual partners and/or sex with a partner of unknown status without using a condom. We also considered transactional/sex for favors and alcohol use as exposures to HIV risk behavior. Odds ratios (OR and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated. All data analysis was performed using SPSS version 17.0 and EPI Info Version 3.5.1. Forty five per cent of teachers reported having multiple concurrent sexual partners in the last three months, of these, only 24% acknowledged having used a condom at their last sexual encounter yet only 9.8% knew their partners’ HIV status. Teachers below 30years of age were more likely to have two or more concurrent sexual partners (OR 2.6, CI 1.31-5.34 compared to those above 30 years. Primary school teachers were less likely to involve with partners of unknown HIV status compared to secondary school teachers (OR 0.43, CI 0.19-0.97. Teachers aged below 30 years were also more likely to engage with partners of unknown HIV status compared to those above 30 years (OR 2.47, CI 1.10-5.59. Primary teachers were also less likely to have given or received gifts, money or other favors in exchange for sex (OR 0.24, CI 0.09-0.58. Teachers engage in risky sexual behaviors, which lead to HIV infection. There is need to promote
López Entrambasaguas, Olga María; Granero-Molina, José; Hernández-Padilla, Jose; Fernández-Sola, Cayetano
The Bolivian indigenous Ayoreo ethnic people are vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections and HIV. Ayoreo women who also work in sex trades belong to an extremely high-risk group, and prevention programs are not delivering effective outcomes for them. The aim of our study was to explore, describe, and understand behavioral and cultural patterns related to sexual and reproductive health in Ayoreo sex workers. A qualitative-ethnographic study was designed; data were collected through participant observation and in-depth interviews with sex workers and key informants. Two fundamental themes contributing to HIV risk for female Ayoreo sex workers in Bolivia emerged: reproductive/sexual freedom and sociocultural risk determinants. We concluded that the in-depth examination of the sexual-reproductive culture amongst the Ayoreo has provided useful information, which might contribute to the cultural adaptation and design of future policies and prevention programs for sexually transmitted infections and HIV in this group. Copyright © 2015 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A new definition of risk is that risk is the product of a measure of the size of the hazard and its probability of occurrence. We have some mechanisms that would be make too perception of risk in our mind. These mechanisms are including information processing of risk, binary judgment, and risk perception of low probability area. We are required to have bidirectional communication with other person. So, in order to do good risk communication, we have to establish a trust relationship with other person.
Sigmund Freud was one of the most influential thinkers and theorists of the 20th century. His groundbreaking work laid the foundation to many concepts and theories relevant to modern sexual medicine. To evaluate Freud's approaches to the understanding of male sexual dysfunction both in their historical context and with respect to their significance for contemporary research and therapy of sexual problems. After a brief biographical sketch, two of Freud's writings, the widely acclaimed "Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality" from 1905, and a short article entitled "The Most Prevalent Form of Degradation in Erotic Life" from 1912, were analyzed, especially for their relevance to present treatment concepts of male sexual dysfunction. In Freud's clinical practice "psychical impotence" was a highly prevalent complaint. In his view, this dysfunction was caused by an inhibition due to an unresolved neurotic fixation leading to an arrest of the libidinal development. The result is a splitting of the tender and the sensual dimension of sexuality, most notably in the so-called madonna-whore complex. The degree of this dissociation (total or partial) determines the severity of the ensuing sexual dysfunction. In Freud's rather pessimistic view, the erotic life of civilized people tends to be characterized by some degree of this condition. While some of Freud's theories are obsolete today, many parts of his work appear to be astonishingly modern, even in the light of current neurobiological research and recent models of sexual dysfunction. Above all, Freud was an extremely gifted observer of human behavior who shows us that in many cases, sexual dysfunctions are no isolated phenomena, but have their roots in biographically based intrapsychic or interpersonal conflicts.
Charlton, Brittany M; Roberts, Andrea L; Rosario, Margaret; Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Calzo, Jerel P; Spiegelman, Donna; Austin, S Bryn
Young women who are sexual minorities (eg, bisexual and lesbian) are approximately twice as likely as those who are heterosexual to have a teen pregnancy. Therefore, we hypothesized that risk factors for teen pregnancy would vary across sexual orientation groups and that other potential risk factors exist that are unique to sexual minorities. We used multivariable log-binomial models gathered from 7120 young women in the longitudinal cohort known as the Growing Up Today Study to examine the following potential teen pregnancy risk factors: childhood maltreatment, bullying victimization and perpetration, and gender nonconformity. Among sexual minorities, we also examined the following: sexual minority developmental milestones, sexual orientation-related stress, sexual minority outness, and lesbian, gay, and bisexual social activity involvement. Childhood maltreatment and bullying were significant teen pregnancy risk factors among all participants. After adjusting for childhood maltreatment and bullying, the sexual orientation-related teen pregnancy disparities were attenuated; these risk factors explained 45% of the disparity. Among sexual minorities, reaching sexual minority developmental milestones earlier was also associated with an increased teen pregnancy risk. The higher teen pregnancy prevalence among sexual minorities compared with heterosexuals in this cohort was partially explained by childhood maltreatment and bullying, which may, in part, stem from sexual orientation-related discrimination. Teen pregnancy prevention efforts that are focused on risk factors more common among young women who are sexual minorities (eg, childhood maltreatment, bullying) can help to reduce the existing sexual orientation-related teen pregnancy disparity. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Victor, Elizabeth C; Chung, Richard; Thompson, Robert J
This study examined the association between survey responses to health behaviors, personality/psychosocial factors, and self-reported sexually transmitted infections (STIs) to create a brief survey to identify youth at risk for contracting STIs. Participants included 200 racially diverse 14- to 18-year-old patients from a pediatric primary care clinic. Two sexual behavior variables and one peer norm variable were used to differentiate subgroups of individuals at risk of contracting a STI based on reported history of STIs using probability (decision tree) analyses. These items, as well as sexual orientation and having ever had oral sex, were used to create a brief sexual health screening (BSHS) survey. Each point increase in total BSHS score was associated with exponential growth in the percentage of sexually active adolescents reporting STIs. Findings suggest that the BSHS could serve as a useful tool for clinicians to quickly and accurately detect sexual risk among adolescent patients. © The Author(s) 2014.
Balán, Iván C.; Barreda, Victoria; Marone, Rubén; Ávila, María Mercedes; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex
Venue-based HIV prevention interventions, especially in sex on premise venues, can disrupt high-risk sexual networks. However, prior to intervening, it is essential to understand the person-venue dynamics that contribute to HIV risk. As such, we conducted five ethnographic observations at each of six venues where alcohol is sold and sex occurs onsite (2 each porn theaters, sex clubs, and dance clubs) frequented by gay and other men who have sex with men (G&MSM) in the Buenos Aires metropolitan area. Alcohol use, sexual behavior, and person-venue dynamics differed markedly across venue types. In dance clubs, substantial alcohol consumption often preceded visits to the darkroom for sex which, at times, included unprotected anal and vaginal intercourse. Condoms, although available, were not easily accessible. HIV prevention messaging was generally non-existent. These venues are in critical need of interventions to reduce HIV transmission risk. PMID:24691922
Balán, Iván C; Barreda, Victoria; Marone, Rubén; Avila, María Mercedes; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex
Venue-based HIV prevention interventions, especially in sex on premise venues, can disrupt high-risk sexual networks. However, prior to intervening, it is essential to understand the person-venue dynamics that contribute to HIV risk. As such, we conducted five ethnographic observations at each of six venues where alcohol is sold and sex occurs onsite (2 each porn theaters, sex clubs, and dance clubs) frequented by gay and other men who have sex with men (G&MSM) in the Buenos Aires metropolitan area. Alcohol use, sexual behavior, and person-venue dynamics differed markedly across venue types. In dance clubs, substantial alcohol consumption often preceded visits to the darkroom for sex which, at times, included unprotected anal and vaginal intercourse. Condoms, although available, were not easily accessible. HIV prevention messaging was generally non-existent. These venues are in critical need of interventions to reduce HIV transmission risk.
Background: Adolescents display sexual behaviours and developmental characteristics that place them at risk for Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs). Because young people experiment sexually and because of the consequences of indiscriminate sexual activities on the youth, there is the need to mount sex education ...
Lampert, Jo; Walsh, Kerryann
Children's picture books dealing with the topic of child sexual abuse appeared in the 1980s with the aim of addressing the need for age-appropriate texts to teach sexual abuse prevention concepts and to provide support for young children who may be at risk of or have already experienced sexual abuse. Despite the apparent potential of children's…
Rosario, Margaret; Corliss, Heather L; Everett, Bethany G; Russell, Stephen T; Buchting, Francisco O; Birkett, Michelle A
We examined the role of adolescent peer violence victimization (PVV) in sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related tobacco, alcohol, and sexual risk behaviors. We pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. We classified youths with any same-sex sexual attraction, partners, or identity as sexual minority and the remainder as heterosexual. We had 4 indicators of tobacco and alcohol use and 4 of sexual risk and 2 PVV factors: victimization at school and carrying weapons. We stratified associations by gender and race/ethnicity. PVV was related to disparities in cancer-related risk behaviors of substance use and sexual risk, with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 1.6) to 11.3 (95% CI = 6.2, 20.8), and to being a sexual minority, with ORs of 1.4 (95% CI = 1.1, 1.9) to 5.6 (95% CI = 3.5, 8.9). PVV mediated sexual orientation disparities in substance use and sexual risk behaviors. Findings were pronounced for adolescent girls and Asian/Pacific Islanders. Interventions are needed to reduce PVV in schools as a way to reduce sexual orientation disparities in cancer risk across the life span.
Lejuez, C W; Simmons, Burnetta L; Aklin, Will M; Daughters, Stacey B; Dvir, Sharone
In the current study, a battery of self-report measures of impulsivity, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms, as well as a behavioral measure of risk-taking propensity, was administered to 76 residents of two inner-city substance use residential treatment programs to determine the unique relationship between risk-taking propensity and risky sexual behavior (RSB). Results indicated that impulsivity, self-esteem, and risk-taking propensity were independently related to RSB. In a subsequent regression analysis, risk-taking propensity evidenced incremental validity, suggesting a relationship between risk-taking propensity and RSB, above and beyond that provided with the other relevant variables. The potential importance of risk-taking propensity the better understanding HIV risk through engagement in RSB is discussed.
Cohen, Jacqueline N; Byers, E Sandra
The goal of this study was to characterize the sexuality of sexual-minority (i.e., lesbian, bisexual, queer, unlabeled, questioning) women. Participants were 586 women (87% White) in a same-sex relationship of 1 to 36 years in duration. They completed measures assessing their sexual behavior (frequency of nongenital and genital sexual activities), motivation (sexual desire), and cognitive-affective responses (sexual satisfaction, sexual esteem, sexual anxiety, negative automatic thoughts). On average, the women reported experiencing their sexuality positively across all domains. Regardless of relationship duration, most of the women reported engaging in both genital and nongenital sexual behaviors with their partner once a week or more; few reported that they had not engaged in sexual activity in the previous month. A multiple regression analysis indicated that frequency of genital sexual activity, sexual desire, sexual anxiety, and automatic thoughts contributed uniquely to the prediction of sexual satisfaction over and above the other sexuality variables. The findings are discussed in terms of the idea that lesbians have sex less frequently than other couple types and that sexual frequency declines rapidly in lesbian relationships (i.e., "lesbian bed death") and descriptions of sexual-minority women's sexuality that suggest that genital sexual activity is not important to sexual satisfaction.
Tumaini M. Nyamhanga
Full Text Available Background: There is a dearth of empirical research illuminating possible connections between gender imbalances and sexual violence among married women in Tanzania. There is a need to generate in-depth information on the connectivity between gender imbalances (asymmetrical resource ownership, sexual decision making, roles, and norms and sexual violence plus associated HIV risky sexual behavior among married women. Design: This paper is based on a qualitative case study that involved use of focus group discussions (FGDs. A thematic analysis approach was used in analyzing the study findings. Results: The study findings are presented under the three structures of gender and power theory. On sexual division of labor, our study found that economic powerlessness exposes women to sexual violence. On sexual division of power, our study found that perception of the man as a more powerful partner in marriage is enhanced by the biased marriage arrangement and alcohol consumption. On cathexis, this study has revealed that because of societal norms and expectations regarding women's sexual behavior characterized by their sexual and emotional attachments to men, women find it hard to leave sexually abusive marriages. That is, because of societal expectations of obedience and compelled tolerance many married women do suffer in silence. They find themselves trapped in marriages that increase their risk of acquiring HIV. Conclusions: This study suggests that married women experience a sexual risk of acquiring HIV that results from non-consensual sex. That non-consensual sex is a function of gender imbalances – ranging from women's economic dependence on their husbands or partners to socioculturally rooted norms and expectations regarding women's sexual behavior. The HIV risk is especially heightened because masculine sexual norms encourage men [husbands/partners] to engage in unprotected intra- and extramarital sex. It is recommended that the Tanzania
Rosario, Margaret; Corliss, Heather L; Everett, Bethany G; Reisner, Sari L; Austin, S Bryn; Buchting, Francisco O; Birkett, Michelle
We examined sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related risk behaviors among adolescents. We pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. We classified youths with any same-sex orientation as sexual minority and the remainder as heterosexual. We compared the groups on risk behaviors and stratified by gender, age ( 14 years), and race/ethnicity. Sexual minorities (7.6% of the sample) reported more risk behaviors than heterosexuals for all 12 behaviors (mean = 5.3 vs 3.8; P sexual orientation disparities in analyses by gender, followed by age, and then race/ethnicity; they persisted in analyses by gender, age, and race/ethnicity, although findings were nuanced. Data on cancer risk, morbidity, and mortality by sexual orientation are needed to track the potential but unknown burden of cancer among sexual minorities.
Taylor, S Wade; Goshe, Brett M; Marquez, Samantha M; Safren, Steven A; O'Cleirigh, Conall
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) continues to affect sexual minority men (SMM) at disproportionate levels and contributes to multiple negative health outcomes, including sexual-risk taking and HIV acquisition. This paper presents qualitative evaluative feedback from SMM (N = 9) who participated in a 10-session Cognitive Behavioral Therapy-Trauma and Sexual Health (CBT-TSH) intervention to reduce CSA-related posttraumatic stress reaction and distress. The treatment was designed to increase accurate sexual risk appraisals and to improve self-care health behaviors related to HIV/STI acquisition. The researchers identified four emerging themes: (1) motivation to participate, (2) response to cognitive therapy, (3) process of change, and (4) considerations for intervention improvement. These qualitative findings provide useful feedback on the acceptability of an innovative program that integrates CBT for trauma related to CSA with sexual risk-reduction counseling.
Stephen R Aichele
Full Text Available The incidence of HIV infection in rural African youth remains high despite widespread knowledge of the disease within the region and increasing funds allocated to programs aimed at its prevention and treatment. This suggests that program efficacy requires a more nuanced understanding of the profiles of the most at-risk individuals. To evaluate the explanatory power of novel psychographic variables in relation to high-risk sexual behaviors, we conducted a survey to assess the effects of psychographic factors, both behavioral and attitudinal, controlling for standard predictors in 546 youth (12-26 years of age across 8 villages in northern Tanzania. Indicators of high-risk sexual behavior included HIV testing, sexual history (i.e., virgin/non-virgin, age of first sexual activity, condom use, and number of lifetime sexual partners. Predictors in the statistical models included standard demographic variables, patterns of media consumption, HIV awareness, and six new psychographic features identified via factor analyses: personal vanity, family-building values, ambition for higher education, town recreation, perceived parental strictness, and spending preferences. In a series of hierarchical regression analyses, we find that models including psychographic factors contribute significant additional explanatory information when compared to models including only demographic and other conventional predictors. We propose that the psychographic approach used here, in so far as it identifies individual characteristics, aspirations, aspects of personal life style and spending preferences, can be used to target appropriate communities of youth within villages for leading and receiving outreach, and to build communities of like-minded youth who support new patterns of sexual behavior.
Paul Poteat, V; Russell, Stephen T; Dewaele, Alexis
Sexual minority adolescent sexual risk behavior studies often overlook young women, do not consider behavior- and identity-based sexual orientation indicators in combination, and focus mainly on condomless sex. We examined multiple risk behaviors in a large sample of adolescent young men and women using combined behavior- and identity-based indices. The 2015 Dane County Youth Assessment data included 4734 students in 22 high schools who had ever voluntarily engaged in sexual contact (51.7% male; 76.0% White, non-Hispanic). Items assessed having sex with unfamiliar partners, sex while using substances, using protection, and STI testing. Logistic regressions tested for disparities based on combined identity- and behavior-based sexual orientation indicators. For both young men and women, youth who reported heterosexual or questioning identities-but who had sex with same-sex partners-were at consistently greater risk than heterosexual youth with only different-sex partners. Also, for both young men and women, bisexuals with partners of both sexes more consistently reported higher risk than heterosexual youth than did bisexuals with only different-sex partners. Risk behavior for gay young men who had sex only with men mirrored those in extant literature. Risk levels differed for specific groups of sexual minority young women, thus deserving further attention. Findings underscore the need for sexual health research to consider sexual orientation in a more multidimensional manner.
Amundrud, Øystein; Aven, Terje
In Norway two concepts in risk assessment and management – risikoforståelse and risikoerkjennelse – have recently been given much attention, particularly in the oil and gas industry and in societal safety and security contexts. The former concept corresponds quite well to ‘risk understanding’ but the latter does not have an exact counterpart in English – the best term seems to be ‘risk acknowledgement’. The discourse related to these two concepts has given us new general insights concerning the risk concept and its practical use, and the purpose of the present paper is to point to and discuss the main observations made. A main conclusion of the paper is that justified beliefs – what we refer to as knowledge – and the processes of generating these beliefs is an essential feature of both these concepts. - Highlights: • We examine two concepts – ‘risk understanding’ and ‘risk acknowledgement’. • Justified beliefs (knowledge) is an essential feature of both concepts. • Risk assessment is to a large extent about gaining ‘risk understanding’. • ‘Risk acknowledgement’ is of special importance in cases with deep uncertainties
Scheidell, Joy D; Kumar, Pritika C; Campion, Taylor; Quinn, Kelly; Beharie, Nisha; McGorray, Susan P; Khan, Maria R
Child sexual abuse is associated with substance use and sexual risk behaviors during adolescence and adulthood, but no known studies have documented associations across the life course in a nationally representative U.S. We used the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health to measure associations between child sexual abuse and substance use and sexual risk behaviors during adolescence, young adulthood, and adulthood among males and females (n = 11,820). Approximately 10% of females and 7% of males reported child sexual abuse. Associations with substance use were strongest during adolescence and lessened over time. Increased odds of sexual risk among those with a history of child sexual abuse remained consistent through the life course. Significant gender differences existed for some associations (e.g., adulthood multiple partners: males adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.73, 95%CI:1.18, 2.53; females AOR = 1.11, 95%CI:0.79, 1.56). Trauma-informed prevention interventions should address child sexual abuse among both males and females to prevent substance use and sexual risk behavior throughout the life course.
Mollborn, Stefanie; Domingue, Benjamin W.; Boardman, Jason D.
Researchers seeking to understand teen sexual behaviors often turn to age norms, but they are difficult to measure quantitatively. Previous work has usually inferred norms from behavioral patterns or measured group-level norms at the individual level, ignoring multiple reference groups. Capitalizing on the multilevel design of the Add Health survey, we measure teen pregnancy norms perceived by teenagers, as well as average norms at the school and peer network levels. School norms predict boys’ perceived norms, while peer network norms predict girls’ perceived norms. Peer network and individually perceived norms against teen pregnancy independently and negatively predict teens’ likelihood of sexual intercourse. Perceived norms against pregnancy predict increased likelihood of contraception among sexually experienced girls, but sexually experienced boys’ contraceptive behavior is more complicated: When both the boy and his peers or school have stronger norms against teen pregnancy he is more likely to contracept, and in the absence of school or peer norms against pregnancy, boys who are embarrassed are less likely to contracept. We conclude that: (1) patterns of behavior cannot adequately operationalize teen pregnancy norms, (2) norms are not simply linked to behaviors through individual perceptions, and (3) norms at different levels can operate independently of each other, interactively, or in opposition. This evidence creates space for conceptualizations of agency, conflict, and change that can lead to progress in understanding age norms and sexual behaviors. PMID:25104920
Mollborn, Stefanie; Domingue, Benjamin W; Boardman, Jason D
Researchers seeking to understand teen sexual behaviors often turn to age norms, but they are difficult to measure quantitatively. Previous work has usually inferred norms from behavioral patterns or measured group-level norms at the individual level, ignoring multiple reference groups. Capitalizing on the multilevel design of the Add Health survey, we measure teen pregnancy norms perceived by teenagers, as well as average norms at the school and peer network levels. School norms predict boys' perceived norms, while peer network norms predict girls' perceived norms. Peer network and individually perceived norms against teen pregnancy independently and negatively predict teens' likelihood of sexual intercourse. Perceived norms against pregnancy predict increased likelihood of contraception among sexually experienced girls, but sexually experienced boys' contraceptive behavior is more complicated: When both the boy and his peers or school have stronger norms against teen pregnancy he is more likely to contracept, and in the absence of school or peer norms against pregnancy, boys who are embarrassed are less likely to contracept. We conclude that: (1) patterns of behavior cannot adequately operationalize teen pregnancy norms, (2) norms are not simply linked to behaviors through individual perceptions, and (3) norms at different levels can operate independently of each other, interactively, or in opposition. This evidence creates space for conceptualizations of agency, conflict, and change that can lead to progress in understanding age norms and sexual behaviors.
Joseph A. Camilleri
Full Text Available Evolutionary theory has informed the investigation of male sexual coercion but has seldom been applied to the analysis of sexual coercion within established couples. The cuckoldry risk hypothesis, that sexual coercion is a male tactic used to reduce the risk of extrapair paternity, was tested in two studies. In a community sample, indirect cues of infidelity predicted male propensity for sexual coaxing in the relationship, and direct cues predicted propensity for sexual coercion. In the forensic sample, we found that most partner rapists experienced cuckoldry risk prior to committing their offence and experienced more types of cuckoldry risk events than non-sexual partner assaulters. These findings suggest that cuckoldry risk influences male sexual coercion in established sexual relationships.
Matthews, Derrick D; Blosnich, John R; Farmer, Grant W; Adams, Brian J
Increasing attention to the health of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations comes with requisite circumspection about measuring sexual orientation in surveys. However, operationalizing these variables also requires considerable thought. This research sought to document the consequences of different operational definitions of sexual orientation by examining variation in health risk behaviors. Using Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey data, we examined how operational definitions of sexual behavior and sexual identity influenced differences among three health behaviors known to disparately affect LGB populations: smoking, suicide risk, and methamphetamine use. Sexual behavior and sexual identity were also examined together to explore if they captured unique sources of variability in behavior. Estimates of health disparities changed as a result of using either sexual behavior or sexual identity. Youth who reported their sexual identity as "not sure" also had increased odds of health risk behavior. Disaggregating bisexual identity and behavior from same-sex identity and behavior frequently resulted in the attenuation or elimination of health disparities that would have otherwise been attributable to exclusively same-sex sexual minorities. Finally, sexual behavior and sexual identity explained unique and significant sources of variability in all three health behaviors. Researchers using different operational definitions of sexual orientation could draw different conclusions, even when analyzing the same data, depending upon how they chose to represent sexual orientation in analyses. We discuss implications that these manipulations have on data interpretation and provide specific recommendations for best-practices when analyzing sexual orientation data collected from adolescent populations.
Santos-Iglesias, Pablo; Sierra, Juan Carlos
Sexual revictimization is frequent among victims of child sexual abuse. Several variables, such as sexual experience, substance abuse, and sexual assertiveness, have been proposed to explain the link between child sexual abuse and adolescent and adult sexual victimization, although they have typically been tested separately. The main objective of…
... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Causes and Risks for Heart Failure Updated:Feb 13,2018 Who Develops Heart Failure ( ... HF. This content was last reviewed May 2017. Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Causes and Risks for ...
Bradley, Janet; Rajaram, Subramanian Potty; Isac, Shajy; Gurav, Kaveri; Ramesh, B M; Gowda, Chandrashekhar; Moses, Stephen; Alary, Michel
Despite their large numbers, and important role in the HIV epidemic in India, male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) are a difficult to reach population and little is known about their sexual behaviors. Using data from an integrated behavioral and biological assessment of 684 clients in Bangalore in 2012, we examined factors associated with their reports of having sex with three or more different female sex workers in the last month, and anal sex with sex workers. We included sociodemographic and sexual behavior factors and, for the first time in client studies in India, included data on the use of pornography and sexual enhancement products (SEPs) such as pills, oils, and sprays, in our multivariable analyses of client risk. Seventy-eight percent of clients had seen pornographic material and 8% reported ever having used SEPs. The profiles of men practicing the two risk behaviors examined were quite different. Travel in the past year, drunkenness in the past month, young age at first commercial sex, non-use of condoms at last sex, and finding sex workers in public places (but not use of pornography and SEPs) were independently associated with multiple partnering. Sex with a man or transsexual, being a white collar worker, seeking out FSWs at home, pornography and SEP use, and condom use at last FSW sex, were all independently associated with anal sex with an FSW. More research is needed to better understand the links between pornography and SEPs, and HIV risk behaviors, and HIV prevention programs need to be cognizant of the importance of ensuring that condom use is adequately promoted and supported in the context of anal sex in female sex worker-client interactions.
Choi, Kyung-Hee; Bowleg, Lisa; Neilands, Torsten B.
Women represent almost half of the people living with HIV worldwide. Although social discrimination has been recognized as a major obstacle to HIV prevention, few empirical studies have examined the effects of sexism on women’s HIV sexual risk behaviors. We analyzed data collected from an ethnically diverse sample of 754 women attending family planning clinics in the San Francisco Bay Area. A majority of respondents reported lifetime experiences of sexism (e.g., 94% reported sexual harassment). Structural equation modeling results demonstrated that experiences of sexism and reports of recent unprotected sex with a primary or a secondary sexual partner were linked through psychological distress and difficult sexual situations. Our results suggest the need to develop HIV prevention strategies for women that address two mechanisms ---psychological distress and difficult sexual situations --- that link social discrimination to women’s sexual risk for HIV. PMID:22010804
Choi, Kyung-Hee; Bowleg, Lisa; Neilands, Torsten B
Women represent almost half of the people living with HIV worldwide. Although social discrimination has been recognized as a major obstacle to HIV prevention, few empirical studies have examined the effects of sexism on women's HIV sexual risk behaviors. We analyzed data collected from an ethnically diverse sample of 754 women attending family planning clinics in the San Francisco Bay Area. A majority of respondents reported lifetime experiences of sexism (e.g., 94% reported sexual harassment). Structural equation modeling results demonstrated that experiences of sexism and reports of recent unprotected sex with a primary or a secondary sexual partner were linked through psychological distress and difficult sexual situations. Our results suggest the need to develop HIV prevention strategies for women that address two mechanisms-psychological distress and difficult sexual situations-that link social discrimination to women's sexual risk for HIV.
Draucker, Claire Burke; Mazurczyk, Jill
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is thought to be a precursor to substance use and sexual risk behaviors during adolescence. To inform adolescent prevention efforts, information is needed to explicate the nature of the relationships between CSA and these health risks. The aim of this study was to summarize the current literature on the associations between a history of CSA and substance use and sexual risk behaviors during adolescence. We conducted a systematic literature search and an integrative review. Current evidence implicates CSA as a robust precursor to the use of a wide variety of substances and multiple sexual risk behaviors during adolescence. Screening for CSA in adolescents at risk and incorporating strategies that enhance CSA recovery in adolescent prevention programs are warranted. Future research that includes longitudinal designs, uses multiple methods of assessment, and identifies pathways between CSA and adolescent health risks is recommended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Santosh Ramdurg; Atul Ambekar; Rakesh Lal
Introduction: People suffering from substance dependence suffer from various sexual dysfunctions and are at risk for indulging in various high-risk sexual behaviors and thus are vulnerable to acquire various infections such as HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections. AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the correlation between sexual dysfunction and high-risk sexual behavior in opioid-dependent men receiving buprenorphine and naltrexone maintenance therapy. Materials and Metho...
Handbook for Educating on Adolescent Reproductive and Sexual Health. Book One, Understanding the Adolescents and Their Reproductive and Sexual Health: Guide to Better Educational Strategies [and] Book Two, Strategies and Materials on Adolescent Reproductive and Sexual Health Education.
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Clearing House on Population Education and Communication.
This two-part handbook presents information on educating adolescents about reproductive and sexual health issues. "Book One, Understanding the Adolescents and Their Reproductive and Sexual Health: Guide to Better Educational Strategies" focuses on the demographic profile of adolescents as well as their fertility, sexual behavior, incidence of…
Ulusoy, Hatice; Swigart, Valerie; Erdemir, Firdevs
Sexual harassment in medical education has been studied in the Americas, Europe and Asia; however, little is known about sexual harassment in Middle Eastern cultures. Our initial aim was to describe the sexual harassment of female doctors-in-training by male patients and their relatives in Turkey. During our analysis of data, we expanded our objectives to include the formulation of a framework that can provide a theoretical background to enhance medical educators' understanding of sexual harassment across cultures. Questionnaires were provided to female resident doctors. Respondents were asked about their experiences of sexual harassment, about their reactions and about any precautionary measures they had used. Descriptive statistics were generated using SPSS software. Qualitative data were analysed using content analysis. Forty-nine (51.0%) of 96 distributed questionnaires were completed. Thirty-three (67.3%) participants stated that they had been sexually harassed by a patient or patient's relative at some point in their career. 'Gazing at the doctor in a lewd manner', selected by 25 (51.0%) participants, was the most common form of harassment. The methods of coping selected by the highest numbers of respondents involved seeking the discharge of the patient (24.2%), avoiding contact with the patient or relatives (24.2%) and showing rejection (21.2%). Participants' comments about the prevention of sexual harassment revealed a deep sense of need for protection. The interface between quantitative and qualitative findings and a review of the literature supported the development of a value-based, cross-cultural conceptual framework linking the valuing of hierarchy and conservatism with the occurrence of sexual harassment. We relate our findings to issues of patriarchy, power and socio-cultural influences that impact both the perpetrator and the target of sexual harassment. Medical educators are responsible for the control and prevention of sexual harassment of
Croft, Harry A
(serotonin). Serotonin overactivity is a putative cause of sexual dysfunction in patients with HSDD. The unique pharmacologic profile of flibanserin tones down inhibitory serotonergic function and restores dopaminergic and noradrenergic function. Croft HA. Understanding the Role of Serotonin in Female Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder and Treatment Options. J Sex Med 2017;14:1575-1584. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Annang, Lucy; Lian, Brad; Fletcher, Faith E.; Jackson, Dawnyéa
African-American youth suffer disproportionately from sexual risk consequences including unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Parents educating young people about sex may be one approach to reduce sexual risk behaviour among this population. The purpose of this study was to determine young people's perceptions of parents'…
This study examined the hypothesis that sexual assault in childhood is a risk factor in HIV and AIDS prevention and control in adulthood. It comprised 40 participants who were survivors of child sexual abuse and 40 participants who were not sexually abused. The sample had 20 sexually abused men, 20 non sexually abused men, 20 sexually abused women and 20 non sexually abused women. The group that had men and women who had a history of sexual assault reported higher HIV and AIDS risk behaviours than the non-abused comparison group. The survivors of sexual assault also had higher levels of post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, suicide ideation and external locus of control. They reported low self-esteem. This unhealthy psychological functioning was found to be a risk factor in HIV and AIDS prevention and control. Implications for future research are discussed.
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in a group of adolescents in Medellín, Colombia, and the most frequent risk factors for acquiring them. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional study, between 2010 and 2013, in 569 students who had started sexual intercourse. A questionnaire was applied, and screening was done for the following infections: hepatitis B, syphilis, HIV, HPV, gonorrhea, Chlamydia trachomatis, bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis, and nongonococcal urethritis in men. Results: Women had the following frequencies of infections: HPV 28.1 %; Chlamydia trachomatis 11.4 %; bacterial vaginosis 42.7 %; candidiasis 14.1 %. Nongonococcal urethritis was found in 6.2 % of men. Hepatitis B, syphilis, HIV, and gonococcal infections were not found. The most frequent risk factors were as follows: to have started sexual relations before the age of 15 (59.9 %; not to use condom (58.2 %; not to have utilized condom in the last sexual intercourse (41.7 %; to lack adequate knowledge on sexual health (39.1 %; to have had three or more sexual partners (30.6 %; to have had sexual partners 10 or more years older than themselves (20.4 %, and to have sexual relations with persons different from the formal partner (18.8 %. Conclusions: The high prevalence of STIs in teenagers that are just starting sexual life must be an alert to implement high impact sexual health programs.
Nyamhanga, Tumaini M; Frumence, Gasto
There is a dearth of empirical research illuminating possible connections between gender imbalances and sexual violence among married women in Tanzania. There is a need to generate in-depth information on the connectivity between gender imbalances (asymmetrical resource ownership, sexual decision making, roles, and norms) and sexual violence plus associated HIV risky sexual behavior among married women. This paper is based on a qualitative case study that involved use of focus group discussions (FGDs). A thematic analysis approach was used in analyzing the study findings. The study findings are presented under the three structures of gender and power theory. On sexual division of labor, our study found that economic powerlessness exposes women to sexual violence. This study suggests that married women experience a sexual risk of acquiring HIV that results from non-consensual sex. That non-consensual sex is a function of gender imbalances - ranging from women's economic dependence on their husbands or partners to socioculturally rooted norms and expectations regarding women's sexual behavior. The HIV risk is especially heightened because masculine sexual norms encourage men [husbands/partners] to engage in unprotected intra- and extramarital sex. It is recommended that the Tanzania Commission for AIDS (TACAIDS) should address the gender dimensions of sexual violence in marriage.
... Heart-Health Basics Reducing your risk starts with smart choices. If you smoke, stop. The American Heart ... a Second Heart Attack | Spanish Cardiac Rehab Referral Card | Spanish Heart Attack Warning Signs: Patient sheet | Infographic | ...
Muntz, Helen; Miller, Rhonda; Alston, Diane
This fact sheet provides information about pesticide risks to human health, primary means of pesticide exposure, standardized measures of pesticide toxicity, pesticide signal words and type of pesticide formulations.
Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W; Ryman, Sephira G; Gillman, Arielle S; Weiland, Barbara J; Thayer, Rachel E; Bryan, Angela D
Human adolescents engage in very high rates of unprotected sex. This behavior has a high potential for unintended, serious, and sustained health consequences including HIV/AIDS. Despite these serious health consequences, we know little about the neural and cognitive factors that influence adolescents' decision-making around sex, and their potential overlap with behaviorally co-occurring risk behaviors, including alcohol use. Thus, in this review, we evaluate the developmental neuroscience of sexual risk and alcohol use for human adolescents with an eye to relevant prevention and intervention implications.
Ryman, Sephira G.; Gillman, Arielle S.; Weiland, Barbara J.; Thayer, Rachel E.; Bryan, Angela D.
Human adolescents engage in very high rates of unprotected sex. This behavior has a high potential for unintended, serious, and sustained health consequences including HIV/AIDS. Despite these serious health consequences, we know little about the neural and cognitive factors that influence adolescents’ decision-making around sex, and their potential overlap with behaviorally co-occurring risk behaviors, including alcohol use. Thus, in this review, we evaluate the developmental neuroscience of sexual risk and alcohol use for human adolescents with an eye to relevant prevention and intervention implications. PMID:26290051
Kjellgren, Cecilia; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran; Mossige, Svein; Långström, Niklas
Sexual coercion is recognized as a serious societal problem. Correlates and risk factors of sexually abusive behavior in females are not well known. Etiological theory and empirical study of female perpetrators of sexual coercion are usually based on small or highly selected samples. Specifically, population-based data are needed to elucidate risk/protective factors. Main outcome measures include a self-report questionnaire containing 65 items tapping socio-demographic and health conditions, social relations, sexual victimization, conduct problems and a set of normative and deviant sexual cognitions, attitudes, and behaviors. We used a 2003-2004 survey of sexual attitudes and experiences among high school students in Norway and Sweden to identify risk factors and correlates to sexually coercive behavior (response rate 80%); 4,363 females participated (Mean = 18.1 years). Thirty-seven women (0.8%) reported sexual coercion (ever talked someone into, used pressure, or forced somebody to have sex). Sexually coercive compared with non-coercive women were similar on socio-demographic variables, but reported less parental care and more parental overprotection, aggression, depressive symptoms, and substance misuse. Also, sexually coercive females reported more sexual lust, sex partners, penetrative sexual victimization, rape myths, use of violent porn, and friends more likely to use porn. When using the Swedish subsample to differentiate risk factors specific for sexual coercion from those for antisocial behavior in general, we found less cannabis use, but more sexual preoccupation, pro-rape attitudes, and friends using violent porn in sexually coercive compared with non-sex conduct problem females. Sexually coercive behavior in high school women was associated with general risk/needs factors for antisocial behavior, but also with specific sexuality-related risk factors. This differential effect has previously been overlooked, agrees with similar findings in men, and
Baumgartner, S.E.; Sumter, S.R.; Peter, J.; Valkenburg, P.M.
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were (1) to investigate the prevalence and development of both online (OnSRB) and offline sexual risk behavior (OffSRB) in adolescence, (2) to establish whether OnSRBs and OffSRBs are related, and (3) to identify risk factors that determine problematic pathways of
Simon, Valerie A.; Feiring, Candice
Youth with confirmed histories of sexual abuse (N = 118) were followed longitudinally to examine associations between their initial sexual reactions to abuse and subsequent sexual functioning. Participants were interviewed at abuse discovery (ages 8 through 15) and again 1 and 6 years later. Eroticism and sexual anxiety emerged as distinct indices of abuse-specific sexual reactions and predicted subsequent sexual functioning. Eroticism was associated with indicators of heightened sexuality, including more sexual risk behavior and views of sexual intimacy focused on partners’ needs. Sexual anxiety was associated with indicators of diminished sexuality, including few sexual partners and avoidant views of sexual intimacy. Age at abuse discovery moderated some associations, suggesting that the timing of abuse-specific reactions affects trajectories of sexual development. Findings point to the need for a developmental approach to understanding how abuse-specific sexual reactions disrupt sexual development and the need for early interventions promoting healthy sexual development. PMID:18408212
ter Beek, E.
Juveniles with harmful sexual behavior constitute a heterogeneous group regarding treatment needs and reoffending patterns. In general, intensive mandated treatment aims at reducing recidivism risk and, therefore, criminogenic treatment needs. Sexual recidivism by juveniles, however, is scarce and
Song, Yi; Ji, Cheng-Ye; Agardh, Anette
Objective To determine the association between health-risk behaviors and a history of sexual coercion among urban Chinese high school students. Design A cross-sectional study was performed among 109,754 high school students who participated in the 2005 Chinese Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Data were analyzed for 5,215 students who had experienced sexual intercourse (1,483 girls, 3,732 boys). Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between sexual coercion and the related covariates, and data were stratified by gender. Results Of those students who had had sexual intercourse, 40.9% of the females and 29.6% of the males experienced sexual coercion (pcoercion. Patterns of health-risk behaviors also differed among female and male students who had experienced sexual coercion. Conclusions Sexual coercion is associated with health-risk behaviors. Initiatives to reduce the harm associated with sexual coercion among high school students are needed. PMID:24836445
Leerlooijer, J.N.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Damayanti, R.; Rijsdijk, E.; Eiling, E.; Bos, A.E.R.; Kok, G.
ObjectivesAdolescents in Indonesia have limited access to sexuality education, resulting in increased risk of sexually transmitted infections and unplanned pregnancies. This study aimed to understand psychosocial correlates of sexual abstinence intentions to inform future sexuality education.
Overstreet, Nicole M; Willie, Tiara C; Hellmuth, Julianne C; Sullivan, Tami P
Research has examined how physical and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization increases sexual risk behavior, yet research is lacking on 1) the effect of psychological IPV on sexual risk behavior and 2) factors through which psychological IPV may be linked to sexual risk behavior. The current study examined the relationship between psychological IPV and sexual risk behavior controlling for other forms of IPV (i.e., physical and sexual) in a sample of 186 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative community women currently experiencing IPV. Further, this study examined the potential mediating effects of four posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity clusters (i.e., re-experiencing, avoidance, numbing, and hyperarousal) on this relationship. Results revealed that greater severity of psychological IPV was uniquely and directly related to greater sexual risk behavior. Additionally, of the four PTSD symptom severity clusters, only avoidance symptom severity mediated the relationship between psychological IPV and sexual risk behavior. Implications for addressing psychological IPV and PTSD to improve women's sexual health outcomes are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Santa Maria, Diane; Hernandez, Daphne C; Arlinghaus, Katherine R; Gallardo, Kathryn R; Maness, Sarah B; Kendzor, Darla E; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Businelle, Michael S
While HIV disproportionately impacts homeless individuals, little is known about the prevalence of HIV risk behaviors in the southwest and how age factors and HIV risk perceptions influence sexual risk behaviors. We conducted a secondary data analysis ( n = 460) on sexually active homeless adults from a cross-sectional study of participants ( n = 610) recruited from homeless service locations, such as shelters and drop-in centers, in an understudied region of the southwest. Covariate-adjusted logistic regressions were used to assess the impact of age at homelessness onset, current age, age at first sex, and HIV risk perceptions on having condomless sex, new sexual partner(s), and multiple sexual partners (≥4 sexual partners) in the past 12 months. Individuals who first experienced homelessness by age 24 were significantly more likely to report condomless sex and multiple sexual partners in the past year than those who had a later onset of their first episode of homelessness. Individuals who were currently 24 years or younger were more likely to have had condomless sex, new sexual partners, and multiple sexual partners in the past 12 months than those who were 25 years or older. Those who had low perceived HIV risk had lower odds of all three sexual risk behaviors. Social service and healthcare providers should consider a younger age at homelessness onset when targeting HIV prevention services to youth experiencing homelessness.
Diane Santa Maria
Full Text Available While HIV disproportionately impacts homeless individuals, little is known about the prevalence of HIV risk behaviors in the southwest and how age factors and HIV risk perceptions influence sexual risk behaviors. We conducted a secondary data analysis (n = 460 on sexually active homeless adults from a cross-sectional study of participants (n = 610 recruited from homeless service locations, such as shelters and drop-in centers, in an understudied region of the southwest. Covariate-adjusted logistic regressions were used to assess the impact of age at homelessness onset, current age, age at first sex, and HIV risk perceptions on having condomless sex, new sexual partner(s, and multiple sexual partners (≥4 sexual partners in the past 12 months. Individuals who first experienced homelessness by age 24 were significantly more likely to report condomless sex and multiple sexual partners in the past year than those who had a later onset of their first episode of homelessness. Individuals who were currently 24 years or younger were more likely to have had condomless sex, new sexual partners, and multiple sexual partners in the past 12 months than those who were 25 years or older. Those who had low perceived HIV risk had lower odds of all three sexual risk behaviors. Social service and healthcare providers should consider a younger age at homelessness onset when targeting HIV prevention services to youth experiencing homelessness.
Kong, Fabian Y S; Hocking, Jane S; Link, Chris Kyle; Chen, Marcus Y; Hellard, Margaret E
To determine the prevalence of chlamydia and understand sexual risk behaviour in 16-29 year olds in rural Victoria through a chlamydia testing program undertaken at local sporting clubs. Young people were recruited from the Loddon Mallee region of Victoria, Australia between May and September 2007. After a night of sporting practice, participants provided a first pass urine sample and completed a brief questionnaire about sexual risk behaviour. Those positive for chlamydia were managed by telephone consultation with a practitioner from Melbourne Sexual Health Centre. A total of 709 young people participated (77% male, 23% female) in the study; 77% were sexually active. Overall chlamydia prevalence in sexually active participants was 5.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.4-7.3); 7.4% in females (95% CI: 3.5-13.6) and 4.5% in males (95% CI: 2.7-6.9). Approximately 60% of males and 20% of females consumed alcohol at high 'Risky Single Occasion Drinking' levels at least weekly and 60% had used an illicit drug in their lifetime. Nearly 45% reported having sex in the past year when they usually would not have because they were too drunk or high. Sexually transmissible infection (STI) knowledge was generally poor and only 25% used a condom the last time they had sex. Chlamydia prevalence was high in our study population. Many participants had poor knowledge about STIs and low condom use. These findings combined with high levels of risky alcohol use and having sex while intoxicated highlights the need for programs in rural and regional Victoria that combine both STI testing and prevention and education programs.
Swan, D Joye; Thompson, Suzanne C
The authors examined the hypothesis that many individuals define monogamy based on emotional rather than sexual fidelity. Participants, 373 heterosexual college students and 282 gay men, read three vignettes of decreasing mitigation in which they imagined committing an act of infidelity against a hypothetical partner and where half the participants were cued to their emotional attachment toward the partner. Despite the infidelity, relationships in the emotional attachment-cued vignettes were rated as monogamous to a greater degree than relationships in the vignettes where emotional attachment was not cued. In addition, over one-third of the participants in our study reported infidelity in their current self-defined monogamous relationships yet also reported feeling more protected from sexual health risks and reported less condom use than individuals who defined their relationship as nonmonogamous. The implications for monogamy as a protective fallacy are discussed.
MacKillop, James; Celio, Mark A; Mastroleo, Nadine R; Kahler, Christopher W; Operario, Don; Colby, Suzanne M; Barnett, Nancy P; Monti, Peter M
The discipline of behavioral economics integrates principles from psychology and economics to systematically characterize decision-making preferences. Two forms of behavioral economic decision making are of relevance to HIV risk behavior: delay discounting, reflecting preferences for immediate small rewards relative to larger delayed rewards (i.e., immediate gratification), and probability discounting, reflecting preferences for larger probabilistic rewards relative to smaller guaranteed rewards (i.e., risk sensitivity). This study examined questionnaire-based indices of both types of discounting in relation to sexual risk taking in an emergency department sample of hazardous drinkers who engage in risky sexual behavior. More impulsive delay discounting was significantly associated with increased sexual risk-taking during a drinking episode, but not general sexual risk-taking. Probability discounting was not associated with either form of sexual risk-taking. These findings implicate impulsive delay discounting with sexual risk taking during alcohol intoxication and provide further support for applying this approach to HIV risk behavior.
Dembo, Richard; Wareham, Jennifer; Krupa, Julie; Winters, Ken C
Little is known of sexual risk behaviors among truant youths across gender. This study utilized latent class analysis to examined heterogeneity of sexual risk behaviors across gender among a sample of 300 truant adolescents. Results revealed two latent subgroups within gender: low vs. high sexual risk behaviors. There were gender differences in baseline covariates of sexual risk behaviors, with male truants in higher risk group experiencing ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) problems, and female truants in higher risk group experienced marijuana use and depression symptoms. African-American race was a significant covariate for high sexual risk behaviors for both genders. Service and practice implications of sexual risk issues of truant youth are discussed.
CONCLUSIONS, the level of sexual behavior in cocaine abuses was at the most and in crack abusers was at the least. Also, the level of high risk sexual behavior in ice and cocaine was more than opium, heroin and crack. The level of self harm behavior in crack abuses was more than ice and opium abuses.
Peter, J.; Valkenburg, P.M.
This study had three goals: first, to investigate whether sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) affects sexual risk behavior; second, to study whether these effects differ between adolescents and adults; and third, to analyze, separately for adolescents and adults, whether gender and age
Yip, Paul SF; Zhang, Huiping; Lam, Tai-Hing; Lam, Kwok Fai; Lee, Antoinette Marie; Chan, John; Fan, Susan
Background Little is known about sex knowledge, attitudes, and high-risk sexual behaviors among unmarried youth in Hong Kong. It is of public health importance to investigate this topic to inform sex education, policymaking, and prevention and intervention programs. Methods Based on the Youth Sexuality Survey conducted by Hong Kong Family Planning Association (FPAHK) in 2011, this study explored the characteristics of sexual knowledge, attitudes, and high-risk sexual behaviors among 1,126 unm...
Schwartz, Barbara K
In reviewing approaches to rehabilitative efforts in understanding and managing sexually coercive behaviors within the past two decades, one is struck by the development of two totally divergent paths. In 1971, there were a few civil commitment programs operated by mental health departments-most notably were the Sexual Psychopath Program at Western State Hospital in Fort Steilacoom, Washington, and the Massachusetts Treatment Center for Sexually Dangerous Persons. There were a few programs in prisons started by therapists who were interested in this population but given little recognition and even fewer resources. Additionally there were a handful of community-based programs including the J.J. Peters Institute in Philadelphia and PASO (Positive Approaches to Sex Offenders) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Today there are thousands of specialized sexual offender treatment programs treating sexual abusers of every age, gender, ethnicity, and with a wide range of comorbid conditions. They are treated in the community, prisons, mental hospitals, residential facilities, and private practices. There is an international organization, a specialized research journal, and a specialized branch of the Department of Justice, the Center for Sex Offender Management. This chapter will provide an overview of the developments in the field, primarily covering the last 25 years. It will look at the evolution of theoretical approaches, the development of specialized approaches for subpopulations, significant landmarks, and possible future trends.
Black, Sandra R; Schmiege, Sarah; Bull, Sheana
Perception of peer behaviors is an important predictor of actual risk behaviors among youth. However, we lack understanding of peer influence through social media and of actual and perceived peer behavior concordance. The purpose of this research is to document the relationship between individual perception of and actual peer sexual risk behavior using online social networks. The data are a result of a secondary analysis of baseline self-reported and peer-reported sexual risk behavior from a cluster randomized trial including 1,029 persons from 162 virtual networks. Individuals (seeds) recruited up to three friends who then recruited additional friends, extending three waves from the seed. ANOVA models compared network means of actual participant behavior across categories of perceived behavior. Concordance varied between reported and perceived behavior, with higher concordance between perceived and reported condom use, multiple partners, concurrent partners, sexual pressure, and drug and alcohol use during sex. Individuals significantly over-reported risk and under-reported protective peer behaviors related to sex.
Monte Carlo analyses are used to show what inferences can and cannot be drawn when either a very small number of accidents result from a considerable exposure or where a very small number of people, down to a single individual, are exposed to small added risks. The distinction between relative and absolute uncertainty is illustrated. No new statistical principles are involved
Servatka, Maros; Theocharides, George
This classroom experiment introduces students to the notion of credit risk and expected return, by allowing them to trade on comparable corporate bond issues from two types of markets: investment-grade and high-yield markets. Investment-grade issues have a lower probability of default than high-yield issues and thus provide a lower yield.…
... travel to the arteries or veins in the brain, heart, kidneys, lungs and limbs, which in turn can cause heart attack, stroke, damage to the body’s organs or even death. Acquired Risk Factors Smoking Overweight and obesity Pregnancy Prolonged ...
Mullins, Tanya L Kowalczyk; Widdice, Lea E; Rosenthal, Susan L; Zimet, Gregory D; Kahn, Jessica A
Among 11-12 year-old girls who received the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, we explored, over the subsequent 30 months: (1) trajectories of knowledge about HPV/HPV vaccines and vaccine-related risk perceptions; (2) whether knowledge and risk perceptions impacted sexual attitudes and sexual experience; (3) whether mothers, clinicians, and media influenced girls' risk perceptions, attitudes, and behavior. Girls and mothers (n=25dyads) completed separate, semi-structured interviews within 2 days of, and 6, 18, and 30 months after, their first HPV vaccine dose. Knowledge, risk perceptions related to HPV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and attitudes about sexual behaviors were assessed. Sexual experience was assessed at girls' 30 month interviews. Clinicians completed interviews at baseline. Transcribed interviews were analyzed using framework analysis. Girls' baseline knowledge was poor but often improved with time. Most girls (n=18) developed accurate risk perceptions about HPV but only half (n=12) developed accurate risk perceptions about other STIs by 30 months. The vast majority of girls thought that safer sex was still important, regardless of knowledge, risk perceptions, or sexual experience. Girls whose HPV knowledge was high at baseline or increased over time tended to articulate accurate risk perceptions; those who were able to articulate accurate risk perceptions tended to report not having initiated sexual activity. Girls whose mothers demonstrated higher knowledge and/or communication about HPV vaccination tended to articulate accurate risk perceptions, whereas clinicians and media exposure did not appear to influence risk perceptions. Higher knowledge about HPV vaccines among mothers and girls was linked with more accurate risk perceptions among girls. Clinicians may play an important role in providing education about HPV vaccines to mothers and girls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Young, Sean D; Szekeres, Greg; Coates, Thomas
Online social networking usage is growing rapidly, especially among at-risk populations, such as men who have sex with men (MSM). However, little research has studied the relationship between online social networking usage and sexual risk behaviors among at-risk populations. One hundred and eighteen Facebook-registered MSM (60.1% Latino, 28% African American; 11.9% other) were recruited from online (social networking websites and banner advertisements) and offline (local clinics, restaurants and organizations) venues frequented by minority MSM. Inclusion criteria required participants to be men who were 18 years of age or older, had had sex with a man in the past 12 months, were living in Los Angeles, and had a Facebook account. Participants completed an online survey on their social media usage and sexual risk behaviors. Results from a multivariable regression suggest that number of sexual partners met from online social networking technologies is associated with increased: 1) likelihood of having exchanged sex for food, drugs, or a place to stay within the past 3 months; 2) number of new partners within the past 3 months; 3) number of male sex partners within the past 3 months; and 4) frequency of engaging in oral sex within the past 3 months, controlling for age, race, education, and total number of sexual partners. Understanding the relationship between social media sex-seeking and sexual risk behaviors among at-risk populations will help inform population-focused HIV prevention and treatment interventions.
Sean D Young
Full Text Available Online social networking usage is growing rapidly, especially among at-risk populations, such as men who have sex with men (MSM. However, little research has studied the relationship between online social networking usage and sexual risk behaviors among at-risk populations. One hundred and eighteen Facebook-registered MSM (60.1% Latino, 28% African American; 11.9% other were recruited from online (social networking websites and banner advertisements and offline (local clinics, restaurants and organizations venues frequented by minority MSM. Inclusion criteria required participants to be men who were 18 years of age or older, had had sex with a man in the past 12 months, were living in Los Angeles, and had a Facebook account. Participants completed an online survey on their social media usage and sexual risk behaviors. Results from a multivariable regression suggest that number of sexual partners met from online social networking technologies is associated with increased: 1 likelihood of having exchanged sex for food, drugs, or a place to stay within the past 3 months; 2 number of new partners within the past 3 months; 3 number of male sex partners within the past 3 months; and 4 frequency of engaging in oral sex within the past 3 months, controlling for age, race, education, and total number of sexual partners. Understanding the relationship between social media sex-seeking and sexual risk behaviors among at-risk populations will help inform population-focused HIV prevention and treatment interventions.
Caldwell, B; Pieris, I; Barkat-e-Khuda; Caldwell, J; Caldwell, P
Bangladesh adjoins the Asian region with the severest AIDS epidemic and has common borders with two of the most affected areas, the Indian Hill States and northern Burma. There has been disagreement about the danger to Bangladesh, one view citing the likelihood of transmission from neighbouring infected populations and the other claiming that the country's predominantly Muslim culture protects it. This paper reports on a 1995-1997 research project. Preliminary research was carried out in Dhaka in 1995-1996 which suggested that the poor squatter areas might well sustain an epidemic. The experience also showed that more accurate measures of sexual networking could be obtained from males than females. The 1997 field research reported here investigated 983 males, 52% single and 48% married in Chittagong city and two more rural areas of Chittagong Division in southeast Bangladesh. It was found that around half of all males and probably a somewhat lower proportion of females, experience premarital sexual relations, with males having a lower level of extramarital than premarital relations. The factor heightening Bangladesh's risk of an epidemic is that one-quarter of single males and a significant but lower level of married males have had relations with prostitutes. This is one explanation for quite high levels of STDs in Bangladesh. The factors restricting the chances of a major national epidemic are the small number of premarital sexual episodes per person and the low level of intravenous drug use.
Handy, Ariel B; Stanton, Amelia M; Meston, Cindy M
Subjective sexual arousal (SSA) is positive, cognitive engagement in sexual activity. SSA is considered an important aspect of the sexual experience, as it has been found to facilitate sexual activity and, in situations of chronically low or absent arousal, potentially cause distress. Despite the clinical implications of SSA, a thorough review of how to manipulate SSA has yet to be conducted. To review the state of knowledge about SSA in women, including its definition, measurement, and the outcomes of studies attempting to manipulate SSA within a laboratory setting. A comprehensive search of the electronic databases of PubMed and PsycINFO was conducted. The generated list of articles was reviewed and duplicates were removed. Individual articles were assessed for inclusion and, when appropriate, relevant content was extracted. The potential effects of various manipulations of SSA in a laboratory setting was the main outcome. 44 studies were included in this review. Manipulations were grouped into 3 primary categories: pharmacological (n = 16), cognitive (n = 22), and those based on changes to the autonomic nervous system (n = 6). Results suggest that cognitive manipulation is the most effective method of increasing SSA. Altering the relative balance of the 2 branches of the autonomic nervous system (the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system) also appears to be a promising avenue for increasing SSA. This review supports the use of cognitive manipulation for increasing women's SSA in a laboratory setting. Avenues for future research and recommendations for clinicians are discussed. Handy AB, Stanton AM, Meston CM. Understanding Women's Subjective Sexual Arousal Within the Laboratory: Definition, Measurement, and Manipulation. Sex Med Rev 2018;6:201-216. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Booker, Cara L; Rieger, Gerulf; Unger, Jennifer B
Few studies from the United Kingdom have fully investigated inequalities between members of different sexual minority groups and heterosexuals over range of health outcomes. Using data from over 40,000 individuals, this study explores the health inequalities of sexual minority UK adults. We include respondents who identify as other and those who prefer not to say (PNS). Data come from wave three (2011-2012) of the nationally-representative Understanding Society, the UK Household Longitudinal Study. Sexual orientation was asked in the self-completion portion of the study. Markers of health include physical and mental functioning, minor psychological distress, self-rated health, substance use and disability. Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses tested for differences in markers of health between sexual orientation groups. Overall, heterosexual respondents had the best health while bisexual respondents had the worst. Gay and lesbian respondents reported poorer health than heterosexuals, specifically with regards to mental functioning, distress and illness status. The other and PNS respondents were most similar to each other and generally experienced fewer health inequalities than gay and lesbian respondents; they were less likely to use tobacco or alcohol. In sum, sexual minorities experience health inequality. The inclusion of other and PNS respondents has not been done in other studies and shows that while they may be healthier than gay/lesbian and bisexual respondents they still experiences poorer health than heterosexuals. Health promotion interventions are needed for these other and PNS individuals, who might not participate in interventions targeted toward known sexual minority groups. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mollborn, Stefanie; Domingue, Benjamin W.; Boardman, Jason D.
Researchers seeking to understand teen sexual behaviors often turn to age norms, but they are difficult to measure quantitatively. Previous work has usually inferred norms from behavioral patterns or measured group-level norms at the individual level, ignoring multiple reference groups. Capitalizing on the multilevel design of the Add Health survey, we measure teen pregnancy norms perceived by teenagers, as well as average norms at the school and peer network levels. School norms predict boys...
Bochud, Francois O.
The best way to understand how people perceive radiation risk is to not consider them as fundamentally different from experts, but rather, to consider how we, as experts, naturally react when we are confronted with a risk and how we like to be treated. Do we have to alter our language to make it understandable by members of the public?
Bochud, Francois O.
The best way to understand how people perceive radiation risk is to not consider them as fundamentally different from experts, but rather, to consider how we, as experts, naturally react when we are confronted with a risk and how we like to be treated. Do we have to alter our language to make it understandable by members of the public?.
Okan, Yasmina; Stone, Eric R; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi
Graphs show promise for improving communications about different types of risks, including health risks, financial risks, and climate risks. However, graph designs that are effective at meeting one important risk communication goal (promoting risk-avoidant behaviors) can at the same time compromise another key goal (improving risk understanding). We developed and tested simple bar graphs aimed at accomplishing these two goals simultaneously. We manipulated two design features in graphs, namely, whether graphs depicted the number of people affected by a risk and those at risk of harm ("foreground+background") versus only those affected ("foreground-only"), and the presence versus absence of simple numerical labels above bars. Foreground-only displays were associated with larger risk perceptions and risk-avoidant behavior (i.e., willingness to take a drug for heart attack prevention) than foreground+background displays, regardless of the presence of labels. Foreground-only graphs also hindered risk understanding when labels were not present. However, the presence of labels significantly improved understanding, eliminating the detrimental effect of foreground-only displays. Labels also led to more positive user evaluations of the graphs, but did not affect risk-avoidant behavior. Using process modeling we identified mediators (risk perceptions, understanding, user evaluations) that explained the effect of display type on risk-avoidant behavior. Our findings contribute new evidence to the graph design literature: unlike what was previously feared, we demonstrate that it is possible to design foreground-only graphs that promote intentions for behavior change without a detrimental effect on risk understanding. Implications for the design of graphical risk communications and decision support are discussed. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.
Benavides, Raquel A.; Montero, Carolina Valdez; González, Víctor M.; Rodríguez, Dora Julia Onofre
Use of sexual material online (USMO) by young people has been connected with at-risk sexual behavior for HIV/AIDS. Media Richness and Social Cognitive theories propose that rich media offer more information with interactive and audible visual content, which could have a significant impact on people’s thinking and behavior. The objective was to determine whether USMO presented by rich media has an influence on at-risk sexual behavior for HIV/AIDS. Two hundred young people participated in the s...
Hequembourg, Amy L.; Livingston, Jennifer A.; Parks, Kathleen A.
This study examines relationships among childhood sexual abuse (CSA), risky alcohol use, and adult sexual victimization among bisexual and lesbian women. Half (51.2%) of women reported CSA and 71.2% reported adult sexual victimization. Perpetrators were generally male, and 56.4% of women’s most recent adult sexual victimization incidents occurred after coming-out. Regression results indicated that adult sexual victimization severity was associated with a bisexual identity, more severe CSA history, more lifetime sexual partners, and higher alcohol severity scores. Compared to lesbians, bisexual women reported more severe adult sexual victimization experiences, greater revictimization, riskier drinking patterns, and more lifetime male sexual partners. PMID:23759663
Hequembourg, Amy L; Livingston, Jennifer A; Parks, Kathleen A
This study examines relationships among childhood sexual abuse (CSA), risky alcohol use, and adult sexual victimization among bisexual and lesbian women. Half (51.2%) of women reported CSA and 71.2% reported adult sexual victimization. Perpetrators were generally male, and 56.4% of women's most recent adult sexual victimization incidents occurred after coming out. Regression results indicated that adult sexual victimization severity was associated with a bisexual identity, more severe CSA history, more lifetime sexual partners, and higher alcohol severity scores. Compared to lesbians, bisexual women reported more severe adult sexual victimization experiences, greater revictimization, riskier drinking patterns, and more lifetime male sexual partners.
Mokma, Taylor R; Eshelman, Lee R; Messman-Moore, Terri L
Child sexual abuse and adult sexual assault have been linked to increased self-blame, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and alcohol use. The current study aims to examine (a) whether these constructs explain women's risk for later adult sexual assault and revictimization, (b) whether such factors differentially confer risk for specific types of adult sexual assault (i.e., substance-facilitated and forcible), and (c) if self-blame confers risk indirectly through other risk factors. Multiple types of self-blame, posttraumatic stress, and alcohol use were examined among 929 female college students as serial mediators of the relationship between child sexual abuse and adult sexual assault and as risk factors for sexual revictimization among child sexual abuse survivors. In the model predicting risk for substance-facilitated adult sexual assault, child sexual abuse indirectly predicted greater risk for substance-facilitated adult sexual assault mediated through two separate paths: global blame-to-posttraumatic-stress and global blame-to-alcohol use. In the model predicting risk for forcible adult sexual assault, child sexual abuse directly predicted greater risk for forcible adult sexual assault, and this relation was mediated by the global blame-to-posttraumatic-stress path. Among child sexual abuse survivors, child sexual abuse specific characterological and behavioral self-blame directly predicted greater risk for forcible and substance-facilitated revictimization, but the pathways were not mediated by posttraumatic stress or alcohol use. Results emphasize the importance of assessing different types of self-blame in predicting posttraumatic stress symptoms as well as examining risk for sexual victimization and revictimization. Findings did not support hypotheses that increased posttraumatic stress would predict increased alcohol use but did indicate that heightened self-blame is consistently associated with heightened posttraumatic stress and that heightened global self
Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan
Full Text Available We aimed to determine differences in sexual practices, HIV sexual risk behaviors, and HIV risk profile of adolescents and young persons' in rural and urban Nigeria.We recruited 772 participants 15 to 24 years old from urban and rural townships in Nigeria through a household survey. Information on participants' socio-demographic profile (age sex, residential area, number of meals taken per day, sexual practices (vagina, oral and anal sex; heterosexual and homosexual sex; sex with spouse, casual acquaintances, boy/girlfriend and commercial sex workers, sexual behavior (age of sexual debut, use of condom, multiple sex partners, transactional sex and age of sexual partner, and other HIV risk factors (use of alcohol and psychoactive substances, reason for sexual debut, knowledge of HIV prevention and HIV transmission, report of STI symptoms were collected through an interviewer administered questionnaire. Differences in sexual behavior and sexual practices of adolescents and HIV risk profile of adolescents and young persons resident in urban and rural areas were determined.More than half (53.5% of the respondents were sexually active, with more residing in the rural than urban areas (64.9% vs 44.1%; p<0.001 and more resident in the rural area reporting having more than one sexual partner (29.5% vs 20.4%; p = 0.04. Also, 97.3% of sexually active respondents reported having vaginal sex, 8.7% reported oral sex and 1.9% reported anal sex. More male than female respondents in the urban area used condoms during the last vaginal sexual intercourse (69.1% vs 51.9%; p = 0.02, and reported sex with casual partners (7.0% vs 15.3%; p = 0.007. More female than male respondents residing in the rural area engaged in transactional sex (1.0% vs 6.7%; p = 0.005. More females than males in both rural (3.6% vs 10.2%; p = 0.04 and urban (4.7% vs 26.6%; p<0.001 areas self-reported a history of discharge. More females than males in both rural (1.4% vs 17.0%; p = 0.04 and
Han, In Young; Lee, Yongwoo; Yoo, Seo Koo; Hong, Jun Sung
This study examined the prevalence of and risk factors for sexual abuse of boys in South Korea by asking a national sample of 1,043 adult males whether they had experienced sexual abuse during childhood. The results indicate that 13.5% experienced at least one of the nine types of child sexual abuse assessed. In addition, the majority of the…
Other studies have also identified tourism as one of the risk factors that have facilitated the spread of HIV/AIDS along side early initiation of sexual activity, multiple sex partners, unprotected sexual intercourse, teenage pregnancy, drug abuse, presence of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), poverty, and malnutrition .
Small, Stephen A.; Kerns, Donell
Assessed incidence and risk factors of unwanted sexual activity initiated by peers for 1,149 adolescent females. Twenty percent of sample reported some type of unwanted sexual contact in past year. Over one-third of this group reported having been forced to have sexual intercourse. Boyfriends were most commonly reported perpetrators followed by…
Wilcox, Dan; Beech, Anthony; Markall, Helena F.; Blacker, Janine
This study examines the effectiveness of three risk assessment instruments: Static-99, Risk Matrix 2000 (RM2000) and the Rapid Risk of Sex Offender Recidivism (RRASOR), in predicting sexual recidivism among 27 intellectually disabled sex offenders. The overall sexual offence reconviction rate was 30%, while non-recidivists remained offence-free…
Jun 12, 2014 ... http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/rsah20. Perception of risk of HIV infections and sexual behaviour of the sexually active university students in Zimbabwe .... risk of the disease. In the context of HIV, an individual's percep- tion of the risk of HIV infections often affects a number of factors such as whether or not ...
Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Barrett, Kimberly; Ungaro, Rocio; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven; Karas, Lora M.; Gulledge, Laura; Wareham, Jennifer
Substance use and sexual risk behaviors are common among adolescents, but research has focused attention on alcohol use. Much less is known about the relationship of marijuana use and sexual risk behavior among high-risk, especially truant, youths. We report interim findings from a NIDA-funded experimental, brief intervention (BI) study involving…
Gidycz, Christine A.; Orchowski, Lindsay M.; King, Carrie R.; Rich, Cindy L.
The present study utilizes the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey to examine the relationship between health-risk behaviors and sexual victimization among a sample of college women. A prospective design is utilized to examine the relationship between health-risk behaviors as measured at baseline and sexual victimization during a 3-month…
Benavides, Raquel A; Montero, Carolina Valdez; González, Víctor M; Rodríguez, Dora Julia Onofre
Use of sexual material online (USMO) by young people has been connected with at-risk sexual behavior for HIV/AIDS. Media Richness and Social Cognitive theories propose that rich media offer more information with interactive and audible visual content, which could have a significant impact on people's thinking and behavior. The objective was to determine whether USMO presented by rich media has an influence on at-risk sexual behavior for HIV/AIDS. Two hundred young people participated in the study, and it was found that USMO from rich media is connected to at risk sexual behavior for HIV/AIDS (pmedia for masturbation (F[2,189]=10.169, pstudy also found that young people may experience pleasure from USMO in rich media and feel motivated to model what they observe.
Dharma, Christoffer; Bauer, Greta R
Public health research on inequalities in Canada depends heavily on population data sets such as the Canadian Community Health Survey. While sexual orientation has three dimensions - identity, behaviour and attraction - Statistics Canada and public health agencies assess sexual orientation with a single questionnaire item on identity, defined behaviourally. This study aims to evaluate this item, to allow for clearer interpretation of sexual orientation frequencies and inequalities. Through an online convenience sampling of Canadians ≥14 years of age, participants (n = 311) completed the Statistics Canada question and a second set of sexual orientation questions. The single-item question had an 85.8% sensitivity in capturing sexual minorities, broadly defined by their sexual identity, lifetime behaviour and attraction. Kappa statistic for agreement between the single item and sexual identity was 0.89; with past year, lifetime behaviour and attraction were 0.39, 0.48 and 0.57 respectively. The item captured 99.3% of those with a sexual minority identity, 84.2% of those with any lifetime same-sex partners, 98.4% with a past-year same-sex partner, and 97.8% who indicated at least equal attraction to same-sex persons. Findings from Statistics Canada surveys can be best interpreted as applying to those who identify as sexual minorities. Analyses using this measure will underidentify those with same-sex partners or attractions who do not identify as a sexual minority, and should be interpreted accordingly. To understand patterns of sexual minority health in Canada, there is a need to incorporate other dimensions of sexual orientation.
Ramdurg, Santosh; Ambekar, Atul; Lal, Rakesh
People suffering from substance dependence suffer from various sexual dysfunctions and are at risk for indulging in various high-risk sexual behaviors and thus are vulnerable to acquire various infections such as HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections. The aim of the study was to evaluate the correlation between sexual dysfunction and high-risk sexual behavior in opioid-dependent men receiving buprenorphine and naltrexone maintenance therapy. Semi-structured questionnaire, brief male sexual functioning inventory and HIV-risk taking behavior scale was administered to a sample of 60 sexually active men, receiving buprenorphine (n = 30) and naltrexone (n = 30) maintenance therapy for opioid dependence. The main outcomes are correlation between severity of sexual dysfunction and HIV-risk taking behavior. The study results showed 83% of the men on buprenorphine and 90% on naltrexone reported at least one of the sexual dysfunction symptoms. There was a negative correlation between sexual dysfunction and HIV-risk taking behavior that suggest severe the dysfunction, higher the risk taking behavior. Significant correlation was present with overall sexual dysfunction and HIV-risk taking behavior (P = 0.028 and in naltrexone receiving group premature ejaculation versus HIV-risk taking behavior however, (P = 0.022, P sexual dysfunctions and HIV-risk taking behavior, which has clinical implication. Future research should explore this further using biochemical analyses.
women (Box 1). The factors fall into several broad categories that describe a network of inter-related risk (Fig. 1). At a structural level, young women at greatest risk of HIV acquisition are those from socioeconomically deprived communities. ARTICLE. Understanding and responding to HIV risk in young. South African women: ...
O'Brien, Kimberly H McManama; Putney, Jennifer M; Hebert, Nicholas W; Falk, Amy M; Aguinaldo, Laika D
Sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth are disproportionately affected by suicide-related thoughts and behaviors relative to their heterosexual and/or non-transgender peers. Theory and empirical evidence suggest that there are unique factors that contribute to this elevated risk, with distinguishable differences among SGM subgroups. Although SGM youth suicide prevention research is in its nascence, initial findings indicate that interventions which focus on family support and acceptance may be beneficial. It is critical that we develop and test tailored interventions for SGM youth at risk for suicide, with specific attention to subgroup differences and reductions in suicide-related thoughts and behaviors as outcomes.
Xu, Yin; Zheng, Yong; Rahman, Qazi
Introduction Previous studies have indicated that viewing sexually explicit media (SEM) might be associated with sexual risk behaviors in men who have sex with men (MSM). However, most prior research has not explored this association cross-culturally or the potential influence that important covariates might have on the association. Aim To explore the association between self-reports of viewing SEM depicting various sexual risk behaviors and engagement in sexual risk behaviors after controlli...
Adedimeji, Adebola A; Hoover, Donald R; Shi, Qiuhu; Gard, Tracy; Mutimura, Eugene; Sinayobye, Jean d'Amour; Cohen, Mardge H; Anastos, Kathryn
It is not well understood how infection with HIV and prior experience of sexual violence affects sexual behavior in African women. We describe factors influencing current sexual practices of Rwandan women living with or without HIV/AIDS. By design, 75 % of participants were HIV positive and ~50 % reported having experienced genocidal rape. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were fit to describe demographic and clinical characteristics that influenced sexual behavior in the previous 6 months, condom use, history of transactional sex, and prior infection with a non-HIV sexually transmitted disease. Respondents' age, where they lived, whether or not they lived with a husband or partner, experience of sexual trauma, CD4 count, CES-D and PTSD scores were strongly associated with risky sexual behavior and infection with non-HIV STI. HIV positive women with a history of sexual violence in the contexts of war and conflict may be susceptible to some high-risk sexual behaviors.
Sagrestano, Lynda M.; Paikoff, Roberta L.
Adolescent sexual activity and the resulting pregnancy and transmission of sexually transmitted diseases have been on the rise during the past several decades. This chapter addresses each of the three objectives regarding sexual behavior outlined in the Healthy People 2000 initiative. Background data and trends in adolescent sexual behavior are…
Mimiaga, Matthew J; Biello, Katie Brooks; Sivasubramanian, Murugesan; Mayer, Kenneth H; Anand, Vivek Raj; Safren, Steven A
Indian men who have sex with men (MSM) are at increased risk for HIV compared to the general Indian population. Psychosocial factors may be uniquely associated with HIV risk among Indian MSM and may moderate the beneficial impact of standard HIV prevention approaches. Psychiatric diagnostic interviews and psychosocial and sexual risk assessments were conducted among 150 MSM in Mumbai, India. Logistic regression was employed to examine the association of psychiatric disorders and psychosocial problems to recent sexual risk behavior. Twenty-five percent of participants reported engaging in unprotected anal sex (UAS) during their last sexual contact with a man. Men who were married to a woman were more likely to have engaged in UAS during their last sexual contact with a man (35% vs. 17%, p=0.018). In multivariable models, significant predictors of engaging in UAS were current major depression (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=2.61; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07, 6.39) and number of stressful life events (AOR=0.91; 95% CI 0.83, 0.99). Alcohol dependence, anxiety, and self-esteem were not associated with engaging in UAS. Indian MSM with depression are at higher odds of engaging in UAS compared to MSM without depression. HIV prevention programs for Indian MSM may benefit from incorporating treatment or triage for mental health problems.
Between 1994 and 2006, the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Ireland has increased by over 300%. Recent literature would suggest that this figure is an underestimation of the true scale of infection. Our objective was to determine the risk factors associated with STI diagnosis in a population with a rapidly increasing STI incidence.
Hirsch, Jennifer S; Meneses, Sergio; Thompson, Brenda; Negroni, Mirka; Pelcastre, Blanca; del Rio, Carlos
Marriage presents the single greatest risk for HIV infection among women in rural Mexico. We drew on 6 months of participant observation, 20 marital case studies, 37 key informant interviews, and archival research to explore the factors that shape HIV risk among married women in one of the country's rural communities. We found that culturally constructed notions of reputation in this community lead to sexual behavior designed to minimize men's social risk (threats to one's social status or relationships), rather than viral risk and that men's desire for companionate intimacy may actually increase women's risk for HIV infection. We also describe the intertwining of reputation-based sexual identities with structurally patterned sexual geographies (i.e. the social spaces that shape sexual behavior). We propose that, because of the structural nature of men's extramarital sexual behavior, intervention development should concentrate on sexual geographies and risky spaces rather than risky behaviors or identities.
Benotsch, Eric G; Zimmerman, Rick S; Cathers, Laurie; Heck, Ted; McNulty, Shawn; Pierce, Juan; Perrin, Paul B; Snipes, Daniel J
The purpose of this study was to examine the use of the internet to meet sexual partners among transgender individuals and examine correlates of this use, including sexual risk behavior, discrimination experiences, and mental health. A sample of 166 transgender adults (112 male-to-female transgender women and 54 female-to-male transgender men) were recruited in community venues and anonymously completed measures assessing these variables. Most participants (64.5 %) were HIV-negative, 25.2 % were HIV-positive, and 10.3 % did not know their HIV status. Overall, 33.7 % of participants reported having met a sexual partner over the internet, which did not differ significantly between transgender women and men. Among these individuals, transgender women reported significantly more lifetime internet sexual partners (median = 3) than transgender men (median = 1). Use of the internet to meet sexual partners was associated with lower self-esteem but not with depression, anxiety, somatic distress or discrimination experiences. Among transgender women, use of the internet to meet sexual partners was associated with each of the 11 sexual risk behaviors examined, including having multiple partners, sex under the influence of drugs, number of unprotected anal or vaginal sex acts, and history of commercial sex work. The use of the internet to meet partners was not associated with sexual risk behavior among transgender men (0/11 variables assessed). Although the internet is a common mode of meeting sexual partners among some transgender adults, it may also be a potential venue for prevention interventions targeting transgender individuals at particularly high risk for HIV acquisition.
Mapp, Fiona; Wellings, Kaye; Hickson, Ford; Mercer, Catherine H
Despite effective and accessible treatments, many sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in high-income countries go untreated, causing poor sexual health for individuals and their partners. Research into STI care has tended to focus on biomedical aspects of infections using patient samples and prioritised attendance at healthcare services. This approach overlooks the broader social context of STIs and healthcare-seeking behaviours, which are important to better understand the issue of untreated infections. This paper is structured around three main arguments to improve understanding of help-seeking behaviour for STIs in order to help reduce the burden of untreated STIs for both individuals and public health. Firstly, biomedical perspectives must be combined with sociological approaches to align individual priorities with clinical insights. More research attention on understanding the subjective experiences of STI symptoms and links to healthcare-seeking behaviour is also needed. Secondly, a focus on non-attendance at healthcare services is required to address the patient-centric focus of STI research and to understand the reasons why individuals do not seek care. Finally, research using non-patient samples recruited from outside medical contexts is vital to accurately reflect the range of behaviours, beliefs and health issues within the population to ensure appropriate and effective service provision. We suggest piggy-backing other research on to existing studies as an effective way to recruit participants not defined by their patient status, and use a study recruiting a purposive non-patient sample from an existing dataset - Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3) as an illustrative example. STIs are common but treatable, however a range of social and cultural factors prevent access to healthcare services and contribute to the burden of untreated infection. Different conceptual and empirical approaches are needed to better
Homma, Yuko; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.; Wong, Sabrina T.; Zumbo, Bruno D.
Despite the large number of adolescents of East Asian origin in Canada, there is limited research on sexual health among this population. A first step to develop strategies for sexual health promotion for adolescents is to document the prevalence of sexual behaviours. This study thus estimated the prevalence of sexual health and risk behaviours among East Asian adolescents in grades 7 to 12, using the province-wide, school-based 2008 British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey (unweighted N = 4...
Schwartz, Rebecca M; Bruno, Denise M; Augenbraun, Michael A; Hogben, Matthew; Joseph, Michael A; Liddon, Nicole; McCormack, William M; Rubin, Steve R; Wilson, Tracey E
Previous studies have shown that racial/ethnic and gender disparities in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infections (STI) may be due in part to factors such as poverty and income-inequality. Little has been published in the HIV/STI literature on the effect of the perception of having unmet basic needs on sexual risk behavior. Data on perceived financial need and sexual risk were collected as part of a behavioral intervention aimed at promoting STI partner notification and reducing sexual behavior among minority patients presenting for care at 1 of 2 STI treatment centers in Brooklyn, NY, between January 2002 and December 2004. Data from 528 participants collected at the 6-month follow-up visit were used for the current study. Forty-three percent of participants were categorized as having unmet needs. Those with unmet needs were more likely to report unprotected anal or vaginal sex (unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse [UAVI]; 62%) versus those who had met needs (53%). This association was significant (adjusted odds ratio=1.28; 95% confidence interval=1.04-1.53), after controlling for age, sex, site of recruitment, intervention group membership, and country of origin. Stratified analyses indicated that, in the group that did not receive the intervention, there was a statistically significant interaction between sex and basic needs such that women with unmet needs were more likely to report any UAVI (78%) than those with met needs (54%) (adjusted odds ratio=1.18; 95% confidence interval=1.07-1.24). No such relationship was detected for men in this sample. The significant association between perceived unmet needs and UAVI appears to be particularly relevant for women. These findings provide preliminary evidence that HIV/STI intervention components that seek to directly deal with issues of reduction in partner conflict might be beneficial to women with high perceived unmet basic needs, and for whom a potential dissolution of a relationship
Recupero, Patricia R
The notion of truth and its determination in legal proceedings is contingent on the cultural setting in which a claim is argued or disputed. Recent years have demonstrated a dramatic shift in the public dialogue concerning sexual harassment. This shift reflects changing cultural mores and standards in the workplace and society as a whole, particularly with respect to the validity of women's voices. The subjective reality experienced by victims of sexual harassment is inherently tied to the legal system's treatment of women throughout history. In determinations of truth, our understanding of which information and perspectives are relevant, and our expectations regarding the credibility of complainants and the accused, are undergoing a period of rapid change. The discourse surrounding the #MeToo movement suggests that the "reasonable-person" standard so often applied by courts is poorly suited to sexual-harassment litigation. As our understanding of what constitutes "severe," "pervasive," and "unwelcome" conduct continues to evolve, forensic psychiatrists must strive to uphold the values of respect for persons in the search for the truth. © 2018 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.
Mimiaga, Matthew J; Goldhammer, Hilary; Belanoff, Candice; Tetu, Ashley M; Mayer, Kenneth H
This study was designed to gain a deeper understanding of the barriers and facilitators related to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and HIV screening among at-risk Boston men who have sex with men (MSM). The cohort was recruited by a modified respondent-driven sampling technique and used one-on-one semistructured interviews and a quantitative survey to examine participants' understanding of STDs and HIV, perceptions of risk for disease, reasons for getting (or not getting) tested, and experiences with testing. The study found that although most of the MSM knew the signs and symptoms of HIV, they were less familiar with STDs. MSM were most likely to be screened if they had symptoms or were told by a partner of a recent exposure. However, many barriers to STD/HIV screening among MSM still exist, including lack of awareness of symptoms, misperceptions about the ways STDs are transmitted, and perceived impediments from the healthcare system, including misgivings about provider sensitivity. To decrease current increases in HIV/STDs among MSM, new strategies that include community and provider education are needed.
Oswalt, Sara B.
Sexual health education often focuses on prevention of sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies, but the decision to engage in sexual activity is equally important. This cross-sectional study examined the decisions of college students (n = 422) to engage in oral sex, vaginal sex, and other sexual behaviors. Regression analyses…
Thirty six per cent of the men and 28% of women experienced sexual contact involving blood in the past three months. Sexual blood contact was associated with the number of sex partners, unprotected intercourse and sexually transmitted infections. Sexual exposure to blood is prevalent and may be a facilitating factor for ...
Burnham, Kaylee E; Cruess, Dean G; Kalichman, Moira O; Grebler, Tamar; Cherry, Chauncey; Kalichman, Seth C
Gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) remain the highest risk group for HIV infection. One reason is the increased use of the Internet to meet potential sex partners, which is associated with greater sexual risk behavior. To date, few studies have investigated psychosocial predictors of sexual risk behavior among gay and bisexual men seeking sex partners online. The purpose of the current study was to test a conceptual model of the relationships between trauma symptoms indexed on the event of HIV diagnosis, internalized HIV stigma, and social support on sexual risk behavior among gay and bisexual MSM who seek sex partners online. A sample of 142 gay and bisexual MSM recruited on- and offline completed a comprehensive online assessment battery assessing the factors noted above. A number of associations emerged; most notably internalized HIV stigma mediated the relationship between trauma-related symptoms indexed on the event of HIV diagnosis and sexual risk behavior with HIV-negative and unknown serostatus sex partners. This suggests that gay and bisexual MSM who are in greater distress over their HIV diagnosis and who are more sensitive to HIV stigma engage in more HIV transmission risk behavior. As sexual risk environments expand with the increasing use of the Internet to connect with others for sex, it is important to understand the predictors of sexual risk behavior so that tailored interventions can promote sexual health for gay and bisexual MSM seeking sex online.
Shiferaw, Yitayal; Alemu, Abebe; Assefa, Abate; Tesfaye, Berihun; Gibermedhin, Etsegenet; Amare, Misiker
The university environment offers great opportunity for HIV high-risk behaviors, including unsafe sex and multiple partnerships. Despite recently gained decline of the overall incidence of HIV infection, still significant proportion of youth population are at high risk of HIV infection. The aims of this study were to assess the perception of HIV risk and factors associated with risk perception among students at University of Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted between February and April, 2012 among health science students. A total of 384 students were involved in the study using stratified sampling technique. Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were employed. P-value students, 200(52.1%) were females. Out of the total study respondents, 202(52.6%) were sexually experienced. One hundred and nine (59.2%) out of 184 males and 93(46.5%) out of 200 females had had sexual experience. About 23(57.5%) of those age below 20 years, 70(52.2%) of 20-24 years old, and 13(61.9%) of those ages of 25 years or older were perceived themselves as if they have no chance of acquiring HIV infection. Students initiated sexual intercourse at early age (≤8 years) were significantly associated with having multiple partnerships (crude OR =3.6, p = 0.002 for male and crude OR = 1.7, p = 0.04 for female). Statistically significant difference was observed in the distribution of condom use during sexual intercourse among various age groups (p-value = 0.001). Sexual initiation at younger age, having multiple partnerships, inconsistent condom use and alcohol and/or drug abuse were significantly perceived as predictor for an increased risks for HIV infection. Students were engaged in various HIV risk behaviors. Early sexual initiation and alcohol and/or drug abuse were important factors for having multiple partnerships. Poor agreement between having HIV risk behaviors and perception of HIV risk were observed. Attention has to be
Hequembourg, Amy L.; Livingston, Jennifer A.; Parks, Kathleen A.
This study examines relationships among childhood sexual abuse (CSA), risky alcohol use, and adult sexual victimization among bisexual and lesbian women. Half (51.2%) of women reported CSA and 71.2% reported adult sexual victimization. Perpetrators were generally male, and 56.4% of women’s most recent adult sexual victimization incidents occurred after coming-out. Regression results indicated that adult sexual victimization severity was associated with a bisexual identity, more severe CSA his...
Stevens, Robin; Gilliard-Matthews, Stacia; Dunaev, Jamie; Todhunter-Reid, Abigail; Brawner, Bridgette; Stewart, Jennifer
Sexual health is an important area of study-particularly for minority youth and youth living in disadvantaged neighborhoods. The purpose of the research was to examine the sources of sexual health information associated with youth adopting sexual risk reduction behaviors. Data collection took place in a small city in the Northeastern United States using cross-sectional behavioral surveys and modified venue-based sampling. Participants included 249 African American and Latino youth aged 13-24. Participants reported their sources of information about contraception and human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted disease, such as TV/movies, parents, social media; their intentions to have sex; and condom and contraception use during their last sexual activity. Social media use, past pregnancy experience, past sexual history, age, and gender were also measured. Standard tests of bivariate association (chi-square and F tests) were used to examine initial associations between sexual risk reduction behavior and exposure to sexual risk reduction information on social media. Logistic regression models were used to test multivariate relationships between information sources and sexual risk reduction behavior. Youth who were exposed to sexual health messages on social media were 2.69 times (p information sources were not significantly associated with contractive use or condom use at last intercourse. Youth sexual behavior is increasingly informed by social media messages. Health practitioners should utilize social media as an important health promotion tool.
Parkes, Alison; Henderson, Marion; Wight, Daniel; Nixon, Catherine
Extensive research has explored the relationship between parenting and teenagers' sexual risk-taking. Whether parenting is associated with wider aspects of teenagers' capacity to form satisfying sexual relationships is unknown. Self-reported data were collected in 2007 from 1,854 students, whose average age was 15.5 years, in central Scotland. Multivariate analyses examined associations between parenting processes and sexual outcomes (delayed first intercourse, condom use and several measures reflecting the context or anticipated context of first sex). Parental supportiveness was positively associated with all outcomes (betas, 0.1-0.4), and parental values restricting intercourse were positively associated with all outcomes except condom use (0.1-0.5). Parental monitoring was associated only with delayed intercourse (0.2) and condom use (0.2); parental rules about TV content were associated with delayed intercourse (0.7) and expecting sex in a relationship, rather than casually (0.8). Frequency of parental communication about sex and parental values endorsing contraceptive use were negatively associated with teenagers' delayed intercourse (-0.5 and -0.3, respectively), and parents' contraceptive values were negatively associated with teenagers' expecting sex in a relationship (-0.5). Associations were partly mediated by teenagers' attitudes, including value placed on having sex in a relationship. Parents may develop teenagers' capacity for positive and safe early sex by promoting skills and values that build autonomy and encourage sex only within a relationship. Interventions should promote supportive parenting and transmission of values, avoid mixed messages about abstinence and contraception, and acknowledge that teenagers may learn more indirectly than directly from parents about sex. Copyright © 2011 by the Guttmacher Institute.
Parkes, Alison; Henderson, Marion; Wight, Daniel; Nixon, Catherine
CONTEXT: Extensive research has explored the relationship between parenting and teenagers’ sexual risk-taking. Whether parenting is associated with wider aspects of teenagers’ capacity to form satisfying sexual relationships is unknown. METHODS: Self-reported data were collected in 2007 from 1,854 students, whose average age was 15.5 years, in central Scotland. Multivariate analyses examined associations between parenting processes and sexual outcomes (delayed first intercourse, condom use and several measures reflecting the context or anticipated context of first sex). RESULTS: Parental supportiveness was positively associated with all outcomes (betas, 0.1–0.4), and parental values restricting intercourse were positively associated with all outcomes except condom use (0.1–0.5). Parental monitoring was associated only with delayed intercourse (0.2) and condom use (0.2); parental rules about TV content were associated with delayed intercourse (0.7) and expecting sex in a relationship, rather than casually (0.8). Frequency of parental communication about sex and parental values endorsing contraceptive use were negatively associated with teenagers’ delayed intercourse (–0.5 and –0.3, respectively), and parents’ contraceptive values were negatively associated with teenagers’ expecting sex in a relationship (–0.5). Associations were partly mediated by teenagers’ attitudes, including value placed on having sex in a relationship. CONCLUSIONS: Parents may develop teenagers’ capacity for positive and safe early sex by promoting skills and values that build autonomy and encourage sex only within a relationship. Interventions should promote supportive parenting and transmission of values, avoid mixed messages about abstinence and contraception, and acknowledge that teenagers may learn more indirectly than directly from parents about sex. PMID:21388503
Davis, Mikaela Jessica; Powell, Adeya; Gordon, Derrick; Kershaw, Trace
Sexting, sending, or receiving sexually suggestive or explicit messages/photos/videos, have not been studied extensively. The aims of this study is to understand factors associated with sexting among minority (e.g., African- American, Hispanic) emerging adult males and the association between sexting and sexual risk. We recruited 119 emerging adult heterosexual males and assessed sexting and sexual risk behaviors. Fifty-four percent of participants sent a sext, and 70% received a sext. Participants were more likely to sext with casual partners than with steady partners. Multiple regression analyses showed that participants who sent sexts to steady partners had significantly more unprotected vaginal intercourse and oral sex. Participants who sent sexts to casual partners had significantly more partners, and participants who received sexts from casual partners had significantly more unprotected oral sex and sex while on substances. We found that sexting is a frequent and reciprocal behavior among emerging adults, and there were different patterns of significance for sexts with casual and steady partners.
Souder, William C., III
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Using the 2014 RAND Military Workplace Study, this thesis studies the effects of demographics, prior victimization, deployment status, and workplace characteristics—specifically, command climate, leadership and training quality—on both incidence and reporting of sexual assault and sexual harassment. Sexual assault consists of a nonconsensual sexual act coupled with a use of force or threat thereof that is likely to cause physical harm ...
harassment and sexual assault. 17 III. DATA AND METHODOLOGY In this chapter, I describe the data used for the empirical analysis and the construction...THE MILITARY: AN ANALYSIS OF SEXUAL ASSAULT AND SEXUAL HARASSMENT INCIDENTS AND REPORTING by William C. Souder, III March 2017 Thesis Advisor...ASSAULT AND SEXUAL HARASSMENT INCIDENTS AND REPORTING 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) William C. Souder, III 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND
Full Text Available Daniel J Pilowsky,1,2 Li-Tzy Wu3,41Columbia University Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health New York City, NY, USA; 2Division of Epidemiology, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York City, NY, USA; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, 4Center for Child and Family Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC, USAAbstract: Although HIV-related sexual risk behaviors have been studied extensively in adolescents and young adults, there is limited information about these behaviors among older Americans, which make up a growing segment of the US population and an understudied population. This review of the literature dealing with sexual behaviors that increase the risk of becoming HIV-infected found a low prevalence of condom use among older adults, even when not in a long-term relationship with a single partner. A seminal study by Schick et al published in 2010 reported that the prevalence of condom use at last intercourse was highest among those aged 50–59 years (24.3%; 95% confidence interval, 15.6–35.8 and declined with age, with a 17.1% prevalence among those aged 60–69 years (17.1%; 95% confidence interval, 7.3–34.2. Studies have shown that older Americans may underestimate their risk of becoming HIV-infected. Substance use also increases the risk for sexual risk behaviors, and studies have indicated that the prevalence of substance use among older adults has increased in the past decade. As is the case with younger adults, the prevalence of HIV infections is elevated among ethnic minorities, drug users (eg, injection drug users, and men who have sex with men. When infected, older adults are likely to be diagnosed with HIV-related medical disorders later in the course of illness compared with their younger counterparts. Physicians are less likely to discuss sexual risk behaviors with older adults and to test them for HIV compared with younger adults. Thus, it is
de Santisteban, Patricia; Gámez-Guadix, Manuel
The research on online child sexual victimization has mainly focused on the sexual solicitation of minors (i.e., sexual requests by an adult), with scarce information available on sexual interactions (e.g., cybersex or meeting in person) in which a minor is exploited by an adult. In the present study, we analyzed the prevalence and risk factors associated with both sexual solicitations and interactions of minors with adults. The sample included 2,731 minors between 12 and 15 years old (50.6% female). The minors completed several self-report questionnaires about sexual solicitations and interactions with adults, including possible risk factors (e.g., sociodemographic variables, Internet use, and psychological adjustment). Of the participants, 15.6% of girls and 9.3% of boys reported sexual solicitations, and 8.2% of girls and 7.4% of boys reported sexualized interactions with adults. Among the variables studied, several appeared related to both sexual solicitations and interactions: older age, having been involved in sexting, being a victim of cyberbullying, having unknown people in friends list, using chat, time spent online on a weekday, and depression symptoms. Gender (being female), using video chat, and instant messaging by computer were significant variables for sexual solicitation but not for sexual interaction; participation in online games was significant only for sexual interactions. Finally, minors reporting sexual interactions presented a higher risk profile than those reporting only sexual solicitations. These findings highlight the relevance of distinguishing between sexual solicitations and sexual interactions and suggest important avenues for prevention programs.
Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with sexual risk behavior in adulthood, but little research has investigated processes that might mediate this relation. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether constructs suggested by the traumagenic dynamics (TD) model (a theory of the effects of CSA) or constructs suggested by the Information-Motivation-Behavioral skills (IMB) model (a theory of the antecedents of sexual risk behavior) better mediated the relation between CSA and sexual risk behavior in adulthood. Participants were 481 women attending an STI clinic (66% African American) who completed a computerized survey as well as behavioral simulations assessing condom application and sexual assertiveness skills. Forty-five percent of the sample met criteria for CSA and CSA was associated with sexual risk behavior in adulthood. In multiple mediator models, the TD constructs mediated the relation between CSA and the number of sexual partners whereas the IMB constructs mediated the relation between CSA and unprotected sex. In addition, the TD constructs better mediated the relation between CSA and the number of sexual partners; the TD and IMB constructs did not differ in their ability to mediate the relation between CSA and unprotected sex. Sexual risk reduction interventions for women who were sexually abused should target not only the constructs from health behavior models (e.g., motivation and skills to reduce sexual risk), but also constructs that are specific to sexual abuse (e.g., traumatic sexualization and guilt). PMID:22282323
Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa
There are limited studies on the prevalence and correlates of sexual risk behavior among adolescents in Pacific Island countries. In order to inform public sexual and reproductive health interventions, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of various sexual risk behaviors among in-school adolescents in 4 Pacific Island countries using data from the Global School-Based Health Survey. In a cross-sectional study, 6792 school-going adolescents (49.7% boys and 50.3% girls; 13-16 years old) from Fiji, Kiribati, Samoa, and Vanuatu were surveyed with a self-administered questionnaire. Overall, 18.9% of students reported to ever had sex (ranging from 12.9% in Vanuatu to 57.5% in Samoa), and of those sexually active, 38.0% had an early sexual debut (<14 years), 38.1% had 2 or more sexual partners during their lifetime, 39.5% had not used a condom at last sex, 50.9% had not used birth control at last sex, and 77.8% engaged in sexually risky behavior using a composite measure. Multivariate logistic regression found that male sex, older age, tobacco use, alcohol use, mental distress, having no close friends, and truancy were associated with several of 5 or all 5 sexual risk behaviors. Sexual and reproductive health promotion programs are indicated to address the high risk of sexually transmitted infection, HIV, and pregnancy in this adolescent population. © 2016 APJPH.
Miskulin, Maja; Puntaric, Dinko; Bozikov, Jadranka; Miskulin, Ivan; Ruzman, Natasa
The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of blood donors positive for herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), to identify the patterns of sexual risk behavior responsible for HSV-2 positivity and to assess the reliability of HSV-2 positivity as a marker of sexual risk behavior in the study population. This cross-sectional study included 423 blood donors of both sexes from eastern Croatia. Their blood samples were tested by ELISA IgG test kit for HSV-2 IgG and Western blot. Data on sexual risk behavior were collected by use of an anonymous questionnaire. Western blot testing showed HSV-2 IgG antibodies in 14 of 423 (3.3%) donor blood samples. The most common patterns of sexual risk behavior potentially associated with test positivity were irregular condom use during sexual intercourse with new partners (294/423; 69.5%) and > or = 5 sexual partners during lifetime (213/423; 50.4%). The population of blood donors from eastern Croatia included subgroups of subjects characterized by sexual risk behavior. Study results pointed to a relationship between various forms of sexual risk behavior and HSV-2 positivity, which could therefore serve as a reliable marker of sexual risk behavior in the study population.
Yoon, Susan; Voith, Laura A; Kobulsky, Julia M
This study investigated gender differences in the roles of internalizing and externalizing symptoms and substance use as pathways linking child physical and sexual abuse to risky sexual behavior among youth at risk of maltreatment. Path analysis was performed with 862 adolescents drawn from Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect. Four waves of data collected in the United States were used: childhood physical and sexual abuse experiences (from ages 0-12) were assessed by Child Protective Services reports, internalizing and externalizing symptoms were measured at age 14, substance use was measured at age 16, and risky sexual behavior was measured at age 18. Physical abuse was directly associated with risky sexual behavior in boys but not girls. For girls, physical abuse had a significant indirect effect on risky sexual behavior via externalizing symptoms. Gender-focused preventive intervention strategies may be effective in reducing risky sexual behavior among at-risk adolescents. Copyright © 2018 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Young, Brennan J; Furman, Wyndol; Jones, Meredith C
Investigators have identified a number of factors that increase the risk for experiencing sexual coercion, but as yet little is known about how sexual coercion in turn affects these risk factors. Using a sample of 110 adolescents, the current study examined the hypothesis that, after an incident of sexual coercion, adolescents would exhibit increases in several behaviors known to increase risk for victimization. As predicted, after experiencing sexual coercion, adolescents reported increased externalizing symptoms, more frequent sexual intercourse and a greater total number of intercourse partners. Finally, alcohol use, drug use, and problems related to substance use increased. These findings suggest the presence of a feedback loop, in which the experience of sexual coercion leads to an intensification of the factors that initially contributed risk for coercion.
Brown, Jennifer L; Gause, Nicole K; Northern, Nathan
Alcohol use is prevalent among college students and may contribute to sexual risk behavior engagement. A narrative review of the recent empirical literature examining the association between alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors among college student samples was conducted. The purpose of this review was to: (a) review studies examining the association between alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors; and (b) overview research investigating alcohol expectancies and partner characteristics as factors that may influence the alcohol-risky sex relation among college students. Findings regarding the direct link between alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors were mixed. Results suggest a more nuanced association between alcohol and risky sexual behaviors that is influenced by alcohol expectancies and partner characteristics. Results highlight the importance of considering additional factors that may influence the alcohol-risky sex relation. Future interventions targeting alcohol-related sexual risk behavior engagement among college students are needed.
Rothstein, Henry; Baldwin, Robert; Hood, Christopher C
... variously in public administration, social studies of science, and public law- but our destination was the same and so was our reason for undertaking the journey. We wanted to see risk regulation at work in a number of different domains, and to come back not just with a set of travellers' tales but also with a systematic way of compa...
Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin; Adebajo, Sylvia; Adeyemi, Adedayo; Ogungbemi, Kayode Micheal
We aimed to determine differences in sexual practices, HIV sexual risk behaviors, and HIV risk profile of adolescents and young persons' in rural and urban Nigeria. We recruited 772 participants 15 to 24 years old from urban and rural townships in Nigeria through a household survey. Information on participants' socio-demographic profile (age sex, residential area, number of meals taken per day), sexual practices (vagina, oral and anal sex; heterosexual and homosexual sex; sex with spouse, casual acquaintances, boy/girlfriend and commercial sex workers), sexual behavior (age of sexual debut, use of condom, multiple sex partners, transactional sex and age of sexual partner), and other HIV risk factors (use of alcohol and psychoactive substances, reason for sexual debut, knowledge of HIV prevention and HIV transmission, report of STI symptoms) were collected through an interviewer administered questionnaire. Differences in sexual behavior and sexual practices of adolescents and HIV risk profile of adolescents and young persons resident in urban and rural areas were determined. More than half (53.5%) of the respondents were sexually active, with more residing in the rural than urban areas (64.9% vs 44.1%; psexual partner (29.5% vs 20.4%; p = 0.04). Also, 97.3% of sexually active respondents reported having vaginal sex, 8.7% reported oral sex and 1.9% reported anal sex. More male than female respondents in the urban area used condoms during the last vaginal sexual intercourse (69.1% vs 51.9%; p = 0.02), and reported sex with casual partners (7.0% vs 15.3%; p = 0.007). More female than male respondents residing in the rural area engaged in transactional sex (1.0% vs 6.7%; p = 0.005). More females than males in both rural (3.6% vs 10.2%; p = 0.04) and urban (4.7% vs 26.6%; psexual behavior and practices of adolescents and young persons' residing in the urban and rural area with implication for HIV prevention programming.
MacPhedran, Sally E
While sexual activity in normal, healthy pregnant women is safe, concern regarding elements of the sexual act have led to restrictions in pregnancies experiencing complications that are frequently insufficiently addressed in clinical practice. To comprehensively review the literature for evidence that supports or refutes specific sexual activity restrictions in high-risk pregnancy conditions. A search of PubMed, MEDLINE, Ovid, UpToDate, Google Scholar, and Google for relevant publications related to any aspect of sexual activity affecting high-risk pregnancies complicated by history of pre-term delivery, shortened cervix, presence of cerclage, pre-mature rupture of membranes, placenta abruption, placenta previa, multiple gestation, or history of classical cesarean section was performed. The scientific evidence on the pathophysiology of sexual activity and specific high-risk pregnancies, and their interaction. Despite expert opinion restricting sexual acts or intercourse, there are minimal published data that specifically address sexual activity in high-risk pregnancies. Clinicians need to engage in conversations regarding specific sexual activity for patients experiencing complications in pregnancy. Recommendations for or against restricting sexual activity should be based on evidence-based guidelines. Significant advances in this area of obstetrics are necessary to make validated recommendations. MacPhedran S. Sexual Activity Recommendations in High-Risk Pregnancies: What is the Evidence? Sex Med Rev 2018;XX:XXX-XXX. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Choi, Kyung-Hee; Bowleg, Lisa; Neilands, Torsten B.
Women represent almost half of the people living with HIV worldwide. Although social discrimination has been recognized as a major obstacle to HIV prevention, few empirical studies have examined the effects of sexism on women’s HIV sexual risk behaviors. We analyzed data collected from an ethnically diverse sample of 754 women attending family planning clinics in the San Francisco Bay Area. A majority of respondents reported lifetime experiences of sexism (e.g., 94% reported sexual harassment...
Amirkhanian, Yuri A
Worldwide, men who have sex with men (MSM) remain one of the most HIV-vulnerable community populations. A global public health priority is developing new methods of reaching MSM, understanding HIV transmission patterns, and intervening to reduce their risk. Increased attention is being given to the role that MSM networks play in HIV epidemiology. This review of MSM network research studies demonstrates that: (1) Members of the same social network often share similar norms, attitudes, and HIV risk behavior levels; (2) Network interventions are feasible and powerful for reducing unprotected sex and potentially for increasing HIV testing uptake; (3) HIV vulnerability among African American MSM increases when an individual enters a high-risk sexual network characterized by high density and racial homogeneity; and (4) Networks are primary sources of social support for MSM, particularly for those living with HIV, with greater support predicting higher care uptake and adherence.
Stein, J. A.; Rotheram-Borus, M.-J.; Swendeman, D.; Milburn, N. G.
Reduction in the incidence of high-risk sexual behaviors among HIV-positive men is a priority. We examined the roles of proximal substance use and delinquency-related variables, and more distal demographic and psychosocial variables as predictors of serious high-risk sexual behaviors among 248 HIV-positive young males, aged 15–24 years. In a mediated latent variable model, demographics (ethnicity, sexual orientation and poverty) and background psychosocial factors (coping style, peer norms, e...
Cornelisse, Vincent J; Fairley, Christopher K; Phillips, Tiffany; Walker, Sandra; Chow, Eric Pf
'Fuckbuddies' are a type of regular sexual partner with whom men have ongoing sexual contact, generally in the absence of romantic attachment. We surveyed 989 men who have sex with men (MSM) at the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Australia, with the aim of determining the frequency of 'fuckbuddy' partnerships among sexual health clinic attendees and assessing their sexual risk. The majority (60%) of 1139 regular partnerships were described as 'fuckbuddies'. Most MSM (63%) with a 'fuckbuddy' had multiple 'fuckbuddies'. MSM with 'fuckbuddies' were more likely to also have casual sexual partners (odds ratio [OR] 5.7; 95% confidence interval 3.6-8.9) and had more casual sexual partners (median of 4 versus 1, p partnerships as part of their risk assessment during patient interviews, as these patients may benefit from HIV prevention strategies such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP).
Lankinen, Åsa; Karlsson Green, Kristina
Today it is accepted that the theories of sexual selection and sexual conflict are general and can be applied to both animals and plants. However, potentially due to a controversial history, plant studies investigating sexual selection and sexual conflict are relatively rare. Moreover, these theories and concepts are seldom implemented in research fields investigating related aspects of plant ecology and evolution. Even though these theories are complex, and can be difficult to study, we suggest that several fields in plant biology would benefit from incorporating and testing the impact of selection pressures generated by sexual selection and sexual conflict. Here we give examples of three fields where we believe such incorporation would be particularly fruitful, including (i) mechanisms of pollen–pistil interactions, (ii) mating-system evolution in hermaphrodites and (iii) plant immune responses to pests and pathogens. PMID:25613227
Full Text Available Currently there is a growing trend toward high-risk sexual practices with casual partners in the group of men who have sex with men (MSM in many industrialized countries. This study offers some understanding of why a group of men had unprotected anal intercourse (UAI. A grounded approach was used to analyze 20 interviews with MSM from Barcelona between 18 and 40 years of age who had at least one episode of UAI in the past three months. The results reveal that many respondents had UAI practices with casual sexual partners because they were in search of experiences that were not directly tied to sexual relations: reaffirmation of a sense of personal worth and of their own physical attractiveness, offset shortcomings and feelings of emotional loneliness, the search for connection and intimacy, being in love, conversion of the risk into pleasure for the forbidden and a desire to rebel against established rules. In these cases, concerns about sexual and health care seemed to overwhelm and were not taken into account when having UAI. It is important that HIV prevention programs include in their messages the power of these motivations that lead to practices of UAI. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0902219
Kindrick, Clint; Gathright, Molly; Cisler, Josh M; Messias, Erick
We used the 2011 Arkansas Youth Risk Behavior Survey to estimate the prevalence of risky sexual behavior and sexual assault and to measure its association with teen suicidality. In Arkansas, 50.3% of students reported ever having sexual intercourse, 26% onset at 14 or younger, 36 % having had more than one partner, and 10.2% having been physically forced to have sex. "Being forced to have sex" was a risk factor for depression and all components of the suicide continuum. Additionally, early onset of sexual activity and having more than one partner increased the risk for depression, suicidal ideation, plan, and attempt. Suicide is a grievous and preventable tragedy, sadly standing among the leading causes of death for teens.' In this series, we examine risk factors for suicidality among Arkansas high school students; in this installment, we examine sexual behavior. A previous study utilizing the Rhode Island Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) found an association between having forced sexual intercourse and suicide. Furthermore, an association between psychiatric disorders and risky sexual behaviors, including both early onset and number of partners was found in a birth cohort study revealed. We hypothesize that Arkansas' teens reporting risky sexual behavior and sexual assault are at higher risk of depression and suicidality as well.
Goesling, Brian; Colman, Silvie; Trenholm, Christopher; Terzian, Mary; Moore, Kristin
This systematic review provides a comprehensive, updated assessment of programs with evidence of effectiveness in reducing teen pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), or associated sexual risk behaviors. The review was conducted in four steps. First, multiple literature search strategies were used to identify relevant studies released from 1989 through January 2011. Second, identified studies were screened against prespecified eligibility criteria. Third, studies were assessed by teams of two trained reviewers for the quality and execution of their research designs. Fourth, for studies that passed the quality assessment, the review team extracted and analyzed information on the research design, study sample, evaluation setting, and program impacts. A total of 88 studies met the review criteria for study quality and were included in the data extraction and analysis. The studies examined a range of programs delivered in diverse settings. Most studies had mixed-gender and predominately African-American research samples (70% and 51%, respectively). Randomized controlled trials accounted for the large majority (87%) of included studies. Most studies (76%) included multiple follow-ups, with sample sizes ranging from 62 to 5,244. Analysis of the study impact findings identified 31 programs with evidence of effectiveness. Research conducted since the late 1980s has identified more than two dozen teen pregnancy and STI prevention programs with evidence of effectiveness. Key strengths of this research are the large number of randomized controlled trials, the common use of multiple follow-up periods, and attention to a broad range of programs delivered in diverse settings. Two main gaps are a lack of replication studies and the need for more research on Latino youth and other high-risk populations. In addressing these gaps, researchers must overcome common limitations in study design, analysis, and reporting that have negatively affected prior research. Copyright
Charles, Vignetta Eugenia; Blum, Robert Wm.
Adolescent sexual risk-taking behavior has numerous individual, family, community, and societal consequences. In an effort to contribute to the research and propose new directions, this chapter applies the core competencies framework to the prevention of high-risk sexual behavior. It describes the magnitude of the problem, summarizes explanatory…
Snyder, Jamie A.; Scherer, Heidi L.; Fisher, Bonnie S.
Researchers have shown that college students are at an increased risk of experiencing interpersonal violence (IV). One factor that appears to play a role in shaping their likelihood of IV is sexual orientation. However, little is known about this relationship and how IV risk varies across categories of sexual orientation. Utilizing a sample of…
This article discusses violence in relation to women's reproductive and sexual rights in Africa. Two types of violent behaviors are defined. One type is defined as a straightforward, aggressive act of brutality inflicted on one person by another, which may range from battery to rape, and which may occur domestically or be inflicted by a stranger. The other type of violent behavior is the violation of rights or denial of rights, which often operates not only on personal, but also on societal or cultural levels. These definitions allow us to address the record of violence against women in a broad social and political context in which not only men but women and society as a whole act to perpetuate systems resulting in various forms of abuse. In Africa, the strong patriarchal tradition with the economic mode of more formal and systematic, less centralized commerce makes it virtually impossible for a woman to move, act, or think freely. The most damaging type of sexual violence against women centers on the lack of control that women are allowed over their fertility. Denial of reproductive rights, services and information acts as pervasive form of violence, with significant consequences. Women face both the threats of direct bodily violence from strangers and within their own homes; and the exposure to the risk of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases, of unwanted and unplanned pregnancy, and of unsafe abortion due to the violation of women's basic human rights.
Acharya, Dev Raj; Thomas, Malcolm; Cann, Rosemary
School-based sex education has the potential to prevent unwanted pregnancy and to promote positive sexual health at the individual, family and community level. To develop and validate a sexual health questionnaire to measure young peoples' sexual health knowledge and understanding (SHQ) in Nepalese secondary school. Secondary school students (n = 259, male = 43.63%, female = 56.37%) and local experts (n = 9, male = 90%, female = 10%) were participated in this study. Evaluation processes were; content validity (>0.89), plausibility check (>95), item-total correlation (>0.3), factor loading (>0.4), principal component analysis (4 factors Kaiser's criterion), Chronbach's alpha (>0.65), face validity and internal consistency using test-retest reliability (P > 0.05). The principal component analysis revealed four factors to be extracted; sexual health norms and beliefs, source of sexual health information, sexual health knowledge and understanding, and level of sexual awareness. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measure of sampling adequacy demonstrated that the patterns of correlations are relatively compact (>0.80). Chronbach's alpha for each factors were above the cut-off point (0.65). Face validity indicated that the questions were clear to the majority of the respondent. Moreover, there were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the responses to the items at two time points at seven weeks later. The finding suggests that SHQ is a valid and reliable instrument to be used in schools to measure sexual health knowledge and understanding. Further analysis such as structured equation modelling (SEM) and confirmatory factor analysis could make the questionnaire more robust and applicable to the wider school population.
Keyes, Susan M; Rothman, Emily F; Zhang, Zi
Few population-based surveys in the United States include sexual orientation as a demographic variable. As a result, estimating the proportion of the U.S. population that is gay, lesbian, or bisexual (GLB) is a substantial challenge. Prior estimates vary widely, from 1-21%. In 2001, questions on sexual orientation and sexual behavior were added to the Massachusetts Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (MA BRFSS) and have been asked continually since that time. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of adults in Massachusetts identifying as GLB and providing a demographic description of this group. The study also examined the correlation of reported sexual behavior and sexual identity within this group. Overall, 1.9% of Massachusetts adults identified as gay or lesbian and 1.0% of Massachusetts adults identified as bisexual. Of those identifying as gay or lesbian, 95.4% reported sexual behavior concordant with this identification, and 99.4% of respondents identifying as heterosexual reported behavior concordant with heterosexual sexual orientation. Among those reporting a GLB sexual orientation, men were more likely than women to identify as gay, and women were more likely than men to identify as bisexual. Younger adults (18-25 years old) were more likely than people in other age groups to identify as bisexual. Respondents with 4 or more years of education were more likely to identify as gay or lesbian than those in all other education categories. The addition of sexual orientation to population-based surveys will allow for research on the health of GLB adults and provide critical information for those charged with the creation of public policy regarding sexual orientation.
Thaís de Oliveira Gozzo
Full Text Available Para compreender o significado da sexualidade entre mulheres participantes do grupo de orientação sobre este tema em um serviço de planejamento familiar, foi realizado este estudo de natureza qualitativa com enfoque fenomenológico. Através das falas das participantes e de redução fenomenológica encontramos o tema central: vivendo a sexualidade. Os resultados permitiram-nos conhecer um pouco mais sobre o assunto uma vez que as mulheres que procuram o grupo o fazem com o objetivo de curar o seu problema, acreditando terem disfunções sexuais, fato que é desmistificado ao perceberem que apresentam dificuldades em vivenciar sua sexualidade.Para comprender el significado de la sexualidad en mujeres participantes del grupo de orientación sobre este tema de servicio de planificación familiar fue realizado este estudio de naturaleza cualitativa con enfoque fenomenológico. A través de las conversaciones de las participantes y de la reducción fenomenológica encontramos el tema central: Viviendo la sexualidad. Los resultados nos permitieron conocer un poco más sobre el asunto una vez que las mujeres que nos buscaran lo hicieron con el objetivo de curar su problema creyendo tener disfunciones sexuales hecho que fue desmitificado al percibir que presentan dificultades para vivir su sexualidad.The present qualitative study with a phenomenological focus aimed at understanding the meaning of female sexuality to women who participate in the activities of an orientation group about this subject, organized by a family planning service. Through the analysis of the participants speeches and phenomenological reduction, authors found the central subject: Living sexuality. Results allowed authors to learn a little more on this subject, especially considering that women who took part in this group aimed at solving their problem as they believed they had sexual disorders. However, this fact was demystified, enabling them to understand that they have
Rotheram-Borus, M J; Mahler, K A; Koopman, C; Langabeer, K
Relationships between sexual abuse and sexual risk, substance use, emotional distress, and conduct problems were examined among 190 runaways. Those who had been abused were significantly more likely than nonabused peers to engage in unprotected sex, have more sexual partners, and use alcohol and drugs, but did not differ in emotional distress. Those abused after age 13 were more often engaged in sex work than nonabused peers. Males abused before age 13 had more sexual partners than those not abused, and runaway males were significantly more likely to have been sexually abused than has been reported in prior research.
Jones, Deborah L; Kashy, Deborah; Villar-Loubet, Olga M; Cook, Ryan; Weiss, Stephen M
Few HIV prevention interventions focus on sexual risk reduction as mutual process determined by couple members, though risk behaviors are inter-dependent. This trial examined the impact of substance use, history of sexual trauma, and intimate partner violence on sexual risk associated with participation in a risk reduction intervention. HIV seroconcordant and serodiscordant multicultural couples in Miami, Florida (n = 216) were randomized to group (n = 112) or individual (n = 104) couple-based interventions. Group intervention participants increased condom use in couples in which women had a history of sexual trauma [F(2,221) = 3.39, p = 0.036] and by partners of alcohol users. History of sexual trauma was a determinant of conflict resolution, predicting negative communication and intimate partner violence. Results emphasize the need for group sexual risk reduction interventions targeting sexual trauma, partner violence, and substance use among HIV seroconcordant and serodiscordant couples.
Pandor, Abdullah; Kaltenthaler, Eva; Higgins, Agnes; Lorimer, Karen; Smith, Shubulade; Wylie, Kevan; Wong, Ruth
Despite variability in sexual activity among people with severe mental illness, high-risk sexual behavior (e.g. unprotected intercourse, multiple partners, sex trade and illicit drug use) is common. Sexual health risk reduction interventions (such as educational and behavioral interventions, motivational exercises, counselling and service delivery), developed and implemented for people with severe mental illness, may improve participants' knowledge, attitudes, beliefs behaviors or practices (including assertiveness skills) and could lead to a reduction in risky sexual behavior. This systematic review evaluates the effectiveness of sexual health risk reduction interventions for people with severe mental illness. Thirteen electronic databases (including MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO) were searched to August 2014, and supplemented by hand-searching relevant articles and contacting experts. All controlled trials (randomized or non-randomized) comparing the effectiveness of sexual health risk reduction interventions with usual care for individuals living in the community with severe mental illness were included. Outcomes included a range of biological, behavioral and proxy endpoints. Narrative synthesis was used to combine the evidence. Thirteen controlled trials (all from the USA) were included. Although there was no clear and consistent evidence that interventions reduce the total number of sex partners or improved behavioral intentions in sexual risk behavior, positive effects were generally observed in condom use, condom protected intercourse and on measures of HIV knowledge, attitudes to condom use and sexual behaviors and practices. However, the robustness of these findings is low due to the large between study variability, small sample sizes and low-to-moderate quality of included studies. There is insufficient evidence at present to fully support or reject the identified sexual health risk reduction interventions for people with severe mental illness. Given the
Full Text Available We create and analyze a mathematical model to understand the impact of condom-use and sexual behavior on the prevalence and spread of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs. STIs remain significant public health challenges globally with a high burden of some Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs in both developed and undeveloped countries. Although condom-use is known to reduce the transmission of STIs, there are a few quantitative population-based studies on the protective role of condom-use in reducing the incidence of STIs. The number of concurrent partners is correlated with their risk of being infectious by an STI such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, or syphilis. We develop a Susceptible-Infectious-Susceptible (SIS model that stratifies the population based on the number of concurrent partners. The model captures the multi-level heterogeneous mixing through a combination of biased (preferential and random (proportional mixing processes between individuals with distinct risk levels, and accounts for differences in condom-use in the low- and high-risk populations. We use sensitivity analysis to assess the relative impact of high-risk people using condom as a prophylactic intervention to reduce their chance of being infectious, or infecting others. The model predicts the STI prevalence as a function of the number of partners of an individual, and quantifies how this distribution of effective partners changes as a function of condom-use. Our results show that when the mixing is random, then increasing the condom-use in the high-risk population is more effective in reducing the prevalence than when many of the partners of high-risk people have high risk. The model quantifies how the risk of being infected increases for people who have more partners, and the need for high-risk people to consistently use condoms to reduce their risk of infection. Keywords: Mathematical modeling, Sexually transmitted infection (STI, Biased (preferential mixing, Random
Jansen Lucres MC
Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the lifetime prevalence of teenage pregnancy in the histories of detained adolescent females and to examine the relationship between teenage pregnancy on the one hand and mental health and sexuality related characteristics on the other. Methods Of 256 admitted detained adolescent females aged 12–18 years, a representative sample (N = 212, 83% was examined in the first month of detention. Instruments included a semi-structured interview, standardized questionnaires and file information on pregnancy, sexuality related characteristics (sexual risk behavior, multiple sex partners, sexual trauma, lack of assertiveness in sexual issues and early maturity and mental health characteristics (conduct disorder, alcohol and drug use disorder and suicidality. Results Approximately 20% of the participants reported having been pregnant (before detention, although none had actually given birth. Sexuality related characteristics were more prevalent in the pregnancy group, while this was not so for the mental health characteristics. Age at assessment, early maturity, sexual risk behavior, and suicidality turned out to be the best predictors for pregnancy. Conclusion The lifetime prevalence of pregnancy in detained adolescent females is high and is associated with both sexuality related risk factors and mental health related risk factors. Therefore, prevention and intervention programs targeting sexual risk behavior and mental health are warranted during detention.
Mimiaga, Matthew J; Closson, Elizabeth F; Thomas, Beena; Mayer, Kenneth H; Betancourt, Theresa; Menon, Sunil; Safren, Steven A
Men who have sex with men (MSM) in India are a hidden and largely understudied population, and have an HIV prevalence 17 times higher than that of the general Indian population. Experiences of social marginalization and negative psychosocial conditions occur concurrent to HIV risk among Indian MSM. To better understand the contextual variables driving HIV risk and inform intervention development, five focus groups (n = 46) and nine key informant interviews were conducted with 55 MSM in Chennai in 2010. NVivo software was used to code the transcripts, and data were analyzed using qualitative descriptive analysis methodology. Participants described sources of psychological distress and low self-worth related to gender non-conformity and sexual minority status. These included stigma from society, pressure to marry, lack of familial acceptance, childhood sexual abuse, and the imperative to keep sexual minority status a secret. Participants' personal evaluations revealed that self-acceptance may be an important resilience factor that can shield these psychosocial and HIV risk factors. In promoting health-seeking behavioral changes for Indian MSM at an individual level, our findings point to the potential strength of strategies that focus on self-acceptance of one's sexual minority identity to foster better psychosocial and overall health.
Objective: To identify predictors of recurrent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) Design: A cross-sectional interview survey. Setting: STD Clinic, Old Mulago Hospital, Kampala. Methods: Eligible patients answered questions about their socio-demographic situation; STI symptoms; sexual behaviour; sexual partner referral; ...
Full Text Available Introduction: Youth from low-income, urban backgrounds face significant challenges to maintaining a positive developmental trajectory. Dangerous neighborhoods and stressed relationships are common in these settings and threaten adaptation by weakening the natural assets that undergird resilience. African American girls in these contexts face specific, multiple risks, including gender stereotyping, violence, and sexual exploitation. The commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC is a multibillion-dollar industry victimizing over 1 million children around the globe.1 The typical victim in 1 city in the southeastern United States is an African American girl 12-14 years old. There has been little research investigating the characteristics of girls placed at risk for CSEC and even less research on the personal perspectives of these girls. Methods: Over 3 school terms we provided preventive intervention groups for 36 African American middle school girls who were placed at risk because they lived in neighborhoods with high rates of interpersonal violence and CSEC. Two group leaders and a process recorder took detailed notes on each group session. Our focus on group conversations over a period of weeks increased the probability of recording spontaneous, open comments by the children and is a promising method with this population. The data were analyzed qualitatively and resulted in an account of the girls’ own views of the environmental challenges and personal experiences that may influence their development.Results: The girls’ language during the group sessions contained 4 themes: difficulty forming trusting relationships, frequent peer aggression, familiarity with adult prostitution, and sexuality as a commodity.Conclusion: Our research shows how girls placed at risk for CSEC view their own lives. These children described violence and sexual exploitation and cited limited supports to protect them from these risks. Understanding the
Harper, Erin; Harris, Patricia; Sanders, DeShelle; Levin, Kerry; Meyers, Joel
Introduction: Youth from low-income, urban backgrounds face significant challenges to maintaining a positive developmental trajectory. Dangerous neighborhoods and stressed relationships are common in these settings and threaten adaptation by weakening the natural assets that undergird resilience. African American girls in these contexts face specific, multiple risks, including gender stereotyping, violence, and sexual exploitation. The commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) is a multibillion-dollar industry victimizing over 1 million children around the globe. The typical victim in 1 city in the southeastern United States is an African American girl 12–14 years old. There has been little research investigating the characteristics of girls placed at risk for CSEC and even less research on the personal perspectives of these girls. Methods: Over 3 school terms we provided preventive intervention groups for 36 African American middle school girls who were placed at risk because they lived in neighborhoods with high rates of interpersonal violence and CSEC. Two group leaders and a process recorder took detailed notes on each group session. Our focus on group conversations over a period of weeks increased the probability of recording spontaneous, open comments by the children and is a promising method with this population. The data were analyzed qualitatively and resulted in an account of the girls' own views of the environmental challenges and personal experiences that may influence their development. Results: The girls' language during the group sessions contained 4 themes: difficulty forming trusting relationships, frequent peer aggression, familiarity with adult prostitution, and sexuality as a commodity. Conclusion: Our research shows how girls placed at risk for CSEC view their own lives. These children described violence and sexual exploitation and cited limited supports to protect them from these risks. Understanding the perspectives of these girls
Caccamo, Alexandra; Kachur, Rachel; Williams, Samantha P.
Background Homelessness affects an estimated 1.6 million US youth annually. Compared with housed youth, homeless youth are more likely to engage in high-risk behaviors, including inconsistent condom use, multiple sex partners, survival sex, and alcohol/drug use, putting them at increased sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk. However, there is no national estimate of STD prevalence among this population. Methods We identified 10 peer-reviewed articles (9 unique studies) reporting STD prevalence among homeless US youth (2000–2015). Descriptive and qualitative analyses identified STD prevalence ranges and risk factors among youth. Results Eight studies reported specific STD prevalence estimates, mainly chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. Overall STD prevalence among homeless youth ranged from 6% to 32%. STD rates for girls varied from 16.7% to 46%, and from 9% to 13.1% in boys. Most studies were conducted in the Western United States, with no studies from the Southeast or Northeast. Youths who experienced longer periods of homelessness were more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behaviors. Girls had lower rates of condom use and higher rates of STDs; boys were more likely to engage in anal and anonymous sex. Additionally, peer social networks contributed to protective effects on individual sexual risk behavior. Conclusions Sexually transmitted disease prevalence estimates among homeless youth fluctuated greatly by study. Sexually transmitted disease risk behaviors are associated with unmet survival needs, length of homelessness, and influence of social networks. To promote sexual health and reduce STD rates, we need better estimates of STD prevalence, more geographic diversity of studies, and interventions addressing the behavioral associations identified in our review. PMID:28703725
Caccamo, Alexandra; Kachur, Rachel; Williams, Samantha P
Homelessness affects an estimated 1.6 million US youth annually. Compared with housed youth, homeless youth are more likely to engage in high-risk behaviors, including inconsistent condom use, multiple sex partners, survival sex, and alcohol/drug use, putting them at increased sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk. However, there is no national estimate of STD prevalence among this population. We identified 10 peer-reviewed articles (9 unique studies) reporting STD prevalence among homeless US youth (2000-2015). Descriptive and qualitative analyses identified STD prevalence ranges and risk factors among youth. Eight studies reported specific STD prevalence estimates, mainly chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. Overall STD prevalence among homeless youth ranged from 6% to 32%. STD rates for girls varied from 16.7% to 46%, and from 9% to 13.1% in boys. Most studies were conducted in the Western United States, with no studies from the Southeast or Northeast. Youths who experienced longer periods of homelessness were more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behaviors. Girls had lower rates of condom use and higher rates of STDs; boys were more likely to engage in anal and anonymous sex. Additionally, peer social networks contributed to protective effects on individual sexual risk behavior. Sexually transmitted disease prevalence estimates among homeless youth fluctuated greatly by study. Sexually transmitted disease risk behaviors are associated with unmet survival needs, length of homelessness, and influence of social networks. To promote sexual health and reduce STD rates, we need better estimates of STD prevalence, more geographic diversity of studies, and interventions addressing the behavioral associations identified in our review.
Xu, Yin; Zheng, Yong; Rahman, Qazi
Previous studies have indicated that viewing sexually explicit media (SEM) might be associated with sexual risk behaviors in men who have sex with men (MSM). However, most prior research has not explored this association cross-culturally or the potential influence that important covariates might have on the association. To explore the association between self-reports of viewing SEM depicting various sexual risk behaviors and engagement in sexual risk behaviors after controlling for relevant covariates in MSM in China. Three hundred fourteen Chinese MSM participated in a web-based survey. SEM consumption, sexual risk behavior, and measurements of covariates. SEM consumption was frequent in MSM in China. Viewing a larger proportion of SEM depicting sexual risk behaviors was associated with a larger number of regular partners with whom MSM reported engaging in sexual risk behaviors, but not with the number of casual partners, after controlling for covariates. HIV-related knowledge and seeking male sex partners were associated with the number of regular partners with whom MSM had engaged in sexual risk behaviors. Seeking sexual sensation, HIV-related knowledge, and seeking male sex partners were associated with the number of casual partners with whom MSM had engaged in sexual risk behaviors. Future research exploring the relation between SEM use and sexual health risk behaviors should consider theoretically important psychological and behavioral covariates. Xu Y, Zheng Y, Rahman Q. The Relationship Between Self-Reported Sexually Explicit Media Consumption and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in China. J Sex Med 2017;14:357-365. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin
Objectives Some individuals experience their first sexual intercourse through physically forced sex, which affects the way they experience and cope with stress. We examined differences in sexual risk behavior, experience of stressors, and use of stress-coping strategies among adolescents in Nigeria based on their history of forced sexual initiation and HIV status. Methods We analyzed data from 436 sexually active 10–19-year-old adolescents recruited through a population-based survey from 12 Nigerian states. Using Lazarus and Folkman’s conceptual framework of stress and coping, we assessed if adolescents who reported forced sexual initiation were more likely to report HIV sexual risk practices, to report as stressors events related to social expectations, medical care and body images, and loss and grief, and to use more avoidance than adaptive coping strategies to manage stress. We also assessed if HIV status affected experience of stressors and use of coping strategies. Results Eighty-one adolescents (18.6%) reported a history of forced sexual initiation; these participants were significantly more likely to report anal sex practices (OR: 5.04; 95% CI: 2.14–11.87), and transactional sex (OR: 2.80; 95% CI: 1.56–4.95). Adolescents with no history of forced sexual initiation were more likely to identify as stressors, life events related to social expectations (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.96–1.11) and loss and grief (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 0.73–2.65), but not those related to medical care and body images (OR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.34–1.18). They were also more likely to use adaptive responses (OR: 1.48; 95% CI: 0.62–3.50) than avoidance responses (OR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.49–1.64) to cope with stress, though these differences were not significant. More adolescents with a history of forced sexual initiation who were HIV positive identified as stressors, life events related to medical care and body images (p = 0.03) and loss and grief (p = 0.009). Adolescents reporting forced
Lasry, Arielle; Sansom, Stephanie L; Wolitski, Richard J; Green, Timothy A; Borkowf, Craig B; Patel, Pragna; Mermin, Jonathan
The number of strategies to prevent HIV transmission has increased following trials evaluating antiretroviral therapy (ART), preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and male circumcision. Serodiscordant couples need guidance on the effects of these strategies alone, and in combination with each other, on HIV transmission. We estimated the sexual risk of HIV transmission over 1-year and 10-year periods among male-male and male-female serodiscordant couples. We assumed the following reductions in transmission: 80% from consistent condom use; 54% from circumcision in the negative male partner of a heterosexual couple; 73% from circumcision in the negative partner of a male-male couple; 71% from PrEP in heterosexual couples; 44% from PrEP in male-male couples; and 96% from ART use by the HIV-infected partner. For couples using any single prevention strategy, a substantial cumulative risk of HIV transmission remained. For a male-female couple using only condoms, estimated risk over 10 years was 11%; for a male-male couple using only condoms, estimated risk was 76%. ART use by the HIV-infected partner was the most effective single strategy in reducing risk; among male-male couples, adding consistent condom use was necessary to keep the 10-year risk below 10%. Focusing on 1-year and longer term transmission probabilities gives couples a better understanding of risk than those illustrated by data for a single sexual act. Long-term transmission probabilities to the negative partner in serodiscordant couples can be high, though these can be substantially reduced with the strategic use of preventive methods, especially those that include ART.
Doruk, H; Akbay, E; Cayan, S; Akbay, E; Bozlu, M; Acar, D
The study was conducted to investigate the effect of diabetes mellitus upon female sexual function, and to detect possible risk factors that might predict sexual dysfunction. The study consisted of 127 married women: 21 women with type 1 diabetes, 50 women with type 2 diabetes and 56 healthy women as a control. Female sexual functions were evaluated with a questionnaire to assess sexual desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain. The prevalence of sexual dysfunction was 71% in the type 1 diabetic group, 42% in the type 2 diabetic group and 37% in the control subjects. The scores for sexual desire, arousal and lubrication were significantly lower in the type 1 diabetes group than in the control subjects (p sexual function were slightly lower in the type 1 diabetic group than in the other groups. No factor predicted sexual dysfunction in the diabetic women while further age, poor education, absence of occupation and menopause predicted sexual dysfunction in the control subjects. The prevalence of sexual dysfunction was significantly higher in the type 1 diabetic women than in the type 2 diabetics and control subjects. However, no risk factors that might cause sexual dysfunction could be predicted in diabetic women.
Johnson, Sharon D; Cottler, Linda B; Ben Abdallah, Arbi; O'Leary, Catina Callahan
This study examines whether substance using women exposed to a lifetime sexual trauma (n = 457) are distinguishable from substance using women exposed to non-sexual trauma (n = 275) in terms of demographics, psychopathology and high-risk sexual behaviors. Baseline data were collected from out-of-treatment substance using women enrolled in an HIV prevention study. Logistic regression analyses revealed that when demographics, psychopathology and lifetime indicators of sexual risk were assessed simultaneously, poor health, depression, antisocial personality disorder and lifetime sex-trading were associated with sexual trauma exposure. When these significant factors were controlled, the experience of sexual trauma predicted recent (past 4 month) high risk sexual behaviors such as higher than average sexual partners. Treatment efforts with women who have experienced a sexual trauma may be enhanced by the inclusion of assessments of physical and mental health needs as well as sexual risk awareness training.
Ghebremichael, Musie; Paintsil, Elijah; Larsen, Ulla
To assess the covariates of alcohol abuse and the association between alcohol abuse, high-risk sexual behaviors and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Two thousand and nineteen women aged 20 to 44 were randomly selected in a 2-stage sampling from the Moshi urban district of northern Tanzania. Participant's demographic and socio-economic characteristics, alcohol use, sexual behaviors, and STIs were assessed. Blood and urine samples were drawn for testing of human immunodeficiency virus, herpes simplex virus, syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomonas, and mycoplasma genitalium infections. Adjusted analyses showed that a history of physical (OR = 2.05; 95% CI: 1.06-3.98) and sexual violence (OR = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.05-2.51) was associated with alcohol abuse. Moreover, alcohol abuse was associated with number of sexual partners (OR = 1.66; 95% CI: 1.01-2.73). Women who abused alcohol were more likely to report STIs symptoms (OR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.08-2.40). Women who had multiple sexual partners were more likely to have an STI (OR = 2.41; 95% CI: 1.46-4.00) compared to women with 1 sexual partner. There was no direct association between alcohol abuse and prevalence of STIs (OR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.55-1.34). However, alcohol abuse was indirectly associated with STIs through its association with multiple sexual partners. The findings of alcohol abuse among physically and sexually violated women as well as the association between alcohol abuse and a history of symptoms of STIs and testing positive for STIs have significant public health implications. In sub-Saharan Africa, where women are disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic screening for alcohol use should be part of comprehensive STIs and HIV prevention programs.
Wolfers, Mireille; de Zwart, Onno; Kok, Gerjo
Worldwide, adolescents are at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI). In The Netherlands, test rates among young heterosexual people are low and knowledge on the behavioral determinants of testing is scarce. In this study, we investigated STI testing in more detail with two independent samples of 16-25 year old vocational school students (n = 756/n = 1302). The aim of this study was to examine risk perceptions in relation to STI testing among lower educated adolescents in order to inform the development of an intervention promoting STI testing. We compared multiple measures of risk perception, fear of testing, self-efficacy for testing, and risk knowledge between groups of adolescents engaging and not engaging in risk behavior. The results show that at least half of the participating students with sexual experience underestimated their susceptibility for STI and showed an optimistic bias. Students with sexual experience also considered STI very severe but lacked self-efficacy for testing. This combination can yield a defensive reaction to the threat of STI that, in turn, results in the underestimation of personal risks. However, self-efficacy did not mediate the relationship between intention to test and perceived relative risk. In conclusion, our findings show underestimation of personal risks by vocational school students, a high perceived severity of STI and low self-efficacy for testing. A low level of knowledge regarding sexual risks and symptoms of STI might have contributed to low risk perceptions. Self-efficacy did not change the relation of intention-to-test to perceived risk.
Negriff, Sonya; Valente, Thomas W
Maltreated youth are at risk for exposure to online sexual content and high-risk sexual behavior, yet characteristics of their online social networks have not been examined as a potential source of vulnerability. The aims of the current study were: 1) to test indicators of size (number of friends) and fragmentation (number of connections between friends) of maltreated young adults' online networks as predictors of intentional and unintentional exposure to sexual content and offline high-risk sexual behavior and 2) to test maltreatment as a moderator of these associations. Participants were selected from a longitudinal study on the effects of child maltreatment (n = 152; Mean age 21.84 years). Data downloaded from Facebook were used to calculate network variables of size (number of friends), density (connections between friends), average degree (average number of connections for each friend), and percent isolates (those not connected to others in the network). Self-reports of intentional and unintentional exposure to online sexual content and offline high-risk sexual behavior were the outcome variables. Multiple-group path modeling showed that only for the maltreated group having a higher percent of isolates in the network predicted intentional exposure to online sexual content and offline high-risk sexual behavior. An implication of this finding is that the composition of the Facebook network may be used as a risk indicator for individuals with child-welfare documented maltreatment experiences. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Moreno, Claudia L; Morrill, Allison C; El-Bassel, Nabila
The authors examined sexual factors for HIV risk in 1,003 women of Puerto Rican heritage who attended a community-based NewYork City hospital clinic. Participants' ages ranged from 18 to 73 years. Half were born in the continental United States, and half were born in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. All were sexually active within the past 90 days with a male partner.The authors compared sociodemographic characteristics, experience of intimate partner violence (IPV), and HIV sexual risk factors (number of partners, history of sexually transmitted infections [STIs],condom use, and so on).Multiple regression analyses considering sociodemographic characteristics were a predictor for IPV and sexual risk behaviors. The authors found differences in sexual risk behaviors by place of birth (continental United States versus Commonwealth of Puerto Rico) and language chosen for the interview (Spanish or English).Puerto Rican women reported fewer sexual partners and STIs. Mainland-born and English-preference women reported more IPV, risky partners, and condom use. Birth in the continental United States and preference for English appear to be indicators of greater risk for IPV, risky sexual practices, and risky partners. HIV prevention intervention strategies for Puerto Rican women must address differences in heterosexual risk according to language and place of birth.
Lando-King, Elizabeth; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Gower, Amy L; Shlafer, Rebecca J; McMorris, Barbara J; Pettingell, Sandra; Sieving, Renee E
Social-emotional intelligence (SEI) has been linked with a number of health behaviors in adolescent populations. However, little is known about the influence of SEI on sexual behavior. This study examined associations between three indicators of SEI (intrapersonal skills, interpersonal skills, stress management skills) and adolescent girls' sexual risk behaviors. Data come from a cross-sectional sample of sexually active adolescent girls (ages 13 to 17 years) at high risk for pregnancy (N = 253), recruited from health care clinics in a Midwest metropolitan area during 2007 and 2008. Results of multivariable regression models controlling for participants' age and race/ethnicity indicated that each aspect of SEI was related to distinct sexual risk behaviors. Specifically, girls with greater intrapersonal skills had significantly fewer male sex partners in the past six months (b = -0.16). Participants with greater interpersonal skills reported earlier communication with their sexual partner about sexual risk (b = 0.14), and those with a better ability to manage stress reported more consistent condom use (b = 0.31). Study findings suggest that SEI may provide a protective buffer against sexual risk behaviors. Building adolescent girls' social and emotional skills may be an effective strategy for reducing their risk for early pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections.
Although delinquency, substance use, and sexual activity are established to be highly intercorrelated, the extant research provides minimal evidence in support of one particular sequence of risk behavior or on the cascade effects from maltreatment. The present study tested a longitudinal model incorporating maltreatment, deviant peers, sexual behavior, delinquency, and substance use to elucidate the sequential pathway(s) from maltreatment to each specific risk behavior throughout adolescence. Data came from a longitudinal study on the effects of maltreatment on adolescent development (N = 454) with four study assessments from early (Time 1 M age = 10.98) to late adolescence (Time 4 M age = 18.22). Results from the cross-lagged model showed a sequence from maltreatment to sexual behavior (Time 1), to delinquency (Time 2), to sexual behavior (Time 3), to substance use and delinquency (Time 4). These findings support sexual behavior as the initial risk behavior that is the catalyst for engagement in more advanced risk behaviors across adolescence.
Raifman, Julia; Beyrer, Chris; Arrington-Sanders, Renata
Men who have sex with men (MSM) have nearly 80 times the lifetime risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) relative to men who have sex with women only (MSW), and young MSM (YMSM) accounted for 95% of estimated HIV diagnoses among adolescents between 13 and 24 years in 2015. We aimed to evaluate HIV education and sexual risk behaviors among YMSM relative to young MSW (YMSW) and to evaluate the relationship between HIV education and YMSM sexual risk behaviors. We used Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System data from 13 states that collected information on sex of sexual contacts and on HIV education in 2011 and/or 2013. We assessed HIV education, number of sexual partners ever and in the past three months, and condom use at last sex in logistic regression analyses controlling for age, race/ethnicity, state, and year. YMSM were less likely to report school-based HIV education and more likely to report sexual risk behaviors relative to YMSW. HIV education was associated with reduced sexual risk behaviors among all students and with significant additional reductions in sexual risk behaviors among YMSM. There is a need for HIV education programs to reach YMSM, who are at increased risk of HIV.
Full Text Available Abstract Background To explore any association between the timing of the initiation of sexual activity and sexual behaviors and risks among university students in China. Methods Data were derived from a cross-sectional study on sexual behavior among university students conducted in Ningbo municipality, China, at the end of 2003. Students completed a self-administered, structured questionnaire. Of 1981 sexually active male students, 1908 (96.3% completed the item for timing of the initiation of sexual activity and were included in bivariate trend analyses and multiple logistic regression analyses to compare the association between this timing and sexual behavior and risks. Results Male early sexual initiators had a significantly higher risk profile, including a significantly higher proportion reporting non-regular partners (i.e., casual or commercial partners, multiple partners, diagnosis with a sexually transmitted disease (STD, partner history of pregnancy, partner history of induced abortion, and less condom and oral contraceptive use, compared with late initiators. Multivariate analyses confirmed the increased likelihood of these risks in early initiators versus late initiators, other than partner type during the last year. Conclusion Our results showed that, compared to late initiators, people who initiated sexual activity early engaged in more risky behaviors that could lead to elevated risks of unwanted pregnancies and STDs or human immunodeficiency virus infection. Sex-education strategies should be focused on an earlier age, should include advice on delaying the age of first sexual activity, and should target young people who continue to take sexual risks.
Ma, Qiaoqin; Ono-Kihara, Masako; Cong, Liming; Xu, Guozhang; Pan, Xiaohong; Zamani, Saman; Ravari, Shahrzad Mortazavi; Zhang, Dandan; Homma, Takayuki; Kihara, Masahiro
To explore any association between the timing of the initiation of sexual activity and sexual behaviors and risks among university students in China. Data were derived from a cross-sectional study on sexual behavior among university students conducted in Ningbo municipality, China, at the end of 2003. Students completed a self-administered, structured questionnaire. Of 1981 sexually active male students, 1908 (96.3%) completed the item for timing of the initiation of sexual activity and were included in bivariate trend analyses and multiple logistic regression analyses to compare the association between this timing and sexual behavior and risks. Male early sexual initiators had a significantly higher risk profile, including a significantly higher proportion reporting non-regular partners (i.e., casual or commercial partners), multiple partners, diagnosis with a sexually transmitted disease (STD), partner history of pregnancy, partner history of induced abortion, and less condom and oral contraceptive use, compared with late initiators. Multivariate analyses confirmed the increased likelihood of these risks in early initiators versus late initiators, other than partner type during the last year. Our results showed that, compared to late initiators, people who initiated sexual activity early engaged in more risky behaviors that could lead to elevated risks of unwanted pregnancies and STDs or human immunodeficiency virus infection. Sex-education strategies should be focused on an earlier age, should include advice on delaying the age of first sexual activity, and should target young people who continue to take sexual risks.
Silverman, Jay G; McCauley, Heather L; Decker, Michele R; Miller, Elizabeth; Reed, Elizabeth; Raj, Anita
Partner violence is associated with STDs among female adolescents, but the mechanisms underlying this association remain unclear. Sexually coercive and deceptive behaviors of male partners that increase female STD risk may be factors in this relationship. A sample of 356 females aged 14-20 who attended adolescent health clinics in Greater Boston between April and December 2006 were assessed for physical and sexual violence perpetrated by male partners and for exposure to sexual risk factors. Adjusted logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between intimate partner violence and standard sexual risk behaviors (e.g., multiple partnerships) and coercive or deceptive sexual risk factors (e.g., coerced condom nonuse). More than two-fifths of the sample had experienced intimate partner violence. In adjusted analyses, adolescents reporting intimate partner violence were more likely than others to report standard sexual risk behaviors--multiple partners, anal sex and unprotected anal sex (odds ratios, 1.7-2.2). They also were more likely to report coercive or deceptive sexual risk factors--partner sexual infidelity, fear of requesting condom use, negative consequences of condom request, and coerced condom nonuse (2.9-5.3). The high prevalence of intimate partner violence against young women attending adolescent clinics strongly indicates the need to target this population for abuse-related interventions. This need is underlined by the observed association between partner violence and sexual risk involving coercion or deception by male partners. Clinic-based STD and pregnancy prevention efforts should include assessment of sexual risk factors that are beyond the control of young women, particularly for those experiencing abuse. Copyright © 2011 by the Guttmacher Institute.
Sexual Identity, Sex of Sexual Contacts, and Health-Risk Behaviors among Students in Grades 9-12--Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance, Selected Sites, United States, 2001-2009. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Early Release. Volume 60
Kann, Laura; O'Malley Olsen, Emily; McManus, Tim; Kinchen, Steve; Chyen, David; Harris, William A.; Wechsler, Howell
Problem: Sexual minority youths are youths who identify themselves as gay or lesbian, bisexual, or unsure of their sexual identity or youths who have only had sexual contact with persons of the same sex or with both sexes. Population-based data on the health-risk behaviors practiced by sexual minority youths are needed at the state and local…
Collins, Timothy W; Grineski, Sara E; Morales, Danielle X
Disparate residential hazard exposures based on disadvantaged gender status (e.g., among female-headed households) have been documented in the distributive environmental justice literature, yet no published studies have examined whether disproportionate environmental risks exist based on minority sexual orientation. To address this gap, we use data from the US Census, American Community Survey and the Environmental Protection Agency at the 2010 census tract level to examine the spatial relationships between same-sex partner households and cumulative cancer risk from exposure to hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) emitted by all ambient emission sources in Greater Houston (Texas). Findings from generalized estimating equation analyses demonstrate that increased cancer risks from HAPs are significantly associated with neighborhoods having relatively high concentrations of resident same-sex partner households, adjusting for geographic clustering and variables known to influence risk (i.e., race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, renter status, income inequality, and population density). However, HAP exposures are distributed differently for same-sex male versus same-sex female partner households. Neighborhoods with relatively high proportions of same-sex male partner households are associated with significantly greater exposure to cancer-causing HAPs while those with high proportions of same-sex female partner households are associated with less exposure. This study provides initial empirical documentation of a previously unstudied pattern, and infuses current theoretical understanding of environmental inequality formation with knowledge emanating from the sexualities and space literature. Practically, results suggest that other documented health risks experienced in gay neighborhoods may be compounded by disparate health risks associated with harmful exposures to air toxics.
Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia
Objective: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with increased sexual risk behavior in adulthood, and this association may be mediated by traumagenic dynamics constructs (i.e., traumatic sexualization, trust, guilt, and powerlessness). However, few studies have investigated whether such relationships hold for women who do not identify as…
Majer, John M; Rodriguez, Jaclyn; Bloomer, Craig; Jason, Leonard A
Lifetime histories of sexual and physical abuse have been associated with increased HIV-risk sexual behavior, and some studies have identified other variables associated with these relationships. However, there is a dearth of literature that has critically examined abuse histories and HIV-risk sexual behavior in relation to these other variables. Predictors of HIV-risk sexual behavior were analyzed among a sample of ex-offenders who were completing inpatient substance dependence treatment to identify factors related to increases in HIV-risk sexual behavior beyond that of abuse histories. Hierarchical linear regression was conducted to examine sociodemographic characteristics, recent substance use, and current psychiatric problem severity in addition to lifetime histories of sexual/physical abuse in a cross-sectional design. Gender, substance use, and psychiatric problem severity predicted increases in HIV-risk sexual behavior beyond what was predicted by abuse histories. Proportionately more women than men reported abuse histories. In addition, significantly more unprotected sexual than safer sexual practices were observed, but differences in these practices based on lifetime abuse histories and gender were not significant. Findings suggest recent substance use and current psychiatric problem severity are greater risk factors for HIV-risk sexual behavior than lifetime abuse histories among persons who have substance use disorders.
Comfort, Megan; Reznick, Olga Grinstead; Dilworth, Samantha E; Binson, Diane; Darbes, Lynae A; Neilands, Torsten B
The massively disproportionate impact of America's prison boom on communities of color has raised questions about how incarceration may affect health disparities, including disparities in HIV. Primary partners are an important source of influence on sexual health. In this paper, we investigate sexual HIV risk among male-female couples following a man's release from prison. We draw upon data from the Relate Project, a novel cross-sectional survey of recently released men and their female partners in Oakland and San Francisco, California (N=344). Inferential analyses use the actor-partner model to explore actor and partner effects on sexual HIV risk outcomes. Dyadic analyses of sexual HIV risk among male parolees and their female partners paint a complex portrait of couples affected by incarceration and of partners' influences on each other. Findings indicate that demographic factors such as education level and employment status, individual psycho-social factors such as perception of risk, and relationship factors such as commitment and power affect sexual HIV risk outcomes. The Relate Project provides a novel dataset for the dyadic analysis of sexual risk among male parolees and their female partners, and results highlight the importance of focusing on the couple as a unit when assessing HIV risk and protective behaviors. Results also indicate potentially fruitful avenues for population-specific interventions that may help to reduce sexual health disparities among couples affected by incarceration.
Smith, Dana K.; Leve, Leslie D.; Chamberlain, Patricia
Several studies have highlighted high levels of risk for girls who have been exposed to traumatic experiences, but little is known about the exact relationship between traumatic experiences and problems with delinquency and health-risking sexual behavior (e.g., precipitory and/or exacerbatory roles). However, numerous short- and long-term detrimental effects have been linked to trauma, delinquency, and health-risking sexual behavior. The utility of diagnostic and experiential trauma measures ...
Bertin, H.; Deleuze, G.
The paper presents the application of a particular way to make risk maps, called 'subjective risk mapping'. It has been used to understand how the risk of tube rupture under pressure is understood, defined, and set in perspective with other risks in a professional group working in an industrial plant. (authors)
Emeka W. Dumbili
Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol misuse among young people is a global phenomenon. In many countries, young people engage in heavy drinking and this exacerbates risky sexual behaviour. In Nigeria, alcohol held multiple roles in the traditional era but was mainly consumed by adult males for pleasure. Adult females and young people were culturally constrained from drinking in most communities. In contemporary Nigeria, young people’s drinking is increasing, and many engage in sexual intercourse under the influence of alcohol. Methods This study draws on the traditional gender and social sexual scripts to explore the factors that motivate young people to use alcohol for sexual purposes. In-depth interviews were conducted with 19 to 23-year old male and female undergraduate students from a Nigerian university. Thematic analysis was conducted with the aid of NVivo 10 software. Results Men drink to become confident to initiate sexual relationships, stimulate sexual urges, prolong erection, increase sexual satisfaction and become more aggressive during sexual intercourse. Women also drink to be bold in initiating sexual relationships, for sexual arousal and to increase satisfaction. Relatedly, not every brand of alcohol is used for sexual purposes. For example, while men use ‘herbal’ alcoholic beverages and a mixture of locally-produced gin and marijuana, women use champagne and other flavoured alcoholic beverages. The results also revealed that young people use alcohol or salt in a bid to prevent conception after sexual intercourse. Conclusions Adherence to the traditional gender (masculinity and social sexual scripts amongst men and the enactment of what appears to be a new form of femininity script amongst women contribute to a culturally specific understanding of the motivations to use alcohol for sexual purposes. Evidence-based strategies should be employed to distribute information about the consequences of sexual intercourse under the influence
Dumbili, Emeka W
Alcohol misuse among young people is a global phenomenon. In many countries, young people engage in heavy drinking and this exacerbates risky sexual behaviour. In Nigeria, alcohol held multiple roles in the traditional era but was mainly consumed by adult males for pleasure. Adult females and young people were culturally constrained from drinking in most communities. In contemporary Nigeria, young people's drinking is increasing, and many engage in sexual intercourse under the influence of alcohol. This study draws on the traditional gender and social sexual scripts to explore the factors that motivate young people to use alcohol for sexual purposes. In-depth interviews were conducted with 19 to 23-year old male and female undergraduate students from a Nigerian university. Thematic analysis was conducted with the aid of NVivo 10 software. Men drink to become confident to initiate sexual relationships, stimulate sexual urges, prolong erection, increase sexual satisfaction and become more aggressive during sexual intercourse. Women also drink to be bold in initiating sexual relationships, for sexual arousal and to increase satisfaction. Relatedly, not every brand of alcohol is used for sexual purposes. For example, while men use 'herbal' alcoholic beverages and a mixture of locally-produced gin and marijuana, women use champagne and other flavoured alcoholic beverages. The results also revealed that young people use alcohol or salt in a bid to prevent conception after sexual intercourse. Adherence to the traditional gender (masculinity) and social sexual scripts amongst men and the enactment of what appears to be a new form of femininity script amongst women contribute to a culturally specific understanding of the motivations to use alcohol for sexual purposes. Evidence-based strategies should be employed to distribute information about the consequences of sexual intercourse under the influence of alcohol.
Zeledón, Perla; Tellez, Ever; Barrington, Clare
Gender inequity negatively affects health in Central America. In 2011, we conducted 60 semistructured interviews and 12 photovoice focus groups with young coupled men and women in León, Nicaragua, to explore the ways in which social norms around marriage and gender affect sexual health and gender-based violence. Participants’ depictions of their experiences revealed gendered norms around infidelity that provided a narrative to justify male expressions of jealousy, which included limiting partner autonomy, sexual coercion, and physical violence against women, and resulted in increased women’s risk of sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. By understanding and taking account of these different narratives and normalized beliefs in developing health- and gender-based violence interventions, such programs might be more effective in promoting gender-equitable attitudes and behaviors among young men and women in Nicaragua. PMID:26890184
Boyce, Sabrina; Zeledón, Perla; Tellez, Ever; Barrington, Clare
Gender inequity negatively affects health in Central America. In 2011, we conducted 60 semistructured interviews and 12 photovoice focus groups with young coupled men and women in León, Nicaragua, to explore the ways in which social norms around marriage and gender affect sexual health and gender-based violence. Participants' depictions of their experiences revealed gendered norms around infidelity that provided a narrative to justify male expressions of jealousy, which included limiting partner autonomy, sexual coercion, and physical violence against women, and resulted in increased women's risk of sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. By understanding and taking account of these different narratives and normalized beliefs in developing health- and gender-based violence interventions, such programs might be more effective in promoting gender-equitable attitudes and behaviors among young men and women in Nicaragua.
Khajehei, Marjan; Doherty, Maryanne; Tilley, P J Matt; Sauer, Kay
Female sexual dysfunction is highly prevalent and reportedly has adverse impacts on quality of life. Although it is prevalent after childbirth, women rarely seek advice or treatment from health care professionals. The aim of this study was to assess the sexual functioning of Australian women during the first year after childbirth. Postpartum women who had given birth during the previous 12 months were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. A multidimensional online questionnaire was designed for this study. This questionnaire included a background section, the Female Sexual Function Index, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8), and the Relationship Assessment Scale. Responses from 325 women were analyzed. Almost two-thirds of women (64.3%) reported that they had experienced sexual dysfunction during the first year after childbirth, and almost three-quarters reported they experienced sexual dissatisfaction (70.5 %). The most prevalent types of sexual dysfunction reported by the affected women were sexual desire disorder (81.2%), orgasmic problems (53.5%), and sexual arousal disorder (52.3%). The following were significant risk factors for sexual dysfunction: fortnightly or less frequent sexual activity, not being the initiator of sexual activity with a partner, late resumption of postnatal sexual activity (at 9 or more weeks), the first 5 months after childbirth, primiparity, depression, and relationship dissatisfaction. Sexual satisfaction is important for maintaining quality of life for postpartum women. Health care providers and postpartum women need to be encouraged to include sexual problems in their discussions. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Full Text Available Ya-Huei Li,1 Osaro Mgbere,1,2 Susan Abughosh,1 Hua Chen,1 Paula Cuccaro,3 Ekere James Essien1,3 1Department of Pharmaceutical Health Outcomes and Policy, College of Pharmacy, University of Houston, Texas Medical Center, Houston, TX, USA; 2Houston Health Department, Houston, TX, USA; 3Department of Health Promotion and Behavioral Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Risk and protective processes are integrated developmental processes that directly or indirectly affect behavioral outcomes. A better understanding of these processes is needed, in order to gauge their contribution to sexual risk behaviors. This retrospective cross-sectional study modeled the ecodevelopmental chain of relationships to examine the social contexts of African-American (AA adolescents associated with sexually transmitted disease (STD- and HIV-risk behaviors. We used data from 1,619 AA adolescents with an average age of 16±1.8 years obtained from the first wave of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health for this study. Confirmatory factor analysis followed by structural equation modeling was conducted to identify the latent constructs that reflect the social–interactional components of the ecodevelopmental theory. Among contextual factors, findings indicated that a feeling of love from father, school, religion, and parent attitudes toward adolescent sexual behavior were all factors that played significant roles in the sexual behavior of AA adolescents. AA adolescents who reported feeling love from their father, feeling a strong negative attitude from their parents toward having sex at a very young age, and having a strong bond with school personnel were associated with better health statuses. The level of parents’ involvement in their children’s lives was reflected in the adolescents’ feeling of love from parents and moderated by their socioeconomic status. Being male, attaining
Robertson, Angela; Levin, Martin L.
Examined AIDS knowledge, condom attitudes, and sexual risk taking behavior among 193 juvenile offenders on probation or parole who were substance abusers. Surveys indicated that most youths were sexually active. Many reported unsafe sexual practices. General attitudes toward condoms and reported use of condoms at first sexual intercourse were the…
Dir, Allyson L; Riley, Elizabeth N; Cyders, Melissa A; Smith, Gregory T
Sexual assault is a major public health concern and college women are four times more likely to experience sexual assault than any other group. We investigated whether sexting is a mechanism by which alcohol use increases risk for college women to be targeted for sexual assault. We hypothesized that sexting would mediate the relationship between problem drinking and sexual assault, such that drinking (T1 = beginning fall semester) would contribute to increased sexting (T2 = end fall semester), and in turn increase the risk of being targeted for sexual assault (T3 = end spring semester). Among 332 undergraduate women (M(SD)age = 19.15(1.69), 76.9% Caucasian), sexting (T2) predicted sexual assault (T3; b = 3.98, p = .05), controlling for baseline sexual assault (b = 0.82, p sexting (T2) mediated the relationship between problem drinking (T1) and sexual assault (T3) (b = 0.04, CI[.004,.12]). Findings suggest that sexting is one mechanism through which drinking increases the risk of college women being targeted for sexual assault.
Spice, Andrew; Viljoen, Jodi L; Latzman, Natasha E; Scalora, Mario J; Ullman, Daniel
Literature on risk factors for recidivism among juveniles who have sexually offended (JSOs) is limited. In addition, there have been no studies published concerning protective factors among this population. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of risk and protective factors to sexual and nonsexual recidivism among a sample of 193 male JSOs (mean age = 15.26). Youths were followed for an average of 7.24 years following discharge from a residential sex offender treatment program. The risk factor opportunities to reoffend, as coded based on the Estimate of Risk of Adolescent Sexual Offense Recidivism, was associated with sexual recidivism. Several risk factors (e.g., prior offending; peer delinquency) were associated with nonsexual recidivism. No protective factors examined were associated with sexual recidivism, although strong attachments and bonds as measured by the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth was negatively related to nonsexual recidivism. These findings indicate that risk factors for nonsexual recidivism may be consistent across both general adolescent offender populations and JSOs, but that there may be distinct protective factors that apply to sexual recidivism among JSOs. Results also indicate important needs for further research on risk factors, protective factors, and risk management strategies for JSOs.
Arabi-Mianrood, Hoda; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab; Khoori, Elham; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Shahhosseini, Zohreh
Background In recent years, high-risk sexual behaviors due to their negative consequences both for the individual and society have received more attention than other high-risk behaviors. Objective The aim of this study was to review the influencing factors of high-risk sexual behaviors among young people from an ecological point of view. Methods This review was conducted through searching databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar and the Cochrane Library with keywords such as sexual risk-taking behavior, high-risk sex, unprotected sex and unsafe sex. The relevant papers published between 1995 and 2016 were extracted. After reviewing the abstract and full text of the articles, 45 papers were used to write this article. Results From an ecological theory approach, factors which influence high-risk sexual behaviors are divided into three categories - the microsystem, the mesosystem and the macrosystem. The microsystem includes factors such as age, gender, race, marital status, place of residence, religion, level of education, personality traits, psychological problems, childhood experiences, body image and coincidence of high-risk behaviors; the mesosystem includes factors such as family structure, peers and sex education; in the macrosystem, the impact of culture and traditions of the society, economic status and the media are presented. Conclusion Given that high-risk sexual behaviors often have multiple causes, it seems that health policymakers must consider multi-dimensional interventions to influence high-risk sexual behaviors based on the ecological approach.
Roy, T; Anderson, C; Evans, C; Rahman, M S
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) research in Bangladesh has mainly focused on key vulnerable groups (e.g. sex workers, drug users). In order to develop appropriate HIV prevention strategies in an evolving epidemic, there is a need for evidence on sexual practices in other population groups. This research aims to describe the prevalence of risky behaviours and factors affecting sexual behaviour/practices among rural-to-urban migrant taxi drivers in Dhaka. Cross-sectional study. This paper reports on the cross-sectional survey component of a mixed methods research study amongst migrant workers in Bangladesh. The sample (n = 437) comprised rural-to-urban migrant taxi drivers in Dhaka (aged 18-35 years). The survey data were analysed statistically using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Very high levels of pre- and extramarital sexual behaviour were found (84% and 51%, respectively) amongst the sample (n = 437). The reported sexual activity included high levels of risky/unsafe sex in the past year: 64% of the sample reported sex with multiple commercial sex partners (mean = 13.21), and 21.7% reported sex with other males/transgenders (mean = 2.53). Protection against risk was low: 78.2% reported that their last commercial sexual encounter was unprotected, and only 5.6% used condoms consistently. Multivariate analysis revealed that the odds of risky sexual behaviour were higher in migrant men who were not married (odds ratio 35.3, P driver of risky sexual practices. This study provides important new information for understanding the dynamics of sexual behaviour in Bangladesh, and suggests that migrant men should be a key population for HIV prevention efforts. Nonetheless, the fact that most men were having unprotected sex with sex workers reinforces the importance of continuing to target interventions towards commercial sex contexts. Copyright © 2010 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gaydos, C A; Hsieh, Y-H; Galbraith, J S; Barnes, M; Waterfield, G; Stanton, B
A community-based intervention, Focus-on-Kids (FOK) has demonstrated risk-behaviour reduction of urban youth. We modified FOK to Focus-on-Teens (FOT) for high schools. High school adolescents (n=1190) were enrolled over successive school semesters. The small-group sessions were presented during the school-lunch hours. Confidential surveys were conducted at baseline, immediate, six-, and 12-month postintervention for demographics, parental communication/monitoring, sexual risk behaviours and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)/HIV/condom-usage knowledge. Sexually active participants were encouraged to volunteer for urine-based STDs testing at the School-Based Health Centres. Many (47.4%) students reported having had sexual intercourse at baseline. Overall behaviours changed towards 'safer' sex behaviours (intent-to-use and using condoms, communicating with partner/parents about sex/condoms/STDs) with time (Pcorrect knowledge of STDs/HIV increased to 88% at time 4 from 80% at baseline after adjusting for age, gender and sexual activity (Pcondom usage, decreases in sexual risk behaviours supported the effectiveness of this intervention.
Klima, K.; Wong-Parodi, G.
The City of Pittsburgh experiences numerous floods every year. Aging and insufficient infrastructure contribute to flash floods and to over 20 billion gallons of combined sewer overflows annually, contaminating Pittsburgh's streets, basements, and waterways. Climate change is expected to further exacerbate this problem by causing more intense and more frequent extreme precipitation events in Western Pennsylvania. For a stormwater adaptation plan to be implemented effectively, the City will need informed public support. One way to achieve public understanding and support is through effective communication of the risks, benefits, and uncertainties of local flooding hazards and adaptation methods. In order to develop these communications effectively, the city and its partners will need to know what knowledge and attitudes the residents of Pittsburgh already hold about flood risks. Here we seek to (1) identify Pittsburgh residents' knowledge level, risk perception and attitudes towards flooding and storm water management, and (2) pre-test communications meant to inform and empower Pittsburghers about flood risks and adaptation strategies. We conduct a city-wide survey of 10,000 Pittsburgh renters and homeowners from four life situations: high risk, above poverty; high-risk, below poverty; low risk, above poverty; and low-risk, below poverty. Mixed media recruitment strategies (online and paper-based solicitations guided/organized by community organizations) assist in reaching all subpopulations. Preliminary results suggest participants know what stormwater runoff is, but have a weak understanding of how stormwater interacts with natural and built systems. Furthermore, although participants have a good understanding of the difference between green and gray infrastructure, this does not translate into a change in their willingness to pay for green infrastructure adaptation. This suggests additional communications about flood risks and adaptation strategies.
Broaddus, Michelle; Dickson-Gomez, Julia
Qualitative and quantitative research was used to create the Uses of Texting in Sexual Relationships scale. At-risk, predominantly African American emerging adults participated in qualitative interviews (N = 20) and quantitative surveys (N = 110) about their uses of text messaging within romantic and sexual relationships. Exploratory factor analysis of items generated from interviews resulted in four subscales: Sexting, Relationship Maintenance, Relationship Development, and Texting for Sexual Safety. Exploratory analyses indicated associations of Sexting with more instances of condomless sex, and Texting for Sexual Safety with fewer instances of condomless sex, which was moderated by relationship power. Further research on the connections between text messaging in relationships and sexual behavior among high-risk and minority young adults is warranted, and intervention efforts to decrease sexual risks need to incorporate these avenues of sexual communication. PMID:27710089
Broaddus, Michelle; Dickson-Gomez, Julia
Qualitative and quantitative research was used to create the Uses of Texting in Sexual Relationships scale. At-risk, predominantly African American emerging adults participated in qualitative interviews (N = 20) and quantitative surveys (N = 110) about their uses of text messaging within romantic and sexual relationships. Exploratory factor analysis of items generated from interviews resulted in four subscales: Sexting, Relationship Maintenance, Relationship Development, and Texting for Sexual Safety. Exploratory analyses indicated associations of Sexting with more instances of condomless sex, and Texting for Sexual Safety with fewer instances of condomless sex, which was moderated by relationship power. Further research on the connections between text messaging in relationships and sexual behavior among high-risk and minority young adults is warranted, and intervention efforts to decrease sexual risks need to incorporate these avenues of sexual communication.
Ahlin, Eileen M
Research suggests that youth are at higher risk of sexual assault and victimization while in custody than adult inmates. However, compared with adult inmates, very little is known about the risk factors associated with such violence among youth in custody. Without sufficient research on risk factors associated with sexual assault and victimization among youth in custody, practitioners and policy makers may be reliant on the adult literature when making decisions about how to address and prevent such violence among juveniles. This article seeks to determine if extrapolating data from the substantial prison literature is appropriate by assessing the parallels between risk factors of sexual assault and victimization among youth in custody and those identified for adult inmates. This study uses data of 8,659 youth from the second administration of the National Survey of Youth in Custody (NSYC-2) to assess correlates of sexual assault and victimization during periods of detention. Study findings show that experiences with assault and victimization prior to the present period of detention were stronger indicators of sexual assault and victimization while in custody than youth characteristics and demographics and other experiences with assault and victimization. Further, there are differences in risk factors associated with sexual assault and victimization among youth in custody compared to adult inmates, which emphasizes the risk of prior sexual assault and victimization in the community and prior custodial settings.
Miller, Ann C; Nelson, A Katrina; Livchits, Viktoria; Greenfield, Shelly F; Yanova, Galina; Yanov, Sergei; Connery, Hilary S; Atwood, Sidney; Lastimoso, Charmaine S; Shin, Sonya S
Russian Federation's (RF) HIV epidemic is the fastest growing of any country. This study explores factors associated with high HIV risk behavior in tuberculosis (TB) patients with alcohol use disorders in Tomsk, RF. This analysis was nested within the Integrated Management of Physician-delivered Alcohol Care for TB Patients (IMPACT, trial number NCT00675961) randomized controlled study of integrating alcohol treatment into TB treatment in Tomsk. Demographics, HIV risk behavior (defined as participant report of high-risk intravenous drug use and/or multiple sexual partners with inconsistent condom use in the last six months), clinical data, alcohol use, depression and psychosocial factors were collected from 196 participants (161 male and 35 female) at baseline. Forty-six participants (23.5%) endorsed HIV risk behavior at baseline. Incarceration history(Odds Ratio (OR)3.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.95, 7.95), age under 41 (OR:2.97, CI:1.46, 6.04), drug addiction(OR: 3.60 CI:1.10, 11.77), history of a sexually transmitted disease(STD)(OR 2.00 CI:1.02, 3.90), low social capital (OR:2.81 CI:0.99, 8.03) and heavier alcohol use (OR:2.56 CI: 1.02, 6.46) were significantly more likely to be associated with HIV risk behavior at baseline. In adjusted analysis, age under 41(OR: 4.93, CI: 2.10, 11.58), incarceration history(OR: 3.56 CI:1.55, 8.17) and STD history (OR: 3.48, CI: 1.5, 8.10) continued to be significantly associated with HIV risk behavior. Understanding HIV transmission dynamics in Russia remains an urgent priority to inform strategies to address the epidemic. Larger studies addressing sex differences in risks and barriers to protective behavior are needed.
Ann C Miller
Full Text Available Russian Federation's (RF HIV epidemic is the fastest growing of any country. This study explores factors associated with high HIV risk behavior in tuberculosis (TB patients with alcohol use disorders in Tomsk, RF. This analysis was nested within the Integrated Management of Physician-delivered Alcohol Care for TB Patients (IMPACT, trial number NCT00675961 randomized controlled study of integrating alcohol treatment into TB treatment in Tomsk. Demographics, HIV risk behavior (defined as participant report of high-risk intravenous drug use and/or multiple sexual partners with inconsistent condom use in the last six months, clinical data, alcohol use, depression and psychosocial factors were collected from 196 participants (161 male and 35 female at baseline. Forty-six participants (23.5% endorsed HIV risk behavior at baseline. Incarceration history(Odds Ratio (OR3.93, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.95, 7.95, age under 41 (OR:2.97, CI:1.46, 6.04, drug addiction(OR: 3.60 CI:1.10, 11.77, history of a sexually transmitted disease(STD(OR 2.00 CI:1.02, 3.90, low social capital (OR:2.81 CI:0.99, 8.03 and heavier alcohol use (OR:2.56 CI: 1.02, 6.46 were significantly more likely to be associated with HIV risk behavior at baseline. In adjusted analysis, age under 41(OR: 4.93, CI: 2.10, 11.58, incarceration history(OR: 3.56 CI:1.55, 8.17 and STD history (OR: 3.48, CI: 1.5, 8.10 continued to be significantly associated with HIV risk behavior. Understanding HIV transmission dynamics in Russia remains an urgent priority to inform strategies to address the epidemic. Larger studies addressing sex differences in risks and barriers to protective behavior are needed.
Fargo, Jamison D.
The purpose of this study is to investigate direct and indirect social and behavioral risk factors for adult sexual revictimization. Participants include 147 adult, predominantly African American (88%) women, 59% of whom had a documented history of child sexual abuse. Participants are interviewed in adulthood about adolescent and adult sexual…
This thesis addresses the strategic diversity in STI prevention and management as well as the diverse needs of risk populations, in particular MSM, in support of their sexual health. Studies in this thesis use a multidisciplinary research approach in order to address the complex issues of sexual
Walsh, Kate; DiLillo, David; Messman-Moore, Terri L.
The present study examined whether and which facets of emotion dysregulation serve an intervening role in the association between prior victimization and risk perception in an analogue sexual assault vignette. Participants were 714 university women who completed self-report measures of sexual victimization, emotion dysregulation, and a…
A cross-sectional study design was used to assess sexual-risk behaviour and HIV-preventive practices among students at Hawassa University, Ethiopia, in 2009. Among 1 220 students eligible for the study, approximately 29% reported experience of sex (36.3% of the males and 9.3% of the females). Of the total sexually ...
Moreno, Claudia L.; Morrill, Allison C.; El-Bassel, Nabila
The authors examined sexual factors for HIV risk in 1,003 women of Puerto Rican heritage who attended a community-based New York City hospital clinic. Participants' ages ranged from 18 to 73 years. Half were born in the continental United States, and half were born in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. All were sexually active within the past 90…
Oct 26, 2017 ... Furthermore, high-risk sexual behaviour by the older adults can lead to increased prevalence of HIV/AIDS among the younger age groups. This is because other studies have found that some older men are involved in sexual relationships with younger women over whom they have power and influence ...
Hill, Andreas; Rettenberger, Martin; Habermann, Niels; Berner, Wolfgang; Eher, Reinhard; Briken, Peer
To examine the predictive accuracy of four well established risk assessment instruments (PCL-R, HCR-20, SVR-20, and Static-99) in an important subgroup of sexual offenders, these instruments were assessed retrospectively based on information from forensic psychiatric court reports in a sample of 90 released male sexual homicide offenders (out of…
Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Wareham, Jennifer; Winters, Ken C.; Ungaro, Rocío; Karas, Lora
Truant youths are likely to engage in a number of problem behaviors, including sexual risky behaviors. As part of a National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)-funded, prospective intervention project, a sample of truant youths' sexual risk behavior was tracked over five time points. Analyses of the data was informed by four objectives: (a) determine…
Farid, Nik Daliana Nik; Rus, Sulaiman Che'; Dahlui, Maznah; Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Aziz, Norlaili Abdul
In welfare institutions, it is essential to address the health-related needs of adolescent populations who often engage in sexual activities. This study examines the association between individual and interpersonal factors concerning sexual risk behaviour (SRB) among adolescents in welfare institutions in Malaysia. Data were derived from a cross-sectional study of 1082 adolescents in 22 welfare institutions located across Peninsular Malaysia in 2009. Using supervised self-administered questionnaires, adolescents were asked to assess their self-esteem and to complete questions on pubertal onset, substance use, family structure, family connectedness, parental monitoring, and peer pressure. SRB was measured through scoring of five items: sexual initiation, age of sexual debut, number of sexual partners, condom use, and sex with high-risk partners. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the various predictors of sexual risk behaviour. The study showed that 55.1% (95%CI = 52.0-58.2) of the total sample was observed to practice sexual risk behaviours. Smoking was the strongest predictor of SRB among male adolescents (OR = 10.3, 95%CI = 1.25-83.9). Among females, high family connectedness (OR = 3.13, 95%CI = 1.64-5.95) seemed to predict the behaviour. There were clear gender differences in predicting SRB. Thus, a gender-specific sexual and reproductive health intervention for institutionalised adolescents is recommended.
Baumgartner, S.; Sumter, S.; Valkenburg, P.; Peter, J.
The aim of this study was to investigate developmental pathways of online sexual risk behavior from early to late adolescence. Moreover, this study examined how these trajectories are related to negative online experiences, such as online sexual solicitation, online harassment, and online
Alidu, H; Owiredu, W K B A; Amidu, N; Gyasi-Sarpong, C K; Dapare, P P M; Bawah, A T; Obirikorang, C; Luuse, A T
About 25% of the world's adult population suffers from arterial hypertension with about 1.5 billion estimated to develop hypertension by 2025. Hypertensive patients have been reported to have a higher risk of developing diabetes and sexual dysfunction. Hypertension have been linked with lubricative and orgasmic difficulties in females, as wel as ED and vascular disease in men. Obesity has also been linked to ED in diabetic males as well as several aspects of female sexuality. Hypertension and obesity are closely related, each occurring in greater frequency with the other, it is only logical to think that comorbidities of obesity and hypertension could increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and SD. This research looks at the relationship between hypertension and obesity comorbidities and its association with sexual function in type II diabetics. Diabetic patients who were at least 18 years old and were engaged in a stable heterosexual relationships for at least 1 year were recruited for this study. Participants were categorized into the -HYP/-OB, +HYP/-OB and the +HYP/+OB groups. Sexual function was assessed using the GRISS-M and GRIS-F for the diabetic males and females respectively. Early morning fasting blood samples was used in lipid profile as well as FBG assay. The Coronary risk was estimated as Total/HDL Cholesterol. Triglyceride levels and coronary risk were highest in the +HYP/+OBES group, followed by the +HYP/-OBES group, with the -HYP/-OBES group recording the lowest levels. PE and infrequency recorded the highest score among the +HYP/+OBES group with the +HYP/-OBES group recording the lowest scores. SQoL was highest amongst the -HYP/-OBES group, with the +HYP/+OBES group recording the lowest scores. Anorgasmia and avoidance increased along the shades of HYP/OBES groups. Comorbidities of hypertension and obesity increases the risk of coronary disease, affects some domains of sexual function and decreases the SQoL of diabetics.
Claude A Mellins
Full Text Available Sexual assault on college campuses is a public health issue. However varying research methodologies (e.g., different sexual assault definitions, measures, assessment timeframes and low response rates hamper efforts to define the scope of the problem. To illuminate the complexity of campus sexual assault, we collected survey data from a large population-based random sample of undergraduate students from Columbia University and Barnard College in New York City, using evidence based methods to maximize response rates and sample representativeness, and behaviorally specific measures of sexual assault to accurately capture victimization rates. This paper focuses on student experiences of different types of sexual assault victimization, as well as sociodemographic, social, and risk environment correlates. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, and logistic regression were used to estimate prevalences and test associations. Since college entry, 22% of students reported experiencing at least one incident of sexual assault (defined as sexualized touching, attempted penetration [oral, anal, vaginal, other], or completed penetration. Women and gender nonconforming students reported the highest rates (28% and 38%, respectively, although men also reported sexual assault (12.5%. Across types of assault and gender groups, incapacitation due to alcohol and drug use and/or other factors was the perpetration method reported most frequently (> 50%; physical force (particularly for completed penetration in women and verbal coercion were also commonly reported. Factors associated with increased risk for sexual assault included non-heterosexual identity, difficulty paying for basic necessities, fraternity/sorority membership, participation in more casual sexual encounters ("hook ups" vs. exclusive/monogamous or no sexual relationships, binge drinking, and experiencing sexual assault before college. High rates of re-victimization during college were reported across
Scrum Team A Scrum Team B Temporary sprint team 26 Agile Development and Software Architecture Robert L. Nord, SSTC, April 2012 © 2012 Carnegie...2012 Carnegie Mellon University Agile Development and Software Architecture: Understanding Scale and Risk Software Engineering Institute Carnegie... Agile Development and Software Architecture Robert L. Nord, SSTC, April 2012 © 2012 Carnegie Mellon University The challenge -1 Tradeoffs and their
Ha, Huy; Risser, Jan M H; Ross, Michael W; Huynh, Nhung T; Nguyen, Huong T M
This article examined the associations between three forms of homosexuality-related stigma (enacted, perceived, and internalized homosexual stigmas) with risky sexual behaviors, and to describe the mechanisms of these associations, among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Hanoi, Vietnam. We used respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to recruit 451 MSM into a cross-sectional study conducted from August 2010 to January 2011. Data were adjusted for recruitment patterns due to the RDS approach; logistic regression and path analyses were performed. Participants were young and single; most had attended at least some college. Nine out of ten participants engaged in sexual behaviors at moderate to high risk levels. Compared to those who had no enacted homosexual stigma, men having low and high levels of enacted homosexual stigma, respectively, were 2.23 times (95 % CI 1.35-3.69) and 2.20 times (95 % CI 1.04-4.76) more likely to engage in high levels of sexual risk behaviors. In addition, there was an indirect effect of perceived homosexual stigma and internalized homosexual stigma on sexual risk behaviors through depression and drug and alcohol use. Our study provides valuable information to our understanding of homosexual stigma in Vietnam, highlighting the need for provision of coping skills against stigma to the gay community and addressing drinking and drug use among MSM, to improve the current HIV prevention interventions in Vietnam.
Mojola, Sanyu A; Everett, Bethany
STDs, including HIV, disproportionately affect individuals who have multiple minority identities. Understanding differences in STD risk factors across racial, ethnic and sexual minority groups, as well as genders, is important for tailoring public health interventions. Data from Waves 3 (2001-2002) and 4 (2007-2008) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to develop population-based estimates of STD and HIV risk factors among 11,045 young adults (mean age, 29 at Wave 4), by gender, race and ethnicity, and sexual orientation (heterosexual, mixed-oriented, gay). Regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between risk factors and young adults' characteristics. Overall, sexual-minority women in each racial or ethnic group had a higher prevalence of sexual risk behaviors-including a history of multiple partners, forced sex and incarceration-than their heterosexual counterparts. Mixed-oriented women in each racial or ethnic group were more likely than heterosexual white women to have received an STD diagnosis (odds ratios, 1.8-6.4). Black men and sexual-minority men also appeared to be at heightened risk. Gay men in all racial and ethnic groups were significantly more likely than heterosexual white men to report having received an STD diagnosis (2.3-8.3); compared with heterosexual white men, mixed-oriented black men had the highest odds of having received such a diagnosis (15.2). Taking account of multiple minority identities should be an important part of future research and intervention efforts for STD and HIV prevention. Copyright © 2012 by the Guttmacher Institute.
Brooker, Charlie; Tocque, Karen
In England, people who have been raped can attend a national network of Sexual Assault Referral Centres (SARCs) for physical examination, the collection of evidence and sign-posting onto other appropriate services. The impact of rape on mental health is not always assessed comprehensively in SARCs despite national policy guidance. To highlight the relationship between mental health and rape; thereby increasing SARCs staff and NHS commissioners awareness of the issue and the potential for longer-term risks to mental health. A secondary analysis was carried out using the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (APMS) 2007 in England. Sexual abuse was categorised as 'rape', 'touched in a sexual way' or 'talked to in a sexual way' versus 'none'. Bivariate analysis describes the prevalence of various mental health indicators and service use measures by different 'levels' of sexual abuse. Multiple logistic regression was applied to determine independent risk factors for sexual abuse. There was a consistent increase in the prevalence of mental health problems and in the use of mental health services as the severity of sexual abuse increased. For individuals who had been raped, the prevalence of need was highest in those raped both before and after the age of 16 years. Multivariate logistic regression identified that sex and age were the only demographic risk factors remaining significant. After controlling for these, individuals who had been raped were over 2.5 times more likely to have a history of a neurotic disorder than individuals experiencing no sexual abuse. In addition, rape victims were also significantly more likely to be dependent on drugs and alcohol, admitted to a mental health ward and at risk of suicide. Rape is likely to have a considerable impact on the use of mental health services, self-harm and alcohol/drug dependency. Full mental health assessments should be undertaken in SARCs and commissioners should ensure accessible pathways into mental health services
Rendina, H. Jonathon; Ventuneac, Ana; Moody, Raymond L.; Grov, Christian
Emerging research supports the notion that sexual compulsivity (SC) and hypersexual disorder (HD) among gay and bisexual men (GBM) might be conceptualized as comprising three groups—Neither SC nor HD; SC only, and Both SC and HD—that capture distinct levels of severity across the SC/HD continuum. We examined data from 370 highly sexually active GBM to assess how the three groups compare across a range of risk factors for HIV infection. Comparisons focused on psychosexual measures—temptation for condomless anal sex (CAS), self-efficacy for avoiding CAS, sexual excitation and inhibition—as well as reports of actual sexual behavior. Nearly half (48.9 %) of this highly sexually active sample was classified as Neither SC nor HD, 30 % as SC Only, and 21.1 % as Both SC and HD. While we found no significant differences between the three groups on reported number of male partners, anal sex acts, or anal sex acts with serodiscordant partners, the Both SC and HD group reported higher numbers of CAS acts and CAS acts with serodiscordant partners and also had a higher proportion of their anal sex acts without condoms compared to the SC Only group. Our findings support the validity of a three-group classification system of SC/HD severity in differentiating psychosexual and HIV-related sexual risk behavior outcomes in a sample of GBM who report similarly high levels of sexual activity. Notwithstanding the need for sex positive HIV prevention programs, interventions that attempt to help Both SC and HD men deal with distress and address their psychosexual needs specifically may derive HIV prevention benefits. PMID:25750052
Alcohol and marijuana ('dagga') were most commonly used amongst those respondents taking substances before sexual intercourse, and these were used predominantly in coerced and forced sexual intercourse. Opsomming. Die studie was 'n kwantitatiewe, deursnee-opname wat onder jongmense in vier dorpies in die ...
Craig, Leam A.; Hutchinson, Roger B.
While the literature on the assessment, treatment and management of non-learning disabled sexual offenders is well established, it is only in recent years that researchers and clinicians have focused on sexual offenders with learning disabilities. In contrast to mainstream sex offender treatment programmes, there are few evaluated community-based…
Donoghue, Christopher; Bonillas, Consuelo; Moreno, Jeniffer; Cardoza, Omara; Cheung, Melissa
Sexual and reproductive health indicators for young people in the USA have improved in recent decades, but teenage pregnancies remain high, and large differences between Whites and non-Whites persist in teenage births, abortions, and the acquisition of sexually transmitted infections. Prior research shows that young people are receptive to…
Of the 722 students, 39.5% reported depression, 23.4% screened positive for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 22% reported hazardous or harmful alcohol use, 33% reported .2 sexual partners in the past 12 months, 50% reported inconsistent condom use, 46% reported unknown HIV status of a sexual partner and ...
Social Desirability Bias and Prevalence of Sexual HIV Risk Behaviors Among People Who Use Drugs in Baltimore, Maryland: Implications for Identifying Individuals Prone to Underreporting Sexual Risk Behaviors.
Rao, Amrita; Tobin, Karin; Davey-Rothwell, Melissa; Latkin, Carl A
The role of social desirability bias (SDB) in self-reported HIV risk behaviors continues to be problematic. This study examined whether SDB was associated with self-reported, via audio computer assisted self-interviewing, sexual risk behaviors among people who use drugs. The present study was conducted among 559 participants who reported having a recent sexual partner at their 6-month visit of a longitudinal study. Robust Poisson regression was used to model the association between SDB and five risk behaviors. Analyses were stratified by gender and partner type. Higher scores of SDB were associated with decreased reporting of selling sex and having more than one sexual partner. Higher SDB scores were associated with increased reporting of always using condoms during oral, vaginal, and anal sex. Gender-specific differences were observed. The inclusion of a measure of SDB in data collection, along with other strategies, can be used to both identify and reduce self-report biases.
This paper reviews the literature on informing people about radiation risks. The paper focuses on obstacles to public understanding and effective risk communication. The paper concludes with a set of guidelines for communicating information about radiation risks to the public. The paper also includes an appendix that reviews the literature on one of the most important tools for communicating information about radiation risks: risk comparisons
Bendixen, Mons; Kennair, Leif Edward Ottesen
Sexual harassment has traditionally been studied as men's harassment of women. This has led to a lack of knowledge about same sex harassment, and women harassing peers. This has also downplayed the inherent sexual nature of sexual harassment acts. While keeping in mind that sexual harassment is undesirable and causes distress, one needs to consider that many acts that are perceived as unwanted may not primarily be motivated by a wish to derogate but rather by an interest in soliciting short-t...
Khurana, Atika; Bleakley, Amy
Sexual information sources used by young adults can influence their contraceptive knowledge and behaviors, yet little is known about sources most frequently used by young adults, especially by groups with histories of sexual risk involvement. Nationally representative data from 1800 unmarried young adults, aged 18-29 years, were analyzed to (1) examine the sources of contraceptive information most frequently used by young adults and (2) assess variations (if any) in source use based on demographic characteristics and sexual risk history (determined based on past sexual behaviors). "Doctors/nurses" was the most frequently used contraceptive information source reported by young adults. Significant variations existed in source use based on demographic characteristics and sexual risk history. Females were more likely to obtain contraceptive information from health care professionals, whereas males were more likely to report friends, partners, internet and television/radio as their frequently used source. Young adults with a sexual risk history were more likely to rely on doctors/nurses and less likely to report friends and internet as their frequently used source than those without a sexual risk history. Receiving contraceptive information from doctors/nurses was associated with greater accuracy in knowledge about contraceptive use and efficacy as compared to all other sources. Young adults' use of specific contraceptive information sources can vary based on their demographic characteristics and sexual risk involvement. Future research should identify better strategies to connect young adults, especially young males, with sexual risk histories to more reliable sources of information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The well-established connection between HIV risk behavior and place of residence points to the importance of geographic clustering in the potential transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI. Methods To investigate the geospatial distribution of prevalent sexually transmitted infections and sexual behaviors in a sample of 18-24 year-old sexually active men in urban and rural areas of Kisumu, Kenya, we mapped the residences of 649 men and conducted spatial cluster analysis. Spatial distribution of the study participants was assessed in terms of the demographic, behavioral, and sexual dysfunction variables, as well as laboratory diagnosed STIs. To test for the presence and location of clusters we used Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic as implemented in the Satscan program. Results The results of this study suggest that sexual risk behaviors and STIs are evenly distributed in our sample throughout the Kisumu district. No behavioral or STI clusters were detected, except for condom use. Neither urban nor rural residence significantly impacted risk behavior or STI prevalence. Conclusion We found no association between place of residence and sexual risk behaviors in our sample. While our results can not be generalized to other populations, the study shows that geospatial analysis can be an important tool for investigating study sample characteristics; for evaluating HIV/STI risk factors; and for development and implementation of targeted HIV and STI control programs in specifically defined populations and in areas where the underlying population dynamic is poorly understood.
Lucy Margarita Villafañe-Ferrer
Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections are an epidemiologic and clinical problem of first order in all the world by effect that can produce and their economic consequences. Adolescents and young are in most risk to have these diseases by facts such as premature sexual relationships and promiscuity. The objective of this investigation was to determine risk behaviors and level of knowledge about sexually transmitted infections in students’ community. Correlational cross-sectional study. A questionnaire was applied to determine risk behaviors and level of knowledge about sexually transmitted infections to 128 students’ community. In this study was found 78.1% of students had sexual relationships. 55% of students drink alcohol before a sexual relationship. By means of statistical analysis was found association between sexually transmitted infections and drug use (p=0.042. Students had a regular level of knowledge. It not was found association between risk behaviors and level of knowledge (p>0.05. Results found in this investigation demonstrate the necessity of making activities for prevention of these infections and motivating changes of behaviors for reducing risk of contagion of these infections
Epperson, Douglas L; Ralston, Christopher A
This article describes the development and initial validation of the Juvenile Sexual Offense Recidivism Risk Assessment Tool-II (JSORRAT-II). Potential predictor variables were extracted from case file information for an exhaustive sample of 636 juveniles in Utah who sexually offended between 1990 and 1992. Simultaneous and hierarchical logistic regression analyses were used to identify the group of variables that was most predictive of subsequent juvenile sexual recidivism. A simple categorical scoring system was applied to these variables without meaningful loss of accuracy in the development sample for any sexual (area under the curve [AUC] = .89) and sexually violent (AUC = .89) juvenile recidivism. The JSORRAT-II was cross-validated on an exhaustive sample of 566 juveniles who had sexually offended in Utah in 1996 and 1997. Reliability of scoring the tool across five coders was quite high (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = .96). Relative to the development sample, however, there was considerable shrinkage in the indices of predictive accuracy for any sexual (AUC = .65) and sexually violent (AUC = .65) juvenile recidivism. The reduced level of accuracy was not explained by severity of the index sexual offense, time at risk, or missing data. Capitalization on chance and other explanations for the possible reduction in predictive accuracy are explored, and potential uses and limitations of the tool are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Stieglitz, Jonathan; Blackwell, Aaron D; Quispe Gutierrez, Raúl; Cortez Linares, Edhitt; Gurven, Michael; Kaplan, Hillard
Sexual risk-taking and reproductive morbidity are common among rapidly modernizing populations with little material wealth, limited schooling, minimal access to modern contraception and healthcare, and gendered inequalities in resource access that limit female autonomy in cohabiting relationships. Few studies have examined how modernization influences sexual risk-taking and reproductive health early in demographic transition. Tsimane are a natural fertility population of Bolivian forager-farmers; they are not urbanized, reside in small-scale villages, and lack public health infrastructure. We test whether modernization is associated with greater sexual risk-taking, report prevalence of gynecological morbidity (GM), and test whether modernization, sexual risk-taking and parity are associated with greater risk of GM. Data were collected from 2002-2010 using interviews, clinical exams, and laboratory analysis of cervical cells. We find opposing effects of modernization on both sexual risk-taking and risk of GM. Residential proximity to town and Spanish fluency are associated with greater likelihood of men's infidelity, and with number of lifetime sexual partners for men and women. However, for women, literacy is associated with delayed sexual debut after controlling for town proximity. Fifty-five percent of women present at least one clinical indicator of GM (n = 377); 48% present inflammation of cervical cells, and in 11% the inflammation results from sexually transmitted infection (trichomoniasis). Despite having easier access to modern healthcare, women residing near town experience greater likelihood of cervical inflammation and trichomoniasis relative to women in remote villages; women who are fluent in Spanish are also more likely to present trichomoniasis relative to women with moderate or no fluency. However, literate women experience lower likelihood of trichomoniasis. Parity has no effect on risk of GM. Our results suggest a net increase in risk of
Stieglitz, Jonathan; Blackwell, Aaron D.; Quispe Gutierrez, Raúl; Cortez Linares, Edhitt; Gurven, Michael; Kaplan, Hillard
Sexual risk-taking and reproductive morbidity are common among rapidly modernizing populations with little material wealth, limited schooling, minimal access to modern contraception and healthcare, and gendered inequalities in resource access that limit female autonomy in cohabiting relationships. Few studies have examined how modernization influences sexual risk-taking and reproductive health early in demographic transition. Tsimane are a natural fertility population of Bolivian forager-farmers; they are not urbanized, reside in small-scale villages, and lack public health infrastructure. We test whether modernization is associated with greater sexual risk-taking, report prevalence of gynecological morbidity (GM), and test whether modernization, sexual risk-taking and parity are associated with greater risk of GM. Data were collected from 2002–2010 using interviews, clinical exams, and laboratory analysis of cervical cells. We find opposing effects of modernization on both sexual risk-taking and risk of GM. Residential proximity to town and Spanish fluency are associated with greater likelihood of men’s infidelity, and with number of lifetime sexual partners for men and women. However, for women, literacy is associated with delayed sexual debut after controlling for town proximity. Fifty-five percent of women present at least one clinical indicator of GM (n = 377); 48% present inflammation of cervical cells, and in 11% the inflammation results from sexually transmitted infection (trichomoniasis). Despite having easier access to modern healthcare, women residing near town experience greater likelihood of cervical inflammation and trichomoniasis relative to women in remote villages; women who are fluent in Spanish are also more likely to present trichomoniasis relative to women with moderate or no fluency. However, literate women experience lower likelihood of trichomoniasis. Parity has no effect on risk of GM. Our results suggest a net increase in risk of
Full Text Available Sexual risk-taking and reproductive morbidity are common among rapidly modernizing populations with little material wealth, limited schooling, minimal access to modern contraception and healthcare, and gendered inequalities in resource access that limit female autonomy in cohabiting relationships. Few studies have examined how modernization influences sexual risk-taking and reproductive health early in demographic transition. Tsimane are a natural fertility population of Bolivian forager-farmers; they are not urbanized, reside in small-scale villages, and lack public health infrastructure. We test whether modernization is associated with greater sexual risk-taking, report prevalence of gynecological morbidity (GM, and test whether modernization, sexual risk-taking and parity are associated with greater risk of GM. Data were collected from 2002-2010 using interviews, clinical exams, and laboratory analysis of cervical cells. We find opposing effects of modernization on both sexual risk-taking and risk of GM. Residential proximity to town and Spanish fluency are associated with greater likelihood of men's infidelity, and with number of lifetime sexual partners for men and women. However, for women, literacy is associated with delayed sexual debut after controlling for town proximity. Fifty-five percent of women present at least one clinical indicator of GM (n = 377; 48% present inflammation of cervical cells, and in 11% the inflammation results from sexually transmitted infection (trichomoniasis. Despite having easier access to modern healthcare, women residing near town experience greater likelihood of cervical inflammation and trichomoniasis relative to women in remote villages; women who are fluent in Spanish are also more likely to present trichomoniasis relative to women with moderate or no fluency. However, literate women experience lower likelihood of trichomoniasis. Parity has no effect on risk of GM. Our results suggest a net increase
Wetherill, Reagan R; Fromme, Kim
The current study examined one's sense of personal invincibility as a contributing factor to high school athletes' more frequent behavioral risks compared to those of non-athletes. Perceived risk was assessed as a mediator of sports participation and alcohol use, and sports participation and sexual activity among high school athletes. Prior to leaving home, college-bound high school graduates (n = 2,247) completed web-based surveys assessing alcohol use, sexual activity, sports participation, and perceived risk. The mediational models were analyzed using generalized linear modeling and the procedures of Baron and Kenny (1986). Relative to non-athletes, athletes reported greater alcohol use, more sexual partners, and lower perceived risk. Perceived risk mediated the association between sports participation and alcohol use for both young men and women. Perceived risk also mediated the association between sports participation and number of sexual partners for women and partially mediated this association for men. Perceived risk partially mediated the association between sports participation and episodes of unsafe sexual activity in both men and women. These findings suggest a potential cognitive mechanism which may account for differences in alcohol use and sexual activity between athletes and non-athletes during late adolescence.
Young, Sean D; Nianogo, Roch A; Chiu, ChingChe J; Menacho, Lucho; Galea, Jerome
Peru is experiencing a concentrated HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM). Substance use (alcohol and drug use) has been found to be associated with HIV-related sexual risk behaviors. A recent surge in the number of social media users in Peru has enabled these technologies to be potential tools for reaching HIV at-risk individuals. This study sought to assess the relationship between substance use and sexual risk behaviors among Peruvian MSM who use social media. A total of 556 Peruvian MSM Facebook users (ages 18-59) were recruited to complete a 92-item survey on demographics, sexual risk behaviors, and substance use. We performed a logistic regression of various sexual risk behaviors (e.g., unprotected sex, casual sex) on substance abuse, including alcohol, adjusting for potential covariates. Drinking more than five alcoholic drinks a day in the past three months was associated with an increased odds of having unprotected sex (vaginal and anal) (aOR: 1.52; 95% CL: 1.01, 2.28), casual sex (1.75; 1.17, 2.62), and sex with unknown persons (1.82; 1.23, 2.71). Drug use was not significantly associated with sexual risk behaviors. Among Peruvian MSM social media users, findings suggest that alcohol use was associated with increased HIV-related sexual risk behaviors.
Eaton, Lisa A.; Cain, Demetria N.; Pope, Howard; Garcia, Jonathan; Cherry, Chauncey
Objectives Although pornography is widely available and frequently used among many adults in the US, little is known about the relationship between pornography and risk factors for HIV transmission among men who have sex with men. Methods Baseline assessments from a behavioral intervention trial for at-risk men who have sex with men were conducted in Atlanta, GA in 2009. Univariate and multivariate generalized linear models were used to assess the relationships between known risk factors for HIV infection, time spent viewing pornography, and sex behaviors. Results One hundred forty nine men reporting HIV-negative status and two or more unprotected anal sex partners in the past six months were enrolled in an intervention trial and completed survey assessments. Time spent viewing pornography was significantly associated with having more male sexual partners (B=.45, SE=.04, ppornography. Conclusions This exploratory study is novel in that it sheds light on the associations between viewing pornography and sexual risk taking for HIV infection. Future studies in this area should focus on understanding how the content of pornography, in particular the viewing of unprotected and protected sex acts, may affect sexual risk taking behavior. PMID:22498161
McCormack, Mark; Wignall, Liam
This qualitative research examines the influence of pornography consumption on young men with non-exclusive sexual orientations. Drawing on 35 in-depth interviews with young men from an elite university in the north-eastern United States, we examine how pornography was experienced as a leisure activity to be consumed in free time. Rather than focusing on the potential harms of pornography, we use an inductive analytic approach to explore the broader range of experiences that participants had, since the time they first consumed pornography. We demonstrate that pornography had educational benefits for these young men, related to their sexual desires, emerging sexual identities and for developing new sexual techniques. This study is part of a growing body of research that seeks to develop a holistic understanding of pornography in society, addressing the absence of the lived experience of the consumer in most pornography research.
McCormack, Mark; Wignall, Liam
This qualitative research examines the influence of pornography consumption on young men with non-exclusive sexual orientations. Drawing on 35 in-depth interviews with young men from an elite university in the north-eastern United States, we examine how pornography was experienced as a leisure activity to be consumed in free time. Rather than focusing on the potential harms of pornography, we use an inductive analytic approach to explore the broader range of experiences that participants had, since the time they first consumed pornography. We demonstrate that pornography had educational benefits for these young men, related to their sexual desires, emerging sexual identities and for developing new sexual techniques. This study is part of a growing body of research that seeks to develop a holistic understanding of pornography in society, addressing the absence of the lived experience of the consumer in most pornography research. PMID:28989197
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — High School Dataset â Including Sexual Orientation. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health behaviors among...
Gartrell, Nanette K; Bos, Henny M W; Goldberg, Naomi G
This study assessed Kinsey self-ratings and lifetime sexual experiences of 17-year-olds whose lesbian mothers enrolled before these offspring were born in the longest-running, prospective study of same-sex parented families, with a 93% retention rate to date. Data for the current report were gathered through online questionnaires completed by 78 adolescent offspring (39 girls and 39 boys). The adolescents were asked if they had ever been abused and, if so, to specify by whom and the type of abuse (verbal, emotional, physical, or sexual). They were also asked to specify their sexual identity on the Kinsey scale, between exclusively heterosexual and exclusively homosexual. Lifetime sexual behavior was assessed through questions about heterosexual and same-sex contact, age of first sexual experience, contraception use, and pregnancy. The results revealed that there were no reports of physical or sexual victimization by a parent or other caregiver. Regarding sexual orientation, 18.9% of the adolescent girls and 2.7% of the adolescent boys self-rated in the bisexual spectrum, and 0% of girls and 5.4% of boys self-rated as predominantly-to-exclusively homosexual. When compared with age- and gender-matched adolescents of the National Survey of Family Growth, the study offspring were significantly older at the time of their first heterosexual contact, and the daughters of lesbian mothers were significantly more likely to have had same-sex contact. These findings suggest that adolescents reared in lesbian families are less likely than their peers to be victimized by a parent or other caregiver, and that daughters of lesbian mothers are more likely to engage in same-sex behavior and to identify as bisexual.
Lorenz, Tierney; McGregor, Bonnie; Swisher, Elizabeth
Changes in sexual function are a common outcome following risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO), a prophylactic surgery for women at high risk of ovarian and other gynecologic cancers. Despite the known importance of sexuality in patients’ quality of life and satisfaction with surgery, little is known about what predicts sexual activity following RRSO. The present study examined how mental and physical health variables predicted sexual activity before and after RRSO. We conducted a secondary analysis of quality of life measures collected in 85 women at high risk for ovarian cancer. Participants completed validated measures of mental, physical, and relationship health 1–2 weeks before surgery, and 2, 6 and 12 months following surgery. Across analyses, relationship satisfaction emerged as the most significant predictor of change in sexual activity: women with high relationship satisfaction were more likely to continue to have regular sexual activity following RRSO, even in the presence of vaginal menopausal symptoms. The effect of depression, anxiety and overall physical health on sexual activity was non-significant when controlling for relationship satisfaction. When counseling women about RRSO and its impact on sexual activity, clinicians should discuss the effect of the patient’s relationship health on this outcome. PMID:24693956
Silvia Susana Robles Montijo
Full Text Available The present study proposed a descriptive analysis of sociodemographic and family variables, as well as risky sexual behaviors and sexual abuse in a sample of young Mexicans with hearing or visual impairments, examining differences based on gender and type of disability of the participants. 128 young persons (64 hearing impaired and 64 visually impaired of whom, 53.2% were male and 86.6% were single, were included in the study. The instruments used were adapted linguistically to be answered by young people with hearing disabilities, and translated into Braille for visually impaired young people. The results show that participants maintain an active sex life with a risk profile that is characterized by the early onset of sexual intercourse, lack of planning their first sexual encounter, underuse of condoms and victimization of some form of sexual abuse. The risk was higher in women and among those with visual disabilities.
Full Text Available PurposeThis study evaluated the effect of first nocturnal ejaculation timing on risk and sexual behaviors of Korean male adolescents.MethodsWe analyzed data from the 10th edition of the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based survey that was conducted with male high school adolescents in grades 10–12. The survey included 17,907 adolescents, and 10,326 responded their experience of first nocturnal ejaculation. Of these, 595 had their first nocturnal ejaculation in ≤grade 4 (“early puberty” and 9,731 had their first nocturnal ejaculation in ≥grade 5 (“normal puberty”. We analyzed differences between these 2 groups in risk and sexual behaviors.ResultsEarly first nocturnal ejaculation showed a positive association with sexual intercourse (odds ratio [OR], 3.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.56–4.17, sexual debut at elementary school age (OR, 7.45; 95% CI, 5.00–11.10, and having had a sexually transmitted disease (OR, 6.60; 95% CI, 3.94–11.08. After a multiple logistic regression to adjust for socio-demographic variables, early first nocturnal ejaculation was still positively associated with sexual intercourse (OR, 2.73; 95% CI, 2.03–3.69, sexual debut at elementary school age (OR, 5.96; 95% CI, 3.47–10.22, and having had a sexually transmitted disease (OR, 5.17; 95% CI, 2.52–10.20. Early first nocturnal ejaculation was positively associated with alcohol consumption, smoking, and substance use. However, this was not statistically significant after adjusting for several socio-demographic variables.ConclusionThere is a positive association between early nocturnal ejaculation and sexual behaviors in male adolescents. Proactive education about sexual behaviors is required for adolescents who reach sexual maturity early.
Træen, Bente; Hald, Gert Martin; Noor, Syed W; Iantaffi, Alex; Grey, Jeremy; Rosser, B R Simon
This study tests the following three hypotheses: 1) there is a direct association between consumption of sexually explicit media (SEM) depicting non-condom use and STI-related sexual risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM), 2) The association between SEM consumption and STI-related sexual risk behavior is mediated by men's sexual self-esteem, and 3) the relationship between SEM consumption and sexual risk behavior is mediated by condom use self-efficacy. A cross-sectional, Internet-based survey on exposure to SEM and sexual behavior of 1,391 MSM in the USA was conducted in 2011. The results confirmed hypothesis 1 and 3 while hypothesis 2 was rejected. Accordingly, a significant association between the use of SEM picturing condom use and STI related sexual risk behavior among MSM was found. Likewise, we found that the association between the use of SEM and sexual risk behavior was mediated by condom use self-efficacy in an indirect path. However, SEM did not influence sexual risk behavior via sexual self-esteem. To promote STI prevention, the actors in SEM may be used as role models in managing condom use in sexual contexts.
The debate on nuclear power contains a central set of arguments that can be related, by and large, to differences in the meaning of risk assessment for various concerned publics. At an earlier point in time the arguments largely concerned power production (reactor safety), but now most components of the nuclear fuel cycle are subject to risk perceptions. The strongest levels of public concern over time have focussed on waste management, and in this area illustrates most clearly the gaps between the assessments of the technical community and those of the publics. In order to understand such gaps, a theoretical framework is necessary. The broadest scope for such a framework is found in the I.I.A.S.A. - I.A.E.A. model developed by H.J. Otway, with its three interrelated components of risk estimation (technical), risk evaluation (public) and risk management. The model is described in this paper, as well as a number of empirical studies that derive from it and attempt to measure public perceptions of risks. These studies are then compared to several alternative explanations: the use of public opinion surveys; risk rating tasks based on psychologicl theory; the structure of arguments used by members of the public in qualitative focus group discussions; and a model of local community conflict derived from the content analysis of newspapers. Throughout the discussion, examples are taken wherever possible, from recent Canadian studies, in which the effects of major incidents (such as T.M.I., the Mississauga derailment, the Blind River refinery siting controversy, etc.) become apparent. It is suggested that our understanding of public perceptions of risks cannot be divorced from the set of broad societal concerns evidenced in the I.I.A.S.A. - I.A.E.A. model, and that the crucial elements of this approach are seen in its emphasis on the decision-making process
Livingstone, Sonia; Görzig, Anke
This article reports new findings on the incidence of risk and the associated experience of harm reported by children and adolescents aged 11–16, regarding receipt of sexual messages on the internet (known popularly as sexting). Findings showed that the main predictors of the risk of seeing or receiving sexual messages online are age (older), psychological difficulties (higher), sensation seeking (higher) and risky online and offline behavior (higher). By contrast, the main predictors of harm...
Sun, Christina J.; Reboussin, Beth; Mann, Lilli; Garcia, Manuel; Rhodes, Scott D.
The use of websites and GPS-based mobile applications ("apps") designed for social and sexual networking has been associated with increased HIV risk; however, little is known about Latino sexual minorities' and transgender persons' use of these websites and apps and the risk profiles of those who use them compared with those who do not.…
Tucker, C.; Arandi, C. Galindo; Bolaños, J. Herbert; Paz-Bailey, G.; Barrington, C.
Sexual minority men and transgender women are disproportionately affected by HIV in Guatemala. Innovative prevention strategies are urgently needed to address these disparities. While social network approaches are frequently used to reach sexual minorities, little is known about the unique network characteristics among sub-groups. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 13 gay-identifying men, eight non-gay-identifying men who have sex with men (MSM) and eight transgender women in Guatemala City. Using narrative and thematic coding procedures, we identified distinct patterns in the size, composition, and overlap between social and sexual networks across groups. Gay-identifying men had the largest, most supportive social networks, predominantly comprising family. For both non-gay-identifying MSM and transgender women, friends and sex clients provided more support. Transgender women reported the smallest social networks, least social support, and the most discrimination. HIV prevention efforts should be tailored to the specific sexual minority population and engage with strong ties. PMID:25418236
Foulser-Piggott, Roxane; Bowman, Gary; Hughes, Martin
A better understanding of the uncertainty that exists in models used for seismic risk assessment is critical to improving risk-based decisions pertaining to earthquake safety. Current models estimating the probability of collapse of a building do not consider comprehensively the nature and impact of uncertainty. This article presents a model framework to enhance seismic risk assessment and thus gives decisionmakers a fuller understanding of the nature and limitations of the estimates. This can help ensure that risks are not over- or underestimated and the value of acquiring accurate data is appreciated fully. The methodology presented provides a novel treatment of uncertainties in input variables, their propagation through the model, and their effect on the results. The study presents ranges of possible annual collapse probabilities for different case studies on buildings in different parts of the world, exposed to different levels of seismicity, and with different vulnerabilities. A global sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the significance of uncertain variables. Two key outcomes are (1) that the uncertainty in ground-motion conversion equations has the largest effect on the uncertainty in the calculation of annual collapse probability; and (2) the vulnerability of a building appears to have an effect on the range of annual collapse probabilities produced, i.e., the level of uncertainty in the estimate of annual collapse probability, with less vulnerable buildings having a smaller uncertainty. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.
Crosby, Richard; Geter, Angelica; Ricks, JaNelle; Jones, Jamal; Salazar, Laura F
Background The purpose of this study was to identify unmediated associations of early sexual debut (ESD) on the current safer sex practices of young Black men (YBM). A cross-sectional study of YBM (n=697) attending clinics treating sexually transmissible diseases (STIs) in three cities was conducted. ESD was dichotomised at the age of 13 years and under. A series of regression models were used to test the moderating effects of ESD and perceived parental monitoring (PPM). A regression model also tested the effect of years of sexual experience (YSE) on sexual risk behaviours, while controlling for ESD. Mean age of debut was 13.95 years. ESD results varied with significance for pregnancy (P<0.001), sexual partners (P<0.001), and ever having chlamydia (assessed by self report), but this final association was only found for older males (P=0.03). PPM held no moderating effect on any of the sexual risk outcomes. YSE was correlated with an increase in recent unprotected vaginal sex (AOR=1.19, 95%CI=1.10-1.27) and having a pregnant partner at the time of enrolment (AOR=1.30, 95%CI=1.17-1.43). The findings provide mixed evidence for unmediated associations of ESD among young Black males. The study strongly posits that ESD may actually be a mediating variable rather than a causal explanation for sexual risk. The findings also suggest that advancing YSE foster diminishing vigilance in safer sex practices. These outcomes should be utilised to inform intervention development.
Ali, Bina; Mittal, Mona; Schroder, Allison; Ishman, Najah; Quinton, Sylvia; Boekeloo, Bradley
Physical and sexual violence are commonly researched as risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, psychological violence and its relationship with HIV risk behaviors have received limited attention among African American/Black (Black) women. This study examined (a) the frequency of recent (past 3 months) psychological violence, physical violence, and sexual violence and (b) the association of HIV risk behaviors, including unprotected sex, sex under the influence of alcohol/drugs, and sex exchange for money/drugs/shelter, with psychological violence. Participants included 191 women (89.2% Black), who were recruited through information sessions held at community centers, Parent Teacher Association meetings, substance use and HIV counseling centers, radio public service announcements, and word of mouth. Interested women participated in a multisession HIV and substance use prevention program and completed a self-reported assessment at program baseline. The current study utilized baseline data collected for a longitudinal study. Results from descriptive analysis indicated that the rate of psychological violence was higher than physical violence or sexual violence, and it was strongly associated with physical and sexual violence. Furthermore, hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that unprotected sex was significantly associated with recent psychological violence after controlling for covariates. Findings suggest that recent psychological violence is more common than physical or sexual violence and it relates to sexual risk behaviors among Black women. Recent psychological violence may indicate psychosocial and sexual vulnerability for HIV and warrants particular attention among Black women.
Buttram, Mance E; Kurtz, Steven P
Literature suggests that young adult prescription opioid misusers who are using alternate routes of administration (e.g., snorting, injecting) may be engaging in sexual and non-sexual HIV risk behaviors. This study examines demographics, substance use, sexual risk behavior, and health and social problems associated with alternate routes of administration of prescription opioids among a sample of young adult prescription opioid misusers. Data are drawn from baseline assessments from a behavioral intervention trial. Eligible participants were ages 18-39, and reported recent (past 90 days) heterosexual sex, and recent and regular substance use and attendance at large, recognized local nightclubs. The analyses include 446 racially/ethnically diverse participants. In bivariate regression models, compared to those who did not, participants reporting alternate routes of administration (n = 209) were more likely to be White (p sexual victimization history (p = 0.003), and severe mental distress (p sexual HIV transmission risk behaviors. Early prevention and intervention efforts that address sexual and non-sexual HIV risk behaviors are warranted.
Kibombo, Richard; Neema, Stella; Ahmed, Fatima H
Uganda has been hailed as a success story in the fight against HIV that has seen a reversal in prevalence from a peak of 15% in 1991 to about 6.5% currently Since 1992, the largest and most consistent declines in HIV have occurred among the 15-19-year-olds. While many studies have examined how key behavior changes (Abstinence, Be faithful and Condom use) have contributed to the decline in HIV prevalence, few have studied the relationship between sexual behaviors and risk perception. Using data from the 2004 National Survey of Adolescents, multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to examine the strength of the association between risky sexual behavior and perceived risk among 12-19-year-old adolescents in Uganda. After controlling for other correlates of sexual behavior such as age, education, residence, region and marital status, the findings indicate highly significant positive association between perceived risk and risky sexual behavior among males but not females. The findings reveal that, regardless of their current sexual behavior, most female adolescents in Uganda feel at great risk of HIV infection. The findings also show that adolescents with broken marriages are much more vulnerable to high risk sexual behaviors than other categories of adolescents. These results further emphasize the need for a holistic approach in addressing the social, economic and contextual factors that continue to put many adolescents at risk of HIV infection.
Benotsch, Eric G.; Nettles, Christopher D.; Wong, Felicia; Redmann, Jean; Boschini, Jill; Pinkerton, Steven D.; Ragsdale, Kathleen; Mikytuck, John J.
Previous research with travelers points to higher risk behaviors during vacations. Relative to their day-to-day lives, leisure travelers have more free time to pursue sexual activities and are likely to engage in higher rates of substance use than when at home. Risk behaviors during vacation have not been thoroughly examined in men who have sex with men (MSM), a key group at risk for HIV. The present investigation examined substance use, sexual risk behaviors, and components of the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) Model in MSM attending Mardi Gras celebrations in New Orleans. Almost half of the sexually active men reported having sex with a partner of unknown HIV status while in New Orleans and a similar number did not disclose their own HIV status to all of their sexual partners. Drug use and excessive alcohol use were associated with unprotected sex (ps motivation to engage in sexual activity on vacation was associated with more unprotected sex (ps < .05). Findings suggest that some MSM on vacation are placing themselves at risk for HIV. Traditional HIV prevention interventions do not readily lend themselves for use with transient populations. New intervention approaches are needed to reduce sexual risk behaviors in persons traveling for leisure. PMID:17922205
Finneran, Catherine; Stephenson, Rob
Social network composition is known to effect patterns of reported sexual risk-taking among men who have sex with men (MSM); however, consensus as to the directionality and size of these effects is lacking. We examined the relationships between novel aspects of social network composition and sexual risk-taking using a cross-sectional survey of 870 MSM. Social network composition was found to have mixed effects on reported sexual risk-taking: reporting proportionally more lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB)-identified friends and reporting friends who were on average significantly older than the respondent were both associated with reporting increased sexual risk, while reporting proportionally more LGB-identified friends in relationships and reporting a social network proportionally more aware of the respondent's homosexuality/bisexuality were both associated with reporting decreased sexual risk. The support structures created by differing social network compositions-and particularly the presence of LGB couples-may be a potential area for targeting sexual risk-reduction interventions for MSM.
Wong-Parodi, G.; Klima, K.
In cities such as Pittsburgh, aging and insufficient infrastructure contributes to flashfloods and numerous combined sewer overflows annually, contaminating streets, basements and waterways. Climate change is expected to further exacerbate this problem by causing more intense and more frequent extreme events in Western Pennsylvania. For a storm water adaptation plan to be implemented successfully, the City of Pittsburgh will need informed public support. One way to achieve public understanding and support is through effective communication of the risks, benefits, and uncertainties of local flooding hazards and adaptation methods. In order to develop risk communications effectively, the City and its partners will need to know what knowledge and attitudes the residents of Pittsburgh already hold about flood risks. To that end we surveyed 1,376 Pittsburgh residents on a variety of flood risk topics through an online or paper survey in Fall 2015. On balance, residents were relatively knowledgeable about storm water and see the City's current infrastructure as being inadequate to meet future risk. Moreover, they see the risk of runoff events as increasing and especially among those who live in hazardous flood areas. Residents expressed interest in having a dedicated fund to deal with runoff events. Among those queried about their willingness-to-pay, those asked to pay $15 were most interested in a dedicated fund and for green infrastructure (as opposed to gray infrastructure) in particular. Finally, while most residents favored green infrastructure in terms of its attractiveness and perceived affects on mitigating climate change many did not see it as effective at addressing flooding as gray infrastructure. We found people understand the risk and are open to doing something about it. However, more guidance and information on appropriate ways to adapt locally in terms that make sense to residents could enhance informed support for adaptation measures.
Fujimoto, Kayo; Williams, Mark L
Mixing patterns within sexual networks have been shown to have an effect on HIV transmission, both within and across groups. This study examined sexual mixing patterns involving HIV-unknown status and risky sexual behavior conditioned on assortative/dissortative mixing by race/ethnicity. The sample used for this study consisted of drug-using male sex workers and their male sex partners. A log-linear analysis of 257 most at-risk MSM and 3,072 sex partners was conducted. The analysis found two significant patterns. HIV-positive most at-risk Black MSM had a strong tendency to have HIV-unknown Black partners (relative risk, RR = 2.91, p sexual behavior (RR = 2.22, p sexual behavior with Whites (RR = 1.72, p sexual network mixing patterns by HIV status.
Hayes, Richard D; Dennerstein, Lorraine; Bennett, Catherine M; Sidat, Mohsin; Gurrin, Lyle C; Fairley, Christopher K
No previous population-based studies have used validated instruments to measure female sexual dysfunction (FSD) in Australian women across a broad age range. To estimate prevalence and explore factors associated with the components of FSD. Sexual Function Questionnaire measured low sexual function. Female Sexual Distress Scale measured sexual distress. Methods. Multivariate analysis of postal survey data from a random sample of 356 women aged 20-70 years. Low desire was more likely to occur in women in relationships for 20-29 years (odds ratio 3.7, 95% confidence intervals 1.1-12.8) and less likely in women reporting greater satisfaction with their partner as a lover (0.3, 0.1-0.9) or who placed greater importance on sex (0.1, 0.03-0.3). Low genital arousal was more likely among women who were perimenopausal (4.4, 1.2-15.7), postmenopausal (5.3, 1.6-17.7), or depressed (2.5, 1.1-5.3), and was less likely in women taking hormone therapy (0.2, 0.04-0.7), more educated (0.5, 0.3-0.96), in their 30s (0.2, 0.1-0.7) or 40s (0.2, 0.1-0.7), or placed greater importance on sex (0.2, 0.05-0.5). Low orgasmic function was less likely in women who were in their 30s (0.3, 0.1-0.8) or who placed greater importance on sex (0.3, 0.1-0.7). Sexual distress was positively associated with depression (3.1, 1.2-7.8) and was inversely associated with better communication of sexual needs (0.2, 0.05-0.5). Results were adjusted for other covariates including age, psychological, socioeconomic, physiological, and relationship factors. Relationship factors were more important to low desire than age or menopause, whereas physiological and psychological factors were more important to low genital arousal and low orgasmic function than relationship factors. Sexual distress was associated with both psychological and relationship factors.
Full Text Available Sexual violence is highly prevalent in armed conflict and other humanitarian crises and attracting increasing policy and practice attention. This systematic review aimed to canvas the extent and impact of initiatives to reduce incidence, risk and harm from sexual violence in conflict, post-conflict and other humanitarian crises, in low and middle income countries. Twenty three bibliographic databases and 26 websites were searched, covering publications from 1990 to September 2011 using database-specific keywords for sexual violence and conflict or humanitarian crisis. The 40 included studies reported on seven strategy types: i survivor care; ii livelihood initiatives; iii community mobilisation; iv personnel initiatives; v systems and security responses; vi legal interventions and vii multiple component interventions. Conducted in 26 countries, the majority of interventions were offered in African countries. Despite the extensive literature on sexual violence by combatants, most interventions addressed opportunistic forms of sexual violence committed in post-conflict settings. Only one study specifically addressed the disaster setting. Actual implementation of initiatives appeared to be limited as was the quality of outcome studies. No studies prospectively measured incidence of sexual violence, although three studies provided some evidence of reductions in association with firewood distribution to reduce women's exposure, as did one program to prevent sexual exploitation and abuse by peacekeeping forces. Apparent increases to risk resulted from lack of protection, stigma and retaliation associated with interventions. Multiple-component interventions and sensitive community engagement appeared to contribute to positive outcomes. Significant obstacles prevent women seeking help following sexual violence, pointing to the need to protect anonymity and preventive strategies. This review contributes a conceptual framework for understanding the forms
Spangaro, Jo; Adogu, Chinelo; Ranmuthugala, Geetha; Powell Davies, Gawaine; Steinacker, Léa; Zwi, Anthony
Sexual violence is highly prevalent in armed conflict and other humanitarian crises and attracting increasing policy and practice attention. This systematic review aimed to canvas the extent and impact of initiatives to reduce incidence, risk and harm from sexual violence in conflict, post-conflict and other humanitarian crises, in low and middle income countries. Twenty three bibliographic databases and 26 websites were searched, covering publications from 1990 to September 2011 using database-specific keywords for sexual violence and conflict or humanitarian crisis. The 40 included studies reported on seven strategy types: i) survivor care; ii) livelihood initiatives; iii) community mobilisation; iv) personnel initiatives; v) systems and security responses; vi) legal interventions and vii) multiple component interventions. Conducted in 26 countries, the majority of interventions were offered in African countries. Despite the extensive literature on sexual violence by combatants, most interventions addressed opportunistic forms of sexual violence committed in post-conflict settings. Only one study specifically addressed the disaster setting. Actual implementation of initiatives appeared to be limited as was the quality of outcome studies. No studies prospectively measured incidence of sexual violence, although three studies provided some evidence of reductions in association with firewood distribution to reduce women's exposure, as did one program to prevent sexual exploitation and abuse by peacekeeping forces. Apparent increases to risk resulted from lack of protection, stigma and retaliation associated with interventions. Multiple-component interventions and sensitive community engagement appeared to contribute to positive outcomes. Significant obstacles prevent women seeking help following sexual violence, pointing to the need to protect anonymity and preventive strategies. This review contributes a conceptual framework for understanding the forms, settings
Evans, Jennifer L; Hahn, Judith A; Page-Shafer, Kimberly; Lum, Paula J; Stein, Ellen S; Davidson, Peter J; Moss, Andrew R
Female injection drug users (IDUs) represent a large proportion of persons infected with HIV in the United States, and women who inject drugs have a high incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Therefore, it is important to understand the role of gender in injection risk behavior and the transmission of blood-borne virus. In 2000-2002, 844 young (<30 years old) IDUs were surveyed in San Francisco. We compared self-reported risk behavior between 584 males and 260 female participants from cross-sectional baseline data. We used logistic regression to determine whether demographic, structural, and relationship variables explained increased needle borrowing, drug preparation equipment sharing, and being injected by another IDU among females compared to males. Females were significantly younger than males and were more likely to engage in needle borrowing, ancillary equipment sharing, and being injected by someone else. Females were more likely than males to report recent sexual intercourse and to have IDU sex partners. Females and males were not different with respect to education, race/ethnicity, or housing status. In logistic regression models for borrowing a used needle and sharing drug preparation equipment, increased risk in females was explained by having an injection partner who was also a sexual partner. Injecting risk was greater in the young female compared to male IDUs despite equivalent frequency of injecting. Overlapping sexual and injection partnerships were a key factor in explaining increased injection risk in females. Females were more likely to be injected by another IDU even after adjusting for years injecting, being in a relationship with another IDU, and other potential confounders. Interventions to reduce sexual and injection practices that put women at risk of contracting hepatitis and HIV are needed.
Talamini, R.; Vaccarella, S.; Barbone, F.; Tavani, A.; La Vecchia, C.; Herrero, R.; Muñoz, N.; Franceschi, S.
In an Italian case-control study of oral cancer, number of missing teeth and other aspects of dental care were similar, but the general condition of the mouth, as indicated by gum bleeding, tartar deposits and mucosal irritation, was worse among oral cancer cases than controls. No differences were detected in sexual practices (including oral sex) and (previous) sexually transmitted infections. ? 2000 Cancer Research Campaign
Talamini, R; Vaccarella, S; Barbone, F; Tavani, A; La Vecchia, C; Herrero, R; Muñoz, N; Franceschi, S
In an Italian case-control study of oral cancer, number of missing teeth and other aspects of dental care were similar, but the general condition of the mouth, as indicated by gum bleeding, tartar deposits and mucosal irritation, was worse among oral cancer cases than controls. No differences were detected in sexual practices (including oral sex) and (previous) sexually transmitted infections. Copyright 2000 Cancer Research Campaign.
Ortiz-Echevarria, Luis; Greeley, Meghan; Bawoke, Tenaw; Zimmerman, Linnea; Robinson, Courtland; Schlecht, Jennifer
Kobe Refugee camp hosts roughly 39,000 refugees displaced from Somalia during the 2011-2012 Horn of Africa Crisis. Sexual and reproductive health, as with the greater issues of health and well-being for adolescents displaced from this crisis remain largely unknown and neglected. In 2013, the Women's Refugee Commission, Johns Hopkins University, and International Medical Corps in Ethiopia, implemented qualitative and quantitative research to explore the factors and risks that impact the health of very young adolescents (VYAs), those 10-14 years of age, in this setting. This paper presents findings from the qualitative effort. Focus group discussions (FGD), incorporating community mapping and photo elicitation activities, were conducted with 10-12 and 13-14 year-olds to obtain information about their own perspectives, experiences and values. FGDs were also implemented with 15-16 year-olds and adults, to consider their perspectives on the sexual and reproductive health needs and risks of VYAs. This research identified several factors that were found to influence the health and well-being of VYAs in Kobe refugee camp, including newfound access to education and security, combined with gender divisions and parental communication around early SRH and puberty that remained intact from traditional Somali culture. Girls were found to face an additional risk of child marriage and early pregnancy exacerbated since displacement, which significantly limited their ability to access education and achieve future aspirations. Findings from this study could help to inform future programs in Kobe and similar contexts involving long-term displacement from conflict, focusing on the health and development needs of VYAs. Future programs should consider the determinants of positive VYA health and development, including access to education, gender equity, and safety.By better understanding the unique experiences, perspectives and needs of VYAs, practitioners, policy makers and donors can
Nehl, Eric J; Klein, Hugh; Sterk, Claire E; Elifson, Kirk W
The focus of this paper is on HIV sexual risk taking among a community-based sample of disadvantaged African American adults. The objective is to examine multiple factors associated with sexual HIV risk behaviors within a syndemic conceptual framework. Face-to-face, computer-assisted, structured interviews were conducted with 1535 individuals in Atlanta, Georgia. Bivariate analyses indicated a high level of relationships among the HIV sexual risks and other factors. Results from multivariate models indicated that gender, sexual orientation, relationship status, self-esteem, condom use self-efficacy, sex while the respondent was high, and sex while the partner was high were significant predictors of condomless sex. Additionally, a multivariate additive model of risk behaviors indicated that the number of health risks significantly increased the risk of condomless sex. This intersection of HIV sexual risk behaviors and their associations with various other behavioral, socio-demographic, and psychological functioning factors help explain HIV risk-taking among this sample of African American adults and highlights the need for research and practice that accounts for multiple health behaviors and problems.
Douglass, Caitlin H; Vella, Alyce M; Hellard, Margaret E; Lim, Megan S C
Annual chlamydia testing is recommended for all sexually active Australians aged 15-29 years; however, the testing rate is below recommended levels. Three surveys at a Melbourne music festival were conducted over 2012-14 to identify correlates of sexually transmissible infection (STI) testing among young people at risk of STIs. In total, 3588 participants were recruited; 72% reported having sex in the past year. Based on sexual behaviours, 38% of sexually active participants were classified as at risk of contracting STIs. In the past year, at-risk participants had significantly higher odds of reporting a STI test (37%) than participants classified as not at risk (24%) (OR=1.9; CI=1.6-2.3). Among at-risk participants, correlates of STI testing in the past year included being aged 20-24 years, visiting a GP, higher knowledge levels, earlier sexual debut and reporting more than five lifetime partners. Testing rates in our sample did not meet levels required to reduce chlamydia prevalence. However, the testing rate was higher in at-risk participants than participants who were not at risk. Future programs aiming to increase chlamydia testing should improve knowledge and promote the importance of testing after risk exposure, particularly among 16- to 19-year-olds.
Johnson, Sharon D.; Cottler, Linda B.; Ben Abdallah, Arbi; O’Leary, Catina Callahan
This study examines whether substance using women exposed to a lifetime sexual trauma (n = 457) are distinguishable from substance using women exposed to non-sexual trauma (n = 275) in terms of demographics, psychopathology and high-risk sexual behaviors. Baseline data were collected from out-of-treatment substance using women enrolled in an HIV prevention study. Logistic regression analyses revealed that when demographics, psychopathology and lifetime indicators of sexual risk were assessed ...
Tiruneh, Yordanos Mequanint
A community based cross-sectional study inquiring into determinants and correlates of sexual risk taking was conducted from June to December 2003. The objective of the study was describing sexual behavior and assessing socio-economic and cultural correlates of high-risk sexual behavior among urban youth in Addis Ababa. A multi-systemic perspective, an approach that focuses on the reciprocal relations among the personal, family, and extra family systems on sexual behavior was employed. Data we...
Justman, J.; Befus, M.; Hughes, J.; Wang, J.; Golin, C. E.; Adimora, A.A.; Kuo, I.; Haley, D. F.; del Rio, C.; El-Sadr, W. M.; Rompalo, A.; Mannheimer, S.; Soto-Torres, L.; Hodder, S.
We describe the sexual behaviors of women at elevated risk of HIV acquisition who reside in areas of high HIV prevalence and poverty in the US. Participants in HPTN 064, a prospective HIV incidence study, provided information about participants’ sexual behaviors and male sexual partners in the past 6 months at baseline, 6- and 12-months. Independent predictors of consistent or increased temporal patterns for three high-risk sexual behaviors were assessed separately: exchange sex, unprotected ...
McCabe, Marita P; Sharlip, Ira D; Lewis, Ron; Atalla, Elham; Balon, Richard; Fisher, Alessandra D; Laumann, Edward; Lee, Sun Won; Segraves, Robert T
This article presents a review of previous research concerning risk factors for sexual dysfunction in women and men. The aim is to evaluate past research studies to determine the contribution of all risk factors to the development and maintenance of sexual dysfunction among women and men. Studies were organized under a biopsychosocial framework, with the bulk of studies of women and men having investigated the role of biological factors. The outcome measures were the data on factors for sexual dysfunction. Many more studies investigated risk factors for sexual dysfunction in men than in women. For women and men, diabetes, heart disease, urinary tract disorders, and chronic illness were significant risk factors for sexual dysfunction. Depression and anxiety and the medications used to treat these disorders also were risk factors for sexual dysfunction in women and men. In addition, substance abuse was associated with sexual dysfunction. Many other social and cultural factors were related to sexual dysfunction in women and men. Psychosocial factors are clearly risk factors for sexual dysfunction. Women and men with sexual dysfunction should be offered psychosocial evaluation and treatment, if available, in addition to medical evaluation and treatment. The impact of social and cultural factors on sexual function requires substantially more research. The evidence that erectile dysfunction is a harbinger of other forms of cardiovascular disease is strong enough to recommend that clinical evaluation for occult cardiovascular disease should be undertaken in men who do not have known cardiovascular disease but who develop organic erectile dysfunction, especially in men younger than 70 years. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ma, Mindy; Malcolm, Lydia R; Diaz-Albertini, Kristine; Klinoff, Vera A; Leeder, Elisa; Barrientos, Sohani; Kibler, Jeffrey L
The study objective was to examine the associations between cultural values and sexual risk factors among Latino youth. A sample of 226 Latino adolescents ages 13-16 completed a survey on cultural and sexual variables. Results indicate higher levels of Latino cultural orientation were related to greater sexual self-efficacy and fewer sexual partners for female adolescents and greater condom use self-efficacy for both males and females. Greater endorsement of simpatia (belief in interpersonal relationship harmony) was associated with sexual abstinence and greater sexual self-efficacy for all adolescents, and with being older at sexual debut for females. Stronger endorsement of respeto (respect towards parents and other authority figures) was correlated with a lower intention to have sex during secondary school and greater condom use self-efficacy. American cultural orientation was associated with less condom use. Our findings indicate Latino cultural values may serve as protective factors against sexual risk behaviors among Latino youth. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Holloway, Ian W; Dunlap, Shannon; Del Pino, Homero E; Hermanstyne, Keith; Pulsipher, Craig; Landovitz, Raphael J
Online social networking refers to the use of internet-based technologies that facilitate connection and communication between users. These platforms may be accessed via computer or mobile device (e.g., tablet, smartphone); communication between users may include linking of profiles, posting of text, photo and video content, instant messaging and email. This review provides an overview of recent research on the relationship between online social networking and sexual risk and protective behaviors with a focus on use of social networking sites (SNS) among young people and populations at high risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). While findings are mixed, the widespread use of SNS for sexual communication and partner seeking presents opportunities for the delivery and evaluation of public health interventions. Results of SNS-based interventions to reduce sexual risk are synthesized in order to offer hands-on advice for clinicians and researchers interested in engaging patients and study participants via online social networking.
Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Xuan, Ziming
The aim of the study was to examine the social networks of sexual minority youths and to determine the associations between social networks and depressive symptoms. Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative cohort study of American adolescents (N=14,212). Wave 1 (1994–1995) collected extensive information about the social networks of participants through peer nomination inventories, as well as measures of sexual minority status and depressive symptoms. Using social network data, we examined three characteristics of adolescents’ social relationships: (1) social isolation; (2) degree of connectedness; and (3) social status. Sexual minority youths, particularly females, were more isolated, less connected, and had lower social status in peer networks than opposite-sex attracted youths. Among sexual minority male (but not female) youths, greater isolation as well as lower connectedness and status within a network were associated with greater depressive symptoms. Moreover, greater isolation in social networks partially explained the association between sexual minority status and depressive symptoms among males. Finally, a significant 3-way interaction indicated that the association between social isolation and depression was stronger for sexual minority male youths than non-minority youths and sexual minority females. These results suggest that the social networks in which sexual minority male youths are embedded may confer risk for depressive symptoms, underscoring the importance of considering peer networks in both research and interventions targeting sexual minority male adolescents. PMID:22771037
Schick, Vanessa R.; Calabrese, Sarah K.; Rima, Brandi N.; Zucker, Alyssa N.
Findings regarding the link between body image and sexuality have been equivocal, possibly because of the insensitivity of many body image measures to potential variability across sensory aspects of the body (e.g., appearance versus odor), individual body parts (e.g., genitalia versus thighs), and social settings (e.g., public versus intimate).…
Gartrell, N.K.; Bos, H.M.W.; Goldberg, N.G.
This study assessed Kinsey self-ratings and lifetime sexual experiences of 17-year-olds whose lesbian mothers enrolled before these offspring were born in the longest-running, prospective study of same-sex parented families, with a 93% retention rate to date. Data for the current report were
Macapagal, Kathryn; Coventry, Ryan; Arbeit, Miriam R; Fisher, Celia B; Mustanski, Brian
Sexual and gender minority (SGM) adolescents under age 18 are underrepresented in sexual health research. Exclusion of SGM minors from these studies has resulted in a lack of knowledge about the risks and benefits youth experience from sexual health research participation. Institutional Review Boards' (IRB) overprotective stances toward research risks and requirements for guardian consent for SGM research are significant barriers to participation, though few have investigated SGM youth's perspectives on these topics. This study aimed to empirically inform decisions about guardian consent for sexuality survey studies involving SGM youth. A total of 74 SGM youth aged 14-17 completed an online survey of sexual behavior and SGM identity, and a new measure that compared the discomfort of sexual health survey completion to everyday events and exemplars of minimal risk research (e.g., behavioral observation). Youth described survey benefits and drawbacks and perspectives on guardian permission during an online focus group. Participants felt about the same as or more comfortable completing the survey compared to other research procedures, and indicated that direct and indirect participation benefits outweighed concerns about privacy and emotional discomfort. Most would not have participated if guardian permission was required, citing negative parental attitudes about adolescent sexuality and SGM issues and not being "out" about their SGM identity. Findings suggest that sexual health survey studies meet minimal risk criteria, are appropriate for SGM youth, and that recruitment would not be possible without waivers of guardian consent. Decreasing barriers to research participation would dramatically improve our understanding of sexual health among SGM youth.
Dimmitt Champion, Jane; Harlin, Badia; Collins, Jennifer L
Although information is available for prevention of sexually transmitted infection (STI/HIV), adolescents continue to engage in high risk sexual behavior particularly ethnic minority adolescent women with histories of STI or abuse. A description therefore of STI/HIV knowledge and sexual risk behavior among these women is indicated for modification of prevention efforts for sexual health promotion. African-American (n=94) and Mexican-American (n=465) adolescent women 14-18 years of age were included in the study. Assessments of sexual risk behavior and STI/HIV knowledge among these adolescent women described Mexican-American women as at higher risk of STI, pregnancy, substance use and abuse with lower levels of STI/HIV knowledge, previous HIV testing and perceptions of risk than African-American women. A focus on Mexican-American adolescent women with histories of STI and abuse is indicated for translation of community-based health promotion interventions for amelioration of potential adverse sexual health outcomes among ethnic minority adolescent women. © 2013.
Ren, Yi; Swank, Paul; Sanchez, Mariana; De La Rosa, Mario
Retrospective pre-immigration data on sexual risk and alcohol use behaviours was collected from 527 recent Latino immigrants to the USA, ages 18–34. Two follow-up assessments (12 months apart) reported on post-immigration behaviours. Using a mixed model, growth curve (MMGC) analysis, a six level sexual risk change variable was constructed combining measures of sexual partners and condom use. MMGC was also used to examine associations between changes in sexual risk behaviour and changes in alcohol use and for testing interaction effects of gender and documentation status. Results suggest individuals with high sexual risk behaviour at pre-immigration converge to low/moderate risk post-immigration, and those who were sexually inactive or had low sexual risk at pre-immigration increased their risk post-immigration. Individuals with moderately higher initial but decreasing sexual risk behaviour showed the steepest decline in alcohol use, but their drinking at time 3 was still higher than individuals reporting low sexual risk at time 1. On average, men drank more than women, except among women in one of the highest sexual risk categories at time 1—they seemed to drink as much, if not more, than men. Undocumented men reported more frequent drinking than documented men. In contrast, undocumented women reported lower alcohol use than documented women. PMID:27545840
Letourneau, Elizabeth J; McCart, Michael R; Sheidow, Ashli J; Mauro, Pia M
There is a need for interventions that comprehensively address youth substance use disorders (SUD) and sexual risk behaviors. Risk Reduction Therapy for Adolescents (RRTA) adapts a validated family-focused intervention for youth SUD to include sexual risk reduction components in a single intervention. In this first evaluation of RRTA, drug court involved youth were randomly assigned to RRTA (N=45) or usual services (US; N=60) and followed through 12-months post-baseline. RRTA included weekly cognitive behavior therapy and behavior management training and contingency-contracting with a point earning system managed by caregivers targeting drug use and sexual risk antecedents. Longitudinal models estimated within-group change and between-group differences through 6- and 12-month follow-up on outcomes for substance use, sexual risk behaviors, and protective HIV behaviors. Robust effects of the intervention were not detected under conditions of the study that included potent background interventions by the juvenile drug court. Considerations about future development and testing of sexual risk reduction therapy for youth are discussed, including the potential role of contingency management in future interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Liu, Hui; Waite, Linda; Shen, Shannon; Wang, Donna
Working from a social relationship and life course perspective, we provide generalizable population-based evidence on partnered sexuality linked to cardiovascular risk in later life using national longitudinal data from the NSHAP (N=2204). We consider characteristics of partnered sexuality of older men and women, particularly sexual activity and sexual quality, as they affect cardiovascular risk. Cardiovascular risk is defined as hypertension, rapid heart rate, elevated CRP, and general cardiovascular events. We find that older men are more likely to report being sexually active, report having sex more often and more enjoyably than are older women. Results from cross-lagged models suggest that high frequency of sex is positively related to later risk of cardiovascular events for men but not women, whereas good sexual quality seems to protect women but not men from cardiovascular risk in later life. We find no evidence that poor cardiovascular health interferes with later sexuality for either gender. PMID:27601406
The detrimental consequences for victims of bullying are well established. Despite this there remains little empirical evidence about the relationship between sexual minority status including Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual (LGB) and bullying among young people in England. The aim of this paper is to identify whether LGB youth are more at risk of…
Huebner, David M.; Mandic, Carmen Gómez; Mackaronis, Julia E.; Beougher, Sean C.; Hoff, Colleen C.
Parenthood changes couples' relationships across multiple domains, generally decreasing relationship quality, sexual satisfaction, and sexual frequency. Emerging research suggests that gay couples who are parenting might experience similar challenges. However, such changes might have even more profound implications for gay couples' health, and in particular their HIV risk, given the somewhat different ways in which they negotiate and tolerate sexual behaviors with outside partners. We aimed to examine these issues in a qualitative analysis of interviews from 48 gay male couples who were actively parenting children. Findings suggest that parenthood increases men's commitment to their primary relationship while simultaneously decreasing time and energy for relationship maintenance, and generally decreasing sexual satisfaction. These challenges alone did not generally result in greater infidelity or HIV risk, as most men reported successfully coping with such changes through a combination of acceptance and revaluing what is important in their relationships. Additionally, couples reported negotiating agreements regarding sex with outside partners that closely resemble those documented in studies of gay couples who are not parents. Men reported that parenthood typically decreased their opportunities to engage in sex with outside partners, but also posed barriers to talking about these behaviors with their partners and healthcare providers. HIV-related sexual risk behavior was relatively rare, but nevertheless present in some men. Providers should assess sexual function as a regular part of their work with gay couples who parent, and facilitate opportunities for men to discuss their sexual agreements both with their primary partners and with relevant healthcare providers. PMID:25674355
Juliato, Cássia Raquel Teatin; Melotti, Iane Glauce Ribeiro; Junior, Luiz Carlos Santos; Britto, Luiz Gustavo Oliveira; Riccetto, Cássio Luiz Zanettini
Several studies have associated overactive bladder (OAB) with female sexual dysfunction (FSD); however, there are no reports using a quantitative approach to measure OAB severity and to relate OAB to the risk of FSD. To evaluate women with OAB and to correlate the severity of their urinary symptoms with their sexual function. This cross-sectional study included 267 women older than 18 years with untreated OAB. All subjects completed the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Overactive Bladder (ICIQ-OAB) and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Linear regression was used to analyze the association between variables and the numeric FSFI score, and categorical FSFI scores were analyzed using logistic regression. Spearman rank correlation coefficient was used to assess the correlation between ICIQ-OAB results and the different FSFI domains. The significance level was 5%. Subjects' mean age was 50.2 ± 11.9 years. Most women were married, had at least three children, and were postmenopausal (54.3%). Mean FSFI total score was 19.2 ± 9.8. For menopausal status, 65.6% of premenopausal women had a risk for FSD vs 86.2% of postmenopausal women. Mean ICIQ-OAB score was 10 ± 3.17. Postmenopausal women had the following risk factors statistically associated with sexual dysfunction: age, ICIQ score, and marital status. For these women, greater OAB severity, especially those with urgency and/or urge incontinence, was associated with worse scores in the arousal, lubrication, orgasm, and sexual pain domains. However, there was no statistically significant association for premenopausal women. Health professionals have to pay attention to OAB in women because of the greater risk for FSD in these patients. The strength was using a quantitative approach to measure OAB severity in a larger population. Limitations include a convenience sample with no power calculation; exclusion of women who did not have sexual intercourse in the past month; unmeasured distress
Fujimoto, Kayo; Kim, Ju Yeong; Ross, Michael W.; Williams, Mark L.
Objectives This study examined HIV risks in the multiplex crack-smoking and sexual networks of incarcerated drug-using men who have sex with men (MSM) and their associates. We estimated the associations between the network members’ incarceration, self-reported HIV infection, and trading sex for money. Methods Our analytic sample consisted of 508 crack-smoking or sexual partnerships of 273 high-risk MSM. Network members were specified by (1) crack smoking and sexual behavior or (2) crack smoking only. Results Longer incarceration of the crack-smoking and sexual network members was associated with self-reported HIV infection (AOR = 1.61, p trading sex (AOR = 2.77, p < 0.05). Conclusions The findings of the study call for the development of a system-level HIV intervention among former incarcerated MSM and their associates. PMID:27417286
Solorio, M. Rosa; Rosenthal, Doreen; Milburn, Norweeta G.; Weiss, Robert E.; Batterham, Philip J.; Gandara, Marla; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane
Purpose To longitudinally examine the association between newly homeless youth individual factors (sociodemographic characteristics, depression, substance use) and structural factors, such as living situation (family, institution, non-family) with sexual risk behaviors. Methods A cohort of newly homeless youth from Los Angeles County (N=261; ages 12–20 years) were interviewed at baseline, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. At each assessment youth were asked about symptoms of depression (using the Brief Symptom Inventory), substance use, living situation, and sexual risk behaviors (number of sexual partners and condom use). Random effects models were used to determine the effects of predictors on the number of sexual partners and on condom use over time, by gender. Results At baseline, 77% of youth had been sexually active, increasing to 85% of youth at 24 months of follow-up. For predictors of multiple sexual partners, among male youth, these included living in non-family settings and using drugs; among females, living situation was not predictive of having multiple sexual partners but drug use was. For condom use, among females, living in a non-family setting and drug use decreased the odds of always using condoms; for males, no factors were found to be predictive of condom use. Conclusions Living with non-family members and drug use appear to be the most salient in explaining sexual risk among newly homeless youth. Our findings indicate that interventions aimed at reducing sexual risk behaviors, and thereby reducing STDs and HIV among newly homeless youth, need to help youth in finding housing associated with supervision and social support (family and institutional settings) as well as aim to reduce drug use. PMID:18346666
Osorio, Alfonso; Lopez-del Burgo, Cristina; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Carlos, Silvia; de Irala, Jokin
This study intends to evaluate whether the belief that condoms are 100% effective in protecting against HIV infection is associated with sexual risk behaviours among youth. A cross-sectional study was performed in representative samples of high-school students in the Philippines, El Salvador and Peru. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. Students were asked about the risk of HIV transmission if one has sex using condoms. They were also asked to indicate whether they had ever had sexual relations and whether they used a condom in their first sexual relation. The sample was composed of 8994 students, aged 13-18. One out of seven adolescents believed condoms are 100% effective (safe-sex believers). Those adolescents were 82% more likely to have had sex than those without such belief, after adjusting for confounders (OR=1.82; 95% CI 1.51 to 2.21). On the contrary, no association was found between risk perception and condom use. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses produced similar results. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first study conducted specifically to evaluate this phenomenon and that has used the same questionnaire and the same data collection protocol in three different developing countries from Asia, Central and South America. These results reasonably suggest that there could be an association between safe sex beliefs and sexual initiation. Longitudinal studies are needed to better understand this possible association as it could influence how to better promote sexual health. Published by the BMJ